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Sample records for brook charr salvelinus

  1. A comparative mitogenomic analysis of the potential adaptive value of Arctic charr mtDNA introgression in brook charr populations (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill).

    PubMed

    Doiron, Sarah; Bernatchez, Louis; Blier, Pierre U

    2002-11-01

    Wild brook charr populations (Salvelinus fontinalis) completely introgressed with the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) are found in several lakes of northeastern Québec, Canada. Mitochondrial respiratory enzymes of these populations are thus encoded by their own nuclear DNA and by arctic charr mtDNA. In the present study we performed a comparative sequence analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome of both brook and arctic charr to identify the distribution of mutational differences across these two genomes. This analysis revealed 47 amino acid replacements, 45 of which were confined to subunits of the NADH dehydrogenase complex (Complex I), one in the cox3 gene (Complex IV), and one in the atp8 gene (Complex V). A cladistic approach performed with brook charr, arctic charr, and two other salmonid fishes (rainbow trout [Oncorhynchus mykiss] and Atlantic salmon [Salmo salar]) revealed that only five amino acid replacements were specific to the charr comparison and not shared with the other two salmonids. In addition, five amino acid substitutions localized in the nad2 and nad5 genes denoted negative scores according to the functional properties of amino acids and, therefore, could possibly have an impact on the structure and functional properties of these mitochondrial peptides. The comparison of both brook and arctic charr mtDNA with that of rainbow trout also revealed a relatively constant mutation rate for each specific gene among species, whereas the rate was quite different among genes. This pattern held for both synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide positions. These results, therefore, support the hypothesis of selective constraints acting on synonymous codon usage.

  2. Loss of genetic integrity correlates with stocking intensity in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Marie, A D; Bernatchez, L; Garant, D

    2010-05-01

    Supportive breeding and stocking performed with non-native or domesticated fish to support sport fishery industry is a common practice throughout the world. Such practices are likely to modify the genetic integrity of natural populations depending on the extent of genetic differences between domesticated and wild fish and on the intensity of stocking. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of variable stocking intensities on patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation among nearly 2000 brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) from 24 lakes located in two wildlife reserves in Québec, Canada. Our results indicated that the level of genetic diversity was increased in more intensively stocked lakes, mainly due to the introduction of new alleles of domestic origin. As a consequence, the population genetic structure was strongly homogenized by intense stocking. Heavily stocked lakes presented higher admixture levels and lower levels of among lakes genetic differentiation than moderately and un-stocked lakes. Moreover, the number of stocking events explained the observed pattern of population genetic structure as much as hydrographical connections among lakes in each reserve. We discuss the implications for the conservation of exploited fish populations and the management of stocking practices.

  3. Coding Gene SNP Mapping Reveals QTL Linked to Growth and Stress Response in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Growth performance and reduced stress response are traits of major interest in fish production. Growth and stress-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been already identified in several salmonid species, but little effort has been devoted to charrs (genus Salvelinus). Moreover, most QTL studies to date focused on one or very few traits, and little investigation has been devoted to QTL identification for gene expression. Here, our objective was to identify QTL for 27 phenotypes related to growth and stress responses in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is one of the most economically important freshwater aquaculture species in Canada. Phenotypes included 12 growth parameters, six blood and plasma variables, three hepatic variables, and one plasma hormone level as well as the relative expression measurements of five genes of interest linked to growth regulation. QTL analysis relied on a linkage map recently built from S. fontinalis consisting of both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, n = 266) and microsatellite (n =81) markers in an F2 interstrain hybrid population (n = 171). We identified 63 growth-related QTL and four stress-related QTL across 18 of the 40 linkage groups of the brook charr linkage map. Percent variance explained, confidence interval, and allelic QTL effects also were investigated to provide insight into the genetic architecture of growth- and stress-related QTL. QTL related to growth performance and stress response that were identified could be classified into two groups: (1) a group composed of the numerous, small-effect QTL associated with some traits related to growth (i.e., weight) that may be under the control of a large number of genes or pleiotropic genes, and (2) a group of less numerous QTL associated with growth (i.e., gene expression) and with stress-related QTL that display a larger effect, suggesting that these QTL are under the control of a limited number of genes of major effect. This study represents a first step

  4. Effect of temperature on heart rate in diploid and triploid brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Benfey, T J; Bennett, L E

    2009-02-01

    Increased cell size in triploid fish likely affects rates of respiratory gas exchange. Respiratory deficiencies can be addressed in fish by adjustments in cardiac output, through changes in heart rate and stroke volume. The aim of this study was to determine whether heart rate differs between triploid and control (diploid) brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, at embryo-larval stages, when the heart is easily visible and the fish are relatively inactive. Heart rate was measured at 6, 9 and 12 degrees C at three developmental stages: eyed-egg, hatch and yolk absorption. Heart rate was unaffected by ploidy, but increased with temperature and age from a low of 43.4+/-2.2 beats/min (6 degrees C, eyed egg) to a high of 73.3+/-1.5 beats/min (12 degrees C, yolk absorption). The Q(10) for heart rate was unaffected by ploidy and age, but decreased with temperature from 1.99+/-0.28 at 6-9 degrees C to 1.72+/-0.17 at 9-12 degrees C. Triploid brook charr thus do not use adjustments in heart rate as a mechanism to deal with the physiological consequences of altered haematology at embryo-larval stages.

  5. Coding Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Physiological Reproductive Traits in Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A linkage map of 40 linkage groups (LGs) was developed for brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, using an F2 interstrain hybrid progeny (n = 171) and 256 coding gene SNP developed specifically for brook charr and validated from a large (>1000) subset of putative SNP, as well as 81 microsatellite markers. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to reproduction functions, these fish were also phenotyped at six physiological traits, including spermatozoid head diameter, sperm concentration, plasma testosterone, plasma 11-keto-testosterone, egg diameter, and plasma 17β-estradiol. Five significant QTL were detected over four LGs for egg diameter and plasma 17β-estradiol concentration in females, and sperm concentration as well as spermatozoid head diameter in males. In females, two different QTLs located on LG 11 and LG 34 were associated with the egg number, whereas one QTL was associated with plasma 17β-estradiol concentration (LG 8). Their total percent variance explained (PVE) was 26.7% and 27.6%, respectively. In males, two QTL were also detected for the sperm concentration, and their PVE were estimated at 18.58% and 14.95%, respectively. The low QTL number, associated with the high PVE, suggests that the variance in these reproductive physiological traits was either under the control of one major gene or a small number of genes. The QTL associated with sperm concentration, plasma 17β-estradiol, and egg diameter appeared to be under a dominance effect, whereas the two others were under a negative additive effect. These results show that genes underlying the phenotypic variance of these traits are under different modes of action (additive vs. dominance) and may be used to predict an increase or a decrease in their phenotypic values in subsequent generations of selective breeding. Moreover, this newly developed panel of mapped SNP located in coding gene regions will be useful for screening wild populations, especially in the context of investigating the

  6. Divergence in physiological factors affecting swimming performance between anadromous and resident populations of brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Crespel, A; Dupont-Prinet, A; Bernatchez, L; Claireaux, G; Tremblay, R; Audet, C

    2017-03-19

    In this study, an anadromous strain (L) and a freshwater-resident (R) strain of brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis as well as their reciprocal hybrids, were reared in a common environment and submitted to swimming tests combined with salinity challenges. The critical swimming speeds (Ucrit ) of the different crosses were measured in both fresh (FW) and salt water (SW) and the variations in several physiological traits (osmotic, energetic and metabolic capacities) that are predicted to influence swimming performance were documented. Anadromous and resident fish reached the same Ucrit in both FW and SW, with Ucrit being 14% lower in SW compared with FW. The strains, however, seemed to use different underlying strategies: the anadromous strain relied on its streamlined body shape and higher osmoregulatory capacity, while the resident strain had greater citrate synthase (FW) and lactate dehydrogenase (FW, SW) capacity and either greater initial stores or more efficient use of liver (FW, SW) and muscle (FW) glycogen during exercise. Compared with R♀ L♂ hybrids, L♀ R♂ hybrids had a 20% lower swimming speed, which was associated with a 24% smaller cardio-somatic index and higher physiological costs. Thus swimming performance depends on cross direction (i.e. which parental line was used as dam or sire). The study thus suggests that divergent physiological factors between anadromous and resident S. fontinalis may result in similar swimming capacities that are adapted to their respective lifestyles.

  7. Relationship between individual variation in morphological characters and swimming costs in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

    PubMed

    Boily, Patrice; Magnan, Pierre

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if individual variation in morphological characters is related to swimming costs in wild and domestic brook charr, and in wild yellow perch. Our results indicate that absolute swimming cost was higher in wild and domestic brook charr individuals having a stout body shape, and these individuals are therefore less efficient swimmers. These results are consistent with field observations that described relationships between individual variation in morphology and habitat use in salmonids. Further analyses indicated that standard metabolic rates were higher in individuals having a stout body shape, and that net swimming cost was not related to body shape. Accordingly, the higher swimming cost of stout individuals is probably an indirect consequence of an increase in standard metabolic rate. In wild yellow perch, absolute and net swimming costs were higher in individuals having a stout body shape and a low aspect caudal fin, and standard metabolic rate was not related to body shape. Therefore, in contrast to brook charr, individual variation in the swimming cost of yellow perch appears to be related to morphological characters that affect drag and thrust forces, which is consistent with previously published inter-specific observations.

  8. Use of the Rigor Mortis Process as a Tool for Better Understanding of Skeletal Muscle Physiology: Effect of the Ante-Mortem Stress on the Progression of Rigor Mortis in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diouf, Boucar; Rioux, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents the rigor mortis process in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) as a tool for better understanding skeletal muscle metabolism. Describes an activity that demonstrates how rigor mortis is related to the post-mortem decrease of muscular glycogen and ATP, how glycogen degradation produces lactic acid that lowers muscle pH, and how…

  9. Stocking impacts the expression of candidate genes and physiological condition in introgressed brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations

    PubMed Central

    Lamaze, Fabien C; Garant, Dany; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Translocation of plants and animal populations between environments is one of the major forms of anthropogenic perturbation experienced by pristine populations, and consequently, human-mediated hybridization by stocking practices between wild and exogenous conspecifics is of increasing concern. In this study, we compared the expression of seven candidate genes involved in multifactorial traits and regulatory pathways for growth as a function of level of introgressive hybridization between wild and domestic brook charr to test the null hypothesis of no effect of introgression on wild fish. Our analyses revealed that the expression of two of the genes tested, cytochrome c oxidase VIIa and the growth hormone receptor isoform I, was positively correlated with the level of introgression. We also observed a positive relationship between the extent of introgression and physiological status quantified by the Fulton's condition index. The expression of other genes was influenced by other variables, including year of sampling (reflecting different thermal conditions), sampling method and lake of origin. This is the first demonstration in nature that introgression from stocked populations has an impact on the expression of genes playing a role in important biological functions that may be related with fitness in wild introgressed populations. PMID:23467764

  10. The influence of gene-environment interactions on GHR and IGF-1 expression and their association with growth in brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill)

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Guillaume; Perry, Guy; Blier, Pierre; Bernatchez, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Background Quantitative reaction norm theory proposes that genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) results from inter-individual differences of expression in adaptive suites of genes in distinct environments. However, environmental norms for actual gene suites are poorly documented. In this study, we investigated the effects of GxE interactions on levels of gene transcription and growth by documenting the impact of rearing environment (freshwater vs. saltwater), sex and genotypic (low vs. high estimated breeding value EBV) effects on the transcription level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). Results Males grew faster than females (μ♀ = 1.20 ± 0.07 g·d-1, μ♂ = 1.46 ± 0.06 g·d-1) and high-EBV fish faster than low-EBV fish (μLOW = 0.97 ± 0.05 g·d-1, μHIGH = 1.58 ± 0.07 g·d-1; p < 0.05). However, growth was markedly lower in saltwater-reared fish than freshwater sibs (μFW = 1.52 ± 0.07 g·d-1, μSW = 1.15 ± 0.06 g·d-1), yet GHR mRNA transcription level was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater (μSW = 0.85 ± 0.05, μFW = 0.61 ± 0.05). The ratio of actual growth to units in assayed mRNA ('individual transcript efficiency', iTE; g·d-1·u-1) also differed among EBV groups (μLOW = 2.0 ± 0.24 g·d-1·u-1; μHIGH = 3.7 ± 0.24 g·d-1·u-1) and environments (μSW = 2.0 ± 0.25 g·d-1·u-1; μFW = 3.7 ± 0.25 g·d-1·u-1) for GHR. Males had a lower iTE for GHR than females (μ♂ = 2.4 ± 0.29 g·d-1·u-1; μ♀ = 3.1 ± 0.23 g·d-1·u-1). There was no difference in IGF-1 transcription level between environments (p > 0.7) or EBV groups (p > 0.15) but the level of IGF-1 was four times higher in males than females (μ♂ = 2.4 ± 0.11, μ♀ = 0.58 ± 0.09; p < 0.0001). We detected significant sexual differences in iTE (μ♂ = 1.3 ± 0.59 g·d-1·u-1; μ♀ = 3.9 ± 0.47 g·d-1·u-1), salinities (μSW = 2.3 ± 0.52 g·d-1·u-1; μFW = 3.7 ± 0.53 g·d-1·u-1

  11. The developmental transcriptome of contrasting Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus) morphs

    PubMed Central

    Gudbrandsson, Johannes; Ahi, Ehsan P.; Franzdottir, Sigridur R.; Kapralova, Kalina H.; Kristjansson, Bjarni K.; Steinhaeuser, S. Sophie; Maier, Valerie H.; Johannesson, Isak M.; Snorrason, Sigurdur S.; Jonsson, Zophonias O.; Palsson, Arnar

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations with parallel evolution of specific traits can help illuminate how predictable adaptations and divergence are at the molecular and developmental level. Following the last glacial period, dwarfism and specialized bottom feeding morphology evolved rapidly in several landlocked Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus populations in Iceland.   To study the genetic divergence between small benthic morphs and limnetic morphs, we conducted RNA-sequencing charr embryos at four stages in early development. We studied two stocks with contrasting morphologies: the small benthic (SB) charr from Lake Thingvallavatn and Holar aquaculture (AC) charr. The data reveal significant differences in expression of several biological pathways during charr development. There was also an expression difference between SB- and AC-charr in genes involved in energy metabolism and blood coagulation genes. We confirmed differing expression of five genes in whole embryos with qPCR, including lysozyme and natterin-like which was previously identified as a fish-toxin of a lectin family that may be a putative immunopeptide. We also verified differential expression of 7 genes in the developing head that associated consistently with benthic v.s.limnetic morphology (studied in 4 morphs). Comparison of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies reveals extensive genetic differentiation between the SB and AC-charr (~1300 with more than 50% frequency difference). Curiously, three derived alleles in the otherwise conserved 12s and 16s mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes are found in benthic charr. The data implicate multiple genes and molecular pathways in divergence of small benthic charr and/or the response of aquaculture charr to domestication. Functional, genetic and population genetic studies on more freshwater and anadromous populations are needed to confirm the specific loci and mutations relating to specific ecological traits in Arctic charr. PMID:27635217

  12. Phenotypic and genetic variation for growth in two Artic charr Salvelinus alpinus stocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World production of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is about 9-10 million pounds with Iceland supplying about two-thirds. Arctic charr have a flavor many consumers feel is superior to trout and salmon, and interest in US charr aquaculture is increasing with the growing consumer trend towards cons...

  13. Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Alicia A; Saulnier, Roxanne J; Lamarre, Simon G

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins.

  14. Adjustments of Protein Metabolism in Fasting Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Alicia A.; Saulnier, Roxanne J.; Lamarre, Simon G.

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, including the interrelated processes of synthesis and degradation, mediates the growth of an animal. In ectothermic animals, protein metabolism is responsive to changes in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This study aimed to characterise responses of protein metabolism to food deprivation that occur in the coldwater salmonid, Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus. We compared two groups of Arctic charr: one fed continuously and the other deprived of food for 36 days. We measured the fractional rate of protein synthesis (KS) in individuals from the fed and fasted groups using a flooding dose technique modified for the use of deuterium-labelled phenylalanine. The enzyme activities of the three major protein degradation pathways (ubiquitin proteasome, lysosomal cathepsins and the calpain systems) were measured in the same fish. This study is the first to measure both KS and the enzymatic activity of protein degradation in the same fish, allowing us to examine the apparent contribution of different protein degradation pathways to protein turnover in various tissues (red and white muscle, liver, heart and gills). KS was lower in the white muscle and in liver of the fasted fish compared to the fed fish. There were no observable effects of food deprivation on the protease activities in any of the tissues with the exception of liver, where the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seemed to be activated during fasting conditions. Lysosomal proteolysis appears to be the primary degradation pathway for muscle protein, while the ubiquitin proteasome pathway seems to predominate in the liver. We speculate that Arctic charr regulate protein metabolism during food deprivation to conserve proteins. PMID:27096948

  15. Identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during a survey of charr production facilities in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artic charr Salvelinus alpinus production facilities, nonproduction water sources and effluents in the United States and Canada were sampled to determine if chlamydiae associated with epitheliocystis were present in water and were associated with inclusions of epitheliocystis in gill tissue. Gills f...

  16. Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a suitable host for Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Robertsen, G; Hansen, H; Bachmann, L; Bakke, T A

    2007-02-01

    Gyrodactylus specimens infecting both anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from River Signaldalselva (northern Norway) and resident Arctic charr from Lake Pålsbufjorden (southern Norway) were identified as G. salaris using molecular markers and morphometrics. The infection in Pålsbufjorden represents the first record of a viable G. salaris population infecting a host in the wild in the absence of salmon (Salmo salar). G. salaris on charr from Signaldalselva and Pålsbufjorden bear different mitochondrial haplotypes. While parasites infecting charr in Signaldalselva carry the same mitochondrial haplotype as parasites from sympatric Atlantic salmon, G. salaris from charr in Pålsbufjorden bear a haplotype that has previously been found in parasites infecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon, and an IGS repeat arrangement that is very similar to those observed earlier in parasites infecting rainbow trout. Accordingly, the infection may result from 2 subsequent host-switches (from salmon via rainbow trout to charr). Morphometric analyses revealed significant differences between G. salaris infecting charr in the 2 localities, and between those on sympatric charr and salmon within Signaldalselva. These differences may reflect adaptations to a new host species, different environmental conditions, and/or inherited differences between the G. salaris strains. The discovery of G. salaris on populations of both anadromous and resident charr may have severe implications for Atlantic salmon stock-management as charr may represent a reservoir for infection of salmon.

  17. Evaluation of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus performance fed fishmeal free diets and two commercial diets in a recirculating system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate Arctic charr performance on a fishmeal free diet at two different lipid levels. One...

  18. The utilization of a Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by three populations of charr Salvelinus spp.

    PubMed

    Denton, K P; Rich, H B; Moore, J W; Quinn, T P

    2010-09-01

    The L(F) -at-age trajectories differentiated two populations of Dolly Varden charr Salvelinus malma and a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from the eastern end of Iliamna Lake, Alaska. Salvelinus malma from the Pedro Bay ponds were the smallest for a given age, followed by Salvelinus alpinus from the lake, and S. malma from the Iliamna River were much larger. The utilization of a large sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka subsidy by the three Salvelinus spp. populations was then investigated by comparing diet data and mixing model (MixSIR) outputs based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Stomach contents indicated that both S. malma populations fed on O. nerka products, especially eggs and larval Diptera that had scavenged O. nerka carcasses, whereas S. alpinus fed on a variety of prey items such as three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus and snails. Stable-isotope analysis corroborated the diet data; the two S. malma populations incorporated more O. nerka-derived nutrients into their tissues than did S. alpinus from the lake, although all populations showed substantial utilization of O. nerka-derived resources. Salvelinus alpinus also seemed to be much more omnivorous, as shown by stable-isotope mixing models, than the S. malma populations. The dramatic differences in growth rate between the two S. malma populations, despite similar trophic patterns, indicate that other important genetic or environmental factors affect their life history, including proximate temperature controls and ultimate predation pressures.

  19. Dominance and stress signalling of carotenoid pigmentation in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): lateralization effects?

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-01-01

    Social conflicts are usually solved by agonistic interactions where animals use cues to signal dominance or subordinance. Pigmentation change is a common cue used for signalling. In our study, the involvement of carotenoid-based pigmentation in signalling was investigated in juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Size-matched pairs were analysed for pigmentation both before and after being tested for competitive ability. We found that dominant individuals had fewer carotenoid-based spots on the right and left sides as well as lower plasma cortisol levels compared to subordinate individuals. Further, the number of spots on both sides was positively associated with plasma cortisol levels. These results indicate that carotenoid-based pigmentation in Arctic charr signals dominance and stress coping style. Further, it also appears as if carotenoid-based pigmentation is lateralized in Arctic charr, and that the right side signals aggression and dominance whereas the left side signals stress responsiveness.

  20. If Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is “the most diverse vertebrate,” what is the lake charr Salvelinus namaycush?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Teleost fishes are prominent vertebrate models of evolution, illustrated among old-world radiations by the Cichlidae of East African Great Lakes and new-world radiations by the circumpolar Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Herein, we describe variation in lake charr S. namaycush morphology, life history, physiology, and ecology, as another example of radiation. The lake charr is restricted to northern North America, where it originated from glacial refugia and diversified in large lakes. Shallow and deepwater morphs arose in multiple lakes, with a large-bodied shallow-water ‘lean’ morph in shallow inshore depths, a small-bodied mid-water ‘humper’ morph on offshore shoals or banks, and a large-bodied deep-water ‘siscowet’ morph at depths > 100 m. Eye position, gape size, and gillraker length and spacing adapted for feeding on different-sized prey, with piscivorous morphs (leans and siscowets) reaching larger asymptotic size than invertivorous morphs (humpers). Lean morphs are light in color, whereas deepwater morphs are drab and dark, although the pattern is reversed in dark tannic lakes. Morphs shift from benthic to pelagic feeding at a length of 400–490-mm. Phenotypic differences in locomotion, buoyancy, and lipid metabolism evolved into different mechanisms for buoyancy regulation, with lean morphs relying on hydrodynamic lift and siscowet morphs relying on hydrostatic lift. We suggest that the Salvelinus genus, rather than the species S. alpinus, is a diverse genus that should be the subject of comparative studies of processes causing divergence and adaptation among member species that may lead to a more complete evolutionary conceptual model.

  1. Induction and viability of tetraploids in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are threatened by introduction of invasive species, habitat loss, and habitat degradation in their native range; and are a problem invasive species in western Unites States and Canada, and in Europe. Stocking sterile triploids has been promoted as an ...

  2. Identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during a survey of charr production facilities in North America.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Andrew; Bebak, Julie; Daniels, Stephen; Tulman, Edan R; Geary, Steven J; West, A Brian; Popov, Vsevolod L; Frasca, Salvatore

    2010-02-24

    Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus production facilities, nonproduction water sources and effluents in the United States and Canada were sampled to determine if chlamydiae associated with epitheliocystis were present in water and were associated with inclusions of epitheliocystis in gill tissue. Gills from 607 fish from 13 sites were processed for histopathologic examination and DNA extraction. Water was collected from 21 locations for DNA testing. Eighteen fish from one location had inclusions of epitheliocystis with proliferative and inflammatory gill lesions. Inclusions were stained using the Gimenez technique and, at the ultrastructural level, consisted of intracytoplasmic membrane-bound vacuoles containing reticulate and intermediate bodies in a fibrillar matrix. PCR using Order Chlamydiales-specific primers performed on DNA extracts from 12 of 13 infected fish yielded amplicons that were identical to (GQ302988) or differed at one base from (GQ302987) the 16S ribosomal RNA gene signature sequence of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis', which is the chlamydia that was previously identified in epitheliocystis inclusions of farmed Atlantic salmon. In situ hybridization using a approximately 1.5 kb riboprobe corresponding to the 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' 16S rRNA genetic sequence (AY462244) confirmed its presence within Arctic charr gill inclusions. DNA isolated from water samples was tested by Chlamydiales-specific PCR and yielded 54 partial 16S rRNA genetic sequences spanning the signature region; however, no 16S rRNA genetic sequences associated with epitheliocystis were identified. This is the first report of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' associated with epitheliocystis in Arctic charr, the first identification of 'Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis' from a freshwater production location, and the first reported occurrence in North America.

  3. Mercury concentrations in Arctic food fishes reflect the presence of anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), species, and life history.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Heidi K; Kidd, Karen A

    2010-05-01

    Single-spawning (semelparous) anadromous fishes are known to transport contaminants from marine to freshwater habitats, but little research has been conducted on contaminant biotransport by multiple-spawning (iteroparous) anadromous fishes. We examined the effect of iteroparous, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on mercury concentrations ([Hg]) in freshwater biota and compared [Hg] between species and life history types of Arctic charr and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Data from six lakes and one coastal marine area in the Arctic territory of Nunavut, Canada, indicated that 1) lake trout had significantly lower [Hg] in lakes where anadromous Arctic charr were present; 2) [Hg] was significantly lower in recently discovered anadromous lake trout than in resident lake trout; and 3) regardless of life history, Arctic charr had significantly lower [Hg] than lake trout. These differences were explained by fish condition, age-at-size, and C:N. Biomagnification of Hg, measured as log(10)[Hg]-delta(15)N slopes, did not differ between lakes with and without anadromous Arctic charr but was significantly higher in freshwater food webs ( approximately 0.2) than in the marine food web (0.08). Some biomagnification estimates were affected by correction for fish age and size. In contrast to semelparous anadromous species, biotransport of Hg by anadromous Arctic charr appears to be offset by increased growth of freshwater fishes.

  4. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and fatty acid composition of two strains of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) on diets formulated with low fish oil inclusion in a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly desirable species to culture due to their fast growth, culture conditions and reputation as a sustainably produced fish due to closed containment culture. A study was conducted to evaluate two Arctic charr stocks (one commercial stock and one from the ...

  6. Growth, nutritional composition, and hematology of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) exposed to toxaphene and tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium dendriticum) larvae.

    PubMed

    Blanar, C A; Curtis, M A; Chan, H M

    2005-04-01

    Toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide, is the major contaminant of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian Arctic. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of toxaphene exposure and infection by the larval stage of the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum on fish growth, nutritional composition, and hematology. Hatchery-reared Arctic charr were subjected to one of four treatments: (1) oral administration of corn oil (control); (2) single oral dose of 10 microg/g wet wt toxaphene dissolved in corn oil; (3) exposure to 15 larval D. dendriticum; and (4) exposure to toxaphene and D. dendriticum in combination. The experiment was run for 104 days. Mean final toxaphene concentrations in charr muscle were 0.121, 0.336, 0.131 and 0.458 microg/g wet wt in each treatment group, respectively. Exposure to toxaphene and D. dendriticum decreased fish growth and condition as well muscle lipid and protein content. However, toxaphene did not increase the susceptibility of Arctic charr to parasite infection. Overall, 25 of 40 fish (62.5%) exposed to larval D. dendriticum became infected. Parasitized charr had decreased hematocrits and increased lymphocyte:erythrocyte ratios. Although total blood cell counts were decreased in all treatments compared with controls, differential leucocyte counts were unaffected. Our results suggest that toxaphene does not moderate Arctic charr resistance to D. dendriticum and there is no contaminant-parasite interaction at environmental levels.

  7. Effects of crude rapeseed oil on lipid composition in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, A; Pickova, J; Brännäs, E

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of crude rapeseed oil (RO) on lipid content and composition in muscle and liver of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Triplicate groups were fed diets containing fish oil (FO):RO ratio of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 until two-fold mass increase. Total lipid content increased significantly in the liver with higher proportion of RO in the diet. Profound effects were seen in the fatty acid composition in the analysed tissues with a reduction in 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 and an increase in 18:2n-6 with higher RO content in the diets. A drop in cholesterol content was seen at 25% inclusion of RO in both tissues. Wild-caught fish contained a considerably higher amount of 20:4n-6 in both storage and membrane lipids of white muscle compared with the experimental fish.

  8. Experimental evidence for paternal effects on offspring growth rate in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Eilertsen, Eirik Mack; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Liljedal, Ståle; Rudolfsen, Geir; Folstad, Ivar

    2009-01-07

    Sexual selection theory predicts that females should choose males that signal viability and quality. However, few studies have found fitness benefits among females mating with highly ornamented males. Here, we use Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a teleost fish with no parental care, to investigate whether females could gain fitness benefits by mating with highly ornamented and large-sized males. Carotenoid-based coloration signalled by males during spawning is believed to be an indicator of good genes for this species. Paternal effects on offspring size (body length and dry body mass) were examined experimentally by crossing eggs and sperm in vitro from 12 females and 24 males in a split-brood design and raising larvae to 30 days past hatching. We clearly demonstrated that there was a relationship between offspring size and paternal coloration. However, a negative interaction between paternal length and coloration was evident for offspring length, indicating that positive effects of paternal coloration were only present for smaller males. Thus, the red spawning coloration of the male Arctic charr seems to be an indicator of good genes, but the effect of paternal coloration on offspring length, an indicator of 'offspring quality', is size dependent.

  9. Evolution of adaptive diversity and genetic connectivity in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Kapralova, K H; Morrissey, M B; Kristjánsson, B K; Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Snorrason, S S; Ferguson, M M

    2011-01-01

    The ecological theory of adaptive radiation predicts that the evolution of phenotypic diversity within species is generated by divergent natural selection arising from different environments and competition between species. Genetic connectivity among populations is likely also to have an important role in both the origin and maintenance of adaptive genetic diversity. Our goal was to evaluate the potential roles of genetic connectivity and natural selection in the maintenance of adaptive phenotypic differences among morphs of Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Iceland. At a large spatial scale, we tested the predictive power of geographic structure and phenotypic variation for patterns of neutral genetic variation among populations throughout Iceland. At a smaller scale, we evaluated the genetic differentiation between two morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn relative to historically explicit, coalescent-based null models of the evolutionary history of these lineages. At the large spatial scale, populations are highly differentiated, but weakly structured, both geographically and with respect to patterns of phenotypic variation. At the intralacustrine scale, we observe modest genetic differentiation between two morphs, but this level of differentiation is nonetheless consistent with strong reproductive isolation throughout the Holocene. Rather than a result of the homogenizing effect of gene flow in a system at migration-drift equilibrium, the modest level of genetic differentiation could equally be a result of slow neutral divergence by drift in large populations. We conclude that contemporary and recent patterns of restricted gene flow have been highly conducive to the evolution and maintenance of adaptive genetic variation in Icelandic Arctic charr. PMID:21224880

  10. Small-scale Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Canada's Nunavut: management challenges and options.

    PubMed

    Roux, M J; Tallman, R F; Lewis, C W

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus is a diverse and abundant resource in Canada's Nunavut. The anadromous form is primarily targeted by exploitation in small-scale fisheries. The continued importance of subsistence fisheries and growing interest in further developing commercial fisheries underline the need for proper management of S. alpinus in northern Canada. This paper presents the current state of S. alpinus fisheries in Nunavut and related management challenges. An alternate framework for assessment using life-history information as it determines stock productivity and resilience to harvesting is presented. This framework combines (1) a risk assessment tool [productivity-susceptibility analysis (PSA)] to evaluate the relative vulnerability of S. alpinus stocks to harvest and (2) a conceptual model for quantitative assessment to determine sustainable harvest levels. Diversity in S. alpinus life history and contrast in vulnerability scores derived from PSA assessment are demonstrated for a sample of 86 anadromous stocks from throughout Nunavut. These data provide evidence in support of an alternate strategy for assessment permitting to integrate diversity in S. alpinus life history for improved generalization and representativeness. Salvelinus alpinus fisheries in Arctic regions exemplify the need for stock assessment and management alternatives to ensure fish conservation in remote, sensitive ecosystems and in data-poor circumstances.

  11. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  12. The impact of fishing-induced mortality on the evolution of alternative life-history tactics in brook charr

    PubMed Central

    Thériault, Véronique; Dunlop, Erin S; Dieckmann, Ulf; Bernatchez, Louis; Dodson, Julian J

    2008-01-01

    Although contemporary trends indicative of evolutionary change have been detected in the life-history traits of exploited populations, it is not known to what extent fishing influences the evolution of alternative life-history tactics in migratory species such as salmonids. Here, we build a model to predict the evolution of anadromy and residency in an exploited population of brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. Our model allows for both phenotypic plasticity and genetic change in the age and size at migration by including migration reaction norms. Using this model, we predict that fishing of anadromous individuals over the course of 100 years causes evolution in the migration reaction norm, resulting in a decrease in average probabilities of migration with increasing harvest rate. Moreover, we show that differences in natural mortalities in freshwater greatly influence the magnitude and rate of evolutionary change. The fishing-induced changes in migration predicted by our model alter population abundances and reproductive output and should be accounted for in the sustainable management of salmonids. PMID:25567640

  13. Residency and movement patterns of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus relative to major estuaries.

    PubMed

    Spares, A D; Stokesbury, M J W; Dadswell, M J; O'Dor, R K; Dick, T A

    2015-06-01

    Estuarine residency and marine movements of 43 anadromous Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (mean ± s.d. fork length = 523 ± 97 mm) were examined using acoustic tracking in inner Frobisher Bay (IFB; 63° N; 68° W), Canada, from July to September 2008 and 2009. A mean ± s.d. migration duration of 63 ± 7 days occurred from late June to early September. Detected S. alpinus were either continuously (maximum 34 days) or intermittently present in estuarine zones, on average residing approximately one third of time tracked and returning once every 9 days. Significantly higher estuarine residency during the final 15 migration days suggested that a transition phase may occur prior to freshwater re-entry. Low travel rates during flood tide suggested individuals staged before accessing intertidal and estuarine zones. Although the two main estuaries were c. 22 km apart, 19% of tagged individuals used both. Individuals remained relatively close to freshwater overwintering systems, although late-migration inter-estuarine movements may have indicated natal homing. Approximately half of the individuals exhibited extra-estuarine travel, mostly during mid-migration, but remained within 3 km of shore ranging < 30 km straight line distance (SLD) of either estuary. It was concluded that IFB S. alpinus (1) spent a significant portion of their migration within or adjacent to the estuaries and (2) had a restricted marine distribution within 30 km SLD of the river mouths.

  14. Genetic Variability and Structuring of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Populations in Northern Fennoscandia

    PubMed Central

    Shikano, Takahito; Järvinen, Antero; Marjamäki, Paula; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26) differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent population size bottlenecks. Estimates of contemporary effective population size (Ne) ranged from seven to 228 and were significantly correlated with those of historical Ne but not with lake size. A census size (NC) was estimated to be approximately 300 individuals in a pond (0.14 ha), which exhibited the smallest Ne (i.e. Ne/NC = 0.02). Genetic variability in this pond and a connected lake is severely reduced, and both genetic and empirical estimates of migration rates indicate a lack of gene flow between them. Hence, albeit currently thriving, some northern Fennoscandian populations appear to be vulnerable to further loss of genetic variability and are likely to have limited capacity to adapt if selection pressures change. PMID:26468642

  15. Environmental factors associated with genetic and phenotypic divergence among sympatric populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).

    PubMed

    Corrigan, L J; Lucas, M C; Winfield, I J; Hoelzel, A R

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms by which phenotypic and genetic divergence may occur among sympatric, conspecific populations have been widely discussed but are still not well understood. Possible mechanisms include assortative mating based on morphology or variation in the reproductive behaviour of phenotypes, and both have been suggested to be relevant to the differentiation of salmonid populations in post-glacial lakes. Here, we studied Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in Windermere, where putative populations are defined by spatial and temporal variation in spawning. Genetic differentiation was assessed based on nine microsatellite loci, and phenotypic variation was assessed from morphometric characters. We test hypotheses about the relative role of morphology, spawning season and spawning habitat in the evolution of genetic divergence among these populations. Distinct from other lake systems, we find that both morphological and genetic differentiation are restricted primarily to one of two interconnecting basins, that genetic and morphological differentiation are decoupled in this lake and that both phenotype and environment have changed over the last 20 years. The implication is that breeding habitat plays a primary role in isolating populations that differentiate by drift and that phenotypically plastic changes, potentially related to foraging specializations, have either become secondarily decoupled from the genetically defined populations or were never fundamental in driving the evolution of genetic diversity in the Windermere system.

  16. Time-place learning and leader-follower relationships in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Brännäs, E

    2014-01-01

    Feeding activity from a larger refuge site into two visually separated feeding sites with temporally restricted food availability, one in the morning and one in the evening was studied in duplicate groups of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. A passive integrated transponder (PIT) system enabled continuous monitoring of individual movements between the sites. Both groups synchronized their diel pattern of visit activity to the two feeding sites when food was available. One group showed significant anticipatory visit activity into both feeding sites during the hours before the feed was available, suggesting a time and place learning of resource availability. The anticipatory activity of the other group was, however, less pronounced and only occurred into one of the feeding sites. Individual S. alpinus entered the feeding sites independently and no obvious patterns of leaders and followers were identified. All S. alpinus gained mass and moved between a refuge and the feeding sites. Different strategies of how individual S. alpinus utilized the feeding sites were not correlated with growth.

  17. Changes in arterial oxygen tension and physiological status in resting, unrestrained Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) exposed to mild hypoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A; Rosseland, B O; Thorarensen, H; Kiessling, A

    2011-03-01

    In arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus, arterial blood partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide increased with increasing water oxygen tension (PwO2), while the water to arterial PO2 difference (PwO2-PaO2) did not change in relation to PwO2.

  18. Seasonal Differences in Relative Gene Expression of Putative Central Appetite Regulators in Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Do Not Reflect Its Annual Feeding Cycle.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Anja; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Jobling, Malcolm; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    The highly seasonal anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) was used to investigate the possible involvement of altered gene expression of brain neuropeptides in seasonal appetite regulation. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMCA1, POMCA2), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), Agouti related Peptide (AgRP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Melanocortin Receptor 4 (MC4-R) genes were examined. The function of centrally expressed Leptin (Lep) in fish remains unclear, so Lep (LepA1, LepA2) and Leptin Receptor (LepR) genes were included in the investigation. In a ten months study gene expression was analysed in hypothalamus, mesencephalon and telencephalon of immature charr held under natural photoperiod (69°38'N) and ambient temperature and given excess feed. From April to the beginning of June the charr did not feed and lost weight, during July and August they were feeding and had a marked increase in weight and condition factor, and from November until the end of the study the charr lost appetite and decreased in weight and condition factor. Brain compartments were sampled from non-feeding charr (May), feeding charr (July), and non-feeding charr (January). Reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR revealed temporal patterns of gene expression that differed across brain compartments. The non-feeding charr (May, January) had a lower expression of the anorexigenic LepA1, MC4-R and LepR in hypothalamus and a higher expression of the orexigenic NPY and AgRP in mesencephalon, than the feeding charr (July). In the telencephalon, LepR was more highly expressed in January and May than in July. These results do not indicate that changes in central gene expression of the neuropeptides investigated here directly induce seasonal changes in feeding in Arctic charr.

