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Sample records for brook charr salvelinus

  1. Mitigating fisheries-induced evolution in lacustrine brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in southern Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Whitlock, Rebecca; Magnan, Pierre; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Size-selective mortality caused by fishing can impose strong selection on harvested fish populations, causing evolution in important life-history traits. Understanding and predicting harvest-induced evolutionary change can help maintain sustainable fisheries. We investigate the evolutionary sustainability of alternative management regimes for lacustrine brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) fisheries in southern Canada and aim to optimize these regimes with respect to the competing objectives of maximizing mean annual yield and minimizing evolutionary change in maturation schedules. Using a stochastic simulation model of brook charr populations consuming a dynamic resource, we investigate how harvesting affects brook charr maturation schedules. We show that when approximately 5% to 15% of the brook charr biomass is harvested, yields are high, and harvest-induced evolutionary changes remain small. Intensive harvesting (at approximately >15% of brook charr biomass) results in high average yields and little evolutionary change only when harvesting is restricted to brook charr larger than the size at 50% maturation probability at the age of 2 years. Otherwise, intensive harvesting lowers average yield and causes evolutionary change in the maturation schedule of brook charr. Our results indicate that intermediate harvesting efforts offer an acceptable compromise between avoiding harvest-induced evolutionary change and securing high average yields.

  2. A comparative mitogenomic analysis of the potential adaptive value of Arctic charr mtDNA introgression in brook charr populations (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill).

    PubMed

    Doiron, Sarah; Bernatchez, Louis; Blier, Pierre U

    2002-11-01

    Wild brook charr populations (Salvelinus fontinalis) completely introgressed with the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) are found in several lakes of northeastern Québec, Canada. Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes of these populations are thus encoded by their own nuclear DNA and by arctic charr mtDNA. In the present study we performed a comparative sequence analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome of both brook and arctic charr to identify the distribution of mutational differences across these two genomes. This analysis revealed 47 amino acid replacements, 45 of which were confined to subunits of the NADH dehydrogenase complex (Complex I), one in the cox3 gene (Complex IV), and one in the atp8 gene (Complex V). A cladistic approach performed with brook charr, arctic charr, and two other salmonid fishes (rainbow trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss] and Atlantic salmon [Salmo salar]) revealed that only five amino acid replacements were specific to the charr comparison and not shared with the other two salmonids. In addition, five amino acid substitutions localized in the nad2 and nad5 genes denoted negative scores according to the functional properties of amino acids and, therefore, could possibly have an impact on the structure and functional properties of these mitochondrial peptides. The comparison of both brook and arctic charr mtDNA with that of rainbow trout also revealed a relatively constant mutation rate for each specific gene among species, whereas the rate was quite different among genes. This pattern held for both synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide positions. These results, therefore, support the hypothesis of selective constraints acting on synonymous codon usage.

  3. The rise and fall of isolation by distance in the anadromous brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill).

    PubMed Central

    Castric, Vincent; Bernatchez, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Geographic patterns of genetic diversity depend on a species' demographic properties in a given habitat, which may change over time. The rates at which patterns of diversity respond to changes in demographic properties and approach equilibrium are therefore pivotal in our understanding of spatial patterns of diversity. The brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis is a coastal fish exhibiting limited marine movements, such that a stable one-dimensional isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern should be observed over the whole range. Its range, however, recently shifted northward such that northern populations may still be in the process of reaching equilibrium. We investigated variation in IBD patterns, genetic divergence, and allelic richness at six microsatellite markers in 2087 anadromous brook charr from 59 rivers along the most likely postglacial colonization route. We observed a decrease in allelic richness, together with an increase in differentiation and a decrease in IBD in the most recently colonized northern populations, as expected following recent colonization. Contrary to expectation, however, similar patterns were also observed at the southernmost part of the range, despite the fact that these populations are not considered to be newly colonized. We propose that the loss of dispersal capabilities associated with anadromy may have caused the southernmost populations to evolve relatively independently of one another. This study thus demonstrated that changes in a species' geographic range and dispersal capabilities may contribute to shaping geographic patterns of genetic diversity. PMID:12663537

  4. Loss of genetic integrity correlates with stocking intensity in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Marie, A D; Bernatchez, L; Garant, D

    2010-05-01

    Supportive breeding and stocking performed with non-native or domesticated fish to support sport fishery industry is a common practice throughout the world. Such practices are likely to modify the genetic integrity of natural populations depending on the extent of genetic differences between domesticated and wild fish and on the intensity of stocking. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of variable stocking intensities on patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation among nearly 2000 brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) from 24 lakes located in two wildlife reserves in Québec, Canada. Our results indicated that the level of genetic diversity was increased in more intensively stocked lakes, mainly due to the introduction of new alleles of domestic origin. As a consequence, the population genetic structure was strongly homogenized by intense stocking. Heavily stocked lakes presented higher admixture levels and lower levels of among lakes genetic differentiation than moderately and un-stocked lakes. Moreover, the number of stocking events explained the observed pattern of population genetic structure as much as hydrographical connections among lakes in each reserve. We discuss the implications for the conservation of exploited fish populations and the management of stocking practices.

  5. Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy, and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J.G.; Rico, Ciro; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) can have large impacts on genome evolution, and much remains unknown about these impacts. This includes the mechanisms of coping with a duplicated sex determination system and whether this has an impact on increasing the diversity of sex determination mechanisms. Other impacts include sexual conflict, where alleles having different optimums in each sex can result in sequestration of genes into nonrecombining sex chromosomes. Sex chromosome development itself may involve sex-specific recombination rate (i.e., heterochiasmy), which is also poorly understood. The family Salmonidae is a model system for these phenomena, having undergone autotetraploidization and subsequent rediploidization in most of the genome at the base of the lineage. The salmonid master sex determining gene is known, and many species have nonhomologous sex chromosomes, putatively due to transposition of this gene. In this study, we identify the sex chromosome of Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis and compare sex chromosome identities across the lineage (eight species and four genera). Although nonhomology is frequent, homologous sex chromosomes and other consistencies are present in distantly related species, indicating probable convergence on specific sex and neo-sex chromosomes. We also characterize strong heterochiasmy with 2.7-fold more crossovers in maternal than paternal haplotypes with paternal crossovers biased to chromosome ends. When considering only rediploidized chromosomes, the overall heterochiasmy trend remains, although with only 1.9-fold more recombination in the female than the male. Y chromosome crossovers are restricted to a single end of the chromosome, and this chromosome contains a large interspecific inversion, although its status between males and females remains unknown. Finally, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 21 unique growth, reproductive, and stress-related phenotypes to improve knowledge of the genetic architecture of these

  6. Behavioural plasticity of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) x brook charr (S. fontinalis) F1 hybrids in response to varying social environment.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M M; Noakes, D L

    1983-05-01

    Lake x brook F1 hybrid charr were observed in heterogeneous groups with lake charr or brook charr to assess the effects of different species on hybrid social behaviour. Levels of behavioural plasticity were low in relation to the behavioural differences between the parental and hybrid types. Feeding behaviour showed the most dramatic change, with higher levels in the lake charr treatment and lower levels in the brook charr treatment than controls, suggesting social facilitation. Even though only two measures varied significantly between treatments, there was a tendency for the frequencies and durations of all agonistic measures to increase in the presence of lake charr and decrease with brook charr. A cost-benefit argument is presented to account for this trend. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Coding Gene SNP Mapping Reveals QTL Linked to Growth and Stress Response in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growth performance and reduced stress response are traits of major interest in fish production. Growth and stress-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been already identified in several salmonid species, but little effort has been devoted to charrs (genus Salvelinus). Moreover, most QTL studies to date focused on one or very few traits, and little investigation has been devoted to QTL identification for gene expression. Here, our objective was to identify QTL for 27 phenotypes related to growth and stress responses in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is one of the most economically important freshwater aquaculture species in Canada. Phenotypes included 12 growth parameters, six blood and plasma variables, three hepatic variables, and one plasma hormone level as well as the relative expression measurements of five genes of interest linked to growth regulation. QTL analysis relied on a linkage map recently built from S. fontinalis consisting of both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, n = 266) and microsatellite (n =81) markers in an F2 interstrain hybrid population (n = 171). We identified 63 growth-related QTL and four stress-related QTL across 18 of the 40 linkage groups of the brook charr linkage map. Percent variance explained, confidence interval, and allelic QTL effects also were investigated to provide insight into the genetic architecture of growth- and stress-related QTL. QTL related to growth performance and stress response that were identified could be classified into two groups: (1) a group composed of the numerous, small-effect QTL associated with some traits related to growth (i.e., weight) that may be under the control of a large number of genes or pleiotropic genes, and (2) a group of less numerous QTL associated with growth (i.e., gene expression) and with stress-related QTL that display a larger effect, suggesting that these QTL are under the control of a limited number of genes of major effect. This study represents a first step

  8. Effect of temperature on heart rate in diploid and triploid brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Benfey, T J; Bennett, L E

    2009-02-01

    Increased cell size in triploid fish likely affects rates of respiratory gas exchange. Respiratory deficiencies can be addressed in fish by adjustments in cardiac output, through changes in heart rate and stroke volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether heart rate differs between triploid and control (diploid) brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, at embryo-larval stages, when the heart is easily visible and the fish are relatively inactive. Heart rate was measured at 6, 9 and 12 degrees C at three developmental stages: eyed-egg, hatch and yolk absorption. Heart rate was unaffected by ploidy, but increased with temperature and age from a low of 43.4+/-2.2 beats/min (6 degrees C, eyed egg) to a high of 73.3+/-1.5 beats/min (12 degrees C, yolk absorption). The Q(10) for heart rate was unaffected by ploidy and age, but decreased with temperature from 1.99+/-0.28 at 6-9 degrees C to 1.72+/-0.17 at 9-12 degrees C. Triploid brook charr thus do not use adjustments in heart rate as a mechanism to deal with the physiological consequences of altered haematology at embryo-larval stages.

  9. Seasonal changes in immune parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brook trout × Arctic charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus alpinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Papežíková, Ivana; Mareš, Jan; Vojtek, Libor; Hyršl, Pavel; Marková, Zdeňka; Šimková, Andrea; Bartoňková, Jana; Navrátil, Stanislav; Palíková, Miroslava

    2016-10-01

    Despite the high number of studies concerning seasonality of immune response in fish, information for some fish species is still scarce. Here, we assess seasonal changes in leukocyte counts and several immune parameters in three groups of farmed salmonids, i.e. brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brook trout x Arctic charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus alpinus alpinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under the same conditions and fed with the same feed. Fish were sampled in five periods of the year (late April, early July, late August, early November and early February) and leukocyte counts, respiratory burst of blood phagocytes, lysozyme concentration in skin mucus and total complement activity were measured. Generalized linear models using fish body length as a continuous predictor and sampling period and fish species as categorical predictors, were significant for each of the parameters analysed. The highest seasonal variations in measured parameters were found in rainbow trout and lowest in hybrids. Our results confirm that measures of innate and adaptive immunity are strongly affected by season in all three groups of salmonids. The results will contribute to the improved assessment of immunocompetence in farmed fishes, essential for future sustainable development in aquaculture. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Coding Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Physiological Reproductive Traits in Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A linkage map of 40 linkage groups (LGs) was developed for brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, using an F2 interstrain hybrid progeny (n = 171) and 256 coding gene SNP developed specifically for brook charr and validated from a large (>1000) subset of putative SNP, as well as 81 microsatellite markers. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to reproduction functions, these fish were also phenotyped at six physiological traits, including spermatozoid head diameter, sperm concentration, plasma testosterone, plasma 11-keto-testosterone, egg diameter, and plasma 17β-estradiol. Five significant QTL were detected over four LGs for egg diameter and plasma 17β-estradiol concentration in females, and sperm concentration as well as spermatozoid head diameter in males. In females, two different QTLs located on LG 11 and LG 34 were associated with the egg number, whereas one QTL was associated with plasma 17β-estradiol concentration (LG 8). Their total percent variance explained (PVE) was 26.7% and 27.6%, respectively. In males, two QTL were also detected for the sperm concentration, and their PVE were estimated at 18.58% and 14.95%, respectively. The low QTL number, associated with the high PVE, suggests that the variance in these reproductive physiological traits was either under the control of one major gene or a small number of genes. The QTL associated with sperm concentration, plasma 17β-estradiol, and egg diameter appeared to be under a dominance effect, whereas the two others were under a negative additive effect. These results show that genes underlying the phenotypic variance of these traits are under different modes of action (additive vs. dominance) and may be used to predict an increase or a decrease in their phenotypic values in subsequent generations of selective breeding. Moreover, this newly developed panel of mapped SNP located in coding gene regions will be useful for screening wild populations, especially in the context of investigating the

  11. Linking transcriptomic and genomic variation to growth in brook charr hybrids (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill).

    PubMed

    Bougas, B; Normandeau, E; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2013-05-01

    Hybridization can lead to phenotypic differences arising from changes in gene expression patterns or new allele combinations. Variation in gene expression is thought to be controlled by differences in transcription regulation of parental alleles, either through cis- or trans-regulatory elements. A previous study among brook charr hybrids from different populations (Rupert, Laval, and domestic) showing distinct length at age during early life stages also revealed different patterns in transcription regulation inheritance of transcript abundance. In the present study, transcript abundance using RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes and allelic imbalance were assessed in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed transcriptomic and differences in length at age among domestic × Rupert hybrids and Laval × domestic hybrids. We found 198 differentially expressed genes between the two hybrid crosses, and allelic imbalance could be analyzed for 69 of them. Among these 69 genes, 36 genes exhibited cis-acting regulatory effects in both of the two crosses, thus confirming the prevalent role of cis-acting regulatory elements in the regulation of differentially expressed genes among intraspecific hybrids. In addition, we detected a significant association between SNP genotypes of three genes and length at age. Our study is thus one of the few that have highlighted some of the molecular mechanisms potentially involved in the differential phenotypic expression in intraspecific hybrids for nonmodel species.

  12. Divergence in physiological factors affecting swimming performance between anadromous and resident populations of brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Crespel, A; Dupont-Prinet, A; Bernatchez, L; Claireaux, G; Tremblay, R; Audet, C

    2017-03-19

    In this study, an anadromous strain (L) and a freshwater-resident (R) strain of brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis as well as their reciprocal hybrids, were reared in a common environment and submitted to swimming tests combined with salinity challenges. The critical swimming speeds (Ucrit ) of the different crosses were measured in both fresh (FW) and salt water (SW) and the variations in several physiological traits (osmotic, energetic and metabolic capacities) that are predicted to influence swimming performance were documented. Anadromous and resident fish reached the same Ucrit in both FW and SW, with Ucrit being 14% lower in SW compared with FW. The strains, however, seemed to use different underlying strategies: the anadromous strain relied on its streamlined body shape and higher osmoregulatory capacity, while the resident strain had greater citrate synthase (FW) and lactate dehydrogenase (FW, SW) capacity and either greater initial stores or more efficient use of liver (FW, SW) and muscle (FW) glycogen during exercise. Compared with R♀ L♂ hybrids, L♀ R♂ hybrids had a 20% lower swimming speed, which was associated with a 24% smaller cardio-somatic index and higher physiological costs. Thus swimming performance depends on cross direction (i.e. which parental line was used as dam or sire). The study thus suggests that divergent physiological factors between anadromous and resident S. fontinalis may result in similar swimming capacities that are adapted to their respective lifestyles.

  13. Light sensitivity and substrate penetration by eleutheroembryos of brook (Salvelinus fontinalis) and lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) and their F1 hybrid, splake.

    PubMed

    Nunan, C P; Noakes, D L

    1985-01-01

    Critical light levels necessary to produce avoidance movements in photonegative free embryos (eleutheroembryos) of the lake and brook charr and their F1 hybrid splake, (S. namaycush X S. fontinalis) were determined and compared to previously studied movement patterns within artificial substrate systems. Light sensitivity was inversely related to depth of penetration into artificial substrates. As well, brook charr held in vertical profile tanks under either 14 : 10 h light : dark cycles or total darkness showed similar movement patterns. These results do not support previous hypotheses concerning the role of ambient light in the initial downward movement of eleutheroembryonic salmonids within spawning redds.

  14. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  15. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  16. Relationship between individual variation in morphological characters and swimming costs in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Boily, Patrice; Magnan, Pierre

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if individual variation in morphological characters is related to swimming costs in wild and domestic brook charr, and in wild yellow perch. Our results indicate that absolute swimming cost was higher in wild and domestic brook charr individuals having a stout body shape, and these individuals are therefore less efficient swimmers. These results are consistent with field observations that described relationships between individual variation in morphology and habitat use in salmonids. Further analyses indicated that standard metabolic rates were higher in individuals having a stout body shape, and that net swimming cost was not related to body shape. Accordingly, the higher swimming cost of stout individuals is probably an indirect consequence of an increase in standard metabolic rate. In wild yellow perch, absolute and net swimming costs were higher in individuals having a stout body shape and a low aspect caudal fin, and standard metabolic rate was not related to body shape. Therefore, in contrast to brook charr, individual variation in the swimming cost of yellow perch appears to be related to morphological characters that affect drag and thrust forces, which is consistent with previously published inter-specific observations.

  17. Genome evolution in the fish family salmonidae: generation of a brook charr genetic map and comparisons among charrs (Arctic charr and brook charr) with rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salmonids are regarded as 4R derivative species, having experienced 4 whole genome duplication events in their ancestry. Many duplicated chromosome regions still share extensive homology with one another which is maintained primarily through male-based homeologous chromosome pairings during meiosis. The formation of quadrivalents during meiosis leads to pseudolinkage. This phenomenon is more prevalent within 5 of the 12 ancestral teleost linkage groups in salmonids. Results We constructed a genetic linkage map for brook charr and used this in combination with the genetic map from Arctic charr, to make comparisons with the genetic map of rainbow trout. Although not all chromosome arms are currently mapped, some homologous chromosome rearrangements were evident between Arctic charr and brook charr. Notably, 10 chromosome arms in brook charr representing 5 metacentric chromosomes in Arctic charr have undergone rearrangements. Three metacentrics have one arm translocated and fused with another chromosome arm in brook charr to a make a new metacentrics while two metacentrics are represented by 4 acrocentric pairs in brook charr. In two cases (i.e., BC-4 and BC-16), an apparent polymorphism was observed with the identification of both a putative metacentric structure (similar to metacentric AC-4 = BC-4 and a joining of acrocentric AC-16 + one arm of AC-28 = BC-16), as well as two separate acrocentric linkage groups evident in the mapping parents. Forty-six of the expected 50 karyotypic arms could be inter-generically assigned. SEX in brook charr (BC-4) was localized to the same homologous linkage group region as in Arctic charr (AC-4). The homeologous affinities detected in the two charr species facilitated the identification of 20 (expected number = 25) shared syntenic regions with rainbow trout, although it is likely that some of these regions were partial or overlapping arm regions. Conclusions Inter-generic comparisons among 2 species of charr (genus

  18. Dynamics of introgressive hybridization assessed by SNP population genomics of coding genes in stocked brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Lamaze, Fabien C; Sauvage, Christopher; Marie, Amandine; Garant, Dany; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-06-01

    Salmonid fishes rank among species being most severely affected by introgressive hybridization as a result of a long tradition of stocking with hatchery-reared conspecifics. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the genetic consequences of stocking and resulting introgression rates on the genetic integrity of natural populations of brook charr, (ii) to identify genomic regions potentially associated with adaptation to natural and artificial rearing environments, and (iii) to test the null hypothesis that introgression from domesticated brook charr into wild populations is homogeneous among loci. A total of 336 individuals were sampled from nine lakes, which were stocked at different intensities with domestic fish. Individuals were genotyped at 280 SNPs located in transcribed regions and developed by means of next-generation sequencing. As previously reported with microsatellites, we observed a positive relationship between stocking intensity and genetic diversity among stocking groups, and a decrease in population differentiation. Individual admixture proportions also increased with stocking intensity. Moreover, genomic cline analysis revealed 27 SNPs, seven of which were also identified as outliers in a genome scan, which showed an introgression rate either more restricted or enhanced relative to neutral expectations. This indicated that selection, mainly for growth-related biological processes, has favored or hampered the introgression of genomic blocks into the introgressed wild populations. Overall, this study highlights the usefulness of investigating the impact of stocking on the dynamics of introgression of potentially adaptive genetic variation to better understand the consequences of such practice on the genomic integrity of wild populations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Stocking impacts the expression of candidate genes and physiological condition in introgressed brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations

    PubMed Central

    Lamaze, Fabien C; Garant, Dany; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Translocation of plants and animal populations between environments is one of the major forms of anthropogenic perturbation experienced by pristine populations, and consequently, human-mediated hybridization by stocking practices between wild and exogenous conspecifics is of increasing concern. In this study, we compared the expression of seven candidate genes involved in multifactorial traits and regulatory pathways for growth as a function of level of introgressive hybridization between wild and domestic brook charr to test the null hypothesis of no effect of introgression on wild fish. Our analyses revealed that the expression of two of the genes tested, cytochrome c oxidase VIIa and the growth hormone receptor isoform I, was positively correlated with the level of introgression. We also observed a positive relationship between the extent of introgression and physiological status quantified by the Fulton's condition index. The expression of other genes was influenced by other variables, including year of sampling (reflecting different thermal conditions), sampling method and lake of origin. This is the first demonstration in nature that introgression from stocked populations has an impact on the expression of genes playing a role in important biological functions that may be related with fitness in wild introgressed populations. PMID:23467764

  20. The influence of parental effects on transcriptomic landscape during early development in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis, Mitchill)

    PubMed Central

    Bougas, B; Audet, C; Bernatchez, L

    2013-01-01

    Parental effects represent an important source of variation in offspring phenotypes. Depending on the specific mechanisms involved, parental effects may be caused to different degrees by either the maternal or the paternal parent, and these effects may in turn act at different stages of development. To detect parental effects acting on gene transcription regulation and length phenotype during ontogeny, the transcriptomic profiles of two reciprocal hybrids from Laval × Rupert and Laval × Domestic populations of brook charr were compared at hatching, yolk sac resorption and 15 weeks after exogenous feeding. Using a salmonid cDNA microarray, our results show that parental effects modulated gene expression among reciprocal hybrids only at the yolk sac resorption stage. In addition, Laval × Domestic and Laval × Rupert reciprocal hybrids differed in the magnitude of theses parental effects, with 199 and 630 differentially expressed transcripts, respectively. This corresponds to a maximum of 18.5% of the analyzed transcripts. These transcripts are functionally related to cell cycle, nucleic acid metabolism and intracellular protein traffic, which is consistent with observed differences associated with embryonic development and growth differences in other fish species. Our results thus illustrate how parental effects on patterns of gene transcription seem dependent on the genetic architecture of the parents. In addition, in absence of transcriptional differences, non-transcript deposits in the yolk sac could contribute to the observed length differences among the reciprocal hybrids before yolk sac resorption. PMID:23299101

  1. The influence of gene-environment interactions on GHR and IGF-1 expression and their association with growth in brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill)

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Guillaume; Perry, Guy; Blier, Pierre; Bernatchez, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Background Quantitative reaction norm theory proposes that genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) results from inter-individual differences of expression in adaptive suites of genes in distinct environments. However, environmental norms for actual gene suites are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the effects of GxE interactions on levels of gene transcription and growth by documenting the impact of rearing environment (freshwater vs. saltwater), sex and genotypic (low vs. high estimated breeding value EBV) effects on the transcription level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Results Males grew faster than females (μ♀ = 1.20 ± 0.07 g·d-1, μ♂ = 1.46 ± 0.06 g·d-1) and high-EBV fish faster than low-EBV fish (μLOW = 0.97 ± 0.05 g·d-1, μHIGH = 1.58 ± 0.07 g·d-1; p < 0.05). However, growth was markedly lower in saltwater-reared fish than freshwater sibs (μFW = 1.52 ± 0.07 g·d-1, μSW = 1.15 ± 0.06 g·d-1), yet GHR mRNA transcription level was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater (μSW = 0.85 ± 0.05, μFW = 0.61 ± 0.05). The ratio of actual growth to units in assayed mRNA ('individual transcript efficiency', iTE; g·d-1·u-1) also differed among EBV groups (μLOW = 2.0 ± 0.24 g·d-1·u-1; μHIGH = 3.7 ± 0.24 g·d-1·u-1) and environments (μSW = 2.0 ± 0.25 g·d-1·u-1; μFW = 3.7 ± 0.25 g·d-1·u-1) for GHR. Males had a lower iTE for GHR than females (μ♂ = 2.4 ± 0.29 g·d-1·u-1; μ♀ = 3.1 ± 0.23 g·d-1·u-1). There was no difference in IGF-1 transcription level between environments (p > 0.7) or EBV groups (p > 0.15) but the level of IGF-1 was four times higher in males than females (μ♂ = 2.4 ± 0.11, μ♀ = 0.58 ± 0.09; p < 0.0001). We detected significant sexual differences in iTE (μ♂ = 1.3 ± 0.59 g·d-1·u-1; μ♀ = 3.9 ± 0.47 g·d-1·u-1), salinities (μSW = 2.3 ± 0.52 g·d-1·u-1; μFW = 3.7 ± 0.53 g·d-1·u-1

  2. The developmental transcriptome of contrasting Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus) morphs

    PubMed Central

    Gudbrandsson, Johannes; Ahi, Ehsan P.; Franzdottir, Sigridur R.; Kapralova, Kalina H.; Kristjansson, Bjarni K.; Steinhaeuser, S. Sophie; Maier, Valerie H.; Johannesson, Isak M.; Snorrason, Sigurdur S.; Jonsson, Zophonias O.; Palsson, Arnar

    2016-01-01

    Species and populations with parallel evolution of specific traits can help illuminate how predictable adaptations and divergence are at the molecular and developmental level. Following the last glacial period, dwarfism and specialized bottom feeding morphology evolved rapidly in several landlocked Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus populations in Iceland.   To study the genetic divergence between small benthic morphs and limnetic morphs, we conducted RNA-sequencing charr embryos at four stages in early development. We studied two stocks with contrasting morphologies: the small benthic (SB) charr from Lake Thingvallavatn and Holar aquaculture (AC) charr. The data reveal significant differences in expression of several biological pathways during charr development. There was also an expression difference between SB- and AC-charr in genes involved in energy metabolism and blood coagulation genes. We confirmed differing expression of five genes in whole embryos with qPCR, including lysozyme and natterin-like which was previously identified as a fish-toxin of a lectin family that may be a putative immunopeptide. We also verified differential expression of 7 genes in the developing head that associated consistently with benthic v.s.limnetic morphology (studied in 4 morphs). Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies reveals extensive genetic differentiation between the SB and AC-charr (~1300 with more than 50% frequency difference). Curiously, three derived alleles in the otherwise conserved 12s and 16s mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes are found in benthic charr. The data implicate multiple genes and molecular pathways in divergence of small benthic charr and/or the response of aquaculture charr to domestication. Functional, genetic and population genetic studies on more freshwater and anadromous populations are needed to confirm the specific loci and mutations relating to specific ecological traits in Arctic charr. PMID:27635217

  3. Phenotypic and genetic variation for growth in two Artic charr Salvelinus alpinus stocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    World production of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is about 9-10 million pounds with Iceland supplying about two-thirds. Arctic charr have a flavor many consumers feel is superior to trout and salmon, and interest in US charr aquaculture is increasing with the growing consumer trend towards cons...

  4. Detection of interstitial telomeric sequences in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Pomianowski, K; Jankun, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2012-01-01

    Highly polymorphic Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus Linnaeus, 1758) chromosomes were studied using conventional and molecular methods. The diploid chromosome number in the studied individuals was 2n = 81 or 2n = 82, with a fundamental arm number (NF) = 100. These differences are due to Robertsonian fusions. Interindividual variation in the number and size of DAPI and CMA(3) positively stained chromatin sites was observed in studied specimens. In the case of two individuals, the subtelomeric region of the long arm (q) of the largest acrocentric chromosome (chromosome number 10) was positively stained by CMA(3) fluorochrome. Both primed in situ labelling (PRINS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that this CMA(3)-positive region was flanked by telomeric sequences. Previously, the subterminal position of interstitial telomeric sequences located in the vicinity of the CMA(3)-positive guanine-rich chromatin have been described in two other Salvelinus species, brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis ) and lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ). Moreover, multichromosomal location and variation in size of CMA(3) bands have been observed in various Salvelinus taxa, including fishes with internally located telomeric sequences. These results suggest that relocation of CMA(3)-positive chromatin segments in these species may be facilitated by flanking interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs).

  5. Behaviour, physiology and carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Backström, T; Brännäs, E; Nilsson, J; Magnhagen, C

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour during an exploration task and the response to a confinement stress of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were evaluated. Behaviour of individuals during 90 min of exploration was classified into high and low activity. High-activity individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels following stress compared to low-activity individuals. This indicates that high- and low-activity individuals correspond to reactive and proactive stress-coping styles. Further, a pigmentation analysis showed that high-activity individuals had a higher number of carotenoid spots cm⁻² than low-activity individuals. Thus, carotenoid pigmentation, as melanin pigmentation in other salmonids, could be linked to stress-coping style in S. alpinus.

  6. Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Alicia A; Saulnier, Roxanne J; Lamarre, Simon G

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins.

  7. Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Alicia A.; Saulnier, Roxanne J.; Lamarre, Simon G.

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins. PMID:27096948

  8. Identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during a survey of charr production facilities in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artic charr Salvelinus alpinus production facilities, nonproduction water sources and effluents in the United States and Canada were sampled to determine if chlamydiae associated with epitheliocystis were present in water and were associated with inclusions of epitheliocystis in gill tissue. Gills f...

  9. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a suitable host for Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Robertsen, G; Hansen, H; Bachmann, L; Bakke, T A

    2007-02-01

    Gyrodactylus specimens infecting both anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from River Signaldalselva (northern Norway) and resident Arctic charr from Lake Pålsbufjorden (southern Norway) were identified as G. salaris using molecular markers and morphometrics. The infection in Pålsbufjorden represents the first record of a viable G. salaris population infecting a host in the wild in the absence of salmon (Salmo salar). G. salaris on charr from Signaldalselva and Pålsbufjorden bear different mitochondrial haplotypes. While parasites infecting charr in Signaldalselva carry the same mitochondrial haplotype as parasites from sympatric Atlantic salmon, G. salaris from charr in Pålsbufjorden bear a haplotype that has previously been found in parasites infecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon, and an IGS repeat arrangement that is very similar to those observed earlier in parasites infecting rainbow trout. Accordingly, the infection may result from 2 subsequent host-switches (from salmon via rainbow trout to charr). Morphometric analyses revealed significant differences between G. salaris infecting charr in the 2 localities, and between those on sympatric charr and salmon within Signaldalselva. These differences may reflect adaptations to a new host species, different environmental conditions, and/or inherited differences between the G. salaris strains. The discovery of G. salaris on populations of both anadromous and resident charr may have severe implications for Atlantic salmon stock-management as charr may represent a reservoir for infection of salmon.

  10. Decline of the migratory form in bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and implications for conservation

    Treesearch

    M. Lee Nelson; Thomas E. McMahon; Russell F. Thurow

    2002-01-01

    Large-bodied, migratory life history forms of bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, were historically abundant in northwestern North America, but many remaining populations of this now-threatened species presently persist as small-bodied residents isolated in headwater streams.We examined whether the migratory form has been lost from headwater...

  11. Evaluation of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus performance fed fishmeal free diets and two commercial diets in a recirculating system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate Arctic charr performance on a fishmeal free diet at two different lipid levels. One...

  12. The utilization of a Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by three populations of charr Salvelinus spp.

    PubMed

    Denton, K P; Rich, H B; Moore, J W; Quinn, T P

    2010-09-01

    The L(F) -at-age trajectories differentiated two populations of Dolly Varden charr Salvelinus malma and a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from the eastern end of Iliamna Lake, Alaska. Salvelinus malma from the Pedro Bay ponds were the smallest for a given age, followed by Salvelinus alpinus from the lake, and S. malma from the Iliamna River were much larger. The utilization of a large sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by the three Salvelinus spp. populations was then investigated by comparing diet data and mixing model (MixSIR) outputs based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Stomach contents indicated that both S. malma populations fed on O. nerka products, especially eggs and larval Diptera that had scavenged O. nerka carcasses, whereas S. alpinus fed on a variety of prey items such as three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and snails. Stable-isotope analysis corroborated the diet data; the two S. malma populations incorporated more O. nerka-derived nutrients into their tissues than did S. alpinus from the lake, although all populations showed substantial utilization of O. nerka-derived resources. Salvelinus alpinus also seemed to be much more omnivorous, as shown by stable-isotope mixing models, than the S. malma populations. The dramatic differences in growth rate between the two S. malma populations, despite similar trophic patterns, indicate that other important genetic or environmental factors affect their life history, including proximate temperature controls and ultimate predation pressures.

  13. Dominance and stress signalling of carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): lateralization effects?

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-01-01

    Social conflicts are usually solved by agonistic interactions where animals use cues to signal dominance or subordinance. Pigmentation change is a common cue used for signalling. In our study, the involvement of carotenoid-based pigmentation in signalling was investigated in juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Size-matched pairs were analysed for pigmentation both before and after being tested for competitive ability. We found that dominant individuals had fewer carotenoid-based spots on the right and left sides as well as lower plasma cortisol levels compared to subordinate individuals. Further, the number of spots on both sides was positively associated with plasma cortisol levels. These results indicate that carotenoid-based pigmentation in Arctic charr signals dominance and stress coping style. Further, it also appears as if carotenoid-based pigmentation is lateralized in Arctic charr, and that the right side signals aggression and dominance whereas the left side signals stress responsiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. If Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is “the most diverse vertebrate,” what is the lake charr Salvelinus namaycush?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fishes are prominent vertebrate models of evolution, illustrated among old-world radiations by the Cichlidae of East African Great Lakes and new-world radiations by the circumpolar Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Herein, we describe variation in lake charr S. namaycush morphology, life history, physiology, and ecology, as another example of radiation. The lake charr is restricted to northern North America, where it originated from glacial refugia and diversified in large lakes. Shallow and deepwater morphs arose in multiple lakes, with a large-bodied shallow-water ‘lean’ morph in shallow inshore depths, a small-bodied mid-water ‘humper’ morph on offshore shoals or banks, and a large-bodied deep-water ‘siscowet’ morph at depths > 100 m. Eye position, gape size, and gillraker length and spacing adapted for feeding on different-sized prey, with piscivorous morphs (leans and siscowets) reaching larger asymptotic size than invertivorous morphs (humpers). Lean morphs are light in color, whereas deepwater morphs are drab and dark, although the pattern is reversed in dark tannic lakes. Morphs shift from benthic to pelagic feeding at a length of 400–490-mm. Phenotypic differences in locomotion, buoyancy, and lipid metabolism evolved into different mechanisms for buoyancy regulation, with lean morphs relying on hydrodynamic lift and siscowet morphs relying on hydrostatic lift. We suggest that the Salvelinus genus, rather than the species S. alpinus, is a diverse genus that should be the subject of comparative studies of processes causing divergence and adaptation among member species that may lead to a more complete evolutionary conceptual model.

  15. Environmental DNA particle size distribution from Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Treesearch

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Winsor H. Lowe; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has become a widespread approach for detecting aquatic animals with high potential for improving conservation biology. However, little research has been done to determine the size of particles targeted by eDNA surveys. In this study, we conduct particle distribution analysis of eDNA from a captive Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in...

  16. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  17. Identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during a survey of charr production facilities in North America.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Andrew; Bebak, Julie; Daniels, Stephen; Tulman, Edan R; Geary, Steven J; West, A Brian; Popov, Vsevolod L; Frasca, Salvatore

    2010-02-24

    Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus production facilities, nonproduction water sources and effluents in the United States and Canada were sampled to determine if chlamydiae associated with epitheliocystis were present in water and were associated with inclusions of epitheliocystis in gill tissue. Gills from 607 fish from 13 sites were processed for histopathologic examination and DNA extraction. Water was collected from 21 locations for DNA testing. Eighteen fish from one location had inclusions of epitheliocystis with proliferative and inflammatory gill lesions. Inclusions were stained using the Gimenez technique and, at the ultrastructural level, consisted of intracytoplasmic membrane-bound vacuoles containing reticulate and intermediate bodies in a fibrillar matrix. PCR using Order Chlamydiales-specific primers performed on DNA extracts from 12 of 13 infected fish yielded amplicons that were identical to (GQ302988) or differed at one base from (GQ302987) the 16S ribosomal RNA gene signature sequence of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis', which is the chlamydia that was previously identified in epitheliocystis inclusions of farmed Atlantic salmon. In situ hybridization using a approximately 1.5 kb riboprobe corresponding to the 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' 16S rRNA genetic sequence (AY462244) confirmed its presence within Arctic charr gill inclusions. DNA isolated from water samples was tested by Chlamydiales-specific PCR and yielded 54 partial 16S rRNA genetic sequences spanning the signature region; however, no 16S rRNA genetic sequences associated with epitheliocystis were identified. This is the first report of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' associated with epitheliocystis in Arctic charr, the first identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' from a freshwater production location, and the first reported occurrence in North America.

  18. Have brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) displaced bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) along longitudinal gradients in central Idaho streams?

    Treesearch

    Bruce E. Rieman; James T. Peterson; Deborah L. Myers

    2006-01-01

    Invasions of non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) have the potential for upstream displacement or elimination of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other native species already threatened by habitat loss. We summarized the distribution and number of bull trout in samples from 12 streams with and without brook trout...

  19. Mercury concentrations in Arctic food fishes reflect the presence of anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), species, and life history.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Heidi K; Kidd, Karen A

    2010-05-01

    Single-spawning (semelparous) anadromous fishes are known to transport contaminants from marine to freshwater habitats, but little research has been conducted on contaminant biotransport by multiple-spawning (iteroparous) anadromous fishes. We examined the effect of iteroparous, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on mercury concentrations ([Hg]) in freshwater biota and compared [Hg] between species and life history types of Arctic charr and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Data from six lakes and one coastal marine area in the Arctic territory of Nunavut, Canada, indicated that 1) lake trout had significantly lower [Hg] in lakes where anadromous Arctic charr were present; 2) [Hg] was significantly lower in recently discovered anadromous lake trout than in resident lake trout; and 3) regardless of life history, Arctic charr had significantly lower [Hg] than lake trout. These differences were explained by fish condition, age-at-size, and C:N. Biomagnification of Hg, measured as log(10)[Hg]-delta(15)N slopes, did not differ between lakes with and without anadromous Arctic charr but was significantly higher in freshwater food webs ( approximately 0.2) than in the marine food web (0.08). Some biomagnification estimates were affected by correction for fish age and size. In contrast to semelparous anadromous species, biotransport of Hg by anadromous Arctic charr appears to be offset by increased growth of freshwater fishes.

  20. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth and fatty acid composition of two strains of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on diets formulated with low fish oil inclusion in a recirculating aquaculture system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth, culture conditions and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate two Arctic charr stocks (one commercial stock and one from the ...

  2. Growth, nutritional composition, and hematology of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) exposed to toxaphene and tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium dendriticum) larvae.

    PubMed

    Blanar, C A; Curtis, M A; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide, is the major contaminant of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian Arctic. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of toxaphene exposure and infection by the larval stage of the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum on fish growth, nutritional composition, and hematology. Hatchery-reared Arctic charr were subjected to one of four treatments: (1) oral administration of corn oil (control); (2) single oral dose of 10 microg/g wet wt toxaphene dissolved in corn oil; (3) exposure to 15 larval D. dendriticum; and (4) exposure to toxaphene and D. dendriticum in combination. The experiment was run for 104 days. Mean final toxaphene concentrations in charr muscle were 0.121, 0.336, 0.131 and 0.458 microg/g wet wt in each treatment group, respectively. Exposure to toxaphene and D. dendriticum decreased fish growth and condition as well muscle lipid and protein content. However, toxaphene did not increase the susceptibility of Arctic charr to parasite infection. Overall, 25 of 40 fish (62.5%) exposed to larval D. dendriticum became infected. Parasitized charr had decreased hematocrits and increased lymphocyte:erythrocyte ratios. Although total blood cell counts were decreased in all treatments compared with controls, differential leucocyte counts were unaffected. Our results suggest that toxaphene does not moderate Arctic charr resistance to D. dendriticum and there is no contaminant-parasite interaction at environmental levels.

  3. Effects of crude rapeseed oil on lipid composition in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, A; Pickova, J; Brännäs, E

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of crude rapeseed oil (RO) on lipid content and composition in muscle and liver of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Triplicate groups were fed diets containing fish oil (FO):RO ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 until two-fold mass increase. Total lipid content increased significantly in the liver with higher proportion of RO in the diet. Profound effects were seen in the fatty acid composition in the analysed tissues with a reduction in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and an increase in 18:2n-6 with higher RO content in the diets. A drop in cholesterol content was seen at 25% inclusion of RO in both tissues. Wild-caught fish contained a considerably higher amount of 20:4n-6 in both storage and membrane lipids of white muscle compared with the experimental fish.

  4. Evolution of adaptive diversity and genetic connectivity in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Kapralova, K H; Morrissey, M B; Kristjánsson, B K; Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Snorrason, S S; Ferguson, M M

    2011-01-01

    The ecological theory of adaptive radiation predicts that the evolution of phenotypic diversity within species is generated by divergent natural selection arising from different environments and competition between species. Genetic connectivity among populations is likely also to have an important role in both the origin and maintenance of adaptive genetic diversity. Our goal was to evaluate the potential roles of genetic connectivity and natural selection in the maintenance of adaptive phenotypic differences among morphs of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Iceland. At a large spatial scale, we tested the predictive power of geographic structure and phenotypic variation for patterns of neutral genetic variation among populations throughout Iceland. At a smaller scale, we evaluated the genetic differentiation between two morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn relative to historically explicit, coalescent-based null models of the evolutionary history of these lineages. At the large spatial scale, populations are highly differentiated, but weakly structured, both geographically and with respect to patterns of phenotypic variation. At the intralacustrine scale, we observe modest genetic differentiation between two morphs, but this level of differentiation is nonetheless consistent with strong reproductive isolation throughout the Holocene. Rather than a result of the homogenizing effect of gene flow in a system at migration-drift equilibrium, the modest level of genetic differentiation could equally be a result of slow neutral divergence by drift in large populations. We conclude that contemporary and recent patterns of restricted gene flow have been highly conducive to the evolution and maintenance of adaptive genetic variation in Icelandic Arctic charr. PMID:21224880

  5. Experimental evidence for paternal effects on offspring growth rate in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    PubMed Central

    Eilertsen, Eirik Mack; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Liljedal, Ståle; Rudolfsen, Geir; Folstad, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that females should choose males that signal viability and quality. However, few studies have found fitness benefits among females mating with highly ornamented males. Here, we use Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a teleost fish with no parental care, to investigate whether females could gain fitness benefits by mating with highly ornamented and large-sized males. Carotenoid-based coloration signalled by males during spawning is believed to be an indicator of good genes for this species. Paternal effects on offspring size (body length and dry body mass) were examined experimentally by crossing eggs and sperm in vitro from 12 females and 24 males in a split-brood design and raising larvae to 30 days past hatching. We clearly demonstrated that there was a relationship between offspring size and paternal coloration. However, a negative interaction between paternal length and coloration was evident for offspring length, indicating that positive effects of paternal coloration were only present for smaller males. Thus, the red spawning coloration of the male Arctic charr seems to be an indicator of good genes, but the effect of paternal coloration on offspring length, an indicator of ‘offspring quality’, is size dependent. PMID:18782751

  6. Experimental evidence for paternal effects on offspring growth rate in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, Eirik Mack; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Liljedal, Ståle; Rudolfsen, Geir; Folstad, Ivar

    2009-01-07

    Sexual selection theory predicts that females should choose males that signal viability and quality. However, few studies have found fitness benefits among females mating with highly ornamented males. Here, we use Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a teleost fish with no parental care, to investigate whether females could gain fitness benefits by mating with highly ornamented and large-sized males. Carotenoid-based coloration signalled by males during spawning is believed to be an indicator of good genes for this species. Paternal effects on offspring size (body length and dry body mass) were examined experimentally by crossing eggs and sperm in vitro from 12 females and 24 males in a split-brood design and raising larvae to 30 days past hatching. We clearly demonstrated that there was a relationship between offspring size and paternal coloration. However, a negative interaction between paternal length and coloration was evident for offspring length, indicating that positive effects of paternal coloration were only present for smaller males. Thus, the red spawning coloration of the male Arctic charr seems to be an indicator of good genes, but the effect of paternal coloration on offspring length, an indicator of 'offspring quality', is size dependent.