  19. Rapid evolution of muscle fibre number in post-glacial populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ian A; Abercromby, Marguerite; Vieira, Vera L A; Sigursteindóttir, Rakel J; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Sibthorpe, Dean; Skúlason, Skúli

    2004-12-01

    Thingvallavatn, the largest and one of the oldest lakes in Iceland, contains four morphs of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus. Dwarf benthic (DB), large benthic (LB), planktivorous (PL) and piscivorous (PI) morphs can be distinguished and differ markedly in head morphology, colouration and maximum fork length (FL(max)), reflecting their different resource specialisations within the lake. The four morphs in Thingvallavatn are thought to have been isolated for approximately 10 000 years, since shortly after the end of the last Ice Age. We tested the null hypothesis that the pattern of muscle fibre recruitment was the same in all morphs, reflecting their recent diversification. The cross-sectional areas of fast and slow muscle fibres were measured at 0.7 FL in 46 DB morphs, 23 LB morphs, 24 PL morphs and 22 PI morphs, and the ages of the charr were estimated using sacculus otoliths. In fish larger than 10 g, the maximum fibre diameter scaled with body mass (M(b))(0.18) for both fibre types in all morphs. The number of myonuclei per cm fibre length increased with fibre diameter, but was similar between morphs. On average, at 60 mum diameter, there were 2264 nuclei cm(-1) in slow fibres and 1126 nuclei cm(-1) in fast fibres. The absence of fibres of diameter 4-10 mum was used to determine the FL at which muscle fibre recruitment stopped. Slow fibre number increased with body length in all morphs, scaling with M(b)(0.45). In contrast, the recruitment of fast muscle fibres continued until a clearly identifiable FL, corresponding to 18-19 cm in the dwarf morph, 24-26 cm in the pelagic morph, 32-33 cm in the large benthic morph and 34-35 cm in the piscivorous morph. The maximum fast fibre number (FN(max)) in the dwarf morph (6.97x10(4)) was 56.5% of that found in the LB and PI morphs combined (1.23x10(5)) (P<0.001). Muscle fibre recruitment continued until a threshold body size and occurred at a range of ages, starting at 4+ years in the DB morph and 7+ years in the LB and PI

  20. Long-term rearing of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus under different salinity regimes at constant temperature.

    PubMed

    Arnason, T; Gunnarsson, S; Imsland, A K; Thorarensen, H; Smáradóttir, H; Steinarsson, A; Gústavsson, A; Johansson, M; Björnsson, B Th

    2014-10-01

    Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus of the Hólar strain (mean ± s.e. body mass = 152·1 ± 3·1 g) were reared at four different salinity regimes at a constant temperature of 7·4° C. Two groups were given a three-month acclimation in salinity 18 before the salinity was increased to either 25 or 29 (groups called A25 and A29), and two groups were reared in salinities 25 or 29 over the full experimental period of 409 days (groups called F25 and F29). In the first 3 months, the A25 and A29 groups had the highest growth rates. By October 2011, there were no significant differences (two-way nested ANOVA, P > 0·05) in the mean body masses among A25, F25 and F29 (c. 1450 g), whereas A29 had a lower mean mass (1282 g). The growth in the last period from October 2011 to January 2012 was reduced by sexual maturation in the highest salinity regimes (A29 and F29), whereas fish in groups A25 and F25 showed high growth throughout the study. Males in all salinity groups had higher growth rates than females for the most part of the study, but the divergence between the sexes was most pronounced in the highest salinity regimes. All salinity groups showed distinct changes in Na(+) , K(+) -ATPase activity, with high activity in spring and summer, and lower activity in the autumn. Plasma sodium (Na(+) ) levels were stable indicating that none of the experimental groups had problems in maintaining hydromineral balance during the study. While plasma leptin levels were not affected by salinity regimes, it was noted that these levels were 13-30% higher in fish with empty guts compared with those having food in their gut at the time of sampling. This suggests a link between leptin levels and food intake, indicating that this hormone may play a role in food intake and energy allocation in fishes.

  1. Variation in scale shape among alternative sympatric phenotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from two lakes in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Paz, M V; Demetriou, M; Adams, C E

    2010-04-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis was used to detect differences in scale shape between ecologically distinct phenotypes of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus coexisting in the same lake. Relative warp analysis and standard multivariate analyses of the partial warps, obtained after a Procrustes superimposition, showed that scale landmarks were efficient in discriminating among two closely related alternative phenotypes within each of the two lakes. In Loch Tay, S. alpinus exhibited a bimodal body size-frequency distribution among sexually mature fish, whereas in Loch Awe, S. alpinus are unimodal in body size but segregated into two distinct spawning phenotypes. In both lakes, alternative phenotypes showed significant differences in foraging ecology, habitat use and life history. It is probable that differences in scale shape reflect differences in ecology of these forms.

  2. Early developmental plasticity and integrative responses in arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus): effects of water velocity on body size and shape.

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard; Mabee, Paula M; Le François, Nathalie R

    2007-07-15

    Environmental conditions such as temperature and water velocity may induce changes among alternative developmental pathways, i.e. phenotypic responses, in vertebrates. However, the extent to which the environment induces developmental plasticity and integrated developmental responses during early ontogeny of fishes remains poorly documented. We analyzed the responses of newly hatched Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) to four experimental water velocities during 100 days of development. To our knowledge, this work is the first to analyze developmental plasticity responses of body morphology to an experimental gradient of water velocities during early ontogeny of fish. Arctic charr body size and shape responses show first, that morphometric traits display significant differences between low and high water velocities, thus revealing directional changes in body traits. Secondly, trait variation allows the recognition of critical ontogenetic periods that are most responsive to environmental constraints (40-70 and 80-90 days) and exhibit different levels of developmental plasticity. This is supported by the observation of asynchronous timing of variation peaks among treatments. Third, morphological interaction of traits is developmentally plastic and time-dependent. We suggest that developmental responses of traits plasticity and interaction at critical ontogenetic periods are congruent with specific environmental conditions to maintain the functional integrity of the organism.

  3. Spatial and temporal movement dynamics of brook Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, L.A.; Wagner, Tyler; Barton, Meredith L.

    2015-01-01

    Native eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized brown trout Salmo trutta occur sympatrically in many streams across the brook trout’s native range in the eastern United States. Understanding within- among-species variability in movement, including correlates of movement, has implications for management and conservation. We radio tracked 55 brook trout and 45 brown trout in five streams in a north-central Pennsylvania, USA watershed to quantify the movement of brook trout and brown trout during the fall and early winter to (1) evaluate the late-summer, early winter movement patterns of brook trout and brown trout, (2) determine correlates of movement and if movement patterns varied between brook trout and brown trout, and (3) evaluate genetic diversity of brook trout within and among study streams, and relate findings to telemetry-based observations of movement. Average total movement was greater for brown trout (mean ± SD = 2,924 ± 4,187 m) than for brook trout (mean ± SD = 1,769 ± 2,194 m). Although there was a large amount of among-fish variability in the movement of both species, the majority of movement coincided with the onset of the spawning season, and a threshold effect was detected between stream flow and movement: where movement increased abruptly for both species during positive flow events. Microsatellite analysis of brook trout revealed consistent findings to those found using radio-tracking, indicating a moderate to high degree of gene flow among brook trout populations. Seasonal movement patterns and the potential for relatively large movements of brook and brown trout highlight the importance of considering stream connectivity when restoring and protecting fish populations and their habitats.

  4. Effects of competitor density and physical habitat structure on the competitive intensity of territorial white spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K; Yamamoto, S

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effects of interference competition in habitats of different complexity and in different densities. The influence of fish density and habitat structure was examined in manipulative experiments using young-of-the-year white spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis as a model species. The difference of specific growth rate (G) range, an index of interference competitive intensity, was significantly smaller in the structurally complex treatments than structurally simple treatments, while there were no significant difference between high-density and low-density treatments. Thus, physical habitat structure was more effective for mitigating interference competition than manipulating competitor density. Although interference competition was not affected by competitor density, mean G were suppressed in the high-density treatments. This implied that exploitative competition may cause the decrease of G rather than interference competition does in the high-density treatments. Mean G were also suppressed in the structurally complex treatments. Chaotic flow pattern created by physical habitat structures may decrease G by reducing foraging success of experimental fish in the complex treatments.

  5. Designation of a neotype for brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, Jay R; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) is problematic. Difficulties in comparison of populations are exacerbated by the lack of type material. Here we designate a neotype from Connetquot River, Long Island, New York. We provide genetic and morphological data for the neotype, conspecifics, and other populations (Swan Creek, Nissequogue Creek) from Long Island, New York. We demonstrate, using molecular markers, that the population from Connetquot River most likely has not been influenced by the major broodstock strains utilized in the Northeast for supplemental and restorative stocking programs. We distinguish the above populations morphologically from lower interior basin populations, represented by fishes from the Pigeon-French Broad drainage, North Carolina and Tennessee. Finally, we position populations from Long Island, New York, within six distinct lineages of S. fontinalis.

  6. Comparison of organotin accumulation on the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis between sea-run and freshwater-resident types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    To examine the accumulation pattern of organotin compounds (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. There were generally no significant correlations between the TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as the total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in S. leucomaenis. It is noteworthy that the TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run white-spotted charr were significantly higher than in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are intraspecies. These results suggest that the sea-run S. leucomaenis has a higher ecological risk of TBT and TPT exposure than the freshwater-residents during their life history.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, an Endogenous Strain from Brook Charr with Antagonistic Properties against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Steve J.; Derome, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas fluorescens ML11A, isolated from brook charr, showed a strong in vitro inhibitory effect against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a bacterial fish pathogen. Its genome harbors gene clusters for siderophore and bacteriocin biosynthesis and shares 99% whole-genome identity with P. fluorescens A506, a biological control strain used in agriculture. PMID:28254983

  8. Natural resilience in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: life history, spatial and dietary alterations along gradients of interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Hammar, J

    2014-07-01

    The Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus species complex has been shown to be exceptionally vulnerable to rapid abiotic and biotic changes. Salvelinus alpinus, however, inhabit environmental extremes ranging from lakes and rivers in the High Arctic to deep multi-fish species lakes far outside the polar region. Long-term responses to post-glacial environmental variations and successively increased interspecific interactions reveal an essential degree of natural ecological resilience and phenotypic flexibility. Case studies in Scandinavia and Newfoundland illustrate the alternate trophic roles of S. alpinus, and its flexible niche use and life-history changes in order to regain or maintain body size in gradients of lakes with increasing fish species diversity. While allopatric in northern low-productive upland lakes, landlocked populations are commonly structured by cannibalism. In sympatry with other fish species, S. alpinus mostly serve as prey, with their decreasing growth and body size reflecting the successive diet shift from littoral macro-benthos to zooplankton and profundal microbenthos as interspecific competition for food and habitat intensifies. Interactions with natural and introduced superior zooplankton feeders and ultimate predators finally become detrimental. Consequently, the niche of S. alpinus is increasingly compressed in lakes along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, although certain natural key conditions offer S. alpinus temporary asylum in the inescapable process towards local and regional extinction. The water temperature drop during winter allows S. alpinus to temporarily resume the richer littoral dietary and spatial niche use in low diversity lakes. In southern lowland and coastal lakes with more complex fish communities, access to key prey species such as profundal macro-crustaceans and smelt Osmerus spp. allow S. alpinus to regain its original niche space and characteristics as a large piscivore. In conclusion, S. alpinus along its

  9. Distribution kinetics of dietary methylmercury in the arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, C.A.O.; Rouleau, C.; Pelletier, E.; Audet, C.; Tjaelve, H.

    1999-03-15

    The authors fed immature 1+ arctic charr with a single dose of methyl[{sup 203}Hg]mercury (MeHg) and quantified distribution kinetics with a new and simple three-compartment caternary model having well-perfused viscera and blood as the central compartment (VB), whereas gut (G) and the rest of body (R) constituted the peripheral compartments. The model accurately described distribution kinetics of MeHg in the fish, using either data of MeHg content in compartments or blood concentration data. Despite the known fast translocation of MeHg between binding sites at the molecular level, its translocation rate between compartments was surprisingly slow, 27 days being needed to complete 95% of the transfer from gut to blood and 48 days for the subsequent transfer to compartment R. This probably results from a limitation of the stepwise transfer rate of MeHg from red blood cells, which contain most of blood MeHg, to plasma and then to tissues due to low plasmatic concentration of small mobile sulfhydryl ligands. The model presented is a convenient tool that could be used to compare the fate of MeHg and other organometals, such as butyltins and alkylleads, in various aquatic and terrestrial animal species.

  10. Fine-scale parallel patterns in diversity of small benthic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in relation to the ecology of lava/groundwater habitats

    PubMed Central

    Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Skúlason, Skúli; Snorrason, Sigurður S; Noakes, David LG

    2012-01-01

    It is critical to study factors that are important for origin and maintenance of biological diversity. A comparative approach involving a large number of populations is particularly useful. We use this approach to study the relationship between ecological factors and phenotypic diversity in Icelandic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Numerous populations of small benthic charr have evolved in lava springs in Iceland. These charr appear morphologically similar, but differ in important morphological features related to feeding. We found a clear relationship between diversity in morphology, diet, and ecological factors among populations. In particular, there were clear differences in morphology and diet between fish coming from habitats where the lava spring flowed on as a stream compared to habitats where the lava spring flowed into a pond. Our study shows that ecological factors are important for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. The relationship between phenotype and ecological factors are observed on a fine scale, when comparing numerous populations that are phenotypically similar. This strongly suggests that for understanding, managing, and conserving biological diversity important ecological variables have to be taken into the account. PMID:22833787

  11. Concomitant Antibiotic and Mercury Resistance Among Gastrointestinal Microflora of Feral Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Matthew M.; Parry, Erin M.; Guay, Justin A.; Markham, Nicholas O.; Danner, G. Russell; Johnson, Keith A.; Barkay, Tamar; Fekete, Frank A.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-nine bacterial isolates representing eight genera from the gastrointestinal tracts of feral brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell) demonstrated multiple maximal antibiotic resistances and concomitant broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance. Equivalent viable plate counts on tryptic soy agar supplemented with either 0 or 25 μM HgCl2 verified the ubiquity of mercury resistance in this microbial environment. Mercury levels in lake water samples measured 1.5 ng L−1; mercury concentrations in fish filets ranged from 81.8 to 1,080 ng g−1 and correlated with fish length. The presence of similar antibiotic and Hg resistance patterns in multiple genera of gastrointestinal microflora supports a growing body of research that multiple selective genes can be transferred horizontally in the presence of an unrelated individual selective pressure. We present data that bioaccumulation of non-point source Hg pollution could be a selective pressure to accumulate both antibiotic and Hg resistant bacteria. PMID:22850694

  12. A SNP Based Linkage Map of the Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Genome Provides Insights into the Diploidization Process After Whole Genome Duplication.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Cameron M; Easton, Anne A; Norman, Joseph D; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

    2017-02-09

    Diploidization, which follows whole genome duplication events, does not occur evenly across the genome. In salmonid fishes, certain pairs of homeologous chromosomes preserve tetraploid loci in higher frequencies toward the telomeres due to residual tetrasomic inheritance. Research suggests this occurs only in homeologous pairs where one chromosome arm has undergone a fusion event. We present a linkage map for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a salmonid species with relatively fewer chromosome fusions. Genotype by sequencing identified 19,418 SNPs, and a linkage map consisting of 4508 markers was constructed from a subset of high quality SNPs and microsatellite markers that were used to anchor the new map to previous versions. Both male- and female-specific linkage maps contained the expected number of 39 linkage groups. The chromosome type associated with each linkage group was determined, and 10 stable metacentric chromosomes were identified, along with a chromosome polymorphism involving the sex chromosome AC04. Two instances of a weak form of pseudolinkage were detected in the telomeric regions of homeologous chromosome arms in both female and male linkage maps. Chromosome arm homologies within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genomes were determined. Paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) were identified, and their comparative BLASTn hit locations showed that duplicate markers exist in higher numbers on seven pairs of homeologous arms, previously identified as preserving tetrasomy in salmonid species. Homeologous arm pairs where neither arm has been part of a fusion event in Arctic charr had fewer PSVs, suggesting faster diploidization rates in these regions.

  13. Ontogenetic and diel variation in stream habitat use by brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a headwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Redell, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable information exists on habitat use by stream salmonids, only a small portion has quantitatively examined diurnal and nocturnal habitat variation. We examined diel variation in habitat use by age-0 and age-1+ brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) during summer and autumn in a headwater stream in northern Pennsylvania. Habitat variables measured included cover, depth, substrate, and velocity. The most pronounced diel variation occurred in the use of cover during both seasons. Both age-0 brook trout and age-1+ trout were associated with less cover at night. Age-0 brook trout occupied swifter water during the day than at night during both seasons, but the difference was not significant. Increased cover, depth, and substrate size governed the habitat of age-1+ brook trout. Our findings support the need for a better understanding of diel differences in habitat use of stream salmonids when considering habitat enhancement and protection.

  14. Phenotypic and genetic variation in two North American arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) stocks cultured in recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arctic charr were obtained as eggs from two North American sources, an eastern (Fraser River, Canada) and a western (Bristol Bay, Alaska) stock. Fish from each family (n=38) were pit tagged at approximately 12 months post-hatch (eastern mean+SE=247+/-13g, western mean+SE=220+/-g) and stocked commun...

  15. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACITIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-0-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout wer...

  16. TEMPORAL TRENDS IN ETHOXYRESORUFIN-O-DEETHYLASE ACTIVITY OF BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FED 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were...

  17. A SNP Based Linkage Map of the Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) Genome Provides Insights into the Diploidization Process After Whole Genome Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Cameron M.; Easton, Anne A.; Norman, Joseph D.; Ferguson, Moira M.; Danzmann, Roy G.

    2016-01-01

    Diploidization, which follows whole genome duplication events, does not occur evenly across the genome. In salmonid fishes, certain pairs of homeologous chromosomes preserve tetraploid loci in higher frequencies toward the telomeres due to residual tetrasomic inheritance. Research suggests this occurs only in homeologous pairs where one chromosome arm has undergone a fusion event. We present a linkage map for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a salmonid species with relatively fewer chromosome fusions. Genotype by sequencing identified 19,418 SNPs, and a linkage map consisting of 4508 markers was constructed from a subset of high quality SNPs and microsatellite markers that were used to anchor the new map to previous versions. Both male- and female-specific linkage maps contained the expected number of 39 linkage groups. The chromosome type associated with each linkage group was determined, and 10 stable metacentric chromosomes were identified, along with a chromosome polymorphism involving the sex chromosome AC04. Two instances of a weak form of pseudolinkage were detected in the telomeric regions of homeologous chromosome arms in both female and male linkage maps. Chromosome arm homologies within the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genomes were determined. Paralogous sequence variants (PSVs) were identified, and their comparative BLASTn hit locations showed that duplicate markers exist in higher numbers on seven pairs of homeologous arms, previously identified as preserving tetrasomy in salmonid species. Homeologous arm pairs where neither arm has been part of a fusion event in Arctic charr had fewer PSVs, suggesting faster diploidization rates in these regions. PMID:27986793

  18. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; King, Tim L.; Keller, Stephen R.; Chhatre, Vikram E.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors. PMID:26730588

  19. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  20. Summer temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, Donna; Butryn, Ryan S.; Rizzo, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a methodology to predict brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distribution using summer temperature metrics as predictor variables. Our analysis used long-term fish and hourly water temperature data from the Dog River, Vermont (USA). Commonly used metrics (e.g., mean, maximum, maximum 7-day maximum) tend to smooth the data so information on temperature variation is lost. Therefore, we developed a new set of metrics (called event metrics) to capture temperature variation by describing the frequency, area, duration, and magnitude of events that exceeded a user-defined temperature threshold. We used 16, 18, 20, and 22°C. We built linear discriminant models and tested and compared the event metrics against the commonly used metrics. Correct classification of the observations was 66% with event metrics and 87% with commonly used metrics. However, combined event and commonly used metrics correctly classified 92%. Of the four individual temperature thresholds, it was difficult to assess which threshold had the “best” accuracy. The 16°C threshold had slightly fewer misclassifications; however, the 20°C threshold had the fewest extreme misclassifications. Our method leveraged the volumes of existing long-term data and provided a simple, systematic, and adaptable framework for monitoring changes in fish distribution, specifically in the case of irregular, extreme temperature events.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Truelove, Nathan; Schreck, Carl B.; Fournie, John W.; Landers, Dixon H.; Kent, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occur in salmonids but are poorly organized, irregularly shaped, and are generally smaller than those in derived teleosts. These features complicate quantification, and thus these fishes have seldom been used in studies correlating MAs with environmental stressors. To alleviate these complications, we developed color filtering algorithms for use with the software package ImagePro Plus® (Media Cybernetics) that select and quantify pigmented area (i.e. colors ranging from gold to brown to black) in tissue sections. Image analysis results compared well with subjective scoring when tested on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured from high-elevation lakes or hatcheries. Macrophage aggregate pigments correlated positively with age and negatively with condition factor. Within individual fish, pigmentation correlated positively among organs, suggesting that the kidney, liver or spleen are suitable indicator organs. In age-matched fishes, MA pigments were not different between hatcheries and lakes in the organs examined. Between lakes, differences in pigments were observed in the kidney and spleen, but were not explained by age, condition factor, sex or maturation state. Our results indicate that quantification of the area occupied by MA pigments is an efficient and accurate means of evaluating MAs in salmonid organs and that organ pigmentation correlates with age and condition factor, as seen in studies with more derived fishes. 

  2. Survey of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population in the Upper Little Tennessee River watershed, Macon and Swain Counties, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    During the months May--November 1992, as part of the Western North Carolina Alliance upper Little Tennessee River watershed survey, streams in the North Carolina portion (Macon and Swain Counties) of the watershed were surveyed for the presence of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). The purposes of this survey were threefold: (1) To use this sensitive, pollution-intolerant species as an indicator organism for high quality waters. (2) To assist the North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, the US Forest Service, and private landowners in managing for and protecting this popular game fish. (3) To locate possible stocks of pure ``southern Appalachian strain`` brook trout. Research is currently underway at the University of Tennessee and Auburn University to determine whether there is in fact a distinct southem subspecies or race of S. fontinalis. This author is one of those who is inclined to believe there is.

  3. 'Global worming': first record of an epidemic of Triaenophorus crassus in a population of Arctic charr Salvelinus umbla.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, D; Gassner, H; Schabetsberger, R

    2009-03-01

    In May 2005, an epidemic of the cestode Triaenophorus crassus occurred in the Salvelinus umbla population of Lake Grundlsee, an oligotrophic Austrian Alpine Lake. Based on catches with a standardized multi-mesh gillnet survey 53% of S. umbla were infected with up to 17 cysts of T. crassus per fish. This is the first documented record of an epidemic of this tapeworm in S. umbla.

  4. Growth and reproductive ecology of the eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, in streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Light, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Three naturally infertile streams of differing vulnerability to acidic atmospheric deposition were studied to determine the status of their brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, populations and associated benthic communities. Of the three streams, Upper Three Runs was judged to be the least fertile, followed by Little Fishing Creek, with Roaring Run being the most fertile. The median weighted pH of acidic deposition impacting the watersheds was 3.8 for Upper Three Runs and 4.0 for Little Fishing Creek and Roaring Run. Brook trout from Roaring Run grew at a similar rate to those from Little Fishing Creek, with trout from Upper Three Runs showing the slowest growth. Roaring Run brook trout also had the highest relative condition of the three streams. Brook trout from Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek generally matured one year later (age group II) than those from Upper Three Runs. Early maturity may be selected for in Upper Three Runs due to small annual increases in fecundity in higher age groups. Although the data were limited, there was a trend for brook trout from Upper Three Runs to produce fewer and larger ova. Roaring Run had higher volumes of benthos during fall and summer, and higher numbers during fall. Roaring Run and Little Fishing Creek had more, larger crayfish present, which added significantly to the volume of benthos in these streams. Qualitatively, Upper Three Runs had more shredders and fewer scrapers on a volume basis than the other two streams. On a per fish basis, the drift available to the fish in Roaring Run was always highest in volume, and highest in number during fall and spring. The brook trout from Roaring Run therefore had an advantage over those in the other two streams, by having a higher drift available per fish.

  5. Behaviour of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during an induced mating season in captivity: how male relative size influences male behavioural investment and female preference over time.

    PubMed

    Bolgan, M; O'Brien, J; Picciulin, M; Manning, L; Gammell, M

    2016-12-20

    The behaviour of sexually mature Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus specimens (fifth farm generation) was observed in captivity for four consecutive days. Only agonistic interactions between males of different size were facilitated on the first 2 days, while both agonistic and courtship interactions were possible from the third day up to the end of the experiment. The reliability of behavioural analysis was assessed in order to reduce the possibility of observer errors within the generated datasets. The behavioural investment of big males, small males and females was analysed using general linear models (two-way repeated measures ANOVAs with time and male size as factors). A peak in the agonistic interactions between males occurred during the first day of interactions, where the agonistic investment of big males was significantly higher than that of small males. This resulted in an increased investment in submissive behaviour by the small males, who consistently performed submissive behaviours from the second day of interactions up to the end of the trial. Big males were found to invest significantly more than small males in courtship behaviours for the duration of the trial. Even though females performed inter-sexual behaviours towards both big and small males for the entire observation period, female interaction rate towards big males was higher than towards small males. This study suggests that both male investment in mating behaviour and female preference might be related to male characteristics such as body length and that S. alpinus behavioural patterns and mate choice cues might be strongly context-related and characterized by high levels of behavioural plasticity (i.e. presence-absence of certain behavioural units or potential reversal of a mate choice cue) within the same species. Finally, in light of this, some conservation measures are discussed. In particular, effective management plans should take into account the high level of behavioural plasticity

  6. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of TCDD to early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined when dosed by maternal transfer. Effects were compared across six treatments including a control. The experimental groups based on TCDD concentrations in freshly spawned ...

  7. TOXICITY OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO EARLY LIFE STAGE BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) FOLLOWING PARTENTAL DIETARY EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the early life stages of F1 generation brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) was determined, when dosed by maternal transfer.Effects were compared across six treatments, including a control.The experimental groups, based...

  8. Impacts of a gape limited Brook Trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, on larval Northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile, growth: A field enclosure experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Currens, C.R.; Liss, W.J.; Hoffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of amphibian population structure is directly affected by predation. Although aquatic predators have been shown to have direct negative effects on larval salamanders in laboratory and field experiments, the potential impacts of gape-limited fish on larval salamander growth has been largely underexplored. We designed an enclosure experiment conducted in situ to quantify the effects of gape-limited Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on larval Northwestern Salamander (Ambystoma gracile) growth. We specifically tested whether the presence of fish too small to consume larvae had a negative effect on larval growth. The results of this study indicate that the presence of a gape-limited S. fontinalis can have a negative effect on growth of larval A. gracile salamanders. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  9. Ontogenetic dynamics of infection with Diphyllobothrium spp. cestodes in sympatric Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) and brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henrickson, Eirik H.; Knudsen, Rune; Kristoffersen, Roar; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2016-01-01

    The trophic niches of Arctic charr and brown trout differ when the species occur in sympatry. Their trophically transmitted parasites are expected to reflect these differences. Here, we investigate how the infections of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum and D. ditremum differ between charr and trout. These tapeworms use copepods as their first intermediate hosts and fish can become infected as second intermediate hosts by consuming either infected copepods or infected fish. We examined 767 charr and 368 trout for Diphyllobothrium plerocercoids in a subarctic lake. The prevalence of D. ditremum was higher in charr (61.5%) than in trout, (39.5%), but the prevalence of D. dendriticum was higher in trout (31.2%) than in charr (19.3%). Diphyllobothrium spp. intensities were elevated in trout compared to charr, particularly for D. dendriticum. Large fish with massive parasite burdens were responsible for the high Diphyllobothrium spp. loads in trout. We hypothesize that fish prey may be the most important source for the Diphyllobothrium spp. infections in trout, whereas charr predominantly acquire Diphyllobothrium spp. by feeding on copepods. Our findings support previous suggestions that the ability to establish in a second piscine host is greater for D. dendriticum than for D. ditremum.

  10. Temperature requirements of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus: predicting the effects of climate change.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J M; Elliott, J A

    2010-11-01

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, brown trout Salmo trutta (including the anadromous form, sea trout) and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (including anadromous fish) provide important commercial and sports fisheries in Western Europe. As water temperature increases as a result of climate change, quantitative information on the thermal requirements of these three species is essential so that potential problems can be anticipated by those responsible for the conservation and sustainable management of the fisheries and the maintenance of biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems. Part I compares the temperature limits for survival, feeding and growth. Salmo salar has the highest temperature tolerance, followed by S. trutta and finally S. alpinus. For all three species, the temperature tolerance for alevins is slightly lower than that for parr and smolts, and the eggs have the lowest tolerance; this being the most vulnerable life stage to any temperature increase, especially for eggs of S. alpinus in shallow water. There was little evidence to support local thermal adaptation, except in very cold rivers (mean annual temperature <6·5° C). Part II illustrates the importance of developing predictive models, using data from a long-term study (1967-2000) of a juvenile anadromous S. trutta population. Individual-based models predicted the emergence period for the fry. Mean values over 34 years revealed a large variation in the timing of emergence with c. 2 months between extreme values. The emergence time correlated significantly with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, indicating that interannual variations in emergence were linked to more general changes in climate. Mean stream temperatures increased significantly in winter and spring at a rate of 0·37° C per decade, but not in summer and autumn, and led to an increase in the mean mass of pre-smolts. A growth model for S. trutta was validated by growth data from the long-term study and predicted growth under possible future

  11. Effects of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis on temporal changes in cortisol, sex steroids, growth and reproductive investment in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus.

    PubMed

    Tveiten, H; Bjørn, P A; Johnsen, H K; Finstad, B; McKinley, R S

    2010-06-01

    Groups of mature (5+ year old) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus held in sea water were exposed for 34 days to either a high (mean +/-s.e. 0.15 +/- 0.01 sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis g(-1) fish mass) (HI), medium (0.07 +/- 0.00 sea lice g(-1) fish mass) (MI) or no [control (C)] sea-lice infection during early stages of gonad development (June to July). Infection with sea lice resulted in increased plasma cortisol concentrations and this was related to intensity of infection; females tended to have higher cortisol concentrations than males at high infection intensities (HI group: female c. 130 ng ml(-1); male c. 80 ng ml(-1)). Plasma osmolality (C c. 330, MI c. 350 and HI c. 415 mOsm) and chloride concentrations (C c. 135, MI c. 155 and HI c. 190 mM) increased significantly with infection intensity, indicating osmoregulatory problems in infected fish. A strong positive relationship between plasma osmolality and cortisol concentration was recorded. Plasma sex-steroid concentrations were influenced negatively by sea-lice infection, particularly in the HI group, and were inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. The most heavily infected fish postponed the initiation of reproductive development until exposed to fresh water and timing of ovulation tended to be delayed in these fish. Growth rate and condition were negatively influenced by sea-lice infection and growth rate was inversely related to plasma cortisol concentrations. Sea-lice infection resulted in mortality among females in the HI group, and the proportion of maturing females was lower in the MI group (46%) than in the controls (85%). Egg production in the MI and HI groups was c. 50 and 30% of the C group. Egg size, embryonic survival and fry mass did not differ across groups. Sea lice influence reproductive development and egg production in S. alpinus, and consequently these parasites may influence populations via sublethal effects on broodfish, affecting growth and condition, and their

  12. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  13. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  14. Intraspecific variation in thermal tolerance and acclimation capacity in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): physiological implications for climate change.

    PubMed

    Stitt, Bradley C; Burness, Gary; Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Currie, Suzanne; McDermid, Jenni L; Wilson, Chris C

    2014-01-01

    Cold-water fishes are becoming increasingly vulnerable as changing thermal conditions threaten their future sustainability. Thermal stress and habitat loss from increasing water temperatures are expected to impact population viability, particularly for inland populations with limited adaptive resources. Although the long-term persistence of cold-adapted species will depend on their ability to cope with and adapt to changing thermal conditions, very little is known about the scope and variation of thermal tolerance within and among conspecific populations and evolutionary lineages. We studied the upper thermal tolerance and capacity for acclimation in three captive populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from different ancestral thermal environments. Populations differed in their upper thermal tolerance and capacity for acclimation, consistent with their ancestry: the northernmost strain (Lake Nipigon) had the lowest thermal tolerance, while the strain with the most southern ancestry (Hill's Lake) had the highest thermal tolerance. Standard metabolic rate increased following acclimation to warm temperatures, but the response to acclimation varied among strains, suggesting that climatic warming may have differential effects across populations. Swimming performance varied among strains and among acclimation temperatures, but strains responded in a similar way to temperature acclimation. To explore potential physiological mechanisms underlying intraspecific differences in thermal tolerance, we quantified inducible and constitutive heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSC70, respectively). HSPs were associated with variation in thermal tolerance among strains and acclimation temperatures; HSP70 in cardiac and white muscle tissues exhibited similar patterns, whereas expression in hepatic tissue varied among acclimation temperatures but not strains. Taken together, these results suggest that populations of brook trout will vary in their ability to cope with a

  15. Fine-scale population structure and riverscape genetics of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) distributed continuously along headwater channel networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Vokoun, Jason C.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Linear and heterogeneous habitat makes headwater stream networks an ideal ecosystem in which to test the influence of environmental factors on spatial genetic patterns of obligatory aquatic species. We investigated fine-scale population structure and influence of stream habitat on individual-level genetic differentiation in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by genotyping eight microsatellite loci in 740 individuals in two headwater channel networks (7.7 and 4.4 km) in Connecticut, USA. A weak but statistically significant isolation-by-distance pattern was common in both sites. In the field, many tagged individuals were recaptured in the same 50-m reaches within a single field season (summer to fall). One study site was characterized with a hierarchical population structure, where seasonal barriers (natural falls of 1.5–2.5 m in height during summer base-flow condition) greatly reduced gene flow and perceptible spatial patterns emerged because of the presence of tributaries, each with a group of genetically distinguishable individuals. Genetic differentiation increased when pairs of individuals were separated by high stream gradient (steep channel slope) or warm stream temperature in this site, although the evidence of their influence was equivocal. In a second site, evidence for genetic clusters was weak at best, but genetic differentiation between individuals was positively correlated with number of tributary confluences. We concluded that the population-level movement of brook trout was limited in the study headwater stream networks, resulting in the fine-scale population structure (genetic clusters and clines) even at distances of a few kilometres, and gene flow was mitigated by ‘riverscape’ variables, particularly by physical barriers, waterway distance (i.e. isolation-by-distance) and the presence of tributaries.

  16. Copper binding affinity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) gills: Implications for assessing bioavailable metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, R.K.; Smith, D.E.; Swoboda-Colberg, N.; Meyer, J.S.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1999-06-01

    In this study, the authors determined the conditional stability constant (log K[prime]) of copper for the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RBT) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; BT). Using toxicity-based complexation bioassays, which measure the effect of competing organic ligands on copper toxicity, the RBT gill copper log K[prime] range was 6.4 to 7.2. Using a Scatchard analysis of gill Cu accumulation, the RBT log K[prime] was 7.50 and the BT log K[prime] was 7.25. The close agreement in RBT log K[prime] values between these two methods suggests that measurement of gill copper accumulation is an acceptable alternative for determining a toxicity-based gill copper binding affinity. The results also suggest that there is either a single gill copper binding component or, more realistically, multiple components with similar binding properties that function collectively to define a single toxicologically relevant copper conditional stability constant. These results suggest analytical approaches to measuring bioavailable metal concentrations, such as geochemical modeling where biological ligands are included in speciation calculations, may adequately simulate complex biological ligands. A method to convert gill copper accumulation to a bioavailable water criterion is also discussed.

  17. To fast or feed: an alternative life history for anadromous brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis overwintering within a harbour.

    PubMed

    Spares, A D; Dadswell, M J; MacMillan, J; Madden, R; O'Dor, R K; Stokesbury, M J W

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal feeding pattern of sea-run brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis was studied from November to May 2010-2012 in Antigonish Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada (45° 38' N; 61° 55' W). Sixty-three S. fontinalis (mean ± s.d. fork length = 330 ± 70 mm and mass = 536 ± 351 g) captured had fed predominantly on fishes (Fundulidae and Gasterosteidae). Percentage of empty stomachs was highest during autumn (18%) and winter (22%) and lowest in spring (7%). Stomach fullness increased from autumn to a maximum during winter, relating to near-zero body temperatures which may have effectively stopped gastric evacuation. Although feeding occurred during winter (December to March), consumption rates were calculated as negative values, and subsequently returned to positive values in spring (April to May). The over-winter life-history strategy of this sea-run S. fontinalis population appears to be a feeding marine migration in which fish continually increase body condition, representing an alternative to the more common overwintering strategy of starvation in fresh water until spring.

  18. Nature and time course of acclimation to aluminum in juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis): II. Gill histology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, M.E.; Sanchez, D.A.; Bergman, H.L.; McDonald, D.G.; Rhem, R.G.; Wood, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Gill samples from juvenile brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) acclimated to low-level aluminum at pH 5.2 showed severe damage by day 4, with necrosis and fusion of secondary lamellae and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Over the following 20 d, there was a continual process of repair with proliferation and hypertrophy of mucous cells. Qualitative analysis of gill samples plus physiology and mortality data collected in a companion study indicated progressive development (by day 10 onward) of increasing acclimation to Al. Quantitative analysis of gill samples on day 13 showed that mucous cell volume density had tripled and mucous cell area had doubled in Al-exposed fish compared with control fish. A lamellar fusion index showed evidence of fusion in Al-exposed fish by day 4 with recovery to nearly control levels by day 13. Physiological disturbances appear to be directly related to the histological changes observed in the gill epithelium. At the cellular level, changes in either mucous cell production and secretion or changes in mucus chemistry contribute, in part, to acclimation to Al.

  19. Acute toxicity and histopathology of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, mitchill) exposed to aluminum in acid water

    SciTech Connect

    Tandjung, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Fingerling brook trout were exposed to different concentrations of Al at pH 5.6. The Basic Static Acute Toxicity Test was used to determine the 96-hr LC50. The toxicity of Al varied inversely with water hardness. The 96-hr LC/sub 50/ at a hardness of 2, 18, and 40 mg/l (CaCO/sub 3/) was 0.37, 3.4, and 6.53 mg/l Al respectively. Darkening of skin color was possible due to an increase in Na ions in the water as a result of body ion loss, activating the hormone MSH which causes melanin granules to spread within the melanocytes. Histology of all tissues of surviving fish appeared normal 3 months after transfer to uncontaminated water. The lateral line canal was regenerated by the end of the second month of the recovery period. In conclusion, we found that histology was essential to the interpretation of the toxicological effects of Al. The mortality of brook trout was attributed to Al toxicity that increased cell membrane permeability and mucification. Increased permeability resulted in the loss of body salt and an influx of Al and H ions. Mucus on gill surfaces caused anoxia leading to cell degeneration. Death was due to disturbances in osmoregulation, breakdown in enzyme activity, and disruption of O/sub 2/ transport.

  20. Pseudolinkage of the duplicate loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis.

    PubMed

    Wright, J E; May, B; Stoneking, M; Lee, G M

    1980-01-01

    Electrophoretic variation involving three alleles is described for the duplicated loci for supernatant aspartate aminotransferase (AAT-1,2), from muscle extracts of brook trout. Both loci exhibit largely disomic inheritance. Exceptional progeny types are proposed to be the result of a form of tetrasomic inheritance. Nonrandom segregation was found among the progeny of males doubly heterozygous for AAT markers; where so-called linkage phase was known, this nonrandom assortment was shown to be pseudolinkage (78.9 percent recombination). Analyses of joint segregation of triply heterozygous males for the AAT-(1,2) loci and for the single alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase locus (AGP-1) revealed true linkage of AGP-1 with one AAT locus (mean r = 11 percent), but pseudolinkage with the other AAT locus (r = 74 percent). Intraindividual variation for homoeologous multivalent pairing of two acrocentric with two metacentric chromosomes in males, but with bivalent pairing in females, is proposed to account for pseudolinkage and for the tetrasomically inherited types.

  1. Quarantine of Aeromonas salmonicida-harboring ebonyshell mussels (Fusconaia ebena) prevents transmission of the pathogen to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Furunculosis, caused by the bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida, was artificially induced in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in an experimental tank. Ebonyshells (Fusconaia ebena) were placed to cohabit with these fish to acquire the pathogen through siphoning. After 2 wk of cohabitation, 10 of the mussels were assayed by bacterial culture and all were found to harbor A. salmonicida. The mean cell count from soft tissue homogenates was 1.84 ?? 105 cfu/g, which comprised an average 14.41% of the total bacteria isolated from tissues. From the fluids, a mean of 2.84 ?? 105 A. salmonicida cfu/mL was isolated, which comprised an average of 17.29% of the total bacterial flora. The mussels were removed from the cohabitation tank and distributed equally among five previously disinfected tanks, 35 per tank. The F. ebena in each tank were allowed to depurate A. salmonicida for various durations: 1, 5, 10, 15 or 30 days. After each group had depurated for their assigned time, 10 were assayed for bacteria, tank water was tested, and 20 pathogen-free bioindicator brook trout were added to cohabit with the remaining mussels. Depuration was considered successful if A. salmonicida was not isolated from tank water or the mussels, and there was no infection or mortality to bioindicator fish. After 1 day of depuration, A. salmonicida was not isolated from the soft tissues; however, it was isolated from one of the paired fluids (10% prevalence). The tank water tested positive, and the bioindicator fish became infected and died. From the 5-day depuration group, A. salmonicida was not isolated from soft tissues, but was isolated from three fluids (30%; mean = 1.56 ?? 102 cfu/mL). Tank water from the 5-day group was negative, and there was no mortality among the bioindicator fish. However, A. salmonicida was isolated from 2 of 20 fish at the end of the 14-day observation period. One F. ebena fluid sample was positive for A. salmonicida from the 10-day depuration group, but none of the

  2. pH preference and avoidance responses of adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Fost, B A; Ferreri, C P

    2015-03-01

    The pH preferred and avoided by wild, adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta was examined in a series a laboratory tests using gradual and steep-gradient flow-through aquaria. The results were compared with those published for the observed segregation patterns of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams. The adult S. trutta tested showed a preference for pH 4·0 while adult S. fontinalis did not prefer any pH within the range tested. Salmo trutta are not found in Pennsylvania streams with a base-flow pH < 5·8 which suggests that S. trutta prefer pH well above 4·0. Adult S. trutta displayed a lack of avoidance at pH below 5·0, as also reported earlier for juveniles. The avoidance pH of wild, adult S. fontinalis (between pH 5·5 and 6·0) and S. trutta (between pH 6·5 and 7·0) did not differ appreciably from earlier study results for the avoidance pH of juvenile S. fontinalis and S. trutta. A comparison of c.i. around these avoidance estimates indicates that avoidance pH is similar among adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in this study. The limited overlap of c.i. for avoidance pH values for the two species, however, suggests that some S. trutta will display avoidance at a higher pH when S. fontinalis will not. The results of this study indicate that segregation patterns of adult S. fontinalis and S. trutta in Pennsylvania streams could be related to pH and that competition with S. trutta could be mediating the occurrence of S. fontinalis at some pH levels.

  3. Mutual in vivo interactions between benzo[a]pyrene and tributyltin in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Padros, J.; Pelletier, E.; Reader, S.; Denizeau, F.

    2000-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an organometal used as an antifouling biocide, has been reported to inhibit cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A isozyme. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a widespread carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is both metabolized and bioactivated to carcinogenic BaP diol-epoxide (BPDE) metabolites primarily by hepatic P450 1A. Hence, TBT may inhibit the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP. This study was therefore designed to examine the potential in vivo interactions between BaP and TBT in a model fish. Male brook trout (Salelinus fontinalis) were given a single intraperitoneal injection of either BaP, TBT, or both in combination. After 48 h, blood, bile, and liver samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of biomarkers associated with P450 activity, BaP metabolism and bioactivation, and TBT metabolism. The results showed that TBT significantly inhibited (a) the induction of hepatic P450 1A-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and P450-mediated 3-cyano-7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (CN-ECOD) activities by BaP, (b) the formation of biliary BaP metabolites, and (c) the formation of (+)-anti-BPDE-plasma albumin adducts as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence. Notably, TBT alone did not inhibit EROD activity but induced CN-ECOD activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis indicated that the combined BaP + TBT dose resulted in higher levels of dibutyltin metabolites in the bite (p < 0.05). The present study supports the hypothesis that a single, high dose of TBT can antagonize the metabolism and bioactivation of BaP at least by inhibiting the induction of P4501A. On the other hand, BaP unexpectedly potentiated the metabolism of TBT, suggesting that hepatic isoforms other than P3501A may be responsible for TBT metabolism. Finally, this study supports the utility of a biomarker approach to screen potential xenobiotic interactions in aquatic organisms and to obtain mechanistic insights.

  4. Genomic arrangement of salinity tolerance QTLs in salmonids: A comparative analysis of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies show that variation in salinity tolerance in Arctic charr and rainbow trout has a genetic basis, even though both these species have low to moderate salinity tolerance capacities. QTL were observed to localize to homologous linkage group segments within putative chromosomal regions possessing multiple candidate genes. We compared salinity tolerance QTL in rainbow trout and Arctic charr to those detected in a higher salinity tolerant species, Atlantic salmon. The highly derived karyotype of Atlantic salmon allows for the assessment of whether disparity in salinity tolerance in salmonids is associated with differences in genetic architecture. To facilitate these comparisons, we examined the genomic synteny patterns of key candidate genes in the other model teleost fishes that have experienced three whole-genome duplication (3R) events which preceded a fourth (4R) whole genome duplication event common to all salmonid species. Results Nine linkage groups contained chromosome-wide significant QTL (AS-2, -4p, -4q, -5, -9, -12p, -12q, -14q -17q, -22, and −23), while a single genome-wide significant QTL was located on AS-4q. Salmonid genomes shared the greatest marker homology with the genome of three-spined stickleback. All linkage group arms in Atlantic salmon were syntenic with at least one stickleback chromosome, while 18 arms had multiple affinities. Arm fusions in Atlantic salmon were often between multiple regions bearing salinity tolerance QTL. Nine linkage groups in Arctic charr and six linkage group arms in rainbow trout currently have no synteny alignments with stickleback chromosomes, while eight rainbow trout linkage group arms were syntenic with multiple stickleback chromosomes. Rearrangements in the stickleback lineage involving fusions of ancestral arm segments could account for the 21 chromosome pairs observed in the stickleback karyotype. Conclusions Salinity tolerance in salmonids from three genera is

  5. Sex reversal of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by 17α-methyltestosterone exposure: A serial experimental approach to determine optimal timing and delivery regimes.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Shafaq; Adams, Mark; Wilkinson, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Commercial culture of Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Tasmania was partly abandoned due to sexual maturation of male fish early on during the estuarine rearing phase. Maturation adversely affects body mass, flesh quality and immunocompetency effectively. Sex reversal techniques such as the in-feed addition of a synthetic androgen have proven difficult to adapt in brook trout. An appropriate timing, duration and delivery vehicle for administration of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) to produce phenotypic males (neomales) from genotypically female brook trout required further investigation. In this study, groups of brook trout eggs (n=1000) maintained at 9.5±0.15-10±0.14°C, were immersed in MT (400μgL(-1)) for four hours on two alternate days (two immersions/group) staggered over a two week period surrounding the hatch of embryos (control groups excluded). The groups were then split and half received MT-supplemented feed for 60days and the other a standard diet. Following an 11 month on-growing period sex phenotypes were determined by gross & histological gonad morphology. The highest proportion of male phenotypes (75%) was found in fish immersed six and four days pre-hatch and subsequently fed a normal diet. Fish fed a MT supplemented diet and immersed in MT showed significantly higher proportions of sterile fish. These data indicate that a pre-hatch immersion-only regime (4-6days pre-hatch at 9.5°C) should be pursued as a target for optimization studies to further refine the effective concentration and duration of exposure to MT for the successful production of neo-male brook trout.

  6. Stream acidification and mortality of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in response to timber harvest in Catskill Mountain watersheds, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of clear-cut and timber-stand improvement (TSI) harvests on water chemistry and mortality of caged brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were evaluated in a study of three Catskill Mountain streams, 1994-2000. Harvests removed 73% of tree basal area (BA) from a clearcut subbasin, 5% BA from a TSI subbasin, and 14% BA at a site below the confluence of both streams. A fourth nonharvested site served as a control. Water quality and trout mortality were affected only in the clearcut stream. Acidity and concentrations of nitrate and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) increased sharply during high flows after the first growing season (fall 1997). Acid-Alim episodes were severe during this period and decreased steadily in magnitude and duration thereafter. All trout at this site died within 7 days during spring 1998 and 85% died during spring 1999. Only background mortality was observed in other years at this site and at the other three sites during all tests. The absence of mortality in TSI watersheds indicates that limited harvests should not harm brook trout populations in acid-sensitive streams. Effects of tree harvests on fish communities are of concern, however, because many stream-dwelling species are more sensitive to acidified waters than brook trout. ?? 2005 NRC.

  7. The influence of swimming demand on phenotypic plasticity and morphological integration: a comparison of two polymorphic charr species.

    PubMed

    Peres-Neto, Pedro R; Magnan, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    In northern freshwater lakes, several fish species have populations composed of discrete morphs, usually involving a divergence between benthic and limnetic morphs. Although it has been suggested that swimming demand plays an important role in morphological differentiation, thus influencing habitat selection, it is unclear how it affects reaction norms, patterns in character correlation, and levels of morphological integration. We examined whether swimming demand could induce morphological plasticity in the directions expected under divergent habitat selection, and evaluated its influence on the morphological integration in Arctic charr ( Salvelinus alpinus) and brook charr ( S. fontinalis), two congeneric species exhibiting conspicuous and subtle resource polymorphism, respectively. We found that changes in morphology were induced by differential swimming demands in both species. The length of the pectoral fin was the character that responded most strongly according to the predicted morphological expectations under divergent habitat selection. High levels of morphological plasticity, relatively low levels of integration, and differences found in the morphological correlation structure among water velocity treatments suggest that constraints on morphological change are unlikely in either species, thus allowing great potential for phenotypic flexibility in both species. The magnitude of character integration, however, was larger for Arctic charr than for brook charr. This latter result is discussed in the light of the differences in the level of polymorphism between the two species in the wild. The results of the present study indicate that swimming demand alone may not be sufficient to generate the polymorphism encountered in nature. Given that both diet and swimming demands can induce morphological changes, it would be important to conduct experiments targeting the interaction between the morphological modules related to trophic and swimming demands.

  8. Bioavailability of metals in stream food webs and hazards to brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the upper Animas River watershed, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Church, S.E.; Kimball, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The water quality, habitats, and biota of streams in the upper Animas River watershed of Colorado, USA, are affected by metal contamination associated with acid drainage. We determined metal concentrations in components of the food web of the Animas River and its tributaries - periphyton (aufwuchs), benthic invertebrates, and livers of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) - and evaluated pathways of metal exposure and hazards of metal toxicity to stream biota. Concentrations of the toxic metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and trout livers from one or more sites in the upper Animas River were significantly greater than those from reference sites. Periphyton from sites downstream from mixing zones of acid and neutral waters had elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) reflecting deposition of colloidal Fe and Al oxides, and reduced algal biomass. Metal concentrations in benthic invertebrates reflected differences in feeding habits and body size among taxa, with greatest concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Cd in the small mayfly Rhithrogena, which feeds on periphyton, and greatest concentrations of Pb in the small stonefly Zapada, a detritivore. Concentrations of Zn and Pb decreased across each trophic linkage, whereas concentrations of Cu and Cd were similar across several trophic levels, suggesting that Cu and Cd were more efficiently transferred via dietary exposure. Concentrations of Cu in invertebrates and trout livers were more closely associated with impacts on trout populations and invertebrate communities than were concentrations of Zn, Cd, or Pb. Copper concentrations in livers of brook trout from the upper Animas River were substantially greater than background concentrations and approached levels associated with reduced brook trout populations in field studies and with toxic effects on other salmonids in laboratory studies. These results indicate that bioaccumulation and transfer of

  9. Temporal trends in ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase activity of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) fed 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, S.M.; Millward, M.R.; Mueller, C.; Subramanian, B.; Johnson, R.D.; Tietge, J.E.

    2000-02-01

    Changes in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were monitored through an extended 6-month dietary exposure to determine the relationship between EROD activity and uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout were fed labeled TCDD during a 4-week loading phase and an 11-week maintenance phase to achieve whole-body concentrations of 0, 75, 150, 300, 600, and 1,200 pg TCDD/g fish. A spawning phase followed during which no TCDD was introduced. The TCDD had an extended half-life, with maximal levels detected in the late loading-early maintenance phases and 81 d after TCDD had been removed from the diet. Accumulation in liver increased as whole-body target concentration increased but was generally less than half of anticipated whole-body target concentrations. The EROD activity demonstrated a dose-dependent increase. Positive correlations were observed between EROD activity and TCDD body burdens for both males and females. For males, maximal induction was attained early in the maintenance phase and maintained during latter phases. For females, induction was characterized by a biphasic pattern. Maximal induction was attained during late loading-early maintenance, with an attenuated response observed just before spawning. In addition, the induction response was modulated by sex, as induction was lower in females when compared with males. If sexual biases are considered, increased EROD activity may serve as an indicator of level of TCDD exposure and a sublethal predictor of effects of exposure.

  10. Resource Partitioning in Food, Space and Time between Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) and European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) at the Southern Edge of Their Continuous Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Kiljunen, Mikko; Knudsen, Rune; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Arctic charr and European whitefish are considered to be strong competitors in lakes, with the latter usually being the superior species. However, high niche plasticity and lake morphometry may suggestively facilitate resource partitioning and coexistence between charr and whitefish. Here, we explore the trophic niche utilization (diet and habitat use) of charr and whitefish co-occurring with brown trout in the deep and oligotrophic Lake Fyresvatnet, southern Norway (59°05’N, 8°10’E). Using CPUE, stomach contents and stable isotope analyses, a distinct resource partitioning was revealed between brown trout and the other two species. Brown trout typically occupied the littoral zone, feeding on benthic invertebrates, surface insects and small-sized whitefish. In contrast, charr and whitefish were predominantly zooplanktivorous, but diverged somewhat in habitat utilization as charr shifted seasonally between the profundal and the littoral zone, whereas whitefish were found in the upper water layers (littoral and pelagic habitats). Accordingly, the stable isotope values of carbon (δ13C) reflected a pelagic orientated prey resource use for both charr and whitefish, whereas brown trout had elevated carbon and nitrogen (δ15N) signatures that reflected their benthivore and piscivore diet, respectively. The findings suggest that charr may not rely upon the profundal zone as a feeding habitat but as a refuge area, and may coexist with whitefish if a third competitive and predatory species like brown trout co-occur in the lake. The study indicates that a general high habitat plasticity of Arctic charr may be essential in the presently observed coexistence with a competitively superior fish species like whitefish, and that a third fish species like brown trout may facilitate this particular fish community structure. PMID:28122061

  11. Behavioural and physiological responses of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis to midwinter flow reduction in a small ice-free mountain stream.

    PubMed

    Krimmer, A N; Paul, A J; Hontela, A; Rasmussen, J B

    2011-09-01

    This study presents an experimental analysis of the effects of midwinter flow reduction (50-75%, reduction in discharge in 4 h daily pulses) on the physical habitat and on behaviour and physiology of overwintering brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in a small mountain stream. Flow reduction did not result in significant lowering of temperature or formation of surface or subsurface ice. The main findings were (1) daily movement by S. fontinalis increased (c. 2·5-fold) during flow reduction, but was limited to small-scale relocations (<10 m). (2) Undercut banks were the preferred habitat and availability of these habitats was reduced during flow reduction. (3) Although both experimental and reference fish did lose mass and condition during the experiment, no effects of flow reduction on stress indicators (blood cortisol or glucose) or bioenergetics (total body fat, water content or mass loss) were detected, probably because access to the preferred type of cover remained available. Like other salmonids, S. fontinalis moves little and seeks physical cover during winter. Unlike many of the more studied salmonids, however, this species overwinters successfully in small groundwater-rich streams that often remain ice-free, and this study identifies undercut banks as the critical winter habitat rather than substratum cover.

  12. Analysis of trade-offs between threats of invasion by nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and intentional isolation for native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.P.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.; Fausch, K.D.; Young, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Native salmonid fishes often face simultaneous threats from habitat fragmentation and invasion by nonnative trout species. Unfortunately, management actions to address one may create or exacerbate the other. A consistent decision process would include a systematic analysis of when and where intentional use or removal of barriers is the most appropriate action. We developed a Bayesian belief network as a tool for such analyses. We focused on native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and considered the environmental factors influencing both species, their potential interactions, and the effects of isolation on the persistence of local cutthroat trout populations. The trade-offs between isolation and invasion were strongly influenced by size and habitat quality of the stream network to be isolated and existing demographic linkages within and among populations. An application of the model in several sites in western Montana (USA) showed the process could help clarify management objectives and options and prioritize conservation actions among streams. The approach can also facilitate communication among parties concerned with native salmonids, nonnative fish invasions, barriers and intentional isolation, and management of the associated habitats and populations. ?? 2008 NRC.

  13. Feeding rate of slimy sculpin and burbot on young lake charr in laboratory reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Henry, Mary G.

    1991-01-01

    Predation and contaminants are two possible factors in the poor recruitment of young lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in the Great Lakes. We measured the feeding rate of slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus and burbot Lota lota on young lake charr (uncontaminated young from eggs of a hatchery brood stock and contaminated young from eggs of Lake Michigan lake charr) in laboratory test chambers with a cobble substrate. The median daily consumption rate of sculpins for all tests was 2 lake charr eggs (N = 22 tests; 95% confidence interval, O-13) and 2 lake charr free embryos (N = 31 tests; 95% confidence interval, O-10). Feeding rate did not differ between hatchery and contaminated prey. Slimy sculpins continued to feed on lake charr when another prey organism, the deepwater amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi, was present. Feeding by burbot on free embryos (4-36 d-l) increased as the mobility of young increased, but burbot consumed about 10% of their body weight weekly in free-swimming young (140-380 d-l). Predation on lake charr eggs by sculpins could beconsiderable over the 100 to 140 d incubation period, and burbot could eat large numbers of free-swimming lake charr as the young fish left the reef. Predation pressure on young lake charr may inhibit rehabilitation ofself-sustaining populations of lake charr on some reefs unless a critical egg density has been reached.

  14. Effects of chronic exposure to soft, acidic water on gill development and chloride cell numbers in embryo-larval brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conklin, D.J.; Mowbray, R.C.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Recruitment failure is considered to be a major factor contributing to the decline of fish populations in soft, acidic waters; direct mortality of embryo-larval fishes has been postulated as a major cause of the decline. Little is understood of the physiological consequences to embryo-larval fishes of prolonged exposure to soft, acidic waters; however, dysfunction of respiratory and ionoregulatory processes is suspected. In order to evaluate the effects of acid exposure on the respiratory and ionoregulatory systems of developing brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, differences in gill morphology and numbers of chloride cells were compared between groups cf developing embryo-larval fish continuously exposed to moderately hard well water (130.0 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 7.94) or to reconstituted soft, acidic water (4.4 mg.l-1 as CaCO3, pH 5.25) designed to mimic acidic waters of northern Wisconsin acidified lakes. Exposures were maintained for up to 48 days (82 days after fertilization) during critical periods of growth and differentiation of branchial structures. The second right gill arch of each fish was examined for changes in the development of filaments and lamellae and for differences in numbers of chloride cells. Gills of fish that developed in soft, acidic water contained greater numbers of normal and degenerating chloride cells, exhibited hyperplasia of primary epithelium and multiple fusions of adjacent filaments and lamellar epithelium than the gills of control fish. Filament and lamellar lengths and numbers of lamellae per filament were significantly less (P< 0.05) in fish that developed in soft, acidic water than in fish exposed to well water.

  15. Hatching, growth, ion accumulation, and skeletal ossification of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) alevins in acidic soft waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brook trout eyed eggs and subsequent alevins were exposed to pH 5.0, 6.5, and 7.0 in soft reconstituted water and to pH 8.2 in hard well water for up to 72 d. Hatching was delayed and hatching success reduced (p K+ > Cl- during yolk absorption and early exogenous feeding. Whole-body monovalent ion concentrations were reduced for short periods during yolk absorption in alevins exposed to pH 6.5 and throughout most of the experiment for those exposed to pH 5.0. Whole-body Mg2+ concentrations were not affected by treatment pH and remained near their median hatch level throughout the exposure. The whole-body concentration of Ca2+ was reduced in fish exposed to pH 5.0, particularly near the end of the experiment. Calcium accumulation in fish was influenced by the interaction of pH and time at pH 5.0 but not at the other pH levels. Alevins exposed to pH 5.0 experienced delayed ossification of skeletal structures associated with feeding, respiration, and locomotion that usually persisted for up to 10 d. The detection of skeletal abnormalities early in life might aid in identifying fish populations at risk in acidified waters.

  16. Microsatellite variation and genetic structure of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in Labrador and neighboring Atlantic Canada: evidence for ongoing gene flow and dual routes of post-Wisconsinan colonization

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Brettney L; Perry, Robert C; Keefe, Donald G; Perry, Elizabeth A; Dawn Marshall, H

    2012-01-01

    In conservation genetics and management, it is important to understand the contribution of historical and contemporary processes to geographic patterns of genetic structure in order to characterize and preserve diversity. As part of a 10-year monitoring program by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, we measured the population genetic structure of the world's most northern native populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Labrador to gather baseline data to facilitate monitoring of future impacts of the recently opened Trans-Labrador Highway. Six-locus microsatellite profiles were obtained from 1130 fish representing 32 populations from six local regions. Genetic diversity in brook trout populations in Labrador (average HE= 0.620) is within the spectrum of variability found in other brook trout across their northeastern range, with limited ongoing gene flow occurring between populations (average pairwise FST= 0.139). Evidence for some contribution of historical processes shaping genetic structure was inferred from an isolation-by-distance analysis, while dual routes of post-Wisconsinan recolonization were indicated by STRUCTURE analysis: K= 2 was the most likely number of genetic groups, revealing a separation between northern and west-central Labrador from all remaining populations. Our results represent the first data from the nuclear genome of brook trout in Labrador and emphasize the usefulness of microsatellite data for revealing the extent to which genetic structure is shaped by both historical and contemporary processes. PMID:22837834

  17. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  18. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14 cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40 cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the population remains in epilimnic waters. The two morphs had different diet niches in the profundal zone: the profundal charr ate typical soft-bottom prey (chironomid larvae, pea mussels and benthic copepods), while the young littoral charr mainly consumed crustacean zooplankton. In four other lakes without a profundal morph (i.e. monomorphic populations), young charr also performed ontogenetic habitat shifts to the profundal zone and fed on zooplankton. The profundal morph of Fjellfrøsvatn therefore utilize a food resource niche that neither the littoral morph nor comparable monomorphic populations exploit. This suggests that intraspecific resource competition has driven incipient ecological speciation of the profundal charr of Fjellfrøsvatn. The exploitation of the soft-bottom resources by the profundal charr supports earlier experimental findings that the profundal morph is genetically different in trophic behaviour and morphology. The sympatric ecological divergence within the profundal habitat is possible because unexploited food resources (soft-bottom profundal prey) are available. Apparently, this represents a case of incipient segregation by expansion to new resource types (niche invasion), and not by subdivision of one broad ancestral niche. PMID:16928630

  19. Toxicokinetics and effects of PCBs in Arctic fish: a review of studies on Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, EH; Vijayan, M.N.; Killie, J.-E.A.; Aluru, N.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of environmentally realistic laboratory experiments, toxicokinetics and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Winter fasting and emaciation, which are common among Arctic charr living in high latitudes, resulted in a redistribution of the lipophilic PCBs from lipid-storing tissue such as the muscle, to vital organs that must be considered sensitive toward PCB (liver and brain). This redistribution was accompanied by a significant potentiation of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A biomarker response, from low activities in October (within those measured in uncontaminated charr) to a high, probably maximum, induction in May. Performance studies demonstrated a clear effect of environmentally realistic PCB levels on endocrine mechanisms, immune function, and seawater preadaptation (smoltification) in charr that had been feed deprived for several months after contamination with Aroclor 1254, whereas a high PCB dose exerted only minor, if any, effects in charr that had been fed after contamination. These results demonstrate that emaciation results in decreased dose-response relationships in fish, and indicate that arctic animals undergoing seasonal cycles of "fattening" and emaciation may be extra sensitive toward persistent, lipophilic organochlorines. Pilot studies on Arctic charr from Bjørnøya Island revealed marked CYP1A biomarker responses and an upregulation of genes involved in cellular homeostatic mechanisms in charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels).

  20. The effects of low-speed swimming following exhaustive exercise on metabolic recovery and swimming performance in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).

    PubMed

    Kieffer, James D; Kassie, Roshini S; Taylor, Susan G

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether low-speed swimming during recovery from exhaustive exercise improved both metabolic recovery and performance during a swimming challenge. For these experiments, brook trout were allowed to recover from exhaustive exercise for 2 h while swimming at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 body length (BL) s(-1) or allowed to recover from exhaustive exercise for 1, 2, or 3 h while swimming at 1.0 BL s(-1). At the appropriate interval, either (i) muscle and blood samples were removed from the fish or (ii) fish were assessed for performance (i.e., fatigue time) during a fixed-interval swimming test. Low-speed swimming during recovery from exhaustive exercise resulted in significantly longer fatigue times compared with fish recovering in still water (i.e., 0 BL s(-1)). However, swimming during recovery did not expedite recovery of muscle lactate or blood variables (e.g., lactate, osmolarity, glucose). These observations suggest that metabolic recovery and subsequent swimming performance may not be directly linked and that other factors play a role in swimming recovery in brook trout.

  1. Species-specific sensitivity to selenium-induced impairment of cortisol secretion in adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.L. Hontela, A.

    2011-06-01

    Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed to stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite

  2. Biomarker response and hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis functioning in Arctic charr from Bjørnøya (74°30' N), Norway, with high levels of organohalogenated compounds.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even H; Maule, Alec G; Evenset, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm; Bytningsvik, Jenny; Frantzen, Marianne; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Faught, Erin; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2017-03-20

    The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (<400g), immature charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels) and Lake Laksvatn (reference lake, low PCB levels) by hook and line for an immediate blood sampling, and blood and tissue sampling after a 1h confinement stressor. This was done in order to investigate possible effects of pollutants on an acute stress performance in a high-latitude fish species by comparing muscle PCB levels, hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) biomarker activation and functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis between these two populations of Arctic charr. As expected sum PCB muscle levels were 8-fold higher on a wet weigh basis, and 19-fold higher on a lipid weight basis, in charr from Ellasjøen than in charr from Laksvatn. This was accompanied by a 3.5-fold higher liver cyp1a mRNA abundance in the Ellasjøen charr compared to Laksvatn charr. Brain transcript levels encoding glucocorticoid receptor 1 and 2 (GR2) and corticotropin-releasing factor, and pituitary transcript levels encoding GR2 and proopiomelanocortin A1 and A2 were higher in Ellasjøen charr than in Laksvatn charr, while interrenal transcript levels encoding melanocortin 2 receptor and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein were lower. There were no differences in plasma cortisol concentration between the two charr populations immediately after capture and one hour after confinement. The strong biomarker response to OHCs and altered mRNA abundances of key genes related to HPI axis functioning in the Ellasjøen charr suggest endocrine disruptive effects of OHCs in this charr population. Possible ecological implications are not

  3. Social stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr.

    PubMed

    Backström, Tobias; Heynen, Martina; Brännäs, Eva; Nilsson, Jan; Winberg, Svante; Magnhagen, Carin

    2015-09-15

    Pigmentation often signals status and in general melanin-based pigmentation is indicative of aggression and stress resilience in vertebrates. This is evident in the salmonids Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) where more melanin spotted individuals are more stress resilient. However, in the salmonid Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) it seems as if it is carotenoid-based pigmentation that signals aggression and stress resilience. In our study, social stress effects on carotenoid-based spots, and behavioural and physiological stress responses were investigated. Socially stressed individuals have more spots, and behavioural stress responses were associated with spots. Some of the results concerning physiological stress responses, such as plasma cortisol levels and monoaminergic activity, are associated with spottiness. Further, the earlier proposed lateralization of spots, with left side connected to stress responsiveness and right side to aggression, is to some extent validated although not conclusively. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that more stressed charr have more carotenoid spots, and for the first time monoaminergic activity is shown to be connected with carotenoid pigmentation.

  4. Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Killie, J.-E.A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) with Aroclor 1254. After contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by Arctic animals. After four months, PCB concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, PCBs in kidneys of fed fish were 33 to 50% of those in fasted fish. Arctic charr were exposed to Aeromonas salmonicida, the bacteria responsible for furunculosis, by cohabitation with infected conspecifics. Fasted fish had a significant trend toward lower survival with higher dose of PCBs - from 68% in controls to 48% in treatment involving 100 mg kg-1. Independent of PCB contamination, fed fish had the lowest survival; we attribute this to stress associated with establishing and maintaining feeding hierarchies. A significant decrease in the activity of lysozyme was observed in skin mucus, as was hemagglutination ability of a putative rhamnose lectin in fasted, but not in fed, PCB-treated fish. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs on Arctic charr, and they illustrate the importance of considering environmentally relevant nutritional status in ecotoxicological studies.

  5. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  6. Rhythmic life of the Arctic charr: adaptations to life at the edge.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar; Johnsen, Helge Kreutzer

    2014-04-01

    High latitudes are characterized by strong seasonal changes in environmental conditions, including temperature and food availability. To cope with these changes, many high latitude species have developed circannual oscillators that enable them to anticipate and prepare for forthcoming environmental changes and synchronize seasonal events (e.g. reproduction) to environmental fluctuations. The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is the world's northernmost freshwater fish species with a distribution largely confined within the Arctic. In the northernmost part of its distribution they have developed an anadromous life-history strategy implying annual, seaward migrations in the summer to utilize the rich feeding opportunity in the sea. Overwintering in freshwater is characterized by anorexia and energy conservation. The seaward migration in early summer is preceded by physiological and behavioral changes (smolting), by which they develop seawater tolerance (hypoosmoregulatory ability) and migratory behavior. When migrating to the sea, Arctic charr have regained a strong appetite and within 4-6weeks in the sea they may have doubled their body weight and increased their body fat stores several-fold, in anticipation of the resources needed for reproduction in the autumn and overwintering. All these processes are regulated independently of environmental changes; captive offspring of anadromous charr kept in freshwater displays seasonal changes in seawater tolerance and strong seasonal changes in food intake and growth even when they are continuously fed in excess and held at a constant water temperature in freshwater. A correct timing of these events is crucial for their survival in the Arctic and the Arctic charr seems to possess timing mechanisms that include endogenous, circannual oscillator(s) entrainable by photoperiod. The entrainment mechanism may be linked to diel melatonin rhythms, which in this species exactly mirror overground photoperiod, even during the winter

  7. Challenge to the model of lake charr evolution: Shallow- and deep-water morphs exist within a small postglacial lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Yule, Daniel L.; Middel, Trevor; Bentzen, Paul; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    All examples of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) diversity occur within the largest, deepest lakes of North America (i.e. > 2000 km2). We report here Rush Lake (1.3 km2) as the first example of a small lake with two lake charr morphs (lean and huronicus). Morphology, diet, life history, and genetics were examined to demonstrate the existence of morphs and determine the potential influence of evolutionary processes that led to their formation or maintenance. Results showed that the huronicus morph, caught in deep-water, had a deeper body, smaller head and jaws, higher eye position, greater buoyancy, and deeper peduncle than the shallow-water lean morph. Huronicus grew slower to a smaller adult size, and had an older mean age than the lean morph. Genetic comparisons showed low genetic divergence between morphs, indicating incomplete reproductive isolation. Phenotypic plasticity and differences in habitat use between deep and shallow waters associated with variation in foraging opportunities seems to have been sufficient to maintain the two morphs, demonstrating their important roles in resource polymorphism. Rush Lake expands previous explanations for lake charr intraspecific diversity, from large to small lakes and from reproductive isolation to the presence of gene flow associated with strong ecological drivers.

  8. Morphological divergence between three Arctic charr morphs – the significance of the deep-water environment

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Sigrid; Siwertsson, Anna; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Morphological divergence was evident among three sympatric morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) that are ecologically diverged along the shallow-, deep-water resource axis in a subarctic postglacial lake (Norway). The two deep-water (profundal) spawning morphs, a benthivore (PB-morph) and a piscivore (PP-morph), have evolved under identical abiotic conditions with constant low light and temperature levels in their deep-water habitat, and were morphologically most similar. However, they differed in important head traits (e.g., eye and mouth size) related to their different diet specializations. The small-sized PB-morph had a paedomorphic appearance with a blunt head shape, large eyes, and a deep body shape adapted to their profundal lifestyle feeding on submerged benthos from soft, deep-water sediments. The PP-morph had a robust head, large mouth with numerous teeth, and an elongated body shape strongly related to their piscivorous behavior. The littoral spawning omnivore morph (LO-morph) predominantly utilizes the shallow benthic–pelagic habitat and food resources. Compared to the deep-water morphs, the LO-morph had smaller head relative to body size. The LO-morph exhibited traits typical for both shallow-water benthic feeding (e.g., large body depths and small eyes) and planktivorous feeding in the pelagic habitat (e.g., streamlined body shape and small mouth). The development of morphological differences within the same deep-water habitat for the PB- and PP-morphs highlights the potential of biotic factors and ecological interactions to promote further divergence in the evolution of polymorphism in a tentative incipient speciation process. The diversity of deep-water charr in this study represents a novelty in the Arctic charr polymorphism as a truly deep-water piscivore morph has to our knowledge not been described elsewhere. PMID:26357540

  9. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D; Johnson, Nicholas S; Li, Weiming

    2015-09-15

    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water (containing 7.5mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25mL/min for 12min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00-5,000ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  10. Quantification of 15 bile acids in lake charr feces by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Bussy, Ugo; Fissette, Skye D; Johnson, Nicholas; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Many fishes are hypothesized to use bile acids (BAs) as chemical cues, yet quantification of BAs in biological samples and the required methods remain limited. Here, we present an UHPLC–MS/MS method for simultaneous, sensitive, and rapid quantification of 15 BAs, including free, taurine, and glycine conjugated BAs, and application of the method to fecal samples from lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). The analytes were separated on a C18 column with acetonitrile–water (containing 7.5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min for 12 min. BAs were monitored with a negative electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQ-S™). Calibration curves of 15 BAs were linear over the concentration range of 1.00–5,000 ng/mL. Validation revealed that the method was specific, accurate, and precise. The method was applied to quantitative analysis of feces extract of fry lake charr and the food they were eating. The concentrations of analytes CA, TCDCA, TCA, and CDCA were 242.3, 81.2, 60.7, and 36.2 ng/mg, respectively. However, other taurine conjugated BAs, TUDCA, TDCA, and THDCA, were not detected in feces of lake charr. Interestingly, TCA and TCDCA were detected at high concentrations in food pellets, at 71.9 and 38.2 ng/mg, respectively. Application of the method to feces samples from lake charr supported a role of BAs as chemical cues, and will enhance further investigation of BAs as chemical cues in other fish species.

  11. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD MANIPULATION ON BROOK TROUT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT, FECUNDITY, AND CIRCULATING SEX STEROID CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of conducting reproductive studies with brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis at times other than the normal fall-spawning period...Overall viability of embryos from this spring spawning was slightly lower than the average viabi...