  7. Small-scale Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Canada's Nunavut: management challenges and options.

    PubMed

    Roux, M J; Tallman, R F; Lewis, C W

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is a diverse and abundant resource in Canada's Nunavut. The anadromous form is primarily targeted by exploitation in small-scale fisheries. The continued importance of subsistence fisheries and growing interest in further developing commercial fisheries underline the need for proper management of S. alpinus in northern Canada. This paper presents the current state of S. alpinus fisheries in Nunavut and related management challenges. An alternate framework for assessment using life-history information as it determines stock productivity and resilience to harvesting is presented. This framework combines (1) a risk assessment tool [productivity-susceptibility analysis (PSA)] to evaluate the relative vulnerability of S. alpinus stocks to harvest and (2) a conceptual model for quantitative assessment to determine sustainable harvest levels. Diversity in S. alpinus life history and contrast in vulnerability scores derived from PSA assessment are demonstrated for a sample of 86 anadromous stocks from throughout Nunavut. These data provide evidence in support of an alternate strategy for assessment permitting to integrate diversity in S. alpinus life history for improved generalization and representativeness. Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Arctic regions exemplify the need for stock assessment and management alternatives to ensure fish conservation in remote, sensitive ecosystems and in data-poor circumstances. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  9. The impact of fishing-induced mortality on the evolution of alternative life-history tactics in brook charr

    PubMed Central

    Thériault, Véronique; Dunlop, Erin S; Dieckmann, Ulf; Bernatchez, Louis; Dodson, Julian J

    2008-01-01

    Although contemporary trends indicative of evolutionary change have been detected in the life-history traits of exploited populations, it is not known to what extent fishing influences the evolution of alternative life-history tactics in migratory species such as salmonids. Here, we build a model to predict the evolution of anadromy and residency in an exploited population of brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. Our model allows for both phenotypic plasticity and genetic change in the age and size at migration by including migration reaction norms. Using this model, we predict that fishing of anadromous individuals over the course of 100 years causes evolution in the migration reaction norm, resulting in a decrease in average probabilities of migration with increasing harvest rate. Moreover, we show that differences in natural mortalities in freshwater greatly influence the magnitude and rate of evolutionary change. The fishing-induced changes in migration predicted by our model alter population abundances and reproductive output and should be accounted for in the sustainable management of salmonids. PMID:25567640

  10. The genetic basis of salinity tolerance traits in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The capacity to maintain internal ion homeostasis amidst changing conditions is particularly important for teleost fishes whose reproductive cycle is dependent upon movement from freshwater to seawater. Although the physiology of seawater osmoregulation in mitochondria-rich cells of fish gill epithelium is well understood, less is known about the underlying causes of inter- and intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance. We used a genome-scan approach in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) correlated with variation in four salinity tolerance performance traits and six body size traits. Comparative genomics approaches allowed us to infer whether allelic variation at candidate gene loci (e.g., ATP1α1b, NKCC1, CFTR, and cldn10e) could have underlain observed variation. Results Combined parental analyses yielded genome-wide significant QTL on linkage groups 8, 14 and 20 for salinity tolerance performance traits, and on 1, 19, 20 and 28 for body size traits. Several QTL exhibited chromosome-wide significance. Among the salinity tolerance performance QTL, trait co-localizations occurred on chromosomes 1, 4, 7, 18 and 20, while the greatest experimental variation was explained by QTL on chromosomes 20 (19.9%), 19 (14.2%), 4 (14.1%) and 12 (13.1%). Several QTL localized to linkage groups exhibiting homeologous affinities, and multiple QTL mapped to regions homologous with the positions of candidate gene loci in other teleosts. There was no gene × environment interaction among body size QTL and ambient salinity. Conclusions Variation in salinity tolerance capacity can be mapped to a subset of Arctic charr genomic regions that significantly influence performance in a seawater environment. The detection of QTL on linkage group 12 was consistent with the hypothesis that variation in salinity tolerance may be affected by allelic variation at the ATP1α1b locus. IGF2 may also affect salinity tolerance capacity as suggested by a

  11. Time-place learning and leader-follower relationships in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Brännäs, E

    2014-01-01

    Feeding activity from a larger refuge site into two visually separated feeding sites with temporally restricted food availability, one in the morning and one in the evening was studied in duplicate groups of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. A passive integrated transponder (PIT) system enabled continuous monitoring of individual movements between the sites. Both groups synchronized their diel pattern of visit activity to the two feeding sites when food was available. One group showed significant anticipatory visit activity into both feeding sites during the hours before the feed was available, suggesting a time and place learning of resource availability. The anticipatory activity of the other group was, however, less pronounced and only occurred into one of the feeding sites. Individual S. alpinus entered the feeding sites independently and no obvious patterns of leaders and followers were identified. All S. alpinus gained mass and moved between a refuge and the feeding sites. Different strategies of how individual S. alpinus utilized the feeding sites were not correlated with growth.

  12. Resource polymorphism and diversity of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus in a series of isolated lakes.

    PubMed

    Woods, P J; Young, D; Skúlason, S; Snorrason, S S; Quinn, T P

    2013-02-01

    Morphological, dietary and life-history variation in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus were characterized from three geographically proximate, but isolated lakes and one large lake into which they drain in south-western Alaska. Polymorphism was predicted to occur in the first three lakes because S. alpinus tend to become polymorphic in deep, isolated lakes with few co-occurring species. Only one morph was evident in the large lake and two of the three isolated lakes. In the third isolated lake, Lower Tazimina Lake, small and large morphs were found, the latter including two forms differing in growth rate. The small morph additionally differed from the two large forms by having more gill rakers and a deeper body than same-sized individuals of the large morph, consuming more limnetic and fewer benthic resources, having a greater gonado-somatic index and maturing at a smaller size. The two large forms consumed only slightly different foods (more terrestrial insects were consumed by the medium-growth form; more snails by the high-growth form). Trends in consumption of resources with body shape also differed between lakes. Variability in life history of S. alpinus in these Alaskan lakes was as broad as that found elsewhere. This variability is important for understanding lake ecosystems of remote regions where this species is commonly dominant. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. [Phylogeny of charrs of the genus Salvelinus based on mitochondrial DNA data].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2015-01-01

    Charrs of the genus Salvelinus (including Salvethymus) represent a monophyletic group of salmonid fishes that diverged from the common ancestor without subdivision into subgenera. The phylogenesis of the genus is characterized by four cycles of mitochondrial genome divergence. The first one, belonging to the Late Miocene--the border between Miocene and Pliocene (6 to 4 million years ago)--was associated with the consecutive divergence of the S. fontinalis, S. namaycush, S. levanidovi, and S. leucomaenis basal branches. Two divergence events, including separation of the ancestral lineage of western Pacific group of S. m. krascheninnikovi and the following segregation of the common ancestor into two mitochondrial phyla, happened within the period of 3 to 2 million years ago. The next cycle is attributed to the time interval of about 1 million years ago and includes the divergence of both phyla. In one phylum, a relatively quick isolation of Arctic and eastern Pacific phylogroups, along with the divergence of the latter phylogroup into S. confluentus and S. m. lordi lineages, took place. At the same time, the second phylum diverged into the S. m. malma and S. alpinus phylogenetic groups. At the final stage (Middle to Late Pleistocene), differentiation of the taxa within the phylogenetic groups took place.

  14. Genetic Variability and Structuring of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Populations in Northern Fennoscandia

    PubMed Central

    Shikano, Takahito; Järvinen, Antero; Marjamäki, Paula; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26) differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent population size bottlenecks. Estimates of contemporary effective population size (Ne) ranged from seven to 228 and were significantly correlated with those of historical Ne but not with lake size. A census size (NC) was estimated to be approximately 300 individuals in a pond (0.14 ha), which exhibited the smallest Ne (i.e. Ne/NC = 0.02). Genetic variability in this pond and a connected lake is severely reduced, and both genetic and empirical estimates of migration rates indicate a lack of gene flow between them. Hence, albeit currently thriving, some northern Fennoscandian populations appear to be vulnerable to further loss of genetic variability and are likely to have limited capacity to adapt if selection pressures change. PMID:26468642

  15. Thermal stress in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus broodstock: a 28 year case study.

    PubMed

    Jeuthe, H; Brännäs, E; Nilsson, J

    2015-03-01

    Temperature and egg viability data from an Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus hatchery covering a period of 28 years were analysed. During the study period, there was a significant increase in the mean water temperature in May, July, August and September of c. 2° C. Independent of year, the egg viability showed a negative correlation with the mean monthly temperatures in July, August and September as well as with the temperature difference between October and November. The negative effect of high summer temperatures was further supported by a comparison of egg viability from replicate broodstock reared at two sites differing mainly in summer water temperature. The eggs from the colder site were, on average, significantly larger (4·4 mm compared with 4·0 mm) and had higher hatching rates (57% compared with 37%). These results suggest that unfavourable temperature conditions during the summer and autumn can explain much of the excessive egg mortality experienced at the main facility used for the Swedish S. alpinus breeding programme. The main effect was supra-optimal temperatures during the period July to September, but there also appears to have been an effect from the temperature regime before and during spawning (October to November) that was unrelated to the summer temperatures. These findings emphasize the importance of site selection and sustainable management of aquaculture hatcheries in the light of the ongoing climate change. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Environmental factors associated with genetic and phenotypic divergence among sympatric populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Corrigan, L J; Lucas, M C; Winfield, I J; Hoelzel, A R

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms by which phenotypic and genetic divergence may occur among sympatric, conspecific populations have been widely discussed but are still not well understood. Possible mechanisms include assortative mating based on morphology or variation in the reproductive behaviour of phenotypes, and both have been suggested to be relevant to the differentiation of salmonid populations in post-glacial lakes. Here, we studied Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Windermere, where putative populations are defined by spatial and temporal variation in spawning. Genetic differentiation was assessed based on nine microsatellite loci, and phenotypic variation was assessed from morphometric characters. We test hypotheses about the relative role of morphology, spawning season and spawning habitat in the evolution of genetic divergence among these populations. Distinct from other lake systems, we find that both morphological and genetic differentiation are restricted primarily to one of two interconnecting basins, that genetic and morphological differentiation are decoupled in this lake and that both phenotype and environment have changed over the last 20 years. The implication is that breeding habitat plays a primary role in isolating populations that differentiate by drift and that phenotypically plastic changes, potentially related to foraging specializations, have either become secondarily decoupled from the genetically defined populations or were never fundamental in driving the evolution of genetic diversity in the Windermere system.

  17. Residency and movement patterns of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus relative to major estuaries.

    PubMed

    Spares, A D; Stokesbury, M J W; Dadswell, M J; O'Dor, R K; Dick, T A

    2015-06-01

    Estuarine residency and marine movements of 43 anadromous Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (mean ± s.d. fork length = 523 ± 97 mm) were examined using acoustic tracking in inner Frobisher Bay (IFB; 63° N; 68° W), Canada, from July to September 2008 and 2009. A mean ± s.d. migration duration of 63 ± 7 days occurred from late June to early September. Detected S. alpinus were either continuously (maximum 34 days) or intermittently present in estuarine zones, on average residing approximately one third of time tracked and returning once every 9 days. Significantly higher estuarine residency during the final 15 migration days suggested that a transition phase may occur prior to freshwater re-entry. Low travel rates during flood tide suggested individuals staged before accessing intertidal and estuarine zones. Although the two main estuaries were c. 22 km apart, 19% of tagged individuals used both. Individuals remained relatively close to freshwater overwintering systems, although late-migration inter-estuarine movements may have indicated natal homing. Approximately half of the individuals exhibited extra-estuarine travel, mostly during mid-migration, but remained within 3 km of shore ranging < 30 km straight line distance (SLD) of either estuary. It was concluded that IFB S. alpinus (1) spent a significant portion of their migration within or adjacent to the estuaries and (2) had a restricted marine distribution within 30 km SLD of the river mouths. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Occurrence of sympatric charr groups, Salvelinus, Salmonidae, in the lakes of Kamchatka: a legacy of the last glaciations.

    PubMed

    Esin, E V; Bocharova, E S; Mugue, N S; Markevich, G N

    2017-08-01

    Six postglacial lakes were studied along both sides of the Kamchatka central mountain range, Russia. Pairs of local morphotypes of species of Arctic charrs, Salvelinus spp., have previously been described from the southernmost lakes while the fish fauna of the four northernmost lakes was studied here for the first time. Phenotypic data support the division of Kamchatkan lacustrine charrs into two groups according to the number of gill rakers and pyloric caeca, as well as snout-dorsal and snout-ventral distances (MANOVA, P < 0·001). These groups respectively correspond to phenotypes commonly referred to as Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus taranetzi. To clarify the identity of these groups, D-loop and cytochrome b (cytb) region sequences were analysed. Haplotype network analysis of mtDNA shows the salmonids inhabiting four lakes on the south and north are phylogenetically close to either Beringian S. malma or to S. taranetzi from the Chukotka and Kolyma River basins (the mean ± s.e. pairwise per cent sequence divergence is 0·006 ± 0·001). Phenotype-genotype discordance suggests that mitochondrial introgression between species has occurred in the two smallest lakes (<0·5 km(2) ) in the central part of the peninsula. Identical haplotypes of D-loop and cytb regions were found for the populations of S. taranetzi from the most distant southern and northern lakes, indicating all lakes were colonized by both species simultaneously after the last glacial maximum. Salvelinus taranetzi may have colonized the Kamchatka peninsula from one or both of two different source regions: the Arctic Beringia and the northern coast of the Okhotsk Sea. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Changes in arterial oxygen tension and physiological status in resting, unrestrained Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) exposed to mild hypoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A; Rosseland, B O; Thorarensen, H; Kiessling, A

    2011-03-01

    In arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, arterial blood partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide increased with increasing water oxygen tension (PwO2), while the water to arterial PO2 difference (PwO2-PaO2) did not change in relation to PwO2.

  20. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38’N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr. PMID:26421838

  1. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38'N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr.

  2. Rapid evolution of muscle fibre number in post-glacial populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ian A; Abercromby, Marguerite; Vieira, Vera L A; Sigursteindóttir, Rakel J; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Sibthorpe, Dean; Skúlason, Skúli

    2004-12-01

    Thingvallavatn, the largest and one of the oldest lakes in Iceland, contains four morphs of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Dwarf benthic (DB), large benthic (LB), planktivorous (PL) and piscivorous (PI) morphs can be distinguished and differ markedly in head morphology, colouration and maximum fork length (FL(max)), reflecting their different resource specialisations within the lake. The four morphs in Thingvallavatn are thought to have been isolated for approximately 10 000 years, since shortly after the end of the last Ice Age. We tested the null hypothesis that the pattern of muscle fibre recruitment was the same in all morphs, reflecting their recent diversification. The cross-sectional areas of fast and slow muscle fibres were measured at 0.7 FL in 46 DB morphs, 23 LB morphs, 24 PL morphs and 22 PI morphs, and the ages of the charr were estimated using sacculus otoliths. In fish larger than 10 g, the maximum fibre diameter scaled with body mass (M(b))(0.18) for both fibre types in all morphs. The number of myonuclei per cm fibre length increased with fibre diameter, but was similar between morphs. On average, at 60 mum diameter, there were 2264 nuclei cm(-1) in slow fibres and 1126 nuclei cm(-1) in fast fibres. The absence of fibres of diameter 4-10 mum was used to determine the FL at which muscle fibre recruitment stopped. Slow fibre number increased with body length in all morphs, scaling with M(b)(0.45). In contrast, the recruitment of fast muscle fibres continued until a clearly identifiable FL, corresponding to 18-19 cm in the dwarf morph, 24-26 cm in the pelagic morph, 32-33 cm in the large benthic morph and 34-35 cm in the piscivorous morph. The maximum fast fibre number (FN(max)) in the dwarf morph (6.97x10(4)) was 56.5% of that found in the LB and PI morphs combined (1.23x10(5)) (P<0.001). Muscle fibre recruitment continued until a threshold body size and occurred at a range of ages, starting at 4+ years in the DB morph and 7+ years in the LB and PI

  3. Long-term rearing of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus under different salinity regimes at constant temperature.

    PubMed

    Arnason, T; Gunnarsson, S; Imsland, A K; Thorarensen, H; Smáradóttir, H; Steinarsson, A; Gústavsson, A; Johansson, M; Björnsson, B Th

    2014-10-01

    Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus of the Hólar strain (mean ± s.e. body mass = 152·1 ± 3·1 g) were reared at four different salinity regimes at a constant temperature of 7·4° C. Two groups were given a three-month acclimation in salinity 18 before the salinity was increased to either 25 or 29 (groups called A25 and A29), and two groups were reared in salinities 25 or 29 over the full experimental period of 409 days (groups called F25 and F29). In the first 3 months, the A25 and A29 groups had the highest growth rates. By October 2011, there were no significant differences (two-way nested ANOVA, P > 0·05) in the mean body masses among A25, F25 and F29 (c. 1450 g), whereas A29 had a lower mean mass (1282 g). The growth in the last period from October 2011 to January 2012 was reduced by sexual maturation in the highest salinity regimes (A29 and F29), whereas fish in groups A25 and F25 showed high growth throughout the study. Males in all salinity groups had higher growth rates than females for the most part of the study, but the divergence between the sexes was most pronounced in the highest salinity regimes. All salinity groups showed distinct changes in Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, with high activity in spring and summer, and lower activity in the autumn. Plasma sodium (Na(+) ) levels were stable indicating that none of the experimental groups had problems in maintaining hydromineral balance during the study. While plasma leptin levels were not affected by salinity regimes, it was noted that these levels were 13-30% higher in fish with empty guts compared with those having food in their gut at the time of sampling. This suggests a link between leptin levels and food intake, indicating that this hormone may play a role in food intake and energy allocation in fishes.

  4. Variation in scale shape among alternative sympatric phenotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from two lakes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Paz, M V; Demetriou, M; Adams, C E

    2010-04-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis was used to detect differences in scale shape between ecologically distinct phenotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus coexisting in the same lake. Relative warp analysis and standard multivariate analyses of the partial warps, obtained after a Procrustes superimposition, showed that scale landmarks were efficient in discriminating among two closely related alternative phenotypes within each of the two lakes. In Loch Tay, S. alpinus exhibited a bimodal body size-frequency distribution among sexually mature fish, whereas in Loch Awe, S. alpinus are unimodal in body size but segregated into two distinct spawning phenotypes. In both lakes, alternative phenotypes showed significant differences in foraging ecology, habitat use and life history. It is probable that differences in scale shape reflect differences in ecology of these forms.

  5. Early developmental plasticity and integrative responses in arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): effects of water velocity on body size and shape.

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard; Mabee, Paula M; Le François, Nathalie R

    2007-07-15

    Environmental conditions such as temperature and water velocity may induce changes among alternative developmental pathways, i.e. phenotypic responses, in vertebrates. However, the extent to which the environment induces developmental plasticity and integrated developmental responses during early ontogeny of fishes remains poorly documented. We analyzed the responses of newly hatched Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to four experimental water velocities during 100 days of development. To our knowledge, this work is the first to analyze developmental plasticity responses of body morphology to an experimental gradient of water velocities during early ontogeny of fish. Arctic charr body size and shape responses show first, that morphometric traits display significant differences between low and high water velocities, thus revealing directional changes in body traits. Secondly, trait variation allows the recognition of critical ontogenetic periods that are most responsive to environmental constraints (40-70 and 80-90 days) and exhibit different levels of developmental plasticity. This is supported by the observation of asynchronous timing of variation peaks among treatments. Third, morphological interaction of traits is developmentally plastic and time-dependent. We suggest that developmental responses of traits plasticity and interaction at critical ontogenetic periods are congruent with specific environmental conditions to maintain the functional integrity of the organism.

  6. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  7. Effects of competitor density and physical habitat structure on the competitive intensity of territorial white spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Yamamoto, S

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of interference competition in habitats of different complexity and in different densities. The influence of fish density and habitat structure was examined in manipulative experiments using young-of-the-year white spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis as a model species. The difference of specific growth rate (G) range, an index of interference competitive intensity, was significantly smaller in the structurally complex treatments than structurally simple treatments, while there were no significant difference between high-density and low-density treatments. Thus, physical habitat structure was more effective for mitigating interference competition than manipulating competitor density. Although interference competition was not affected by competitor density, mean G were suppressed in the high-density treatments. This implied that exploitative competition may cause the decrease of G rather than interference competition does in the high-density treatments. Mean G were also suppressed in the structurally complex treatments. Chaotic flow pattern created by physical habitat structures may decrease G by reducing foraging success of experimental fish in the complex treatments.

  8. Comparison of organotin accumulation on the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis between sea-run and freshwater-resident types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    To examine the accumulation pattern of organotin compounds (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. There were generally no significant correlations between the TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as the total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in S. leucomaenis. It is noteworthy that the TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run white-spotted charr were significantly higher than in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are intraspecies. These results suggest that the sea-run S. leucomaenis has a higher ecological risk of TBT and TPT exposure than the freshwater-residents during their life history.

  9. Designation of a neotype for brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, Jay R; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) is problematic. Difficulties in comparison of populations are exacerbated by the lack of type material. Here we designate a neotype from Connetquot River, Long Island, New York. We provide genetic and morphological data for the neotype, conspecifics, and other populations (Swan Creek, Nissequogue Creek) from Long Island, New York. We demonstrate, using molecular markers, that the population from Connetquot River most likely has not been influenced by the major broodstock strains utilized in the Northeast for supplemental and restorative stocking programs. We distinguish the above populations morphologically from lower interior basin populations, represented by fishes from the Pigeon-French Broad drainage, North Carolina and Tennessee. Finally, we position populations from Long Island, New York, within six distinct lineages of S. fontinalis.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, an Endogenous Strain from Brook Charr with Antagonistic Properties against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Steve J.; Derome, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, isolated from brook charr, showed a strong in vitro inhibitory effect against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a bacterial fish pathogen. Its genome harbors gene clusters for siderophore and bacteriocin biosynthesis and shares 99% whole-genome identity with P. fluorescens A506, a biological control strain used in agriculture. PMID:28254983

  11. Natural resilience in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: life history, spatial and dietary alterations along gradients of interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Hammar, J

    2014-07-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus species complex has been shown to be exceptionally vulnerable to rapid abiotic and biotic changes. Salvelinus alpinus, however, inhabit environmental extremes ranging from lakes and rivers in the High Arctic to deep multi-fish species lakes far outside the polar region. Long-term responses to post-glacial environmental variations and successively increased interspecific interactions reveal an essential degree of natural ecological resilience and phenotypic flexibility. Case studies in Scandinavia and Newfoundland illustrate the alternate trophic roles of S. alpinus, and its flexible niche use and life-history changes in order to regain or maintain body size in gradients of lakes with increasing fish species diversity. While allopatric in northern low-productive upland lakes, landlocked populations are commonly structured by cannibalism. In sympatry with other fish species, S. alpinus mostly serve as prey, with their decreasing growth and body size reflecting the successive diet shift from littoral macro-benthos to zooplankton and profundal microbenthos as interspecific competition for food and habitat intensifies. Interactions with natural and introduced superior zooplankton feeders and ultimate predators finally become detrimental. Consequently, the niche of S. alpinus is increasingly compressed in lakes along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, although certain natural key conditions offer S. alpinus temporary asylum in the inescapable process towards local and regional extinction. The water temperature drop during winter allows S. alpinus to temporarily resume the richer littoral dietary and spatial niche use in low diversity lakes. In southern lowland and coastal lakes with more complex fish communities, access to key prey species such as profundal macro-crustaceans and smelt Osmerus spp. allow S. alpinus to regain its original niche space and characteristics as a large piscivore. In conclusion, S. alpinus along its

  12. Distribution kinetics of dietary methylmercury in the arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, C.A.O.; Rouleau, C.; Pelletier, E.; Audet, C.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-03-15

    The authors fed immature 1+ arctic charr with a single dose of methyl[{sup 203}Hg]mercury (MeHg) and quantified distribution kinetics with a new and simple three-compartment caternary model having well-perfused viscera and blood as the central compartment (VB), whereas gut (G) and the rest of body (R) constituted the peripheral compartments. The model accurately described distribution kinetics of MeHg in the fish, using either data of MeHg content in compartments or blood concentration data. Despite the known fast translocation of MeHg between binding sites at the molecular level, its translocation rate between compartments was surprisingly slow, 27 days being needed to complete 95% of the transfer from gut to blood and 48 days for the subsequent transfer to compartment R. This probably results from a limitation of the stepwise transfer rate of MeHg from red blood cells, which contain most of blood MeHg, to plasma and then to tissues due to low plasmatic concentration of small mobile sulfhydryl ligands. The model presented is a convenient tool that could be used to compare the fate of MeHg and other organometals, such as butyltins and alkylleads, in various aquatic and terrestrial animal species.

  13. Fine-scale parallel patterns in diversity of small benthic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in relation to the ecology of lava/groundwater habitats

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Skúlason, Skúli; Snorrason, Sigurður S; Noakes, David LG

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to study factors that are important for origin and maintenance of biological diversity. A comparative approach involving a large number of populations is particularly useful. We use this approach to study the relationship between ecological factors and phenotypic diversity in Icelandic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Numerous populations of small benthic charr have evolved in lava springs in Iceland. These charr appear morphologically similar, but differ in important morphological features related to feeding. We found a clear relationship between diversity in morphology, diet, and ecological factors among populations. In particular, there were clear differences in morphology and diet between fish coming from habitats where the lava spring flowed on as a stream compared to habitats where the lava spring flowed into a pond. Our study shows that ecological factors are important for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. The relationship between phenotype and ecological factors are observed on a fine scale, when comparing numerous populations that are phenotypically similar. This strongly suggests that for understanding, managing, and conserving biological diversity important ecological variables have to be taken into the account. PMID:22833787

  14. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  15. A SNP Based Linkage Map of the Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Genome Provides Insights into the Diploidization Process After Whole Genome Duplication.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Cameron M; Easton, Anne A; Norman, Joseph D; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2017-02-09

    Diploidization, which follows whole genome duplication events, does not occur evenly across the genome. In salmonid fishes, certain pairs of homeologous chromosomes preserve tetraploid loci in higher frequencies toward the telomeres due to residual tetrasomic inheritance. Research suggests this occurs only in homeologous pairs where one chromosome arm has undergone a fusion event. We present a linkage map for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a salmonid species with relatively fewer chromosome fusions. Genotype by sequencing identified 19,418 SNPs, and a linkage map consisting of 4508 markers was constructed from a subset of high quality SNPs and microsatellite markers that were used to anchor the new map to previous versions. Both male- and female-specific linkage maps contained the expected number of 39 linkage groups. The chromosome type associated with each linkage group was determined, and 10 stable metacentric chromosomes were identified, along with a chromosome polymorphism involving the sex chromosome AC04. Two instances of a weak form of pseudolinkage were detected in the telomeric regions of homeologous chromosome arms in both female and male linkage maps. Chromosome arm homologies within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genomes were determined. Paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) were identified, and their comparative BLASTn hit locations showed that duplicate markers exist in higher numbers on seven pairs of homeologous arms, previously identified as preserving tetrasomy in salmonid species. Homeologous arm pairs where neither arm has been part of a fusion event in Arctic charr had fewer PSVs, suggesting faster diploidization rates in these regions.

  16. The role of Ca(2+) and Na (+) membrane transport in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) spermatozoa motility.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Olga; Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2014-10-01

    The role of environmental ion composition and osmolality in Ca(2+) signaled activation was assessed in spermatozoa of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Milt from ten mature males was obtained by abdominal massage. Spermatozoa motility was evaluated in 0, 100, and 300 mOsm/kg NaCl or sucrose solutions, buffered by 10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.5. For investigation of spermatozoa reaction to external Ca(2+) concentration, 2 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was added to the activation media as a calcium ions chelator. For investigation of the effect of external Na(+) concentration in conditions of low external Ca(2+), 100 µM amiloride was added to the EGTA-containing solutions as a Na(+) transport blocker. Low motility was observed in sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA but not in Na(+) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. Addition of amiloride led to significantly increased motility (P < 0.05) compared with sucrose (Na(+) free) solutions containing 2 mM EGTA. We conclude that Na(+) transport in Ca(2+)-free solutions plays a regulatory role in brook trout spermatozoa activation. The influence of competitive Na(+) and Ca(2+) transport on the control of spermatozoa activation requires further study with respect to its application for improvement of artificial activation and storage media.

  17. Ontogenetic and diel variation in stream habitat use by brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a headwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. H.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Redell, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable information exists on habitat use by stream salmonids, only a small portion has quantitatively examined diurnal and nocturnal habitat variation. We examined diel variation in habitat use by age-0 and age-1+ brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) during summer and autumn in a headwater stream in northern Pennsylvania. Habitat variables measured included cover, depth, substrate, and velocity. The most pronounced diel variation occurred in the use of cover during both seasons. Both age-0 brook trout and age-1+ trout were associated with less cover at night. Age-0 brook trout occupied swifter water during the day than at night during both seasons, but the difference was not significant. Increased cover, depth, and substrate size governed the habitat of age-1+ brook trout. Our findings support the need for a better understanding of diel differences in habitat use of stream salmonids when considering habitat enhancement and protection.

  18. Phenotypic and genetic variation in two North American arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) stocks cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arctic charr were obtained as eggs from two North American sources, an eastern (Fraser River, Canada) and a western (Bristol Bay, Alaska) stock. Fish from each family (n=38) were pit tagged at approximately 12 months post-hatch (eastern mean+SE=247+/-13g, western mean+SE=220+/-g) and stocked commun...

  19. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  20. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACITIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-0-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout wer...

  1. Comment on Meisner (1990): Effect of climatic warming on the southern margins of the native range of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    Treesearch

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1993-01-01

    Meisner (1990) proposed in the Journall that the lower elevational margin of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), in the southern part of their native range is related to the 15 degrees C groundwater isotherm, based on a modelled relationship between minimum elevations at which brook trout occur in this part of the native range and...

  2. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACITIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-0-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout wer...

  3. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACTIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were...

  4. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACTIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were...

  5. A SNP Based Linkage Map of the Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Genome Provides Insights into the Diploidization Process After Whole Genome Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Cameron M.; Easton, Anne A.; Norman, Joseph D.; Ferguson, Moira M.; Danzmann, Roy G.

    2016-01-01

    Diploidization, which follows whole genome duplication events, does not occur evenly across the genome. In salmonid fishes, certain pairs of homeologous chromosomes preserve tetraploid loci in higher frequencies toward the telomeres due to residual tetrasomic inheritance. Research suggests this occurs only in homeologous pairs where one chromosome arm has undergone a fusion event. We present a linkage map for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a salmonid species with relatively fewer chromosome fusions. Genotype by sequencing identified 19,418 SNPs, and a linkage map consisting of 4508 markers was constructed from a subset of high quality SNPs and microsatellite markers that were used to anchor the new map to previous versions. Both male- and female-specific linkage maps contained the expected number of 39 linkage groups. The chromosome type associated with each linkage group was determined, and 10 stable metacentric chromosomes were identified, along with a chromosome polymorphism involving the sex chromosome AC04. Two instances of a weak form of pseudolinkage were detected in the telomeric regions of homeologous chromosome arms in both female and male linkage maps. Chromosome arm homologies within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genomes were determined. Paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) were identified, and their comparative BLASTn hit locations showed that duplicate markers exist in higher numbers on seven pairs of homeologous arms, previously identified as preserving tetrasomy in salmonid species. Homeologous arm pairs where neither arm has been part of a fusion event in Arctic charr had fewer PSVs, suggesting faster diploidization rates in these regions. PMID:27986793

  6. Summer temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Butryn, Ryan S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22°C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the “best” accuracy. The 16°C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20°C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.

  7. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Kazyak, David C; Hilderbrand, Robert H; King, Tim L; Keller, Stephen R; Chhatre, Vikram E

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors.

  8. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  9. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; King, Tim L.; Keller, Stephen R.; Chhatre, Vikram E.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors. PMID:26730588

  10. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Truelove, Nathan; Schreck, Carl B.; Fournie, John W.; Landers, Dixon H.; Kent, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occur in salmonids but are poorly organized, irregularly shaped, and are generally smaller than those in derived teleosts. These features complicate quantification, and thus these fishes have seldom been used in studies correlating MAs with environmental stressors. To alleviate these complications, we developed color filtering algorithms for use with the software package ImagePro Plus® (Media Cybernetics) that select and quantify pigmented area (i.e. colors ranging from gold to brown to black) in tissue sections. Image analysis results compared well with subjective scoring when tested on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured from high-elevation lakes or hatcheries. Macrophage aggregate pigments correlated positively with age and negatively with condition factor. Within individual fish, pigmentation correlated positively among organs, suggesting that the kidney, liver or spleen are suitable indicator organs. In age-matched fishes, MA pigments were not different between hatcheries and lakes in the organs examined. Between lakes, differences in pigments were observed in the kidney and spleen, but were not explained by age, condition factor, sex or maturation state. Our results indicate that quantification of the area occupied by MA pigments is an efficient and accurate means of evaluating MAs in salmonid organs and that organ pigmentation correlates with age and condition factor, as seen in studies with more derived fishes. 

  11. 'Global worming': first record of an epidemic of Triaenophorus crassus in a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus umbla.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, D; Gassner, H; Schabetsberger, R

    2009-03-01

    In May 2005, an epidemic of the cestode Triaenophorus crassus occurred in the Salvelinus umbla population of Lake Grundlsee, an oligotrophic Austrian Alpine Lake. Based on catches with a standardized multi-mesh gillnet survey 53% of S. umbla were infected with up to 17 cysts of T. crassus per fish. This is the first documented record of an epidemic of this tapeworm in S. umbla.

  12. Survey of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population in the Upper Little Tennessee River watershed, Macon and Swain Counties, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    During the months May--November 1992, as part of the Western North Carolina Alliance upper Little Tennessee River watershed survey, streams in the North Carolina portion (Macon and Swain Counties) of the watershed were surveyed for the presence of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The purposes of this survey were threefold: (1) To use this sensitive, pollution-intolerant species as an indicator organism for high quality waters. (2) To assist the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, the US Forest Service, and private landowners in managing for and protecting this popular game fish. (3) To locate possible stocks of pure ``southern Appalachian strain`` brook trout. Research is currently underway at the University of Tennessee and Auburn University to determine whether there is in fact a distinct southem subspecies or race of S. fontinalis. This author is one of those who is inclined to believe there is.

  13. Growth and reproductive ecology of the eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, in streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Light, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Three naturally infertile streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition were studied to determine the status of their brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, populations and associated benthic communities. Of the three streams, Upper Three Runs was judged to be the least fertile, followed by Little Fishing Creek, with Roaring Run being the most fertile. The median weighted pH of acidic deposition impacting the watersheds was 3.8 for Upper Three Runs and 4.0 for Little Fishing Creek and Roaring Run. Brook trout from Roaring Run grew at a similar rate to those from Little Fishing Creek, with trout from Upper Three Runs showing the slowest growth. Roaring Run brook trout also had the highest relative condition of the three streams. Brook trout from Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek generally matured one year later (age group II) than those from Upper Three Runs. Early maturity may be selected for in Upper Three Runs due to small annual increases in fecundity in higher age groups. Although the data were limited, there was a trend for brook trout from Upper Three Runs to produce fewer and larger ova. Roaring Run had higher volumes of benthos during fall and summer, and higher numbers during fall. Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek had more, larger crayfish present, which added significantly to the volume of benthos in these streams. Qualitatively, Upper Three Runs had more shredders and fewer scrapers on a volume basis than the other two streams. On a per fish basis, the drift available to the fish in Roaring Run was always highest in volume, and highest in number during fall and spring. The brook trout from Roaring Run therefore had an advantage over those in the other two streams, by having a higher drift available per fish.

  14. Behaviour of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during an induced mating season in captivity: how male relative size influences male behavioural investment and female preference over time.

    PubMed

    Bolgan, M; O'Brien, J; Picciulin, M; Manning, L; Gammell, M

    2016-12-20

    The behaviour of sexually mature Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus specimens (fifth farm generation) was observed in captivity for four consecutive days. Only agonistic interactions between males of different size were facilitated on the first 2 days, while both agonistic and courtship interactions were possible from the third day up to the end of the experiment. The reliability of behavioural analysis was assessed in order to reduce the possibility of observer errors within the generated datasets. The behavioural investment of big males, small males and females was analysed using general linear models (two-way repeated measures ANOVAs with time and male size as factors). A peak in the agonistic interactions between males occurred during the first day of interactions, where the agonistic investment of big males was significantly higher than that of small males. This resulted in an increased investment in submissive behaviour by the small males, who consistently performed submissive behaviours from the second day of interactions up to the end of the trial. Big males were found to invest significantly more than small males in courtship behaviours for the duration of the trial. Even though females performed inter-sexual behaviours towards both big and small males for the entire observation period, female interaction rate towards big males was higher than towards small males. This study suggests that both male investment in mating behaviour and female preference might be related to male characteristics such as body length and that S. alpinus behavioural patterns and mate choice cues might be strongly context-related and characterized by high levels of behavioural plasticity (i.e. presence-absence of certain behavioural units or potential reversal of a mate choice cue) within the same species. Finally, in light of this, some conservation measures are discussed. In particular, effective management plans should take into account the high level of behavioural plasticity

  15. Transcriptomics of salinity tolerance capacity in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): a comparison of gene expression profiles between divergent QTL genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Moira M.; Danzmann, Roy G.

    2013-01-01

    Osmoregulatory capabilities have played an important role in the evolution, dispersal, and diversification of vertebrates. To better understand the genetic architecture of hypo-osmoregulation in fishes and to determine which genes and biological processes affect intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance, we used mRNA sequence libraries from Arctic charr gill tissue to compare gene expression profiles in fish exhibiting divergent salinity tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) genotypes. We compared differentially expressed genes with QTL positions to gain insight about the nature of the underlying polymorphisms and examined gene expression within the context of genome organization to gain insight about the evolution of hypo-osmoregulation in fishes. mRNA sequencing of 18 gill tissue libraries produced 417 million reads, and the final reduced de novo transcriptome assembly consisted of 92,543 contigs. Families contained a similar number of differentially expressed contigs between high and low salinity tolerance capacity groups, and log2 expression ratios ranged from 10.4 to −8.6. We found that intraspecific variation in salinity tolerance capacity correlated with differential expression of immune response genes. Some differentially expressed genes formed clusters along linkage groups. Most clusters comprised gene pairs, though clusters of three, four, and eight genes were also observed. We postulated that conserved synteny of gene clusters on multiple ancestral and teleost chromosomes may have been preserved via purifying selection. Colocalization of QTL with differentially expressed genes suggests that polymorphisms in cis-regulatory elements are part of a majority of QTL. PMID:24368751

  16. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of TCDD to early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined when dosed by maternal transfer. Effects were compared across six treatments including a control. The experimental groups based on TCDD concentrations in freshly spawned ...

  17. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARTENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined, when dosed by maternal transfer.Effects were compared across six treatments, including a control.The experimental groups, based...

  18. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of TCDD to early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined when dosed by maternal transfer. Effects were compared across six treatments including a control. The experimental groups based on TCDD concentrations in freshly spawned ...

  19. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARTENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined, when dosed by maternal transfer.Effects were compared across six treatments, including a control.The experimental groups, based...

  20. Luteinizing hormone stimulation of in vitro ovulation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) involves follicle contraction and activation of proteolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Diego; Pramanick, Kousik; Goetz, Frederick W; Planas, Josep V

    2013-07-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an essential hormone for the stimulation of the ovulatory process in vertebrates. However, little is known in fish regarding the different mechanisms induced by LH during ovulation that facilitate the rupture of the follicle wall and the subsequent expulsion of the mature oocyte. In this study, the effects of salmon LH (sLH) on in vitro ovulation were investigated in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) isolated follicles. sLH significantly stimulated in vitro ovulation and contraction of brook trout preovulatory follicles. In order to investigate the possible involvement of proteolytic events in the ovulatory action of LH, the expression of genes known to have a crucial role in the degradation of follicle wall structure was examined. Our results show that sLH clearly stimulated the mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; including mmp2 and mmp19) and other enzymes with proteolytic action during ovulation, such as a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like motifs 1 (adamts1) and plasminogen (plg), in brook trout preovulatory follicles. In addition, the expression of mmp2, adamts1 and plg increased in brook trout follicles during the progression of LH-induced ovulation. Interestingly, the expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (timp2), a known regulator of MMP2 activity, paralleled that of mmp2, suggesting the existence of a controlled mechanism of MMP2 action. Therefore, the known increase in proteolytic activity during ovulation in fish could be the result of the stimulation of the expression of proteolytic enzymes by LH in preovulatory follicles. We propose that LH may stimulate ovulation in brook trout follicles by stimulating proteolysis of the follicle wall and by stimulating follicle contraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) during early development

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.; Peterson, R.E. )

    1994-05-01

    The sensitivity of early life stages of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity was investigated. Newly fertilized eggs were exposed for 48 h to water containing either acetone or a range of concentrations of [[sup 3]H]TCDD dissolved in acetone. Eggs were then transferred to TCDD-free water and observed through development. TCDD concentrations of 101 to 470 pg/g in the eggs caused dose-related increases in sac-fry mortality associated with yolk-sac edema, hemorrhages, and arrested development. These signs of TCDD-induced toxicity resemble blue-sac disease. The NOELs and LOELs for sac-fry mortality were 135 and 185 pg TCDD/g egg, respectively, whereas the LD50 and LD100 were 200 and 324 pg/g egg, respectively. The time course and signs of TCDD toxicity to brook trout during early development are essentially identical to those observed in both rainbow trout and lake trout following TCDD exposure of their eggs via water or injection, and in lake trout exposed to maternally derived TCDD. Brook trout sac fry are intermediate in sensitivity to TCDD-induced lethality compared to lake trout and rainbow trout.

  2. Effect of stream acidification and inorganic aluminum on mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Catskill Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    1997-01-01

    Juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were exposed in cages to fluctuating chemical conditions in four Catskill Mountain streams during the spring and fall of 1989 and the spring of 1990. Specific chemical constituents and characteristics of acidic episodes that correlated with increased fish mortality were identified. Mortality increased during acidic episodes in one poorly buffered stream when inorganic monomeric aluminum (Al(im)) concentrations increased; mortality was low in three other streams during acidic episodes of shorter duration and smaller magnitude than measured in the poorly buffered stream. Variation in mortality was attributed primarily to differences in concentrations of both Al(im) and dissolved organic carbon. Linear and logistic regression analyses indicate that either mean or median Al(im) concentrations could account for 73-99% of the variability in mortality. Regression analyses suggest that mortality was highly related (in order of importance) to Al(im), pH, dissolved organic carbon, calcium, and chloride concentration. Brook trout mortality was also highly related to durations of exposure above 0.225 and 0.250 mg/L Al(im) during test periods. Characteristics of acidic-Al(im) episodes that are critical to mortality of caged brook trout appear to be (i) Al(im) concentrations of at least 0.225 ?? 0.025 mg/L and (ii) exposure to these toxic Al(im) concentrations for at least 2 days.

  3. Impacts of a gape limited Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, on larval Northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile, growth: A field enclosure experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currens, C.R.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of amphibian population structure is directly affected by predation. Although aquatic predators have been shown to have direct negative effects on larval salamanders in laboratory and field experiments, the potential impacts of gape-limited fish on larval salamander growth has been largely underexplored. We designed an enclosure experiment conducted in situ to quantify the effects of gape-limited Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on larval Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) growth. We specifically tested whether the presence of fish too small to consume larvae had a negative effect on larval growth. The results of this study indicate that the presence of a gape-limited S. fontinalis can have a negative effect on growth of larval A. gracile salamanders. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  4. Ontogenetic dynamics of infection with Diphyllobothrium spp. cestodes in sympatric Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henrickson, Eirik H.; Knudsen, Rune; Kristoffersen, Roar; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2016-01-01

    The trophic niches of Arctic charr and brown trout differ when the species occur in sympatry. Their trophically transmitted parasites are expected to reflect these differences. Here, we investigate how the infections of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and D. ditremum differ between charr and trout. These tapeworms use copepods as their first intermediate hosts and fish can become infected as second intermediate hosts by consuming either infected copepods or infected fish. We examined 767 charr and 368 trout for Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in a subarctic lake. The prevalence of D. ditremum was higher in charr (61.5%) than in trout, (39.5%), but the prevalence of D. dendriticum was higher in trout (31.2%) than in charr (19.3%). Diphyllobothrium spp. intensities were elevated in trout compared to charr, particularly for D. dendriticum. Large fish with massive parasite burdens were responsible for the high Diphyllobothrium spp. loads in trout. We hypothesize that fish prey may be the most important source for the Diphyllobothrium spp. infections in trout, whereas charr predominantly acquire Diphyllobothrium spp. by feeding on copepods. Our findings support previous suggestions that the ability to establish in a second piscine host is greater for D. dendriticum than for D. ditremum.