  13. Differentiation at the MHCIIα and Cath2 Loci in Sympatric Salvelinus alpinus Resource Morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn

    PubMed Central

    Kapralova, Kalina H.; Gudbrandsson, Johannes; Reynisdottir, Sigrun; Santos, Cristina B.; Baltanás, Vanessa C.; Maier, Valerie H.; Snorrason, Sigurdur S.; Palsson, Arnar

    2013-01-01

    Northern freshwater fish may be suitable for the genetic dissection of ecological traits because they invaded new habitats after the last ice age (∼10.000 years ago). Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) colonizing streams and lakes in Iceland gave rise to multiple populations of small benthic morphotypes, often in sympatry with a pelagic morphotype. Earlier studies have revealed significant, but subtle, genetic differentiation between the three most common morphs in Lake Thingvallavatn. We conducted a population genetic screen on four immunological candidate genes Cathelicidin 2 (Cath2), Hepcidin (Hamp), Liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2a (Leap-2a), and Major Histocompatibility Complex IIα (MHCIIα) and a mitochondrial marker (D-loop) among the three most common Lake Thingvallavatn charr morphs. Significant differences in allele frequencies were found between morphs at the Cath2 and MHCIIα loci. No such signal was detected in the D-loop nor in the other two immunological genes. In Cath2 the small benthic morph deviated from the other two (FST = 0.13), one of the substitutions detected constituting an amino acid replacement polymorphism in the antimicrobial peptide. A more striking difference was found in the MHCIIα. Two haplotypes were very common in the lake, and their frequency differed greatly between the morphotypes (from 22% to 93.5%, FST = 0.67). We then expanded our study by surveying the variation in Cath2 and MHCIIα in 9 Arctic charr populations from around Iceland. The populations varied greatly in terms of allele frequencies at Cath2, but the variation did not correlate with morphotype. At the MHCIIα locus, the variation was nearly identical to the variation in the two benthic morphs of Lake Thingvallavatn. The results are consistent with a scenario where parts of the immune systems have diverged substantially among Arctic charr populations in Iceland, after colonizing the island ∼10.000 years ago. PMID:23894470

  14. Ontogeny, variation, and homology in Salvelinus alpinus caudal skeleton (Teleostei: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Grünbaum, Thomas; Cloutier, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ontogeny of the caudal skeleton in the Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus was examined using an extensive series of cleared and stained specimens. We demonstrate the presence of skeletal components never reported previously within the Salmonidae. In contrast to the generalized condition for salmonids, seven hypurals (instead of six), and four uroneurals (instead of three) have been found in some specimens. Variation in the number and condition of epurals is documented. New hypotheses are proposed concerning (1) relationships among centra and their associated elements, (2) phylogenetic distribution of caudal characters within the Salmonidae, and (3) homology of caudal components. Using the published phylogenetic hypotheses, we provide evidence, that a seventh hypural and a fourth uroneural are taxic atavism in salmonids. The development of the salmonid homocercal fin is discussed in the light of a polyural scheme based on evidences of a one-to-one relationship among ural centra and their associated elements.

  15. [Fish growth-hormone genes: functionality evidence of paralogous genes in Levanidov's charr].

    PubMed

    Kamenskaya, D N; Pankova, M V; Atopkin, D M; Brykov, V A

    2015-01-01

    In the genome of most vertebrates growth-hormone gene is presented in a single copy, while in salmonids after one of the duplication events many genes were multiplied, including growth hormone gene. In salmonids, the growth-hormone gene exists as two independently inherited functional paralogues, gh1 and gh2. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of gh1 and gh2 growth-hormone genes and their adjacent sequences in Levanidov's charr Salvelinus levanidovi to determine their functionality and define the potential differences. We found that both genes have the same gene structure and are composed of six exons (I-VI) and five introns (A, B, C, D, E). However, the respective gene sequences differ in length. A comparison of exons showed that the size of each exon is identical in both paralogues. The overall length of genes differs due to the varying lengths of introns. Coding sequence of both genes contains an open reading frame for 210 amino acids. We identified regulatory elements in the promoter region of both genes: TATA box, A/T-rich regions that contain binding sites for pituitary-specific transcriptional activator Pit-1, and regions responsible for interaction with other transcriptional activators and initiators, in particular hormone receptors. The obtained data indicate that both genes are functional.

  16. Evaluation of an Unsuccessful Brook Trout Electrofishing Removal Project in a Small Rocky Mountain Stream.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2006-01-26

    In the western United States, exotic brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis frequently have a deleterious effect on native salmonids, and biologists often attempt to remove brook trout from streams by means of electrofishing. Although the success of such projects typically is low, few studies have assessed the underlying mechanisms of failure, especially in terms of compensatory responses. A multiagency watershed advisory group (WAG) conducted a 3-year removal project to reduce brook trout and enhance native salmonids in 7.8 km of a southwestern Idaho stream. We evaluated the costs and success of their project in suppressing brook trout and looked for brook trout compensatory responses, such as decreased natural mortality, increased growth, increased fecundity at length, and earlier maturation. The total number of brook trout removed was 1,401 in 1998, 1,241 in 1999, and 890 in 2000; removal constituted an estimated 88% of the total number of brook trout in the stream in 1999 and 79% in 2000. Although abundance of age-1 and older brook trout declined slightly during and after the removals, abundance of age-0 brook trout increased 789% in the entire stream 2 years after the removals ceased. Total annual survival rate for age-2 and older brook trout did not decrease during the removals, and the removals failed to produce an increase in the abundance of native redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri. Lack of a meaningful decline and unchanged total mortality for older brook trout during the removals suggest that a compensatory response occurred in the brook trout population via reduced natural mortality, which offset the removal of large numbers of brook trout. Although we applaud WAG personnel for their goal of enhancing native salmonids by suppressing brook trout via electrofishing removal, we conclude that their efforts were unsuccessful and suggest that similar future projects elsewhere over such large stream lengths would be costly, quixotic enterprises.

  17. Do stocked hatchery-reared juveniles ecologically suppress wild juveniles in Salvelinus leucomaenis?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Doi, T

    2014-05-01

    The dominancy of semi-wild and hatchery-reared white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles was evaluated using pair-wise enclosure tests and field stocking tests. The semi-wild S. leucomaenis originated in a hatchery, being stocked into the test stream as eyed-eggs. In the pair-wise enclosure test, the semi-wild S. leucomaenis dominated the hatchery S. leucomaenis that were of a similar standard length (L(S) ). The semi-wild S. leucomaenis were subordinate to hatchery S. leucomaenis that were > 11% larger in LS . In the field stocking test, the abundance and growth of semi-wild S. leucomaenis was decreased in the presence of larger hatchery S. leucomaenis (14% larger LS ). Taken together, these results suggest that larger hatchery S. leucomaenis ecologically suppress the smaller semi-wild S. leucomaenis. Salvelinus leucomaenis juveniles that are stocked with the intention of supplementing natural populations should be < 10% larger than their wild counterparts at the time of stocking to minimize their competitive advantage. The semi-wild and hatchery S. leucomaenis used in both tests were genetically similar individuals, suggesting that the differences are due to the early rearing environment of either a natural stream or hatchery. The hatchery S. leucomaenis have lower levels of aggression as a result of selection in the hatchery rearing environment. Rearing in a natural stream from the eyed-egg stage is likely to increase their lowered aggression.

  18. SEX-LINKED CHANGES IN PHASE 1 BIOTRANSFORMATION OF PHENOL IN BROOK TROUT OVER AN ANNUAL REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microsomal metabolism of phenol (11 degrees C) over an annual reproductive cycle from June to December has been studied using fall spawning adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor connection, pH, and microsomal protein concentr...

  19. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  20. Proposed standard-weight equations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyatt, M.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Weight and length data were obtained for 113 populations of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis across the species' geographic range in North America to estimate a standard-weight (Ws) equation for this species. Estimation was done by applying the regression-line-percentile technique to fish of 120-620 mm total length (TL). The proposed metric-unit (g and mm) equation is log10Ws = -5.186 + 3.103 log10TL; the English-unit (lb and in) equivalent is log10Ws = -3.483 + 3.103 log10TL. No systematic length bias was evident in the relative-weight values calculated from these equations.

  1. Phylogeography of the salmonid fish, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma: multiple glacial refugia in the North Pacific Rim.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Maekawa, Koji; Morita, Kentaro; Crane, Penelope A; Oleinik, Alla G

    2014-10-01

    The geographic distribution pattern of mitochondrial DNA (control region) sequence polymorphisms from 73 populations of a salmonid fish, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma, over most of its range in the North Pacific rim, was examined to assess how its spatial population genetic structure has been molded. The observed 68 haplotypes were grouped into three main lineages, which correspond to western, central, and eastern regions in the North Pacific. The two outlier-haplotype groups gave close agreement with DNA types from two congeneric species, white-spotted charr S. leucomaenis and Arctic charr S. alpinus, respectively. These results suggest that the present-day genetic structure of S. malma reflects historical patterns of isolation and re-colonization, and also historical hybridization with co-distributed species. We also placed the haplotypes of S. malma within our study areas into a pre-existing evolutionary relationship of S. alpinus and S. malma throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Western Lineage S. malma was basal to all other lineages of S. malma and S. alpinus. Our data serve as a biogeographic hypothesis for salmonid fishes that the Sea of Japan and/or Sea of Okhotsk regions represents a place of origin for S. malma and S. alpinus groups currently distributed in circumpolar regions.

  2. Brook trout passage performance through culverts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Bergeron, Normand

    2016-01-01

    Culverts can restrict access to habitat for stream-dwelling fishes. We used passive integrated transponder telemetry to quantify passage performance of >1000 wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) attempting to pass 13 culverts in Quebec under a range of hydraulic and environmental conditions. Several variables influenced passage success, including complex interactions between physiology and behavior, hydraulics, and structural characteristics. The probability of successful passage was greater through corrugated metal culverts than through smooth ones, particularly among smaller fish. Trout were also more likely to pass at warmer temperatures, but this effect diminished above 15 °C. Passage was impeded at higher flows, through culverts with steep slopes, and those with deep downstream pools. This study provides insight on factors influencing brook trout capacity to pass culverts as well as a model to estimate passage success under various conditions, with an improved resolution and accuracy over existing approaches. It also presents methods that could be used to investigate passage success of other species, with implications for connectivity of the riverscape.

  3. River mainstem thermal regimes influence population structuring within an Appalachian brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aunins, Aaron W.; Petty, J. Todd; King, Timothy L.; Schilz, Mariya; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) often exist as highly differentiated populations, even at small spatial scales, due either to natural or anthropogenic sources of isolation and low rates of dispersal. In this study, we used molecular approaches to describe the unique population structure of brook trout inhabiting the Shavers Fork watershed, located in eastern West Virginia, and contrast it to nearby populations in tributaries of the upper Greenbrier River and North Fork South Branch Potomac Rivers. Bayesian and maximum likelihood clustering methods identified minimal population structuring among 14 collections of brook trout from throughout the mainstem and tributaries of Shavers Fork, highlighting the role of the cold-water mainstem for connectivity and high rates of effective migration among tributaries. In contrast, the Potomac and Greenbrier River collections displayed distinct levels of population differentiation among tributaries, presumably resulting from tributary isolation by warm-water mainstems. Our results highlight the importance of protecting and restoring cold-water mainstem habitats as part of region-wide brook trout conservation efforts. In addition, our results from Shavers Fork provide a contrast to previous genetic studies that characterize Appalachian brook trout as fragmented isolates rather than well-mixed populations. Additional study is needed to determine whether the existence of brook trout as genetically similar populations among tributaries is truly unique and whether connectivity among brook trout populations can potentially be restored within other central Appalachian watersheds.

  4. Effect of brook trout removal from a spawning stream on an adfluvial population of Lahontan cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Rissler, Peter H.; Shea, Sean P.; Somer, William

    2012-01-01

    Independence Lake (Nevada and Sierra counties, California) harbors the only extant native population of Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi in the Truckee River system and one of two extant adfluvial populations in the Lahontan basin. The persistence of this population has been precarious for more than 50 years, with spawning runs consisting of only 30–150 fish. It is assumed that this population was much larger prior to the introduction of nonnative brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Brook trout overlap with cutthroat trout in upper Independence Creek, where the cutthroat trout spawn and their resulting progeny emigrate to Independence Lake. In 2005, we began removing brook trout from upper Independence Creek using electrofishers and monitored the cutthroat trout population. Stomach analysis of captured brook trout revealed cutthroat trout fry, and cutthroat trout fry survival increased significantly from 4% to 12% with brook trout removal. Prior to brook trout removal, the only Lahontan cutthroat trout progeny emigrating to Independence Lake were fry; with brook trout removal, juveniles were found entering the lake. In 2010, 237 potential spawners passed a prefabricated weir upstream of Independence Lake. Although the results of this study suggest that brook trout removal from upper Independence Creek has had a positive influence on the population dynamics of Independence Lake Lahontan cutthroat trout, additional years of removal are needed to assess the ultimate effect this action will have upon the cutthroat trout population.

  5. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  6. Apparent digestibility of possible fish meal replacements in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar and Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase the sustainability of salmonid production, alternative protein sources to fish meal need to be identified. Many studies have examined terrestrial plant meals/protein concentrates as alternatives. Recently the focus has turned to aquatic protists and plants as well as by-products from oth...

  7. Sequencing and characterization of a multi-organ Arctic charr transcriptome: A toolbox for investigating polymorphism and seasonal life in a high Arctic fish.

    PubMed

    Magnanou, Elodie; Noirot, Celine; Falcón, Jack; Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar

    2016-10-01

    The Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) inhabits fresh water ecosystems of the high North. The species has developed a strong phenotypic plasticity and variability in life history characteristics which has made this species an attractive model for investigations on phenotype plasticity, morph formation and ecological speciation. Further, the extreme seasonal variations in environmental conditions (e.g. food availability) in the high North induce seasonal changes in phenotype, which require precise timing mechanisms and physiological preparations. Individual gating of life-history strategies (e.g. formation of resident and sea-migrating morphs) and transitions (e.g. maturation) depends on conditional traits (size/energy status) at specific assessment time windows, and complex neuroendocrine regulation, which so far is poorly understood. In the absence of a reference genome, and in order to facilitate the investigation of the complex biological mechanisms of this unique fish model, the present study reveals a reference transcriptome for the Arctic charr. Using Roche 454 GS FLX+, we targeted various organs being either at the crossroads of many key pathways (neuroendocrine, metabolic, behavioral), of different ontological origins or displaying complementary physiological functions. The assemblage yielded 34,690 contigs greater than 1000bp with an average length (1690bp) and annotation rate (52%) within the range, or even higher, than what has been previously obtained with other teleost de novo transcriptomes. We dramatically improve the publically available transcript data on this species that may indeed be useful for various disciplines, from basic research to applied aspects related to conservation issues and aquaculture.

  8. Spatial and seasonal dynamics of brook trout populations inhabiting a central Appalachian watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.T.; Lamothe, P.J.; Mazik, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the watershed-scale spatial population dynamics of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the Second Fork, a third-order tributary of Shavers Fork in eastern West Virginia. We used visual surveys, electrofishing, and mark-recapture techniques to quantify brook trout spawning intensity, population density, size structure, and demographic rates (apparent survival and immigration) throughout the watershed. Our analyses produced the following results. Spawning by brook trout was concentrated in streams with small basin areas (i.e., segments draining less than 3 km2), relatively high alkalinity (>10 mg CaCO3/L), and high amounts of instream cover. The spatial distribution of juvenile and small-adult brook trout within the watershed was relatively stable and was significantly correlated with spawning intensity. However, no such relationship was observed for large adults, which exhibited highly variable distribution patterns related to seasonally important habitat features, including instream cover, stream depth and width, and riparian canopy cover. Brook trout survival and immigration rates varied seasonally, spatially, and among size-classes. Differential survival and immigration tended to concentrate juveniles and small adults in small, alkaline streams, whereas dispersal tended to redistribute large adults at the watershed scale. Our results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in spawning, survival, and movement interact to determine the distribution, abundance, and size structure of brook trout populations at a watershed scale. These results underscore the importance of small tributaries for the persistence of brook trout in this watershed and the need to consider watershed-scale processes when designing management plans for Appalachian brook trout populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  9. Landscape models of brook trout abundance and distribution in lotic habitat with field validation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Johnson, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are native fish in decline owing to environmental changes. Predictions of their potential distribution and a better understanding of their relationship to habitat conditions would enhance the management and conservation of this valuable species. We used over 7,800 brook trout observations throughout New York State and georeferenced, multiscale landscape condition data to develop four regionally specific artificial neural network models to predict brook trout abundance in rivers and streams. Land cover data provided a general signature of human activity, but other habitat variables were resistant to anthropogenic changes (i.e., changing on a geological time scale). The resulting models predict the potential for any stream to support brook trout. The models were validated by holding 20% of the data out as a test set and by comparison with additional field collections from a variety of habitat types. The models performed well, explaining more than 90% of data variability. Errors were often associated with small spatial displacements of predicted values. When compared with the additional field collections (39 sites), 92% of the predictions were off by only a single class from the field-observed abundances. Among “least-disturbed” field collection sites, all predictions were correct or off by a single abundance class, except for one where brown trout Salmo trutta were present. Other degrading factors were evident at most sites where brook trout were absent or less abundant than predicted. The most important habitat variables included landscape slope, stream and drainage network sizes, water temperature, and extent of forest cover. Predicted brook trout abundances were applied to all New York streams, providing a synoptic map of the distribution of brook trout habitat potential. These fish models set benchmarks of best potential for streams to support brook trout under broad-scale human influences and can assist with planning and

  10. Predicting Brook Trout occurrence in stream reaches throughout their native range in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell; Wagner, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is an important species of conservation concern in the eastern USA. We developed a model to predict Brook Trout population status within individual stream reaches throughout the species’ native range in the eastern USA. We utilized hierarchical logistic regression with Bayesian estimation to predict Brook Trout occurrence probability, and we allowed slopes and intercepts to vary among ecological drainage units (EDUs). Model performance was similar for 7,327 training samples and 1,832 validation samples based on the area under the receiver operating curve (∼0.78) and Cohen's kappa statistic (0.44). Predicted water temperature had a strong negative effect on Brook Trout occurrence probability at the stream reach scale and was also negatively associated with the EDU average probability of Brook Trout occurrence (i.e., EDU-specific intercepts). The effect of soil permeability was positive but decreased as EDU mean soil permeability increased. Brook Trout were less likely to occur in stream reaches surrounded by agricultural or developed land cover, and an interaction suggested that agricultural land cover also resulted in an increased sensitivity to water temperature. Our model provides a further understanding of how Brook Trout are shaped by habitat characteristics in the region and yields maps of stream-reach-scale predictions, which together can be used to support ongoing conservation and management efforts. These decision support tools can be used to identify the extent of potentially suitable habitat, estimate historic habitat losses, and prioritize conservation efforts by selecting suitable stream reaches for a given action. Future work could extend the model to account for additional landscape or habitat characteristics, include biotic interactions, or estimate potential Brook Trout responses to climate and land use changes.

  11. Biological consequences of the coaster brook trout restoration stocking program in Lake Superior tributaries with Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, Jill B.K.; Stott, Wendylee; Loope, Delora M.; Kusnierz, Paul C.; Sreenivasan, Ashwin

    2013-01-01

    The coaster Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis is a Lake Superior ecotype representing intraspecific variation that has been impacted by habitat loss and overfishing. Hatchery strains of Brook Trout derived from populations in Lake Superior were stocked into streams within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan, as part of an effort to rehabilitate adfluvial coaster Brook Trout. Wild and hatchery Brook Trout from three streams (Mosquito River, Hurricane River, and Sevenmile Creek) were examined for movement behavior, size, physiology, and reproductive success. Behavior and size of the stocked fish were similar to those of wild fish, and less than 15% of the stocked, tagged Brook Trout emigrated from the river into which they were stocked. There was little evidence of successful reproduction by stocked Brook Trout. Similar to the results of other studies, our findings suggest that the stocking of nonlocal Brook Trout strains where a local population already exists results in limited natural reproduction and should be avoided, particularly if the mechanisms governing the ecotype of interest are poorly understood.

  12. Efficacy of environmental DNA to detect and quantify Brook Trout populations in headwater streams of the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Sporn, Lee Ann; George, Scott D.; Ball, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis is rapidly evolving as a tool for monitoring the distributions of aquatic species. Detection of species’ populations in streams may be challenging because the persistence time for intact DNA fragments is unknown and because eDNA is diluted and dispersed by dynamic hydrological processes. During 2015, the DNA of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis was analyzed from water samples collected at 40 streams across the Adirondack region of upstate New York, where Brook Trout populations were recently quantified. Study objectives were to evaluate different sampling methods and the ability of eDNA to accurately predict the presence and abundance of resident Brook Trout populations. Results from three-pass electrofishing surveys indicated that Brook Trout were absent from 10 sites and were present in low (<100 fish/0.1 ha), moderate (100–300 fish/0.1 ha), and high (>300 fish/0.1 ha) densities at 9, 11, and 10 sites, respectively. The eDNA results correctly predicted the presence and confirmed the absence of Brook Trout at 85.0–92.5% of the study sites; eDNA also explained 44% of the variability in Brook Trout population density and 24% of the variability in biomass. These findings indicate that eDNA surveys will enable researchers to effectively characterize the presence and abundance of Brook Trout and other species’ populations in headwater streams across the Adirondack region and elsewhere.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Hybridisation between Native and Introduced Salmonidae Fishes in a Swedish Alpine Lake

    PubMed Central

    Faulks, Leanne; Östman, Örjan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes underlying diversification can aid in formulating appropriate conservation management plans that help maintain the evolutionary potential of taxa, particularly under human-induced activities and climate change. Here we assessed the microsatellite genetic diversity and structure of three salmonid species, two native (Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout, Salmo trutta) and one introduced (brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis), from an alpine lake in sub-arctic Sweden, Lake Ånn. The genetic diversity of the three species was similar and sufficiently high from a conservation genetics perspective: corrected total heterozygosity, H’T = 0.54, 0.66, 0.60 and allelic richness, AR = 4.93, 5.53 and 5.26 for Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr, respectively. There were indications of elevated inbreeding coefficients in brown trout (GIS = 0.144) and brook charr (GIS = 0.129) although sibling relationships were likely a confounding factor, as a high proportion of siblings were observed in all species within and among sampling locations. Overall genetic structure differed between species, Fst = 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 in Arctic charr, brown trout and brook charr respectively, and there was differentiation at only a few specific locations. There was clear evidence of hybridisation between the native Arctic charr and the introduced brook charr, with 6% of individuals being hybrids, all of which were sampled in tributary streams. The ecological and evolutionary consequences of the observed hybridisation are priorities for further research and the conservation of the evolutionary potential of native salmonid species. PMID:27032100

  14. Dietary calcein marking of brook trout, Atlantic salmon, yellow perch, and coho salmon scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ostrowski, C.S.; Fletcher, J.W.; Mohler, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yellow perch Perca flavescens fed calcein for 5 d showed characteristic calcein scale marks 7-10 d postmarking. In fish fed 0.75 or 1.25 g of calcein per kilogram of feed, the percentage of fish that exhibited a calcein mark was 100% in brook trout, 93-98% in Atlantic salmon, 60% in yellow perch, and 0% in coho salmon. However, when coho salmon were fed 5.25 g calcein/kg feed, 100% marking was observed 7-10 d postmarking. Brook trout were successfully marked twice with distinct bands when fed calcein 5 months apart. Brook trout scale pixel luminosity increased as dietary calcein increased in experiment 2. For the second calcein mark, scale pixel luminosity from brook trout fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed was numerically higher (P < 0.08) than scales from fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed. Mean pixel luminosity of calcein-marked Atlantic salmon scales was 57.7 for fish fed 0.75 g calcein/kg feed and 55.2 for fish fed 1.25 g calcein/kg feed. Although feed acceptance presented a problem in yellow perch, these experiments provide evidence that dietary calcein is a viable tool for marking fish for stock identification. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  15. Conservation genetics of Lake Superior brook trout: Issues, questions, and directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.C.; Stott, W.; Miller, L.; D'Amelio, S.; Jennings, Martin J.; Cooper, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel efforts by several genetic research groups have tackled common themes relating to management concerns about and recent rehabilitation opportunities for coaster brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Lake Superior. The questions that have been addressed include the evolutionary and genetic status of coaster brook trout, the degree of relatedness among coaster populations and their relationship to riverine tributary brook trout populations, and the role and effectiveness of stocking in maintaining and restoring coasters to Lake Superior. Congruent genetic results indicate that coasters are an ecotype (life history variant) rather than an evolutionarily significant unit or genetically distinct strain. Regional structure exists among brook trout stocks, coasters being produced from local populations. Introgression of hatchery genes into wild populations appears to vary regionally and may relate to local population size, habitat integrity, and anthropogenic pressures. Tracking the genetic diversity and integrity associated with captive breeding programs is helping to ensure that the fish used for stocking are representative of their source populations and appropriate for rehabilitation efforts. Comparative analysis of shared samples among collaborating laboratories is enabling standardization of genotype scoring and interpretation as well as the development of a common toolkit for assessing genetic structure and diversity. Incorporation of genetic data into rehabilitation projects will facilitate monitoring efforts and subsequent adaptive management. Together, these multifaceted efforts provide comprehensive insights into the biology of coaster brook trout and enhance restoration options. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. Decomposed pairwise regression analysis of genetic and geographic distances reveals a metapopulation structure of stream-dwelling Dolly Varden charr.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Itsuro; Yamamoto, Shoichiro; Maekawa, Koji

    2006-10-01

    Isolation by distance is usually tested by the correlation of genetic and geographic distances separating all pairwise populations' combinations. However, this method can be significantly biased by only a few highly diverged populations and lose the information of individual population. To detect outlier populations and investigate the relative strengths of gene flow and genetic drift for each population, we propose a decomposed pairwise regression analysis. This analysis was applied to the well-described one-dimensional stepping-stone system of stream-dwelling Dolly Varden charr (Salvelinus malma). When genetic and geographic distances were plotted for all pairs of 17 tributary populations, the correlation was significant but weak (r(2) = 0.184). Seven outlier populations were determined based on the systematic bias of the regression residuals, followed by Akaike's information criteria. The best model, 10 populations included, showed a strong pattern of isolation by distance (r(2) = 0.758), suggesting equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift in these populations. Each outlier population was also analysed by plotting pairwise genetic and geographic distances against the 10 nonoutlier populations, and categorized into one of the three patterns: strong genetic drift, genetic drift with a limited gene flow and a high level of gene flow. These classifications were generally consistent with a priori predictions for each population (physical barrier, population size, anthropogenic impacts). Combined the genetic analysis with field observations, Dolly Varden in this river appeared to form a mainland-island or source-sink metapopulation structure. The generality of the method will merit many types of spatial genetic analyses.

  17. LYE BROOK WILDERNESS, VERMONT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Harrison, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Lye Brook Wilderness, in the Green Mountains of Vermont is underlain by gneisses, quartzites, schists, and amphibolites of Precambrian to Ordovician age. A mineral-resource survey determined that only one commodity, quartzite, is present in large quantities and could be a source of dimension stone or crushed stone. Although an anomalously high radioactive area occurs within the Precambrian basement, geochemical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of significant uranium mineralization or for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources within the wilderness,

  18. Evaluation of catch-and-release regulations on Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; Wagner, Tyler; Greene, Tom

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission implemented catch-and-release (CR) regulations on headwater stream systems to determine if eliminating angler harvest would result in an increase in the number of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Under the CR regulations, angling was permitted on a year-round basis, no Brook Trout could be harvested at any time, and there were no tackle restrictions. A before-after–control-impact design was used to evaluate the experimental regulations. Brook Trout populations were monitored in 16 treatment (CR regulations) and 7 control streams (statewide regulations) using backpack electrofishing gear periodically for up to 15 years (from 1990 to 2003 or 2004) before the implementation of the CR regulations and over a 7–8-year period (from 2004 or 2005 to 2011) after implementation. We used Poisson mixed models to evaluate whether electrofishing catch per effort (CPE; catch/100 m2) of adult (≥100 mm) or large (≥175 mm) Brook Trout increased in treatment streams as a result of implementing CR regulations. Brook Trout CPE varied among sites and among years, and there was no significant effect (increase or decrease) of CR regulations on the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout. Results of our evaluation suggest that CR regulations were not effective at improving the CPE of adult or large Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams. Low angler use, high voluntary catch and release, and slow growth rates in infertile headwater streams are likely the primary reasons for the lack of response.

  19. More than a corridor: use of a main stem stream as supplemental foraging habitat by a brook trout metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Huntsman, Brock M; Petty, J Todd; Sharma, Shikha; Merriam, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    Coldwater fishes in streams, such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), typically are headwater specialists that occasionally expand distributions downstream to larger water bodies. It is unclear, however, whether larger streams function simply as dispersal corridors connecting headwater subpopulations, or as critical foraging habitat needed to sustain large mobile brook trout. Stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and a hierarchical Bayesian mixing model analysis was used to identify brook trout that foraged in main stem versus headwater streams of the Shavers Fork watershed, West Virginia. Headwater subpopulations were composed of headwater and to a lesser extent main stem foraging individuals. However, there was a strong relationship between brook trout size and main stem prey contributions. The average brook trout foraging on headwater prey were limited to 126 mm standard length. This size was identified by mixing models as a point where productivity support switched from headwater to main stem dependency. These results, similar to other studies conducted in this watershed, support the hypothesis that productive main stem habitat maintain large brook trout and potentially facilitates dispersal among headwater subpopulations. Consequently, loss of supplementary main stem foraging habitats may explain loss of large, mobile fish and subsequent isolation of headwater subpopulations in other central Appalachian watersheds.

  20. Understanding environmental DNA detection probabilities: A case study using a stream-dwelling char Salvelinus fontinalis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Taylor M; Mckelvey, Kevin S.; Young, Michael K.; Sepulveda, Adam; Shepard, Bradley B.; Jane, Stephen F; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Lowe, Winsor H.; Schwartz, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA sampling (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful tool for detecting aquatic animals. Previous research suggests that eDNA methods are substantially more sensitive than traditional sampling. However, the factors influencing eDNA detection and the resulting sampling costs are still not well understood. Here we use multiple experiments to derive independent estimates of eDNA production rates and downstream persistence from brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in streams. We use these estimates to parameterize models comparing the false negative detection rates of eDNA sampling and traditional backpack electrofishing. We find that using the protocols in this study eDNA had reasonable detection probabilities at extremely low animal densities (e.g., probability of detection 0.18 at densities of one fish per stream kilometer) and very high detection probabilities at population-level densities (e.g., probability of detection > 0.99 at densities of ≥ 3 fish per 100 m). This is substantially more sensitive than traditional electrofishing for determining the presence of brook trout and may translate into important cost savings when animals are rare. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature showing that eDNA sampling is a powerful tool for the detection of aquatic species, particularly those that are rare and difficult to sample using traditional methods.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occ...

  2. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS AND EXPERIMENTS ON GOITRE (SO CALLED THYROID CARCINOMA) IN BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS)

    PubMed Central

    Marine, David

    1914-01-01

    1. Goitre in fish is a non-infectious, non-contagious, symptomatic manifestation of a fault of nutrition, the exact biochemical nature of which has not been determined. 2. Feeding the highly artificial and incomplete diet of liver is the major etiological factor in bringing about this fault of nutrition which is at once corrected by feeding whole sea fish. 3. Water plays no essential part in the etiology, transmission, or distribution of the disease in the fish of this hatchery. PMID:19867750

  3. Shale Gas Development and Brook Trout: Scaling Best Management Practices to Anticipate Cumulative Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Shale gas development may involve trade-offs between energy development and benefits provided by natural ecosystems. However, current best management practices (BMPs) focus on mitigating localized ecological degradation. We review evidence for cumulative effects of natural gas development on brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and conclude that BMPs should account for potential watershed-scale effects in addition to localized influences. The challenge is to develop BMPs in the face of uncertainty in the predicted response of brook trout to landscape-scale disturbance caused by gas extraction. We propose a decision-analysis approach to formulating BMPs in the specific case of relatively undisturbed watersheds where there is consensus to maintain brook trout populations during gas development. The decision analysis was informed by existing empirical models that describe brook trout occupancy responses to landscape disturbance and set bounds on the uncertainty in the predicted responses to shale gas development. The decision analysis showed that a high efficiency of gas development (e.g., 1 well pad per square mile and 7 acres per pad) was critical to achieving a win-win solution characterized by maintaining brook trout and maximizing extraction of available gas. This finding was invariant to uncertainty in predicted response of brook trout to watershed-level disturbance. However, as the efficiency of gas development decreased, the optimal BMP depended on the predicted response, and there was considerable potential value in discriminating among predictive models through adaptive management or research. The proposed decision-analysis framework provides an opportunity to anticipate the cumulative effects of shale gas development, account for uncertainty, and inform management decisions at the appropriate spatial scales.

  4. Summer movements of sub-adult brook trout, landlocked Atlantic salmon, and smallmouth bass in the Rapid River, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Casey A. L.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Summer movement patterns and spatial overlap of native sub-adult brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), non-native landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and non-native smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the Rapid River, Maine, were investigated with radio telemetry in 2005. Fishes were captured by angling, surgically implanted with radio transmitters, and tracked actively from June through September. Most brook trout (96%) and landlocked salmon (72%) displayed long distance movements (>1 km) to open water bodies (28 June to 4 July) followed by periods of time spent in presumed thermal refigia (5 July to 16 September). Summer water temperature rose above 25 °C, near the reported lethal limits for these coldwater species. In contrast, the majority of smallmouth bass (68%), a warrnwater species, did not make long distance movements from areas of initial capture, remaining in mainstem sections of the river (28 June to 16 September). Spatial overlap of smallmouth bass and brook trout in the summer is unlikely because brook trout presumably move to thermal rehgia during this time. However, interspecific competition between brook trout and landlocked salmon may occur since they select similar habitats June through September.

  5. Long-term fasting in the anadromous Arctic charr is associated with downregulation of metabolic enzyme activity and upregulation of leptin A1 and SOCS expression in the liver.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Even Hjalmar; Martinsen, Mads; Strøm, Vidar; Hansen, Kristin Elisa Ruud; Ravuri, Chandra Sekhar; Gong, Ningping; Jobling, Malcolm

    2013-09-01

    The life strategy of the anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) includes several months of voluntary fasting during overwintering in freshwater, leading to emaciation prior to seawater migration in spring. In this study we compared changes in condition, substrate utilization and liver metabolism between captive anadromous charr subjected to food deprivation during late winter and spring, and conspecifics fed in excess. In March, nine out of the 10 sampled fed fish had not eaten, indicating that they were in a voluntary anorexic state. In June, the fed fish were eating and all had higher body mass, condition factor and adiposity than in March. In fasted fish there were only small decreases in body mass, condition factor and adiposity between March and May, but all these parameters decreased markedly from May to June. The fasted fish were depleted in fat and glycogen in June, had suppressed activity of hepatic enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (G6PDH and HOAD) and seemed to rely on protein-derived glucose as a major energy source. This was associated with upregulated liver gene expression of leptin A1, leptin A2, SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3, and reduced IGF-I expression. In an in vitro study with liver slices it was shown that recombinant rainbow trout leptin stimulated SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, but not SOCS2, IGF-I or genes of enzymes involved in lipid (G6PDH) and amino acid (AspAT) metabolism. It is concluded that liver leptin interacts with SOCS in a paracrine fashion to suppress lipolytic pathways and depress metabolism when fat stores are depleted.

  6. Observations on communities of brook and brown trout separated by an upstream movement barrier on the Firehole River

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, L.R.

    1980-07-01

    Division of a fluvial fish community by stream impoundment can give rise to dissimilar upstream and downstream assemblages which may themselves differ from the original community. These changes are often ascribed to the modification of physical habitat or water quality. Less well documented are effects on fluvial fish communities of an upstream-1 movement barrier alone. Observations were made on contrasting communities of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) separated by Kepler Cascades in the Firehole River of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, a series of waterfalls that form an upstream-movement barrier. (ACR)

  7. Nearshore habitat and fish community associations of coaster brook trout in Isle Royale, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, O.T.; Moore, S.A.; Carlson, A.J.; Quinlan, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the nearshore habitat and fish community composition of approximately 300 km of shoreline within and adjacent to the major embayments of Isle Royale, Lake Superior. Sampling yielded 17 species, of which 12 were widespread and represented a common element of the Lake Superior fish community, including cisco Coregonus artedi, lake whitefish C. clupeaformis, round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum, lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, lake chub Couesius plumbeus, longnose sucker Catostomus catostomus, white sucker C. commersonii, trout-perch Percopsis omiscomaycus, ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius, burbot Lota lota, and slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. The presence of brook trout S. fontinalis in an embayment was associated with the common species of the Isle Royale nearshore fish community, particularly cisco, longnose sucker, and round whitefish. However, brook trout were present in only five embayments and were common only in Tobin Harbor. Most Isle Royale embayments had broadly overlapping ranges of nearshore habitats. Within embayments, fish were distributed along a habitat gradient from less-protected rocky habitat near the mouth to highly protected habitat with mixed and finer substrates at the head. Embayments with brook trout had greater mean protection from the open lake, greater variation in depth, greater mean cover, and higher mean frequencies of large substrates (cobble, boulder, and bedrock). Within those embayments, brook trout were associated with habitat patches with higher mean frequencies of small substrates (particularly sand and coarse gravel). Within Tobin Harbor, brook trout were associated with midembayment habitat and species assemblages, especially those locations with a mixture of sand, gravel, and cobble substrates, an absence of bedrock, and the presence of round whitefish, white sucker, and trout-perch. Comparison of embayments with the model, Tobin Harbor, showed that six embayments

  8. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  9. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  10. Brook trout movement in response to temperature, flow, and thermal refugia within a complex Appalachian riverscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J. Todd; Hansbarger, Jeff L.; Huntsman, Brock M.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified movements of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta in a complex riverscape characterized by a large, open-canopy main stem and a small, closed-canopy tributary in eastern West Virginia, USA. Our objectives were to quantify the overall rate of trout movement and relate movement behaviors to variation in streamflow, water temperature, and access to coldwater refugia. The study area experienced extremely high seasonal, yearly, and among-stream variability in water temperature and flow. The relative mobility of brook trout within the upper Shavers Fork watershed varied significantly depending on whether individuals resided within the larger main stem or the smaller tributary. The movement rate of trout inhabiting the main stem during summer months (50 m/d) was an order of magnitude higher than that of tributary fish (2 m/d). Movement rates of main-stem-resident brook trout during summer were correlated with the maximum water temperature experienced by the fish and with the fish's initial distance from a known coldwater source. For main-stem trout, use of microhabitats closer to cover was higher during extremely warm periods than during cooler periods; use of microhabitats closer to cover during warm periods was also greater for main-stem trout than for tributary inhabitants. Main-stem-resident trout were never observed in water exceeding 19.5°C. Our study provides some of the first data on brook trout movements in a large Appalachian river system and underscores the importance of managing trout fisheries in a riverscape context. Brook trout conservation in this region will depend on restoration and protection of coldwater refugia in larger river main stems as well as removal of barriers to trout movement near tributary and main-stem confluences.

  11. Identification of genes associated with heat tolerance in Arctic charr exposed to acute thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Nicole L; McGowan, Colin R; Cooper, Glenn A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-06-15

    Arctic charr is an especially attractive aquaculture species given that it features the desirable tissue traits of other salmonids and is bred and grown at inland freshwater tank farms year round. It is of interest to develop upper temperature tolerant (UTT) strains of Arctic charr to increase the robustness of the species in the face of climate change and to enable production in more southern regions. We used a genomics approach that takes advantage of the well-studied Atlantic salmon genome to identify genes that are associated with UTT in Arctic charr. Specifically, we conducted an acute temperature trial to identify temperature tolerant and intolerant Arctic charr individuals, which were subject to microarray and qPCR analysis to identify candidate UTT genes. These were compared with genes annotated in a quantitative trait locus (QTL) region that was previously identified as associated with UTT in rainbow trout and Arctic charr and that we sequenced in Atlantic salmon. Our results suggest that small heat shock proteins as well as HSP-90 genes are associated with UTT. Furthermore, hemoglobin expression was significantly downregulated in tolerant compared with intolerant fish. Finally, QTL analysis and expression profiling identified COUP-TFII as a candidate UTT gene, although its specific role is unclear given the identification of two transcripts, which appear to have different expression patterns. Our results highlight the importance of using more than one approach to identify candidate genes, particularly when examining a complicated trait such as UTT in a highly complex genome for which there is no reference genome.

  12. Growth rate differences between resident native brook trout and non-native brown trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, S.M.; Hendry, A.P.; Letcher, B.H.

    2007-01-01

    Between species and across season variation in growth was examined by tagging and recapturing individual brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta across seasons in a small stream (West Brook, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Detailed information on body size and growth are presented to (1) test whether the two species differed in growth within seasons and (2) characterize the seasonal growth patterns for two age classes of each species. Growth differed between species in nearly half of the season- and age-specific comparisons. When growth differed, non-native brown trout grew faster than native brook trout in all but one comparison. Moreover, species differences were most pronounced when overall growth was high during the spring and early summer. These growth differences resulted in size asymmetries that were sustained over the duration of the study. A literature survey also indicated that non-native salmonids typically grow faster than native salmonids when the two occur in sympatry. Taken together, these results suggest that differences in growth are not uncommon for coexisting native and non-native salmonids. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  13. Spatial and temporal Brook Trout density dynamics: Implications for conservation, management, and monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; Kristine, David; John A. Sweka,

    2014-01-01

    Many potential stressors to aquatic environments operate over large spatial scales, prompting the need to assess and monitor both site-specific and regional dynamics of fish populations. We used hierarchical Bayesian models to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability in density and capture probability of age-1 and older Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis from three-pass removal data collected at 291 sites over a 37-year time period (1975–2011) in Pennsylvania streams. There was high between-year variability in density, with annual posterior means ranging from 2.1 to 10.2 fish/100 m2; however, there was no significant long-term linear trend. Brook Trout density was positively correlated with elevation and negatively correlated with percent developed land use in the network catchment. Probability of capture did not vary substantially across sites or years but was negatively correlated with mean stream width. Because of the low spatiotemporal variation in capture probability and a strong correlation between first-pass CPUE (catch/min) and three-pass removal density estimates, the use of an abundance index based on first-pass CPUE could represent a cost-effective alternative to conducting multiple-pass removal sampling for some Brook Trout monitoring and assessment objectives. Single-pass indices may be particularly relevant for monitoring objectives that do not require precise site-specific estimates, such as regional monitoring programs that are designed to detect long-term linear trends in density.

  14. Genetic identity of brook trout in Lake Superior south shore streams: Potential for genetic monitoring of stocking and rehabilitation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloss, Brian L.; Jennings, Martin J.; Franckowiak, R.; Pratt, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation of migratory ('coaster') brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis along Lake Superior's south shore is a topic of high interest among resource stakeholders and management agencies. Proposed strategies for rehabilitation of this brook trout life history variant in Wisconsin include supplemental stocking, watershed management, habitat rehabilitation, harvest regulations, or a combination thereof. In an effort to evaluate the success of coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts, we collected genetic data from four populations of interest (Whittlesey Creek, Bois Brule River, Bark River, and Graveyard Creek) and the hatchery sources used in the Whittlesey Creek supplementation experiment. We characterized the genetic diversity of 30 individuals from each of four populations using 13 microsatellite DNA loci. Levels of genetic variation were consistent with those in similar studies conducted throughout the basin. Significant genetic variation among the populations was observed, enabling adequate population delineation through assignment tests. Overall, 208 of the 211 sampled fish (98.6%) were correctly assigned to their population of origin. Simulated F1 hybrids between two hatchery strains and the Whittlesey Creek population were identifiable in the majority of attempts (90.5-100% accuracy with 0-2.5% error). The genetic markers and analytical techniques described provide the ability to monitor the concurrent coaster brook trout rehabilitation efforts along Wisconsin's Lake Superior south shore, including the detection of hybridization between hatchery and native populations. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  15. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; Jefferson T. Deweber,; Jason Detar,; John A. Sweka,

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the distribution of native stream fishes is fundamental to the management and conservation of many species. Modeling species distributions often consists of quantifying relationships between species occurrence and abundance data at known locations with environmental data at those locations. However, it is well documented that native stream fish distributions can be altered as a result of asymmetric interactions between dominant exotic and subordinate native species. For example, the naturalized exotic Brown Trout Salmo trutta has been identified as a threat to native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern United States. To evaluate large-scale patterns of co-occurrence and to quantify the potential effects of Brown Trout presence on Brook Trout occupancy, we used data from 624 stream sites to fit two-species occupancy models. These models assumed that asymmetric interactions occurred between the two species. In addition, we examined natural and anthropogenic landscape characteristics we hypothesized would be important predictors of occurrence of both species. Estimated occupancy for Brook Trout, from a co-occurrence model with no landscape covariates, at sites with Brown Trout present was substantially lower than sites where Brown Trout were absent. We also observed opposing patterns for Brook and Brown Trout occurrence in relation to percentage forest, impervious surface, and agriculture within the network catchment. Our results are consistent with other studies and suggest that alterations to the landscape, and specifically the transition from a forested catchment to one that contains impervious surface or agriculture, reduces the occurrence probability of wild Brook Trout. Our results, however, also suggest that the presence of Brown Trout results in lower occurrence probability of Brook Trout over a range of anthropogenic landscape characteristics, compared with streams where Brown Trout were absent.

  16. The effects of varied densities on the growth and emigration of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in fenced stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buys, D.J.; Hilderbrand, R.H.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of various density treatments on adult fish growth and emigration rates between Bonneville cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki utah and brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in stream enclosures in Beaver Creek, Idaho, We used 3 density treatments (low, ambient, and high fish densities) to evaluate density-related effects and to ensure a response. Intraspecific ambient-density tests using cutthroat trout only were also performed. Results indicated an absence of cage effects in the stream enclosures and no differences in fish growth between ambient-density stream-enclosure fish and free-range fish. Brook trout outgrew and moved less than cutthroat trout in the stream enclosures, especially as density increased, In all 3 density treatments, brook trout gained more weight than cutthroat trout, with brook trout gaining weight in each density treatment and cutthroat trout losing weight at the highest density. At high densities, cutthroat trout attempted to emigrate more frequently than brook trout in sympatry and allopatry. We observed a negative correlation between growth and emigration for interspecific cutthroat trout, indicating a possible competitive response due to the presence of brook trout. We observed similar responses for weight and emigration in trials of allopatric cutthroat trout, indicating strong intraspecific effects as density increased. While cutthroat trout showed a response to experimental manipulation with brook trout at different densities, there has been long-term coexistence between these species in Beaver Creek, This system presents a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms that lead cutthroat trout to coexist with rather than be replaced by nonnative brook trout.

  17. Sulfonamide toxicity in brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.; Snieszko, S.F.

    1954-01-01

    Sterility was observed in female brook trout that were treated with sulfamerazine at frequent intervals for 2 years to control endemic furunculosis. Feeding sulfamerazine for a period of 8 months caused massive kidney damage similar to that observed in humans who develop allergies to “sulfa” drugs. Kidney damage of the type observed would probably cause renal insufficiency which would handicap any physiological function including reproduction. Feeding sulfonamides for periods up to 13 weeks did not produce kidney damage.

  18. Modeling brook trout presence and absence from landscape variables using four different analytical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, Paul J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Wiley, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of the Great Lakes Regional Aquatic Gap Analysis Project, we evaluated methodologies for modeling associations between fish species and habitat characteristics at a landscape scale. To do this, we created brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis presence and absence models based on four different techniques: multiple linear regression, logistic regression, neural networks, and classification trees. The models were tested in two ways: by application to an independent validation database and cross-validation using the training data, and by visual comparison of statewide distribution maps with historically recorded occurrences from the Michigan Fish Atlas. Although differences in the accuracy of our models were slight, the logistic regression model predicted with the least error, followed by multiple regression, then classification trees, then the neural networks. These models will provide natural resource managers a way to identify habitats requiring protection for the conservation of fish species.

  19. E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS Stanley Brook ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    E APPROACH, FACING W SHOWING PARAPET CURTAILS - Stanley Brook Bridge, Spanning Stanley Brook, Stanley Brook Motor Road, & Seaside Trail on Barr Hill-Day Mountain Carriage Road, Seal Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  20. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    American education has always had its critics, and undoubtedly always will. Nonetheless, there are signs that the educational environment is improving in unexpected ways. This issue of the Brookings Papers on Education Policy, the eighth volume springing from a series of annual meetings sponsored by the Brookings Institution to examine specific…

  1. Factors influencing successful eradication of nonnative brook trout from four small Rocky Mountain streams using electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shepard, Bradley B.; Nelson, Lee M.; Taper, Mark L.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    We successfully eradicated nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis by electrofishing from 2.4- to 3.0-km treatment reaches of four Rocky Mountain streams in Montana to conserve sympatric populations of native Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi. At least 6, and as many as 14, removal treatments of two to four electrofishing passes per treatment were required to successfully eradicate Brook Trout from these treatment reaches. We increased success by modifying our treatment efforts during this study from single annual treatments to several treatments a year to take advantage of autumn spawning and winter aggregating behavior. Eradication by electrofishing cost US \\$3,500 to \\$5,500 per kilometer where no riparian vegetation or woody debris clearing was necessary, increasing to \\$8,000 to \\$9,000 per kilometer where clearing was needed. Treatment costs without stream clearing were similar to costs of eradication using piscicides. Eradication by electrofishing may be preferable where native fish occur in sympatry with nonnative fish in smaller streams (base flow wetted widths

  2. Ice processes affect habitat use and movements of adult cutthroat trout and brook trout in a Wyoming foothills stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstrom, J.W.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat use and movements of 25 adult cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii and 25 adult brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis from fall through winter 2002-2003 were assessed by means of radiotelemetry in a 7-km reach of a Rocky Mountains foothills stream. Temporal dynamics of winter habitat conditions were evaluated by regularly measuring the features of 30 pools and 5 beaver Castor canadensis ponds in the study reach. Groundwater inputs at three locations raised mean daily water temperatures in the stream channel during winter to 0.2-0.6??C and kept at least 250 m of the downstream channel free of ice, but the lack of surface ice further downstream led to the occurrence of frazil ice and anchor ice in pools and unstable habitat conditions for trout. Pools in segments that were not affected by groundwater inputs and beaver ponds tended to be stable and snow accumulated on the surface ice. Pools throughout the study reach tended to become more stable as snow accumulated. Both cutthroat trout and brook trout selected beaver ponds as winter progressed but tended to use lateral scour pools in proportion to their availability. Tagged fish not in beaver ponds selected lateral scour pools that were deeper than average and stable during winter. Movement frequencies by tagged fish decreased from fall through winter, but some individuals of both species moved during winter. Ice processes affected both the habitat use and movement patterns of cutthroat trout and brook trout in this foothills stream.

  3. 36 CFR 13.1226 - Brooks Falls area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brooks Falls area. 13.1226... Developed Area § 13.1226 Brooks Falls area. The area within 50 yards of the ordinary high water marks of the Brooks River from the Riffles Bear Viewing Platform to a point 100 yards above Brooks Falls is closed...

  4. Persistent mortality of brook trout in episodically acidified streams of the Southwestern Adirondack Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Lawrence, G.; Simonin, H.

    2007-01-01

    Water chemistry, discharge, and mortality of caged brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis were characterized in six headwater streams in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains of New York during spring 2001-2003. Results were compared with mortality recorded during similar tests during 1984-1985, 1988-1990, and 1997 to assess contemporary relations between stream acidification and brook trout mortality, the effects of exposure duration on mortality, and the effects of decreased rates of acidic deposition on water quality and fish mortality. Water quality and mortality of caged, young-of-the-year brook trout were evaluated during 30-d exposure periods from mid-April to late May during the most recent tests. In 2001-2003, mortality ranged from 0% to 100% and varied among streams and years, depending on the timing of toxicity tests in relation to the annual snowmelt and on the ability of each watershed to neutralize acids and prevent acutely toxic concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) during high-flow events. Mortality rates in 2001-2003 tests were highly variable but similar to those observed during earlier tests. This similarity suggests that stream water quality in the southwestern Adirondack Mountains has not changed appreciably over the past 20 years. Concentrations of Alim greater than 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L were closely correlated with low and high mortality rates, respectively, and accounted for 83% of the variation in mortality. Two to four days of exposure to Alim concentrations greater than 4.0 ??mol/L resulted in 50-100% mortality. The extended periods (as long as 6 months) during which Alim concentrations exceeded 2.0 and 4.0 ??mol/L in one or more streams, combined with the low tolerance of many other fish species to acid and elevated Al concentrations, indicate a high potential for damage to fish communities in these and other poorly buffered streams of the Northeast. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  5. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  6. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, M.E.; Rose, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin (skin appendages), such as sweat glands and hair follicles. People with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome may develop several ... Spiradenomas develop in sweat glands. Trichoepitheliomas arise from hair follicles. The origin of cylindromas has been unclear; while ...

  8. AmeriFlux US-Bkg Brookings

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meyers, Tilden [NOAA/ARL

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bkg Brookings. Site Description - The Brookings site is located in a private pasture, consisting of a mixture of C3 and C4 species actively used for grazing. Belonging to the Northern Great Plains Rangelands, the grassland is representative of many in the north central United States, with seasonal winter conditions and a wet growing season.

  9. Effective number of breeders, effective population size and their relationship with census size in an iteroparous species, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzante, Daniel E.; McCracken, Gregory R.; Parmelee, Samantha; Hill, Kristen; Corrigan, Amelia; MacMillan, John; Walde, Sandra J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between the effective number of breeders (Nb) and the generational effective size (Ne) has rarely been examined empirically in species with overlapping generations and iteroparity. Based on a suite of 11 microsatellite markers, we examine the relationship between Nb, Ne and census population size (Nc) in 14 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations inhabiting 12 small streams in Nova Scotia and sampled at least twice between 2009 and 2015. Unbiased estimates of Nb obtained with individuals of a single cohort, adjusted on the basis of age at first maturation (α) and adult lifespan (AL), were from 1.66 to 0.24 times the average estimates of Ne obtained with random samples of individuals of mixed ages (i.e. ). In turn, these differences led to adjusted Ne estimates that were from nearly five to 0.7 times the estimates derived from mixed-aged individuals. These differences translate into the same range of variation in the ratio of effective to census population size within populations. Adopting as the more precise and unbiased estimates, we found that these brook trout populations differ markedly in their effective to census population sizes (range approx. 0.3 to approx. 0.01). Using AgeNe, we then showed that the variance in reproductive success or reproductive skew varied among populations by a factor of 40, from Vk/k ≈ 5 to 200. These results suggest wide differences in population dynamics, probably resulting from differences in productivity affecting the intensity of competition for access to mates or redds, and thus reproductive skew. Understanding the relationship between Ne, Nb and Nc, and how these relate to population dynamics and fluctuations in population size, are important for the design of robust conservation strategies in small populations with overlapping generations and iteroparity. PMID:26817773

  10. [Genetic Connectivity Between Sympatric Populations of Closely Related Char Species, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and White Char Salvelinus albus].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The closely related chars Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus albus, which sympatrically inhabit the Kamchatka River basin and Kronotsky Lake (Kamchatka), attract the attention of the researchers because of their debated origin and taxonomic status. Previous studies of sympatric populations of these chars revealed small but statistically significant genetic differences between these species at a number of molecular markers, suggesting the presence of the genetic exchange and hybridization. In this study, based on genotypic characterization of nine microsatellite loci, a considerable level of historical and contemporary genetic migration between sympatric populations of these chars was demonstrated. At the individual level a high degree of hybridization was observed, mainly among the Dolly Varden individuals from the studied populations. The obtained evidence on the genetic connectivity between sympatric S. malma and S. albus do not support the separate species status of S. albus.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the Northern (Salvelinus malma) and Southern (Salvelinus curilus) Dolly Varden chars (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Balakirev, Evgeniy S; Romanov, Nikolai S; Ayala, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes were sequenced from the Northern and Southern Dolly Varden chars, Salvelinus malma and S. curilus. The genome sequences are 16,654 bp in size in both species, and the gene arrangement, composition, and size are very similar to the salmonid fish genomes published previously. The level of sequence divergence between S. malma and S. curilus inferred from the complete mitochondrial genomes is relatively low (1.88%) indicating recent divergence of the species and/or historical hybridization.

  12. [Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2010-03-01

    Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  13. Dose determinations for waterborne 2,5,2',5'-(/sup 14/C)tetrachlorobiphenyl and related pharmacokinetics in two species of trout (Salmo gairdneri and Salvelinus fontinalis): a mass-balance approach

    SciTech Connect

    McKim, J.M.; Heath, E.M.

    1983-04-01

    A mass-balance study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of dose determinations of waterborne 2,5,2',5'-(/sup 14/C)tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) made on transected brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and to determine any pharmacokinetic differences between the two species. The total calculated (/sup 14/C)TCB absorbed by brook (17.8 micrograms) and rainbow (24.5 micrograms) trout was compared to the actual body burden measurements of (/sup 14/C)TCB for brook (17.4 micrograms) and rainbow (25.6 micrograms) trout; the latter measurements also included excretory losses through the urine, feces, and across the gill surface. Approximately 1% of the total dose was excreted of which 75% was in the urine and 25% in the feces. The agreement between the whole body burden measurements of (/sup 14/C)TCB and the total calculated micrograms of (/sup 14/C)TCB absorbed was within 10% in both species. Mass-balance measurements were converted to dose by dividing by fish weight. Mean calculated and measured doses were 31.4 and 30.4 micrograms/kg/48 hr for brook trout and 32.3 and 33.6 micrograms/kg/48 hr for rainbow trout. No species differences were seen in either calculated or measured doses or in total radioactivity excreted. Respiratory function between the two species was similar except for a significantly higher mean ventilation rate for brook trout (84 +/- 14/min) than for rainbow trout (65 +/- 4/min). There were also no fluctuations noted in either respiratory function of (/sup 14/C)TCB uptake efficiency across the gills over the 48-hr exposure period. These studies demonstrated the ability to accurately calculate a water dose in micrograms per kilogram per hour for individual fish that could be directly compared to other fish species or to mammals.

  14. Fine-scale oscillatory banding in otoliths from arctic charr (Salveninus alpinus) and pike (Esox lucius)

    SciTech Connect

    Meldrum, A.; Halden, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy of otoliths from the inner ear of arctic charr and pike has revealed the presence of fine banding on the scale of several nanometers. The thickness of the bands was observed to vary in different portions of the sample, and some areas were not banded. EDS analysis could not detect chemical differences within the bands, but electron diffraction showed that the crystallographic orientation of the bands is related by a lattice mismatch. Previously, banding on the scale of 50 to 100 microns was observed by SEM in otoliths from arctic charr and was attributed to seasonal variations in growth. The fine-scale banding observed in this study, however, is unlikely to represent a daily variation. Electron diffraction from the pike samples shows that the material is composed of CaCO{sub 3} having the both the vaterite and aragonite structure, and hydrous CaCO{sub 3} was also observed. The large-scale banding previously identified by SEM was not observed in the TEM despite attempts to intersect the boundaries of the micron-sized layers. The interaction of the electron beam with the sample material was investigated by conducting several electron-irradiation experiments. The electron beam was observed to interact strongly with the sample and caused the precipitation of cubic CaO from the calcium carbonate matrix. Bright-field imaging showed the development of fine grained ({approximately} 5 nm) randomly oriented crystallites which accumulated with increasing electron dose. These initial results suggest that the precipitation of CaO is not driven by electron-beam beating. Previously, a similar phase-change phenomenon has been observed in hydroxyapatite from dental enamel. Other Ca-bearing biominerals may therefore also be expected to be sensitive to electron irradiation.

  15. Effects of dam removal on brook trout in a Wisconsin stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, E.H.; Catalano, M.J.; Mercado-Silva, N.; Orr, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dams create barriers to fish migration and dispersal in drainage basins, and the removal of dams is often viewed as a means of increasing habitat availability and restoring migratory routes of several fish species. However, these barriers can also isolate and protect native taxa from aggressive downstream invaders. We examined fish community composition two years prior to and two years after the removal of a pair of low-head dams from Boulder Creek, Wisconsin, U.S.A. in 2003 to determine if removal of these potential barriers affected the resident population of native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Despite the presence of other taxa in the downstream reaches, and in other similar streams adjacent to the Boulder Creek (including the brown trout, Salmo trutta), no new species had colonized the Boulder Creek in the two years following dam removal. The adults catch per unit effort (CPUE) was lower and the young-of-the-year catch per unit effort (YOY CPUE) was higher in 2005 than in 2001 in all reaches, but the magnitude of these changes was substantially larger in the two dam-affected sample reaches relative to an upstream reference reach, indicating a localized effect of the removal. Total length of the adults and the YOY and the adult body condition did not vary between years or among reaches. Thus, despite changes in numbers of adults and the YOYs in some sections of the stream, the lack of new fish species invading Boulder Creek and the limited extent of population change in brook trout indicate that dam removal had a minor effect on these native salmonids in the first two years of the post-removal. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Changes in seasonal climate outpace compensatory density-dependence in eastern brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassar, Ronald D.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Nislow, Keith H.; Whiteley, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how multiple extrinsic (density-independent) factors and intrinsic (density-dependent) mechanisms influence population dynamics has become increasingly urgent in the face of rapidly changing climates. It is particularly unclear how multiple extrinsic factors with contrasting effects among seasons are related to declines in population numbers and changes in mean body size and whether there is a strong role for density-dependence. The primary goal of this study was to identify the roles of seasonal variation in climate driven environmental direct effects (mean stream flow and temperature) versus density-dependence on population size and mean body size in eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). We use data from a 10-year capture-mark-recapture study of eastern brook trout in four streams in Western Massachusetts, USA to parameterize a discrete-time population projection model. The model integrates matrix modeling techniques used to characterize discrete population structures (age, habitat type and season) with integral projection models (IPMs) that characterize demographic rates as continuous functions of organismal traits (in this case body size). Using both stochastic and deterministic analyses we show that decreases in population size are due to changes in stream flow and temperature and that these changes are larger than what can be compensated for through density-dependent responses. We also show that the declines are due mostly to increasing mean stream temperatures decreasing the survival of the youngest age class. In contrast, increases in mean body size over the same period are the result of indirect changes in density with a lesser direct role of climate-driven environmental change.

  17. An evaluation of the precision of fin ray, otolith, and scale age determinations for brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolarski, J.T.; Hartman, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ages of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis are typically estimated using scales despite a lack of research documenting the effectiveness of this technique. The use of scales is often preferred because it is nonlethal and is believed to require less effort than alternative methods. To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different age estimation methodologies for brook trout, we measured the precision and processing times of scale, sagittal otolith, and pectoral fin ray age estimation techniques. Three independent readers, age bias plots, coefficients of variation (CV = 100 x SD/mean), and percent agreement (PA) were used to measure within-reader, among-structure bias and within-structure, among-reader precision. Bias was generally minimal; however, the age estimates derived from scales tended to be lower than those derived from otoliths within older (age > 2) cohorts. Otolith, fin ray, and scale age estimates were within 1 year of each other for 95% of the comparisons. The measures of precision for scales (CV = 6.59; PA = 82.30) and otoliths (CV = 7.45; PA = 81.48) suggest higher agreement between these structures than with fin rays (CV = 11.30; PA = 65.84). The mean per-sample processing times were lower for scale (13.88 min) and otolith techniques (12.23 min) than for fin ray techniques (22.68 min). The comparable processing times of scales and otoliths contradict popular belief and are probably a result of the high proportion of regenerated scales within samples and the ability to infer age from whole (as opposed to sectioned) otoliths. This research suggests that while scales produce age estimates rivaling those of otoliths for younger (age > 3) cohorts, they may be biased within older cohorts and therefore should be used with caution. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  18. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  19. Use of cover habitat by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in a laboratory environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, Michael H.; Guy, Christopher S.; Fredenberg, Wade A.

    2011-01-01

    Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, migrate from spawning and rearing streams to lacustrine environments as early as age 0. Within lacustrine environments, cover habitat pro- vides refuge from potential predators and is a resource that is competed for if limiting. Competitive inter- actions between bull trout and other species could result in bull trout being displaced from cover habitat, and bull trout may lack evolutionary adaptations to compete with introduced species, such as lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. A laboratory experiment was performed to examine habitat use and interactions for cover by juvenile (i.e., <80 mm total length) bull trout and lake trout. Differences were observed between bull trout and lake trout in the proportion of time using cover (F1,22.6=20.08, P<0.001) and bottom (F1,23.7 = 37.01, P < 0.001) habitat, with bull trout using cover and bottom habitats more than lake trout. Habitat selection ratios indicated that bull trout avoided water column habitat in the presence of lake trout and that lake trout avoided bottom habitat. Intraspecific and interspecific agonistic interactions were infrequent, but approximately 10 times greater for intraspecific inter- actions between lake trout. Results from this study provide little evidence that juvenile bull trout and lake trout compete for cover, and that species-specific differences in habitat use and selection likely result in habitat partitioning between these species.

  20. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  1. Context-specific influence of water temperature on brook trout growth rates in the field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, C.; Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Modelling the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes requires robust field-based estimates accounting for interactions among multiple factors.2. We used data from an 8-year individual-based study of a wild brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) population to test the influence of water temperature on season-specific growth in the context of variation in other environmental (i.e. season, stream flow) or biotic factors (local brook trout biomass density and fish age and size) in West Brook, a third-order stream in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.3. Changes in ambient temperature influenced individual growth rates. In general, higher temperatures were associated with higher growth rates in winter and spring and lower growth rates in summer and autumn. However, the effect of temperature on growth was strongly context-dependent, differing in both magnitude and direction as a function of season, stream flow and fish biomass density.4. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong and complex interactive effects on trout growth. At the coldest temperatures (in winter), high stream flows were associated with reduced trout growth rates. During spring and autumn and in typical summers (when water temperatures were close to growth optima), higher flows were associated with increased growth rates. In addition, the effect of flow at a given temperature (the flow-temperature interaction) differed among seasons.5. Trout density negatively affected growth rate and had strong interactions with temperature in two of four seasons (i.e. spring and summer) with greater negative effects at high temperatures.6. Our study provided robust, integrative field-based estimates of the effects of temperature on growth rates for a species which serves as a model organism for cold-water adapted ectotherms facing the consequences of environmental change. Results of the study strongly suggest that failure to derive season-specific estimates, or to explicitly consider interactions with

  2. Mortality of brook trout, mottled sculpins, and slimy sculpins during acidic episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Gagen, C.J.; Sharpe, W.E.; Carline, R.F. )

    1993-07-01

    Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, mottled sculpins Cottus bairdi, and slimy sculpins Cottus cognatus occur in many Pennsylvania streams that have depressed pH and elevated aluminum concentrations during episodes of high stream discharge (acidic episodes). We performed 20-d in situ cage exposures with these species to determine their relative sensitivities to field conditions. We also exposed fish in the laboratory to synthetic soft water, without added Al, to elevate possible effects of Al on sodium flux rates and pH toxicity. Exposures were in five streams: two with high pH (>5.60) and low Al concentrations (<80 [mu]g/L) and three with low pH (usually between 5.0 and 5.5) and high Al levels (124-294 [mu]g/L). Exposures were during two low-discharge fall periods, when pH tends to be seasonally higher and Al concentrations lower, and two relatively high-discharge spring seasons, when lower pH and higher Al concentrations are typical. Few fish died (generally <10%) in the two streams that had higher pH and lower al concentrations, whereas mortalities typically exceeded 20% and were as high as 100% during spring exposures in the streams with lower pH and elevated Al concentrations. All three species had higher mortality rates in spring, 20-100%, than in fall, 0-29%. Mottled sculpins and slimy sculpins had similar mortality rates and both had lower mortality rates than brook trout when exposed to similar conditions. We compared Na flux rates of mottled sculpins to those of brook trout in laboratory exposures at pH 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 to determine if low pH alone could account for mortality rates in the field. Because Na flux rates at pH 5.0, without added Al, were similar to flux rates of the controls for both species, high Al levels were believed to have contributed to the increased mortality observed in streams. 44 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Developmental toxicity of selenium to Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Blair G; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Elphick, James R F; Davies, Martin; Bustard, David; Chapman, Peter M

    2010-12-01

    Gametes were collected from Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) from waterbodies in a region exposed to mining-related selenium (Se) releases in British Columbia, Canada. Fertilized eggs were incubated in a laboratory and deformities were assessed on newly-hatched alevins using a graduated severity index. No effects were observed on egg or alevin survival or larval weight across the studied exposure range of 5.4 to 66 mg/kg dry weight in egg. Length of some larvae was reduced at the highest egg Se concentrations and a clear residue-response relationship was observed for larval deformity. The egg concentration corresponding to a 10% increase in the frequency of deformity (EC10) was 54 mg/kg dry weight, which is substantially higher than reported for other cold-water fish species.

  4. Characterization of a Neochlamydia-like Bacterium Associated with Epitheliocystis in Cultured Artic Char Salvelinus alpinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections of branchial epithelium by intracellular gram-negative bacteria, termed epitheliocystis, have limited culture of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). To characterize a bacterium associated with epitheliocystis in cultured char, gills were sampled for histopathologic examination, conventional...

  5. Resource utilization of sympatric and experimentally allopatric cutthroat trout and Dolly Varden charr.

    PubMed

    Hindar, Kjetil; Jonsson, Bror; Andrew, Joyce H; Northcote, Thomas G

    1988-01-01

    Resource utilization by cutthroat trout (CT) and Dolly Varden charr (DV) was studied 8 years after experimental transfers from sympatry had established reproducing allopatric populations in two nearby fishless lakes. Allopatric DV significantly increased their utilization of shallow-dwelling zoobenthos, and increased their vertical distribution in comparison to that in sympatry. In contrast, allopatric CT showed little change in the proportions of major prey types utilized, and, if anything, restricted their vertical distribution in comparison to that in sympatry. The results can be explained by the hypothesis that the resource use of DV is strongly influenced by interspecific competition from CT, whereas CT largely remains unaffected by this interaction. An alternative hypothesis, that lake differences can explain the differences in resource use between sympatry and allopatry, was evaluated by comparing food resource availability and other biotic and abiotic characteristics of the three study lakes. None of these could account for the shift in resource use by DV between sympatry and allopatry, but lake differences may explain why allopatric CT showed a restricted habitat use in comparison with their sympatric donor stock. The results of this whole-lake transfer experiment are consistent with earlier reported field and laboratory studies, and suggest that the aggressive dominance of CT is the most important mechanism by which DV are displaced from littoral and near-surface habitats in sympathy with CT.

  6. Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, Brooks AFB Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    INTRODUCTION In a 22 Jun 87 letter (Appendix A), Headquarters Joint Military Medical Command, USAF Clinic Brooks/SGPB, requested the USAF Occupational and...FORCE " HEADQUARTERS JOINT MILITARY MEDICAL COMMAND - SAN ANTONIO (ATC) USAF CLINIC. BROOKS0BROOKS AIR FORCE BASE TX 78235-5300 REPLY TO 2 2 JUN 1981...Thispageleft lank 32I A.~%. &~. ~ 4. * * ~ - - - A 4 4 = - - - .. - ..K a. I;. S * **. APPENDI B " - Texa Watr Comision nifom"- . ’i...-. .4

  7. Sprint swimming performance of wild bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mesa, M.G.; Phelps, J.; Weiland, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the sprint swimming performance of wild juvenile and adult bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Sprint swimming speeds were estimated using high-speed digital video analysis. Thirty two bull trout were tested in sizes ranging from about 10 to 31 cm. Of these, 14 fish showed at least one motivated, vigorous sprint. When plotted as a function of time, velocity of fish increased rapidly with the relation linear or slightly curvilinear. Their maximum velocity, or Vmax, ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 m/s, was usually achieved within 0.8 to 1.0 s, and was independent of fish size. Distances covered during these sprints ranged from 1.4 to 2.4 m. Our estimates of the sprint swimming performance are the first reported for this species and may be useful for producing or modifying fish passage structures that allow safe and effective passage of fish without overly exhausting them. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy budget for yearling lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.

    1993-01-01

    Components of the energy budget of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were derived from data gathered in laboratory growth and metabolism studies; values for energy lost as waste were estimated with previously published equations. Because the total caloric value of food consumed by experimental lake trout was significantly different during the two years in which the studies were done, separate annual energy budgets were formulated. The gross conversion efficiency in yearling lake trout fed ad libitum rations of alewives at 10A?C was 26.6% to 41%. The distribution of energy with temperature was similar for each component of the energy budget. Highest conversion efficiencies were observed in fish fed less than ad libitum rations; fish fed an amount of food equivalent to about 4% of their body weight at 10A?C had a conversion efficiency of 33% to 45.1%. Physiologically useful energy was 76.1-80.1% of the total energy consumed. Estimated growth for age-I and -II lake fish was near that observed for laboratory fish held at lake temperatures and fed reduced rations.

  9. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  10. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  11. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  12. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  13. 33 CFR 117.202 - Cold Spring Brook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold Spring Brook. 117.202 Section 117.202 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Connecticut § 117.202 Cold Spring Brook. The draw...

  14. Cretaceous Olistostrome Model, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.C.

    1985-04-01

    The foothills area of the Brooks Range thrust belt in the area between the Itkillik River and the Etivluk River is composed dominantly of shallow, thrusted olistostrome sheets. Three olistostrome units can be recognized based on the dominant lithology of contained olistoliths and age of the matrix shales. The lower unit is Thithonian to mid-Valanginian in age and is characterized by abundant graywacke and turbidite, mafic rocks, black cherts, olistoliths of Norian-Rhaetic shales, Nuka sands, and glide sheets of Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian rocks. Olistolights were derived from the Misheguk, Ipnavik, and Nuka Ridge allochthonous sequences. The middle unit is of late Valanginian age and has olistoliths of Norian shales; more abundant Upper Triassic chert; Otuk Formation; variegated, radiolarian, black and white cherts; Siksikpuk facies red, green and black shales; Upper Jurassic graywacke; and minor occurrences of mafic rocks. The unit is characterized by glide sheets of Triassic white and multicolor cherts. Olistoliths are derived from Nuka Ridge and Brooks Range sequences. The upper unit is Hauterivian in age and olistoliths included reworked material from all older units. Olistoliths are few and widely scattered. Isolated outcrops of white chert and conglomerate boulders are characteristic.

  15. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, Joseph G; Nislow, Kieth H; McCormick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species.

  16. The physiological stress response and oxidative stress biomarkers in rainbow trout and brook trout from selenium-impacted streams in a coal mining region.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Rasmussen, J B; Palace, V P; Hontela, A

    2009-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential element that can be toxic at concentrations slightly greater than those required for homeostasis. The main chronic toxic effects of Se in fish are teratogenic deformities, but Se can also activate the physiological stress response and redox cycle with reduced glutathione causing oxidative damage. Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, appear to be more sensitive to Se than brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological stress response (plasma cortisol, glucose, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, gill Na+/K+ ATPase, cortisol secretory capacity, K and liver somatic index) and oxidative stress biomarkers (liver GSH, GPx, lipid peroxidation, vitamin A and vitamin E) in rainbow trout (RNTR) and brook trout (BKTR) collected from reference and Se-exposed streams. The physiological stress response was not impaired (cortisol secretory capacity unchanged); although there were species differences in plasma cortisol and plasma glucose levels. Liver GSH, GPx and vitamin levels were higher in RNTR than BKTR, but lipid peroxidation levels were not different. The elevated GSH reserves may make RNTR more sensitive to Se-induced lipid peroxidation, but this may be offset by the RNTR's higher antioxidant (GPx and vitamin) levels. Species-specific biochemical differences may mediate differences in Se sensitivity and be used in aquatic Se risk assessments.

  17. Thermal onset of cellular and endocrine stress responses correspond to ecological limits in brook trout, an iconic cold-water fish

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Joseph G.; Nislow, Keith H.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to change the distribution and abundance of species, yet underlying physiological mechanisms are complex and methods for detecting populations at risk from rising temperature are poorly developed. There is increasing interest in using physiological mediators of the stress response as indicators of individual and population-level response to environmental stressors. Here, we use laboratory experiments to show that the temperature thresholds in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) for increased gill heat shock protein-70 (20.7°C) and plasma glucose (21.2°C) are similar to their proposed thermal ecological limit of 21.0°C. Field assays demonstrated increased plasma glucose, cortisol and heat shock protein-70 concentrations at field sites where mean daily temperature exceeded 21.0°C. Furthermore, population densities of brook trout were lowest at field sites where temperatures were warm enough to induce a stress response, and a co-occurring species with a higher thermal tolerance showed no evidence of physiological stress at a warm site. The congruence of stress responses and proposed thermal limits supports the use of these thresholds in models of changes in trout distribution under climate change scenarios and suggests that the induction of the stress response by elevated temperature may play a key role in driving the distribution of species. PMID:27293702

  18. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  19. NASA's Plum Brook Station Water Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puzak, Robert M.; Kimpton, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Plum Brook Station's water systems were built in the 1940s to support a World War II ordnance production complex. Because the systems had not been analyzed for current NASA usage, it was unknown if they could meet current requirements and codes or if they were efficient for current use. NASA wanted to determine what improvements would be needed or advisable to support its research projects, so it contracted a hydraulic analysis of the raw and domestic water systems. Burgess and Niple determined current water demands and water flow, developed and calibrated models of the two water systems, and evaluated efficiency improvements and cost-cutting options. They recommended replacing some water mains, installing a new service connection, and removing some high-maintenance items (an underground reservoir, some booster pumps, and a tower).