  5. Effects of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on temporal changes in cortisol, sex steroids, growth and reproductive investment in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Tveiten, H; Bjørn, P A; Johnsen, H K; Finstad, B; McKinley, R S

    2010-06-01

    Groups of mature (5+ year old) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus held in sea water were exposed for 34 days to either a high (mean +/-s.e. 0.15 +/- 0.01 sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis g(-1) fish mass) (HI), medium (0.07 +/- 0.00 sea lice g(-1) fish mass) (MI) or no [control (C)] sea-lice infection during early stages of gonad development (June to July). Infection with sea lice resulted in increased plasma cortisol concentrations and this was related to intensity of infection; females tended to have higher cortisol concentrations than males at high infection intensities (HI group: female c. 130 ng ml(-1); male c. 80 ng ml(-1)). Plasma osmolality (C c. 330, MI c. 350 and HI c. 415 mOsm) and chloride concentrations (C c. 135, MI c. 155 and HI c. 190 mM) increased significantly with infection intensity, indicating osmoregulatory problems in infected fish. A strong positive relationship between plasma osmolality and cortisol concentration was recorded. Plasma sex-steroid concentrations were influenced negatively by sea-lice infection, particularly in the HI group, and were inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. The most heavily infected fish postponed the initiation of reproductive development until exposed to fresh water and timing of ovulation tended to be delayed in these fish. Growth rate and condition were negatively influenced by sea-lice infection and growth rate was inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. Sea-lice infection resulted in mortality among females in the HI group, and the proportion of maturing females was lower in the MI group (46%) than in the controls (85%). Egg production in the MI and HI groups was c. 50 and 30% of the C group. Egg size, embryonic survival and fry mass did not differ across groups. Sea lice influence reproductive development and egg production in S. alpinus, and consequently these parasites may influence populations via sublethal effects on broodfish, affecting growth and condition, and their

  6. Temperature requirements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: predicting the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J M; Elliott, J A

    2010-11-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta (including the anadromous form, sea trout) and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (including anadromous fish) provide important commercial and sports fisheries in Western Europe. As water temperature increases as a result of climate change, quantitative information on the thermal requirements of these three species is essential so that potential problems can be anticipated by those responsible for the conservation and sustainable management of the fisheries and the maintenance of biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Part I compares the temperature limits for survival, feeding and growth. Salmo salar has the highest temperature tolerance, followed by S. trutta and finally S. alpinus. For all three species, the temperature tolerance for alevins is slightly lower than that for parr and smolts, and the eggs have the lowest tolerance; this being the most vulnerable life stage to any temperature increase, especially for eggs of S. alpinus in shallow water. There was little evidence to support local thermal adaptation, except in very cold rivers (mean annual temperature <6·5° C). Part II illustrates the importance of developing predictive models, using data from a long-term study (1967-2000) of a juvenile anadromous S. trutta population. Individual-based models predicted the emergence period for the fry. Mean values over 34 years revealed a large variation in the timing of emergence with c. 2 months between extreme values. The emergence time correlated significantly with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, indicating that interannual variations in emergence were linked to more general changes in climate. Mean stream temperatures increased significantly in winter and spring at a rate of 0·37° C per decade, but not in summer and autumn, and led to an increase in the mean mass of pre-smolts. A growth model for S. trutta was validated by growth data from the long-term study and predicted growth under possible future

  7. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  8. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  9. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5–2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by ‘riverscape’ variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries.

  10. Dynamics and regulation of the southern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population in an Appalachian stream

    Treesearch

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E. Ratajczak; C. Michael Wagner; J. Todd Petty

    2010-01-01

    1. We used information theoretic statistics [Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC)] and regression analysis in a multiple hypothesis testing approach to assess the processes capable of explaining long-term demographic variation in a lightly exploited brook trout population in Ball Creek, NC. We sampled a 100-m-long second-order site during both spring and autumn 1991–...

  11. Nature and time course of acclimation to aluminum in juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): II. Gill histology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, M.E.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.; McDonald, D.G.; Rhem, R.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Gill samples from juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) acclimated to low-level aluminum at pH 5.2 showed severe damage by day 4, with necrosis and fusion of secondary lamellae and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Over the following 20 d, there was a continual process of repair with proliferation and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Qualitative analysis of gill samples plus physiology and mortality data collected in a companion study indicated progressive development (by day 10 onward) of increasing acclimation to Al. Quantitative analysis of gill samples on day 13 showed that mucous cell volume density had tripled and mucous cell area had doubled in Al-exposed fish compared with control fish. A lamellar fusion index showed evidence of fusion in Al-exposed fish by day 4 with recovery to nearly control levels by day 13. Physiological disturbances appear to be directly related to the histological changes observed in the gill epithelium. At the cellular level, changes in either mucous cell production and secretion or changes in mucus chemistry contribute, in part, to acclimation to Al.

  12. Genetic and morphological divergence in three strains of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis commonly stocked in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Garrett J; Varian, Anna; Scardina, Julie; Nichols, Krista M

    2014-01-01

    Fitness related traits often show spatial variation across populations of widely distributed species. Comparisons of genetic variation among populations in putatively neutral DNA markers and in phenotypic traits susceptible to selection (QST FST analysis) can be used to determine to what degree differentiation among populations can be attributed to selection or genetic drift. Traditionally, QST FST analyses require a large number of populations to achieve sufficient statistical power; however, new methods have been developed that allow QST FST comparisons to be conducted on as few as two populations if their pedigrees are informative. This study compared genetic and morphological divergence in three strains of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis that were historically or currently used for stocking in the Lake Superior Basin. Herein we examined if morphological divergence among populations showed temporal variation, and if divergence could be attributed to selection or was indistinguishable from genetic drift. Multivariate QST FST analysis showed evidence for divergent selection between populations. Univariate analyses suggests that the pattern observed in the multivariate analyses was largely driven by divergent selection for length and weight, and moreover by divergence between the Assinica strain and each of the Iron River and Siskiwit strains rather than divergent selection between each population pair. While it could not be determined if divergence was due to natural selection or inadvertent artificial selection in hatcheries, selected differences were consistent with patterns of domestication commonly found in salmonids.

  13. To fast or feed: an alternative life history for anadromous brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis overwintering within a harbour.

    PubMed

    Spares, A D; Dadswell, M J; MacMillan, J; Madden, R; O'Dor, R K; Stokesbury, M J W

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal feeding pattern of sea-run brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis was studied from November to May 2010-2012 in Antigonish Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada (45° 38' N; 61° 55' W). Sixty-three S. fontinalis (mean ± s.d. fork length = 330 ± 70 mm and mass = 536 ± 351 g) captured had fed predominantly on fishes (Fundulidae and Gasterosteidae). Percentage of empty stomachs was highest during autumn (18%) and winter (22%) and lowest in spring (7%). Stomach fullness increased from autumn to a maximum during winter, relating to near-zero body temperatures which may have effectively stopped gastric evacuation. Although feeding occurred during winter (December to March), consumption rates were calculated as negative values, and subsequently returned to positive values in spring (April to May). The over-winter life-history strategy of this sea-run S. fontinalis population appears to be a feeding marine migration in which fish continually increase body condition, representing an alternative to the more common overwintering strategy of starvation in fresh water until spring.

  14. Copper binding affinity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) gills: Implications for assessing bioavailable metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, R.K.; Smith, D.E.; Swoboda-Colberg, N.; Meyer, J.S.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1999-06-01

    In this study, the authors determined the conditional stability constant (log K[prime]) of copper for the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RBT) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; BT). Using toxicity-based complexation bioassays, which measure the effect of competing organic ligands on copper toxicity, the RBT gill copper log K[prime] range was 6.4 to 7.2. Using a Scatchard analysis of gill Cu accumulation, the RBT log K[prime] was 7.50 and the BT log K[prime] was 7.25. The close agreement in RBT log K[prime] values between these two methods suggests that measurement of gill copper accumulation is an acceptable alternative for determining a toxicity-based gill copper binding affinity. The results also suggest that there is either a single gill copper binding component or, more realistically, multiple components with similar binding properties that function collectively to define a single toxicologically relevant copper conditional stability constant. These results suggest analytical approaches to measuring bioavailable metal concentrations, such as geochemical modeling where biological ligands are included in speciation calculations, may adequately simulate complex biological ligands. A method to convert gill copper accumulation to a bioavailable water criterion is also discussed.

  15. Acute toxicity and histopathology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tandjung, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fingerling brook trout were exposed to different concentrations of Al at pH 5.6. The Basic Static Acute Toxicity Test was used to determine the 96-hr LC50. The toxicity of Al varied inversely with water hardness. The 96-hr LC/sub 50/ at a hardness of 2, 18, and 40 mg/l (CaCO/sub 3/) was 0.37, 3.4, and 6.53 mg/l Al respectively. Darkening of skin color was possible due to an increase in Na ions in the water as a result of body ion loss, activating the hormone MSH which causes melanin granules to spread within the melanocytes. Histology of all tissues of surviving fish appeared normal 3 months after transfer to uncontaminated water. The lateral line canal was regenerated by the end of the second month of the recovery period. In conclusion, we found that histology was essential to the interpretation of the toxicological effects of Al. The mortality of brook trout was attributed to Al toxicity that increased cell membrane permeability and mucification. Increased permeability resulted in the loss of body salt and an influx of Al and H ions. Mucus on gill surfaces caused anoxia leading to cell degeneration. Death was due to disturbances in osmoregulation, breakdown in enzyme activity, and disruption of O/sub 2/ transport.

  16. Pseudolinkage of the duplicate loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Wright, J E; May, B; Stoneking, M; Lee, G M

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoretic variation involving three alleles is described for the duplicated loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-1,2), from muscle extracts of brook trout. Both loci exhibit largely disomic inheritance. Exceptional progeny types are proposed to be the result of a form of tetrasomic inheritance. Nonrandom segregation was found among the progeny of males doubly heterozygous for AAT markers; where so-called linkage phase was known, this nonrandom assortment was shown to be pseudolinkage (78.9 percent recombination). Analyses of joint segregation of triply heterozygous males for the AAT-(1,2) loci and for the single alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus (AGP-1) revealed true linkage of AGP-1 with one AAT locus (mean r = 11 percent), but pseudolinkage with the other AAT locus (r = 74 percent). Intraindividual variation for homoeologous multivalent pairing of two acrocentric with two metacentric chromosomes in males, but with bivalent pairing in females, is proposed to account for pseudolinkage and for the tetrasomically inherited types.

  17. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  18. pH preference and avoidance responses of adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-03-01

    The pH preferred and avoided by wild, adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in a series a laboratory tests using gradual and steep-gradient flow-through aquaria. The results were compared with those published for the observed segregation patterns of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams. The adult S. trutta tested showed a preference for pH 4·0 while adult S. fontinalis did not prefer any pH within the range tested. Salmo trutta are not found in Pennsylvania streams with a base-flow pH < 5·8 which suggests that S. trutta prefer pH well above 4·0. Adult S. trutta displayed a lack of avoidance at pH below 5·0, as also reported earlier for juveniles. The avoidance pH of wild, adult S. fontinalis (between pH 5·5 and 6·0) and S. trutta (between pH 6·5 and 7·0) did not differ appreciably from earlier study results for the avoidance pH of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta. A comparison of c.i. around these avoidance estimates indicates that avoidance pH is similar among adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in this study. The limited overlap of c.i. for avoidance pH values for the two species, however, suggests that some S. trutta will display avoidance at a higher pH when S. fontinalis will not. The results of this study indicate that segregation patterns of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams could be related to pH and that competition with S. trutta could be mediating the occurrence of S. fontinalis at some pH levels.

  19. Mutual in vivo interactions between benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Padros, J.; Pelletier, E.; Reader, S.; Denizeau, F.

    2000-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an organometal used as an antifouling biocide, has been reported to inhibit cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A isozyme. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is both metabolized and bioactivated to carcinogenic BaP diol-epoxide (BPDE) metabolites primarily by hepatic P450 1A. Hence, TBT may inhibit the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP. This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo interactions between BaP and TBT in a model fish. Male brook trout (Salelinus fontinalis) were given a single intraperitoneal injection of either BaP, TBT, or both in combination. After 48 h, blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers associated with P450 activity, BaP metabolism and bioactivation, and TBT metabolism. The results showed that TBT significantly inhibited (a) the induction of hepatic P450 1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and P450-mediated 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (CN-ECOD) activities by BaP, (b) the formation of biliary BaP metabolites, and (c) the formation of (+)-anti-BPDE-plasma albumin adducts as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence. Notably, TBT alone did not inhibit EROD activity but induced CN-ECOD activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the combined BaP + TBT dose resulted in higher levels of dibutyltin metabolites in the bite (p < 0.05). The present study supports the hypothesis that a single, high dose of TBT can antagonize the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP at least by inhibiting the induction of P4501A. On the other hand, BaP unexpectedly potentiated the metabolism of TBT, suggesting that hepatic isoforms other than P3501A may be responsible for TBT metabolism. Finally, this study supports the utility of a biomarker approach to screen potential xenobiotic interactions in aquatic organisms and to obtain mechanistic insights.

  20. Genomic arrangement of salinity tolerance QTLs in salmonids: A comparative analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies show that variation in salinity tolerance in Arctic charr and rainbow trout has a genetic basis, even though both these species have low to moderate salinity tolerance capacities. QTL were observed to localize to homologous linkage group segments within putative chromosomal regions possessing multiple candidate genes. We compared salinity tolerance QTL in rainbow trout and Arctic charr to those detected in a higher salinity tolerant species, Atlantic salmon. The highly derived karyotype of Atlantic salmon allows for the assessment of whether disparity in salinity tolerance in salmonids is associated with differences in genetic architecture. To facilitate these comparisons, we examined the genomic synteny patterns of key candidate genes in the other model teleost fishes that have experienced three whole-genome duplication (3R) events which preceded a fourth (4R) whole genome duplication event common to all salmonid species. Results Nine linkage groups contained chromosome-wide significant QTL (AS-2, -4p, -4q, -5, -9, -12p, -12q, -14q -17q, -22, and −23), while a single genome-wide significant QTL was located on AS-4q. Salmonid genomes shared the greatest marker homology with the genome of three-spined stickleback. All linkage group arms in Atlantic salmon were syntenic with at least one stickleback chromosome, while 18 arms had multiple affinities. Arm fusions in Atlantic salmon were often between multiple regions bearing salinity tolerance QTL. Nine linkage groups in Arctic charr and six linkage group arms in rainbow trout currently have no synteny alignments with stickleback chromosomes, while eight rainbow trout linkage group arms were syntenic with multiple stickleback chromosomes. Rearrangements in the stickleback lineage involving fusions of ancestral arm segments could account for the 21 chromosome pairs observed in the stickleback karyotype. Conclusions Salinity tolerance in salmonids from three genera is

  1. The effect of antioxidants on the quality of cryopreserved semen in two salmonid fish, the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, Franz; Mansour, Nabil; Kunz, Florian A

    2011-09-15

    Until now the supplementation of cryopreservation extenders with antioxidants has not been examined in teleost fish. Therefore, the present study investigated whether addition of antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, reduced glutathione, reduced methione, mixtures of reduced and oxidized glutathione or methionine) to the cryopreservation extenders could increase the quality of frozen-thawed semen of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. In brook trout and rainbow trout semen post-thaw fertility and motility were evaluated and in brook trout additionally the membrane integrity, DNA integrity, and sperm lipid peroxidation were evaluated. The tested antioxidants affected the motility parameters, DNA integrity, and fertility of cryopreserved semen, but not the membrane integrity. Most of the observed effects were negative and only minor positive effects were found. In brook trout 1.5 mmol/l reduced methionine and a mixture of 1.5 mmol/l oxidized and reduced glutathione increased the swimming velocity of frozen-thawed semen. One hundred U/l catalase, 1.5 mmol/l reduced glutathione, and 1.5 mmol/l reduced methionine slightly, but not statistically significantly increased the semen post-thaw fertility. However, these effects were not detectable in rainbow trout. Antioxidative stress or damage seems to play no role during cryopreservation, as also in the lipid peroxidation test no differences were obtained between fresh and cryopreserved semen. Therefore, for routine cryopreservation extender supplementation with antioxidants is not recommended in brook trout and rainbow trout. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex reversal of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by 17α-methyltestosterone exposure: A serial experimental approach to determine optimal timing and delivery regimes.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Shafaq; Adams, Mark; Wilkinson, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Commercial culture of Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Tasmania was partly abandoned due to sexual maturation of male fish early on during the estuarine rearing phase. Maturation adversely affects body mass, flesh quality and immunocompetency effectively. Sex reversal techniques such as the in-feed addition of a synthetic androgen have proven difficult to adapt in brook trout. An appropriate timing, duration and delivery vehicle for administration of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) to produce phenotypic males (neomales) from genotypically female brook trout required further investigation. In this study, groups of brook trout eggs (n=1000) maintained at 9.5±0.15-10±0.14°C, were immersed in MT (400μgL(-1)) for four hours on two alternate days (two immersions/group) staggered over a two week period surrounding the hatch of embryos (control groups excluded). The groups were then split and half received MT-supplemented feed for 60days and the other a standard diet. Following an 11 month on-growing period sex phenotypes were determined by gross & histological gonad morphology. The highest proportion of male phenotypes (75%) was found in fish immersed six and four days pre-hatch and subsequently fed a normal diet. Fish fed a MT supplemented diet and immersed in MT showed significantly higher proportions of sterile fish. These data indicate that a pre-hatch immersion-only regime (4-6days pre-hatch at 9.5°C) should be pursued as a target for optimization studies to further refine the effective concentration and duration of exposure to MT for the successful production of neo-male brook trout.

  3. Stream acidification and mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in response to timber harvest in Catskill Mountain watersheds, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of clear-cut and timber-stand improvement (TSI) harvests on water chemistry and mortality of caged brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were evaluated in a study of three Catskill Mountain streams, 1994-2000. Harvests removed 73% of tree basal area (BA) from a clearcut subbasin, 5% BA from a TSI subbasin, and 14% BA at a site below the confluence of both streams. A fourth nonharvested site served as a control. Water quality and trout mortality were affected only in the clearcut stream. Acidity and concentrations of nitrate and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) increased sharply during high flows after the first growing season (fall 1997). Acid-Alim episodes were severe during this period and decreased steadily in magnitude and duration thereafter. All trout at this site died within 7 days during spring 1998 and 85% died during spring 1999. Only background mortality was observed in other years at this site and at the other three sites during all tests. The absence of mortality in TSI watersheds indicates that limited harvests should not harm brook trout populations in acid-sensitive streams. Effects of tree harvests on fish communities are of concern, however, because many stream-dwelling species are more sensitive to acidified waters than brook trout. ?? 2005 NRC.

  4. The influence of swimming demand on phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration: a comparison of two polymorphic charr species.

    PubMed

    Peres-Neto, Pedro R; Magnan, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    In northern freshwater lakes, several fish species have populations composed of discrete morphs, usually involving a divergence between benthic and limnetic morphs. Although it has been suggested that swimming demand plays an important role in morphological differentiation, thus influencing habitat selection, it is unclear how it affects reaction norms, patterns in character correlation, and levels of morphological integration. We examined whether swimming demand could induce morphological plasticity in the directions expected under divergent habitat selection, and evaluated its influence on the morphological integration in Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus) and brook charr ( S. fontinalis), two congeneric species exhibiting conspicuous and subtle resource polymorphism, respectively. We found that changes in morphology were induced by differential swimming demands in both species. The length of the pectoral fin was the character that responded most strongly according to the predicted morphological expectations under divergent habitat selection. High levels of morphological plasticity, relatively low levels of integration, and differences found in the morphological correlation structure among water velocity treatments suggest that constraints on morphological change are unlikely in either species, thus allowing great potential for phenotypic flexibility in both species. The magnitude of character integration, however, was larger for Arctic charr than for brook charr. This latter result is discussed in the light of the differences in the level of polymorphism between the two species in the wild. The results of the present study indicate that swimming demand alone may not be sufficient to generate the polymorphism encountered in nature. Given that both diet and swimming demands can induce morphological changes, it would be important to conduct experiments targeting the interaction between the morphological modules related to trophic and swimming demands.

  5. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Church, S.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality, habitats, and biota of streams in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado, USA, are affected by metal contamination associated with acid drainage. We determined metal concentrations in components of the food web of the Animas River and its tributaries - periphyton (aufwuchs), benthic invertebrates, and livers of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - and evaluated pathways of metal exposure and hazards of metal toxicity to stream biota. Concentrations of the toxic metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and trout livers from one or more sites in the upper Animas River were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Periphyton from sites downstream from mixing zones of acid and neutral waters had elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) reflecting deposition of colloidal Fe and Al oxides, and reduced algal biomass. Metal concentrations in benthic invertebrates reflected differences in feeding habits and body size among taxa, with greatest concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the small mayfly Rhithrogena, which feeds on periphyton, and greatest concentrations of Pb in the small stonefly Zapada, a detritivore. Concentrations of Zn and Pb decreased across each trophic linkage, whereas concentrations of Cu and Cd were similar across several trophic levels, suggesting that Cu and Cd were more efficiently transferred via dietary exposure. Concentrations of Cu in invertebrates and trout livers were more closely associated with impacts on trout populations and invertebrate communities than were concentrations of Zn, Cd, or Pb. Copper concentrations in livers of brook trout from the upper Animas River were substantially greater than background concentrations and approached levels associated with reduced brook trout populations in field studies and with toxic effects on other salmonids in laboratory studies. These results indicate that bioaccumulation and transfer of

  6. Resource Partitioning in Food, Space and Time between Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) at the Southern Edge of Their Continuous Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kiljunen, Mikko; Knudsen, Rune; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Arctic charr and European whitefish are considered to be strong competitors in lakes, with the latter usually being the superior species. However, high niche plasticity and lake morphometry may suggestively facilitate resource partitioning and coexistence between charr and whitefish. Here, we explore the trophic niche utilization (diet and habitat use) of charr and whitefish co-occurring with brown trout in the deep and oligotrophic Lake Fyresvatnet, southern Norway (59°05’N, 8°10’E). Using CPUE, stomach contents and stable isotope analyses, a distinct resource partitioning was revealed between brown trout and the other two species. Brown trout typically occupied the littoral zone, feeding on benthic invertebrates, surface insects and small-sized whitefish. In contrast, charr and whitefish were predominantly zooplanktivorous, but diverged somewhat in habitat utilization as charr shifted seasonally between the profundal and the littoral zone, whereas whitefish were found in the upper water layers (littoral and pelagic habitats). Accordingly, the stable isotope values of carbon (δ13C) reflected a pelagic orientated prey resource use for both charr and whitefish, whereas brown trout had elevated carbon and nitrogen (δ15N) signatures that reflected their benthivore and piscivore diet, respectively. The findings suggest that charr may not rely upon the profundal zone as a feeding habitat but as a refuge area, and may coexist with whitefish if a third competitive and predatory species like brown trout co-occur in the lake. The study indicates that a general high habitat plasticity of Arctic charr may be essential in the presently observed coexistence with a competitively superior fish species like whitefish, and that a third fish species like brown trout may facilitate this particular fish community structure. PMID:28122061

  7. Resource Partitioning in Food, Space and Time between Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) at the Southern Edge of Their Continuous Coexistence.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Hallvard; Kiljunen, Mikko; Knudsen, Rune; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Arctic charr and European whitefish are considered to be strong competitors in lakes, with the latter usually being the superior species. However, high niche plasticity and lake morphometry may suggestively facilitate resource partitioning and coexistence between charr and whitefish. Here, we explore the trophic niche utilization (diet and habitat use) of charr and whitefish co-occurring with brown trout in the deep and oligotrophic Lake Fyresvatnet, southern Norway (59°05'N, 8°10'E). Using CPUE, stomach contents and stable isotope analyses, a distinct resource partitioning was revealed between brown trout and the other two species. Brown trout typically occupied the littoral zone, feeding on benthic invertebrates, surface insects and small-sized whitefish. In contrast, charr and whitefish were predominantly zooplanktivorous, but diverged somewhat in habitat utilization as charr shifted seasonally between the profundal and the littoral zone, whereas whitefish were found in the upper water layers (littoral and pelagic habitats). Accordingly, the stable isotope values of carbon (δ13C) reflected a pelagic orientated prey resource use for both charr and whitefish, whereas brown trout had elevated carbon and nitrogen (δ15N) signatures that reflected their benthivore and piscivore diet, respectively. The findings suggest that charr may not rely upon the profundal zone as a feeding habitat but as a refuge area, and may coexist with whitefish if a third competitive and predatory species like brown trout co-occur in the lake. The study indicates that a general high habitat plasticity of Arctic charr may be essential in the presently observed coexistence with a competitively superior fish species like whitefish, and that a third fish species like brown trout may facilitate this particular fish community structure.

  8. Temporal trends in ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fed 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, S.M.; Millward, M.R.; Mueller, C.; Subramanian, B.; Johnson, R.D.; Tietge, J.E.

    2000-02-01

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were fed labeled TCDD during a 4-week loading phase and an 11-week maintenance phase to achieve whole-body concentrations of 0, 75, 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 pg TCDD/g fish. A spawning phase followed during which no TCDD was introduced. The TCDD had an extended half-life, with maximal levels detected in the late loading-early maintenance phases and 81 d after TCDD had been removed from the diet. Accumulation in liver increased as whole-body target concentration increased but was generally less than half of anticipated whole-body target concentrations. The EROD activity demonstrated a dose-dependent increase. Positive correlations were observed between EROD activity and TCDD body burdens for both males and females. For males, maximal induction was attained early in the maintenance phase and maintained during latter phases. For females, induction was characterized by a biphasic pattern. Maximal induction was attained during late loading-early maintenance, with an attenuated response observed just before spawning. In addition, the induction response was modulated by sex, as induction was lower in females when compared with males. If sexual biases are considered, increased EROD activity may serve as an indicator of level of TCDD exposure and a sublethal predictor of effects of exposure.

  9. Diel habitat partitioning by bull charr and cutthroat trout during fall and winter in Rocky Mountain streams

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Jakober; Thomas E. McMahon; Russell F. Thurow

    2000-01-01

    We used underwater observation to determine diel habitat partitioning between bull charr, Salvelinus confluentus, and cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki, during fall and winter (0.1-8.3°C) in two Rocky Mountain streams that differed in habitat availability. The majority (>70%) of both species emerged from concealment cover at night, though bull charr exhibited a...

  10. Behavioural and physiological responses of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to midwinter flow reduction in a small ice-free mountain stream.

    PubMed

    Krimmer, A N; Paul, A J; Hontela, A; Rasmussen, J B

    2011-09-01

    This study presents an experimental analysis of the effects of midwinter flow reduction (50-75%, reduction in discharge in 4 h daily pulses) on the physical habitat and on behaviour and physiology of overwintering brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in a small mountain stream. Flow reduction did not result in significant lowering of temperature or formation of surface or subsurface ice. The main findings were (1) daily movement by S. fontinalis increased (c. 2·5-fold) during flow reduction, but was limited to small-scale relocations (<10 m). (2) Undercut banks were the preferred habitat and availability of these habitats was reduced during flow reduction. (3) Although both experimental and reference fish did lose mass and condition during the experiment, no effects of flow reduction on stress indicators (blood cortisol or glucose) or bioenergetics (total body fat, water content or mass loss) were detected, probably because access to the preferred type of cover remained available. Like other salmonids, S. fontinalis moves little and seeks physical cover during winter. Unlike many of the more studied salmonids, however, this species overwinters successfully in small groundwater-rich streams that often remain ice-free, and this study identifies undercut banks as the critical winter habitat rather than substratum cover.

  11. Analysis of trade-offs between threats of invasion by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and intentional isolation for native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.P.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.; Fausch, K.D.; Young, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Native salmonid fishes often face simultaneous threats from habitat fragmentation and invasion by nonnative trout species. Unfortunately, management actions to address one may create or exacerbate the other. A consistent decision process would include a systematic analysis of when and where intentional use or removal of barriers is the most appropriate action. We developed a Bayesian belief network as a tool for such analyses. We focused on native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and considered the environmental factors influencing both species, their potential interactions, and the effects of isolation on the persistence of local cutthroat trout populations. The trade-offs between isolation and invasion were strongly influenced by size and habitat quality of the stream network to be isolated and existing demographic linkages within and among populations. An application of the model in several sites in western Montana (USA) showed the process could help clarify management objectives and options and prioritize conservation actions among streams. The approach can also facilitate communication among parties concerned with native salmonids, nonnative fish invasions, barriers and intentional isolation, and management of the associated habitats and populations. ?? 2008 NRC.

  12. Feeding rate of slimy sculpin and burbot on young lake charr in laboratory reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Henry, Mary G.

    1991-01-01

    Predation and contaminants are two possible factors in the poor recruitment of young lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in the Great Lakes. We measured the feeding rate of slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus and burbot Lota lota on young lake charr (uncontaminated young from eggs of a hatchery brood stock and contaminated young from eggs of Lake Michigan lake charr) in laboratory test chambers with a cobble substrate. The median daily consumption rate of sculpins for all tests was 2 lake charr eggs (N = 22 tests; 95% confidence interval, O-13) and 2 lake charr free embryos (N = 31 tests; 95% confidence interval, O-10). Feeding rate did not differ between hatchery and contaminated prey. Slimy sculpins continued to feed on lake charr when another prey organism, the deepwater amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi, was present. Feeding by burbot on free embryos (4-36 d-l) increased as the mobility of young increased, but burbot consumed about 10% of their body weight weekly in free-swimming young (140-380 d-l). Predation on lake charr eggs by sculpins could beconsiderable over the 100 to 140 d incubation period, and burbot could eat large numbers of free-swimming lake charr as the young fish left the reef. Predation pressure on young lake charr may inhibit rehabilitation ofself-sustaining populations of lake charr on some reefs unless a critical egg density has been reached.

  13. Satiation meal and the effects of meal and body sizes on gastric evacuation rate in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial pellets.

    PubMed

    Khan, U; Seyhan, K; Başçinar, N; Başçinar, N S

    2016-08-01

    Gastric evacuation (GE) experiments were performed on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial food pellets. The experiments included small fish (36 g; 15 cm total length, LT ) fed meals of 0·2, 0·4 and 0·8 g and large fish (152 g; 23 cm) fed meals of 0·8, 2·0 and 4·0 g at temperatures ranging from 15·1 to 18·2° C. The stomach contents were thereafter sampled and weighed at 3 h intervals until the first empty stomach was observed. The course of GE was examined by use of a general power function of the data that revealed that the square-root function described the GE rate (GER) by the current stomach content mass independently of original meal size. Using the square-root function, the relationship between GER and fish size was described by a power function of fish length, whereas the effect of temperature was described by a simple exponential function. GER of the commercial pellets fed to S. fontinalis could thus be described by dStdt=-0·000464L1·31e0·052TSt (g h(-1) ), where St is stomach mass (g) at time t (h), L is total fish length (cm) and T is temperature (° C). The result of this study should provide a useful tool for planning of feeding regimes in production of S. fontinalis by optimizing growth and minimizing food waste. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Effects of chronic exposure to soft, acidic water on gill development and chloride cell numbers in embryo-larval brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conklin, D.J.; Mowbray, R.C.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recruitment failure is considered to be a major factor contributing to the decline of fish populations in soft, acidic waters; direct mortality of embryo-larval fishes has been postulated as a major cause of the decline. Little is understood of the physiological consequences to embryo-larval fishes of prolonged exposure to soft, acidic waters; however, dysfunction of respiratory and ionoregulatory processes is suspected. In order to evaluate the effects of acid exposure on the respiratory and ionoregulatory systems of developing brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, differences in gill morphology and numbers of chloride cells were compared between groups cf developing embryo-larval fish continuously exposed to moderately hard well water (130.0 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 7.94) or to reconstituted soft, acidic water (4.4 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 5.25) designed to mimic acidic waters of northern Wisconsin acidified lakes. Exposures were maintained for up to 48 days (82 days after fertilization) during critical periods of growth and differentiation of branchial structures. The second right gill arch of each fish was examined for changes in the development of filaments and lamellae and for differences in numbers of chloride cells. Gills of fish that developed in soft, acidic water contained greater numbers of normal and degenerating chloride cells, exhibited hyperplasia of primary epithelium and multiple fusions of adjacent filaments and lamellar epithelium than the gills of control fish. Filament and lamellar lengths and numbers of lamellae per filament were significantly less (P< 0.05) in fish that developed in soft, acidic water than in fish exposed to well water.

  15. Exotic "Gill Lice" Species (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae: Salmincola SPP.) Infect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Rash, Jacob M; Besler, Doug A; Roberts, Jackson R; Warren, Micah B; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Salmincola californiensis infected 25 of 31 (prevalence 0.8; intensity 2-35 [mean 6.6 ± standard deviation 7.7; n = 25]) rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a private trout farm connected to the Watauga River, North Carolina. Salmincola edwardsii infected all of 9 (1.0; 2-43 [9.3 ± 13.0; 9]) brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, from Big Norton Prong, a tributary of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina. Both lernaeopodids are well-known salmonid pathogens, but neither is native to, nor has been previously taxonomically confirmed from, the southeastern United States. Herein, we (1) use light and scanning electron microscopy to identify and provide supplemental morphological observations of these lernaeopodids, (2) furnish complementary molecular sequence data from the 28S rDNA (28S), and (3) document the pathological effects of gill infections. We identified and differentiated these lernaeopodids by the second antenna (exopod tip with large [S. californiensis] vs. slender [S. edwardsii] spines; endopod terminal segment with subequal ventral processes shorter than [S. californiensis] vs. longer than or equal to [S. edwardsii] dorsal hook), maxilliped palp (length typically ≤1/3 [S. californiensis] vs. 1/3-1/2 [S. edwardsii] subchela length exclusive of claw), and bulla (sub-circular and concave on manubrium's side [S. californiensis] vs. non-stellate [S. edwardsii]). Analysis of the 28S rDNA sequences confirmed our taxonomic assignments as demonstrated by 100% sequence similarity among the sympatric, morphologically-conspecific isolates. Histopathology revealed focal gill epithelial hyperplasia, obstruction of interlamellar water channels, lamellar fusion, and crypting of gill filaments. High intensity infections by either lernaeopodid are surveillance-worthy because they are potentially pathogenic to trout in the southeastern United States.

  16. Hatching, growth, ion accumulation, and skeletal ossification of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) alevins in acidic soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brook trout eyed eggs and subsequent alevins were exposed to pH 5.0, 6.5, and 7.0 in soft reconstituted water and to pH 8.2 in hard well water for up to 72 d. Hatching was delayed and hatching success reduced (p K+ > Cl- during yolk absorption and early exogenous feeding. Whole-body monovalent ion concentrations were reduced for short periods during yolk absorption in alevins exposed to pH 6.5 and throughout most of the experiment for those exposed to pH 5.0. Whole-body Mg2+ concentrations were not affected by treatment pH and remained near their median hatch level throughout the exposure. The whole-body concentration of Ca2+ was reduced in fish exposed to pH 5.0, particularly near the end of the experiment. Calcium accumulation in fish was influenced by the interaction of pH and time at pH 5.0 but not at the other pH levels. Alevins exposed to pH 5.0 experienced delayed ossification of skeletal structures associated with feeding, respiration, and locomotion that usually persisted for up to 10 d. The detection of skeletal abnormalities early in life might aid in identifying fish populations at risk in acidified waters.

  17. Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

    2012-01-01

    In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

  18. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  19. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14 cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40 cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the population remains in epilimnic waters. The two morphs had different diet niches in the profundal zone: the profundal charr ate typical soft-bottom prey (chironomid larvae, pea mussels and benthic copepods), while the young littoral charr mainly consumed crustacean zooplankton. In four other lakes without a profundal morph (i.e. monomorphic populations), young charr also performed ontogenetic habitat shifts to the profundal zone and fed on zooplankton. The profundal morph of Fjellfrøsvatn therefore utilize a food resource niche that neither the littoral morph nor comparable monomorphic populations exploit. This suggests that intraspecific resource competition has driven incipient ecological speciation of the profundal charr of Fjellfrøsvatn. The exploitation of the soft-bottom resources by the profundal charr supports earlier experimental findings that the profundal morph is genetically different in trophic behaviour and morphology. The sympatric ecological divergence within the profundal habitat is possible because unexploited food resources (soft-bottom profundal prey) are available. Apparently, this represents a case of incipient segregation by expansion to new resource types (niche invasion), and not by subdivision of one broad ancestral niche. PMID:16928630

  20. Toxicokinetics and effects of PCBs in Arctic fish: a review of studies on Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, EH; Vijayan, M.N.; Killie, J.-E.A.; Aluru, N.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of environmentally realistic laboratory experiments, toxicokinetics and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Winter fasting and emaciation, which are common among Arctic charr living in high latitudes, resulted in a redistribution of the lipophilic PCBs from lipid-storing tissue such as the muscle, to vital organs that must be considered sensitive toward PCB (liver and brain). This redistribution was accompanied by a significant potentiation of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A biomarker response, from low activities in October (within those measured in uncontaminated charr) to a high, probably maximum, induction in May. Performance studies demonstrated a clear effect of environmentally realistic PCB levels on endocrine mechanisms, immune function, and seawater preadaptation (smoltification) in charr that had been feed deprived for several months after contamination with Aroclor 1254, whereas a high PCB dose exerted only minor, if any, effects in charr that had been fed after contamination. These results demonstrate that emaciation results in decreased dose-response relationships in fish, and indicate that arctic animals undergoing seasonal cycles of "fattening" and emaciation may be extra sensitive toward persistent, lipophilic organochlorines. Pilot studies on Arctic charr from Bjørnøya Island revealed marked CYP1A biomarker responses and an upregulation of genes involved in cellular homeostatic mechanisms in charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels).

  1. The effects of low-speed swimming following exhaustive exercise on metabolic recovery and swimming performance in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Kieffer, James D; Kassie, Roshini S; Taylor, Susan G

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether low-speed swimming during recovery from exhaustive exercise improved both metabolic recovery and performance during a swimming challenge. For these experiments, brook trout were allowed to recover from exhaustive exercise for 2 h while swimming at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 body length (BL) s(-1) or allowed to recover from exhaustive exercise for 1, 2, or 3 h while swimming at 1.0 BL s(-1). At the appropriate interval, either (i) muscle and blood samples were removed from the fish or (ii) fish were assessed for performance (i.e., fatigue time) during a fixed-interval swimming test. Low-speed swimming during recovery from exhaustive exercise resulted in significantly longer fatigue times compared with fish recovering in still water (i.e., 0 BL s(-1)). However, swimming during recovery did not expedite recovery of muscle lactate or blood variables (e.g., lactate, osmolarity, glucose). These observations suggest that metabolic recovery and subsequent swimming performance may not be directly linked and that other factors play a role in swimming recovery in brook trout.

  2. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite

  3. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Hontela, A

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na(2)SO(3)) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC(50)>2000mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC(50)=8.7mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC(50)=90.4mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomarker response and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning in Arctic charr from Bjørnøya (74°30' N), Norway, with high levels of organohalogenated compounds.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even H; Maule, Alec G; Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm; Bytningsvik, Jenny; Frantzen, Marianne; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Faught, Erin; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2017-03-20

    The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (<400g), immature charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels) and Lake Laksvatn (reference lake, low PCB levels) by hook and line for an immediate blood sampling, and blood and tissue sampling after a 1h confinement stressor. This was done in order to investigate possible effects of pollutants on an acute stress performance in a high-latitude fish species by comparing muscle PCB levels, hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) biomarker activation and functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis between these two populations of Arctic charr. As expected sum PCB muscle levels were 8-fold higher on a wet weigh basis, and 19-fold higher on a lipid weight basis, in charr from Ellasjøen than in charr from Laksvatn. This was accompanied by a 3.5-fold higher liver cyp1a mRNA abundance in the Ellasjøen charr compared to Laksvatn charr. Brain transcript levels encoding glucocorticoid receptor 1 and 2 (GR2) and corticotropin-releasing factor, and pituitary transcript levels encoding GR2 and proopiomelanocortin A1 and A2 were higher in Ellasjøen charr than in Laksvatn charr, while interrenal transcript levels encoding melanocortin 2 receptor and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were lower. There were no differences in plasma cortisol concentration between the two charr populations immediately after capture and one hour after confinement. The strong biomarker response to OHCs and altered mRNA abundances of key genes related to HPI axis functioning in the Ellasjøen charr suggest endocrine disruptive effects of OHCs in this charr population. Possible ecological implications are not

  5. Development and use of an Arctic charr cell line to study antiviral responses at extremely low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Semple, S L; Vo, N T K; Li, A R; Pham, P H; Bols, N C; Dixon, B

    2017-10-01

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) are the northernmost distributed freshwater fish and can grow at water temperatures as low as 0.2 °C. Other teleost species have impaired immune function at temperatures that Arctic charr thrive in, and thus, charr may maintain immune function at these temperatures. In this study, a fibroblastic cell line, named ACBA, derived from the bulbus arteriosus (BA) of Arctic charr was developed for use in immune studies at various temperatures. ACBA has undergone more than forty passages at 18 °C over 3 years, while showing no signs of senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and producing nitric oxide. Remarkably, ACBA cells survived and maintained some mitotic activity even at 1 °C for over 3 months. At these low temperatures, ACBA also continued to produce MH class I proteins. After challenge with poly I:C, only antiviral Mx proteins were induced while MH proteins remained constant. When exposed to live viruses, ACBA was shown to permit viral infection and replication of IPNV, VHSV IVa and CSV at 14 °C. Yet at the preferred temperature of 4 °C, only VHSV IVa was shown to replicate within ACBA. This study provides evidence that Arctic charr cells can maintain immune function while also resisting infection with intracellular pathogens at low temperatures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Social stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr.

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Winberg, Svante; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-09-15

    Pigmentation often signals status and in general melanin-based pigmentation is indicative of aggression and stress resilience in vertebrates. This is evident in the salmonids Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) where more melanin spotted individuals are more stress resilient. However, in the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) it seems as if it is carotenoid-based pigmentation that signals aggression and stress resilience. In our study, social stress effects on carotenoid-based spots, and behavioural and physiological stress responses were investigated. Socially stressed individuals have more spots, and behavioural stress responses were associated with spots. Some of the results concerning physiological stress responses, such as plasma cortisol levels and monoaminergic activity, are associated with spottiness. Further, the earlier proposed lateralization of spots, with left side connected to stress responsiveness and right side to aggression, is to some extent validated although not conclusively. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that more stressed charr have more carotenoid spots, and for the first time monoaminergic activity is shown to be connected with carotenoid pigmentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Movements of nonnative brook trout in relation to stream channel slope

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; Christopher A. Frissell; Bruce E. Rieman

    2000-01-01

    Abstract.We provide new insights on the ability of naturalized brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to ascend steep, headwater streams in the western USA. We tested hypotheses that upstream movements by brook trout are limited or absent in reaches of steep streams and are more prevalent and longer in gradually sloping streams. We compared brook trout...

  8. Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Killie, J.-E.A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) with Aroclor 1254. After contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by Arctic animals. After four months, PCB concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, PCBs in kidneys of fed fish were 33 to 50% of those in fasted fish. Arctic charr were exposed to Aeromonas salmonicida, the bacteria responsible for furunculosis, by cohabitation with infected conspecifics. Fasted fish had a significant trend toward lower survival with higher dose of PCBs - from 68% in controls to 48% in treatment involving 100 mg kg-1. Independent of PCB contamination, fed fish had the lowest survival; we attribute this to stress associated with establishing and maintaining feeding hierarchies. A significant decrease in the activity of lysozyme was observed in skin mucus, as was hemagglutination ability of a putative rhamnose lectin in fasted, but not in fed, PCB-treated fish. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs on Arctic charr, and they illustrate the importance of considering environmentally relevant nutritional status in ecotoxicological studies.

  9. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  10. Global climate change and fragmentation of native brook trout distribution in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    Patricia A. Flebbe

    1997-01-01

    Current distributions of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southern Appalachians are restricted to upper elevations by multiple factors, including habitat requirements, introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown (Salmo trutta) trout, and other human activities. Present-day distribution of brook trout habitat is already fragmented. Increased...

  11. The use of hoop nets seeded with mature brook trout to capture conspecifics

    Treesearch

    James A. Lamansky; Ernest R. Keeley; Michael K. Young; Kevin A. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    The brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, a native of eastern North America, is considered an invasive species in the western United States because it has been implicated in the decline of many native trout species there. Current methods for controlling brook trout are usually time-consuming and expensive and are sometimes harmful to nontarget species....

  12. Competition and predation as mechanisms for displacement of greenback cutthroat trout by brook trout

    Treesearch

    C. C. McGrath; W. M. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    Cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii frequently are displaced by nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, but the ecological mechanisms of displacement are not understood. Competition for food and predation between greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias and brook trout were investigated in montane streams of...

  13. Brook trout movement during and after recolonization fo a naturally defaunated stream reach

    Treesearch

    Craig N. Roghair; C. Andrew Dolloff

    2005-01-01

    In june 1995 a debris flow associated with a massive streamwide flood completely eliminated brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from the lower 1.9 km of the Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Biannual diver counts revealed that brook trout moved several hundred meters into the debris-flow-affected area each year, resulting in...

  14. Hydraulic complexity metrics for evaluating in-stream brook trout habitat

    Treesearch

    J. Kozarek; W. Hession; M. ASCE; C. Dolloff; P. Diplas

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydraulic model (River2D) was used to investigate the significance of flow complexity on habitat preferences of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the high-gradient Staunton River in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Two 100-m reaches were modeled where detailed brook trout surveys (10–30-m resolution) have been conducted annually since 1997....