  20. Maintenance of phenotypic variation: Repeatability, heritability and size-dependent processes in a wild brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; Coombs, J.A.; Nislow, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in body size can result from within-cohort variation in birth dates, among-individual growth variation and size-selective processes. We explore the relative effects of these processes on the maintenance of wide observed body size variation in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Based on the analyses of multiple recaptures of individual fish, it appears that size distributions are largely determined by the maintenance of early size variation. We found no evidence for size-dependent compensatory growth (which would reduce size variation) and found no indication that size-dependent survival substantially influenced body size distributions. Depensatory growth (faster growth by larger individuals) reinforced early size variation, but was relatively strong only during the first sampling interval (age-0, fall). Maternal decisions on the timing and location of spawning could have a major influence on early, and as our results suggest, later (>age-0) size distributions. If this is the case, our estimates of heritability of body size (body length=0.25) will be dominated by processes that generate and maintain early size differences. As a result, evolutionary responses to environmental change that are mediated by body size may be largely expressed via changes in the timing and location of reproduction. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Genetic analysis of sympatric char populations in western Alaska: Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) are not two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E B; Lowery, E; Lilliestråle, A; Elz, A; Quinn, T P

    2008-11-01

    The North Pacific Ocean has been of great significance to understanding biogeography and speciation in temperate faunas, including for two species of char (Salmonidae: Salvelinus) whose evolutionary relationship has been controversial. We examined the morphology and genetics (microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA) of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) in lake systems in western Alaska, the eastern and western Arctic, and south of the Alaskan Peninsula. Morphologically, each lake system contained two forms: one (Arctic char) largely confined to lake habitats and characterized by greater numbers of pyloric caeca, gill rakers, and shallower bodies, and another (Dolly Varden) predominated in adjacent stream habitats and was characterized by fewer pyloric caeca, gill rakers, and deeper bodies. MtDNA partial (550 bp) d-loop sequences of both taxa were interspersed with each other within a single 'Bering' clade and demographic inferences suggested historical gene flow from Dolly Varden to Arctic char had occurred. By contrast, the taxa were strongly differentiated in sympatry across nine microsatellite loci in both lakes. Our data show that the two taxa are highly genetically distinct in sympatry, supporting their status as valid biological species, despite occasional hybridization. The interaction between these species highlights the importance of the North Pacific, and Beringia in particular, as an evolutionary wellspring of biodiversity.

  2. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Valérie; Rioux, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion.

  3. Design for Resilience in Brattleboro's Lower Whetstone Brook Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report details design solutions that identify options for creating resilient redevelopment & recreational opportunities within flood prone areas of the town while protecting water quality & connecting people with the Whetstone Brook.

  4. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  5. Just Add Water and Stir. Graduate Chemistry Laboratory, Stony Brook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Using traditional building materials and a fast-track recipe, the architects, acting as construction manager, completed the Graduate Chemistry Laboratory at Stony Brook, New York, two full years ahead of schedule. (Author/MF)

  6. RESPIRATORY-CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND XENOBIOTIC GILL FLUX IN THE LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An in vivo respirometer-metabolism chamber was used to obtain respiratory-cardiovascular physiology under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and xenobiotic gill absorption (flux) data on adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) over a 48-h exposure period at 11? 1?C.

  7. Photoinduced Brook-Type Rearrangement of Acylcyclopolysilanes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Previously unknown 1,1,4-tris(trimethylsilyl)-4-acyldodecamethylcyclohexasilanes (Me3Si)2Si6Me12(Me3Si)COR (16a, R = tert-butyl; 16b, R = 1-adamantyl) have been synthesized by the reaction of the potassium silanides (Me3Si)2Si6Me12(Me3Si)K with acid chlorides ClCOR, and their photochemical rearrangement reactions have been studied. The molecular structures of 16a,b as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis exhibit an unusual twist-boat conformation of the cyclohexasilane ring. When 16a,b were photolyzed with λ >300 nm radiation, they underwent Brook type 1,3-Si → O migration reactions to generate the cyclohexasilanes 17a,b with exocyclic Si=C bonds along with smaller amounts of the ring-enlarged species 19a,b with endocyclic Si=C double bonds. While 17a,b were stable enough to allow characterization by NMR and UV absorption spectroscopy, the less stable products 19a,b could only be observed in the form of their methanol adducts. PMID:24465075

  8. The Laser Teaching Center at Stony Brook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Harold

    2010-03-01

    Stony Brook's Laser Teaching Center was built more than ten years ago to serve a clientele ranging from high school (HS) students to graduate students. Its construction in a formerly open hallway area was financed by donations from private corporations and foundations, and it was equipped with similar contributions. It provides a working area for laser and optics-related projects, both individual and group. Its daily operations are overseen by a highly-dedicated Ph.D. who is a department employee. It is populated by HS students doing science fair related research, including the major national contests (in which we have many finalists and semifinalists), undergraduates doing extra-credit course projects and other kinds of research activities, graduate students in a special course called ``Optics Rotation,'' and many others who come to use its facilities. All of its denizens benefit enormously by occasional prestigious visitors. Students are drawn from among our undergraduates and graduate students, NSF's WISE program, special HS summer programs, and direct application from the outside. We have an excellent record of placing our HS students in the highest ranking colleges.

  9. COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF DIFFERENT LIFE-STAGES OF MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) AND BROOK TROUT (SALVELINUS FONTINALIS) TO 2,3,7,8-TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The early life stages of fish are known to be more sensitive than the adults to the toxicological effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo(p)dioxide (TCDD). TCDD concentrations in surface waters are sufficiently low that direct exposure of the developing embryo is unlikely to be o...

  10. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    PubMed

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  11. Thrust involvement of metamorphic rocks, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Till, A.B.; Schmidt, J.M.; Nelson, S.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Most models for the tectonic history of the western Brooks Range treat Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic metamorphic rocks exposed in the southern part of the range as passive structural basement vertically uplifted late in the Mesozoic orogenic episode. Mapping in the metamorphic rocks shows that they can de divided into two structurally and metamorphically distinct belts, both of which were folded and thrust during the orogeny. Recognition of these belts and the nature of the contact separating them is critical to construction of accurate tectonic models of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  12. The Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM), USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, S.; Kahl, J.; Fernandez, I.; Haines, T.; Rustad, L.; Nodvin, S.; Scofield, J.; Strickland, T.; Erickson, H.; Wigington, P.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Bear Brook Watershed Manipulation project in Maine is a paired calibrated watershed study funded by the U.S. EPA. The research program is evaluating whole ecosystem response to elevated inputs of acidifying chemicals. The consists of a 2.5 year calibration period (1987-1989), nine years of chemical additions of (NH4)2SO4 (15N- and 34S-enriched for several years) to West Bear watershed (1989-1998), followed by a recovery period. The other watershed, East Bear, serves as a reference. Dosing is in six equal treatments/yr of 1800 eq SO4 and NH4/ha/yr, a 200% increase over 1988 loading (wet plus dry) for SO4 300% for N (wet NO3 + NH4). The experimental and reference watersheds are forested with mixed hard- and softwoods, and have thin acidic soils, areas of 10.2 and 10.7 ha and relief of 210 m. Thin till of variable composition is underlain by metasedimentary pelitic rocks and calc-silicate gneiss intruded by granite dikes and sills. For the period 1987-1995, precipitation averaged 1.4 m/yr, had a mean pH of 4.5, with SO4, NO3, and NH4 concentrations of 26, 14, and 7 ??eq/L, respectively. The nearly perrenial streams draining each watershed have discharges ranging from 0 (East Bear stops flowing for one to two months per year) to 150 L/sec. Prior to manipulation, East Bear and West Bear had a volume weighted annual mean pH of approximately 5.4, alkalinity = 0 to 4 ??eq/L, total base cations = 184 ??eq/L (sea-salt corrected = 118 ??eq/L), and SO4 = 100 to 111 ??eq/L. Nitrate ranged from 0 to 30 ??eq/L with an annual mean of 6 to 25 ??eq/L; dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 1 to 7 mg/L but was typically less than 3. Episodic acidification occurred at high discharge and was caused by dilution of cations, slightly increased DOC, significantly higher NO3, and the sea-salt effect. Depressions in pH were accompanied by increases in inorganic Al. The West Bear catchment responded to the chemical additions with increased export of base cations, Al, SO4, NO3, and

  13. Seasonal temperature and precipitation regulate brook trout young-of-the-year abundance and population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanno, Yoichiro; Pregler, Kasey C.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Hocking, Daniel; Wofford, John E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Our results indicate that YOY abundance is a key driver of brook trout population dynamics that is mediated by seasonal weather patterns. A reliable assessment of climate change impacts on brook trout needs to account for how alternations in seasonal weather patterns impact YOY abundance and how such relationships may differ across the range of brook trout distribution.

  14. 77 FR 63897 - Notice of License Terminations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plum Brook...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Notice of License Terminations for National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Plum Brook Reactor and Plum Brook Mock-Up Reactor The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is...-3 and R-93 for the Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) near Sandusky, Ohio. The NRC has...

  15. 77 FR 35054 - Donald Brooks Reece II, M.D.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Enforcement Administration Donald Brooks Reece II, M.D.; Dismissal of Proceeding On November 19, 2010, the... Order to Show Cause to Donald Brooks Reece II, M.D. (Respondent), of Morehead City, N.C. The Order... Donald Brooks Reece II, M.D., be, and it hereby is, dismissed. This Order is effective immediately....

  16. Estimation of Vertical Groundwater Fluxes into a Streambed through Continuous Temperature Profile Monitoring and the Relationship of Groundwater Fluxes to Coaster Brook Trout Spawning Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, M. J.; Mayer, A. S.; Huckins, C.

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that the spatial distribution of groundwater inflows through river bottom sediments is a critical factor associated with the selection of coaster brook trout (a life history variant of Salvelinus fontinalis) spawning sites. An 80-m stretch of the Salmon Trout River, in the upper peninsula of Michigan, was selected to test the hypothesis. The river stretch is relatively similar along its length with regard to superficial spawning habitat selection factors. Coaster brook trout have been observed to return consistently to spawn in specific areas within the study river stretch. A monitoring well system was installed to measure subsurface temperatures underneath the riverbed over a 13-month period. The monitoring well locations were separated into areas where spawning and non-spawning behavior occurred. Over 200,000 temperature measurements were made at five vertical locations in the 22 monitoring wells. Temperature data in the subsurface below the spawning area was generally cooler and less variable than river temperatures. Temperatures in the non-spawning area were generally warmer, more variable, and closely tracked temporal variations in river temperatures. Temperature data were inverted to obtain subsurface groundwater velocities using a numerical approximation of the heat transfer equation. Approximately 45,000 estimates of groundwater velocities were obtained. Estimated velocities in the spawning and non-spawning areas confirmed that groundwater velocities in the spawning area are primarily in the upward direction, with magnitudes on the order of greater than 5×10-3 cm/s. In the non-spawning area, groundwater velocities were mostly either in the downward direction or, if they were in the upward direction, the magnitude of the velocity was low, on the order of less than 1×10-3 cm/s. Both the temperature and velocity results confirm the hypothesis that spawning sites correspond to areas of significant groundwater influx to the river bed.

  17. Building the Engaged Campus: An Interview with John Brooks Slaughter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Donna

    1999-01-01

    Interview with John Brooks Slaughter, recent president of Occidental College, focuses on his leadership during a period when the college dramatically increased its minority enrollment, recruited an impressively diverse faculty, and launched various community outreach programs. Explores Slaughter's views concerning diversity as part of a college's…

  18. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs: 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtless, Gary, Ed.; Pack, Janet Rothenberg, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Designed to reach a wide audience of scholars and policymakers, the "Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs" is an annual series that serves as a forum for cutting-edge, accessible research on urban policy. The editors seek to integrate broader research into the policy discussion by bringing urban studies scholars together with economists and…

  19. Documentary Linguistics and Computational Linguistics: A Response to Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Chiang, David; Frowein, Friedel; Hanke, Florian; Vaswani, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    In mid-2012, the authors organized a two-week workshop in Papua New Guinea to provide training in basic techniques and technologies for language documentation, and to gain understanding of how these technologies might be improved in the future. An assessment of the workshop was conducted by Brooks with the central idea that the workshop's…

  20. Timing of appearance of Gyrodactylus colemanensis (Monogenea) on young-of-the-year Salvelinus fontinalis in a Nova Scotia stream and contribution of these infections to total parasite standing crop.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Roland; MacMillan, John; Cone, David

    2013-08-01

    Young-of-the-year (YOY) brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected at 2 wk intervals (15 April to 4 June 2012) after emergence from redds and occurrence of the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus colemanensis (Monogenea) recorded. Emergent YOY were not infected. Infected trout (14%) first appeared 15 May, with host age estimated to be 4 wk or less post-emergence. Prevalence and intensity increased over the study period and reached, respectively, 93% and 8.2 ± 6.1 by 4 June. Prevalence and intensity of infection was also determined for older cohorts (1+, >1+) on 6 June, with G. colemanensis occurring on representatives of all age groups. The number of hosts in each age group was estimated by mark/recapture electrofishing over a 100 m reach of the stream. Combining estimated host numbers by age group with parasite prevalence and intensity data from those groups allowed calculation of parasite total standing crop. The results indicate that, by late spring, the new host recruits already carried 64% of the parasite population in the stream, serving to illustrate the remarkable efficiency of transmission by this viviparous monogenean in a temperate stream system.

  1. Ribosomal genes and heat shock proteins as putative markers for chronic, sublethal heat stress in Arctic charr: applications for aquaculture and wild fish.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Nicole L; McGowan, Colin R; Cooper, Glenn A; Koop, Ben F; Davidson, William S

    2011-09-22

    Arctic charr thrive at high densities and can live in freshwater year round, making this species especially suitable for inland, closed containment aquaculture. However, it is a cold-water salmonid, which both limits where the species can be farmed and places wild populations at particular risk to climate change. Previously, we identified genes associated with tolerance and intolerance to acute, lethal temperature stress in Arctic charr. However, there remained a need to examine the genes involved in the stress response to more realistic temperatures that could be experienced during a summer heat wave in grow-out tanks that are not artificially cooled, or under natural conditions. Here, we exposed Arctic charr to sublethal heat stress of 15-18°C for 72 h, and gill tissues extracted before, during (i.e., at 72 h), immediately after cooling and after 72 h of recovery at ambient temperature (6°C) were used for gene expression profiling by microarray and qPCR analyses. The results revealed an expected pattern for heat shock protein expression, which was highest during heat exposure, with significantly reduced expression (approaching control levels) quickly thereafter. We also found that the expression of numerous ribosomal proteins was significantly elevated immediately and 72 h after cooling, suggesting that the gill tissues were undergoing ribosome biogenesis while recovering from damage caused by heat stress. We suggest that these are candidate gene targets for the future development of genetic markers for broodstock development or for monitoring temperature stress and recovery in wild or cultured conditions.

  2. "How are the Egyptians behaving?" Herbert Brookes, British-Australian.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, P

    1999-01-01

    Herbert Brookes was a wealthy businessman, a distinguished patron of high culture in Melbourne society, an anti-Labor eminence who moved comfortably in the highest of imperial circles. The richness of his papers in the National Library provides the opportunity to examine the life of a leading British-Australian, to analyse issues of conscience and purpose that do not figure much in current historiography and perhaps to throw new light on the concerns of the generation that saw its world disrupted after 1914. Using the notion of Protestant stewardship, I have suggested that Brookes' life offers one way into the dynamics of liberalism before the Great War and of loyalism after it.

  3. A geologic framework for mineralization in the western Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a 950-km-long north-vergent fold and thrust belt, which was formed during Mesozoic convergence of the continental Arctic Alaska terrane and the oceanic Angayucham terrane and was further shortened and uplifted in Tertiary time. The Arctic Alaska terrane consists of parautochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains and De Long Mountains subterranes. The Endicott Mountains allochthon of the western Brooks Range is the setting for many sulfide and barite occurrences, such as the supergiant Red Dog zinc-lead mine. Mineralization is sediment hosted and most commonly is present in black shale and carbonate turbidites of the Mississippian Kuna Formation. The reconstructed Kuna basin is a 200 by +600 km feature that represents the culmination of a remarkable chain of events that includes three fluvial-deltaic and two or more orogenic cycles, Middle Devonian to Mississippian episodes of extension and igneous activity, and the emergence of a seaward Lower Proterozoic landmass that may have constituted a barrier to marine circulation. Mississippian extension and related horst-and-graben architecture in the western Brooks Range is manifested in part by strong facies variability between coeval units of allochthons and structural plates. Shallow marine to possibly nonmarine arkose, platform to shelf carbonate, slope-to-basin shale, chert and carbonate turbidites, and submarine volcanic rocks are all represented in Mississippian time. The structural setting of Mississippian sedimentation, volcanism, and mineralization in the Kuna basin may be comparable to documented Devono-Mississippian extensional sags or half-grabens in the subsurface north of the Brooks Range. Climate, terrestrial ecosystems, multiple fluvial-deltaic aquifers, and structural architecture affected the liberation, movement, and redeposition of metals in ways that are incompletely understood.

  4. Merrimack River Basin, Leominster Local Protection, Monoosnoc Brook, Leominster, Massachusetts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Coordination 2 Summary of Studies 2 The Report 3 Prior Studies and Reports 3 Studies in Progress 3 RESOURCES AND ECONOMY OF THE STUDY AREA 4...expressed at this meeting, form the basis of selecting the flood control plan as reported herein. SUMMARY OF STUDIES Aerial topography from the U.S...North Nashua and its tributary Monoosnoc Brook which became basis for project authorization. (A summary of these earlier reports is contained in

  5. AmeriFlux US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br3 Brooks Field Site 11- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 11 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 10 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  6. AmeriFlux US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames

    DOE Data Explorer

    Parkin, Tim [USDA; Prueger, John [National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Br1 Brooks Field Site 10- Ames. Site Description - The Brooks Field Site 10 - Ames Site is one of three sites (Brooks Field Site 11 and Brooks Field Site 1011) located in a corn/soybean agricultural landscape of central Iowa. The farming systems, associated tillage, and nutrient management practices for soybean/corn production are typical of those throughout Upper Midwest Corn Belt. All three sites are members of the AmeriFlux network. Information for all three can be found in synchronous pages of this website.

  7. Hydrologic conditions in the Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook drainage basins, west-central New Jersey, 1986-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobsen, Eric; Hardy, M.A.; Kurtz, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Data on the quantity and quality of groundwater and surface water in the drainage basins of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook upstream from U.S. Route 206 in west-central New Jersey were collected from October 1, 1986, through September 30, 1988. Water levels measured in 74 wells ranged from 49 to 453 ft above sea level. The water-table surface generally mimicked topography; however, the water-level altitude in one well indicates the possibility of local interbasin groundwater flow. Calcium and bicarbonate were the most abundant cation and anion in most of the 25 groundwater samples. With one exception, concentrations of nutrients, trace elements, organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Stream low-flow measurements made twice at each of 63 sites indicate that both discharge and runoff increased downstream for most reaches of Jacobs Creek, Stony Brook, and Beden Brook. For main-stem sites, the highest base-flow runoff occurred at site 01462733 on Jacobs Creek; the greatest discharge was measured at site 01401100 on Stony Brook. The flow-duration curve for Stony Brook for 1987-88 indicates a wetter- than-normal period for the area. Results of surface-water-quality analyses indicate that calcium and sodium plus potassium were the dominant or codominant cations, and bicarbonate and chloride were the dominant or codominant anions in most samples. Concentrations of nutrients typically exceeded those needed to support surplus algal growth. Concentrations of trace elements generally were less than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water regulations. Bottom-sediment samples contained several persistent organic compounds. Significant downstream variations were found in concentrations of copper and lead in Jacobs Creek and Stony Brook. Results of macroinvertebrate community sampling indicate an input of nutrients to several stream

  8. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation

    PubMed Central

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2–3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char. PMID:26356310

  9. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation.

    PubMed

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2-3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char.

  10. Accumulation of PCBs by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Eck, Gary W.; Miller, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    To explain the variation in growth and in concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among individual fish, an individual-based model (IBM) was applied to the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Michigan. The IBM accurately represented the variation in growth exhibited by the different age classes of lake trout. Uncertainty analysis of the IBM revealed that mean PCB concentration for the lake trout population was most sensitive to PCB concentration in their prey. The variability in PCB concentration among lake trout individuals was not adequately explained by the IBM, unless variation in prey fish PCBs was included in the model. To accomplish this, the simulated lake trout population was divided into subsets subjected to different levels of PCB concentration in the prey fish. Thus, model results indicated that variability in prey fish PCB concentration was an important component of the variation in PCB concnetration observed among individual lake trout comprising the Lake Michigan population.

  11. Performance of temperature and dissolved oxygen criteria to predict habitat use by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumb, J.M.; Blanchfield, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared theoretical habitat volumes, determined from traditional combinations of temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) boundaries, with in situ habitat use by acoustically tagged lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The widely used criteria of 8-12 ??C underestimated lake trout habitat use by 68%-80%. Instead, combined temperature (<12 or 15 ??C) and DO (>4 or 6 mg??L-1) criteria most closely matched lake trout habitat use, had a similar seasonal trend as the tagged fish, suggested modest reductions (5% of total lake volume) in habitat during a warmer year, and performed best when the constraints of temperature and DO were most limiting. All data were collected in a small boreal shield lake (27 ha, zmax = 21 m) at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario, Canada, during two contrasting periods of thermal stratification (2003: warmer and longer; 2004: cooler and shorter), providing an assessment of observed and theoretical habitat volumes over current environmental extremes.

  12. Embryonic developmental progression in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) (Walbaum, 1792) and its relation to lake temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Jeffrey D.; Walker, Glenn K.; Adams, Jean V.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Edsall, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental progression of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) embryos was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. From this examination, key developmental stages were described in detail. The key developmental stages were then applied to individual lake trout egg lots incubated in constant temperatures of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10°C. We used Belehradek's, Thermodynamic, and Power models, and also developed the Zero model to determine stage specific developmental rates of lake trout eggs for each background temperature. From the models, hatch dates and staging were predicted for temperature regimes from Lake Superior (1990–91) and Lake Huron (1996–97). Based on the existing lake temperature data and the observed spawning dates, the Zero and the Power models predict that post peak spawning may contribute significantly to overall recruitment success for these years.

  13. Crayfish (Orconectes virilis) feeding on young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): effect of rock size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Miller, John E.

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory studies, we quantified predation rates of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) on the eggs and sac fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a surrogate species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mvkiss), dispersed among different sized substrates (bare bottom, gravel, cobble, large rocks). Predation was most severe when no rocks were present. Feeding rate then decreased as the substrate changed from large rocks to cobble to gravel. Crayfish predation rate did not change with prey type—rainbow trout and lake trout eggs or sac fry. Crayfish foraging in large tanks containing cobble averaged about two eggs or sac fry per day. In most instances, crayfish would have little impact on lake trout egg survival. Only in lake trout spawning grounds with relatively low egg densities, large crayfish populations, and cobble or large rock substrate, would crayfish be expected to have some impact on lake trout egg survival.

  14. Histopathology of fish. IV. A granuloma of brook trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1956-01-01

    In the summer of 1952, Snieszko and Griffin (1955) diagnosed kidney disease in brook trout from the Fish and Wildlife Service's station at Berlin, New Hampshire. During the examination of these fish, a peculiar lesion was observed in the vicinity of the gastric caeca. In very advanced cases, hard, glistening, white masses of tissue bearing a striking resemblance to mature testes often filled the abdominal cavity. In the initial examinations, the material was actually mistaken for normal testicular tissue. Subsequently, it was recognized as an entirely aberrant, proliferating tumor-like mass.

  15. 78 FR 8582 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet south of the mouth of the Brooks River. A new road segment (about 100 ft. long) would...

  16. The Why, What, and Impact of GPA at Oxford Brookes University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the introduction at Oxford Brookes University of a Grade Point Average (GPA) scheme alongside the traditional honours degree classification. It considers the reasons for the introduction of GPA, the way in which the scheme was implemented, and offers an insight into the impact of GPA at Brookes. Finally, the paper considers…

  17. Sustaining a Rural Black Farming Community in the South: A Portrait of Brooks Farm, Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Valerie; Effland, Anne B. W.

    1997-01-01

    Brooks Farm is an independent Black farming community unique in the Mississippi Delta. A community case study shows that, despite declining population and resources, Brooks Farm has drawn on the strength of its traditional institutions (family, churches, civic groups) to sustain community life and to continue to provide services to the elderly,…

  18. Rooted Brooks Range ophiolite: Implications for Cordilleran terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Morin, R.L.; Hudson, T.L.

    2001-01-01

    Modeling of gravity and magnetic data shows that areally extensive mafic and ultramafic rocks of the western Brooks Range, Alaska, are at least 8 km thick, and that gabbro and ultramafic rocks underlie basalt in several places. The basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks have been considered parts of a far-traveled ophiolite assemblage. These rocks are the highest structural elements in the Brooks Range thrust belt and are thought to be hundreds of kilometers north of their origin. This requires these rocks to be thin klippen without geologic ties to the continental shelf sedimentary rocks that now surround them. The geophysically determined, thick and interleaved subsurface character of the basalt, gabbro, and ultramafic rocks is inconsistent with this interpretation. An origin within an extensional setting on the continental shelf could produce the required subsurface geometries and explain other perplexing characteristics of these rocks. Early Mesozoic Alaska, from the North Slope southward to the interior, may have had many irregular extensional basins on a broad, distal continental shelf. This original tectonic setting may apply elsewhere in Cordilleran-type margins where appropriate mafic and ultramafic analogs are present.

  19. Geochemical evidence for a brooks range mineral belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, S.P.; Cathrall, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Geochemical studies in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, delineate a regional, structurally controlled mineral belt in east-west-trending metamorphic rocks and adjacent metasedimentary rocks. The mineral belt extends eastward from the Ambler River quadrangle to the Chandalar and Philip Smith quadrangles, Alaska, from 147?? to 156??W. longitude, a distance of more than 375 km, and spans a width from 67?? to 69??N. latitude, a distance of more than 222 km. Within this belt are several occurrences of copper and molybdenum mineralization associated with meta-igneous, metasedimentary, and metavolcanic rocks; the geochemical study delineates target areas for additional occurrences. A total of 4677 stream-sediment and 2286 panned-concentrate samples were collected in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, from 1975 to 1979. The -80 mesh ( 2.86) nonmagnetic fraction of the panned concentrates from stream sediment were analyzed by semiquantitative spectrographic methods. Two geochemical suites were recognized in this investigation; a base-metal suite of copper-lead-zinc and a molybdenum suite of molybdenum-tin-tungsten. These suites suggest several types of mineralization within the metamorphic belt. Anomalies in molybdenum with associated Cu and W suggest a potential porphyry molybdenum system associated with meta-igneous rocks. This regional study indicates that areas of metaigneous rocks in the central metamorphic belt are target areas for potential mineralized porphyry systems and that areas of metavolcanic rocks are target areas for potential massive sulfide mineralization. ?? 1981.

  20. The placement of Gyrodactylus salmonis (Yin & Sproston) in the molecular phylogeny of studied members of the Gyrodactylus wageneri-group parasitizing salmonids.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, S R; Abbott, C L; Cone, D K

    2010-06-01

    The molecular phylogeny of Gyrodactylus salmonis from brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, cutthroat trout, O. clarkii, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in Canada is presented using sequences from ITS-rDNA and the mitochondrial COX 1 gene. Sequence variation among G. salmonis specimens from the different North American hosts was consistent with within-species variation reported for other Gyrodactylus. Sequence data are compared to those from other members of the wageneri group parasitizing salmoniform fishes in northern Europe (G. derjavini, G. derjavinoides, G. lavareti, G. salaris, G. salvelini, G. teuchis and G. truttae) and Asia (G. brachymystacis). Sequence divergence between G. salmonis and the recently described G. salvelini on Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus, in Finland was consistent with within-species levels of variation in Gyrodactylus; however, phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons provided evidence of their distinctiveness such that they appear to be sister species. They grouped with G. lavareti (a parasite of a coregonid) to form a clade separate from European and Asian species of the wageneri lineage known from salmonid fish. Further study of gyrodactylids from across salmonid, coregonid and thymallid fish in the northern hemisphere would shed more light on the phylogeography of these parasites and serves as an important backdrop to understanding the evolution of their emergent virulence.

  1. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture-recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Schueller, Paul; Bassar, Ronald D; Nislow, Keith H; Coombs, Jason A; Sakrejda, Krzysztof; Morrissey, Michael; Sigourney, Douglas B; Whiteley, Andrew R; O'Donnell, Matthew J; Dubreuil, Todd L

    2015-03-01

    Modelling the effects of environmental change on populations is a key challenge for ecologists, particularly as the pace of change increases. Currently, modelling efforts are limited by difficulties in establishing robust relationships between environmental drivers and population responses. We developed an integrated capture-recapture state-space model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) using a long-term (11 years), high-resolution (individually tagged, sampled seasonally) data set of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from four sites in a stream network. Our integrated model provides an effective context within which to estimate environmental driver effects because it takes full advantage of data by estimating (latent) state values for missing observations, because it propagates uncertainty among model components and because it accounts for the major demographic rates and interactions that contribute to annual survival. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong effects on brook trout demography. Some effects, such as reduction in survival associated with low stream flow and high temperature during the summer season, were consistent across sites and age classes, suggesting that they may serve as robust indicators of vulnerability to environmental change. Other survival effects varied across ages, sites and seasons, indicating that flow and temperature may not be the primary drivers of survival in those cases. Flow and temperature also affected body growth rates; these responses were consistent across sites but differed dramatically between age classes and seasons. Finally, we found that tributary and mainstem sites responded differently to variation in flow and temperature. Annual survival (combination of survival and body growth across seasons) was insensitive to body growth and was most sensitive to flow (positive) and temperature (negative

  2. Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of juvenile lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Donald J.; Stein, Roy A.

    1974-01-01

    Short-term fate of dietary dieldrin in the digestive tract of fishes is poorly known. Studies of the uptake, distribution, and elimination of chlorinated hydrocarbons have suggested that uptake or degradation is rapid in the intestine (GROSS 1969; MACEK et al. 1970; GRZENDA et al. 1970, 1971). The present study was designed to determine the short-term fate of a single oral dose of dieldrin in the digestive tract of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

  3. Cold Brook Dam, Hot Springs, South Dakota, Fall River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Is ’ 44 .0 01 0 o0 0 . 4 . 00 0 &J w 0. 0) 01 0c Ai 061 0 . u00 l .1 Coo 𔃾 0 0a 0 .4 0 0 A - 0. Z%0 0 01 w low" to 0 m N t 0 o AJ,0 00 4 .a ... 0 40...tf Des,. uw file .11 C0..A D,k,,Io ’hf .i*’ .. . . . .. . . -- ~ e 749?-fat-6 0 0 -- AI COLD BROOK DAM FOWNMTION REPORT LOCATiOE OF CKPLORATION §OftUS...Secondary Holes T- lC Tertiary Holes T-1D Quaternary Holes T-1E Quintary Holes T-2 Pressure Test Records T-2A Primary Holes T-2B Secondary Holes T-2C

  4. Decontamination of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility Hot Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Peecook, K.M.

    2008-07-01

    The NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility decommissioning project recently completed a major milestone with the successful decontamination of seven hot cells. The cells included thick concrete walls and leaded glass windows, manipulator arms, inter cell dividing walls, and roof slabs. There was also a significant amount of embedded conduit and piping that had to be cleaned and surveyed. Prior to work starting evaluation studies were performed to determine whether it was more cost effective to do this work using a full up removal approach (rip and ship) or to decontaminate the cells to below required clean up levels, leaving the bulk of the material in place. This paper looks at that decision process, how it was implemented, and the results of that effort including the huge volume of material that can now be used as fill during site restoration rather than being disposed of as LLRW. (authors)

  5. Stony Brook's Graduate Courses in Clear, Vivid, Conversational Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2011-12-01

    Graduate students in the sciences at Stony Brook University are taking for-credit courses to learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including public officials, the press, students, potential funders and employers, colleagues in other fields, and the general public. Five Communicating Science courses are offered; two more will be added in January, 2012. The courses are offered by the School of Journalism and developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). This interdisciplinary center was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, director and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. At the core of the program are three 1-credit (14-hour) modules that rely on experiential learning, repeated practice and immediate, interactive feedback. In Distilling Your Message, students practice speaking clearly, vividly and conversationally about their work at different levels of complexity and formality to different audiences, using storytelling techniques where appropriate. In Writing for the Public, they extend these skills into writing. In Improvisation for Scientists, the most unconventional of the courses, students play improvisational theater games to help themselves connect more directly, personally and responsively with their audiences. In their first two semesters, the courses are expected to serve about 90 students, taking a total of about 180 credits. Most of the courses have filled quickly, mixing master's and doctoral students from more than a dozen fields, including marine and atmospheric sciences. Three to six credits of Communicating Science courses are required for students in two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. The content and methods of the courses are based largely on lessons learned from evaluations of all-day workshops that CCS has conducted for more than 250

  6. Geological mapping in Doonerak Fenster, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.C.; Adams, K.E.; Dillon, J.T.

    1985-04-01

    Mapping of the north flank of the Doonerak fenster has traced the Amawk thrust, the sole fault of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, from the North Fork of the Koyukuk River - Mount Doonerak area eastward for more than 40 km (25 mi) to the east plunge of the Doonerak anticline at Koyuktuvuk Creek near the Dietrich River. Mapping has concentrated on the structural style of the area and on the autochthonous or parautochthonous Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Kayak shale, Kekiktuk Conglomerate - which are present along most of the anticline - and Triassic Karen Creek Sandstone, Triassic Shublik Formation, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group - which are present only in the west. This Triassic to Mississippian section closely resembles the coeval autochthonous to Parautochthonous Ellesmerian section of the subsurface to the north and in the Brooks Range to the northeast.

  7. Progress in radar snow research. [Brookings, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Fung, A. K.; Aslam, A.

    1981-01-01

    Multifrequency measurements of the radar backscatter from snow-covered terrain were made at several sites in Brookings, South Dakota, during the month of March of 1979. The data are used to examine the response of the scattering coefficient to the following parameters: (1) snow surface roughness, (2) snow liquid water content, and (3) snow water equivalent. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient is insensitive to snow surface roughness if the snow is drv. For wet snow, however, surface roughness can have a strong influence on the magnitude of the scattering coefficient. These observations confirm the results predicted by a theoretical model that describes the snow as a volume of Rayleig scatterers, bounded by a Gaussian random surface. In addition, empirical models were developed to relate the scattering coefficient to snow liquid water content and the dependence of the scattering coefficient on water equivalent was evaluated for both wet and dry snow conditions.

  8. Schubert in Stony Brook and Kinks in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    Wolfgang Kummer became my friend during the many years I have been visiting Vienna in January. He created a marvellous Institute for Theoretical Physics with an enthusiastic group of students, postdocs and colleagues. Great Institutes need a central person to grow around. Two such Institutes I have been attached to are Utrecht where M. Veltman created a school of field theorists, and Stony Brook where C.N. Yang was the natural leader. In Vienna Wolfgang played a similar role. His mere presence during seminars gave a sense of enthusiasm and direction, and his active participation was an example for younger physicists not to be shy and also ask further clarifications when needed. In particular I was impressed by his collaboration with students. Almost every afternoon I would find him sitting with one or two students at his desk or in the conference room, trying to understand new problems in dilaton gravity, and discussing and calculating with them on equal footing. I invited Wolfgang to visit Stony Brook, but he was noncommittal, and I soon found out that he was seriously ill. Yet, he would come in everyday, and be the life of the Institute. Every year with his wife Lore we would go out one evening in Vienna, either to a play or a concert. These were great evenings as I will describe below. Near the end, I would phone him at his home, and we would talk physics. He remained optimistic about his chances, but then suddenly all went wrong and he died. I miss a dear friend. Below is the story of how we became friends…

  9. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  10. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  11. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  12. Sexual difference in mercury concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Keir, M.J.; Whittle, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 50 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 69 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). Results showed that, on average, males were 8% higher in Hg concentration than females in Lake Ontario. We also used bioenergetics modeling to determine whether a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) could explain the observed sexual difference in Hg concentrations. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, male GGE was about 3% higher than female GGE, on average. Although the bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher Hg concentrations exhibited by the males, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in Hg concentrations of the lake trout. In an earlier study, male lake trout from Lake Ontario were found to be 22% higher in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration than females from Lake Ontario. Thus, although males were higher in both Hg and PCB concentrations, the degree of the sexual difference in concentration varied between the two contaminants. Further research on sexual differences in Hg excretion rates and Hg direct uptake rates may be needed to resolve the disparity in results between the two contaminants.

  13. Dwarf char, a new form of chars (the genus Salvelinus) in Lake Kronotskoe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlov, S.D.; Pivovarov, E.A.; Ostberg, C.O.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Kronotskoe is situated in the Kronotskii State Nature Reserve and is a unique natural heritage of Kamchatka. The lake–river system of the reserve includes numerous springs and small streams and three large inflowing rivers, Listvennichnaya, Unana, and Uzon, which form the main bays of Lake Kronotskoe; one river (Kronotskaya) flows from the lake. This river is characterized by several rapids, which are assumed to be unsurmountable barriers for fish migration. The ichthyofauna of the lake has been isolated for a long time, and some endemic fishes appeared, including char of the genus Salvelinus and the residential form of red salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (the local name is kokanee). These species are perfect model objects to study microevolution processes. Char of Lake Kronotskoe are characterized by significant polymorphism and plasticity [1–3]; therefore, they are extremely valuable for studying the processes of speciation and form development. That is why the populations of char in Lake Kronotskoe are unique and attract special attention of researchers. 

  14. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species.

  15. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in Lake Michigan, 1971-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, LaRue

    1980-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was exterminated in Lake Michigan by the mid-1950s as a result of the combined effects of an intensive fishery and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). The widespread application of lampricide in tributary streams had greatly reduced the abundance of lampreys by the early 1960s, and a program to restore self-sustaining populations of lake trout through stocking of yearlings and fingerlings was initiated in 1965. Although the hatchery-reared fish spawned widely in Lake Michigan each year after 1970, no progeny were observed except in an isolated area in Grand Traverse Bay. During 1971–78, sea lamprey abundance was generally greater in Wisconsin than in other parts of the lake. However, the rate of occurrence of sea lamprey wounds on lake trout dropped dramatically there in 1978 after the Peshtigo River, a tributary to Green Bay, was treated with lampricide. Application of Lake Michigan wounding rates to a regression model relating mortality to lamprey wounding developed from Lake Superior data, yielded lamprey-induced mortality estimates in 1977 of 5% in Michigan plus Indiana (combined) and 31% in Wisconsin; corresponding estimates for 1978 were 5 and 15%.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey predation, abundance, Lake Michigan

  16. Osteological evidence of genetic divergence of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1994-01-01

    Three phenotypes of Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Superior, the lean, siscowet, and bumper, are traditionally identified primarily by fat content and body shape. Their taxonomic status is in question because of intermediates as well as the possibility that the diagnostic characters are ecophenotypic. Two osteological characters, the dorsal opercular notch (first recorded by Agassiz in his description of the siscowet) and radii on the anterodorsal part of the supraethmoid, differ between most leans and siscowets. The notch in the opercle near its articulation with the hyomandibular bone is present in humpers, usually present in siscowets, and usually absent in leans. Radii on the anterodorsal surface of the supraethmoid bone usually are found in siscowets and humpers but usually are absent in leans. The correlations among these characters and other features of the phenotype indicate a significant level of differentiation between the three phenotypes. Available evidence suggests that the differentiation is genetic. The frequency of mixed phenotypes is evidence of limited gene flow among the phenotypes. The siscowet and humper phenotypes apparently originated in Lake Superior in postglacial time.