  15. Rhythmic life of the Arctic charr: adaptations to life at the edge.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar; Johnsen, Helge Kreutzer

    2014-04-01

    High latitudes are characterized by strong seasonal changes in environmental conditions, including temperature and food availability. To cope with these changes, many high latitude species have developed circannual oscillators that enable them to anticipate and prepare for forthcoming environmental changes and synchronize seasonal events (e.g. reproduction) to environmental fluctuations. The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is the world's northernmost freshwater fish species with a distribution largely confined within the Arctic. In the northernmost part of its distribution they have developed an anadromous life-history strategy implying annual, seaward migrations in the summer to utilize the rich feeding opportunity in the sea. Overwintering in freshwater is characterized by anorexia and energy conservation. The seaward migration in early summer is preceded by physiological and behavioral changes (smolting), by which they develop seawater tolerance (hypoosmoregulatory ability) and migratory behavior. When migrating to the sea, Arctic charr have regained a strong appetite and within 4-6weeks in the sea they may have doubled their body weight and increased their body fat stores several-fold, in anticipation of the resources needed for reproduction in the autumn and overwintering. All these processes are regulated independently of environmental changes; captive offspring of anadromous charr kept in freshwater displays seasonal changes in seawater tolerance and strong seasonal changes in food intake and growth even when they are continuously fed in excess and held at a constant water temperature in freshwater. A correct timing of these events is crucial for their survival in the Arctic and the Arctic charr seems to possess timing mechanisms that include endogenous, circannual oscillator(s) entrainable by photoperiod. The entrainment mechanism may be linked to diel melatonin rhythms, which in this species exactly mirror overground photoperiod, even during the winter

  16. Cytogenetic Analysis of Pseudolinkage of Ldh Loci in the Teleost Genus Salvelinus

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, Muriel Trask; Wright, James E.; Atherton, Louisa M.

    1973-01-01

    Cytological and genetic analyses provide evidence that spontaneous centric fusion and fission can account for curious patterns of pseudolinkage of two LDH loci in males of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and in the F1, F2 and backcross generations of lake trout (S. namaycush) x brook trout hybrids. Intraindividual polymorphisms for acrocentric and metacentric chromosomes in somatic and gonadal tissue of these fish have been related to the proposed polyploid evolution in Salmonidae. PMID:17248602

  17. Fine Sediment Effects on Brook Trout Eggs in Laboratory Streams

    Treesearch

    David G. Argent; Patricia A. Flebbe

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of different fine sediments (0.43-0.85 mm in diameter) on survival of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) eggs during early developmental stages under laboratory conditions. Intragravel permeability and dissolved oxygen declined with increasing fine sediment amounts. Survival at each developmental stage...

  18. Challenge to the model of lake charr evolution: Shallow- and deep-water morphs exist within a small postglacial lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Yule, Daniel L.; Middel, Trevor; Bentzen, Paul; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    All examples of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) diversity occur within the largest, deepest lakes of North America (i.e. > 2000 km2). We report here Rush Lake (1.3 km2) as the first example of a small lake with two lake charr morphs (lean and huronicus). Morphology, diet, life history, and genetics were examined to demonstrate the existence of morphs and determine the potential influence of evolutionary processes that led to their formation or maintenance. Results showed that the huronicus morph, caught in deep-water, had a deeper body, smaller head and jaws, higher eye position, greater buoyancy, and deeper peduncle than the shallow-water lean morph. Huronicus grew slower to a smaller adult size, and had an older mean age than the lean morph. Genetic comparisons showed low genetic divergence between morphs, indicating incomplete reproductive isolation. Phenotypic plasticity and differences in habitat use between deep and shallow waters associated with variation in foraging opportunities seems to have been sufficient to maintain the two morphs, demonstrating their important roles in resource polymorphism. Rush Lake expands previous explanations for lake charr intraspecific diversity, from large to small lakes and from reproductive isolation to the presence of gene flow associated with strong ecological drivers.

  19. Morphological divergence between three Arctic charr morphs – the significance of the deep-water environment

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Sigrid; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Morphological divergence was evident among three sympatric morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) that are ecologically diverged along the shallow-, deep-water resource axis in a subarctic postglacial lake (Norway). The two deep-water (profundal) spawning morphs, a benthivore (PB-morph) and a piscivore (PP-morph), have evolved under identical abiotic conditions with constant low light and temperature levels in their deep-water habitat, and were morphologically most similar. However, they differed in important head traits (e.g., eye and mouth size) related to their different diet specializations. The small-sized PB-morph had a paedomorphic appearance with a blunt head shape, large eyes, and a deep body shape adapted to their profundal lifestyle feeding on submerged benthos from soft, deep-water sediments. The PP-morph had a robust head, large mouth with numerous teeth, and an elongated body shape strongly related to their piscivorous behavior. The littoral spawning omnivore morph (LO-morph) predominantly utilizes the shallow benthic–pelagic habitat and food resources. Compared to the deep-water morphs, the LO-morph had smaller head relative to body size. The LO-morph exhibited traits typical for both shallow-water benthic feeding (e.g., large body depths and small eyes) and planktivorous feeding in the pelagic habitat (e.g., streamlined body shape and small mouth). The development of morphological differences within the same deep-water habitat for the PB- and PP-morphs highlights the potential of biotic factors and ecological interactions to promote further divergence in the evolution of polymorphism in a tentative incipient speciation process. The diversity of deep-water charr in this study represents a novelty in the Arctic charr polymorphism as a truly deep-water piscivore morph has to our knowledge not been described elsewhere. PMID:26357540

  20. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2015-09-15

    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water (containing 7.5mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min for 12min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00-5,000ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  1. Comparing mercury concentrations across a thirty year time span in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr from Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, S; Dempson, J B; Power, M

    2015-03-15

    Anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from multiple sample sites in Labrador, Canada were used to investigate possible differences in total mercury concentration ([THg]) between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean [THg] of anadromous Arctic charr was 0.03 μg/g wet weight (ww) in 1977-78 and 0.04 μg/g ww in 2007-09, while mean concentrations in non-anadromous conspecifics were 0.18 μg/g ww in 1977-78 and 0.14 μg/g ww in 2007-09. After correcting for the effects of fish age and fork-length, there was no widespread difference in the mean [THg] of anadromous or non-anadromous fish between the two time periods. However, at individual sites sampled during both time periods, [THg] increased, decreased, or did not change. The mean age of sampled fish declined from 9.0 years in 1977-78 to 8.2 years in 2007-09 for anadromous fish, and from 11.7 years to 10.5 years in non-anadromous Arctic charr. Similarly, mean fork-lengths decreased from 450 mm to 417 mm in anadromous and from 402 mm to 335 mm in non-anadromous fish between 1977-78 and 2007-09. The mean annual temperature at four Labrador weather stations increased by 1.6°C to 2.9°C between the two sampling periods. The lack of an overall trend in anadromous or non-anadromous Arctic charr [THg] despite warming temperatures that favour increased mercury methylation suggests that regional changes in climate-driven factors have had limited impacts on mercury exposure in Labrador freshwater or marine fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC–MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile–water (containing 7.5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min for 12 min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00–5,000 ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2 ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2 ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  3. Depletion of metronidazole in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Watson, Lynn; MacNeil, James D; Potter, Ross; Hellou, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Metronidazole (MNZ), which is effective in the treatment of intestinal infections in fish, is also a suspected carcinogen and has been banned in numerous jurisdictions for use in any food-producing animal, including fish. Few reports have been published on the depletion of MNZ in fish. A depletion study was therefore undertaken using MNZ in feed provided to trout under controlled conditions. The water was maintained at 17.5 ± 0.9°C throughout the medication and depletion periods in the study. Following a 20-day acclimatisation period in the holding tanks, the trout (approximately 150-200 g bodyweight at the start of the study) were subjected to two separate medication and withdrawal periods: (A) 5 day medication/5 day withdrawal and (B) 5 day medication/16 day withdrawal. This simulated a potential multiple dosing in an aquaculture setting. In both medication periods, the trout were dosed with medicated feed containing 3 g MNZ kg(-1) fish. Fish were sacrificed in accordance with accepted animal care protocols and tissue samples were analysed by UPLC-MS/MS. Analyte concentrations in trout muscle ranged from a high of 27,000 ± 10,000 ng g(-1) for MNZ and 830 ± 570 ng g(-1) for MNZ-OH on day 1 of withdrawal period A to a low of 1.8 ± 2.3 ng g(-1) for MNZ and < 0.4 ng g(-1) for MNZ-OH on day 16 of withdrawal period B. The results demonstrate that when using the UPLC-MS/MS method, residues of MNZ may be detected in fish treated with MNZ after 16 days of withdrawal.

  4. Stocking activities for the Arctic charr in Lake Geneva: Genetic effects in space and time.

    PubMed

    Savary, Romain; Dufresnes, Christophe; Champigneulle, Alexis; Caudron, Arnaud; Dubey, Sylvain; Perrin, Nicolas; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Artificial stocking practices are widely used by resource managers worldwide, in order to sustain fish populations exploited by both recreational and commercial activities, but their benefits are controversial. Former practices involved exotic strains, although current programs rather consider artificial breeding of local fishes (supportive breeding). Understanding the complex genetic effects of these management strategies is an important challenge with economic and conservation implications, especially in the context of population declines. In this study, we focus on the declining Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) population from Lake Geneva (Switzerland and France), which has initially been restocked with allochtonous fishes in the early eighties, followed by supportive breeding. In this context, we conducted a genetic survey to document the evolution of the genetic diversity and structure throughout the last 50 years, before and after the initiation of hatchery supplementation, using contemporary and historical samples. We show that the introduction of exotic fishes was associated with a genetic bottleneck in the 1980-1990s, a break of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), a reduction in genetic diversity, an increase in genetic structure among spawning sites, and a change in their genetic composition. Together with better environmental conditions, three decades of subsequent supportive breeding using local fishes allowed to re-establish HWE and the initial levels of genetic variation. However, current spawning sites have not fully recovered their original genetic composition and were extensively homogenized across the lake. Our study demonstrates the drastic genetic consequences of different restocking tactics in a comprehensive spatiotemporal framework and suggests that genetic alteration by nonlocal stocking may be partly reversible through supportive breeding. We recommend that conservation-based programs consider local diversity and implement adequate

  5. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD MANIPULATION ON BROOK TROUT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT, FECUNDITY, AND CIRCULATING SEX STEROID CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting reproductive studies with brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis at times other than the normal fall-spawning period...Overall viability of embryos from this spring spawning was slightly lower than the average viabi...

  7. Brook trout movement within a high-elevation watershed: Consequences for watershed restoration

    Treesearch

    Jeff L. Hansbarger; J. Todd Petty; Patricia M. Mazik

    2010-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to quantify brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) movements in the Shavers Fork of the Cheat River, West Virginia, and an adjacent second-order tributary (Rocky Run). Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement, assess spatial and temporal variation in...

  8. Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 loci in sympatric Salvelinus alpinus resource morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn.

    PubMed

    Kapralova, Kalina H; Gudbrandsson, Johannes; Reynisdottir, Sigrun; Santos, Cristina B; Baltanás, Vanessa C; Maier, Valerie H; Snorrason, Sigurdur S; Palsson, Arnar

    2013-01-01

    Northern freshwater fish may be suitable for the genetic dissection of ecological traits because they invaded new habitats after the last ice age (∼10.000 years ago). Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) colonizing streams and lakes in Iceland gave rise to multiple populations of small benthic morphotypes, often in sympatry with a pelagic morphotype. Earlier studies have revealed significant, but subtle, genetic differentiation between the three most common morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. We conducted a population genetic screen on four immunological candidate genes Cathelicidin 2 (Cath2), Hepcidin (Hamp), Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2a (Leap-2a), and Major Histocompatibility Complex IIα (MHCIIα) and a mitochondrial marker (D-loop) among the three most common Lake Thingvallavatn charr morphs. Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between morphs at the Cath2 and MHCIIα loci. No such signal was detected in the D-loop nor in the other two immunological genes. In Cath2 the small benthic morph deviated from the other two (FST  = 0.13), one of the substitutions detected constituting an amino acid replacement polymorphism in the antimicrobial peptide. A more striking difference was found in the MHCIIα. Two haplotypes were very common in the lake, and their frequency differed greatly between the morphotypes (from 22% to 93.5%, FST  = 0.67). We then expanded our study by surveying the variation in Cath2 and MHCIIα in 9 Arctic charr populations from around Iceland. The populations varied greatly in terms of allele frequencies at Cath2, but the variation did not correlate with morphotype. At the MHCIIα locus, the variation was nearly identical to the variation in the two benthic morphs of Lake Thingvallavatn. The results are consistent with a scenario where parts of the immune systems have diverged substantially among Arctic charr populations in Iceland, after colonizing the island ∼10.000 years ago.

  9. Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 Loci in Sympatric Salvelinus alpinus Resource Morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn

    PubMed Central

    Kapralova, Kalina H.; Gudbrandsson, Johannes; Reynisdottir, Sigrun; Santos, Cristina B.; Baltanás, Vanessa C.; Maier, Valerie H.; Snorrason, Sigurdur S.; Palsson, Arnar

    2013-01-01

    Northern freshwater fish may be suitable for the genetic dissection of ecological traits because they invaded new habitats after the last ice age (∼10.000 years ago). Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) colonizing streams and lakes in Iceland gave rise to multiple populations of small benthic morphotypes, often in sympatry with a pelagic morphotype. Earlier studies have revealed significant, but subtle, genetic differentiation between the three most common morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. We conducted a population genetic screen on four immunological candidate genes Cathelicidin 2 (Cath2), Hepcidin (Hamp), Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2a (Leap-2a), and Major Histocompatibility Complex IIα (MHCIIα) and a mitochondrial marker (D-loop) among the three most common Lake Thingvallavatn charr morphs. Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between morphs at the Cath2 and MHCIIα loci. No such signal was detected in the D-loop nor in the other two immunological genes. In Cath2 the small benthic morph deviated from the other two (FST = 0.13), one of the substitutions detected constituting an amino acid replacement polymorphism in the antimicrobial peptide. A more striking difference was found in the MHCIIα. Two haplotypes were very common in the lake, and their frequency differed greatly between the morphotypes (from 22% to 93.5%, FST = 0.67). We then expanded our study by surveying the variation in Cath2 and MHCIIα in 9 Arctic charr populations from around Iceland. The populations varied greatly in terms of allele frequencies at Cath2, but the variation did not correlate with morphotype. At the MHCIIα locus, the variation was nearly identical to the variation in the two benthic morphs of Lake Thingvallavatn. The results are consistent with a scenario where parts of the immune systems have diverged substantially among Arctic charr populations in Iceland, after colonizing the island ∼10.000 years ago. PMID:23894470

  10. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicokinetics and P4501A responses in anadromous Arctic charr during winter emaciation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even H; Foshaug, Hanne; Andersson, Patrik; Burkow, Ivan C; Jobling, Malcolm

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) toxicokinetics and hepatic P450 (CYP) 1A activities were studied in wild anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) during winter emaciation. The fish were captured as they returned from summer feeding in seawater and were held without food over winter. In September the fish were given a single, oral dose of either 0 (control), 0.1, 1, or 50 microg PCB/g fish. During winter a net loss of PCB occurred from the carcass (including gut), whereas net inputs and increases in concentrations of PCB in the liver and brain occurred with increases in brain PCB concentrations being up to 10-fold. Hepatic CYP1A activities were positively correlated with the PCB dose in October. In the fish given 1 mg PCB/kg fish in September, however, a 12-fold increase in CYP1A activity occurred from October to May. This increase in CYP1A activity was observed during a period in which the body burden of PCB decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that interpretations of the CYP1A biomarker response must be made with caution. Overall, the findings point to potentiated risks of biological effects of PCB during periods of emaciation.

  12. [Fish growth-hormone genes: functionality evidence of paralogous genes in Levanidov's charr].

    PubMed

    Kamenskaya, D N; Pankova, M V; Atopkin, D M; Brykov, V A

    2015-01-01

    In the genome of most vertebrates growth-hormone gene is presented in a single copy, while in salmonids after one of the duplication events many genes were multiplied, including growth hormone gene. In salmonids, the growth-hormone gene exists as two independently inherited functional paralogues, gh1 and gh2. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of gh1 and gh2 growth-hormone genes and their adjacent sequences in Levanidov's charr Salvelinus levanidovi to determine their functionality and define the potential differences. We found that both genes have the same gene structure and are composed of six exons (I-VI) and five introns (A, B, C, D, E). However, the respective gene sequences differ in length. A comparison of exons showed that the size of each exon is identical in both paralogues. The overall length of genes differs due to the varying lengths of introns. Coding sequence of both genes contains an open reading frame for 210 amino acids. We identified regulatory elements in the promoter region of both genes: TATA box, A/T-rich regions that contain binding sites for pituitary-specific transcriptional activator Pit-1, and regions responsible for interaction with other transcriptional activators and initiators, in particular hormone receptors. The obtained data indicate that both genes are functional.

  13. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  14. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  15. Maintenance of phenotypic variation: repeatibility, heritability, and size-dependent processes in a wild brook trout population

    Treesearch

    Benjamin H. Letcher; Jason A Coombs; Keith H. Nislow

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in body size can result from within-cohort variation in birth dates, among-individual growth variation and size-selective processes. We explore the relative effects of these processes on the maintenance of wide observed body size variation in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Based on the analyses of multiple...

  16. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  17. Rainbow trout versus brook trout biomass and production under varied climate regimes in small southern Appalachian streams

    Treesearch

    Bonnie. J.E. Myers; C. Andrew Dolloff; Andrew L. Rypel

    2014-01-01

    Many Appalachian streams historically dominated by Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis have experienced shifts towards fish communities dominated by Rainbow Trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. We used empirical estimates of biomass and secondary production of trout conspecifics to evaluate species success under varied thermal regimes. Trout...

  18. Ranking site vulnerability to increasing temperatures in southern Appalachian brook trout streams in Virginia: An exposure-sensitivity approach

    Treesearch

    Bradly A. Trumbo; Keith H. Nislow; Jonathan Stallings; Mark Hudy; Eric P. Smith; Dong-Yun Kim; Bruce Wiggins; Charles A. Dolloff

    2014-01-01

    Models based on simple air temperature–water temperature relationships have been useful in highlighting potential threats to coldwater-dependent species such as Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by predicting major losses of habitat and substantial reductions in geographic distribution. However, spatial variability in the relationship between changes...

  19. Identification of a barrier height threshold where brook trout population genetic diversity, differentiation, and relatedness are affected

    Treesearch

    Anne Timm; Eric Hallerman; Andy Dolloff; Mark Hudy; Randall Kolka

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of the study was to evaluate effects of landscape features, barriers, on Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis population genetics and to identify a potential barrier height threshold where genetic diversity was reduced upstream of the barrier and differentiation and relatedness increase. We screened variation at eight...

  20. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  1. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  2. Proposed standard-weight equations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyatt, M.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Weight and length data were obtained for 113 populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis across the species' geographic range in North America to estimate a standard-weight (Ws) equation for this species. Estimation was done by applying the regression-line-percentile technique to fish of 120-620 mm total length (TL). The proposed metric-unit (g and mm) equation is log10Ws = -5.186 + 3.103 log10TL; the English-unit (lb and in) equivalent is log10Ws = -3.483 + 3.103 log10TL. No systematic length bias was evident in the relative-weight values calculated from these equations.

  3. Seasonal habitat use of brook trout and juvenile steelhead in a Lake Ontario tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Abbett, Ross; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Verdoliva, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) are generally restricted to headwaters in New York tributaries of Lake Ontario. In only a few streams are brook trout abundant in lower stream reaches that are accessible to adult Pacific salmonids migrating from the lake. Consequently, because of the rarity of native brook trout populations in these lower stream reaches it is important to understand how they use stream habitat in sympatry with juvenile Pacific salmonids which are now naturalized in several Lake Ontario tributaries. In this study, we examined the seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) habitat use of brook trout and juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Hart Brook, a tributary of eastern Lake Ontario. We found interspecific, intraspecific, and seasonal variation in habitat use. Subyearling steelhead were associated with faster water velocities than subyearling brook trout and, overall, had the least habitat similarity to the other salmonid groups examined. Overyearling brook trout and yearling steelhead exhibited the greatest degree of habitat selection and habitat selection by all four salmonid groups was greatest in summer. The availability of pool habitat for overyearling salmonids may pose the largest impediment to these species in Hart Brook.

  4. Survival of brook trout embryos in three episodically acidified streams

    SciTech Connect

    Fiss, F.C. ); Carline, R.F. )

    1993-03-01

    We evaluated, for brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in three streams that undergo episodic acidification during critical periods of embryo development, survival of embryos from egg disposition to preemergence in natural redds and survival of sac fry in toxicity tests done in situ. Twenty-five natural redds were used for comparisons among streams. Median survival to preemergence (range, 16-68%) was different (P [le] 0.05) among streams and was inversely related to stream concentration of inorganic monomeric Al. Survival to preemergence was not related to intragravel dissolved oxygen concentration, gravel quality, or depth or velocity of stream water at redd sites. Median survival of sac fry exposed to stream water for 39 d was different among streams (range, 51-95%) and was inversely related to stream concentration of inorganic monomeric Al. Episodic acidification could lead to declines in populations of brook trout by causing decreased survival of early life stages. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Phylogeography of the salmonid fish, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma: multiple glacial refugia in the North Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Maekawa, Koji; Morita, Kentaro; Crane, Penelope A; Oleinik, Alla G

    2014-10-01

    The geographic distribution pattern of mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence polymorphisms from 73 populations of a salmonid fish, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma, over most of its range in the North Pacific rim, was examined to assess how its spatial population genetic structure has been molded. The observed 68 haplotypes were grouped into three main lineages, which correspond to western, central, and eastern regions in the North Pacific. The two outlier-haplotype groups gave close agreement with DNA types from two congeneric species, white-spotted charr S. leucomaenis and Arctic charr S. alpinus, respectively. These results suggest that the present-day genetic structure of S. malma reflects historical patterns of isolation and re-colonization, and also historical hybridization with co-distributed species. We also placed the haplotypes of S. malma within our study areas into a pre-existing evolutionary relationship of S. alpinus and S. malma throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Western Lineage S. malma was basal to all other lineages of S. malma and S. alpinus. Our data serve as a biogeographic hypothesis for salmonid fishes that the Sea of Japan and/or Sea of Okhotsk regions represents a place of origin for S. malma and S. alpinus groups currently distributed in circumpolar regions.

  6. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  7. River mainstem thermal regimes influence population structuring within an Appalachian brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aunins, Aaron W.; Petty, J. Todd; King, Timothy L.; Schilz, Mariya; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) often exist as highly differentiated populations, even at small spatial scales, due either to natural or anthropogenic sources of isolation and low rates of dispersal. In this study, we used molecular approaches to describe the unique population structure of brook trout inhabiting the Shavers Fork watershed, located in eastern West Virginia, and contrast it to nearby populations in tributaries of the upper Greenbrier River and North Fork South Branch Potomac Rivers. Bayesian and maximum likelihood clustering methods identified minimal population structuring among 14 collections of brook trout from throughout the mainstem and tributaries of Shavers Fork, highlighting the role of the cold-water mainstem for connectivity and high rates of effective migration among tributaries. In contrast, the Potomac and Greenbrier River collections displayed distinct levels of population differentiation among tributaries, presumably resulting from tributary isolation by warm-water mainstems. Our results highlight the importance of protecting and restoring cold-water mainstem habitats as part of region-wide brook trout conservation efforts. In addition, our results from Shavers Fork provide a contrast to previous genetic studies that characterize Appalachian brook trout as fragmented isolates rather than well-mixed populations. Additional study is needed to determine whether the existence of brook trout as genetically similar populations among tributaries is truly unique and whether connectivity among brook trout populations can potentially be restored within other central Appalachian watersheds.

  8. Invasion by non-native brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    Treesearch

    Joseph R. Benjamin; Jason B. Dunham; Matthew R. Dare

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus...

  9. Habitat suitability index model for brook trout in streams of the Southern Blue Ridge Province: surrogate variables, model evaluation, and suggested improvements

    Treesearch

    Christoper J. Schmitt; A. Dennis Lemly; Parley V. Winger

    1993-01-01

    Data from several sources were collated and analyzed by correlation, regression, and principal components analysis to define surrrogate variables for use in the brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitat suitability index (HSI) model, and to evaluate the applicability of the model for assessing habitat in high elevation streams of the southern Blue Ridge Province (...

  10. Brooks Grease Service, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Brooks Grease Service, Inc., for alleged violations at its vegetable oil collection and storage facility located at or near 218 East James St., Kansas City, KS 66118.

  11. Effect of brook trout removal from a spawning stream on an adfluvial population of Lahontan cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Shea, Sean P.; Somer, William

    2012-01-01

    Independence Lake (Nevada and Sierra counties, California) harbors the only extant native population of Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi in the Truckee River system and one of two extant adfluvial populations in the Lahontan basin. The persistence of this population has been precarious for more than 50 years, with spawning runs consisting of only 30–150 fish. It is assumed that this population was much larger prior to the introduction of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout overlap with cutthroat trout in upper Independence Creek, where the cutthroat trout spawn and their resulting progeny emigrate to Independence Lake. In 2005, we began removing brook trout from upper Independence Creek using electrofishers and monitored the cutthroat trout population. Stomach analysis of captured brook trout revealed cutthroat trout fry, and cutthroat trout fry survival increased significantly from 4% to 12% with brook trout removal. Prior to brook trout removal, the only Lahontan cutthroat trout progeny emigrating to Independence Lake were fry; with brook trout removal, juveniles were found entering the lake. In 2010, 237 potential spawners passed a prefabricated weir upstream of Independence Lake. Although the results of this study suggest that brook trout removal from upper Independence Creek has had a positive influence on the population dynamics of Independence Lake Lahontan cutthroat trout, additional years of removal are needed to assess the ultimate effect this action will have upon the cutthroat trout population.

  12. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  13. Sequencing and characterization of a multi-organ Arctic charr transcriptome: A toolbox for investigating polymorphism and seasonal life in a high Arctic fish.

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Noirot, Celine; Falcón, Jack; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2016-10-01

    The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) inhabits fresh water ecosystems of the high North. The species has developed a strong phenotypic plasticity and variability in life history characteristics which has made this species an attractive model for investigations on phenotype plasticity, morph formation and ecological speciation. Further, the extreme seasonal variations in environmental conditions (e.g. food availability) in the high North induce seasonal changes in phenotype, which require precise timing mechanisms and physiological preparations. Individual gating of life-history strategies (e.g. formation of resident and sea-migrating morphs) and transitions (e.g. maturation) depends on conditional traits (size/energy status) at specific assessment time windows, and complex neuroendocrine regulation, which so far is poorly understood. In the absence of a reference genome, and in order to facilitate the investigation of the complex biological mechanisms of this unique fish model, the present study reveals a reference transcriptome for the Arctic charr. Using Roche 454 GS FLX+, we targeted various organs being either at the crossroads of many key pathways (neuroendocrine, metabolic, behavioral), of different ontological origins or displaying complementary physiological functions. The assemblage yielded 34,690 contigs greater than 1000bp with an average length (1690bp) and annotation rate (52%) within the range, or even higher, than what has been previously obtained with other teleost de novo transcriptomes. We dramatically improve the publically available transcript data on this species that may indeed be useful for various disciplines, from basic research to applied aspects related to conservation issues and aquaculture.

  14. Apparent digestibility of possible fish meal replacements in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar and Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To increase the sustainability of salmonid production, alternative protein sources to fish meal need to be identified. Many studies have examined terrestrial plant meals/protein concentrates as alternatives. Recently the focus has turned to aquatic protists and plants as well as by-products from oth...

  15. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of brook trout populations inhabiting a central Appalachian watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.T.; Lamothe, P.J.; Mazik, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the watershed-scale spatial population dynamics of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the Second Fork, a third-order tributary of Shavers Fork in eastern West Virginia. We used visual surveys, electrofishing, and mark-recapture techniques to quantify brook trout spawning intensity, population density, size structure, and demographic rates (apparent survival and immigration) throughout the watershed. Our analyses produced the following results. Spawning by brook trout was concentrated in streams with small basin areas (i.e., segments draining less than 3 km2), relatively high alkalinity (>10 mg CaCO3/L), and high amounts of instream cover. The spatial distribution of juvenile and small-adult brook trout within the watershed was relatively stable and was significantly correlated with spawning intensity. However, no such relationship was observed for large adults, which exhibited highly variable distribution patterns related to seasonally important habitat features, including instream cover, stream depth and width, and riparian canopy cover. Brook trout survival and immigration rates varied seasonally, spatially, and among size-classes. Differential survival and immigration tended to concentrate juveniles and small adults in small, alkaline streams, whereas dispersal tended to redistribute large adults at the watershed scale. Our results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in spawning, survival, and movement interact to determine the distribution, abundance, and size structure of brook trout populations at a watershed scale. These results underscore the importance of small tributaries for the persistence of brook trout in this watershed and the need to consider watershed-scale processes when designing management plans for Appalachian brook trout populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  16. Simulated effects of YY-male stocking and manual suppression for eradicating nonnative Brook Trout populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis populations is difficult to achieve with standard techniques, such as electrofishing removal or piscicides; new approaches are needed. A novel concept is to stock “supermale” hatchery fish with wild conspecifics. Supermales (MYY) have two Y-chromosomes, resulting in offspring that are all males; over time, successful supermale reproduction could eradicate the wild population. We constructed an age-structured stochastic model to investigate the effects of manually suppressing wild fish and stocking MYY fingerlings on the long-term viability of hypothetical nonnative Brook Trout populations. In streams, an annual stocking rate of supermales equivalent to 50% of wild age-0 Brook Trout density combined with an annual selective suppression rate equivalent to 50% of wild Brook Trout density resulted in a time to extirpation of only 2–4 years if supermale fitness was equivalent to wild male fitness. However, time to extirpation in streams was 5–15 years if supermale fitness was 80% lower than wild male fitness. In alpine lakes, higher supermale stocking rates and nonselective gillnetting were required to eradicate Brook Trout populations. If supermales were assumed to be as fit as wild males, however, any supermale stocking rate greater than 49% in alpine lakes or 60% in streams achieved eradication in 10 years or less, regardless of the suppression rate. Because manual suppression and the stocking of MYY fingerlings can readily be conducted at the levels assumed in our simulations, use of such an integrated pest management (IPM) approach could extirpate undesirable Brook Trout populations within reasonably short periods of time. Given the recent successful development of an MYY Brook Trout broodstock capable of producing large numbers of MYY fingerlings and given the positive results of the present simulations for both streams and alpine lakes, field testing of MYY stocking is warranted within an

  17. Landscape models of brook trout abundance and distribution in lotic habitat with field validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are native fish in decline owing to environmental changes. Predictions of their potential distribution and a better understanding of their relationship to habitat conditions would enhance the management and conservation of this valuable species. We used over 7,800 brook trout observations throughout New York State and georeferenced, multiscale landscape condition data to develop four regionally specific artificial neural network models to predict brook trout abundance in rivers and streams. Land cover data provided a general signature of human activity, but other habitat variables were resistant to anthropogenic changes (i.e., changing on a geological time scale). The resulting models predict the potential for any stream to support brook trout. The models were validated by holding 20% of the data out as a test set and by comparison with additional field collections from a variety of habitat types. The models performed well, explaining more than 90% of data variability. Errors were often associated with small spatial displacements of predicted values. When compared with the additional field collections (39 sites), 92% of the predictions were off by only a single class from the field-observed abundances. Among “least-disturbed” field collection sites, all predictions were correct or off by a single abundance class, except for one where brown trout Salmo trutta were present. Other degrading factors were evident at most sites where brook trout were absent or less abundant than predicted. The most important habitat variables included landscape slope, stream and drainage network sizes, water temperature, and extent of forest cover. Predicted brook trout abundances were applied to all New York streams, providing a synoptic map of the distribution of brook trout habitat potential. These fish models set benchmarks of best potential for streams to support brook trout under broad-scale human influences and can assist with planning and

  18. Predicting Brook Trout occurrence in stream reaches throughout their native range in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell; Wagner, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is an important species of conservation concern in the eastern USA. We developed a model to predict Brook Trout population status within individual stream reaches throughout the species’ native range in the eastern USA. We utilized hierarchical logistic regression with Bayesian estimation to predict Brook Trout occurrence probability, and we allowed slopes and intercepts to vary among ecological drainage units (EDUs). Model performance was similar for 7,327 training samples and 1,832 validation samples based on the area under the receiver operating curve (∼0.78) and Cohen's kappa statistic (0.44). Predicted water temperature had a strong negative effect on Brook Trout occurrence probability at the stream reach scale and was also negatively associated with the EDU average probability of Brook Trout occurrence (i.e., EDU-specific intercepts). The effect of soil permeability was positive but decreased as EDU mean soil permeability increased. Brook Trout were less likely to occur in stream reaches surrounded by agricultural or developed land cover, and an interaction suggested that agricultural land cover also resulted in an increased sensitivity to water temperature. Our model provides a further understanding of how Brook Trout are shaped by habitat characteristics in the region and yields maps of stream-reach-scale predictions, which together can be used to support ongoing conservation and management efforts. These decision support tools can be used to identify the extent of potentially suitable habitat, estimate historic habitat losses, and prioritize conservation efforts by selecting suitable stream reaches for a given action. Future work could extend the model to account for additional landscape or habitat characteristics, include biotic interactions, or estimate potential Brook Trout responses to climate and land use changes.

  19. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  20. Efficacy of environmental DNA to detect and quantify Brook Trout populations in headwater streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sporn, Lee Ann; George, Scott D.; Ball, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is rapidly evolving as a tool for monitoring the distributions of aquatic species. Detection of species’ populations in streams may be challenging because the persistence time for intact DNA fragments is unknown and because eDNA is diluted and dispersed by dynamic hydrological processes. During 2015, the DNA of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis was analyzed from water samples collected at 40 streams across the Adirondack region of upstate New York, where Brook Trout populations were recently quantified. Study objectives were to evaluate different sampling methods and the ability of eDNA to accurately predict the presence and abundance of resident Brook Trout populations. Results from three-pass electrofishing surveys indicated that Brook Trout were absent from 10 sites and were present in low (<100 fish/0.1 ha), moderate (100–300 fish/0.1 ha), and high (>300 fish/0.1 ha) densities at 9, 11, and 10 sites, respectively. The eDNA results correctly predicted the presence and confirmed the absence of Brook Trout at 85.0–92.5% of the study sites; eDNA also explained 44% of the variability in Brook Trout population density and 24% of the variability in biomass. These findings indicate that eDNA surveys will enable researchers to effectively characterize the presence and abundance of Brook Trout and other species’ populations in headwater streams across the Adirondack region and elsewhere.

  1. Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake

    PubMed Central

    Faulks, Leanne; Östman, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta) and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis), from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ånn. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H’T = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, AR = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (GIS = 0.144) and brook charr (GIS = 0.129) although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species. PMID:27032100

  2. Variation in salinity tolerance, gill Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and mitochondria-rich cell distribution in three salmonids Salvelinus namaycush, Salvelinus fontinalis and Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Junya; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-03-01

    We compared seawater tolerance, gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) abundance, and mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) morphology of three salmonids, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. They were transferred directly from 0 p.p.t. (parts per thousand; freshwater) to 30 p.p.t. seawater, or transferred gradually from 0 to 10, 20 and 30 p.p.t. at 1-week intervals and kept in 30 p.p.t. for 3 weeks. The survival rates of lake trout, brook trout and Atlantic salmon were 80%, 50% and 100% following direct transfer, and 80%, 100% and 100% during gradual transfer, respectively. Plasma Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations in surviving lake trout increased rapidly and remained at high levels in 30 p.p.t. of both direct and gradual transfer, whereas those in brook trout showed a transient increase following direct transfer but did not change significantly during gradual transfer. Only minor changes in plasma ions were observed in Atlantic salmon smolts in both direct and gradual transfer. These results suggest that lake trout retains some degree of euryhalinity and that brook trout possesses intermediate euryhalinity between lake trout and Atlantic salmon smolts. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity of lake trout and brook trout increased in seawater, whereas that of Atlantic salmon smolts was already upregulated in freshwater and remained high after seawater exposure. NKCC abundance was upregulated in parallel with gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in each species. Immunocytochemistry with anti-Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit and anti-NKCC revealed that the two ion transporters were colocalized on the basolateral membrane of gill MRCs. Immunopositive MRCs were distributed on both primary filaments and secondary lamellae in all three species kept in freshwater; following transfer to seawater this pattern did not change in lake trout and brook trout but lamellar MRCs disappeared in Atlantic salmon

  3. Decomposed pairwise regression analysis of genetic and geographic distances reveals a metapopulation structure of stream-dwelling Dolly Varden charr.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Maekawa, Koji

    2006-10-01

    Isolation by distance is usually tested by the correlation of genetic and geographic distances separating all pairwise populations' combinations. However, this method can be significantly biased by only a few highly diverged populations and lose the information of individual population. To detect outlier populations and investigate the relative strengths of gene flow and genetic drift for each population, we propose a decomposed pairwise regression analysis. This analysis was applied to the well-described one-dimensional stepping-stone system of stream-dwelling Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma). When genetic and geographic distances were plotted for all pairs of 17 tributary populations, the correlation was significant but weak (r(2) = 0.184). Seven outlier populations were determined based on the systematic bias of the regression residuals, followed by Akaike's information criteria. The best model, 10 populations included, showed a strong pattern of isolation by distance (r(2) = 0.758), suggesting equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift in these populations. Each outlier population was also analysed by plotting pairwise genetic and geographic distances against the 10 nonoutlier populations, and categorized into one of the three patterns: strong genetic drift, genetic drift with a limited gene flow and a high level of gene flow. These classifications were generally consistent with a priori predictions for each population (physical barrier, population size, anthropogenic impacts). Combined the genetic analysis with field observations, Dolly Varden in this river appeared to form a mainland-island or source-sink metapopulation structure. The generality of the method will merit many types of spatial genetic analyses.

  4. Effects of Climate and Fire on Thermal Habitats Within Mountain Stream Networks: An Example With a Native Charr Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaak, D.; Luce, C.; Rieman, B.; Nagel, D.; Peterson, E.

    2007-12-01

    Climatic trends associated with warming air temperatures, changing hydrology, and increasing fire activity will affect thermal regimes in mountain streams. Because most aquatic species are ectotherms, disruptions of these ecosystems will be significant as the distributions of thermal habitats change. Although local stream temperature models have frequently been developed, network-scale models necessary for conservation are generally lacking. Using a new class of spatial statistical model that accommodates network topology and multiple types of spatial autocorrelation based on instream and Euclidean distance, we modeled the effects of geomorphology, climate, and fire on stream temperatures across a 6th-order network in central Idaho. Satellite imagery of riparian vegetation pre- and postfire was used to quantify the amount of solar radiation reaching the stream and consequent effects on temperature. Climate covariates were derived from weather and flow gauging stations and relevant geomorphic features were derived from digital elevation models. The spatial models yielded more accurate parameter estimates than traditional regression models and offered improved predictive ability for the temperature metrics examined (e.g., R2 ~ 0.60 vs. 0.85). Upon completion, the spatial models were used to assess changes in the distribution of thermally suitable habitats for bull charr (Salvelinus confluentus) over a 15 year period with extensive fire activity. Habitat losses were spatially variable, as were the relative effects of the covariates. In general, the greatest habitat loss was attributable to the effects of fire and recent trends of increasing air temperatures and decreasing flows played lesser roles. Our results suggest that impairment and loss of aquatic habitats due to climate change can be caused by direct or indirect effects and may occur as gradual trends or during episodic disturbances. If future efforts to conserve aquatic species are to succeed, models that

  5. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  6. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  7. Brook trout use of thermal refugia and foraging habitat influenced by brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Snook, Erin; Massie, Danielle L.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in eastern North America is often limited by temperature and introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta), the relative importance of which is poorly understood but critical for conservation and restoration planning. We evaluated effects of brown trout on brook trout behavior and habitat use in experimental streams across increasing temperatures (14–23 °C) with simulated groundwater upwelling zones providing thermal refugia (6–9 °C below ambient temperatures). Allopatric and sympatric trout populations increased their use of upwelling zones as ambient temperatures increased, demonstrating the importance of groundwater as thermal refugia in warming streams. Allopatric brook trout showed greater movement rates and more even spatial distributions within streams than sympatric brook trout, suggesting interference competition by brown trout for access to forage habitats located outside thermal refugia. Our results indicate that removal of introduced brown trout may facilitate native brook trout expansion and population viability in downstream reaches depending in part on the spatial configuration of groundwater upwelling zones.

  8. Evaluation of catch-and-release regulations on Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; Wagner, Tyler; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission implemented catch-and-release (CR) regulations on headwater stream systems to determine if eliminating angler harvest would result in an increase in the number of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Under the CR regulations, angling was permitted on a year-round basis, no Brook Trout could be harvested at any time, and there were no tackle restrictions. A before-after–control-impact design was used to evaluate the experimental regulations. Brook Trout populations were monitored in 16 treatment (CR regulations) and 7 control streams (statewide regulations) using backpack electrofishing gear periodically for up to 15 years (from 1990 to 2003 or 2004) before the implementation of the CR regulations and over a 7–8-year period (from 2004 or 2005 to 2011) after implementation. We used Poisson mixed models to evaluate whether electrofishing catch per effort (CPE; catch/100 m2) of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout increased in treatment streams as a result of implementing CR regulations. Brook Trout CPE varied among sites and among years, and there was no significant effect (increase or decrease) of CR regulations on the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout. Results of our evaluation suggest that CR regulations were not effective at improving the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams. Low angler use, high voluntary catch and release, and slow growth rates in infertile headwater streams are likely the primary reasons for the lack of response.

  9. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.

    2017-06-21

    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  10. Joint Segregation of Biochemical Loci in Salmonidae. II. Linkage Associations from a Hybridized Salvelinus Genome (S. NAMAYCUSHxS. FONTINALIS)

    PubMed Central

    May, Bernie; Stoneking, Mark; Wright, James E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of more than 300 pairwise examinations of biochemical loci for joint segregation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and in the hybridized genome of lake trout (S. namaycush) x brook trout are summarized. Nineteen loci have been assigned to the following eight linkage groupings on the basis of nonrandom assortment, including cases of both classical linkage and pseudolinkage: ODH with PMI with PGI-3, PGI-2 with SDH, ADA-1 with AGP-2, AAT-(1,2) with AGP-1 with MDH-1, MDH-3 with MDH-4, LDH-3 with LDH-4, IDH-3 with ME-2 and GUS with CPK-1. Pseudolinkage (an excess of nonparental progeny types) was observed only for male testcross parents. The results suggest that this phenomenon involves homeologous chromosome arms as evidenced by the de novo association of presumed duplicate loci in each case. Classical linkage has not been found for the five pairs of duplicate loci examined in Salvelinus, suggesting that not all of the eight metacentrics in the haploid complement involve fusions of homeologous chromosomes. Females consistently showed a greater degree of recombination. PMID:7439682

  11. Joint segregation of biochemical loci in Salmonidae. II. Linkage associations from a hybridized salvelinus genome (S. namaycush X S. fontinalis).

    PubMed

    May, B; Stoneking, M; Wright, J E

    1980-07-01

    The results of more than 300 pairwise examinations of biochemical loci for joint segregation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and in the hybridized genome of lake trout (S. namaycush) X brook trout are summarized. Nineteen loci have been assigned to tahe following eight linkage groupings on the basis of nonrandom assortment, including cases of both classical linkage and pseudolinkage: ODH with PMI with PGI-3, PGI-2 with SDH, ADA-1 with AGP-2, AAT-1(1,2) with AGP-1 with MDH-1, MDH-3 with MDH-4, LDH-3 with LDH-4, IDH-3 with ME-2 and GUS with CPK-1. Pseudolinkage (an excess of nonparental progeny types) was observed only for male testcross parents. The results suggest that this phenomenon involves homeologous chromosome arms as evidenced by the de novo association of presumed duplicate loci in each case. Classical linkage has not been found for the five pairs of duplicate loci examined in Salvelinus, suggesting that not all of the eight metacentrics in the haploid complement involve fusions of homeologous chromosomes. Females consistently showed a greater degree of recombination.

  12. LYE BROOK WILDERNESS, VERMONT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Harrison, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Lye Brook Wilderness, in the Green Mountains of Vermont is underlain by gneisses, quartzites, schists, and amphibolites of Precambrian to Ordovician age. A mineral-resource survey determined that only one commodity, quartzite, is present in large quantities and could be a source of dimension stone or crushed stone. Although an anomalously high radioactive area occurs within the Precambrian basement, geochemical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of significant uranium mineralization or for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources within the wilderness,

  13. More than a corridor: use of a main stem stream as supplemental foraging habitat by a brook trout metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd; Sharma, Shikha; Merriam, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    Coldwater fishes in streams, such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), typically are headwater specialists that occasionally expand distributions downstream to larger water bodies. It is unclear, however, whether larger streams function simply as dispersal corridors connecting headwater subpopulations, or as critical foraging habitat needed to sustain large mobile brook trout. Stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and a hierarchical Bayesian mixing model analysis was used to identify brook trout that foraged in main stem versus headwater streams of the Shavers Fork watershed, West Virginia. Headwater subpopulations were composed of headwater and to a lesser extent main stem foraging individuals. However, there was a strong relationship between brook trout size and main stem prey contributions. The average brook trout foraging on headwater prey were limited to 126 mm standard length. This size was identified by mixing models as a point where productivity support switched from headwater to main stem dependency. These results, similar to other studies conducted in this watershed, support the hypothesis that productive main stem habitat maintain large brook trout and potentially facilitates dispersal among headwater subpopulations. Consequently, loss of supplementary main stem foraging habitats may explain loss of large, mobile fish and subsequent isolation of headwater subpopulations in other central Appalachian watersheds.

  14. Heritability of Morphology in Brook Trout with Variable Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Anna; Nichols, Krista M.

    2010-01-01

    Distinct morphological variation is often associated with variation in life histories within and among populations of both plants and animals. In this study, we examined the heritability of morphology in three hatchery strains of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), which were historically or are currently used for stocking and supplementation of both migratory and resident ecotypes in the upper Great Lakes region. In a common garden experiment, significant variation in body morphology was observed within and across populations sampled at three time periods. The most notable differences among strains were differences in dorso-ventral body depth and the shape of the caudal peduncle, with some differences in the anterior-posterior placement of the dorsal and ventral fins. Variation with and among 70 half-sib families indicates that heritabilities of morphology and body size were significant at most developmental time points both within and across strains. Heritabilities for morphological characters within strains ranged from 0 to 0.95 across time points. Significant within-strain heritabilities for length ranged from 0 to 0.93 across time points and for weight ranged from 0 to 0.88. Significant additive genetic variation exists within and across hatchery brook trout strains for morphology and size, indicating that these traits are capable of responding to natural or artificial selection. PMID:20886080

  15. Is motivation important to brook trout passage through culverts?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    Culverts can restrict movement of stream-dwelling fish. Motivation to enter and ascend these structures is an essential precursor for successful passage. However, motivation is challenging to quantify. Here, we use attempt rate to assess motivation of 447 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) entering three culverts under a range of hydraulic, environmental, and biological conditions. A passive integrated transponder system allowed for the identification of passage attempts and success of individual fish. Attempt rate was quantified using time-to-event analysis allowing for time-varying covariates and recurrent events. Attempt rate was greatest during the spawning period, at elevated discharge, at dusk, and for longer fish. It decreased during the day and with increasing number of conspecifics downstream of the culvert. Results also show a positive correlation between elevated motivation and successful passage. This study enhances understanding of factors influencing brook trout motivation to ascend culverts and shows that attempt rate is a dynamic phenomenon, variable over time and among individuals. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate other species’ motivation to pass natural or anthropogenic barriers.

  16. Understanding environmental DNA detection probabilities: A case study using a stream-dwelling char Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Taylor M; Mckelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shepard, Bradley B.; Jane, Stephen F; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA sampling (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting aquatic animals. Previous research suggests that eDNA methods are substantially more sensitive than traditional sampling. However, the factors influencing eDNA detection and the resulting sampling costs are still not well understood. Here we use multiple experiments to derive independent estimates of eDNA production rates and downstream persistence from brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in streams. We use these estimates to parameterize models comparing the false negative detection rates of eDNA sampling and traditional backpack electrofishing. We find that using the protocols in this study eDNA had reasonable detection probabilities at extremely low animal densities (e.g., probability of detection 0.18 at densities of one fish per stream kilometer) and very high detection probabilities at population-level densities (e.g., probability of detection > 0.99 at densities of ≥ 3 fish per 100 m). This is substantially more sensitive than traditional electrofishing for determining the presence of brook trout and may translate into important cost savings when animals are rare. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature showing that eDNA sampling is a powerful tool for the detection of aquatic species, particularly those that are rare and difficult to sample using traditional methods.

  17. Shale Gas Development and Brook Trout: Scaling Best Management Practices to Anticipate Cumulative Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Shale gas development may involve trade-offs between energy development and benefits provided by natural ecosystems. However, current best management practices (BMPs) focus on mitigating localized ecological degradation. We review evidence for cumulative effects of natural gas development on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and conclude that BMPs should account for potential watershed-scale effects in addition to localized influences. The challenge is to develop BMPs in the face of uncertainty in the predicted response of brook trout to landscape-scale disturbance caused by gas extraction. We propose a decision-analysis approach to formulating BMPs in the specific case of relatively undisturbed watersheds where there is consensus to maintain brook trout populations during gas development. The decision analysis was informed by existing empirical models that describe brook trout occupancy responses to landscape disturbance and set bounds on the uncertainty in the predicted responses to shale gas development. The decision analysis showed that a high efficiency of gas development (e.g., 1 well pad per square mile and 7 acres per pad) was critical to achieving a win-win solution characterized by maintaining brook trout and maximizing extraction of available gas. This finding was invariant to uncertainty in predicted response of brook trout to watershed-level disturbance. However, as the efficiency of gas development decreased, the optimal BMP depended on the predicted response, and there was considerable potential value in discriminating among predictive models through adaptive management or research. The proposed decision-analysis framework provides an opportunity to anticipate the cumulative effects of shale gas development, account for uncertainty, and inform management decisions at the appropriate spatial scales.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occ...

  19. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occ...

  20. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON GOITRE (SO CALLED THYROID CARCINOMA) IN BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS)

    PubMed Central

    Marine, David

    1914-01-01

    1. Goitre in fish is a non-infectious, non-contagious, symptomatic manifestation of a fault of nutrition, the exact biochemical nature of which has not been determined. 2. Feeding the highly artificial and incomplete diet of liver is the major etiological factor in bringing about this fault of nutrition which is at once corrected by feeding whole sea fish. 3. Water plays no essential part in the etiology, transmission, or distribution of the disease in the fish of this hatchery. PMID:19867750

  1. Long-term fasting in the anadromous Arctic charr is associated with downregulation of metabolic enzyme activity and upregulation of leptin A1 and SOCS expression in the liver.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar; Martinsen, Mads; Strøm, Vidar; Hansen, Kristin Elisa Ruud; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Gong, Ningping; Jobling, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    The life strategy of the anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) includes several months of voluntary fasting during overwintering in freshwater, leading to emaciation prior to seawater migration in spring. In this study we compared changes in condition, substrate utilization and liver metabolism between captive anadromous charr subjected to food deprivation during late winter and spring, and conspecifics fed in excess. In March, nine out of the 10 sampled fed fish had not eaten, indicating that they were in a voluntary anorexic state. In June, the fed fish were eating and all had higher body mass, condition factor and adiposity than in March. In fasted fish there were only small decreases in body mass, condition factor and adiposity between March and May, but all these parameters decreased markedly from May to June. The fasted fish were depleted in fat and glycogen in June, had suppressed activity of hepatic enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (G6PDH and HOAD) and seemed to rely on protein-derived glucose as a major energy source. This was associated with upregulated liver gene expression of leptin A1, leptin A2, SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3, and reduced IGF-I expression. In an in vitro study with liver slices it was shown that recombinant rainbow trout leptin stimulated SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, but not SOCS2, IGF-I or genes of enzymes involved in lipid (G6PDH) and amino acid (AspAT) metabolism. It is concluded that liver leptin interacts with SOCS in a paracrine fashion to suppress lipolytic pathways and depress metabolism when fat stores are depleted.

  2. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  3. Observations on communities of brook and brown trout separated by an upstream movement barrier on the Firehole River

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, L.R.

    1980-07-01

    Division of a fluvial fish community by stream impoundment can give rise to dissimilar upstream and downstream assemblages which may themselves differ from the original community. These changes are often ascribed to the modification of physical habitat or water quality. Less well documented are effects on fluvial fish communities of an upstream-1 movement barrier alone. Observations were made on contrasting communities of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) separated by Kepler Cascades in the Firehole River of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, a series of waterfalls that form an upstream-movement barrier. (ACR)

  4. Nearshore habitat and fish community associations of coaster brook trout in Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.; Moore, S.A.; Carlson, A.J.; Quinlan, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the nearshore habitat and fish community composition of approximately 300 km of shoreline within and adjacent to the major embayments of Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Sampling yielded 17 species, of which 12 were widespread and represented a common element of the Lake Superior fish community, including cisco Coregonus artedi, lake whitefish C. clupeaformis, round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, lake chub Couesius plumbeus, longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, white sucker C. commersonii, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius, burbot Lota lota, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis in an embayment was associated with the common species of the Isle Royale nearshore fish community, particularly cisco, longnose sucker, and round whitefish. However, brook trout were present in only five embayments and were common only in Tobin Harbor. Most Isle Royale embayments had broadly overlapping ranges of nearshore habitats. Within embayments, fish were distributed along a habitat gradient from less-protected rocky habitat near the mouth to highly protected habitat with mixed and finer substrates at the head. Embayments with brook trout had greater mean protection from the open lake, greater variation in depth, greater mean cover, and higher mean frequencies of large substrates (cobble, boulder, and bedrock). Within those embayments, brook trout were associated with habitat patches with higher mean frequencies of small substrates (particularly sand and coarse gravel). Within Tobin Harbor, brook trout were associated with midembayment habitat and species assemblages, especially those locations with a mixture of sand, gravel, and cobble substrates, an absence of bedrock, and the presence of round whitefish, white sucker, and trout-perch. Comparison of embayments with the model, Tobin Harbor, showed that six embayments

  5. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  6. Influence of landscape-scale factors in limiting brook trout populations in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Carline, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Landscapes influence the capacity of streams to produce trout through their effect on water chemistry and other factors at the reach scale. Trout abundance also fluctuates over time; thus, to thoroughly understand how spatial factors at landscape scales affect trout populations, one must assess the changes in populations over time to provide a context for interpreting the importance of spatial factors. We used data from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's fisheries management database to investigate spatial factors that affect the capacity of streams to support brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and to provide models useful for their management. We assessed the relative importance of spatial and temporal variation by calculating variance components and comparing relative standard errors for spatial and temporal variation. We used binary logistic regression to predict the presence of harvestable-length brook trout and multiple linear regression to assess the mechanistic links between landscapes and trout populations and to predict population density. The variance in trout density among streams was equal to or greater than the temporal variation for several streams, indicating that differences among sites affect population density. Logistic regression models correctly predicted the absence of harvestable-length brook trout in 60% of validation samples. The r 2-value for the linear regression model predicting density was 0.3, indicating low predictive ability. Both logistic and linear regression models supported buffering capacity against acid episodes as an important mechanistic link between landscapes and trout populations. Although our models fail to predict trout densities precisely, their success at elucidating the mechanistic links between landscapes and trout populations, in concert with the importance of spatial variation, increases our understanding of factors affecting brook trout abundance and will help managers and private groups to protect and

  7. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  8. Brook trout movement in response to temperature, flow, and thermal refugia within a complex Appalachian riverscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J. Todd; Hansbarger, Jeff L.; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified movements of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in a complex riverscape characterized by a large, open-canopy main stem and a small, closed-canopy tributary in eastern West Virginia, USA. Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement and relate movement behaviors to variation in streamflow, water temperature, and access to coldwater refugia. The study area experienced extremely high seasonal, yearly, and among-stream variability in water temperature and flow. The relative mobility of brook trout within the upper Shavers Fork watershed varied significantly depending on whether individuals resided within the larger main stem or the smaller tributary. The movement rate of trout inhabiting the main stem during summer months (50 m/d) was an order of magnitude higher than that of tributary fish (2 m/d). Movement rates of main-stem-resident brook trout during summer were correlated with the maximum water temperature experienced by the fish and with the fish's initial distance from a known coldwater source. For main-stem trout, use of microhabitats closer to cover was higher during extremely warm periods than during cooler periods; use of microhabitats closer to cover during warm periods was also greater for main-stem trout than for tributary inhabitants. Main-stem-resident trout were never observed in water exceeding 19.5°C. Our study provides some of the first data on brook trout movements in a large Appalachian river system and underscores the importance of managing trout fisheries in a riverscape context. Brook trout conservation in this region will depend on restoration and protection of coldwater refugia in larger river main stems as well as removal of barriers to trout movement near tributary and main-stem confluences.

  9. Identification of genes associated with heat tolerance in Arctic charr exposed to acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Nicole L; McGowan, Colin R; Cooper, Glenn A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-06-15

    Arctic charr is an especially attractive aquaculture species given that it features the desirable tissue traits of other salmonids and is bred and grown at inland freshwater tank farms year round. It is of interest to develop upper temperature tolerant (UTT) strains of Arctic charr to increase the robustness of the species in the face of climate change and to enable production in more southern regions. We used a genomics approach that takes advantage of the well-studied Atlantic salmon genome to identify genes that are associated with UTT in Arctic charr. Specifically, we conducted an acute temperature trial to identify temperature tolerant and intolerant Arctic charr individuals, which were subject to microarray and qPCR analysis to identify candidate UTT genes. These were compared with genes annotated in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) region that was previously identified as associated with UTT in rainbow trout and Arctic charr and that we sequenced in Atlantic salmon. Our results suggest that small heat shock proteins as well as HSP-90 genes are associated with UTT. Furthermore, hemoglobin expression was significantly downregulated in tolerant compared with intolerant fish. Finally, QTL analysis and expression profiling identified COUP-TFII as a candidate UTT gene, although its specific role is unclear given the identification of two transcripts, which appear to have different expression patterns. Our results highlight the importance of using more than one approach to identify candidate genes, particularly when examining a complicated trait such as UTT in a highly complex genome for which there is no reference genome.

  10. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  11. Spatial and temporal Brook Trout density dynamics: Implications for conservation, management, and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; John A. Sweka,

    2014-01-01

    Many potential stressors to aquatic environments operate over large spatial scales, prompting the need to assess and monitor both site-specific and regional dynamics of fish populations. We used hierarchical Bayesian models to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability in density and capture probability of age-1 and older Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis from three-pass removal data collected at 291 sites over a 37-year time period (1975–2011) in Pennsylvania streams. There was high between-year variability in density, with annual posterior means ranging from 2.1 to 10.2 fish/100 m2; however, there was no significant long-term linear trend. Brook Trout density was positively correlated with elevation and negatively correlated with percent developed land use in the network catchment. Probability of capture did not vary substantially across sites or years but was negatively correlated with mean stream width. Because of the low spatiotemporal variation in capture probability and a strong correlation between first-pass CPUE (catch/min) and three-pass removal density estimates, the use of an abundance index based on first-pass CPUE could represent a cost-effective alternative to conducting multiple-pass removal sampling for some Brook Trout monitoring and assessment objectives. Single-pass indices may be particularly relevant for monitoring objectives that do not require precise site-specific estimates, such as regional monitoring programs that are designed to detect long-term linear trends in density.

  12. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  13. Genetic structure and diversity among brook trout from Isle Royale, Lake Nipigon, and three Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Quinlan, Henry R.; Gorman, Owen T.; King, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from Isle Royale, Michigan, three Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior, and Lake Nipigon in Ontario were analyzed for genetic variation at 12 microsatellite DNA loci. Analysis of molecular variance, genetic distance measures, and cluster analysis were used to examine the diversity, gene flow, and relatedness among the samples. The diversity estimates for the samples from Isle Royale were similar to those for the samples collected from Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior, and all estimates were lower than those reported in other studies of brook trout from eastern North America. Genetic differences were detected among the brook trout at Isle Royale, Lake Nipigon, and the Minnesota tributaries of Lake Superior. Further, the population in Tobin Harbor at the eastern end of Isle Royale was distinct from the populations from tributaries at the southwestern end of the island. The Minnesota tributary population formed a group that was genetically distinct from those from Isle Royale and Lake Nipigon. The Isle Royale population should be managed to preserve the genetic and phenotypic variation that distinguishes it from the other brook trout populations analyzed to date.

  14. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  15. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  16. Sulfonamide toxicity in brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Snieszko, S.F.

    1954-01-01

    Sterility was observed in female brook trout that were treated with sulfamerazine at frequent intervals for 2 years to control endemic furunculosis. Feeding sulfamerazine for a period of 8 months caused massive kidney damage similar to that observed in humans who develop allergies to “sulfa” drugs. Kidney damage of the type observed would probably cause renal insufficiency which would handicap any physiological function including reproduction. Feeding sulfonamides for periods up to 13 weeks did not produce kidney damage.

  17. E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS Stanley Brook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS - Stanley Brook Bridge, Spanning Stanley Brook, Stanley Brook Motor Road, & Seaside Trail on Barr Hill-Day Mountain Carriage Road, Seal Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  18. Plum Brook Station Open House - 2016

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-11

    Astronaut Sunita Williams gives a talk at NASA's Plum Brook Station. In June, NASA Glenn hosted an Open House at Plum Brook Station in Sandusky to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Center. Thousands of people attended, and some lucky kids got to see awesome experiments and meet astronaut Suni Williams.

  19. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    American education has always had its critics, and undoubtedly always will. Nonetheless, there are signs that the educational environment is improving in unexpected ways. This issue of the Brookings Papers on Education Policy, the eighth volume springing from a series of annual meetings sponsored by the Brookings Institution to examine specific…

  20. Factors influencing successful eradication of nonnative brook trout from four small Rocky Mountain streams using electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shepard, Bradley B.; Nelson, Lee M.; Taper, Mark L.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We successfully eradicated nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by electrofishing from 2.4- to 3.0-km treatment reaches of four Rocky Mountain streams in Montana to conserve sympatric populations of native Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi. At least 6, and as many as 14, removal treatments of two to four electrofishing passes per treatment were required to successfully eradicate Brook Trout from these treatment reaches. We increased success by modifying our treatment efforts during this study from single annual treatments to several treatments a year to take advantage of autumn spawning and winter aggregating behavior. Eradication by electrofishing cost US \\$3,500 to \\$5,500 per kilometer where no riparian vegetation or woody debris clearing was necessary, increasing to \\$8,000 to \\$9,000 per kilometer where clearing was needed. Treatment costs without stream clearing were similar to costs of eradication using piscicides. Eradication by electrofishing may be preferable where native fish occur in sympatry with nonnative fish in smaller streams (base flow wetted widths

  1. Estimation of streambed groundwater fluxes associated with coaster brook trout spawning habitat.

    PubMed

    Van Grinsven, Matthew; Mayer, Alex; Huckins, Casey

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of groundwater inflows through river bottom sediments is a critical factor associated with the distribution of coaster brook trout (a life history variant of Salvelinus fontinalis) spawning redds. An 80-m reach of the Salmon Trout River, in the Huron Mountains of the upper peninsula of Michigan, was selected to test the hypothesis based on long-term documentation of coaster brook trout spawning at this site. A monitoring well system consisting of 22 wells was installed in the riverbed to measure surface and subsurface temperatures over a 13-month period. The array of monitoring wells was positioned to span areas where spawning has and has not been observed. Over 200,000 total temperature measurements were collected from five depths within each monitoring well. Temperatures in the substrate beneath the spawning area were generally less variable than river temperatures, whereas temperatures under the nonspawning area were generally more variable and closely tracked temporal variations in river temperatures. Temperature data were inverted to obtain subsurface groundwater velocities using a numerical approximation of the heat transfer equation. Approximately 45,000 estimates of groundwater velocities were obtained. Estimated groundwater velocities in the spawning area were primarily in the upward direction and were generally greater in magnitude than velocities in the nonspawning area. Both the temperature and velocity results confirm the hypothesis that spawning sites correspond to areas of significant groundwater flux into the river bed. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  3. Population Genetics of Boise Basin Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    Treesearch

    A.R. Whiteley; P. Spruell; F.W. Allendorf

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the population genetic structure of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Boise River Basin, Idaho. We determined the influence of contemporary (including anthropogenic) and historic factors on genetic structure, taking into accountexisting data on bull trout habitat patches in this basin. We tested three models of the organization of genetic structure...

  4. Invasion by nonnative brook trout in Panther Creek, Idaho: Roles of local habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity to source habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, J.R.; Dunham, J.B.; Dare, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical models and empirical evidence suggest that the invasion of nonnative species in freshwaters is facilitated through the interaction of three factors: habitat quality, biotic resistance, and connectivity. We measured variables that represented each factor to determine which were associated with the occurrence of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Panther Creek, a tributary to the Salmon River, Idaho. Habitat variables included measures of summer and winter temperature, instream cover, and channel size. The abundance of native rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within sampled sites was used as a measure of biotic resistance. We also considered the connectivity of sample sites to unconfined valley bottoms, which were considered habitats that may serve as sources for the spread of established populations of brook trout. We analyzed the occurrence of small (<150-mm [fork length]) and large (???150-mm) brook trout separately, assuming that the former represents an established invasion while accounting for the higher potential mobility of the latter. The occurrence of small brook trout was strongly associated with the proximity of sites to large, unconstrained valley bottoms, providing evidence that such habitats may serve as sources for the spread of brook trout invasion. Within sites, winter degree-days and maximum summer temperature were positively associated with the occurrence of small brook trout. The occurrence of large brook trout was not related to any of the variables considered, perhaps due to the difficulty of linking site-specific habitat factors to larger and more mobile individuals. The abundance of rainbow trout was not conclusively associated with the occurrence of either small or large brook trout, providing little support for the role of biotic resistance. Overall, our results suggest that source connectivity and local habitat characteristics, but not biotic resistance, influence the establishment and spread of nonnative brook

  5. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brooks Falls area. 13.1226... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  6. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  7. Persistent mortality of brook trout in episodically acidified streams of the Southwestern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.; Simonin, H.

    2007-01-01

    Water chemistry, discharge, and mortality of caged brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were characterized in six headwater streams in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains of New York during spring 2001-2003. Results were compared with mortality recorded during similar tests during 1984-1985, 1988-1990, and 1997 to assess contemporary relations between stream acidification and brook trout mortality, the effects of exposure duration on mortality, and the effects of decreased rates of acidic deposition on water quality and fish mortality. Water quality and mortality of caged, young-of-the-year brook trout were evaluated during 30-d exposure periods from mid-April to late May during the most recent tests. In 2001-2003, mortality ranged from 0% to 100% and varied among streams and years, depending on the timing of toxicity tests in relation to the annual snowmelt and on the ability of each watershed to neutralize acids and prevent acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) during high-flow events. Mortality rates in 2001-2003 tests were highly variable but similar to those observed during earlier tests. This similarity suggests that stream water quality in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains has not changed appreciably over the past 20 years. Concentrations of Alim greater than 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L were closely correlated with low and high mortality rates, respectively, and accounted for 83% of the variation in mortality. Two to four days of exposure to Alim concentrations greater than 4.0 ??mol/L resulted in 50-100% mortality. The extended periods (as long as 6 months) during which Alim concentrations exceeded 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L in one or more streams, combined with the low tolerance of many other fish species to acid and elevated Al concentrations, indicate a high potential for damage to fish communities in these and other poorly buffered streams of the Northeast. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  8. Harriet Brooks-Pioneer nuclear scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner-Canham, M. F.; Rayner-Canham, G. W.

    1989-10-01

    This article, using revealing statements from contemporary correspondence, traces the eventful life of Harriet Brooks, one of Ernest Rutherford's most valued research students and collaborators at McGill University. Brooks performed some of the crucial experiments in the early work on radioactivity; her work led her to the Cavendish where she did work with J. J. Thomson. Still later, she worked with Marie Curie, to whom Rutherford favorably compared her. Despite Brooks' achievements and promise, she finally relinquished her research career when faced with insurmountable objections to women who wished to have both a professional and a married life.

  9. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E.; Rose, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  10. AmeriFlux US-Bkg Brookings

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meyers, Tilden [NOAA/ARL

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bkg Brookings. Site Description - The Brookings site is located in a private pasture, consisting of a mixture of C3 and C4 species actively used for grazing. Belonging to the Northern Great Plains Rangelands, the grassland is representative of many in the north central United States, with seasonal winter conditions and a wet growing season.

  11. Effective number of breeders, effective population size and their relationship with census size in an iteroparous species, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzante, Daniel E.; McCracken, Gregory R.; Parmelee, Samantha; Hill, Kristen; Corrigan, Amelia; MacMillan, John; Walde, Sandra J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the effective number of breeders (Nb) and the generational effective size (Ne) has rarely been examined empirically in species with overlapping generations and iteroparity. Based on a suite of 11 microsatellite markers, we examine the relationship between Nb, Ne and census population size (Nc) in 14 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations inhabiting 12 small streams in Nova Scotia and sampled at least twice between 2009 and 2015. Unbiased estimates of Nb obtained with individuals of a single cohort, adjusted on the basis of age at first maturation (α) and adult lifespan (AL), were from 1.66 to 0.24 times the average estimates of Ne obtained with random samples of individuals of mixed ages (i.e. ). In turn, these differences led to adjusted Ne estimates that were from nearly five to 0.7 times the estimates derived from mixed-aged individuals. These differences translate into the same range of variation in the ratio of effective to census population size within populations. Adopting as the more precise and unbiased estimates, we found that these brook trout populations differ markedly in their effective to census population sizes (range approx. 0.3 to approx. 0.01). Using AgeNe, we then showed that the variance in reproductive success or reproductive skew varied among populations by a factor of 40, from Vk/k ≈ 5 to 200. These results suggest wide differences in population dynamics, probably resulting from differences in productivity affecting the intensity of competition for access to mates or redds, and thus reproductive skew. Understanding the relationship between Ne, Nb and Nc, and how these relate to population dynamics and fluctuations in population size, are important for the design of robust conservation strategies in small populations with overlapping generations and iteroparity. PMID:26817773

  12. [Genetic Connectivity Between Sympatric Populations of Closely Related Char Species, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and White Char Salvelinus albus].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The closely related chars Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus albus, which sympatrically inhabit the Kamchatka River basin and Kronotsky Lake (Kamchatka), attract the attention of the researchers because of their debated origin and taxonomic status. Previous studies of sympatric populations of these chars revealed small but statistically significant genetic differences between these species at a number of molecular markers, suggesting the presence of the genetic exchange and hybridization. In this study, based on genotypic characterization of nine microsatellite loci, a considerable level of historical and contemporary genetic migration between sympatric populations of these chars was demonstrated. At the individual level a high degree of hybridization was observed, mainly among the Dolly Varden individuals from the studied populations. The obtained evidence on the genetic connectivity between sympatric S. malma and S. albus do not support the separate species status of S. albus.

  13. Protective antibodies and anamnestic response in Salvelinus fontinalis to Cryptobia salmositica and innate resistance of Salvelinus namaycush to the hemoflagellate.

    PubMed

    Ardelli, B F; Woo, P T

    1997-10-01

    Cryptobia-susceptible Salvelinus fontinalis vaccinated with a live Cryptobia salmositica vaccine were protected against C. salmositica and they were still protected 53 wk after their initial challenge. Parasites were lysed when they were incubated with immune plasma and complement and this confirms that complement-fixing antibody is an important part of the protective mechanism. Immunological memory was demonstrated in both vaccinated-challenged, and infected-recovered S. fontinalis as there were rapid and significant increases in complement-fixing antibody titers after parasite challenge. This indicates that S. fontinalis are capable of an anamnestic response. Most naive Salvelinus namaycush were not susceptible to C. salmositica infection, and their fresh plasma lysed C. salmositica under in vitro conditions. The lytic factor(s) was inactivated by heating the plasma prior to parasite incubation. This indicates that the alternate pathway of complement activation is likely the mechanism of innate resistance in S. namaycush.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the Northern (Salvelinus malma) and Southern (Salvelinus curilus) Dolly Varden chars (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Romanov, Nikolai S; Ayala, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced from the Northern and Southern Dolly Varden chars, Salvelinus malma and S. curilus. The genome sequences are 16,654 bp in size in both species, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the salmonid fish genomes published previously. The level of sequence divergence between S. malma and S. curilus inferred from the complete mitochondrial genomes is relatively low (1.88%) indicating recent divergence of the species and/or historical hybridization.

  15. [Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2010-03-01

    Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  16. Dose determinations for waterborne 2,5,2',5'-(/sup 14/C)tetrachlorobiphenyl and related pharmacokinetics in two species of trout (Salmo gairdneri and Salvelinus fontinalis): a mass-balance approach

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Heath, E.M.

    1983-04-01

    A mass-balance study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dose determinations of waterborne 2,5,2',5'-(/sup 14/C)tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) made on transected brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and to determine any pharmacokinetic differences between the two species. The total calculated (/sup 14/C)TCB absorbed by brook (17.8 micrograms) and rainbow (24.5 micrograms) trout was compared to the actual body burden measurements of (/sup 14/C)TCB for brook (17.4 micrograms) and rainbow (25.6 micrograms) trout; the latter measurements also included excretory losses through the urine, feces, and across the gill surface. Approximately 1% of the total dose was excreted of which 75% was in the urine and 25% in the feces. The agreement between the whole body burden measurements of (/sup 14/C)TCB and the total calculated micrograms of (/sup 14/C)TCB absorbed was within 10% in both species. Mass-balance measurements were converted to dose by dividing by fish weight. Mean calculated and measured doses were 31.4 and 30.4 micrograms/kg/48 hr for brook trout and 32.3 and 33.6 micrograms/kg/48 hr for rainbow trout. No species differences were seen in either calculated or measured doses or in total radioactivity excreted. Respiratory function between the two species was similar except for a significantly higher mean ventilation rate for brook trout (84 +/- 14/min) than for rainbow trout (65 +/- 4/min). There were also no fluctuations noted in either respiratory function of (/sup 14/C)TCB uptake efficiency across the gills over the 48-hr exposure period. These studies demonstrated the ability to accurately calculate a water dose in micrograms per kilogram per hour for individual fish that could be directly compared to other fish species or to mammals.

  17. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Halden, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  18. Implanting 8-mm passive integrated transponder tags into small Brook Trout: Effects on growth and survival in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags are commonly used to investigate relationships between individual fish and their environment. The recent availability of smaller tags has provided the opportunity to tag smaller fish. In this study, we implanted 8-mm PIT tags into small Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis (35–50 mm FL; 0.35–1.266 g) and compared tag retention, growth rates, and survival of PIT-tagged fish with those of fish subjected to handling only or to handling plus fin clipping. We also examined how initial size at tagging affected absolute and specific growth rates of PIT-tagged individuals over time. We found that survival was 100%, tag retention was 96.7%, and fish size did not vary across treatments at 29 and 64 d posttagging. Additionally, there was no evidence that growth rate (FL or mass) was influenced by the initial size of the fish that were PIT tagged. Our results indicate that retention rates of 8-mm PIT tags surgically implanted into small Brook Trout are high and that there is no discernible effect on growth or survival in the laboratory. The ability to implant smaller PIT tags into smaller fish earlier in the season would allow researchers conducting PIT tag studies to expand demographic models to estimate survival of age-0 fish through the summer of their first year.

  19. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. Effects of dam removal on brook trout in a Wisconsin stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, E.H.; Catalano, M.J.; Mercado-Silva, N.; Orr, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dams create barriers to fish migration and dispersal in drainage basins, and the removal of dams is often viewed as a means of increasing habitat availability and restoring migratory routes of several fish species. However, these barriers can also isolate and protect native taxa from aggressive downstream invaders. We examined fish community composition two years prior to and two years after the removal of a pair of low-head dams from Boulder Creek, Wisconsin, U.S.A. in 2003 to determine if removal of these potential barriers affected the resident population of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Despite the presence of other taxa in the downstream reaches, and in other similar streams adjacent to the Boulder Creek (including the brown trout, Salmo trutta), no new species had colonized the Boulder Creek in the two years following dam removal. The adults catch per unit effort (CPUE) was lower and the young-of-the-year catch per unit effort (YOY CPUE) was higher in 2005 than in 2001 in all reaches, but the magnitude of these changes was substantially larger in the two dam-affected sample reaches relative to an upstream reference reach, indicating a localized effect of the removal. Total length of the adults and the YOY and the adult body condition did not vary between years or among reaches. Thus, despite changes in numbers of adults and the YOYs in some sections of the stream, the lack of new fish species invading Boulder Creek and the limited extent of population change in brook trout indicate that dam removal had a minor effect on these native salmonids in the first two years of the post-removal. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Changes in seasonal climate outpace compensatory density-dependence in eastern brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassar, Ronald D.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how multiple extrinsic (density-independent) factors and intrinsic (density-dependent) mechanisms influence population dynamics has become increasingly urgent in the face of rapidly changing climates. It is particularly unclear how multiple extrinsic factors with contrasting effects among seasons are related to declines in population numbers and changes in mean body size and whether there is a strong role for density-dependence. The primary goal of this study was to identify the roles of seasonal variation in climate driven environmental direct effects (mean stream flow and temperature) versus density-dependence on population size and mean body size in eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We use data from a 10-year capture-mark-recapture study of eastern brook trout in four streams in Western Massachusetts, USA to parameterize a discrete-time population projection model. The model integrates matrix modeling techniques used to characterize discrete population structures (age, habitat type and season) with integral projection models (IPMs) that characterize demographic rates as continuous functions of organismal traits (in this case body size). Using both stochastic and deterministic analyses we show that decreases in population size are due to changes in stream flow and temperature and that these changes are larger than what can be compensated for through density-dependent responses. We also show that the declines are due mostly to increasing mean stream temperatures decreasing the survival of the youngest age class. In contrast, increases in mean body size over the same period are the result of indirect changes in density with a lesser direct role of climate-driven environmental change.

  2. Twelve microsatellite loci for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Rollins, Maryclare F; Vu, Ninh V; Spies, Ingrid B; Kalinowski, Steven T

    2009-05-01

    We describe 12 microsatellite loci isolated from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The number of alleles at these loci ranged from two to 11 with an average of 5.3 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.29 to 0.76, with an average of 0.68. Accidental (or illegal) introductions of lake trout into watersheds are decimating native trout populations in the northern Rocky Mountains, and these loci will be useful for identifying the source of these introductions and for estimating the number of founding individuals. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  4. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    In this inaugural issue of "Brookings Papers on Education Policy" a varied group of scholars considers different dimensions of student performance. Several contributors try to offer a clear picture of how American students are performing as compared with their international peers and with the past. The following are included: (1) "Introduction"…

  5. Are brook trout streams in western Virginia and Shenandoah National Park recovering from acidification?

    PubMed

    Webb, James R; Cosby, Bernard J; Deviney, Frank A; Galloway, James N; Maben, Suzanne W; Bulger, Arthur J

    2004-08-01

    Streamwater composition data obtained through periodic sampling of streams that support brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the mountains of western Virginia were examined for evidence of recovery from acidification during the 1988-2001 period. Measurements of sulfate deposition in precipitation indicate that sulfate deposition in the region declined approximately 40% between 1985 and 2000. While no significant regional trends in acid-base constituents were observed for the set (n = 65) of western Virginia study streams, significant regional trends were observed for a subset (n = 14) of streams in Shenandoah National Park (SNP). For the subset of SNP streams, the median increase in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) was 0.168 microequiv L(-1) year(-1) and the median decrease in sulfate concentration was -0.229 microequiv L(-1) year(-1). Although these trends are consistent with recovery from acidification, the degree of apparent recovery is small compared to estimates of historic acidification in SNP streams and much less than observed in other, more northern regions in the United States. Correlation between sulfate concentration trends and current sulfate concentrations in streamwater suggests that recovery from stream acidification in the western Virginia region is determined by sulfur retention processes in watershed soils. A transient increase in nitrate concentrations that occurred among some western Virginia streams following forest defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) complicates interpretation of the observed patterns of change in acid-base status.

  6. Experimental test of genetic rescue in isolated populations of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Zachary L.; Coombs, Jason A.; Hudy, Mark; Nislow, Keith H.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic rescue is an increasingly considered conservation measure to address genetic erosion associated with habitat loss and fragmentation. The resulting gene flow from facilitating migration may improve fitness and adaptive potential, but is not without risks (e.g., outbreeding depression). Here, we conducted a test of genetic rescue by translocating ten (five of each sex) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a single source to four nearby and isolated stream populations. To control for the demographic contribution of translocated individuals, ten resident individuals (five of each sex) were removed from each recipient population. Prior to the introduction of translocated individuals, the two smallest above-barrier populations had substantially lower genetic diversity, and all populations had reduced effective number of breeders relative to adjacent below-barrier populations. In the first reproductive bout following translocation, 31 of 40 (78%) translocated individuals reproduced successfully. Translocated individuals contributed to more families than expected under random mating and generally produced larger full-sibling families. We observed relatively high (>20%) introgression in three of the four recipient populations. The translocations increased genetic diversity of recipient populations by 45% in allelic richness and 25% in expected heterozygosity. Additionally, strong evidence of hybrid vigour was observed through significantly larger body sizes of hybrid offspring relative to resident offspring in all recipient populations. Continued monitoring of these populations will test for negative fitness effects beyond the first generation. However, these results provide much-needed experimental data to inform the potential effectiveness of genetic rescue-motivated translocations.

  7. Mortality of brook trout, mottled sculpins, and slimy sculpins during acidic episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gagen, C.J.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F. )

    1993-07-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, mottled sculpins Cottus bairdi, and slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus occur in many Pennsylvania streams that have depressed pH and elevated aluminum concentrations during episodes of high stream discharge (acidic episodes). We performed 20-d in situ cage exposures with these species to determine their relative sensitivities to field conditions. We also exposed fish in the laboratory to synthetic soft water, without added Al, to elevate possible effects of Al on sodium flux rates and pH toxicity. Exposures were in five streams: two with high pH (>5.60) and low Al concentrations (<80 [mu]g/L) and three with low pH (usually between 5.0 and 5.5) and high Al levels (124-294 [mu]g/L). Exposures were during two low-discharge fall periods, when pH tends to be seasonally higher and Al concentrations lower, and two relatively high-discharge spring seasons, when lower pH and higher Al concentrations are typical. Few fish died (generally <10%) in the two streams that had higher pH and lower al concentrations, whereas mortalities typically exceeded 20% and were as high as 100% during spring exposures in the streams with lower pH and elevated Al concentrations. All three species had higher mortality rates in spring, 20-100%, than in fall, 0-29%. Mottled sculpins and slimy sculpins had similar mortality rates and both had lower mortality rates than brook trout when exposed to similar conditions. We compared Na flux rates of mottled sculpins to those of brook trout in laboratory exposures at pH 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 to determine if low pH alone could account for mortality rates in the field. Because Na flux rates at pH 5.0, without added Al, were similar to flux rates of the controls for both species, high Al levels were believed to have contributed to the increased mortality observed in streams. 44 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with

  9. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., <80 mm total length) bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed between bull trout and lake trout in the proportion of time using cover (F1,22.6=20.08, P<0.001) and bottom (F1,23.7 = 37.01, P < 0.001) habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  10. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  11. Characterization of a Neochlamydia-like Bacterium Associated with Epitheliocystis in Cultured Artic Char Salvelinus alpinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infections of branchial epithelium by intracellular gram-negative bacteria, termed epitheliocystis, have limited culture of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). To characterize a bacterium associated with epitheliocystis in cultured char, gills were sampled for histopathologic examination, conventional...

  12. Developmental toxicity of selenium to Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Blair G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Elphick, James R F; Davies, Martin; Bustard, David; Chapman, Peter M

    2010-12-01

    Gametes were collected from Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) from waterbodies in a region exposed to mining-related selenium (Se) releases in British Columbia, Canada. Fertilized eggs were incubated in a laboratory and deformities were assessed on newly-hatched alevins using a graduated severity index. No effects were observed on egg or alevin survival or larval weight across the studied exposure range of 5.4 to 66 mg/kg dry weight in egg. Length of some larvae was reduced at the highest egg Se concentrations and a clear residue-response relationship was observed for larval deformity. The egg concentration corresponding to a 10% increase in the frequency of deformity (EC10) was 54 mg/kg dry weight, which is substantially higher than reported for other cold-water fish species.

  13. Ovarian fluid influences sperm performance in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Galvano, Patrick M; Johnson, Katelynn; Wilson, Chris C; Pitcher, Trevor E; Butts, Ian A E

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether (i) the presence and concentration of ovarian fluid (OF) affects sperm performance traits, and (ii) variation in sperm performance traits is due to male identity, female identity, and/or male×female interactions in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. Spermatozoa from four males were activated in river water and OF from four females at two concentrations (10 and 15%). Presence of ovarian fluid influenced sperm traits; no differences were detected between 10 and 15% OF. Sperm traits varied depending on parental identity, such that sperm of some males perform better in the OF of all females and that in OF of some females sperm traits are higher for all males. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Resource utilization of sympatric and experimentally allopatric cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden charr.

    PubMed

    Hindar, Kjetil; Jonsson, Bror; Andrew, Joyce H; Northcote, Thomas G

    1988-01-01

    Resource utilization by cutthroat trout (CT) and Dolly Varden charr (DV) was studied 8 years after experimental transfers from sympatry had established reproducing allopatric populations in two nearby fishless lakes. Allopatric DV significantly increased their utilization of shallow-dwelling zoobenthos, and increased their vertical distribution in comparison to that in sympatry. In contrast, allopatric CT showed little change in the proportions of major prey types utilized, and, if anything, restricted their vertical distribution in comparison to that in sympatry. The results can be explained by the hypothesis that the resource use of DV is strongly influenced by interspecific competition from CT, whereas CT largely remains unaffected by this interaction. An alternative hypothesis, that lake differences can explain the differences in resource use between sympatry and allopatry, was evaluated by comparing food resource availability and other biotic and abiotic characteristics of the three study lakes. None of these could account for the shift in resource use by DV between sympatry and allopatry, but lake differences may explain why allopatric CT showed a restricted habitat use in comparison with their sympatric donor stock. The results of this whole-lake transfer experiment are consistent with earlier reported field and laboratory studies, and suggest that the aggressive dominance of CT is the most important mechanism by which DV are displaced from littoral and near-surface habitats in sympathy with CT.

  15. Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, Brooks AFB Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    INTRODUCTION In a 22 Jun 87 letter (Appendix A), Headquarters Joint Military Medical Command, USAF Clinic Brooks/SGPB, requested the USAF Occupational and...FORCE " HEADQUARTERS JOINT MILITARY MEDICAL COMMAND - SAN ANTONIO (ATC) USAF CLINIC. BROOKS0BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE TX 78235-5300 REPLY TO 2 2 JUN 1981...Thispageleft lank 32I A.~%. &~. ~ 4. * * ~ - - - A 4 4 = - - - .. - ..K a. I;. S * **. APPENDI B " - Texa Watr Comision nifom"- . ’i...-. .4

  16. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 NORTH ELEVATION - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  17. Heterospecific aggression and adaptive divergence in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans).

    PubMed

    Peiman, K S; Robinson, B W

    2007-06-01

    Agonistic behavior between heterospecifics, in which individuals of one species attack another, may cause a subordinate species to shift resource or habitat use. Subsequent evolutionary responses to selection may mimic shifts expected under ecological character displacement, but with no role played by exploitative competition. Alternatively, aggressive behavior can evolve when fitness is improved by excluding members of a coexisting species from a defendable resource through interference. We tested whether heterospecific agonistic behavior has evolved in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) by comparing replicate allopatric populations to those sympatric with ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). We also tested for heritable variation in heterospecific aggressive behavior by rearing family groups in a common environment. Allopatric populations of brook stickleback were more aggressive than ninespine stickleback, suggesting that pre-existing aggression in brook stickleback contributed to niche shifts by ninespine stickleback. In addition, sympatric adult brook stickleback were more aggressive toward ninespine stickleback than brook stickleback from allopatric populations. Overt heterospecific aggressive behaviors were heritable, and aggression in juvenile brook stickleback increased with age in sympatric but not in allopatric populations reared in a common environment. Brook stickleback have evolved increased aggression when they coexist with ninespine stickleback. These stickleback communities have been structured by both evolved and pre-existing variation in heterospecific aggressive behavior in brook stickleback.

  18. Botanical reconnaissance of Nancy Brook Research Natural Area

    Treesearch

    Joshua L. Royte; Daniel D. Sperduto; John P. Lortie

    1996-01-01

    A survey of the flora and natural communities of Nancy Brook Research Natural Area, Crawford Notch, White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire, was conducted during the summer and fall of 1992. Nancy Brook Research Natural Area is noted for being the largest virgin mountain spruce forest in New Hampshire, and one of the few remaining large examples in the...

  19. Organisms of the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Holmes; Gene E. Likens

    1999-01-01

    Lists the organisms, both plant and animal, that have been identified by scientists engaged in multidisciplinary ecological research in the Hubbard Brook Valley, New Hampshire, during the past three decades. The Valley encompasses the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, Mirror Lake, and nearby areas within the White Mountain region of Grafton County. The species lists...

  20. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  3. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw of...

  5. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Joseph G.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species. PMID:27293702

  6. The physiological stress response and oxidative stress biomarkers in rainbow trout and brook trout from selenium-impacted streams in a coal mining region.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Rasmussen, J B; Palace, V P; Hontela, A

    2009-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element that can be toxic at concentrations slightly greater than those required for homeostasis. The main chronic toxic effects of Se in fish are teratogenic deformities, but Se can also activate the physiological stress response and redox cycle with reduced glutathione causing oxidative damage. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, appear to be more sensitive to Se than brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological stress response (plasma cortisol, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, gill Na+/K+ ATPase, cortisol secretory capacity, K and liver somatic index) and oxidative stress biomarkers (liver GSH, GPx, lipid peroxidation, vitamin A and vitamin E) in rainbow trout (RNTR) and brook trout (BKTR) collected from reference and Se-exposed streams. The physiological stress response was not impaired (cortisol secretory capacity unchanged); although there were species differences in plasma cortisol and plasma glucose levels. Liver GSH, GPx and vitamin levels were higher in RNTR than BKTR, but lipid peroxidation levels were not different. The elevated GSH reserves may make RNTR more sensitive to Se-induced lipid peroxidation, but this may be offset by the RNTR's higher antioxidant (GPx and vitamin) levels. Species-specific biochemical differences may mediate differences in Se sensitivity and be used in aquatic Se risk assessments.