  17. Climate change and vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a fire-prone landscape.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falke, Jeffrey A.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Dunham, Jason B.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2015-01-01

    Linked atmospheric and wildfire changes will complicate future management of native coldwater fishes in fire-prone landscapes, and new approaches to management that incorporate uncertainty are needed to address this challenge. We used a Bayesian network (BN) approach to evaluate population vulnerability of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Wenatchee River basin, Washington, USA, under current and future climate and fire scenarios. The BN was based on modeled estimates of wildfire, water temperature, and physical habitat prior to, and following, simulated fires throughout the basin. We found that bull trout population vulnerability depended on the extent to which climate effects can be at least partially offset by managing factors such as habitat connectivity and fire size. Moreover, our analysis showed that local management can significantly reduce the vulnerability of bull trout to climate change given appropriate management actions. Tools such as our BN that explicitly integrate the linked nature of climate and wildfire, and incorporate uncertainty in both input data and vulnerability estimates, will be vital in effective future management to conserve native coldwater fishes.

  18. Bioenergetic evaluation of diel vertical migration by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckmann, Madeleine; Dunham, Jason; Connor, Edward J.; Welch, Carmen A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species living in deeper lentic ecosystems exhibit daily movements that cycle through the water column, generally referred to as diel vertical migration (DVM). In this study, we applied bioenergetics modelling to evaluate growth as a hypothesis to explain DVM by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in a thermally stratified reservoir (Ross Lake, WA, USA) during the peak of thermal stratification in July and August. Bioenergetics model parameters were derived from observed vertical distributions of temperature, prey and bull trout. Field sampling confirmed that bull trout prey almost exclusively on recently introduced redside shiner (Richardsonius balteatus). Model predictions revealed that deeper (>25 m) DVMs commonly exhibited by bull trout during peak thermal stratification cannot be explained by maximising growth. Survival, another common explanation for DVM, may have influenced bull trout depth use, but observations suggest there may be additional drivers of DVM. We propose these deeper summertime excursions may be partly explained by an alternative hypothesis: the importance of colder water for gametogenesis. In Ross Lake, reliance of bull trout on warm water prey (redside shiner) for consumption and growth poses a potential trade-off with the need for colder water for gametogenesis.

  19. Historical evidence for discrete stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H.; Eck, G.W.; Foster, N.R.; Horrall, R.M.; Coberly, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Although few biological data exist on the now extinct native lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, of Lake Michigan, historical records and interviews with former commercial fishermen strongly suggest that this once widespread resource was composed of a number of discrete spawning populations or stocks. A natural division of the resource into distinct stocks is consistent with the size of Lake Michigan and its varied physiography. The native trout may have undergone subtle genetic changes over the millennia, although we cannot determine whether the physical and behavioral differences represented different genotypes or only temporary effects of the local environment. Because of physiographic similarities among the upper Great Lakes and probable interchanges of lake trout during the last glacial period, we recommend that progeny of extant wild stocks, particularly from Lake Superior, are genetically most suitable for recolonizing Lake Michigan. Moreover, the hatchery-held parents of such fish should be infused periodically with genes of the wild or feral donor populations. Despite the sound historical basis for these recommendations, we also recognize that sufficiently high stocking rates coupled with a reduction of heavy exploitation may be even more important than heritability in obtaining self-sustaining populations.

  20. [Population genetic structure of northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma in Asia and North America].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2011-12-01

    The level of genetic differentiation of northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma from Asia and North America was evaluated using the data on mtDNA variation (regions ND1/ND2, ND5/ND6, and Cytb/D loop) obtained by means of PCR-RFLP analysis. For S. m. malma, the mean values of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were 0.5261 +/- 0.00388 and 0.001558, respectively. The mean estimate of the population nucleotide divergence constituted 0.055%. It was demonstrated that S. m. malma on the most part of the species range examined (drainages of the Beaufort Sea, Chukotka Sea, Bering Sea, and the Sea of Okhotsk) was characterized by the population genetic structure with the low level of genetic differentiation and divergence. At the same time, populations from the Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska demonstrated marked genetic differentiation, supported by the high pairwise phi(ST) values (from 0.4198 to 0.5211) and nucleotide divergence estimates (mean divergence, 0.129%), from Asian and North American populations. Nested analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that most of the mtDNA variation in S. m. malma fell in the intrapopulation component (72.5%). At the same time, the differences between the populations (21.1%) and between the regions (6.4%) made lower contribution to the total variation.

  1. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): in vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). 2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy of activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin. 3. The concentration of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined. 4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  2. Salvelinus namaycush spawning substratum attracts egg predators and opportunists through chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Wasylenko, B A; Callaghan, D T; Blanchfield, P J; Pyle, G G

    2014-05-01

    Two separate field experiments were conducted in a series of small boreal lakes to test for the attraction of egg predators to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning shoals and subsequently to determine whether chemosensory cues attract egg predators to these sites. In the first experiment, minnow traps set on spawning sites captured significantly more egg predators than those set on structurally similar non-spawning sites. Captures of slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus, common shiner Luxilus cornutus, blacknose shiner Notropis heterolepis and virile crayfish Orconectes virilis were more than double on spawning sites relative to non-spawning sites for the two study lakes. To test whether chemosensory cues could attract egg predators to S. namaycush spawning sites, paired minnow traps were placed on eight to 10 sites in each of the three study lakes; one trap contained visually concealed S. namaycush spawning substratum and the other with visually concealed non-spawning substratum. Traps containing spawning substratum consistently captured more fish and had higher mean daily catches than those that contained non-spawning substratum. The combined results demonstrate a greater prevalence of egg predators on S. namaycush spawning shoals that appears to be the result of chemosensory attraction to spawning substratum.

  3. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  4. Trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijian, C.P.; David, S.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a laboratory experiment, we estimated the net trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey to be equal to 76.6 %. Under the assumption that gross trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout from its prey was equal to 80 %, we estimated that the rate at which lake trout eliminated methylmercury was 0.000244 day−1. Our laboratory estimate of methylmercury elimination rate was 5.5 times lower than the value predicted by a published regression equation developed from estimates of methylmercury elimination rates for fish available from the literature. Thus, our results, in conjunction with other recent findings, suggested that methylmercury elimination rates for fish have been overestimated in previous studies. In addition, based on our laboratory experiment, we estimated that the net trophic transfer efficiency of inorganic mercury to lake trout from its prey was 63.5 %. The lower net trophic transfer efficiency for inorganic mercury compared with that for methylmercury was partly attributable to the greater elimination rate for inorganic mercury. We also found that the efficiency with which lake trout retained either methylmercury or inorganic mercury from their food did not appear to be significantly affected by the degree of their swimming activity.

  5. Striking Phenotypic Variation yet Low Genetic Differentiation in Sympatric Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Andrew; Carson, Robert; Debes, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The study of population differentiation in the context of ecological speciation is commonly assessed using populations with obvious discreteness. Fewer studies have examined diversifying populations with occasional adaptive variation and minor reproductive isolation, so factors impeding or facilitating the progress of early stage differentiation are less understood. We detected non-random genetic structuring in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabiting a large, pristine, postglacial lake (Mistassini Lake, Canada), with up to five discernible genetic clusters having distinctions in body shape, size, colouration and head shape. However, genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.017) and genetic clustering was largely incongruent between several population- and individual-based clustering approaches. Genotype- and phenotype-environment associations with spatial habitat, depth and fish community structure (competitors and prey) were either inconsistent or weak. Striking morphological variation was often more continuous within than among defined genetic clusters. Low genetic differentiation was a consequence of relatively high contemporary gene flow despite large effective population sizes, not migration-drift disequilibrium. Our results suggest a highly plastic propensity for occupying multiple habitat niches in lake trout and a low cost of morphological plasticity, which may constrain the speed and extent of adaptive divergence. We discuss how factors relating to niche conservatism in this species may also influence how plasticity affects adaptive divergence, even where ample ecological opportunity apparently exists. PMID:27680019

  6. Preliminary plan for testing a thermionic reactor in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. A.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary plan is presented for testing a thermionic reactor in the Plum Brook Space Power Facility (SPF). A technical approach, cost estimate, manpower estimate, and schedule are presented to cover a 2 year full power reactor test.

  7. Synthesis of gamma,delta-unsaturated glycolic acids via sequenced brook and Ireland--claisen rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Daniel C; Johnson, Jeffrey S

    2010-03-05

    Organozinc, -magnesium, and -lithium nucleophiles initiate a Brook/Ireland-Claisen rearrangement sequence of allylic silyl glyoxylates resulting in the formation of gamma,delta-unsaturated alpha-silyloxy acids.

  8. Giant American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.; Purvis, Harold A.

    1971-01-01

    Five female American brook lampreys, Lampetra lamottei, collected in lakes Michigan and Huron averaged nearly twice as long and about six times as heavy as American brook lampreys of normal size. Three factors suggested that the giant lampreys may have fed parasitically after metamorphosis: morphological adaptations of the species for parasitic life, their large size, and absence of extremely large ammocetes among a million sampled.

  9. Pingos in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, T.D.; Obi, Curtis M.

    1982-01-01

    Some 70 pingos occur at 27 separate localities within and near the Brooks Range. The pingos are distributed through mountain valleys at altitudes up to 725m and in terrain glaciated as recently as late Wisconsinan time. Pingos are particularly abundant in the Koyukuk and Chandalar drainage systems of the south-central Brooks Range, where they may be associated with structural features of regional extent.-from Authors

  10. Learning to Communicate Science: Stony Brook University's Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E.

    2012-12-01

    Stony Brook University offers an unusual series of short courses to help science graduate students learn to communicate more effectively about science with people outside their disciplines, including the public, public officials, potential funders and employers, students, the press, and colleagues in other fields. The courses include six 1-credit (14-hour) modules in oral and written communication that rely on practice and interactive feedback. More than 120 master's and PhD students, from more than 16 departments, have taken at least one of the courses since spring 2011. Most students who try one module end up taking two or three. An additional course for medical and nursing students was added in fall 2012. The courses are offered in the School of Journalism and were developed by the Center for Communicating Science (CCS). CCS was founded in 2009, with the participation of Alan Alda, the actor, writer, and longtime advocate for science, who is a Visiting Professor at Stony Brook. The Communicating Science courses have received strong institutional support and enthusiastic reviews. They are required by two programs, an MA in Marine Conservation and Policy and an Advanced Certificate in Health Communications. Two successive Provosts have subsidized course costs for PhD students, and Graduate School leaders are working to establish a steady funding stream to allow expansion of the program. Our aspiration at CCS is for every science graduate student to receive some training in communicating about science to the public. Several factors have helped in establishing the program: --CCS' multidisciplinary nature helped build support, with participation by faculty from across the campus, including not only the natural sciences, engineering, and medicine, but journalism, theatre arts, and the Writing Program, as well as nearby Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. --Before offering courses, CCS conducted all-day workshops and high

  11. Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov., from water of pristine brooks.

    PubMed

    Niemi, R Maarit; Ollinkangas, Tuula; Paulin, Lars; Svec, Pavel; Vandamme, Peter; Karkman, Antti; Kosina, Marcel; Lindström, Kristina

    2012-09-01

    A significant number of Enterococcus strains from pristine waters of two brooks in Finland formed a distinct cluster on the basis of whole-cell protein fingerprinting by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. The strains shared the following characteristics. Cells were ovoid, Gram-positive-staining and non-spore-forming, appearing singly or in pairs or chains. They were facultatively anaerobic and catalase-negative. Growth in broth containing 6.5 % NaCl or at 45 °C was weak or absent. Production of D antigen was variable. The strains tolerated 60 °C for 30 min, 40 % bile and tellurite, hydrolysed aesculin strongly and gelatin weakly, produced no acid from hippurate and did not reduce it, grew weakly at 10 °C, showed a strong reaction for the Voges-Proskauer test and produced acid from methyl α-d-glucoside, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with weak or no production of acid from methyl α-d-mannoside, l-arabinose, gluconate and l-xylose. Several of the strains were selected for identification on the basis of sequencing of almost the whole 16S rRNA gene and partial atpA and pheS genes and of (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. Partial atpA and pheS gene sequencing was also performed for those type strains of Enterococcus species without available sequences in the database. The pristine brook isolates formed a novel species, for which the name Enterococcus rivorum sp. nov. (type strain S299(T) = HAMBI 3055(T) = LMG 25899(T) = CCM 7986(T)) is proposed. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, E. rivorum sp. nov. is related to the Enterococcus faecalis genogoup. It is distinguished from described Enterococcus species on the basis of 16S rRNA, atpA and pheS gene sequences and whole-cell protein and (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprints. It is most closely related to E. faecalis, but DNA-DNA hybridization confirms it to represent a novel species.

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 54 (RANDTH00BR0054) on Brook Street, crossing Thayer Brook, Randolph, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RANDTH00BR0054 on Brook Street crossing Thayer Brook, Randolph, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge available from VTAOT files was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain physiographic division of central Vermont in the town of Randolph. The 5.39-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the immediate banks are forested. In the study area, Thayer Brook has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 60 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 42.4 mm or 0.139 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visits on August 3, 1994 and December 5, 1994, indicated that the reach was vertically and laterally unstable. This assessment was due to the extreme channel misalignment with the bridge opening and the presence of a drop structure downstream of the bridge protecting against channel degradation. The Brook Street crossing of Thayer Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot concrete span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 2, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. Streamflow attacks the upstream right wingwall and has undermined the upstream end of the right abutment. Type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) exists only on the upstream and downstream sides of the left

  13. Genetic and phenotypic variation along an ecological gradient in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baillie, Shauna M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Hansen, Michael J.; Krueger, Charles C.; Bentzen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdaptive radiation involving a colonizing phenotype that rapidly evolves into at least one other ecological variant, or ecotype, has been observed in a variety of freshwater fishes in post-glacial environments. However, few studies consider how phenotypic traits vary with regard to neutral genetic partitioning along ecological gradients. Here, we present the first detailed investigation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycushthat considers variation as a cline rather than discriminatory among ecotypes. Genetic and phenotypic traits organized along common ecological gradients of water depth and geographic distance provide important insights into diversification processes in a lake with high levels of human disturbance from over-fishing.ResultsFour putative lake trout ecotypes could not be distinguished using population genetic methods, despite morphological differences. Neutral genetic partitioning in lake trout was stronger along a gradient of water depth, than by locality or ecotype. Contemporary genetic migration patterns were consistent with isolation-by-depth. Historical gene flow patterns indicated colonization from shallow to deep water. Comparison of phenotypic (Pst) and neutral genetic variation (Fst) revealed that morphological traits related to swimming performance (e.g., buoyancy, pelvic fin length) departed more strongly from neutral expectations along a depth gradient than craniofacial feeding traits. Elevated phenotypic variance with increasing water depth in pelvic fin length indicated possible ongoing character release and diversification. Finally, differences in early growth rate and asymptotic fish length across depth strata may be associated with limiting factors attributable to cold deep-water environments.ConclusionWe provide evidence of reductions in gene flow and divergent natural selection associated with water depth in Lake Superior. Such information is relevant for documenting intraspecific biodiversity in the largest freshwater lake

  14. [Allozyme diversity and genetic divergence of the dolly varden Salvelinus malma Walbaum from the Kuril islands].

    PubMed

    Omel'chenko, V T; Salmenkova, E A; Shed'ko, S V

    2002-09-01

    Genetic variation was studied in the southern subspecies of the Asian Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma krascheninnikovi from the Kuril Islands. Thirty-six genetic loci controlling 19 enzyme systems were analyzed in 13 Dolly Varden populations from the Shumshu, Paramushir, Onekotan, Rasshua, Simushir, Urup, Iturup, and Kunashir islands. In the studied populations, the proportion of polymorphic loci was 35 to 85% and the mean heterozygosity was 0.104 to 0.173; populations from the Kunashir Island were characterized by maximum heterozygosity. In the island populations examined, significant inter-population heterogeneity of allele frequencies was found for all studied population pairs. For the total population of all islands, the inter-population diversity (GST = 0.188) was comparable to this parameter for the total population from the Kunashir Island (GST = 0.170). Genetic distances between populations did not correlate with the corresponding geographical distances, which indicates the lack of a pronounced gene exchange between the island populations. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling based on genetic distances did not reveal clear groups among the studied populations but indicated greater similarity within the Iturup-Simushir-Urup-Paramushir group and a greater genetic divergence of the Kunashir, Onekotan, Rasshua, and especially Shumshu populations. In the Shumshu population, allele frequencies indicate the admixture of genes of the northern Dolly Varden. The observed pattern of genetic differentiation was probably caused largely by genetic drift under the conditions of a limited gene flow because of homing (which is typical of the Dolly Varden) and the presence of isolated nonanadromous populations. The population-genetic analysis of the Dolly Varden from the Kuril Islands does not give grounds to distinguish any other isolated Dolly Varden species in this region than S. malma, which is represented by the southern form S. m. krascheninnikovi with an

  15. Foraging mechanisms of siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) on pelagic prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyler, Trevor D.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Austin, C. Lee; Gorman, Owen T.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    The reaction distance, angle of attack, and foraging success were determined for siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) during laboratory trials under lighting conditions that approximated downwelling spectral irradiance and intensity (9.00 × 108–1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1) at daytime depths. Siscowet reaction distance in response to golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) was directly correlated with increasing light intensity until saturation at 1.86 × 1011 photons m− 2 s− 1, above which reaction distance was constant within the range of tested light intensities. At the lowest tested light intensity, sensory detection was sufficient to locate prey at 25 ± 2 cm, while increasing light intensities increased reaction distance up to 59 ± 2 cm at 1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1. Larger prey elicited higher reaction distances than smaller prey at all light intensities while moving prey elicited higher reaction distances than stationary prey at the higher light intensities (6.00 × 109 to 1.06 × 1014 photons m− 2 s− 1). The capture and consumption of prey similarly increased with increasing light intensity while time to capture decreased with increasing light intensity. The majority of orientations toward prey occurred within 120° of the longitudinal axis of the siscowet's eyes, although reaction distances among 30° increments along the entire axis were not significantly different. The developed predictive model will help determine reaction distances for siscowet in various photic environments and will help identify the mechanisms and behavior that allow for low light intensity foraging within freshwater systems.

  16. Dieldrin and DDT: accumulation from water and food by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    In the laboratory we measured the amounts of dieldrin and p,p'DDT accumulated by fish from contaminated water and food to determine how fish from Lake Michigan accumulate high concentrations of these insecticides from an environment where the concentrations in water are generally less than 0.01 ppb. Eight groups of yearling lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were exposed to different combinations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and food. Concentrations of dieldrin and p,p'DDT ranged from 0.006 to 0.010 ppb in water and from 1,700 to 2,300 ppb in food (Oregon moist pellets). After 152 days of exposure to insecticides in water, fish had accumulated an average of 478 ppb dieldrin or 352 ppb p,p'DDT. Fish exposed to dieldrin and p,p'DDT in food accumulated 470 and 648 ppb, respectively. However, it was difficult to determine exactly how much of either insecticide was accumulated from the food because trace amounts (0.003-0.004 ppb) had leached from food or feces. After exposure to the insecticide was terminated, fish eliminated dieldrin at a much faster rate than p,p'DDT. In fish exposed to a combination of dieldrin and p,p'DDT in water and then held for 125 days in uncontaminated water, the total amount of dieldrin (I?g) declined 89%, but the total amount of p,p'DDT remained unchanged. We used data from this study to estimate how much p,p'DDT adult Lake Michigan coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) accumulated from water and from food during a 104-day period (May-August 1968). The estimates suggest that during these months coho salmon accumulated most of the body burden of p,p'DDT from food.

  17. Effects of selected polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) thymocyte viability, apoptosis, and necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birchmeier, Kelly L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.

    2005-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants have been identified as an emergent contaminants issue in many parts of the world. In vitro analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that selected PBDEs congeners affect viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of thymocytes from laboratory-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). At current environmental levels (<1 mg/L), effects of the tested PBDEs on thymocytes were negligible. However, at 100 mg/L, major effects were seen for congener brominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) and minor effects were seen for congener BDE-99.

  18. Llama-supported geologic fieldwork in Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dillion, J.T.; Faiks, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    For the first time since their camelid ancestors migrated from Asia, across the Bering Sea land bridge, into the Brooks Range, and eventually south to the Andes during the Late Pleistocene, domestic llamas trekked through Arctic Alaska mountains. During August 1981, six llamas carrying 520 lb of gear supported a field party of eight people that traveled 80 mi over 11 days. The route followed left the Dietrich Trans-Alaska Pipe line camp on the Dalton Highway and went eastward over the 5000 ft mountains separating the Dietrich and Matthews Rivers, then north to the headwaters of the Matthews River, and finally west to the Dietrich River drainage north of Snowsden Mountain. Although none had packing experience, all of the llamas were friendly and easy to handle. They carried 60-2100 lbs each, depending on their age. Only blocky talus and very steep slopes were obstacles. The llamas easily traversed fine loose rock, making ascents and descents as steep as 1000 ft/mi (190 m/km), bashed through alder scrub, slogged over muskeg, and forded rivers. Since they are avid foragers, minimal food was packed for the llamas. Bears were sighted during the trip, but none approached the group. Dall sheep and llamas puzzled at each other from a distance.

  19. Geohydrology of Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols counties, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krause, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The principal artesian aquifer, a limestone of Eocene to Miocene age, is the main source of water supply for Brooks, Lowndes, and western Echols Counties in south Georgia. Pumpage of about 22 million gallons perday from this prolific aquifer has not posed any problems regarding declining water levels or depletion of the reservoir. However, water-quality problems do occur in the Valdosta area. Seepage-run measurements indicate that the Withlacoochee River north of Valdosta contributes an average of 112 cubic feet per second of water to caverns and sinkholes that recharge the aquifer. Wells near the recharge area withdraw relatively unfiltered water with iron concentration and color intensity exceeding standards for drinking water. South of Valdosta, water from the aquifer contains as much as 3.0 milligrams per liter of hydrogen sulfide, rendering the water unfit for drinking. Water high in sulfate concentration occurs below 550 feet in the lower part of the aquifer in Valdosta, and is assumed to be present at that depth throughout the study area. Generally, sufficient quantities of freshwater can be obtained without drilling to this depth.

  20. [The divergence of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma in Asian Northern Pacific populations inferred from the PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, V A

    2002-10-01

    Genetic differentiation of the dolly varden char Salvelinus malma Walbaum was studied in five populations from the western part of the Northern Pacific. Using restriction analysis (RFLP), we examined polymorphism of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MtDNA haplotypes were shown to fall into two phylogenetic groups, which probably reflect the existence of two previously described subspecies of Asian dolly varden, S. malma malma and S. malma krascheninnikovi. The divergence of mtDNA nucleotide sequences in the dolly varden subspecies (about 4%) corresponds to the differences between the valid char species from the genus Salvelinus.

  1. Experiments to test if allopatric Salvelinus alpinus are suitable year-round hosts of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea).

    PubMed

    Winger, A C; Kristoffersen, R; Siikavuopio, S I; Knudsen, R

    2009-05-01

    There has been an increased focus on Salvelinus alpinus as a potential long-term host to Gyrodactylus salaris and, here, both susceptibility to G. salaris and ability to sustain a parasite population seasonally, was tested using fry and parr of S. alpinus from the River Skibotnelva, northern Norway. Fry were highly susceptible. Gyrodactylus salaris survived on allopatric S. alpinus parr during the 5 month-long winter when water temperatures were c. 1 degrees C. Salvelinus alpinus fry also maintained a pulse of G. salaris infection for over 155 days from early May until autumn. Gyrodactylus salaris are thus able to reproduce and survive on S. alpinus for long periods and at low water temperatures. In spring, newly hatched fry of S. alpinus may serve as an important host to maintain a G. salaris metapopulation within a river system. The results suggest that S. alpinus are adequate long-term hosts of G. salaris independent of the presence of the co-occurring highly susceptible S. salar.

  2. Evaluating the growth potential of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) feeding on siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, E.K.; Weidel, B.C.; Ahrenstorff, T.D.; Mattes, W.P.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in the preferred thermal habitat of Lake Superior lake trout morphotypes create alternative growth scenarios for parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attached to lake trout hosts. Siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabit deep, consistently cold water (4–6 °C) and are more abundant than lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) which occupy temperatures between 8 and 12 °C during summer thermal stratification. Using bioenergetics models we contrasted the growth potential of sea lampreys attached to siscowet and lean lake trout to determine how host temperature influences the growth and ultimate size of adult sea lamprey. Sea lampreys simulated under the thermal regime of siscowets are capable of reaching sizes within the range of adult sea lamprey sizes observed in Lake Superior tributaries. High lamprey wounding rates on siscowets suggest siscowets are important lamprey hosts. In addition, siscowets have higher survival rates from lamprey attacks than those observed for lean lake trout which raises the prospect that siscowets serve as a buffer to predation on more commercially desirable hosts such as lean lake trout, and could serve to subsidize lamprey growth.

  3. HPLC and ELISA analyses of larval bile acids from Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yun, S.-S.; Scott, A.P.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.; Close, D.A.; Li, W.

    2003-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on two native lamprey species, Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) and western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) from the Pacific coast along with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) from the Great Lakes, to investigate their bile acid production and release. HPLC and ELISA analyses of the gall bladders and liver extract revealed that the major bile acid compound from Pacific and western brook larval lampreys was petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), previously identified as a migratory pheromone in larval sea lamprey. An ELISA for PZS has been developed in a working range of 20pg-10ng per well. The tissue concentrations of PZS in gall bladder were 127.40, 145.86, and 276.96??g/g body mass in sea lamprey, Pacific lamprey, and western brook lamprey, respectively. Releasing rates for PZS in the three species were measured using ELISA to find that western brook and sea lamprey released PZS 20 times higher than Pacific lamprey did. Further studies are required to determine whether PZS is a chemical cue in Pacific and western brook lampreys. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Science in Flux: NASA's Nuclear Program at Plum Brook Station 1955-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Science in Flux traces the history of one of the most powerful nuclear test reactors in the United States and the only nuclear facility ever built by NASA. In the late 1950's NASA constructed Plum Brook Station on a vast tract of undeveloped land near Sandusky, Ohio. Once fully operational in 1963, it supported basic research for NASA's nuclear rocket program (NERVA). Plum Brook represents a significant, if largely forgotten, story of nuclear research, political change, and the professional culture of the scientists and engineers who devoted their lives to construct and operate the facility. In 1973, after only a decade of research, the government shut Plum Brook down before many of its experiments could be completed. Even the valiant attempt to redefine the reactor as an environmental analysis tool failed, and the facility went silent. The reactors lay in costly, but quiet standby for nearly a quarter-century before the Nuclear Regulatory Commission decided to decommission the reactors and clean up the site. The history of Plum Brook reveals the perils and potentials of that nuclear technology. As NASA, Congress, and space enthusiasts all begin looking once again at the nuclear option for sending humans to Mars, the echoes of Plum Brook's past will resonate with current policy and space initiatives.

  5. Cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Cement stratigraphy serves as a descriptive framework for the interpretation of the diagenetic history of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska. The Lisburne is a sequence of shallow-water, marine carbonate rocks that have experienced a wide spectrum of diagenetic events: early marine diagenesis, early subaerial exposure, significant erosion and karstification following final Lisburne deposition, deep burial of at least 3,000 meters, compressional tectonism, and final uplift into modern mountain ranges. Compositional zones in the calcite cements were identified by using stains for ferroan calcite and cathodoluminescence microscopy. The cements are, from oldest to youngest: A1-nonferroan, nonluminescent or multibanded calcite; B1-nonferroan to low-ferroan, dull luminescent calcite; C1-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; B2-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite; A2-nonferroan calcite with 1 or 2 sets of nonluminescent and bright zones; C2-ferroan, very-dull luminescent calcite; Be-nonferroan, dull luminescent calcite. Petrographic studies of cross-cutting relationships show that A1 cements predate or are synchronous with surfaces of subaerial exposure within the Lisburne Group. The cross-cutting relationships include truncation of cements by early fractures, non-marine fissure fills, and at clast margins of autoclastic breccias. Similarly, B1 and C1 cements predate the major unconformity at the top of the Lisburne Group, hence, these cements are pre-Permian in age and may well have precipitated from fresh groundwaters introduced during development of the sub-Permian unconformity. B2 and C2 cements are present in the Permian Echooka formation overlying the Lisburne Group and, thus, can be dated as post-Pennsylvanian. B3 cements are Cretaceous or younger in age.

  6. Tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Detailed studies of the composition, internal structure, and age of the Brooks Range ophiolite (BRO) and its metamorphic sole reveal new constraints for its tectonic evolution. The BRO consists of six separate thrust masses of consanguineous composition, internal organization, structure and age. Subophiolite metamorphic rocks are locally preserved along its structural base, which is well exposed in several places. The metamorphic sole is locally transitional with mafic volcanic sequences, chert, tuffs, and minor clastic sedimentary material of the Copter Peak Complex, which is correlative with the Angayucham terrane. This terrane is much older than, and chemically distinct from the BRO. The internal structure of the BRO is characterized by NE-SW trending igneous layers that expose the transition zone from crust to mantle. Residual mantle material consists of tectonized peridotite in abrupt contact with dunite pods up to 4 km thick. Ductile and brittle structures of the BRO preserve various phases of its dynamic evolution from a magma body to a fragmented thrust sheet. The earliest deformational effects are recorded by ductile lattice and shape fabrics in dunites and the layered series of the BRO. Magmatic flow planes generally parallel the petrologic moho, and dip 40[degree]--70[degree] to the NW and SE. Flow lineations consistently plunge ESE-ENE from 39[degree]--54[degree]. Igneous laminations and compositional layers represent patterns of magmatic flow in, and plastic deformation of, a cumulate sequence -- not the deposition pattern of cumulate layers. In the upper layered series, amphiboles with a shape-preferred orientation yield Ar/Ar plateau ages of 163--169 Ma. These ages overlap with plateau ages of the same kind from amphibolite of the metamorphic sole. This concordance in age indicates that cooling of the BRO coincided with its tectonic emplacement.

  7. Structural problems of the Brooks Range ophiolite, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.A.; Bickerstaff, D. . Dept. of Geology); Stone, D.B. . Geophysical Inst.)

    1993-04-01

    Structural and paleogeographic restorations of the Brooks Range ophiolite (hereafter BRO) and other associated mafic and ultramafic bodies of N. Alaska are difficult because of ambiguous relations between sheeted dikes, cover sediments, and steep NW and SE dipping magmatic flow fabrics. Paleomagnetically enhanced structural studies at Misheguk, Avan, and Siniktanneyak Mountains provide new constraints for the initial dip and sequence of deformation for various structural features of the BRO. The angle between magmatic layers near the petrologic moho and the paleomagnetic inclination of these layers is 50--63[degree] at Misheguk. High level gabbro layers that are disrupted by syn- and post-cooling intrusions display a greater variation. Assuming that the characteristic magnetization is primary, and that the primary inclination was > 80[degree], magmatic layers and the moho had initial dips from 17--40[degree]. These layers now dip 40--70[degree]SE suggesting some post-magmatic tilt. The variation of inclinations with depth in the ophiolite suggest that high level gabbro has tilted most. Sheeted dikes are documented at the Maiyumerak and Siniktanneyak ophiolite bodies. At both locations the dikes dip steeply and strike NE-SW. Sedimentary and volcanic flow layers associated with the dikes have the same strike and dip 0--30[degree]. Parallelism between various planar features throughout the BRO indicates that rotations about a vertical axis are either uniform throughout the ophiolite belt or negligible. Assuming the later, the BRO may represent a linear zone of SSZ magmatism that was oriented NE-SW prior to collision. Post-emplacement long wavelength folding of the ophiolite lid can account for its variation in facing direction and some steepening of magmatic layers.

  8. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P.

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis).

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianfeng; Buchinger, Tyler; Pu, Jiafei; Jia, Liang; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of paired species northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) and silver lamprey (I. unicuspis) is reported. The two mitogenomes show a 13 bp length difference on the tRNA-Gly and two control regions. The gene order and contents are conserved in the two lampreys and identical to the lamprey mitogenomes published. Except for three indel polymorphic sites, there are 27 SNP sites which are all synonymous substitution sites and occurred on 9 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and one tRNA. The control region1 contains six consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings in both lampreys. A 7-nt repetitive string in the control region2 is repeated 3 and 5 times in northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey, respectively. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.74%) is consistent with the hypothesis that northern brook lamprey and silver lamprey represent two ecotypes of one species.

  10. 75 FR 52374 - National Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Environmental Policy Act; NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station Wind Farm Project AGENCY: National... scoping and prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the NASA GRC Plum Brook Station Wind Farm... scoping is for NASA to obtain public comments on construction and operation of the wind farm. The...

  11. 77 FR 60676 - Stony Brook University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscope This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c.... Docket Number: 12-034. Applicant: Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794. Instrument: Electron.... Docket Number: 12-035. Applicant: The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031. Instrument:...

  12. Geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin, and implications for brook-trout habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Saad, David A.; Pratt, Dennis M.; Lenz, Bernard N.

    2015-01-01

    Available brook-trout habitat is dependent on the locations of groundwater upwellings, the sizes of flood peaks, and sediment loads. Management practices that focus on reducing or slowing runoff from upland areas and increasing channel roughness have potential to reduce flood peaks, erosion, and sedimentation and improve brook-trout habitat in all Bayfield Peninsula streams.

  13. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  14. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  15. Predation by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in southern Lake Ontario, 1982-1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, C.P.; Owens, R.W.; Bergstedt, R.A.; O'Gorman, R.

    1996-01-01

    Dead lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) killed by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) were collected from the bottom of Lake Ontario using bottom trawls. The number of dead lake trout per hectare could be predicted from the number of type A-1 sea lamprey marks observed on live fish in September gillnet surveys (r2 = 0.60, P P > 0.05) from those of live fish with A-1 marks in 5 of 6 years where comparisons could be made. Compared with Lake Superior strain lake trout, Seneca Lake strain fish were only 0.41 times as likely to be attacked by sea lamprey and were less likely to die from an attack (both differences P < 0.05). Conservative estimates of the numbers of lake trout killed by sea lamprey in southern Lake Ontario from October to mid-November ranged from 17 000 in 1988 to 121 000 in 1984.

  16. Future distribution of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus in Sweden under climate change: effects of temperature, lake size and species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Ohlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2012-01-01

    Novel communities will be formed as species with a variety of dispersal abilities and environmental tolerances respond individually to climate change. Thus, models projecting future species distributions must account for species interactions and differential dispersal abilities. We developed a species distribution model for Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus, a freshwater fish that is sensitive both to warm temperatures and to species interactions. A logistic regression model using lake area, mean annual air temperature (1961-1990), pike Esox lucius and brown trout Salmo trutta occurrence correctly classified 95 % of 467 Swedish lakes. We predicted that Arctic char will lose 73 % of its range in Sweden by 2100. Predicted extinctions could be attributed both to simulated temperature increases and to projected pike invasions. The Swedish mountains will continue to provide refugia for Arctic char in the future and should be the focus of conservation efforts for this highly valued fish.

  17. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) telemetry and associated habitat data collected in a geodatabase from the upper Boise River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Shephard, Zachary M.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Prisciandaro, Anthony F.

    2017-03-23

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act, are among the more thermally sensitive of coldwater species in North America. The Boise River upstream of Arrowrock Dam in southwestern Idaho (including Arrowrock Reservoir) provides habitat for one of the southernmost populations of bull trout. The presence of the species in Arrowrock Reservoir poses implications for dam and reservoir operations. From 2011 to 2014, the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey collected fish telemetry data to improve understanding of bull trout distribution and movement in Arrowrock Reservoir and in the upper Boise River tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled the telemetry (fish location) data, along with reservoir elevation, river discharge, precipitation, and water-quality data in a geodatabase. The geodatabase includes metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee content standards. The Bureau of Reclamation plans to incorporate the data in a decision‑support tool for reservoir management.

  18. Effects of temperature on survival and development of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeuwig, M.H.; Bayer, J.M.; Seelye, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effects of temperature (10, 14, 18, and 22??C) on survival and development of Pacific lampreys Lampetra tridentata and western brook lampreys L. richardsoni during embryological and early larval stages. The temperature for zero development was estimated for each species, and the response to temperature was measured as the proportion of individuals surviving to hatch, surviving to the larval stage, and exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage (i.e., malformations of the body). The estimated temperature for zero development was 4.850C for Pacific lampreys and 4.97??C for western brook lampreys. Survival was greatest at 18??C, followed by 14, 10, and 22??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. Overall survival was significantly greater for western brook lampreys than for Pacific lampreys; however, the overall difference in proportion of individuals surviving was only 0.02. Overall survival significantly decreased from the time of hatch (proportion surviving = 0.85) to the larval stage (0.82; i.e., during the free-embryo stage). The proportion of individuals exhibiting abnormalities at the larval stage was greatest at 22??C, followed by 18, 10, and 14??C, significant differences being observed between 22??C and the other temperatures. These data provide baseline information on the thermal requirements of early life stage Pacific and western brook lampreys and will aid in assessment and prediction of suitable spawning and rearing habitats for these species.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL ACIDIFICATION CAUSES SOIL BASE-CATION DEPLETION AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that changes in atmospheric deposition, climate, or land use have altered the biogeochemistry of forests causing soil base-cation depletion, particularly Ca. The Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) is a paired watershed experiment with one watershed subjected to...

  20. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  1. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  2. Back to Our Beginnings: Information utilization, Bertram Brookes and the Fundamental Equation of Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    1999-01-01

    This analytical paper covers: (1) review of the terrain of information utilization; (2) posits/examines Bertram Brookes' fundamental equation of information science as a theoretical framework, and discuss our understanding of/research into, the cognitive aspects of information utilization, and (3) discusses methodological aspects for investigating…

  3. Decontamination of Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.G.; Halishak, W.F.

    2008-07-01

    The large scale decontamination of the concrete Hot Cells and Hot Pipe Tunnel at NASA's Plum Brook Reactor Facility demonstrates that novel management and innovative methods are crucial to ensuring that the successful remediation of the most contaminated facilities can be achieved with minimal risk to the project stakeholders. (authors)

  4. Technology Education for All (Role of the Department of Technology and Society at Stony Brook).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxal, John G.

    Studies offered by the Department of Technology and Society at the State University of New York at Stony Brook are described. The program of studies for nonengineering students provides an introduction to the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of the technological environment. The college provides courses for undergraduates in the…

  5. The Spine of Literature: A Conversation between Eudora Welty and Cleanth Brooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline

    1988-01-01

    Describes a discussion between Cleanth Brooks and Eudora Welty about the state of the story in today's fiction. Characterizes the narrative form as the spine of literature. Points out that, too often, contemporary writers neglect this form of writing and instead emphasize a type of prose poetry. Notes that authors today overemphasize the present…

  6. 75 FR 38716 - Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display, Brookings, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... No. USCG-2010-0602] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Vietnam Veterans of America Fireworks Display... Veterans of America Fireworks Display near Brookings, Oregon. This action is necessary to ensure the safety... with fireworks displays on navigable waters. Accordingly, under 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B), the Coast...