  7. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Kieth H; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  8. Cretaceous Olistostrome Model, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills area of the Brooks Range thrust belt in the area between the Itkillik River and the Etivluk River is composed dominantly of shallow, thrusted olistostrome sheets. Three olistostrome units can be recognized based on the dominant lithology of contained olistoliths and age of the matrix shales. The lower unit is Thithonian to mid-Valanginian in age and is characterized by abundant graywacke and turbidite, mafic rocks, black cherts, olistoliths of Norian-Rhaetic shales, Nuka sands, and glide sheets of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian rocks. Olistolights were derived from the Misheguk, Ipnavik, and Nuka Ridge allochthonous sequences. The middle unit is of late Valanginian age and has olistoliths of Norian shales; more abundant Upper Triassic chert; Otuk Formation; variegated, radiolarian, black and white cherts; Siksikpuk facies red, green and black shales; Upper Jurassic graywacke; and minor occurrences of mafic rocks. The unit is characterized by glide sheets of Triassic white and multicolor cherts. Olistoliths are derived from Nuka Ridge and Brooks Range sequences. The upper unit is Hauterivian in age and olistoliths included reworked material from all older units. Olistoliths are few and widely scattered. Isolated outcrops of white chert and conglomerate boulders are characteristic.

  9. Energy budget for yearling lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.

    1993-01-01

    Components of the energy budget of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were derived from data gathered in laboratory growth and metabolism studies; values for energy lost as waste were estimated with previously published equations. Because the total caloric value of food consumed by experimental lake trout was significantly different during the two years in which the studies were done, separate annual energy budgets were formulated. The gross conversion efficiency in yearling lake trout fed ad libitum rations of alewives at 10A?C was 26.6% to 41%. The distribution of energy with temperature was similar for each component of the energy budget. Highest conversion efficiencies were observed in fish fed less than ad libitum rations; fish fed an amount of food equivalent to about 4% of their body weight at 10A?C had a conversion efficiency of 33% to 45.1%. Physiologically useful energy was 76.1-80.1% of the total energy consumed. Estimated growth for age-I and -II lake fish was near that observed for laboratory fish held at lake temperatures and fed reduced rations.

  10. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  11. A physiologically based toxicokinetic model for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Lien, G J; McKim, J M; Hoffman, A D; Jenson, C T

    2001-01-01

    A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PB-TK) model for fish, incorporating chemical exchange at the gill and accumulation in five tissue compartments, was parameterized and evaluated for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Individual-based model parameterization was used to examine the effect of natural variability in physiological, morphological, and physico-chemical parameters on model predictions. The PB-TK model was used to predict uptake of organic chemicals across the gill and accumulation in blood and tissues in lake trout. To evaluate the accuracy of the model, a total of 13 adult lake trout were exposed to waterborne 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE), pentachloroethane (PCE), and hexachloroethane (HCE), concurrently, for periods of 6, 12, 24 or 48 h. The measured and predicted concentrations of TCE, PCE and HCE in expired water, dorsal aortic blood and tissues were generally within a factor of two, and in most instances much closer. Variability noted in model predictions, based on the individual-based model parameterization used in this study, reproduced variability observed in measured concentrations. The inference is made that parameters influencing variability in measured blood and tissue concentrations of xenobiotics are included and accurately represented in the model. This model contributes to a better understanding of the fundamental processes that regulate the uptake and disposition of xenobiotic chemicals in the lake trout. This information is crucial to developing a better understanding of the dynamic relationships between contaminant exposure and hazard to the lake trout.

  12. Stochastic life history modeling for managing regional-scale freshwater fisheries: an experimental study of brook trout.

    PubMed

    Adams, Blair K; Cote, David; Fleming, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    Environmental heterogeneity can combine with evolutionary responses to create very dynamic and often locally independent populations across a landscape. Such complexity creates difficulties for managers trying to conserve populations across large areas. This study develops, applies, and tests the use of stochastic life history modeling and Monte Carlo simulation to assess management scenarios related to the realities of regional fisheries management and conservation. We apply this approach to the management of recreational brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fishing; an activity that can severely impact species balance, abundance, and the size structure of fish communities. Specifically, the model incorporates population-specific life-history information (e.g., growth rate, reproductive effort, and survival) to allow forecasts of the impact of various management strategies and/or changes to environmental conditions on a population's ecological characteristics (e.g., size structure, abundance, and probability of persistence). Sampling was carried out in 16 water bodies spread across four sites in Atlantic Canada. Each water body was sampled in 2005 and reassessed in 2008. This sampling had two primary objectives: (1) define a significant proportion of life-history variation of brook trout in Atlantic Canada, and (2) to test the precision and accuracy of model predictions of population responses to experimental exploitation and management changes. The model successfully predicted population responses to changes in adult survival in 12 of 13 populations having sufficient data for validation testing, while also proving to be a useful tool when engaging stakeholders regarding management options and their associated risk. We suggest that such models are cost-effective and have great potential for informing proactive management of jurisdictions with numerous and diverse populations.

  13. Can brook trout survive climate change in large rivers? If it rains.

    PubMed

    Merriam, Eric R; Fernandez, Rodrigo; Petty, J Todd; Zegre, Nicolas

    2017-12-31

    We provide an assessment of thermal characteristics and climate change vulnerability for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) habitats in the upper Shavers Fork sub-watershed, West Virginia. Spatial and temporal (2001-2015) variability in observed summer (6/1-8/31) stream temperatures was quantified in 23 (9 tributary, 14 main-stem) reaches. We developed a mixed effects model to predict site-specific mean daily stream temperature from air temperature and discharge and coupled this model with a hydrologic model to predict future (2016-2100) changes in stream temperature under low (RCP 4.5) and high (RCP 8.5) emissions scenarios. Observed mean daily stream temperature exceeded the 21°C brook trout physiological threshold in all but one main-stem site, and 3 sites exceeded proposed thermal limits for either 63- and 7-day mean stream temperature. We modeled mean daily stream temperature with a high degree of certainty (R(2)=0.93; RMSE=0.76°C). Predicted increases in mean daily stream temperature in main-stem and tributary reaches ranged from 0.2°C (RCP 4.5) to 1.2°C (RCP 8.5). Between 2091 and 2100, the average number of days with mean daily stream temperature>21°C increased within main-stem sites under the RCP 4.5 (0-1.2days) and 8.5 (0-13) scenarios; however, no site is expected to exceed 63- or 7-day thermal limits. During the warmest 10years, ≥5 main-stem sites exceeded the 63- or 7-day thermal tolerance limits under both climate emissions scenarios. Years with the greatest increases in stream temperature were characterized by low mean daily discharge. Main-stem reaches below major tributaries never exceed thermal limits, despite neighboring reaches having among the highest observed and predicted stream temperatures. Persistence of thermal refugia within upper Shavers Fork would enable persistence of metapopulation structure and life history processes. However, this will only be possible if projected increases in discharge are realized and offset expected

  14. Experimental test of genetic rescue in isolated populations of brook trout.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Zachary L; Coombs, Jason A; Hudy, Mark; Nislow, Keith H; Letcher, Benjamin H; Whiteley, Andrew R

    2017-09-01

    Genetic rescue is an increasingly considered conservation measure to address genetic erosion associated with habitat loss and fragmentation. The resulting gene flow from facilitating migration may improve fitness and adaptive potential, but is not without risks (e.g., outbreeding depression). Here, we conducted a test of genetic rescue by translocating ten (five of each sex) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from a single source to four nearby and isolated stream populations. To control for the demographic contribution of translocated individuals, ten resident individuals (five of each sex) were removed from each recipient population. Prior to the introduction of translocated individuals, the two smallest above-barrier populations had substantially lower genetic diversity, and all populations had reduced effective number of breeders relative to adjacent below-barrier populations. In the first reproductive bout following translocation, 31 of 40 (78%) translocated individuals reproduced successfully. Translocated individuals contributed to more families than expected under random mating and generally produced larger full-sibling families. We observed relatively high (>20%) introgression in three of the four recipient populations. The translocations increased genetic diversity of recipient populations by 45% in allelic richness and 25% in expected heterozygosity. Additionally, strong evidence of hybrid vigour was observed through significantly larger body sizes of hybrid offspring relative to resident offspring in all recipient populations. Continued monitoring of these populations will test for negative fitness effects beyond the first generation. However, these results provide much-needed experimental data to inform the potential effectiveness of genetic rescue-motivated translocations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation in Maine is a paired watershed experiment. Monitoring of the paired catchments (East Bear Brook - reference; West Bear Brook - experimental) began in early 1987. Chemical manipulation of West Bear Brook catchment began in November 1989. Proce...

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement, Brooks City Base Project, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Readjustment Zone. A Defense Economic Readjustment Zone was established in San Antonio to induce capital investment and create new 3-6 FEIS for the Brooks...is little potential for ground collapse from sinkholes even if solution cavities have developed in the limestone. Surface slopes on the base are 0-3...have poor surface drainage characteristics and permeability is slow to moderate. Typically, rainfall is very rapidly absorbed when the soil is dry

  17. Maintenance of phenotypic variation: Repeatability, heritability and size-dependent processes in a wild brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; Coombs, J.A.; Nislow, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in body size can result from within-cohort variation in birth dates, among-individual growth variation and size-selective processes. We explore the relative effects of these processes on the maintenance of wide observed body size variation in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Based on the analyses of multiple recaptures of individual fish, it appears that size distributions are largely determined by the maintenance of early size variation. We found no evidence for size-dependent compensatory growth (which would reduce size variation) and found no indication that size-dependent survival substantially influenced body size distributions. Depensatory growth (faster growth by larger individuals) reinforced early size variation, but was relatively strong only during the first sampling interval (age-0, fall). Maternal decisions on the timing and location of spawning could have a major influence on early, and as our results suggest, later (>age-0) size distributions. If this is the case, our estimates of heritability of body size (body length=0.25) will be dominated by processes that generate and maintain early size differences. As a result, evolutionary responses to environmental change that are mediated by body size may be largely expressed via changes in the timing and location of reproduction. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Valérie; Rioux, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion.

  19. NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

  20. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  1. Interior of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-02-21

    A view inside the 55-foot high containment vessel of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility in Sandusky, Ohio. The 60-megawatt test reactor went critical for the first time in 1961 and began its full-power research operations in 1963. From 1961 to 1973, this reactor performed some of the nation’s most advanced nuclear research. The reactor was designed to determine the behavior of metals and other materials after long durations of irradiation. The materials would be used to construct a nuclear-powered rocket. The reactor core, where the chain reaction occurred, sat at the bottom of the tubular pressure vessel, seen here at the center of the shielding pool. The core contained fuel rods with uranium isotopes. A cooling system was needed to reduce the heat levels during the reaction. A neutron-impervious reflector was also employed to send many of the neutrons back to the core. The Plum Brook Reactor Facility was constructed from high-density concrete and steel to prevent the excess neutrons from escaping the facility, but the water in the pool shielded most of the radiation. The water, found in three of the four quadrants served as a reflector, moderator, and coolant. In this photograph, the three 20-ton protective shrapnel shields and hatch have been removed from the top of the pressure tank revealing the reactor tank. An overhead crane could be manipulated to reach any section of this room. It was used to remove the shrapnel shields and transfer equipment.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment for Stormwater Drainage Project on F. E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis), lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush ) and Snake River cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki). Aquatic furbearers on...sucker (Catastomus commersoni), Longnose sucker (Catastomus catostomus), Brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis), Brown trout (Salmo trutta), Green

  3. Design for Resilience in Brattleboro's Lower Whetstone Brook Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report details design solutions that identify options for creating resilient redevelopment & recreational opportunities within flood prone areas of the town while protecting water quality & connecting people with the Whetstone Brook.

  4. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  5. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 EAST ENTRY AND BELL TOWER - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  6. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST FLOOR LOOKING SOUTH - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  7. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 SOUTH AND WEST FACADES - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  8. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Earl Brooks, Photographer 1958 FIRST FLOOR LOOKING NORTH TOWARD ALTAR - St. James Protestant Episcopal Church, Saint James Church Road & Old Capital Trail, Stanton, New Castle County, DE

  9. Just Add Water and Stir. Graduate Chemistry Laboratory, Stony Brook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Using traditional building materials and a fast-track recipe, the architects, acting as construction manager, completed the Graduate Chemistry Laboratory at Stony Brook, New York, two full years ahead of schedule. (Author/MF)

  10. Genetic analysis of sympatric char populations in western Alaska: Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) are not two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E B; Lowery, E; Lilliestråle, A; Elz, A; Quinn, T P

    2008-11-01

    The North Pacific Ocean has been of great significance to understanding biogeography and speciation in temperate faunas, including for two species of char (Salmonidae: Salvelinus) whose evolutionary relationship has been controversial. We examined the morphology and genetics (microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA) of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) in lake systems in western Alaska, the eastern and western Arctic, and south of the Alaskan Peninsula. Morphologically, each lake system contained two forms: one (Arctic char) largely confined to lake habitats and characterized by greater numbers of pyloric caeca, gill rakers, and shallower bodies, and another (Dolly Varden) predominated in adjacent stream habitats and was characterized by fewer pyloric caeca, gill rakers, and deeper bodies. MtDNA partial (550 bp) d-loop sequences of both taxa were interspersed with each other within a single 'Bering' clade and demographic inferences suggested historical gene flow from Dolly Varden to Arctic char had occurred. By contrast, the taxa were strongly differentiated in sympatry across nine microsatellite loci in both lakes. Our data show that the two taxa are highly genetically distinct in sympatry, supporting their status as valid biological species, despite occasional hybridization. The interaction between these species highlights the importance of the North Pacific, and Beringia in particular, as an evolutionary wellspring of biodiversity.

  11. Identification of sex chromosomes in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Phillips, R B; Ihssen, P E

    1985-01-01

    In the male trout there is a difference in the quinacrine banding and C-banding patterns between the two homologs of the second largest chromosome pair. This chromosome is the only large submetacentric in the karyotype, making it easy to identify and suggesting that the sex chromosomes have become differentiated since the time of tetraploidization. In males one homolog has a medium-to-large quinacrine bright heterochromatic band on the end of the short arm, while the other lacks it completely. In females both homologs have medium-to-large quinacrine bright heterochromatic bands. Approximately half the progeny from every lake trout cross studied and half the eggs from every lake trout population examined were heteromorphic for a difference in this chromosome band. Results from sexed fish, reciprocal F1 hybrids between brook trout and lake trout, and gynogenetic haploids are all consistent with the interpretation that chromosome 2 is the sex chromosome. These results suggest that the addition of heterochromatin to the X can be the first step in the inhibition of crossing over between the X and Y chromosomes required for sex chromosome differentiation.

  12. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND XENOBIOTIC GILL FLUX IN THE LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain respiratory-cardiovascular physiology under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and xenobiotic gill absorption (flux) data on adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) over a 48-h exposure period at 11? 1?C.

  13. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus ) in a fire-prone landscape

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey A. Falke; Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Jason B. Dunham; Kristina M. McNyset; Paul F. Hessburg; Gordon H. Reeves; C. Tara Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River...

  14. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND XENOBIOTIC GILL FLUX IN THE LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain respiratory-cardiovascular physiology under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and xenobiotic gill absorption (flux) data on adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) over a 48-h exposure period at 11? 1?C.

  15. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    Treesearch

    Madeleine Eckmann; Jason Dunham; Edward J. Connor; Carmen A. Welch

    2016-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake...

  16. Hydraulic modeling of stream channels and structures in Harbor and Crow Hollow Brooks, Meriden, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Lawrence A.; Sears, Michael P.; Cervione, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of urbanization have increased the frequency and size of floods along certain reaches of Harbor Brook and Crow Hollow Brook in Meriden, Conn. A floodprofile-modeling study was conducted to model the effects of selected channel and structural modifications on flood elevations and inundated areas. The study covered the reach of Harbor Brook downstream from Interstate 691 and the reach of Crow Hollow Brook downstream from Johnson Avenue. Proposed modifications, which include changes to bank heights, channel geometry, structural geometry, and streambed armoring on Harbor Brook and changes to bank heights on Crow Hollow Brook, significantly lower flood elevations. Results of the modeling indicate a significant reduction of flood elevations for the 10-year, 25-year, 35-year, 50-year, and 100-year flood frequencies using proposed modifications to (1 ) bank heights between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook, and between Centennial Avenue and Johnson Avenue on Crow Hollow Brook; (2) channel geometry between Coe Avenue and Interstate 69 1 on Harbor Brook; (3) bridge and culvert opening geometry between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook; and (4) channel streambed armoring between Harbor Brook Towers and Interstate 691 on Harbor Brook. The proposed modifications were developed without consideration of cost-benefit ratios.

  17. The Laser Teaching Center at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Stony Brook's Laser Teaching Center was built more than ten years ago to serve a clientele ranging from high school (HS) students to graduate students. Its construction in a formerly open hallway area was financed by donations from private corporations and foundations, and it was equipped with similar contributions. It provides a working area for laser and optics-related projects, both individual and group. Its daily operations are overseen by a highly-dedicated Ph.D. who is a department employee. It is populated by HS students doing science fair related research, including the major national contests (in which we have many finalists and semifinalists), undergraduates doing extra-credit course projects and other kinds of research activities, graduate students in a special course called ``Optics Rotation,'' and many others who come to use its facilities. All of its denizens benefit enormously by occasional prestigious visitors. Students are drawn from among our undergraduates and graduate students, NSF's WISE program, special HS summer programs, and direct application from the outside. We have an excellent record of placing our HS students in the highest ranking colleges.

  18. Immunological and Therapeutic Strategies against Salmonid Cryptobiosis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick T. K.

    2010-01-01

    Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Clinical signs of the disease in salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) include exophthalmia, general oedema, abdominal distension with ascites, anaemia, and anorexia. The disease-causing factor is a metalloprotease and the monoclonal antibody (mAb-001) against it is therapeutic. MAb-001 does not fix complement but agglutinates the parasite. Some brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis cannot be infected (Cryptobia-resistant); this resistance is controlled by a dominant Mendelian locus and is inherited. In Cryptobia-resistant charr the pathogen is lysed via the Alternative Pathway of Complement Activation. However, some charr can be infected and they have high parasitaemias with no disease (Cryptobia-tolerant). In infected Cryptobia-tolerant charr the metalloprotease is neutralized by a natural antiprotease, α2 macroglobulin. Two vaccines have been developed. A single dose of the attenuated vaccine protects 100% of salmonids (juveniles and adults) for at least 24 months. Complement fixing antibody production and cell-mediated response in vaccinated fish rise significantly after challenge. Fish injected with the DNA vaccine initially have slight anaemias but they recover and have agglutinating antibodies. On challenge, DNA-vaccinated fish have lower parasitaemias, delayed peak parasitaemias and faster recoveries. Isometamidium chloride is therapeutic against the pathogen and its effectiveness is increased after conjugation to antibodies. PMID:20052385

  19. Ammonia Oxidation Plant at Plum Brook Ordnance Works

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-06-21

    An ammonia oxidation plant at the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio, which later became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station. During World War II the ordnance works produced trinitroluene (TNT), dinitrotoluene (DNT), and pentolite which were crated and shipped to an arsenal in Ravenna, Ohio. There, the explosives were packed into shells and sent to Allied forces overseas. Plum Brook was the third largest producer of TNT during World War II. Toluene, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were used to manufacture the TNT. Nitric Acid is made by oxidizing ammonia, adding water, and concentrating it. The facility in this photograph was used for this oxidation. The structure included air compressors, filters, aftercoolers, power recovery systems, air receivers, heaters, ammonia gasifiers, gas mixers, cooler condensers, absorption columns, and bleaching columns. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works was shut down immediately after the war and remained vacant for the next ten years. NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), acquired the 500 acres of the site in 1955 to build a nuclear test reactor. By 1963, the agency had acquired the entire 9000 acres from the Army. Almost all of the military facilities were removed in the early 1960s. Plum Brook Station contained over 30 test facilities at its peak in the late 1960s. Today there are four major facilities in operation.

  20. Analysis of trade-offs between threats of invasion by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and intentional isolation for native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi)

    Treesearch

    Douglas P. Peterson; Bruce E. Reiman; Jason B. Dunham; Kurt D. Fausch; Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    Native salmonid fishes often face simultaneous threats from habitat fragmentation and invasion by nonnative trout species. Unfortunately, management actions to address one may create or exacerbate the other. A consistent decision process would include a systematic analysis of when and where intentional use or removal of barriers is the most appropriate action. We...

  1. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT LIFE-STAGES OF MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The early life stages of fish are known to be more sensitive than the adults to the toxicological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxide (TCDD). TCDD concentrations in surface waters are sufficiently low that direct exposure of the developing embryo is unlikely to be o...

  2. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  3. Thrust involvement of metamorphic rocks, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Till, A.B.; Schmidt, J.M.; Nelson, S.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Most models for the tectonic history of the western Brooks Range treat Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic metamorphic rocks exposed in the southern part of the range as passive structural basement vertically uplifted late in the Mesozoic orogenic episode. Mapping in the metamorphic rocks shows that they can de divided into two structurally and metamorphically distinct belts, both of which were folded and thrust during the orogeny. Recognition of these belts and the nature of the contact separating them is critical to construction of accurate tectonic models of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  4. Endoparasites of plethodontid salamanders from Paradise Brook, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, P M; Peebles, C R; Burton, T M

    1997-12-01

    Totals of 52 dusky salamanders Desmognathus fuscus, 51 two-lined salamanders Eurycea bislineata, 54 red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus, and 3 spring salamanders Gyrinophilus porphyriticus (Plethodontidae) collected in June and August 1995 from Paradise Brook, a tributary to Hubbard Brook, New Hampshire, were examined for parasites. Parasites found were Brachycoelium storeriae, Brachycoelium sp., Bothriocephalus rarus, Falcaustra sp., Omeia sp., Batracholandros magnavulvaris, and Cepedietta michiganensis. Eighty-six percent of the red-backed salamanders, a terrestrial species, harbored 1 or more parasites. Among the aquatic and semiaquatic species, 27% of the dusky and 45% of the two-lined salamanders were infected with 1 or more parasites.

  5. Seasonal temperature and precipitation regulate brook trout young-of-the-year abundance and population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Pregler, Kasey C.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Hocking, Daniel; Wofford, John E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Our results indicate that YOY abundance is a key driver of brook trout population dynamics that is mediated by seasonal weather patterns. A reliable assessment of climate change impacts on brook trout needs to account for how alternations in seasonal weather patterns impact YOY abundance and how such relationships may differ across the range of brook trout distribution.

  6. Habitat utilization and diel behavior of juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) at the onset of winter

    Treesearch

    R. F. Thurow

    1997-01-01

    Underwater observations were used to describe habitat use and diel behavior of juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) at the onset of winter (0.8°C) in a second-order central Idaho stream. All fish observed during daytime counts were concealed beneath "home stones" (mean dimensions 32.3 by 21.9 cm) in primarily pool and run habitats. Focal point depths...

  7. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the double-CMA3 chromosome of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Reed, K M; Phillips, R B

    1995-01-01

    The chromosome possessing two chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining sites in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was examined using FISH. All CMA3-bands in the karyotype contained ribosomal DNA (rDNA), including both sites on the double-CMA3 chromosome. One rDNA site on this chromosome was bordered by telomeric repeats, implicating a rearrangement in the origin of the second NOR.

  8. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  9. Evidence of sound production by spawning lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in lakes Huron and Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Higgs, Dennis; Binder, Thomas R.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Buchinger, Tyler John; Brege, Linnea; Bruning, Tyler; Farha, Steve A.; Krueger, Charles Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Two sounds associated with spawning lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in lakes Huron and Champlain were characterized by comparing sound recordings to behavioral data collected using acoustic telemetry and video. These sounds were named growls and snaps, and were heard on lake trout spawning reefs, but not on a non-spawning reef, and were more common at night than during the day. Growls also occurred more often during the spawning period than the pre-spawning period, while the trend for snaps was reversed. In a laboratory flume, sounds occurred when male lake trout were displaying spawning behaviors; growls when males were quivering and parallel swimming, and snaps when males moved their jaw. Combining our results with the observation of possible sound production by spawning splake (Salvelinus fontinalis × Salvelinus namaycush hybrid), provides rare evidence for spawning-related sound production by a salmonid, or any other fish in the superorder Protacanthopterygii. Further characterization of these sounds could be useful for lake trout assessment, restoration, and control.

  10. Estimation of Vertical Groundwater Fluxes into a Streambed through Continuous Temperature Profile Monitoring and the Relationship of Groundwater Fluxes to Coaster Brook Trout Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, M. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Huckins, C.

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of groundwater inflows through river bottom sediments is a critical factor associated with the selection of coaster brook trout (a life history variant of Salvelinus fontinalis) spawning sites. An 80-m stretch of the Salmon Trout River, in the upper peninsula of Michigan, was selected to test the hypothesis. The river stretch is relatively similar along its length with regard to superficial spawning habitat selection factors. Coaster brook trout have been observed to return consistently to spawn in specific areas within the study river stretch. A monitoring well system was installed to measure subsurface temperatures underneath the riverbed over a 13-month period. The monitoring well locations were separated into areas where spawning and non-spawning behavior occurred. Over 200,000 temperature measurements were made at five vertical locations in the 22 monitoring wells. Temperature data in the subsurface below the spawning area was generally cooler and less variable than river temperatures. Temperatures in the non-spawning area were generally warmer, more variable, and closely tracked temporal variations in river temperatures. Temperature data were inverted to obtain subsurface groundwater velocities using a numerical approximation of the heat transfer equation. Approximately 45,000 estimates of groundwater velocities were obtained. Estimated velocities in the spawning and non-spawning areas confirmed that groundwater velocities in the spawning area are primarily in the upward direction, with magnitudes on the order of greater than 5×10-3 cm/s. In the non-spawning area, groundwater velocities were mostly either in the downward direction or, if they were in the upward direction, the magnitude of the velocity was low, on the order of less than 1×10-3 cm/s. Both the temperature and velocity results confirm the hypothesis that spawning sites correspond to areas of significant groundwater influx to the river bed.

  11. Ribosomal genes and heat shock proteins as putative markers for chronic, sublethal heat stress in Arctic charr: applications for aquaculture and wild fish.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Nicole L; McGowan, Colin R; Cooper, Glenn A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-09-22

    Arctic charr thrive at high densities and can live in freshwater year round, making this species especially suitable for inland, closed containment aquaculture. However, it is a cold-water salmonid, which both limits where the species can be farmed and places wild populations at particular risk to climate change. Previously, we identified genes associated with tolerance and intolerance to acute, lethal temperature stress in Arctic charr. However, there remained a need to examine the genes involved in the stress response to more realistic temperatures that could be experienced during a summer heat wave in grow-out tanks that are not artificially cooled, or under natural conditions. Here, we exposed Arctic charr to sublethal heat stress of 15-18°C for 72 h, and gill tissues extracted before, during (i.e., at 72 h), immediately after cooling and after 72 h of recovery at ambient temperature (6°C) were used for gene expression profiling by microarray and qPCR analyses. The results revealed an expected pattern for heat shock protein expression, which was highest during heat exposure, with significantly reduced expression (approaching control levels) quickly thereafter. We also found that the expression of numerous ribosomal proteins was significantly elevated immediately and 72 h after cooling, suggesting that the gill tissues were undergoing ribosome biogenesis while recovering from damage caused by heat stress. We suggest that these are candidate gene targets for the future development of genetic markers for broodstock development or for monitoring temperature stress and recovery in wild or cultured conditions.

  12. Feedback from Arctic charr: Feed flavour stimulation and re-feeding after feed deprivation stimulate genes encoding both orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Anja; Jørgensen, Even H

    2017-05-15

    Despite vast research attention, the knowledge about central mechanisms of appetite regulation in teleost remains inconclusive. A common strategy in studies on appetite regulating mechanisms is to measure the response to feed restriction or - deprivation, but responses vary between fish species and between experiments, and are also likely dependent on the degree of energy perturbation. The anadromous Arctic charr is an interesting model for studying appetite regulation as its feeding cycle comprises months of winter anorexia, and hyperphagia during summer. Here we studied how the gene expression of putative hypothalamic appetite regulators were affected by two days, one week and one month feed deprivation during summer, and subsequent re-feeding and exposure to feed flavour. Short-term feed deprivation caused only a minor reduction in condition factor and had no effect on hypothalamic gene expression. Long-term feed-deprivation caused a marked reduction in weight and condition factor which contrasted the increase in weight and condition factor seen in ad libitum fed controls. A marked energy perturbation by feed deprivation was also indicated by a lower hypothalamic expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGF1 binding protein 5 in the feed deprived charr compared to fed controls. Surprisingly, long-term feed deprivation and energy perturbation did not induce changes in hypothalamic appetite regulators. Unexpectedly, re-feeding and exposure to feed flavour caused an increase in the expression of the genes encoding the orexigenic agouti-related peptide and the anorexigenic melanocortin receptor 4 and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Our study gives strong evidence for a role of these in appetite regulation in Arctic charr, but their mechanisms of action remain unknown. We suggest that changes in gene expression are more likely to be registered during transition phases, e.g. from fasting to feeding and upon stimulatory

  13. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  14. Hydrometeorological database for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest: 1955-2000

    Treesearch

    Amey Schenck Bailey; James W. Hornbeck; John L. Campbell; Christopher Eagar

    2003-01-01

    The 3,160-ha Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in New Hampshire has been a prime area of research on forest and stream ecosystems since its establishment by the USDA Forest Service in 1955. Streamflow and precipitation have been measured continuously on the HBEF, and long-term datasets exist for air and soil temperature, snow cover, soil frost, solar radiation,...

  15. Annual cycles of soil and water temperatures at Hubbard Brook

    Treesearch

    C. Anthony Federer

    1973-01-01

    Soil temperatures in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in central New Hampshire decline very slowly from December to March and are restricted from falling below OºC by insulation of snow and organic matter. Soil in the hardwood forest on a moderate south slope warms rapidly in the spring leafless period after snowmelt and reaches a maximum temperature in...

  16. Building the Engaged Campus: An Interview with John Brooks Slaughter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Interview with John Brooks Slaughter, recent president of Occidental College, focuses on his leadership during a period when the college dramatically increased its minority enrollment, recruited an impressively diverse faculty, and launched various community outreach programs. Explores Slaughter's views concerning diversity as part of a college's…

  17. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  18. Patterns of streamwater acidity in Lye Brook Wilderness, Vermont, USA

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Christopher Eagar; William H. McDowell

    2002-01-01

    Under the United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, a class I designation safeguards wilderness areas from the negative effects of new sources of air pollution. We monitored streamwater chemistry in the class I Lye Brook Wilderness in southwestern Vermont from May 1994 through August 1995. Stream samples were collected biweekly at nine sampling locations...

  19. Preservation at Stony Brook. Preservation Planning Program. Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Donald C.; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the State University of New York (SUNY), Stony Brook, working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). The PPP is designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing…

  20. Groundbreaking Ceremony at the NACA's Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-09-21

    Addison Rothrock, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics’s (NACA) Assistant Director of Research, speaks at the groundbreaking ceremony for the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory’s new test reactor at Plum Brook Station. This dedication event was held almost exactly one year after the NACA announced that it would build its $4.5 million nuclear reactor on 500 acres of the army’s 9000-acre Plum Brook Ordnance Works. The site was located in Sandusky, Ohio, approximately 60 miles west of the NACA Lewis laboratory in Cleveland. Lewis Director Raymond Sharp is seated to the left of Rothrock, Congressman Albert Baumhart and NACA Secretary John Victory are to the right. Many government and local officials were on hand for the press conference and ensuing luncheon. In the wake of World War II the military, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the NACA became interested in the use of atomic energy for propulsion and power. A Nuclear Division was established at NACA Lewis in the early 1950s. The division’s request for a 60-megawatt research reactor was approved in 1955. The semi-remote Plum Brook location was selected over 17 other possible sites. Construction of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility lasted five years. By the time of its first trial runs in 1961 the aircraft nuclear propulsion program had been cancelled. The space age had arrived, however, and the reactor would be used to study materials for a nuclear powered rocket.

  1. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  2. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  3. Marginal Experiments: Peter Brook and Stepping out Theatre Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article juxtaposes the recent work of Peter Brook with a Bristol-based mental health service-user collective--Stepping Out Theatre Company. Informed by field-work with the company, this chapter explores the aesthetic and political relationship between professional, experimental theatre work and community-based performance practice. Drawing…

  4. Timing of appearance of Gyrodactylus colemanensis (Monogenea) on young-of-the-year Salvelinus fontinalis in a Nova Scotia stream and contribution of these infections to total parasite standing crop.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Roland; MacMillan, John; Cone, David

    2013-08-01

    Young-of-the-year (YOY) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected at 2 wk intervals (15 April to 4 June 2012) after emergence from redds and occurrence of the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus colemanensis (Monogenea) recorded. Emergent YOY were not infected. Infected trout (14%) first appeared 15 May, with host age estimated to be 4 wk or less post-emergence. Prevalence and intensity increased over the study period and reached, respectively, 93% and 8.2 ± 6.1 by 4 June. Prevalence and intensity of infection was also determined for older cohorts (1+, >1+) on 6 June, with G. colemanensis occurring on representatives of all age groups. The number of hosts in each age group was estimated by mark/recapture electrofishing over a 100 m reach of the stream. Combining estimated host numbers by age group with parasite prevalence and intensity data from those groups allowed calculation of parasite total standing crop. The results indicate that, by late spring, the new host recruits already carried 64% of the parasite population in the stream, serving to illustrate the remarkable efficiency of transmission by this viviparous monogenean in a temperate stream system.

  5. Chemosensory cues attract lake trout Salvelinus namaycush and an egg predator to the spawning substratum.

    PubMed

    Wasylenko, B A; Blanchfield, P J; Pyle, G G

    2013-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether chemosensory cues emanating from lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning substratum attract breeding S. namaycush. Substrata from either a spawning site or a control site were randomly placed in trap nets around an isolated spawning shoal; those containing spawning substratum caught significantly more S. namaycush, as well as a greater proportion in breeding condition. White sucker Catostomus commersoni were a major predator of S. namaycush eggs and were also captured in greater numbers in nets with spawning substratum. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Effects of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Birchmeier, Kelly L; Smith, Kimberly A; Passino-Reader, Dora R; Sweet, Leonard I; Chernyak, Sergei M; Adams, Jean V; Omann, Geneva M

    2005-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants have been identified as an emergent contaminants issue in many parts of the world. In vitro analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that selected PBDEs congeners affect viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of thymocytes from laboratory-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). At current environmental levels (< 1 mg/L), effects of the tested PBDEs on thymocytes were negligible. However, at 100 mg/L, major effects were seen for congener brominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and minor effects were seen for congener BDE-99.

  7. "How are the Egyptians behaving?" Herbert Brookes, British-Australian.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, P

    1999-01-01

    Herbert Brookes was a wealthy businessman, a distinguished patron of high culture in Melbourne society, an anti-Labor eminence who moved comfortably in the highest of imperial circles. The richness of his papers in the National Library provides the opportunity to examine the life of a leading British-Australian, to analyse issues of conscience and purpose that do not figure much in current historiography and perhaps to throw new light on the concerns of the generation that saw its world disrupted after 1914. Using the notion of Protestant stewardship, I have suggested that Brookes' life offers one way into the dynamics of liberalism before the Great War and of loyalism after it.

  8. Merrimack River Basin, Leominster Local Protection, Monoosnoc Brook, Leominster, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Coordination 2 Summary of Studies 2 The Report 3 Prior Studies and Reports 3 Studies in Progress 3 RESOURCES AND ECONOMY OF THE STUDY AREA 4...expressed at this meeting, form the basis of selecting the flood control plan as reported herein. SUMMARY OF STUDIES Aerial topography from the U.S...North Nashua and its tributary Monoosnoc Brook which became basis for project authorization. (A summary of these earlier reports is contained in

  9. A geologic framework for mineralization in the western Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a 950-km-long north-vergent fold and thrust belt, which was formed during Mesozoic convergence of the continental Arctic Alaska terrane and the oceanic Angayucham terrane and was further shortened and uplifted in Tertiary time. The Arctic Alaska terrane consists of parautochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains and De Long Mountains subterranes. The Endicott Mountains allochthon of the western Brooks Range is the setting for many sulfide and barite occurrences, such as the supergiant Red Dog zinc-lead mine. Mineralization is sediment hosted and most commonly is present in black shale and carbonate turbidites of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. The reconstructed Kuna basin is a 200 by +600 km feature that represents the culmination of a remarkable chain of events that includes three fluvial-deltaic and two or more orogenic cycles, Middle Devonian to Mississippian episodes of extension and igneous activity, and the emergence of a seaward Lower Proterozoic landmass that may have constituted a barrier to marine circulation. Mississippian extension and related horst-and-graben architecture in the western Brooks Range is manifested in part by strong facies variability between coeval units of allochthons and structural plates. Shallow marine to possibly nonmarine arkose, platform to shelf carbonate, slope-to-basin shale, chert and carbonate turbidites, and submarine volcanic rocks are all represented in Mississippian time. The structural setting of Mississippian sedimentation, volcanism, and mineralization in the Kuna basin may be comparable to documented Devono-Mississippian extensional sags or half-grabens in the subsurface north of the Brooks Range. Climate, terrestrial ecosystems, multiple fluvial-deltaic aquifers, and structural architecture affected the liberation, movement, and redeposition of metals in ways that are incompletely understood.

  10. Plum Brook Reactor Facility Control Room during Facility Startup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-02-21

    Operators test the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility systems in the months leading up to its actual operation. The “Reactor On” signs are illuminated but the reactor core was not yet ready for chain reactions. Just a couple weeks after this photograph, Plum Brook Station held a media open house to unveil the 60-megawatt test reactor near Sandusky, Ohio. More than 60 members of the print media and radio and television news services met at the site to talk with community leaders and representatives from NASA and Atomic Energy Commission. The Plum Brook reactor went critical for the first time on the evening of June 14, 1961. It was not until April 1963 that the reactor reached its full potential of 60 megawatts. The reactor control room, located on the second floor of the facility, was run by licensed operators. The operators manually operated the shim rods which adjusted the chain reaction in the reactor core. The regulating rods could partially or completely shut down the reactor. The control room also housed remote area monitoring panels and other monitoring equipment that allowed operators to monitor radiation sensors located throughout the facility and to scram the reactor instantly if necessary. The color of the indicator lights corresponded with the elevation of the detectors in the various buildings. The reactor could also shut itself down automatically if the monitors detected any sudden irregularities.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, Tim; Prueger, John

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 11 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 10 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, Tim; Prueger, John

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 10 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 11 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  13. Hydrologic conditions in the Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook drainage basins, west-central New Jersey, 1986-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Eric; Hardy, M.A.; Kurtz, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Data on the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in the drainage basins of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook upstream from U.S. Route 206 in west-central New Jersey were collected from October 1, 1986, through September 30, 1988. Water levels measured in 74 wells ranged from 49 to 453 ft above sea level. The water-table surface generally mimicked topography; however, the water-level altitude in one well indicates the possibility of local interbasin groundwater flow. Calcium and bicarbonate were the most abundant cation and anion in most of the 25 groundwater samples. With one exception, concentrations of nutrients, trace elements, organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Stream low-flow measurements made twice at each of 63 sites indicate that both discharge and runoff increased downstream for most reaches of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook. For main-stem sites, the highest base-flow runoff occurred at site 01462733 on Jacobs Creek; the greatest discharge was measured at site 01401100 on Stony Brook. The flow-duration curve for Stony Brook for 1987-88 indicates a wetter- than-normal period for the area. Results of surface-water-quality analyses indicate that calcium and sodium plus potassium were the dominant or codominant cations, and bicarbonate and chloride were the dominant or codominant anions in most samples. Concentrations of nutrients typically exceeded those needed to support surplus algal growth. Concentrations of trace elements generally were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Bottom-sediment samples contained several persistent organic compounds. Significant downstream variations were found in concentrations of copper and lead in Jacobs Creek and Stony Brook. Results of macroinvertebrate community sampling indicate an input of nutrients to several stream

  14. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation.

    PubMed

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2-3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char.

  15. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation

    PubMed Central

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2–3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char. PMID:26356310

  16. 77 FR 37707 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet. A new barge landing site would be located approximately 200 feet south of the mouth of the Brooks...

  17. 78 FR 8582 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet south of the mouth of the Brooks River. A new road segment (about 100 ft. long) would be...

  18. [Obituary] In memoriam: Mortimer Brooke Meanley, Jr., 1915-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2008-01-01

    Mortimer Brooke Meanley, Jr., was born at Riderwood, Baltimore County, Maryland, on 19 January 1915, and died at home in Maine on 19 August 2007. He was always called “Brooke” as an adult. Much of his youth was spent in birding and other natural-history activities, interest he credits to the Boy Scouts and his teachers. These activities directed him toward a professional career in wildlife biology. He was educated at McDonogh High School in Owings Mill, Maryland – at the time a private, semimilitary school for boys – and graduated in 1934.

  19. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  20. Pears (In: Brooks & Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties List 44)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Names, synonyms, and brief descriptions of new and noteworthy fruit cultivars are periodically published in the "Brooks and Olmo Register of New Fruit and Nut Varieties." This paper is the Pear section of the 44th Brooks and Olmo Register and describes the Asian pear cultivar 'Sooyoung' and the Eur...

  1. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  2. Sustaining a Rural Black Farming Community in the South: A Portrait of Brooks Farm, Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Valerie; Effland, Anne B. W.

    1997-01-01

    Brooks Farm is an independent Black farming community unique in the Mississippi Delta. A community case study shows that, despite declining population and resources, Brooks Farm has drawn on the strength of its traditional institutions (family, churches, civic groups) to sustain community life and to continue to provide services to the elderly,…

  3. 77 FR 63897 - Notice of License Terminations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plum Brook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of License Terminations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plum Brook Reactor and Plum Brook Mock-Up Reactor The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is noticing the termination of the National...

  4. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  5. Tandem Brook Rearrangement/Silicon Polonovski Reaction via Oxidative Generation of Ammonium Ylides.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Hiromasa; Nakago, Takahiro; Inoue, Seiichi; Hoshino, Yujiro; Honda, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    A tandem Brook rearrangement/silicon Polonovski reaction has been achieved by in situ generation of ammonium ylides via the oxidation of α-silyl-tertiary amines. Furthermore, we found that the oxidation of N-(1-cyano-1-silyl)methyl-tertiary amines with peracids induced the tandem Brook rearrangement/silicon Polonovski reaction/fragmentation to give formamide derivatives in moderate yields.

  6. Accumulation of PCBs by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Eck, Gary W.; Miller, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    To explain the variation in growth and in concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among individual fish, an individual-based model (IBM) was applied to the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Michigan. The IBM accurately represented the variation in growth exhibited by the different age classes of lake trout. Uncertainty analysis of the IBM revealed that mean PCB concentration for the lake trout population was most sensitive to PCB concentration in their prey. The variability in PCB concentration among lake trout individuals was not adequately explained by the IBM, unless variation in prey fish PCBs was included in the model. To accomplish this, the simulated lake trout population was divided into subsets subjected to different levels of PCB concentration in the prey fish. Thus, model results indicated that variability in prey fish PCB concentration was an important component of the variation in PCB concnetration observed among individual lake trout comprising the Lake Michigan population.

  7. Embryonic developmental progression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Walbaum, 1792) and its relation to lake temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Glenn K.; Adams, Jean V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental progression of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) embryos was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. From this examination, key developmental stages were described in detail. The key developmental stages were then applied to individual lake trout egg lots incubated in constant temperatures of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10°C. We used Belehradek's, Thermodynamic, and Power models, and also developed the Zero model to determine stage specific developmental rates of lake trout eggs for each background temperature. From the models, hatch dates and staging were predicted for temperature regimes from Lake Superior (1990–91) and Lake Huron (1996–97). Based on the existing lake temperature data and the observed spawning dates, the Zero and the Power models predict that post peak spawning may contribute significantly to overall recruitment success for these years.

  8. Performance of temperature and dissolved oxygen criteria to predict habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, J.M.; Blanchfield, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared theoretical habitat volumes, determined from traditional combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) boundaries, with in situ habitat use by acoustically tagged lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The widely used criteria of 8-12 ??C underestimated lake trout habitat use by 68%-80%. Instead, combined temperature (<12 or 15 ??C) and DO (>4 or 6 mg??L-1) criteria most closely matched lake trout habitat use, had a similar seasonal trend as the tagged fish, suggested modest reductions (5% of total lake volume) in habitat during a warmer year, and performed best when the constraints of temperature and DO were most limiting. All data were collected in a small boreal shield lake (27 ha, zmax = 21 m) at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, during two contrasting periods of thermal stratification (2003: warmer and longer; 2004: cooler and shorter), providing an assessment of observed and theoretical habitat volumes over current environmental extremes.

  9. Effects of tebufenozide on some aspects of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune response.

    PubMed

    Hamoutene, D; Payne, J F; Volkoff, H

    2008-02-01

    Tebufenozide is a nonsteroid ecdysone agonist that causes premature and incomplete molting in Lepidoptera and is used on crops and in forest spray programs. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to one pulse of 0.25 ppm tebufenozide every 3 days (12 pulses in total). Cell ratios and respiratory burst responses of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) as well as head-kidney (HK) WBCs were investigated by using cell observation, Nitro-Blue Tetrazolium tests, and flow cytometry. Endpoints studied suggest a difference in sensitivity between HK and circulating blood cells to tebufenozide and show a stimulation of fish cell function and changes in percentages of cell types. Responses are not associated with a strong stress response as highlighted by the absence of effect on cortisol and blood protein levels. These results and tebufenozide persistence in water warrant further studies on pesticide impact on fish immunity when used on crops or in forest spray programs near lakes and streams.

  10. Helminths in an intensively stocked population of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Lake Huron.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, P M; Bowen, C A

    2000-06-01

    Eighty stocked lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Salmonidae), collected from 2 locations in Lake Huron in May 1995, were examined for parasites. The parasite fauna of this top predator in Lake Huron was characterized by only 6 helminth species. Echinorhynchus salmonis infected all lake trout with a mean intensity of 163.9. The intensity of this acanthocephalan species significantly increased with host length and weight. Eubothrium salvelini infected 78 lake trout with a maximum number of 81 scoleces counted. Diplostomum sp., Cyathocephalus truncatus, Capillaria salvelini, and Neoechinorhynchus sp. infrequently infected lake trout. The low parasite species richness in these lake trout is believed to be due to their large size at stocking and to the loss of historical enzootic host-parasite relationships that followed the absence of this fish species in Lake Huron for 26 yr.

  11. Effects of water temperature on survival of eggs and fry of lake trout. [Salvelinus namaycush

    SciTech Connect

    Ostergaard, D.E.

    1987-04-01

    Eggs of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were incubated during 1984-1985 and 1985-1986 in chilled, water that decreased in temperature from 41.5/sup 0/F in November to 38.7/sup 0/F in January and then increased to 45.9/sup 0/F in February. Ambient water temperatures varied from 51/sup 0/F in November to 47/sup 0/F in February. The mean survival (range in parentheses) from fertilization through hatching to a size of 2500 fish/lb was 54% (49-59%) in chilled water and 18% (12-21%) in ambient-temperature water. Chilled water enhanced the survival of lake trout of both the Lake Ontario and the Seneca Lake strains.

  12. Genetic architecture and maternal contributions of early-life survival in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Houde, A L S; Wilson, C C; Pitcher, T E

    2016-05-01

    The influences of additive, non-additive and maternal effects on early survival (uneyed embryo survival, eyed embryo survival, alevin survival and overall survival to first feeding) were quantified in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using a 7 × 7 full-factorial breeding design. Maternal effects followed by non-additive genetic effects explained around one third of the phenotypic variance of the survival traits. Although the amount of additive genetic effects were low (<1%), suggesting a limited potential of the traits to respond to new selection pressures, how maternal and non-additive genetic effects may respond to selection under certain circumstances are discussed. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) feeding on young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): effect of rock size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Miller, John E.

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on the eggs and sac fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a surrogate species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mvkiss), dispersed among different sized substrates (bare bottom, gravel, cobble, large rocks). Predation was most severe when no rocks were present. Feeding rate then decreased as the substrate changed from large rocks to cobble to gravel. Crayfish predation rate did not change with prey type—rainbow trout and lake trout eggs or sac fry. Crayfish foraging in large tanks containing cobble averaged about two eggs or sac fry per day. In most instances, crayfish would have little impact on lake trout egg survival. Only in lake trout spawning grounds with relatively low egg densities, large crayfish populations, and cobble or large rock substrate, would crayfish be expected to have some impact on lake trout egg survival.

  14. The placement of Gyrodactylus salmonis (Yin & Sproston) in the molecular phylogeny of studied members of the Gyrodactylus wageneri-group parasitizing salmonids.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, S R; Abbott, C L; Cone, D K

    2010-06-01

    The molecular phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salmonis from brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, cutthroat trout, O. clarkii, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in Canada is presented using sequences from ITS-rDNA and the mitochondrial COX 1 gene. Sequence variation among G. salmonis specimens from the different North American hosts was consistent with within-species variation reported for other Gyrodactylus. Sequence data are compared to those from other members of the wageneri group parasitizing salmoniform fishes in northern Europe (G. derjavini, G. derjavinoides, G. lavareti, G. salaris, G. salvelini, G. teuchis and G. truttae) and Asia (G. brachymystacis). Sequence divergence between G. salmonis and the recently described G. salvelini on Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Finland was consistent with within-species levels of variation in Gyrodactylus; however, phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons provided evidence of their distinctiveness such that they appear to be sister species. They grouped with G. lavareti (a parasite of a coregonid) to form a clade separate from European and Asian species of the wageneri lineage known from salmonid fish. Further study of gyrodactylids from across salmonid, coregonid and thymallid fish in the northern hemisphere would shed more light on the phylogeography of these parasites and serves as an important backdrop to understanding the evolution of their emergent virulence.

  15. Molecular characterization and cytogenetic analysis of highly repeated DNAs of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Reed, K M; Phillips, R B

    1995-12-01

    The chromosomes of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) contain a considerable amount of heterochromatin located at the centromeres and/or telomeres of several chromosomes, including a sex-specific block located distally on the X chromosome. In order to investigate further the repetitive DNAs of lake trout, genomic DNA from a female was size fractionated (<600 bp) with the restriction endonuclease AluI and fragments were cloned into the bacteriophage M13. A total of 42 clones were isolated. Relative copy number of individual inserts within the lake trout genome was estimated by Southern analysis. Twelve clones were determined to be highly repetitive and were chosen for further investigation. Inserts of these clones contained sequences similar to the AluI/RsaI, EcoRI/DraI, DraI/BstEII, and MboI/BglII families reported from Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). The chromosomal location of several of these fragments was determined in lake trout by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Two related AluI/RsaI sequences (Type A, approximately 140 bp, and Type B,approximately 120 bp) showed differential hybridization. Type A hybridized to the centromeres of all metacentric as well as several acrocentric chromosomes. Type B hybridized to the centromeres of most acrocentric chromosomes. A sequence with homology to the EcoRI/DraI family hybridized to the centromeres of several acrocentric chromosomes. Sequences with partial similarity to the DraI/BstEII family hybridized to the major rDNA sites (nucleolar organizer regions, NORs) and several minor telomeric sites. The interstitial and telomeric heterochromatin of lake trout, including that of the X chromosome, appears to comprise sequences belonging to the MboI/BglII family.

  16. Rooted Brooks Range ophiolite: Implications for Cordilleran terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Morin, R.L.; Hudson, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling of gravity and magnetic data shows that areally extensive mafic and ultramafic rocks of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, are at least 8 km thick, and that gabbro and ultramafic rocks underlie basalt in several places. The basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks have been considered parts of a far-traveled ophiolite assemblage. These rocks are the highest structural elements in the Brooks Range thrust belt and are thought to be hundreds of kilometers north of their origin. This requires these rocks to be thin klippen without geologic ties to the continental shelf sedimentary rocks that now surround them. The geophysically determined, thick and interleaved subsurface character of the basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks is inconsistent with this interpretation. An origin within an extensional setting on the continental shelf could produce the required subsurface geometries and explain other perplexing characteristics of these rocks. Early Mesozoic Alaska, from the North Slope southward to the interior, may have had many irregular extensional basins on a broad, distal continental shelf. This original tectonic setting may apply elsewhere in Cordilleran-type margins where appropriate mafic and ultramafic analogs are present.

  17. Geochemical evidence for a brooks range mineral belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, S.P.; Cathrall, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical studies in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, delineate a regional, structurally controlled mineral belt in east-west-trending metamorphic rocks and adjacent metasedimentary rocks. The mineral belt extends eastward from the Ambler River quadrangle to the Chandalar and Philip Smith quadrangles, Alaska, from 147?? to 156??W. longitude, a distance of more than 375 km, and spans a width from 67?? to 69??N. latitude, a distance of more than 222 km. Within this belt are several occurrences of copper and molybdenum mineralization associated with meta-igneous, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks; the geochemical study delineates target areas for additional occurrences. A total of 4677 stream-sediment and 2286 panned-concentrate samples were collected in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, from 1975 to 1979. The -80 mesh ( 2.86) nonmagnetic fraction of the panned concentrates from stream sediment were analyzed by semiquantitative spectrographic methods. Two geochemical suites were recognized in this investigation; a base-metal suite of copper-lead-zinc and a molybdenum suite of molybdenum-tin-tungsten. These suites suggest several types of mineralization within the metamorphic belt. Anomalies in molybdenum with associated Cu and W suggest a potential porphyry molybdenum system associated with meta-igneous rocks. This regional study indicates that areas of metaigneous rocks in the central metamorphic belt are target areas for potential mineralized porphyry systems and that areas of metavolcanic rocks are target areas for potential massive sulfide mineralization. ?? 1981.

  18. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture-recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Schueller, Paul; Bassar, Ronald D; Nislow, Keith H; Coombs, Jason A; Sakrejda, Krzysztof; Morrissey, Michael; Sigourney, Douglas B; Whiteley, Andrew R; O'Donnell, Matthew J; Dubreuil, Todd L

    2015-03-01

    Modelling the effects of environmental change on populations is a key challenge for ecologists, particularly as the pace of change increases. Currently, modelling efforts are limited by difficulties in establishing robust relationships between environmental drivers and population responses. We developed an integrated capture-recapture state-space model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) using a long-term (11 years), high-resolution (individually tagged, sampled seasonally) data set of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from four sites in a stream network. Our integrated model provides an effective context within which to estimate environmental driver effects because it takes full advantage of data by estimating (latent) state values for missing observations, because it propagates uncertainty among model components and because it accounts for the major demographic rates and interactions that contribute to annual survival. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong effects on brook trout demography. Some effects, such as reduction in survival associated with low stream flow and high temperature during the summer season, were consistent across sites and age classes, suggesting that they may serve as robust indicators of vulnerability to environmental change. Other survival effects varied across ages, sites and seasons, indicating that flow and temperature may not be the primary drivers of survival in those cases. Flow and temperature also affected body growth rates; these responses were consistent across sites but differed dramatically between age classes and seasons. Finally, we found that tributary and mainstem sites responded differently to variation in flow and temperature. Annual survival (combination of survival and body growth across seasons) was insensitive to body growth and was most sensitive to flow (positive) and temperature (negative

  19. Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Donald J.; Stein, Roy A.

    1974-01-01

    Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of fishes is poorly known. Studies of the uptake, distribution, and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons have suggested that uptake or degradation is rapid in the intestine (GROSS 1969; MACEK et al. 1970; GRZENDA et al. 1970, 1971). The present study was designed to determine the short-term fate of a single oral dose of dieldrin in the digestive tract of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

  20. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  1. Decontamination of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peecook, K.M.

    2008-07-01

    The NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility decommissioning project recently completed a major milestone with the successful decontamination of seven hot cells. The cells included thick concrete walls and leaded glass windows, manipulator arms, inter cell dividing walls, and roof slabs. There was also a significant amount of embedded conduit and piping that had to be cleaned and surveyed. Prior to work starting evaluation studies were performed to determine whether it was more cost effective to do this work using a full up removal approach (rip and ship) or to decontaminate the cells to below required clean up levels, leaving the bulk of the material in place. This paper looks at that decision process, how it was implemented, and the results of that effort including the huge volume of material that can now be used as fill during site restoration rather than being disposed of as LLRW. (authors)

  2. Cold Brook Dam, Hot Springs, South Dakota, Fall River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Is ’ 44 .0 01 0 o0 0 . 4 . 00 0 &J w 0. 0) 01 0c Ai 061 0 . u00 l .1 Coo 𔃾 0 0a 0 .4 0 0 A - 0. Z%0 0 01 w low" to 0 m N t 0 o AJ,0 00 4 .a ... 0 40...tf Des,. uw file .11 C0..A D,k,,Io ’hf .i*’ .. . . . .. . . -- ~ e 749?-fat-6 0 0 -- AI COLD BROOK DAM FOWNMTION REPORT LOCATiOE OF CKPLORATION §OftUS...Secondary Holes T- lC Tertiary Holes T-1D Quaternary Holes T-1E Quintary Holes T-2 Pressure Test Records T-2A Primary Holes T-2B Secondary Holes T-2C

  3. Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

  4. Geological mapping in Doonerak Fenster, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.C.; Adams, K.E.; Dillon, J.T.

    1985-04-01

    Mapping of the north flank of the Doonerak fenster has traced the Amawk thrust, the sole fault of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, from the North Fork of the Koyukuk River - Mount Doonerak area eastward for more than 40 km (25 mi) to the east plunge of the Doonerak anticline at Koyuktuvuk Creek near the Dietrich River. Mapping has concentrated on the structural style of the area and on the autochthonous or parautochthonous Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Kayak shale, Kekiktuk Conglomerate - which are present along most of the anticline - and Triassic Karen Creek Sandstone, Triassic Shublik Formation, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group - which are present only in the west. This Triassic to Mississippian section closely resembles the coeval autochthonous to Parautochthonous Ellesmerian section of the subsurface to the north and in the Brooks Range to the northeast.

  5. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  6. Schubert in Stony Brook and Kinks in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    Wolfgang Kummer became my friend during the many years I have been visiting Vienna in January. He created a marvellous Institute for Theoretical Physics with an enthusiastic group of students, postdocs and colleagues. Great Institutes need a central person to grow around. Two such Institutes I have been attached to are Utrecht where M. Veltman created a school of field theorists, and Stony Brook where C.N. Yang was the natural leader. In Vienna Wolfgang played a similar role. His mere presence during seminars gave a sense of enthusiasm and direction, and his active participation was an example for younger physicists not to be shy and also ask further clarifications when needed. In particular I was impressed by his collaboration with students. Almost every afternoon I would find him sitting with one or two students at his desk or in the conference room, trying to understand new problems in dilaton gravity, and discussing and calculating with them on equal footing. I invited Wolfgang to visit Stony Brook, but he was noncommittal, and I soon found out that he was seriously ill. Yet, he would come in everyday, and be the life of the Institute. Every year with his wife Lore we would go out one evening in Vienna, either to a play or a concert. These were great evenings as I will describe below. Near the end, I would phone him at his home, and we would talk physics. He remained optimistic about his chances, but then suddenly all went wrong and he died. I miss a dear friend. Below is the story of how we became friends…

  7. Preliminary plan for testing a thermionic reactor in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. A.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary plan is presented for testing a thermionic reactor in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility (SPF). A technical approach, cost estimate, manpower estimate, and schedule are presented to cover a 2 year full power reactor test.

  8. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated glycolic acids via sequenced brook and Ireland--claisen rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-05

    Organozinc, -magnesium, and -lithium nucleophiles initiate a Brook/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence of allylic silyl glyoxylates resulting in the formation of gamma,delta-unsaturated alpha-silyloxy acids.

  9. Pingos in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, T.D.; Obi, Curtis M.

    1982-01-01

    Some 70 pingos occur at 27 separate localities within and near the Brooks Range. The pingos are distributed through mountain valleys at altitudes up to 725m and in terrain glaciated as recently as late Wisconsinan time. Pingos are particularly abundant in the Koyukuk and Chandalar drainage systems of the south-central Brooks Range, where they may be associated with structural features of regional extent.-from Authors

  10. Giant American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Purvis, Harold A.

    1971-01-01

    Five female American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, collected in lakes Michigan and Huron averaged nearly twice as long and about six times as heavy as American brook lampreys of normal size. Three factors suggested that the giant lampreys may have fed parasitically after metamorphosis: morphological adaptations of the species for parasitic life, their large size, and absence of extremely large ammocetes among a million sampled.

  11. Town Brook Local Protection, Massachusetts Coastal Streams: Feasibility Report for Water Resources Development. Volume II. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    between the New England Division and MCZMP could serve as a model for coordination elsewhere and are very committed to it. In that vein, I hope that...hydrology for Town Brook in Quincy, Massachusetts. Studies included the development of an HEC- 1 computer model using information from previ- ous studies...plus 7 years of stream flow records. The model was then used to access the development of floods on the brook, the frequency and magnitude of flood

  12. Modeling Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields with Realistic Anatomical Models: The Brooks Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to code, a number of...rewritten in C. Both versions of Brooks FDTD are parallelized for Beowulf clusters and have run on more than one hundred processors. In addition to...have made significant contributions include: Aldon Lyssy, who volunteered to scavenge and build the first Beowulf : Peter Gajsek who lead the first

  13. [Population genetic structure of northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma in Asia and North America].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2011-12-01

    The level of genetic differentiation of northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma from Asia and North America was evaluated using the data on mtDNA variation (regions ND1/ND2, ND5/ND6, and Cytb/D loop) obtained by means of PCR-RFLP analysis. For S. m. malma, the mean values of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were 0.5261 +/- 0.00388 and 0.001558, respectively. The mean estimate of the population nucleotide divergence constituted 0.055%. It was demonstrated that S. m. malma on the most part of the species range examined (drainages of the Beaufort Sea, Chukotka Sea, Bering Sea, and the Sea of Okhotsk) was characterized by the population genetic structure with the low level of genetic differentiation and divergence. At the same time, populations from the Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska demonstrated marked genetic differentiation, supported by the high pairwise phi(ST) values (from 0.4198 to 0.5211) and nucleotide divergence estimates (mean divergence, 0.129%), from Asian and North American populations. Nested analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that most of the mtDNA variation in S. m. malma fell in the intrapopulation component (72.5%). At the same time, the differences between the populations (21.1%) and between the regions (6.4%) made lower contribution to the total variation.

  14. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  15. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  16. Dwarf char, a new form of chars (the genus Salvelinus) in Lake Kronotskoe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlov, S.D.; Pivovarov, E.A.; Ostberg, C.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Kronotskoe is situated in the Kronotskii State Nature Reserve and is a unique natural heritage of Kamchatka. The lake–river system of the reserve includes numerous springs and small streams and three large inflowing rivers, Listvennichnaya, Unana, and Uzon, which form the main bays of Lake Kronotskoe; one river (Kronotskaya) flows from the lake. This river is characterized by several rapids, which are assumed to be unsurmountable barriers for fish migration. The ichthyofauna of the lake has been isolated for a long time, and some endemic fishes appeared, including char of the genus Salvelinus and the residential form of red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (the local name is kokanee). These species are perfect model objects to study microevolution processes. Char of Lake Kronotskoe are characterized by significant polymorphism and plasticity [1–3]; therefore, they are extremely valuable for studying the processes of speciation and form development. That is why the populations of char in Lake Kronotskoe are unique and attract special attention of researchers. 

  17. Effects of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaychush) on Arctic Char (S. Alpinus) Populations in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyse, M. D.; Hershey, A. E.; Fortino, K.; Luecke, C.

    2005-05-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaychush) and arctic char (S. Alpinus) typically are not found coexisting in arctic Alaskan lakes. Lake trout and artic char are generally top predators in lakes where they do not coexist. During the summer of 2004, I examined the effects of lake trout on dietary and habitat selection of arctic char near the Toolik Lake Field Station in arctic Alaska. I examined lakes containing either lake trout or arctic char as the top predator, and lakes containing both lake trout and arctic char. Natural abundace of Δ 15N and Δ 13C of seston, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fish were used to construct food webs to examine any dietary and habitat shifts of arctic char and lake trout when they coexist. Lakes differed in 13C signature of basal resources, but fish tracked benthic 13C in all cases. However, lake trout were more enriched in 15N than arctic char, suggesting greater piscivory. These results strongly suggest that interspecific interactions are not very important in determining the trophic position of top predators in arctic lakes.

  18. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  19. Historical evidence for discrete stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Eck, G.W.; Foster, N.R.; Horrall, R.M.; Coberly, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Although few biological data exist on the now extinct native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, of Lake Michigan, historical records and interviews with former commercial fishermen strongly suggest that this once widespread resource was composed of a number of discrete spawning populations or stocks. A natural division of the resource into distinct stocks is consistent with the size of Lake Michigan and its varied physiography. The native trout may have undergone subtle genetic changes over the millennia, although we cannot determine whether the physical and behavioral differences represented different genotypes or only temporary effects of the local environment. Because of physiographic similarities among the upper Great Lakes and probable interchanges of lake trout during the last glacial period, we recommend that progeny of extant wild stocks, particularly from Lake Superior, are genetically most suitable for recolonizing Lake Michigan. Moreover, the hatchery-held parents of such fish should be infused periodically with genes of the wild or feral donor populations. Despite the sound historical basis for these recommendations, we also recognize that sufficiently high stocking rates coupled with a reduction of heavy exploitation may be even more important than heritability in obtaining self-sustaining populations.

  20. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  1. Striking Phenotypic Variation yet Low Genetic Differentiation in Sympatric Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Andrew; Carson, Robert; Debes, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The study of population differentiation in the context of ecological speciation is commonly assessed using populations with obvious discreteness. Fewer studies have examined diversifying populations with occasional adaptive variation and minor reproductive isolation, so factors impeding or facilitating the progress of early stage differentiation are less understood. We detected non-random genetic structuring in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabiting a large, pristine, postglacial lake (Mistassini Lake, Canada), with up to five discernible genetic clusters having distinctions in body shape, size, colouration and head shape. However, genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.017) and genetic clustering was largely incongruent between several population- and individual-based clustering approaches. Genotype- and phenotype-environment associations with spatial habitat, depth and fish community structure (competitors and prey) were either inconsistent or weak. Striking morphological variation was often more continuous within than among defined genetic clusters. Low genetic differentiation was a consequence of relatively high contemporary gene flow despite large effective population sizes, not migration-drift disequilibrium. Our results suggest a highly plastic propensity for occupying multiple habitat niches in lake trout and a low cost of morphological plasticity, which may constrain the speed and extent of adaptive divergence. We discuss how factors relating to niche conservatism in this species may also influence how plasticity affects adaptive divergence, even where ample ecological opportunity apparently exists. PMID:27680019

  2. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  3. Salvelinus namaycush spawning substratum attracts egg predators and opportunists through chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Wasylenko, B A; Callaghan, D T; Blanchfield, P J; Pyle, G G

    2014-05-01

    Two separate field experiments were conducted in a series of small boreal lakes to test for the attraction of egg predators to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning shoals and subsequently to determine whether chemosensory cues attract egg predators to these sites. In the first experiment, minnow traps set on spawning sites captured significantly more egg predators than those set on structurally similar non-spawning sites. Captures of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, common shiner Luxilus cornutus, blacknose shiner Notropis heterolepis and virile crayfish Orconectes virilis were more than double on spawning sites relative to non-spawning sites for the two study lakes. To test whether chemosensory cues could attract egg predators to S. namaycush spawning sites, paired minnow traps were placed on eight to 10 sites in each of the three study lakes; one trap contained visually concealed S. namaycush spawning substratum and the other with visually concealed non-spawning substratum. Traps containing spawning substratum consistently captured more fish and had higher mean daily catches than those that contained non-spawning substratum. The combined results demonstrate a greater prevalence of egg predators on S. namaycush spawning shoals that appears to be the result of chemosensory attraction to spawning substratum.

  4. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in Lake Michigan, 1971-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was exterminated in Lake Michigan by the mid-1950s as a result of the combined effects of an intensive fishery and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The widespread application of lampricide in tributary streams had greatly reduced the abundance of lampreys by the early 1960s, and a program to restore self-sustaining populations of lake trout through stocking of yearlings and fingerlings was initiated in 1965. Although the hatchery-reared fish spawned widely in Lake Michigan each year after 1970, no progeny were observed except in an isolated area in Grand Traverse Bay. During 1971–78, sea lamprey abundance was generally greater in Wisconsin than in other parts of the lake. However, the rate of occurrence of sea lamprey wounds on lake trout dropped dramatically there in 1978 after the Peshtigo River, a tributary to Green Bay, was treated with lampricide. Application of Lake Michigan wounding rates to a regression model relating mortality to lamprey wounding developed from Lake Superior data, yielded lamprey-induced mortality estimates in 1977 of 5% in Michigan plus Indiana (combined) and 31% in Wisconsin; corresponding estimates for 1978 were 5 and 15%.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey predation, abundance, Lake Michigan

  5. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): In vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes).2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy was activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin.3. The concentrations of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined.4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  6. Recovery of an offshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in eastern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population at Stannard Rock, Michigan, an isolated offshore reef in eastern Lake Superior, was monitored each spring from 1959–79 using a permit assessment gill net fishery. This population, like nearly all of those in inshore waters, declined to low levels during the years of intense predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the late 1950s and early 1960s. After sea lamprey control began in 1961, the abundance of native lake trout at Stannard Rock began to increase slowly in the 1960s and was limited to recruitment into the fishable stock of native fish that were juveniles during the years of high sea lamprey activity. By the early 1970s, lake trout abundance increased sharply and remained at a high level. This rapid recovery resulted from several strong year classes produced by the small spawning aggregations that reached maturity in the 1960s. Reproduction occurred in all years during and after the peak of sea lamprey activity in 1959. The strengths of year classes produced in 1963–1968 were related to the relative abundance of spawners the previous fall.

  7. Trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijian, C.P.; David, S.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a laboratory experiment, we estimated the net trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey to be equal to 76.6 %. Under the assumption that gross trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout from its prey was equal to 80 %, we estimated that the rate at which lake trout eliminated methylmercury was 0.000244 day−1. Our laboratory estimate of methylmercury elimination rate was 5.5 times lower than the value predicted by a published regression equation developed from estimates of methylmercury elimination rates for fish available from the literature. Thus, our results, in conjunction with other recent findings, suggested that methylmercury elimination rates for fish have been overestimated in previous studies. In addition, based on our laboratory experiment, we estimated that the net trophic transfer efficiency of inorganic mercury to lake trout from its prey was 63.5 %. The lower net trophic transfer efficiency for inorganic mercury compared with that for methylmercury was partly attributable to the greater elimination rate for inorganic mercury. We also found that the efficiency with which lake trout retained either methylmercury or inorganic mercury from their food did not appear to be significantly affected by the degree of their swimming activity.

  8. Osteological evidence of genetic divergence of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1994-01-01

    Three phenotypes of Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior, the lean, siscowet, and bumper, are traditionally identified primarily by fat content and body shape. Their taxonomic status is in question because of intermediates as well as the possibility that the diagnostic characters are ecophenotypic. Two osteological characters, the dorsal opercular notch (first recorded by Agassiz in his description of the siscowet) and radii on the anterodorsal part of the supraethmoid, differ between most leans and siscowets. The notch in the opercle near its articulation with the hyomandibular bone is present in humpers, usually present in siscowets, and usually absent in leans. Radii on the anterodorsal surface of the supraethmoid bone usually are found in siscowets and humpers but usually are absent in leans. The correlations among these characters and other features of the phenotype indicate a significant level of differentiation between the three phenotypes. Available evidence suggests that the differentiation is genetic. The frequency of mixed phenotypes is evidence of limited gene flow among the phenotypes. The siscowet and humper phenotypes apparently originated in Lake Superior in postglacial time.

  9. Dynamics of individual growth in a recovering population of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Schram, Stephen T.

    2001-01-01

    In 1976, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources established a refuge for a nearly depleted population of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior. The refuge was intended to reduce fishing mortality by protecting adult lake trout. We examined the growth dynamics of these lake trout during the period of recovery by comparing estimates of ndividual growth before and after the refuge was established. Our estimates are based on an annual mark-recapture survey conducted at the spawning area since 1969. We developed a model that allowed mean growth rates to differ among individuals of different sizes and that accommodated variation in growth rates of individuals of the same size. Likelihood ratio tests were used to determine if the mean growth increments of lake trout changed ater the refuge was established. Our results suggest that growth of mature lake trout (particularly wild fish) decreased significantly in the postrefuge period. This decreased growth may have been associated with a reduction in food availability. We also observed reductions in growth as wild fish grew older and larger, which suggests that the growth of these fish may be adequately approximated by a von Bertalanffy growth model if it becomes possible to obtain accurate ages.

  10. Waterborne ethynylestradiol induces vitellogenin and alters metallothionein expression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Werner, Julieta; Wautier, Kerry; Evans, Robert E; Baron, Christopher L; Kidd, Karen; Palace, Vince

    2003-02-26

    Estrogenic contaminants isolated from waters receiving sewage treatment plant effluents are known to induce the egg yolk precursor vitellogenin (VTG) in male fish. Levels of the metal binding protein metallothionein (MT) have also been shown to be affected by estrogens in fish. It has been postulated that MT declines in estrogen exposed fish to facilitate transfer of the essential metal Zn to cellular components required for VTG synthesis. To examine the changes in MT and VTG concentrations in fish exposed to an estrogen contaminant, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to waterborne ethynylestradiol at 0, 4, 40 or 400 ng/l(-1) for 21 days. Blood and tissues were collected after 21 days of exposure to measure circulating levels of VTG as well as MT concentrations in liver and kidney. VTG increased in male and female fish from all three exposure groups compared to control fish. MT in liver significantly decreased in males and females compared to the controls, in the two highest exposures. MT in kidney was significantly higher in both sexes of fish exposed to the two highest concentrations of ethynylestradiol. These data are supportive of a relationship between estrogen exposure and the regulation of MT. Further studies to examine the specific links between estrogen exposure, VTG induction and regulation of essential metals like Zn are required.

  11. Ovarian fluid enhances sperm velocity based on relatedness in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Butts, Ian A E; Johnson, Katelynn; Wilson, Chris C; Pitcher, Trevor E

    2012-12-01

    Studying mate choice at the gamete level can provide valuable insights into proximate mechanisms that underlie the evolution of mating systems. The objective was to assess whether ovarian fluid enhances sperm performance based on relatedness of mates in lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, an iteroparous salmonid. Twelve trios were used, each composed of a female and two male fish; one male was related (full sibling) to the female, whereas the other was unrelated. Sperm from each male was activated in hatchery water or ovarian fluid from each corresponding female. No significant difference in sperm velocity was detected between the related and unrelated male fish when activated in hatchery water. However, when sperm was activated in ovarian fluid, sperm velocity from the related male was significantly higher than that of the unrelated male fish. Overall, ovarian fluid enhanced sperm performance of related male fish and might act as part of a recognition system to select sperm of a specific genotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Tc1-Like Transposable Elements in the Genome of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Reed

    1999-01-01

    This study reports on the DNA sequence of a Tc1-like transposable element Tsn1 from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Tc1-like elements were amplified by PCR using an oligonucleotide primer based on the Tdr1 element of zebrafish. One full-length and two partial-length copies of the transposon were sequenced. In addition, partial Tsn1 elements were recovered from PCR reactions run with primers specific to the 3' terminus of the 28S rDNA. However, sequence analysis of cloned fragments found that these sequences were not associated with the rDNA cistron. Sequence comparisons indicate that Tsn1 is a type A element common to both salmonid and cyprinid fishes. The consensus sequence of the full-length element (Tsn1) was 1643 nucleotides with long terminal repeats (LTRs) of 225 nucleotides. Tsn1 contains a transposase coding region corresponding to 340 amino acids that includes all of the functional elements of Tc1-like transposons. Southern analysis found a high proportion of the Tsn1 transposons in the lake trout genome to be full-length copies.

  13. Striking Phenotypic Variation yet Low Genetic Differentiation in Sympatric Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Marin, Kia; Coon, Andrew; Carson, Robert; Debes, Paul V; Fraser, Dylan J

    The study of population differentiation in the context of ecological speciation is commonly assessed using populations with obvious discreteness. Fewer studies have examined diversifying populations with occasional adaptive variation and minor reproductive isolation, so factors impeding or facilitating the progress of early stage differentiation are less understood. We detected non-random genetic structuring in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabiting a large, pristine, postglacial lake (Mistassini Lake, Canada), with up to five discernible genetic clusters having distinctions in body shape, size, colouration and head shape. However, genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.017) and genetic clustering was largely incongruent between several population- and individual-based clustering approaches. Genotype- and phenotype-environment associations with spatial habitat, depth and fish community structure (competitors and prey) were either inconsistent or weak. Striking morphological variation was often more continuous within than among defined genetic clusters. Low genetic differentiation was a consequence of relatively high contemporary gene flow despite large effective population sizes, not migration-drift disequilibrium. Our results suggest a highly plastic propensity for occupying multiple habitat niches in lake trout and a low cost of morphological plasticity, which may constrain the speed and extent of adaptive divergence. We discuss how factors relating to niche conservatism in this species may also influence how plasticity affects adaptive divergence, even where ample ecological opportunity apparently exists.

  14. Pelagic food-web structure influences probability of mercury contamination in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Futter, M N

    1994-05-02

    An empirical model predicting probability of encountering levels of mercury in excess of 0.5 p.p.m. in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is developed using logistic regression and two published data sets on food-web structures and elevated levels of mercury in sport fish. Probability of mercury contamination is a function of lake trout length and presence of pelagic forage fish. Presence of forage fish in a lake increased the odds that a lake trout of a given size would contain elevated levels of mercury in excess of eight times the expected level in lakes without pelagic forage fish. The model predicted a less than 5% probability of encountering elevated mercury levels in lake trout less than 30 cm in length from lakes with pelagic forage fish. In lakes where pelagic forage fish were absent, there was a less than 5% probability that lake trout under 45 cm would contain levels of mercury above 0.5 p.p.m.

  15. Glutamine metabolism in a holostean (Amia calva) and teleost fish (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, M E; Glemet, H C; Ballantyne, J S

    1991-01-01

    Amino acid metabolism was examined in mitochondria from the lateral red muscle of a teleost (lake char, Salvelinus namaycush) and a nonteleost fish (bowfin, Amia calva). Isolated mitochondria oxidize a wide variety of substrates and have high respiratory control ratios. In both species, glutamine is oxidized more rapidly than any other amino acid. The rate of glutamine oxidation by bowfin mitochondria exceeds that of lake char mitochondria, and the bowfin displays correspondingly higher levels of mitochondrial phosphate-dependent glutaminase. It is suggested that amino acids in general, and glutamine in particular, are important oxidative substrates for nonteleost red muscle. The teleost red muscle, however, may rely on both glutamine and fatty acids as oxidative substrates. It appears that glutamate derived from glutamine is oxidized primarily via glutamate dehydrogenase, whereas exogenous glutamate is oxidized primarily via aspartate aminotransferase. Complete oxidation of glutamine may be accomplished in the absence of other substrates by conversion of glutamine-derived malate to pyruvate via malic enzyme. To assess the relative abilities of various tissues to synthesize and oxidize glutamine, the activities of glutamine synthetase and glutaminase were measured. The results of these studies indicate that the organization of glutamine metabolism of fish differs markedly from that in mammals.

  16. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Keir, Michael J; Whittle, D Michael

    2011-05-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; David, Solomon R; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P

    2012-12-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However, γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as log K(OW) increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  18. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Keir, Michael J; Whittle, D Michael; Noguchi, George E

    2010-03-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  19. Hypervariability of ribosomal DNA at multiple chromosomal sites in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Zhuo, L; Reed, K M; Phillips, R B

    1995-06-01

    Variation in the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was examined. Digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes showed that almost every individual had a unique combination of length variants with most of this variation occurring within rather than between populations. Sequence analysis of a 2.3 kilobase (kb) EcoRI-DraI fragment spanning the 3' end of the 28S coding region and approximately 1.8 kb of the IGS revealed two blocks of repetitive DNA. Putative transcriptional termination sites were found approximately 220 bases (b) downstream from the end of the 28S coding region. Comparison of the 2.3-kb fragments with two longer (3.1 kb) fragments showed that the major difference in length resulted from variation in the number of short (89 b) repeats located 3' to the putative terminator. Repeat units within a single nucleolus organizer region (NOR) appeared relatively homogeneous and genetic analysis found variants to be stably inherited. A comparison of the number of spacer-length variants with the number of NORs found that the number of length variants per individual was always less than the number of NORs. Examination of spacer variants in five populations showed that populations with more NORs had more spacer variants, indicating that variants are present at different rDNA sites on nonhomologous chromosomes.

  20. Thyroid hormone kinetics in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) exposed to PCB 126

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.B.; Vandenbyllaardt, L.

    1995-12-31

    Recent studies indicate that co-planar PCB congeners or their metabolites can distort thyroid function in mammals. Although co-planar PCBs have been detected at pg/kg levels in fish from contaminated areas, few studies have examined the potential of co-planar PCBs to alter thyroid function in fish. The authors treated immature lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, with a single oral gelatin gavage containing 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) at nominal concentrations of 0, 3, 10 or 30 {micro}g/kg fish weight. After 3 and 23 weeks PCB exposure, fish were catheterized and allowed 1 week to recover from the surgical procedures. Then a single bolus of L-[3{prime},5{prime}{sup 125}l] thyroxine in plasma vehicle was administered through the catheter. Blood samples were removed at 5, 13, 45, 120, 480, 960, 1440 and 2880 min after tracer injection. PCB 126 doses greater than 3{micro}g/kg accelerated the plasma clearance rate and modified tissue distribution of L-thyroxine. The altered L-thyroxine kinetics appear correlated to higher activities of hepatic conjugating enzymes. The possibility exists that some of the organismal effects of co-planar PCB exposure may be mediated by disruptions in thyroid function.

  1. Physiological correlates of seasonal growth patterns in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Morbey, Y E; Couture, P; Busby, P; Shuter, B J

    2010-12-01

    Physiological correlates of seasonal growth patterns were measured in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from two populations with contrasting diets (zooplankton-dominated diet in Louisa Lake; fish-dominated diet in Opeongo Lake). Fish in Opeongo Lake grew faster and were in better condition than fish in Louisa Lake. The most prominent biochemical difference between populations was higher citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase activity in the white muscle of fish from Opeongo Lake, indicating greater sustained swimming activity in this lake. In contrast, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in white muscle, an indicator of capacity for burst swimming, was similar between lakes. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) activity in white muscle, an indicator of protein synthesis, was higher in Opeongo Lake than in Louisa Lake but only in the autumn. In both lakes, protein concentration and therefore nutritional status increased as the growing season progressed from spring to summer to autumn. Biochemical indicators of growth and activity showed similar seasonal patterns in the two lakes with the spring characterized by high NDPK, high CS and high LDH activities (i.e. high levels of protein synthesis in association with high aerobic and anaerobic activities). These results suggest high foraging effort and allocation to growth early in the growing season in both lakes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Epitheliocystis in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum) is associated with a β-proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Contador, E; Methner, P; Ryerse, I; Huber, P; Lillie, B N; Frasca, S; Lumsden, J S

    2016-03-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum) raised for stocking experienced yearly (2011-13) winter epizootics of epitheliocystis. Affected fish were dispersed on the bottom of the tank, had decreased feed and fright response, and mortality often reached 40%. Peak mortality occurred within 3 weeks of the appearance of clinical signs, and outbreaks typically lasted 6 weeks. Affected fish had no gross lesions but histologically had branchial epithelial necrosis and lamellar hyperplasia, with small to large numbers of scattered epithelial cells containing 10- to 20-μm inclusions. A longitudinal study was undertaken of one annual outbreak, and lamellar hyperplasia was most closely associated with mortality. The number of inclusions was statistically greater (P < 0.05) before and during peak mortality, but inclusions were present in low numbers before clinical signs occurred. Results of histochemical staining, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy supported the presence of a β-proteobacteria rather than a Chlamydiales bacterium within inclusions. PCR primers to identify Chlamydiales did not give consistent results. However, the use of universal 16S rDNA bacterial primers in conjunction with laser capture microdissection of inclusions demonstrated that a β-proteobacteria was consistently associated with affected gills and is more likely the cause of the disease in lake trout. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Lake char (Salvelinus namaycush) olfactory neurons are highly sensitive and specific to bile acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunbo; Hara, Toshiaki J

    2009-02-01

    Bile acids have been implicated as chemical signals in spawning behaviour of lake char (Salvelinus namaycush). In this study, we investigated olfactory responses of lake char to bile acids by using the electro-olfactogram recording. Lake char detected 9 out of 38 bile acids tested at thresholds 0.02-0.5 nM. The most stimulatory included chenodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and taurolithocholic acid 3alpha-sulphate. Structure-activity analysis indicated that substituents in the side chain or hydroxyl sulphation were determinant elements for the recognition of individual bile acid receptors, while the position and orientation of hydroxyls or the type of amidation were important for effective stimulation. Three distinct types of concentration-response relationships were found, representing free, taurine- or glycine-amidated, and 3alpha-sulphated bile acids. Cross-adaptation and binary mixture experiments revealed the presence of multiple olfactory receptors for bile acids. Lake char were also capable of detecting petromyzonol sulphate at 1 nM, possibly via its own receptors. Our study further showed that the olfactory responses to bile acids were independent of those of known odorants including amino acids, prostaglandins and gonadal steroids. We conclude that lake char possess multiple olfactory receptors capable of discriminating bile acids produced and released by conspecifics.

  4. PCR assay for improved diagnostics of epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV) in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Kurobe, T; Marcquenski, S; Hedrick, R P

    2009-03-09

    Epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV) has caused catastrophic losses among hatchery-reared juvenile lake trout Salvelinus namaycush since the early 1980s and remains a major impediment to lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes basin of the USA. Although EEDV has been tentatively designated as a herpesvirus based upon morphological criteria, further characterization of the virus and development of improved detection methods have been hampered by the inability to propagate the virus in cell culture. Recently obtained sequence data for a region of the putative terminase gene from EEDV as well as the related Salmonid herpesvirus 1 and 2 have permitted the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for specific detection of EEDV. The new EEDV PCR demonstrated both an excellent analytic sensitivity and specificity and detected viral DNA as present in the skin of lake trout during periods of active viral outbreaks. In addition, EEDV DNA was detected among healthy appearing juveniles and in the ovarian fluids of spawning adults. Here we describe the development and initial validation steps of the EEDV PCR as a replacement for current diagnostic methods that require virus extraction from the skin, partial purification by isopycnic centrifugation, and visualization of negatively-stained virions by electron microscopy.

  5. Sublethal toxicity of two wastewater treatment polymers to lake trout fry (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Liber, K; Weber, L; Lévesque, C

    2005-12-01

    Lake trout fry (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed in laboratory experiments to two wastewater treatment polymers, one anionic (MagnaFloc 156) and one cationic (MagnaFloc 368; Ciba Speciality Chemical), to determine if these chemicals which are used and discharged by mining operations in Canada's North pose a significant hazard to juvenile fishes. The cationic polymer was substantially more toxic to lake trout fry than the anionic polymer, with 96-h LC50 estimates of 2.08 and >600 mg/l, respectively. Separate 30-d exposure experiments yielded no observed and lowest observed effect concentrations, respectively, of 0.25 and 0.5mg/l for MagnaFloc 368, and 75 and 150 mg/l for MagnaFloc 156. In both cases, behavioural responses, especially startle response, were the most sensitive test endpoints. Histopathological assessment revealed that gill pathology appeared within a few days of exposure to both polymers, apparently as a result of localized hypoxia. Acute (4 d) effects included cloudy swelling of epithelial cells, increased gill vascularization, and thickening and shortening of the gill lamella. Chronic (30 d) polymer exposure produced only slightly greater pathological effects than acute exposure, with comparable responses observed only at >1.0mg/l MagnaFloc 368 and 150 mg/l MagnaFloc 156, suggesting that the fish displayed some level of both behavioural and physiological adaptation to the respiratory stress imposed by the two polymers.

  6. Trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, C P; David, S R; Krabbenhoft, D P

    2012-08-01

    Based on a laboratory experiment, we estimated the net trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey to be equal to 76.6 %. Under the assumption that gross trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout from its prey was equal to 80 %, we estimated that the rate at which lake trout eliminated methylmercury was 0.000244 day(-1). Our laboratory estimate of methylmercury elimination rate was 5.5 times lower than the value predicted by a published regression equation developed from estimates of methylmercury elimination rates for fish available from the literature. Thus, our results, in conjunction with other recent findings, suggested that methylmercury elimination rates for fish have been overestimated in previous studies. In addition, based on our laboratory experiment, we estimated that the net trophic transfer efficiency of inorganic mercury to lake trout from its prey was 63.5 %. The lower net trophic transfer efficiency for inorganic mercury compared with that for methylmercury was partly attributable to the greater elimination rate for inorganic mercury. We also found that the efficiency with which lake trout retained either methylmercury or inorganic mercury from their food did not appear to be significantly affected by the degree of their swimming activity.

  7. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species.

  8. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  9. The temperature-productivity squeeze: Constraints on brook trout growth along an Appalachian river continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J. Todd; Thorne, David; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that brook trout growth rates are controlled by a complex interaction of food availability, water temperature, and competitor density. We quantified trout diet, growth, and consumption in small headwater tributaries characterized as cold with low food and high trout density, larger tributaries characterized as cold with moderate food and moderate trout density, and large main stems characterized as warm with high food and low trout density. Brook trout consumption was highest in the main stem where diets shifted from insects in headwaters to fishes and crayfish in larger streams. Despite high water temperatures, trout growth rates also were consistently highest in the main stem, likely due to competitively dominant trout monopolizing thermal refugia. Temporal changes in trout density had a direct negative effect on brook trout growth rates. Our results suggest that competition for food constrains brook trout growth in small streams, but access to thermal refugia in productive main stem habitats enables dominant trout to supplement growth at a watershed scale. Brook trout conservation in this region should seek to relieve the “temperature-productivity squeeze,” whereby brook trout productivity is constrained by access to habitats that provide both suitable water temperature and sufficient prey.

  10. Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2012-12-01

    Stony Brook University offers an unusual series of short courses to help science graduate students learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including the public, public officials, potential funders and employers, students, the press, and colleagues in other fields. The courses include six 1-credit (14-hour) modules in oral and written communication that rely on practice and interactive feedback. More than 120 master's and PhD students, from more than 16 departments, have taken at least one of the courses since spring 2011. Most students who try one module end up taking two or three. An additional course for medical and nursing students was added in fall 2012. The courses are offered in the School of Journalism and were developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). CCS was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. The Communicating Science courses have received strong institutional support and enthusiastic reviews. They are required by two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. Two successive Provosts have subsidized course costs for PhD students, and Graduate School leaders are working to establish a steady funding stream to allow expansion of the program. Our aspiration at CCS is for every science graduate student to receive some training in communicating about science to the public. Several factors have helped in establishing the program: --CCS' multidisciplinary nature helped build support, with participation by faculty from across the campus, including not only the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, but journalism, theatre arts, and the Writing Program, as well as nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. --Before offering courses, CCS conducted all-day workshops and high

  11. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    PubMed

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species.

  12. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Stony Brook Harbor, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, J. M.; Young, C.; Wong, T.; Hanson, G. N.

    2012-12-01

    As nutrients can significantly impact coastal ecosystems, understanding their path to embayments and oceans is crucial. In Stony Brook Harbor (Long Island, NY), submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the only significant contribution of freshwater and thus constitutes the main pathway for nutrients, which may eventually reach Long Island Sound. Subterranean estuaries have been shown to be highly reactive zones where nitrogen attenuation can occur. Understanding the fate of nitrogen in Stony Brook Harbor requires knowing the volume of groundwater entering the bay as well as the amount of denitrification, in the context of the hydrogeological framework. This is achieved by combining electrical resistivity survey, water sampling in piezometers, point conductivity and seepage measurements. A Trident probe inserted 60 cm deep into the sediments allows measuring the conductivity and temperature of the sediments and the overlying seawater. In spring 2011, five Trident transects spreading across the head of the harbor were used as a preliminary study to reveal potential locations for SGD. Locations with significant difference between sediment and seawater temperature and/or conductivities were further investigated using an AGI SuperSting 8-channel receiver resistivity meter. Two ultrasonic seepage meters were deployed in May and July 2011 about 20 m below the low tide mark. Five piezometers were aligned parallel to one resistivity survey. Our resistivity data indicate superficial mixing in the intertidal zone. The freshwater extends quite far under the seafloor, above 67 meters after the low tide mark for one location. The freshwater/saltwater interface seems to be almost horizontal. The piezometer data agree relatively well with the resistivity data. The preliminary average seepage rates observed vary from 3 to 60 cm/d. The resistivity sections reveal the presence of a thin layer of high conductivity above the low tide mark. This matches the observation of a superficial

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 54 (RANDTH00BR0054) on Brook Street, crossing Thayer Brook, Randolph, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RANDTH00BR0054 on Brook Street crossing Thayer Brook, Randolph, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain physiographic division of central Vermont in the town of Randolph. The 5.39-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the immediate banks are forested. In the study area, Thayer Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 60 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 42.4 mm or 0.139 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visits on August 3, 1994 and December 5, 1994, indicated that the reach was vertically and laterally unstable. This assessment was due to the extreme channel misalignment with the bridge opening and the presence of a drop structure downstream of the bridge protecting against channel degradation. The Brook Street crossing of Thayer Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 2, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. Streamflow attacks the upstream right wingwall and has undermined the upstream end of the right abutment. Type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) exists only on the upstream and downstream sides of the left

  14. Theoretical stream of comet 12P/Pons-Brooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, D.

    2014-07-01

    We modeled the theoretical stream of the Halley-type comet 12P/Pons- Brooks in a single perihelion passage that was 1,000 orbital periods in the past (the orbital period is 70.85 years). We generated 10,000 particles with randomly distributed directions of their velocity vectors. The ejection velocity for these particles was set to 37.51 m/s (equal to 1/1000 of the perihelion velocity). We followed the dynamical evolution of the stream of particles during the numerical integration from the moment of their ejection. From the total number of 10,000 particles, 1,227 particles are crossing or passing around the Earth's orbit at a distance smaller than 0.05 au. These particles have a well-defined radiant predicted on the northern sky, with a high declination (from about 61° to 81° -- figure). The subsequent identification with available databases of the meteors can confirm whether the meteor shower is real or not. For this, we will use three databases: the photographical IAU MDC (Lindblad et al., 2003), the radio-meteor database (Hawkins, 1963; Sekanina & Southworth, 1975), and the SonotaCo video-meteor database (SonotaCo, 2009).

  15. Geohydrology of Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols counties, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The principal artesian aquifer, a limestone of Eocene to Miocene age, is the main source of water supply for Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols Counties in south Georgia. Pumpage of about 22 million gallons perday from this prolific aquifer has not posed any problems regarding declining water levels or depletion of the reservoir. However, water-quality problems do occur in the Valdosta area. Seepage-run measurements indicate that the Withlacoochee River north of Valdosta contributes an average of 112 cubic feet per second of water to caverns and sinkholes that recharge the aquifer. Wells near the recharge area withdraw relatively unfiltered water with iron concentration and color intensity exceeding standards for drinking water. South of Valdosta, water from the aquifer contains as much as 3.0 milligrams per liter of hydrogen sulfide, rendering the water unfit for drinking. Water high in sulfate concentration occurs below 550 feet in the lower part of the aquifer in Valdosta, and is assumed to be present at that depth throughout the study area. Generally, sufficient quantities of freshwater can be obtained without drilling to this depth.

  16. Space Power Facility at NASA’s Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-02-21

    Exterior view of the Space Power Facility at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. The $28.4-million facility, which began operations in 1969, is the largest high vacuum chamber ever built. The chamber is 100 feet in diameter and 120 feet high. It produces a vacuum deep enough to simulate the conditions at 300 miles altitude. The facility can sustain a high vacuum; simulate solar radiation via a 4-megawatt quartz heat lamp array, solar spectrum by a 400-kilowatt arc lamp, and cold environments. The Space Power Facility was originally designed to test nuclear power sources for spacecraft during long durations in a space atmosphere, but it was never used for that purpose. The facility’s first test in 1970 involved a 15 to 20-kilowatt Brayton Cycle Power System for space applications. Three different methods of simulating solar heat were employed during the Brayton tests. The facility was also used for jettison tests of the Centaur Standard Shroud. The shroud was designed for the new Titan-Centaur rocket that was scheduled to launch the Viking spacecraft to Mars. The new shroud was tested under conditions that simulated the time from launch to the separation of the stages. Test programs at the facility include high-energy experiments, shroud separation tests, Mars Lander system tests, deployable Solar Sail tests and International Space Station hardware tests.

  17. Operators in the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Control Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-03-21

    Donald Rhodes, left, and Clyde Greer, right, monitor the operation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Reactor Facility from the control room. The 60-megawatt test reactor, NASA’s only reactor, was the eighth largest test reactor in the world. The facility was built by the Lewis Research Center in the late 1950s to study the effects of radiation on different materials that could be used to construct nuclear propulsion systems for aircraft or rockets. The reactor went critical for the first time in 1961. For the next two years, two operators were on duty 24 hours per day working on the fission process until the reactor reached its full-power level in 1963. Reactor Operators were responsible for monitoring and controlling the reactor systems. Once the reactor was running under normal operating conditions, the work was relatively uneventful. Normally the reactor was kept at a designated power level within certain limits. Occasionally the operators had to increase the power for a certain test. The shift supervisor and several different people would get together and discuss the change before boosting the power. All operators were required to maintain a Reactor Operator License from the Atomic Energy Commission. The license included six months of training, an eight-hour written exam, a four-hour walkaround, and testing on the reactor controls.

  18. Llama-supported geologic fieldwork in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Faiks, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    For the first time since their camelid ancestors migrated from Asia, across the Bering Sea land bridge, into the Brooks Range, and eventually south to the Andes during the Late Pleistocene, domestic llamas trekked through Arctic Alaska mountains. During August 1981, six llamas carrying 520 lb of gear supported a field party of eight people that traveled 80 mi over 11 days. The route followed left the Dietrich Trans-Alaska Pipe line camp on the Dalton Highway and went eastward over the 5000 ft mountains separating the Dietrich and Matthews Rivers, then north to the headwaters of the Matthews River, and finally west to the Dietrich River drainage north of Snowsden Mountain. Although none had packing experience, all of the llamas were friendly and easy to handle. They carried 60-2100 lbs each, depending on their age. Only blocky talus and very steep slopes were obstacles. The llamas easily traversed fine loose rock, making ascents and descents as steep as 1000 ft/mi (190 m/km), bashed through alder scrub, slogged over muskeg, and forded rivers. Since they are avid foragers, minimal food was packed for the llamas. Bears were sighted during the trip, but none approached the group. Dall sheep and llamas puzzled at each other from a distance.

  19. Impact of Extreme Streamflows on Brook Trout Young-of-Year Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, A. G.; Letcher, B. H.; Vogel, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    An understanding of how extreme streamflows influence ecological outcomes is necessary to prioritize, protect and restore ecosystems threatened by climate change and other human impacts. Highly sensitive to stream flows and temperature, salmonids, such as brook trout, are often used as ecological indicators. Unfortunately, streamflow measurements at brook trout sampling sites are rarely available, making it difficult to assess the relationship between flows and trout abundance. In this study, a long-term dataset of brook trout counts from 29 years across 115 sites in Shenandoah National Park (SNP) was used to assess the utility of predicted extreme streamflows for improving our understanding of brook trout young-of-the-year (YOY) abundance. High and low streamflows at ungaged trout sampling sites were predicted using regional regression equations based on gaged flows at nearby unregulated sites. We assessed a range of flow metrics with the goal of identifying which metrics were most closely related to variations in brook trout YOY abundance. Bayesian hierarchical models which allowed coefficients on predicted streamflows to vary by site and accounted for imperfect detection of brook trout were used. We found that estimates of extreme streamflows are important predictors of next summer brook trout YOY abundance in SNP. These findings can help inform streamflow targets and thereby promote environmental conservation and management. For areas with similar data scarcity challenges, these methods can be used to predict the response of other species to extreme flows. In many regions, extreme hydrologic events are expected to increase with climate change, making an understanding of the relationship between extreme streamflows and population resilience particularly important.

  20. Effects of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) thymocyte viability, apoptosis, and necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birchmeier, Kelly L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants have been identified as an emergent contaminants issue in many parts of the world. In vitro analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that selected PBDEs congeners affect viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of thymocytes from laboratory-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). At current environmental levels (<1 mg/L), effects of the tested PBDEs on thymocytes were negligible. However, at 100 mg/L, major effects were seen for congener brominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and minor effects were seen for congener BDE-99.

  1. Microdissection of the Y chromosome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the sex chromosomes of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Reed, K M; Bohlander, S K; Phillips, R B

    1995-06-01

    Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is one of the few salmonids with morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes. Genetic analysis suggested that the sex-determining region of this species lies on the short arm of the Y chromosome. The differential arm of the Y chromosome was microdissected and the resulting DNA amplified in a sequence-independent manner. Amplified DNA was biotin labeled as a probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Strong hybridization signals were seen covering defined regions of both the Y and X chromosomes. Homeologous chromosomes of the ancestrally tetraploid genome were not identified by FISH with the Y probe, indicating diploidization of this region of the genome.

  2. [The divergence of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma in Asian Northern Pacific populations inferred from the PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, V A

    2002-10-01

    Genetic differentiation of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma Walbaum was studied in five populations from the western part of the Northern Pacific. Using restriction analysis (RFLP), we examined polymorphism of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MtDNA haplotypes were shown to fall into two phylogenetic groups, which probably reflect the existence of two previously described subspecies of Asian dolly varden, S. malma malma and S. malma krascheninnikovi. The divergence of mtDNA nucleotide sequences in the dolly varden subspecies (about 4%) corresponds to the differences between the valid char species from the genus Salvelinus.

  3. [Allozyme diversity and genetic divergence of the dolly varden Salvelinus malma Walbaum from the Kuril islands].

    PubMed

    Omel'chenko, V T; Salmenkova, E A; Shed'ko, S V

    2002-09-01

    Genetic variation was studied in the southern subspecies of the Asian Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi from the Kuril Islands. Thirty-six genetic loci controlling 19 enzyme systems were analyzed in 13 Dolly Varden populations from the Shumshu, Paramushir, Onekotan, Rasshua, Simushir, Urup, Iturup, and Kunashir islands. In the studied populations, the proportion of polymorphic loci was 35 to 85% and the mean heterozygosity was 0.104 to 0.173; populations from the Kunashir Island were characterized by maximum heterozygosity. In the island populations examined, significant inter-population heterogeneity of allele frequencies was found for all studied population pairs. For the total population of all islands, the inter-population diversity (GST = 0.188) was comparable to this parameter for the total population from the Kunashir Island (GST = 0.170). Genetic distances between populations did not correlate with the corresponding geographical distances, which indicates the lack of a pronounced gene exchange between the island populations. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling based on genetic distances did not reveal clear groups among the studied populations but indicated greater similarity within the Iturup-Simushir-Urup-Paramushir group and a greater genetic divergence of the Kunashir, Onekotan, Rasshua, and especially Shumshu populations. In the Shumshu population, allele frequencies indicate the admixture of genes of the northern Dolly Varden. The observed pattern of genetic differentiation was probably caused largely by genetic drift under the conditions of a limited gene flow because of homing (which is typical of the Dolly Varden) and the presence of isolated nonanadromous populations. The population-genetic analysis of the Dolly Varden from the Kuril Islands does not give grounds to distinguish any other isolated Dolly Varden species in this region than S. malma, which is represented by the southern form S. m. krascheninnikovi with an

  4. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baillie, Shauna M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles Conrad; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycushthat considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing.ResultsFour putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments.ConclusionWe provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake

  5. A genetic basis for the phenotypic differentiation between siscowet and lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Goetz, Frederick; Rosauer, Daniel; Sitar, Shawn; Goetz, Giles; Simchick, Crystal; Roberts, Steven; Johnson, Ronald; Murphy, Cheryl; Bronte, Charles R; Mackenzie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    In Lake Superior there are three principal forms of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): lean, siscowet and humper. Wild lean and siscowet differ in the shape and relative size of the head, size of the fins, location and size of the eyes, caudal peduncle shape and lipid content of the musculature. To investigate the basis for these phenotypic differences, lean and siscowet lake trout, derived from gametes of wild populations in Lake Superior, were reared communally under identical environmental conditions for 2.5 years. Fish were analysed for growth, morphometry and lipid content, and differences in liver transcriptomics were investigated using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing. The results demonstrate that key phenotypic differences between wild lean and siscowet lake trout such as condition factor, morphometry and lipid levels, persist in these two forms when reared in the laboratory under identical environmental conditions. This strongly suggests that these differences are genetic and not a result of environmental plasticity. Transcriptomic analysis involving the comparison of hepatic gene frequencies (RNA-seq) and expression (quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)) between the two lake trout forms, indicated two primary gene groups that were differentially expressed; those involving lipid synthesis, metabolism and transport (acyl-CoA desaturase, acyl-CoA binding protein, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and apolipoproteins), and those involved with immunity (complement component C3, proteasome, FK506 binding protein 5 and C1q proteins). The results demonstrate that RNA-seq can be used to identify differentially expressed genes; however, some discrepancies between RNA-seq analysis and qPCR indicate that methods for deep sequencing may need to be refined and/or different RNA-seq platforms utilized.

  6. Minimal endocrine alterations in rodents after consumption of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, S L; Heimler, I; Smies, R; Hutz, R J; Dasmahapatra, A K; Tripoli, V; Dellinger, J A

    2000-04-01

    in rat offspring associated with the consumption of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) collected from three areas in the Great Lakes.

  7. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Shauna M; Muir, Andrew M; Hansen, Michael J; Krueger, Charles C; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-10-19

    Adaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing. Four putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments. We provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake in the world for a

  8. Structure and organization of the rDNA intergenic spacer in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Reed, K M; Phillips, R B

    2000-01-01

    A total-genomic cosmid library was created to isolate complete copies of the rDNA cistron of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in order to study the structure and organization of the intergenic spacer (IGS) in this species. A total of 60 rDNA-positive clones (average inserts > 25 kb) was recovered by screening the library with a rDNA-specific probe. Positive clones were assayed for the presence of the two internal rDNA spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the entire IGS fragment was successfully amplified from 42 clones by PCR. Length of the IGS fragments ranged from 9.4 to 17.8 kb. Comparative restriction mapping of the IGS-PCR products of several clones indicated two regions of extensive length variation surrounding a central region with sequence conservation. DNA sequence analysis was used to investigate the molecular basis of the IGS length variation and focused on identifying the region responsible for this variation. Over 9 kb of DNA sequence was obtained for one clone (A1) with a total IGS length of approximately 12.4 kb. Sequence of a conserved central region contained two open reading frames and a number of short direct repeats. Length variation in the IGS was determined by RFLP to result from differences in the number of copies of repetitive DNA sequences. These included an 89-bp tandem repeat (alpha repeats), an 82-bp element (beta repeats), a 168-177-bp element (chi repeats), and a 179-201-bp element (delta repeats). Overall nucleotide composition of the IGS was biased towards A and T (%GC = 47.4). Maintenance of discrete rDNA-length variants in lake trout suggests that the rate of gene conversion is insufficient to produce homogeneous copies across the genome.

  9. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations in Lake Superior and their restoration in 1959-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Peck, James W.; Schorfhaar, Richard G.; Selgeby, James H.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Swanson, Bruce L.; MacCallum, Wayne R.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Curtis, Gary L.; Heinrich, John W.; Young, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Naturally-reproducing populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) have been reestablished in most of Lake Superior, but have not been restored to 1929-1943 average abundance. Progress toward lake trout restoration in Lake Superior is described, management actions are reviewed, and the effectiveness of those actions is evaluated; especially stocking lake trout as a tool for building spawning stocks, and subsequently, populations of wild recruits. Widespread destruction of lake trout stocks in the 1950s due to an intense fishery and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation resulted in lower overall phenotypic diversity than was previously present. Stocking of yearling lake trout, begun in the 1950s, produced high densities of spawners that reproduced wherever inshore spawning habitat was widespread. Sea lampreys were greatly reduced, beginning in 1961, using selective chemical toxicants and barrier dams, but continue to exert substantial mortality. Fishery regulation was least effective in Wisconsin, where excessive gillnet effort caused high by-catch of lake trout until 1991, and in eastern Michigan, where lake trout restoration was deferred in favor of a tribal fishery for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in 1985. Restoration of stocks was quicker in offshore areas where remnant wild lake trout survived and fishing intensity was low, and was slower in inshore areas where stocked lake trout reproduced successfully and fishing intensity was high. Inshore stocks of wild lake trout are currently about 61 % of historic abundance in Michigan and 53% in Wisconsin. Direct comparison of modern and historic abundances of inshore lake trout stocks in Minnesota and Ontario is impossible due to lack of historic stock assessment data. Stocks in Minnesota are less abundant at present than in Michigan or Wisconsin, and stocks in Ontario are similar to those in Michigan. Further progress in stock recovery can only be achieved if sea lampreys are depressed and if

  10. Dieldrin and DDT: accumulation from water and food by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    In the laboratory we measured the amounts of dieldrin and p,p'DDT accumulated by fish from contaminated water and food to determine how fish from Lake Michigan accumulate high concentrations of these insecticides from an environment where the concentrations in water are generally less than 0.01 ppb. Eight groups of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to different combinations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and food. Concentrations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT ranged from 0.006 to 0.010 ppb in water and from 1,700 to 2,300 ppb in food (Oregon moist pellets). After 152 days of exposure to insecticides in water, fish had accumulated an average of 478 ppb dieldrin or 352 ppb p,p'DDT. Fish exposed to dieldrin and p,p'DDT in food accumulated 470 and 648 ppb, respectively. However, it was difficult to determine exactly how much of either insecticide was accumulated from the food because trace amounts (0.003-0.004 ppb) had leached from food or feces. After exposure to the insecticide was terminated, fish eliminated dieldrin at a much faster rate than p,p'DDT. In fish exposed to a combination of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and then held for 125 days in uncontaminated water, the total amount of dieldrin (I?g) declined 89%, but the total amount of p,p'DDT remained unchanged. We used data from this study to estimate how much p,p'DDT adult Lake Michigan coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) accumulated from water and from food during a 104-day period (May-August 1968). The estimates suggest that during these months coho salmon accumulated most of the body burden of p,p'DDT from food.

  11. Foraging mechanisms of siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) on pelagic prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyler, Trevor D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Austin, C. Lee; Gorman, Owen T.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction distance, angle of attack, and foraging success were determined for siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) during laboratory trials under lighting conditions that approximated downwelling spectral irradiance and intensity (9.00 × 108–1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1) at daytime depths. Siscowet reaction distance in response to golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) was directly correlated with increasing light intensity until saturation at 1.86 × 1011 photons m− 2 s− 1, above which reaction distance was constant within the range of tested light intensities. At the lowest tested light intensity, sensory detection was sufficient to locate prey at 25 ± 2 cm, while increasing light intensities increased reaction distance up to 59 ± 2 cm at 1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1. Larger prey elicited higher reaction distances than smaller prey at all light intensities while moving prey elicited higher reaction distances than stationary prey at the higher light intensities (6.00 × 109 to 1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1). The capture and consumption of prey similarly increased with increasing light intensity while time to capture decreased with increasing light intensity. The majority of orientations toward prey occurred within 120° of the longitudinal axis of the siscowet's eyes, although reaction distances among 30° increments along the entire axis were not significantly different. The developed predictive model will help determine reaction distances for siscowet in various photic environments and will help identify the mechanisms and behavior that allow for low light intensity foraging within freshwater systems.

  12. Occurrence and effects of the parasitic copepod Salmincola carpionis on salmonids in the Nikko District, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Kazuya; Ikuta, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Shikama, Toshio; Kitamura, Shoji

    1998-06-01

    Salmincola carpionis (Krøyer, 1837) occurred on brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) and whitespotted charr ( Salvelinus leucomaenis) reared at a fisheries research institute in the Nikko District, central Japan, and also on a wild population of the latter species that had returned for spawning from a lake to streams near the institute. Its infection levels on these salmonids were associated with age and size of fish and the location of rearing ponds, older (larger) fish reared in the lower-located ponds being more frequently and heavily infected than smaller (younger) fish from the upper-located ponds. Swellings were observed at sites where the bulla of S. carpionis was deeply implanted. The condition factor of heavily infected (>50 copepods) fish was lower than those of lightly infected fish (1-18 copepods). Salmincola carpionis did not occur on lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) which belong to the subgenus Cristivomer, as well as on salmonids of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salmo, possibly due strict host specificity.

  13. Science in Flux: NASA's Nuclear Program at Plum Brook Station 1955-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Science in Flux traces the history of one of the most powerful nuclear test reactors in the United States and the only nuclear facility ever built by NASA. In the late 1950's NASA constructed Plum Brook Station on a vast tract of undeveloped land near Sandusky, Ohio. Once fully operational in 1963, it supported basic research for NASA's nuclear rocket program (NERVA). Plum Brook represents a significant, if largely forgotten, story of nuclear research, political change, and the professional culture of the scientists and engineers who devoted their lives to construct and operate the facility. In 1973, after only a decade of research, the government shut Plum Brook down before many of its experiments could be completed. Even the valiant attempt to redefine the reactor as an environmental analysis tool failed, and the facility went silent. The reactors lay in costly, but quiet standby for nearly a quarter-century before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to decommission the reactors and clean up the site. The history of Plum Brook reveals the perils and potentials of that nuclear technology. As NASA, Congress, and space enthusiasts all begin looking once again at the nuclear option for sending humans to Mars, the echoes of Plum Brook's past will resonate with current policy and space initiatives.

  14. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  16. Space Propulsion Research Facility Firing at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-12-21

    The Space Propulsion Research Facility, better known as B-2, operating at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. B-2 is the world's only high altitude test facility capable of full-scale rocket engine and launch vehicle system level tests. It was created to test rocket propulsion systems with up to 100,000 pounds of thrust in a simulated space environment. The facility has the unique ability to maintain a vacuum at the rocket’s nozzle while the engine is firing. The rocket fires into a 120-foot deep spray chamber which cools the exhaust before it is ejected outside the facility. B-2 simulated space using giant diffusion pumps to reduce chamber pressure, nitrogen-filled cold walls create cryogenic temperatures, and quartz lamps replicate the radiation of the sun. This photograph shows the facility undergoing check-out runs prior to its first test in late 1969.The 38-foot diameter and 62-foot tall vacuum chamber is inside the high-bay on the right. Below that is a 67-foot diameter and 120-foot deep spray chamber. The hot rocket exhaust is cooled in the chamber by a spray of 250,000 gallons of water per minute. B-2’s first test was a hot firing of Centaur D-1A rocket on December 18, 1969. Since then the facility has fired more than 100 Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engines during the Centaur development, 80 current RL-10B-2 engines for Delta-3 development, and another 12 RL-10B-2s for the Delta 3 Upper Stage.

  17. Cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Cement stratigraphy serves as a descriptive framework for the interpretation of the diagenetic history of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska. The Lisburne is a sequence of shallow-water, marine carbonate rocks that have experienced a wide spectrum of diagenetic events: early marine diagenesis, early subaerial exposure, significant erosion and karstification following final Lisburne deposition, deep burial of at least 3,000 meters, compressional tectonism, and final uplift into modern mountain ranges. Compositional zones in the calcite cements were identified by using stains for ferroan calcite and cathodoluminescence microscopy. The cements are, from oldest to youngest: A1-nonferroan, nonluminescent or multibanded calcite; B1-nonferroan to low-ferroan, dull luminescent calcite; C1-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; B2-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite; A2-nonferroan calcite with 1 or 2 sets of nonluminescent and bright zones; C2-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; Be-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite. Petrographic studies of cross-cutting relationships show that A1 cements predate or are synchronous with surfaces of subaerial exposure within the Lisburne Group. The cross-cutting relationships include truncation of cements by early fractures, non-marine fissure fills, and at clast margins of autoclastic breccias. Similarly, B1 and C1 cements predate the major unconformity at the top of the Lisburne Group, hence, these cements are pre-Permian in age and may well have precipitated from fresh groundwaters introduced during development of the sub-Permian unconformity. B2 and C2 cements are present in the Permian Echooka formation overlying the Lisburne Group and, thus, can be dated as post-Pennsylvanian. B3 cements are Cretaceous or younger in age.

  18. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P.

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  19. Structural problems of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Bickerstaff, D. . Dept. of Geology); Stone, D.B. . Geophysical Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Structural and paleogeographic restorations of the Brooks Range ophiolite (hereafter BRO) and other associated mafic and ultramafic bodies of N. Alaska are difficult because of ambiguous relations between sheeted dikes, cover sediments, and steep NW and SE dipping magmatic flow fabrics. Paleomagnetically enhanced structural studies at Misheguk, Avan, and Siniktanneyak Mountains provide new constraints for the initial dip and sequence of deformation for various structural features of the BRO. The angle between magmatic layers near the petrologic moho and the paleomagnetic inclination of these layers is 50--63[degree] at Misheguk. High level gabbro layers that are disrupted by syn- and post-cooling intrusions display a greater variation. Assuming that the characteristic magnetization is primary, and that the primary inclination was > 80[degree], magmatic layers and the moho had initial dips from 17--40[degree]. These layers now dip 40--70[degree]SE suggesting some post-magmatic tilt. The variation of inclinations with depth in the ophiolite suggest that high level gabbro has tilted most. Sheeted dikes are documented at the Maiyumerak and Siniktanneyak ophiolite bodies. At both locations the dikes dip steeply and strike NE-SW. Sedimentary and volcanic flow layers associated with the dikes have the same strike and dip 0--30[degree]. Parallelism between various planar features throughout the BRO indicates that rotations about a vertical axis are either uniform throughout the ophiolite belt or negligible. Assuming the later, the BRO may represent a linear zone of SSZ magmatism that was oriented NE-SW prior to collision. Post-emplacement long wavelength folding of the ophiolite lid can account for its variation in facing direction and some steepening of magmatic layers.

  20. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  1. Experiments to test if allopatric Salvelinus alpinus are suitable year-round hosts of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea).

    PubMed

    Winger, A C; Kristoffersen, R; Siikavuopio, S I; Knudsen, R

    2009-05-01

    There has been an increased focus on Salvelinus alpinus as a potential long-term host to Gyrodactylus salaris and, here, both susceptibility to G. salaris and ability to sustain a parasite population seasonally, was tested using fry and parr of S. alpinus from the River Skibotnelva, northern Norway. Fry were highly susceptible. Gyrodactylus salaris survived on allopatric S. alpinus parr during the 5 month-long winter when water temperatures were c. 1 degrees C. Salvelinus alpinus fry also maintained a pulse of G. salaris infection for over 155 days from early May until autumn. Gyrodactylus salaris are thus able to reproduce and survive on S. alpinus for long periods and at low water temperatures. In spring, newly hatched fry of S. alpinus may serve as an important host to maintain a G. salaris metapopulation within a river system. The results suggest that S. alpinus are adequate long-term hosts of G. salaris independent of the presence of the co-occurring highly susceptible S. salar.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis).

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Buchinger, Tyler; Pu, Jiafei; Jia, Liang; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis) is reported. The two mitogenomes show a 13 bp length difference on the tRNA-Gly and two control regions. The gene order and contents are conserved in the two lampreys and identical to the lamprey mitogenomes published. Except for three indel polymorphic sites, there are 27 SNP sites which are all synonymous substitution sites and occurred on 9 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and one tRNA. The control region1 contains six consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings in both lampreys. A 7-nt repetitive string in the control region2 is repeated 3 and 5 times in northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey, respectively. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.74%) is consistent with the hypothesis that northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey represent two ecotypes of one species.

  3. 77 FR 60676 - Stony Brook University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c.... Docket Number: 12-034. Applicant: Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794. Instrument: Electron.... Docket Number: 12-035. Applicant: The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031. Instrument:...

  4. Geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin, and implications for brook-trout habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Saad, David A.; Pratt, Dennis M.; Lenz, Bernard N.

    2015-01-01

    Available brook-trout habitat is dependent on the locations of groundwater upwellings, the sizes of flood peaks, and sediment loads. Management practices that focus on reducing or slowing runoff from upland areas and increasing channel roughness have potential to reduce flood peaks, erosion, and sedimentation and improve brook-trout habitat in all Bayfield Peninsula streams.

  5. Chemistry of precipitation, streamwater, and lakewater from the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study: a record of sampling protocols and analytical procedures

    Treesearch

    Donald C. Buso; Gene E. Likens; John S. Eaton

    2000-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES), begun in 1963, is a long-term effort to understand the structure, function and change in forest watersheds and associated aquatic ecosystems at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Chemical analyses of streamwater and precipitation collections began in 1963, and analyses of lakewater collections began in 1967...

  6. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... scoping and prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm... scoping is for NASA to obtain public comments on construction and operation of the wind farm. The...

  7. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: A study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana

    Treesearch

    Kevin McKelvey; Michael Young; W. L. Knotek; K. J. Carim; T. M. Wilcox; T. M. Padgett-Stewart; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing,...

  8. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  9. Effects of vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) alevins at hatching stage.

    PubMed

    Jaroszewska, Marta; Lee, Bong-Joo; Dabrowski, Konrad; Czesny, Sergiusz; Rinchard, Jacques; Trzeciak, Paulina; Wilczyńska, Bogdana

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between thiamine concentrations in unfertilized eggs and yolksac individuals of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), along with any associated histopathological changes in the tissues of alevins at the hatching stage. We address these questions in a lake trout population from different spawning grounds of Lake Michigan (North and South), known for compromised survival due to early mortality syndrome (EMS). However, a dichotomous forage base of lake trout spawning stocks, with a dietary thiaminase-rich alewife in the North, and dietary low-thiaminase round goby in the South, provides the basis for the assumption that different diets may lead to differences in severity of EMS between different stocks. Lake trout eggs of 18 females were collected and fertilized individually with the sperm of several males. The eggs, eyed embryos and newly-hatched alevins were sampled to examine thiamine utilization during embryogenesis. Progenies of females with low (< 0.73 nmol/g) and high (> 0.85 nmol/g) levels of thiamine were chosen for histological studies. The obtained results showed that total thiamine levels in the body and yolk of eyed embryos and alevins at hatching were influenced by thiamine levels of unfertilized eggs and it decreased during embryogenesis (to 51% in eyed embryos and 28% in newly-hatched alevins in comparison to unfertilized eggs). The survival of lake trout until hatching stage does not correlate with the thiamine level, however it was affected by collection site and was significantly higher in fish from the South site (Julian's Reef). At the hatching stage, no pathological changes were observed in the brain, olfactory lobe, retina or liver in embryos regardless of thiamine concentrations in unfertilized eggs. It has been concluded that an enhanced thiamine requirement for the fast muscle mass growth near the swim-up stage is responsible for overt and histopathological signs of EMS. Current study

  10. Bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and biochemical effects of brominated diphenyl ethers in juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Tomy, Gregg T; Palace, Vince P; Halldorson, Thor; Braekevelt, Eric; Danell, Robert; Wautier, Kerry; Evans, Bob; Brinkworth, Lyndon; Fisk, Aaron T

    2004-03-01

    Juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to three dietary concentrations (0, approximately 2.5, and approximately 25 ng/g per BDE congener) of 13 BDE congeners (3-10 Br atoms) in the laboratory for 56 days, followed by 112 days of clean food, to examine bioaccumulation parameters and potential biochemical effects. The bioaccumulation of BDEs by the trout was highly influenced by biotransformation, via debromination, which resulted in bioaccumulation parameters that were much different than would be expected based on studies of chlorinated organic compounds (e.g., PCBs). Half-lives (t1/2's) for some BDE congeners (e.g., BDE-85 and -190) were much lower than expected based on their Kow, which was likely due to biotransformation, whereas t1/2's of other BDE congeners (e.g., BDE-66, -77, -153, and -154) were much longer than anticipated based on Kow. This was likely because the metabolites of BDE formed via debromination had the same chemical structure of these BDE congeners, which supplemented measured concentrations. The detection of three BDE congeners (an unknown penta, BDE-140, and an unknown hexa) in the fish that were not present in the food or in the control fish provide further evidence forthe debromination of BDEs. Half-lives of BDEs ranged from 38 +/- 9 to 346 +/- 173 days and biomagnification factors ranged from 1.6 (BDE-190) to 45.9 (BDE-100), but these bioaccumulation parameters need to be viewed with caution because they were highly influenced by debromination and relative abundance of individual BDEs that the fish were exposed to. CYP1A enzyme activity, measured as EROD, and free tri-iodothyronine (T3) concentrations in the plasma of lake trout varied significantly throughout the experiment but were not related to BDE exposure. In contrast, plasma levels of thyroxine levels (T4) were lower in both groups of PBDE-exposed fish compared with control fish after 56 days of exposure, and after 168 days in the high dose, suggesting that PBDEs

  11. Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal- scale duplexing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Levander, A.R.; Lutter, W.J.; Wissinger, E.S.; Moore, T.E.; Christensen, N.I.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated set of seismic reflection and refraction data collected across the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, in 1990, has yielded a composite image of this Mesozoic and Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt that reveals duplexing to lower-crustal depths. Interpretations from this image are discussed. The position of the thickest crust may indicate that either the duplexed crust above the decollement was thrust onto and depressed the plate beneath the North Slope or the protracted tectonic history of the Brooks Range has left structures not simply explainable in terms of a single collisional event. -from Authors

  12. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  13. 2014 Earthquake Swarm in Northwest Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppert, N. A.; Holtkamp, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    An unusual sequence of earthquakes in NW Brooks Range region of Alaska began with two magnitude 5.7 earthquakes within minutes of each other on April 18, 2014. These events were followed by a vigorous aftershock sequence with many aftershocks reaching magnitude 4 and higher. Later, three more magnitude 5.7 earthquakes occurred in the same source region on May 3, June 7 and June 16. Earthquake source mechanisms indicate normal faulting on SE-NW striking fault planes. The source region is located ~20 km NE of the Noatak village and ~40 km S of the Red Dog Mine. A magnitude 5.5 occurred in this area in 1981. The 1981 sequence also exhibited a swarm-like behavior over the course of 6 months. Detection and reporting of these earthquakes is complicated by sparseness of seismic network in NW Alaska. At the time of April 18 earthquake the nearest seismic site was located at the Red Dog Mine, with the next nearest station 350 km away. Following the May 3 event, the Alaska Earthquake Center installed two additional temporary stations, one in Noatak and another in Kotzebue, 85 km S of the source area. Overall, 450 events were reported in this sequence through end of July. The catalog magnitude of completeness with the additional stations was about ~2.2. We applied waveform template matching algorithm to detect additional events in this sequence that could not be detected with the standard network processing. The template matching resulted in ~600 additional event detections. The waveform cross-correlation indicates that most of the events are not repeating sources. From the catalogued events, only 6% of event pairs have correlation coefficients of 0.75 or higher. We were able to identify only a few families of repeating events. Only one family seemed to be present throughout the entire sequence, while other event families were mostly short-lived. We find preliminary evidence that the earthquakes migrated to shallower depths throughout the sequence, consistent with the

  14. Chemical and morphological distinctions between vertical and lateral podzolization at Hubbard Brook

    Treesearch

    Rebecca R. Bourgault; Donald S. Ross; Scott W. Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Classical podzolization studies assumed vertical percolation and pedon-scale horizon development. However, hillslope-scale lateral podzolization also occurs where lateral subsurface water flux predominates. In this hydropedologic study, 99 podzols were observed in Watershed 3, Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Soil horizon samples were extracted with...

  15. Chen-Ning Yang and my Student Days at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2008-12-01

    The time was 35 years ago. Chen-Ning Yang, my Ph.D. advisor at Stony Brook, thoughtfully led me through a career decision path that I followed, and have enjoyed since then. This is my reminiscence of that time so critical to my career.

  16. Decontamination of Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.G.; Halishak, W.F.

    2008-07-01

    The large scale decontamination of the concrete Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility demonstrates that novel management and innovative methods are crucial to ensuring that the successful remediation of the most contaminated facilities can be achieved with minimal risk to the project stakeholders. (authors)

  17. Strategic Directions, 1992-1997: A Plan for the University at Stony Brook Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook. Library.

    Over 60 members of the State University of New York at Stony Brook faculty and staff worked for almost a year to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for the University Libraries, the first phase of which is presented here. The process, which began in the spring of 1991, consisted of three phases: (1) Organization--meeting of the planning team…

  18. Modeling ecohydrologic processes at Hubbard Brook: Initial results for Watershed 6 stream discharge and chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research site has produced some of the most extensive and long-running databases on the hydrology, biology and chemistry of forest ecosystem responses to climate and forest harvest. We used these long-term databases to calibrate and apply G...

  19. Elevation dependent sensitivity of northern hardwoods to Ca addition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH USA

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Subhash C. Minocha; Christopher Eagar; Charles T. Driscoll

    2010-01-01

    Acidic deposition has caused a depletion of calcium (Ca) in the northeastern forest soils. Wollastonite (Ca silicate) was added to watershed 1 (WS1) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in 1999 to evaluate its effects on various functions of the HBEF ecosystem. The effects of Ca addition on foliar soluble (extractable in 5% HClO4) ions...

  20. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  1. Back to Our Beginnings: Information utilization, Bertram Brookes and the Fundamental Equation of Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    1999-01-01

    This analytical paper covers: (1) review of the terrain of information utilization; (2) posits/examines Bertram Brookes' fundamental equation of information science as a theoretical framework, and discuss our understanding of/research into, the cognitive aspects of information utilization, and (3) discusses methodological aspects for investigating…

  2. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  3. Experimental Acidification Causes Soil Base-Cation Depletion at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine

    Treesearch

    Ivan J. Fernandez; Lindsey E. Rustad; Stephen A. Norton; Jeffrey S. Kahl; Bernard J. Cosby

    2003-01-01

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to elevated N and S deposition through bimonthly additions of (NH4)2SO4. Quantitative soil...

  4. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  5. Technology Education for All (Role of the Department of Technology and Society at Stony Brook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, John G.

    Studies offered by the Department of Technology and Society at the State University of New York at Stony Brook are described. The program of studies for nonengineering students provides an introduction to the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of the technological environment. The college provides courses for undergraduates in the…

  6. A useful single-solution polychrome stain for plant material...Brook Cyte-Chrome I.

    Treesearch

    Stanley L Krugman; Julia F. Littlefield

    1968-01-01

    Fresh and chemically fixed sectioned plant material can be quickly stained by applying a Brook Cyte Chrome I polychrome stain. Staining time averaged only about 10 minutes. And exact timing of staining and de-staining is not as critical as with most of the commonly used stains. The overall quality is comparable to that of the traditional stains.

  7. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in sediments near Sutton Brook Disposal Area, Tewksbury, Massachusetts, May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Lyford, F.P.; Clifford, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Ground water at the Sutton Brook Disposal Area, a former municipal landfill in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, located adjacent to Sutton Brook, a tributary of the Shawsheen River, is contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results from the use of passive-vapor-diffusion samplers show vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons as high as 500,000 parts per billion by volume in pore waters of streambed sediments along an approximate 2,000-foot reach of Sutton Brook where it flows between lobes of the former landfill. Petroleum hydrocarbons were also detected in the sediments on the eastern shore of Quarry Pond, which is south of the southern landfill lobe, with a maximum vapor concentration near 2,000 parts per billion by volume. Vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments of Sutton Brook vary by two to three orders-of-magitude over distances of 50 to 100 feet. Chlorinated hydrocarbons also were detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers, but generally at locations downstream of where petroleum hydrocarbons were detected, and mostly at vapor concentrations of less than 100 parts per billion by volume.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  9. State University of New York at Stony Brook Main Library Circulation Department Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Curtis L., Comp.; Lange, Robert, Comp.

    Designed to train student circulation desk workers at the State University of New York at Stony Brook's Main Library, this guide details specific procedures and outlines administrative policies. Topics covered include: (1) what circulation is; (2) what is expected of graduate students; (3) the library's opening and closing procedures; (4) who may…

  10. Comparisons with results from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the Northern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    James Hornbeck; Amey S. Bailey; Christopher Eagar; John L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is located in central New Hampshire, in the heart of the White Mountains, toward the northern end of the Appalachian chain. HBEF was established in 1955, two decades after Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), but research objectives at both sites have long been similar, that is, to understand hydrologic and nutrient cycling...

  11. 75 FR 38716 - Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... No. USCG-2010-0602] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display... Veterans of America Fireworks Display near Brookings, Oregon. This action is necessary to ensure the safety... with fireworks displays on navigable waters. Accordingly, under 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B), the Coast...

  12. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  13. Long-term trends from ecosystem research at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Christopher Eagar; Gene E. Likens; Thomas G. Siccama; Chris E. Johnson; Timothy J. Fahey; Steven P. Hamburg; Richard T. Holmes; Amey S. Bailey; Donald C. Buso

    2007-01-01

    Summarizes 52 years of collaborative, long-term research conducted at the Hubbard Brook (NH) Experimental Forest on ecosystem response to disturbances such as air pollution, climate change, forest disturbance, and forest management practices. Also provides explanations of some of the trends and lists references from scientific literature for further reading.

  14. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  15. Modeling ecohydrologic processes at Hubbard Brook: Initial results for Watershed 6 stream discharge and chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research site has produced some of the most extensive and long-running databases on the hydrology, biology and chemistry of forest ecosystem responses to climate and forest harvest. We used these long-term databases to calibrate and apply G...

  16. William Graham Brooke (1835-1907): Advocate of Girls' Superior Schooling in Nineteenth-Century Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of William Graham Brooke as advocate of women's higher education and access to university. His work as advocate is considered against the religious, political, social and economic backdrop of late nineteenth century Ireland. A barrister, as Clerk in the Lord Chancellor's office, he was centrally involved in the…

  17. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  19. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  20. Brook trout nutritional analysis for inclusion into the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many species of wild game and fish that are legal to hunt or catch do not have nutrition information in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Among those species that lack nutrition information are brook trout. The research team worked with the Nutrient Data Laboratory wit...