  7. Distribution of volatile organic compounds in sediments near Sutton Brook Disposal Area, Tewksbury, Massachusetts, May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, P.E.; Lyford, F.P.; Clifford, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Ground water at the Sutton Brook Disposal Area, a former municipal landfill in Tewksbury, Massachusetts, located adjacent to Sutton Brook, a tributary of the Shawsheen River, is contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Results from the use of passive-vapor-diffusion samplers show vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons as high as 500,000 parts per billion by volume in pore waters of streambed sediments along an approximate 2,000-foot reach of Sutton Brook where it flows between lobes of the former landfill. Petroleum hydrocarbons were also detected in the sediments on the eastern shore of Quarry Pond, which is south of the southern landfill lobe, with a maximum vapor concentration near 2,000 parts per billion by volume. Vapor concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediments of Sutton Brook vary by two to three orders-of-magitude over distances of 50 to 100 feet. Chlorinated hydrocarbons also were detected with passive-vapor-diffusion samplers, but generally at locations downstream of where petroleum hydrocarbons were detected, and mostly at vapor concentrations of less than 100 parts per billion by volume.

  8. Brook trout nutritional analysis for inclusion into the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of wild game and fish that are legal to hunt or catch do not have nutrition information in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Among those species that lack nutrition information are brook trout. The research team worked with the Nutrient Data Laboratory wit...

  9. Modeling ecohydrologic processes at Hubbard Brook: Initial results for Watershed 6 stream discharge and chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Hubbard Brook Long Term Ecological Research site has produced some of the most extensive and long-running databases on the hydrology, biology and chemistry of forest ecosystem responses to climate and forest harvest. We used these long-term databases to calibrate and apply G...

  10. Myostatin protein and RNA transcript levels in adult and developing brook trout.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W

    2003-11-28

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis were used to measure RNA expression of the two brook trout myostatin (MSTN) genes ("ovarian", ov and "brain/muscle", b/m), and levels of MSTN immunoreactive protein (MIP) in developing embryos and muscle of brook trout adults. In developing brook trout embryos, ov and b/m MSTN RNAs and MIP significantly increased 45 days post-fertilization. In adult brook trout, the b/m MSTN form was expressed at higher levels in red versus white muscle regardless of gender or time of year. While few changes were observed in MSTN transcripts in fish sampled throughout the year, a significant increase in the processed 14 kDa MIP was observed at spawning in a tissue specific manner, and differences were observed between males and females. These data, along with promoter sequence analysis of the of b/m and ov genes, support a role for MSTN in muscle growth and development in fish.

  11. Reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method for a French contemporary population.

    PubMed

    Savall, Frédéric; Rérolle, Camille; Hérin, Fabrice; Dédouit, Fabrice; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    The Suchey-Brooks method is commonly used for pubic symphyseal aging in forensic cases. However, inter-population variability is a problem affected by several factors such as geographical location and secular trends. The aim of our study was to test the reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method on a virtual sample of contemporary French males. We carried out a retrospective study of 680 pubic symphysis from adult males undergoing clinical Multislice Computed Tomography in two hospitals between January 2013 and July 2014 (Toulouse and Tours, France). The reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method was tested by the calculation of inaccuracy and bias between real and estimated ages, and the mean age for each stage and the mean stage for each 10-years age interval were compared. The degree of inaccuracy and bias increased with age and inaccuracy exceeded 20 years for individuals over 65 years of age. The results are consistent with an overestimation of the real age for stages I and II and an underestimation of the real age for stages IV, V and VI. Furthermore, the mean stages of the reference sample were significantly lower for the 14-25 age group and significantly higher for individuals over 35 years old. Age estimation is potentially limited by differential inter-population error rates between geographical locations. Furthermore, the effects of secular trends are also supported by research in European countries showing a reduction in the age of attainment of indicators of biological maturity during the past few decades. The results suggest that the Suchey-Brooks method should be used with caution in France. Our study supports previous findings and in the future, the Suchey-Brooks method could benefit from re-evaluation of the aging standards by the establishment of new virtual reference samples.

  12. Conditions for creativity: lessons for lesbians in the lives of Romaine Brooks and Terry Wolverton.

    PubMed

    Walker, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the lives of Terry Wolverton, former lesbian separatist artist at The Women's Building, Los Angeles and now a mythical writer and visionary, and lesbian painter, Romaine Brooks. Whereas superficially their lives appear to have little in common other than that they were both lesbian artists, similarities can be found in stories linking them in ways previously un-examined before. Both came from abusive family backgrounds, Wolverton surviving sexual abuse and alcoholism, while Brooks' life was marred by a frightening mother and a father who deserted her. Using autobiography and biographical sources, Walker analyzes the creative conditions under which lesbian art may thrive. For a time, gay and lesbian art flourished in the United States. Brooks' portraits of "butch" lesbians became synonymous with popular images of twentieth-century lesbians. Wolverton's work with other lesbian artists in The Lesbian Art Project of 1977-1980 documents their engagement with art. The conditions required for creativity of whatever kind involves journeys and Walker uses the concept of "journeying" as a metaphor to describe the internal and external processes that of necessity accompany the creative act. The content of the article examines what can be learned from the lives of Brooks and Wolverton. Historically the "artist story" (Kunstlerroman) has focused on male and female heterosexual artists. The study of more recent autobiographical accounts permits an examination of the development of artists with cultural differences, and makes it possible to ask what conditions need be in place for lesbian artists to create art to "unfetter the self" when the self in question is different. Walker concludes that the early experiences of Wolverton and Brooks had a profound effect on their adult lives, as both made circuitous creative journeys in attempts to overcome the trauma of childhood years. Whereas one succeeded, the other failed due to the different cultural conditions

  13. 77 FR 37707 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement on Brooks River Visitor Access for Katmai National Park and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... Lake barge landing area at the mouth of the Brooks River. A no-action alternative is also evaluated. If... feet. A new barge landing site would be located approximately 200 feet south of the mouth of the...

  14. Delineation of Areas Contributing Water to the Dry Brook Public-Supply Well, South Hadley, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garabedian, Stephen P.; Stone, Janet Radway

    2004-01-01

    Areas contributing water to the Dry Brook public-supply well in South Hadley, Massachusetts, were delineated with a numerical ground-water-flow model that is based on geologic and hydrologic information for the confined sand and gravel aquifer pumped by the supply well. The study area is along the Connecticut River in central Massachusetts, about 12 miles north of Springfield, Massachusetts. Geologic units in the study area consist of Mesozoic-aged sedimentary and igneous bedrock, late-Pleistocene glaciolacustrine sediments, and recent alluvial deposits of the Connecticut River flood plain. Dry Brook Hill, immediately south of the supply well, is a large subaqueous lacustrine fan and delta formed during the last glacial retreat by sediment deposition into glacial Lake Hitchcock from a meltwater tunnel that was likely near where the Connecticut River cuts through the Holyoke Range. The sediments that compose the aquifer grade from very coarse sand and gravel along the northern flank of the hill, to medium sands in the body of the hill, and to finer-grained sediments along the southern flank of the hill. The interbedded and overlapping fine-grained lacustrine sediments associated with Dry Brook Hill include varved silt and clay deposits. These fine-grained sediments form a confining bed above the coarse-grained aquifer at the supply well and partially extend under the Connecticut River adjacent to the supply well. Ground-water flow in the aquifer supplying water to Dry Brook well was simulated with the U.S. Geological Survey ground-water-flow modeling code MODFLOW. The Dry Brook aquifer model was calibrated to drawdown data collected from 8 observation wells during an aquifer test conducted by pumping the supply well for 10 days at a rate of 122.2 cubic feet per minute (ft3/min; 914 gallons per minute) and to water levels collected from observation wells across the study area. Generally, the largest hydraulic conductivity values used in the model were in the sand and

  15. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  16. Kinematics of the mosquito terrane, Coldfoot Area, Alaska: Keys to Brooks Range tectonics: Final report, Project No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, T.A.; Coney, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    Within the large-scale geometry of the Brooks Range, the Angayucham terrane occurs as a vast overthrust sheet. From the north flank of the Ruby terrane it underlies the Koyukuk basin and stretches north as the roof thrust to the various nappe terranes of the Brooks Range. The tectonic relationship of the Ruby terrane to the south flank of the Brooks Range lies largely obscured beneath the Angayucham in the eastern apex of the Koyukuk basin. The Mosquito terrane occurs as a window through the Angayucham at this juncture. The composition and structures of the Mosquito terrane reveal that is the result of shear along a sub-horizontal step or flange within the prominent, through-going dextral strike-slip fault system which cuts across the eastern Koyukuk basin and southeastern Brooks Range. Units of the Mosquito were derived from both the Angayucham and Ruby terranes. A consistent tectonic fabric imposed upon them is kinematically linked to the strike-slip system and indicates a northeasterly direction of transport across the terrane. The presence of Ruby-correlative units within the Mosquito suggests the Ruby underlies the Angayucham and that it is in contact with terrances of the southern Brooks Range at that structural level along high-angle strike-slip faults. These relationships demonstrate that an episode of dextral transpression is the latest in the history of terrane accretion and tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range. 35 refs.

  17. Stratigraphy, structure, and palinspastic synthesis of the western Brooks Range, northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Ellersieck, Inyo

    1983-01-01

    This report is an effort to describe and decipher the mid-Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy and the orogenic evolution of the western Brooks Range. The western Brooks Range primarily is composed of stacks of complexly deformed thrust sheets that contain mostly coeval sequences of rocks with slightly different lithologic facies. In order to simplify the thrust-faulted stratigraphy and palinspastic restoration, the rocks are grouped into eight principal structural levels. The lowest structural level is believed to be autochthonous or parautochthonous and above that, each succeeding level is designated allochthon one through seven. Allochthon seven is composed of the remnants of an extensive ophiolite sheet. Allochthon six is composed of pillow basalt with subordinate intermediate volcanic rocks, chert, and Devonian limestone. It is not certain whether this allochthon was formed in a continental or oceanic setting. Allochthons five through one consist of distinctive and coeval sequences of Devonian to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a continental setting. The present geographic distribution of each structural level is shown on the allochthon map of the western Brooks Range. The stratigraphy of the southern part of northern Alaska has been reconstructed by systematically unstacking lower allochthons to the north of higher allochthons. The palinspastic map that results from this procedure shows that the minimum thrust displacement between allochthon seven and the autochthon is approximately 700 to 800 km. Schematic cross sections drawn across the palinspastic map show how the stratigraphy of the southern part of northern. Alaska most likely appeared prior to the orogeny. During Devonian and Mississippian time, the sedimentary sequences that are now part of allochthons one to five are inferred to have been deposited in an ensialic basin with both northern and southern margins. During Pennsylvanian time, the sequences seem to have become

  18. Preparation and Reactivity of Acyclic Chiral Allylzinc Species by a Zinc-Brook Rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Leibeling, Markus; Shurrush, Khriesto A; Werner, Veronika; Perrin, Lionel; Marek, Ilan

    2016-05-10

    The zinc-Brook rearrangement of enantiomerically enriched α-hydroxy allylsilane produces a chiral allylzinc intermediate, which reacts with retention of configuration in the presence of an electrophile. Two remarkable features of this transformation are the stereochemical outcome during the formation of the allylzinc species and the complete stereocontrol in the organized six-membered transition state, which leads to an overall and complete transfer of chirality within the reaction sequence.

  19. Delinquent Medical Service Accounts at Brooke Army Medical Center Need Additional Management Oversight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    collection. This is the first in a series of reports concerning medical service accounts ( MSAs ). This report provides the results of our review...performed at U.S. Army Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC). We reviewed the 25 highest dollar delinquent MSAs valued at $11.0 million. Finding BAMC...Uniform Business Office (UBO) management did not effectively manage delinquent MSAs . As of May 29, 2013, BAMC UBO management had 15,106 outstanding

  20. New cave species of Sinella Brook, 1882 from China (Collembola: Entomobryidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Feng

    2016-09-07

    Springtails, especially entomobryids, are abundant in Karst faunas. Five new species of Sinella Brook are described here from caves in southern China: S. liuae sp. nov., S. hunanica sp. nov., S. tigris sp. nov., S. minuta sp. nov. and S. tiani sp. nov. A new record of Sinella sineocula Chen & Christiansen, is also recorded. These species differ in claw structure, chaetae on ventral side of the head, and body chaetotaxy. An updated key to cave species of Sinella from China is provided.

  1. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  2. Lisburne Group (Mississippian-Lower Permian) petrography, paragenesis, and hydrocarbon potential, central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krutak, P.R.

    1989-03-01

    Subsurface Lisburne Group (Wahoo) rocks at Prudhoe Bay-Kuparuk fields produce 2 million bbl of oil/day and contain 2-3 billion bbl of oil in place. Lisburne reservoirs are early diagenetic dolomites encased in thick platform carbonates. Petrographic and geochemical study of 264 samples from eight newly discovered surface Lisburne sections comprising 4568 ft of strata in the Central Brooks Range provide new data concerning paragenesis and hydrocarbon potential of Lisburne facies farther west. A generalized paragenetic sequence for Lisburne equivalents of this region is (1) initial carbonate skeletal growth (both aragonite and calcite) during the Carboniferous, (2) subsequent recrystallization and inversion of aragonite to calcite, the change to calcite proceeding throughout late Paleozoic and Permian-Triassic time, (3) dolomitization in the Middle and Late Carboniferous, (4) chertification and silicification, postdating slightly or overlapping dolomitization, (5) development of porosity (moldic, intracrystal, etc.) in the middle to late Mesozoic, (6) formation of fracture porosity concurrent with the Brooks Range orogeny during Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous time, (7) oil generation, migration, and emplacement in Late Cretaceous-Tertiary time. Lisburne dolomites from the Central Brooks Range bear heavy hydrocarbons. Rock-Eval pyrolysis indicates part of the section is in the oil window and near the peak wet-gas generation zone. Shale samples from this region display thermal alteration indices and vitrinite reflectance values near the oil floor and also indicate potential for sourcing dry gas. Conodont color alteration indices show part of the Lisburn could produce dry gas.

  3. Amoxicillin pulsatile - MiddleBrook: APC 111, APC-111, PULSYS-enhanced amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals (formerly Advancis Pharmaceutical) is developing an improved version of amoxicillin using its pulsatile oral drug delivery technology, called PULSYS. Amoxicillin PULSYS is intended to provide a lower treatment dose, once-daily alternative to currently approved amoxicillin and penicillin regimens for the treatment of adolescents/adults with pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis. If amoxicillin PULSYS is approved, it will be the first and only once-daily amoxicillin therapy approved for use in the US. Regulatory submissions for the treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis have been made in the US. Amoxicillin PULSYS is in clinical development for the treatment of pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis due to group A streptococcal infections in adolescents/adults as a tablet formulation. MiddleBrook was conducting clinical development of a sprinkle formulation for children. However, this has been put on hold for financial reasons. MiddleBrook is seeking regulatory approval for this product as a 505(b)(2) product, which is one that is not considered to be a completely new product, but is also not a generic product. It is a product with some differences from a previously approved product and clinical data to support such differences are required; however, the basic safety and efficacy studies may have been conducted by other organisations. In June 2007, Advancis Pharmaceutical was renamed as MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, Inc. MiddleBrook and Par Pharmaceuticals entered a co-promotion agreement for this product in June 2004. Par was to fund future development in exchange for co-exclusive marketing rights and exclusive rights to sell amoxicillin PULSYS. MiddleBrook retained responsibility for the manufacturing programme and also retained all patents and brand names and was responsible for their enforcement. However, this collaboration was subsequently terminated in August 2005 by Par Pharmaceutical. MiddleBrook received the US $4.75 million R&D reimbursement

  4. Facies comparison of autochthonous and allochthonous Permian and Triassic units, north-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, K.E.

    1985-04-01

    Eight stratigraphic sections of Permian and Triassic rocks have been studied over a 30 km by 150 km area in the Endicott and Philip Smith Mountains of the central Brooks Range. Six of the sections are located on the Endicott Mountains allochthon, and the remaining two are parautochthonous columns in the Mount Doonerak area. The sections record a facies transition between the autochthonous Sadlerochit Group and Shublik Formation of the northeastern Brooks Range and the characteristically siliceous rocks of the allochthonous Siksikpuk and Otuk formations of the western Brooks Range. Laterally continuous and bioturbated beds of fine-grained sandstone, siltstone, and shale dominantly compose the Permian sequence, whereas the Triassic rocks consist of black shales, thin rhythmically bedded siliceous mudstones, and fossiliferous limestones. When the allochthonous sections are restored to a position south of the Mount Doonerak area, a general shallowing trend from southwest to northwest becomes evident within the reconstructed marine basin. To the south and west, the Permian sediments show a marked increase in silica content, with the occurrence of barite and a corresponding decrease in the thickness of the basal, coarser grained clastics. The Triassic formations also document an increase in silica and the presence of barite to the south and west, while becoming significantly sooty and phosphatic to the north and east. Ongoing petrographic and micropaleontologic studies of the field data will clarify these general paleogeographic relationships.

  5. New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binder, Thomas R.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Riley, Stephen C.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests that courtship and mate selection might be isolated from the spawning act (i.e., traveling, sinking, and gamete release). Moreover, we interpret jockeying for position displayed by males during traveling as a unique form of male-male competition that likely evolved in concert with the switch from redd-building to itinerant spawning in lake trout. Unlike previous models, which suggested that intra-sexual competition and mate selection do not occur in lake trout, our model includes both and is therefore consistent with evolutionary theory, given that the sex ratio on spawning grounds is skewed heavily towards males. The model presented in this paper is intended as a working hypothesis, and further revision may become necessary as we gain a more complete understanding of lake trout spawning behavior.

  6. New estimates of lethality of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attacks on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): Implications for fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Chipman, B.D.; Marsden, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in North America costs millions of dollars each year, and control measures are guided by assessment of lamprey-induced damage to fisheries. The favored prey of sea lamprey in freshwater ecosystems has been lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). A key parameter in assessing sea lamprey damage, as well as managing lake trout fisheries, is the probability of an adult lake trout surviving a lamprey attack. The conventional value for this parameter has been 0.55, based on laboratory experiments. In contrast, based on catch curve analysis, mark-recapture techniques, and observed wounding rates, we estimated that adult lake trout in Lake Champlain have a 0.74 probability of surviving a lamprey attack. Although sea lamprey growth in Lake Champlain was lower than that observed in Lake Huron, application of an individual-based model to both lakes indicated that the probability of surviving an attack in Lake Champlain was only 1.1 times higher than that in Lake Huron. Thus, we estimated that lake trout survive a lamprey attack in Lake Huron with a probability of 0.66. Therefore, our results suggested that lethality of a sea lamprey attack on lake trout has been overestimated in previous model applications used in fisheries management. ?? 2008 NRC.

  7. Evidence of widespread natural reproduction by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the Michigan waters of Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; He, J.X.; Johnson, J.E.; O'Brien, T. P.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Localized natural reproduction of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Huron has occurred since the 1980s near Thunder Bay, Michigan. During 2004–2006, USGS spring and fall bottom trawl surveys captured 63 wild juvenile lake trout at depths ranging from 37–73 m at four of five ports in the Michigan waters of the main basin of Lake Huron, more than five times the total number captured in the previous 30-year history of the surveys. Relatively high catches of wild juvenile lake trout in bottom trawls during 2004–2006 suggest that natural reproduction by lake trout has increased and occurred throughout the Michigan waters of the main basin. Increased catches of wild juvenile lake trout in the USGS fall bottom trawl survey were coincident with a drastic decline in alewife abundance, but data were insufficient to determine what mechanism may be responsible for increased natural reproduction by lake trout. We recommend further monitoring of juvenile lake trout abundance and research into early life history of lake trout in Lake Huron.

  8. Multi-scale geomorphic and hydrogeologic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat in headwater streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; Wilcox, A. C.; Woessner, W. W.; Muhlfeld, C.

    2013-12-01

    We investigated multi-scale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt- dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Bull trout redds were primarily found in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (74%), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater-stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds (26%), however, were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches. Among all reaches and subreaches, the abundance of redds increased with increased bankfull dimensionless shear stress and decreased with reach-average streambed grain size (p < 0.05). Within these selected reaches and subreaches, redd occurrence tended to be associated with the finest available textural facies (i.e., gravel and small cobble substrates) in concave-up bedforms with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm. Groundwater provided substantial thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Our spawning gravel competence results indicate that bull trout select spawning areas that are potentially susceptible to flooding-induced scour during the fall and winter incubation period.

  9. Fragmentation of riverine systems: the genetic effects of dams on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Clark Fork River system.

    PubMed

    Neraas, L P; Spruell, P

    2001-05-01

    Migratory bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) historically spawned in tributaries of the Clark Fork River, Montana and inhabited Lake Pend Oreille as subadult and adult fish. However, in 1952 Cabinet Gorge Dam was constructed without fish passage facilities disrupting the connectivity of this system. Since the construction of this dam, bull trout populations in upstream tributaries have been in decline. Each year adult bull trout return to the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam when most migratory bull trout begin their spawning migration. However, the origin of these fish is uncertain. We used eight microsatellite loci to compare bull trout collected at the base of Cabinet Gorge Dam to fish sampled from both above and further downstream from the dam. Our data indicate that Cabinet Gorge bull trout are most likely individuals that hatched in above-dam tributaries, reared in Lake Pend Oreille, and could not return to their natal tributaries to spawn. This suggests that the risk of outbreeding depression associated with passing adults over dams in the Clark Fork system is minimal compared to the potential genetic and demographic benefits to populations located above the dams.

  10. Seasonal habitat selection by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in a small Canadian shield lake: Constraints imposed by winter conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchfield, P.J.; Tate, L.S.; Plumb, J.M.; Acolas, M.-L.; Beaty, K.G.

    2009-01-01

    The need for cold, well-oxygenated waters significantly reduces the habitat available for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) during stratification of small temperate lakes. We examined the spatial and pelagic distribution of lake trout over two consecutive summers and winters and tested whether winter increased habitat availability and access to littoral regions in a boreal shield lake in which pelagic prey fish are absent. In winter, lake trout had a narrowly defined pelagic distribution that was skewed to the upper 3 m of the water column and spatially situated in the central region of the lake. Individual core areas of use (50% Kernel utilization distributions) in winter were much reduced (75%) and spatially non-overlapping compared to summer areas, but activity levels were similar between seasons. Winter habitat selection is in contrast to observations from the stratified season, when lake trout were consistently located in much deeper waters (>6 m) and widely distributed throughout the lake. Winter distribution of lake trout appeared to be strongly influenced by ambient light levels; snow depth and day length accounted for up to 69% of the variation in daily median fish depth. More restricted habitat use during winter than summer was in contrast to our original prediction and illustrates that a different suite of factors influence lake trout distribution between these seasons. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  11. Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is not the cause of thiamine deficiency impeding lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Evans, Allison N.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, James L.; Heppell, Scott A.; Riley, Stephen C.; Krueger, Charles C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a global concern affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans. In Great Lakes salmonines, thiamine deficiency causes embryo mortality and is an impediment to restoration of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocks. Thiamine deficiency in fish may result from a diet of prey with high levels of thiaminase I. The discoveries that the bacterial species Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus produces thiaminase I, is found in viscera of thiaminase-containing prey fish, and causes mortality when fed to lake trout in the laboratory provided circumstantial evidence implicating P. thiaminolyticus. This study quantified the contribution of P. thiaminolyticus to the total thiaminase I activity in multiple trophic levels of Great Lakes food webs. Unexpectedly, no relationship between thiaminase activity and either the amount of P. thiaminolyticus thiaminase I protein or the abundance of P. thiaminolyticus cells was found. These results demonstrate that P. thiaminolyticus is not the primary source of thiaminase activity affecting Great Lakes salmonines and calls into question the long-standing assumption that P. thiaminolyticus is the source of thiaminase in other wild and domestic animals.

  12. Subcellular distribution of trace elements and liver histology of landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled along a mercury contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Barst, Benjamin D; Rosabal, Maikel; Campbell, Peter G C; Muir, Derek G C; Wang, Xioawa; Köck, Günter; Drevnick, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    We sampled landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from four lakes (Small, 9-Mile, North, Amituk) in the Canadian High Arctic that span a gradient of mercury contamination. Metals (Hg, Se, Tl, and Fe) were measured in char tissues to determine their relationships with health indices (relative condition factor and hepatosomatic index), stable nitrogen isotope ratios, and liver histology. A subcellular partitioning procedure was employed to determine how metals were distributed between potentially sensitive and detoxified compartments of Arctic char livers from a low- and high-mercury lake (Small Lake and Amituk Lake, respectively). Differences in health indices and metal concentrations among char populations were likely related to differences in feeding ecology. Concentrations of Hg, Se, and Tl were highest in the livers of Amituk char, whereas concentrations of Fe were highest in Small and 9-Mile char. At the subcellular level we found that although Amituk char had higher concentrations of Tl in whole liver than Small Lake char, they maintained a greater proportion of this metal in detoxified fractions, suggesting an attempt at detoxification. Mercury was found mainly in potentially sensitive fractions of both Small and Amituk Lake char, indicating that Arctic char are not effectively detoxifying this metal. Histological changes in char livers, mainly in the form of melano-macrophage aggregates and hepatic fibrosis, could be linked to the concentrations and subcellular distributions of essential or non-essential metals.

  13. Food of young-of-the-year lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swedberg, Donald V.; Peck, James W.

    1984-01-01

    The food habits of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were studied by examining the digestive tracts of 293 young-of-the-year collected in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior. Lake trout in the 25 to 27-mm length range started to eat food organisms before all of their yolk material was absorbed. Organisms consumed by the 25 to 27-mm young-of-the-year included Chironomidae, Copepoda (Harpacticoida, Calanoida, Cyclopoida), and Cladocerea (Daphnia spp., Bosmina sp., Chydorus sp.). Chironomid pupae and chironomid larvae accounted for 74% and 5%, respectively, of the total volume of food eaten by the young lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor. Although copepods, cladocerans, and mysids were present in many stomachs, their contribution to the total volume of food was only 15%. Some lake trout in the 32 to 54-mm length range had consumed fry of sculpin (Cottus spp.) or rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the overall contribution of fish fry to the total volume of food was only 4% (frequency of occurrence, 10%). The lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor fed heavily on planktonic organisms, sparingly on benthic organisms, and were opportunistic feeders that appeared to prey on whatever forage organisms were available in the shallow nearshore waters.

  14. Response of non-native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) to 15 years of harvest in Yellowstone Lake, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Syslo, J.M.; Guy, C.S.; Bigelow, P.E.; Doepke, P.D.; Ertel, B.D.; Koel, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) threaten to extirpate native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) in the 34 000 ha Yellowstone Lake in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Suppression (and eventual eradication) of the lake trout population is deemed necessary for the conservation of Yellowstone cutthroat trout. A US National Park Service gill-netting program removed nearly 450 000 lake trout from Yellowstone Lake from 1995 through 2009. We examined temporal variation in individual growth, body condition, length and age at maturity, fecundity, mortality, and population models to assess the efficacy of the lake trout suppression program. Population metrics did not indicate overharvest despite more than a decade of fish removal. The current rate of population growth is positive; however, it is lower than it would be in the absence of lake trout suppression. Fishing effort needs to increase above observed levels to reduce population growth rate below replacement. Additionally, high sensitivity of population growth rate to reproductive vital rates indicates that increasing fishing mortality for sexually mature lake trout may increase the effectiveness of suppression. Lake trout suppression in Yellowstone Lake illustrates the complexities of trying to remove an apex predator to restore a relatively large remote lentic ecosystem with a simple fish assemblage.

  15. COMPARATIVE PHASE I AND II MICROSOMAL METABOLISM OF PHENOL IN THREE FISH SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In vitro metabolism of phenol at 11 degrees C has been studied using immature adult rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brook (Salvelinus fontinalis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) hepatic microsomal preparations. Incubations were optimized for time, cofactor concentration, pH...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF HYDROQUINONE AND CATECHOL FORMATION USING HEPATIC MICROSOMES FROM THREE SPECIES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in vitro metabolism of phenol at 11 degrees C has been studied using juvenile and immature adult rainbow (Orcorhynchus mykiss), immature adult brook (Salvelinus fontinalis), and immature adult lake trout (Salvelinus namacush) hepatic microsomal preparations.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 10 (NORWTH00120010) Town Highway 012 Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NORWTH00120010 on town highway 12 crossing Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting the Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 8.98-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left bank upstream and the left and right banks downstream are forested. The immediate right bank upstream is covered by shrub and brush with pasture on the overbank. Town Highway 12 runs along the valley of Bloody Brook; however, at structure NORWTH00120010 the road crosses Bloody Brook at a 90-degree angle. In the study area, Bloody Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.014 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 41 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 51.0 mm or 0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on October 31, 1994, indicated that the reach was unstable. The town highway 12 crossing of Bloody Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot clear span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., July 29, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The right abutment is protected by sparse type-2 stone fill (less than 24 inches diameter). The channel is skewed 0 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees

  18. Unraveling the Timing of Fluid Migration and Trap Formation in the Brooks Range Foothills: A Key to Discovering Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Catherine L. Hanks

    2008-12-31

    Naturally occurring fractures can play a key role in the evolution and producibility of a hydrocarbon accumulation. Understanding the evolution of fractures in the Brooks Range/Colville basin system of northern Alaska is critical to developing a better working model of the hydrocarbon potential of the region. This study addressed this problem by collecting detailed and regional data on fracture distribution and character, structural geometry, temperature, the timing of deformation along the Brooks Range rangefront and adjacent parts of the Colville basin, and the in situ stress distribution within the Colville basin. This new and existing data then were used to develop a model of how fractures evolved in northern Alaska, both spatially and temporally. The results of the study indicate that fractures formed episodically throughout the evolution of northern Alaska, due to a variety of mechanisms. Four distinct fracture sets were observed. The earliest fractures formed in deep parts of the Colville basin and in the underlying Ellesmerian sequence rocks as these rocks experienced compression associated with the growing Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt. The orientation of these deep basin fractures was controlled by the maximum in situ horizontal stress in the basin at the time of their formation, which was perpendicular to the active Brooks Range thrust front. This orientation stayed consistently NS-striking for most of the early history of the Brooks Range and Colville basin, but changed to NW-striking with the development of the northeastern Brooks Range during the early Tertiary. Subsequent incorporation of these rocks into the fold-and-thrust belt resulted in overprinting of these deep basin fractures by fractures caused by thrusting and related folding. The youngest fractures developed as rocks were uplifted and exposed. While this general order of fracturing remains consistent across the Brooks Range and adjacent Colville basin, the absolute age at any one

  19. Hydrogeology and ground-water flow, fractured Mesozoic structural-basin rocks, Stony Brook, Beden Brook, and Jacobs Creek drainage basins, west-central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Jean C.; Jacobsen, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize ground- water flow in the Stony Brook, Beden Brook, and Jacobs Creek drainage basins in west-central New Jersey. The 89-square-mile study area is underlain by dipping beds of fractured siltstone, shale, and sandstone and by massive diabase sills. In all of the rocks, the density of interconnected fractures decreases with depth. A major fault extends through the study area, and rocks on both sides of the fault are extensively fractured. The average annual rates of precipitation and ground-water recharge in the study area are 45.07 inches and 8.58 inches, respectively. The rate of recharge to diabase rocks is about one-half the rate of recharge to other rocks. Part of the surface runoff from diabase rocks enters the ground-water system where it encounters more permeable rocks. Most ground water in the study area follows short, shallow flow paths. A three- dimensional finite-difference model of ground-water flow was developed to test hypotheses concerning geologic features that control ground-water flow in the study area. The decrease in the density of interconnected fractures with depth was represented by dividing the model into two layers with different hydraulic conductivity. The pinching out of water- bearing beds in the dip direction at land surface and at depth was simulated as a lower hydraulic conductivity in the dip direction than in the strike direction. This model can be used to analyze ground-water flow if the area of interest is more than about 0.5 square mile.

  20. Effect of postthaw storage time and sperm-to-egg ratio on fertility of cryopreserved brook trout sperm.

    PubMed

    Nynca, J; Dietrich, G J; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Ciereszko, A

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to test the influence of postthaw storage time on sperm motility parameters of brook trout (n = 9). Furthermore, we examined the effect of sperm-to-egg ratios of 300,000:1 and 600,000:1 on fertility of postthaw, cryopreserved, brook trout sperm. The application of a cryopreservation procedure produced very high postthaw sperm motility (56.8 ± 4.0%). The cryopreserved sperm of brook trout could be stored up to 60 minutes without loss of the percentage of sperm motility (52.0 ± 9.0%). The fertilization capacity of brook trout postthaw sperm was comparable with the fertilization rate of fresh semen at a sperm-to-egg ratio as low as 300,000:1 (42.4 ± 14.0% and 36.5 ± 11.0% for eyed and hatched stages, respectively). The possibility of postthaw semen storage for the prolonged time and the obtainment of high fertilization rate at low sperm-to-egg ratio can lead to the significant improvement of brook trout semen cryopreservation procedure.

  1. Estimates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) diet in Lake Ontario using two and three isotope mixing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colborne, Scott F.; Rush, Scott A.; Paterson, Gordon; Johnson, Timothy B.; Lantry, Brian F.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent development of multi-dimensional stable isotope models for estimating both foraging patterns and niches have presented the analytical tools to further assess the food webs of freshwater populations. One approach to refine predictions from these analyses is to include a third isotope to the more common two-isotope carbon and nitrogen mixing models to increase the power to resolve different prey sources. We compared predictions made with two-isotope carbon and nitrogen mixing models and three-isotope models that also included sulphur (δ34S) for the diets of Lake Ontario lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). We determined the isotopic compositions of lake trout and potential prey fishes sampled from Lake Ontario and then used quantitative estimates of resource use generated by two- and three-isotope Bayesian mixing models (SIAR) to infer feeding patterns of lake trout. Both two- and three-isotope models indicated that alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) were the primary prey items, but the three-isotope models were more consistent with recent measures of prey fish abundances and lake trout diets. The lake trout sampled directly from the hatcheries had isotopic compositions derived from the hatchery food which were distinctively different from those derived from the natural prey sources. Those hatchery signals were retained for months after release, raising the possibility to distinguish hatchery-reared yearlings and similarly sized naturally reproduced lake trout based on isotopic compositions. Addition of a third-isotope resulted in mixing model results that confirmed round goby have become an important component of lake trout diet and may be overtaking alewife as a prey resource.

  2. Developing a food web-based transfer factor of radiocesium for fish, whitespotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis) in headwater streams.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Enamul; Gomi, Takashi; Sakai, Masaru; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2017-04-05

    We developed a food web-based transfer factor (TFweb) to study contaminant movements from multiple prey items to a predator based on the dietary contributions of prey items with their respective contamination levels. TFweb was used to evaluate the transfer of (137)Cs into whitespotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis) from the trophic structure of a stream-riparian ecosystem in headwater streams draining a Japanese cedar forest. We also examined the applicability of this method by comparing sites with different contamination levels but similar surrounding environments in Fukushima and Gunma. All samples were collected from August 2012 to May 2013. The dietary contributions from both aquatic and terrestrial prey items to whitespotted char were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. (137)Cs activity concentrations in char ranged from 704 to 6082 Bq kg(-1)-dry in Fukushima and from 193 to 618 Bq kg(-1)-dry in Gunma. Dominant prey taxa such as mayflies (Ephemera japonica), spider crickets (Rhaphidosphoridae gen. spp.), and freshwater crabs (Geothelphusa dehaani), each of them accounted for 3-12% of the fish diet, based on lower and upper estimates, respectively. TFweb ranged from 1.12 to 3.79 in Fukushima and from 1.30 to 4.30 in Gunma, which suggested bioaccumulation from prey items to predator. Widely used ecological parameters TFs by media-char and TTF by single prey-char showed high variability with both dilution and accumulation. TFweb is applicable for (137)Cs transfer in predator-prey systems with complex food web structures of stream-riparian ecosystems.

  3. Limitations to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) rehabilitation in the Great Lakes imposed by biotic interactions occurring at early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Eck, Gary W.; Evans, David O.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Hoff, Michael H.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Janssen, John; Jude, David; O'Gorman, Robert; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We examine evidence that biotic factors, particularly predation, may be limiting early survival of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) juveniles in many areas of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain numerous potential predators of lake trout eggs and fry, some of which are recent invaders, and most of which were probably absent when lake trout most recently re-invaded the Great Lakes after the last ice age. Simple quantitative models of predation suggest that plausible assumptions about prey densities, predator feeding rates, and duration of exposure of predator to prey can lead to very high estimates of predation mortality, in some instances approaching 100%. Indirect evidence from inter-Great Lake comparisons and inland lake examples also suggest that biotic factors may impede successful lake trout colonization. Our synthesis of the evidence leads to recommendations for research to better define field feeding rates of lake trout egg and fry predators and comparative studies of densities of potential egg and fry predators on lake trout spawning reefs. Management options should be designed to provide useful information as well as achieve short-term goals. From a management standpoint we recommend that: newly constructed lake trout reefs should be placed well away from concentrations of potential predators; offshore spawning reefs should be stocked; salmonine stocking, nutrient abatement, and commercial harvest of alewives should all be considered as options to enhance survival of young lake trout; hatchery lake trout should not be stocked at sites where wild lake trout are showing signs of recovery; and exotic species expansions or introductions must be curtailed to maintain or improve on our recent successes in lake trout rehabilitation.

  4. Relation between Streamflow of Swiftcurrent Creek, Montana, and the Geometry of Passage for Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.; Mogen, Jim T.; Kaeding, Lynn R.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2009-01-01

    Operation of Sherburne Dam in northcentral Montana has typically reduced winter streamflow in Swiftcurrent Creek downstream of the dam and resulted in passage limitations for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). We defined an empirical relation between discharge in Swiftcurrent Creek between Sherburne Dam and the downstream confluence with Boulder Creek and fish passage geometry by considering how the cross-sectional area of water changed as a function of discharge at a set of cross sections likely to limit fish passage. With a minimum passage window of 15 x 45 cm, passage at the cross sections increased strongly with discharge over the range of 1.2 to 24 cfs. Most cross sections did not satisfy the minimum criteria at 1.2 cfs, 25 percent had no passage at 12.7 cfs, whereas at 24 cfs all but one of 26 cross sections had some passage and 90 percent had more than 3 m of width satisfying the minimum criteria. Sensitivity analysis suggests that the overall results are not highly dependent on exact dimensions of the minimum passage window. Combining these results with estimates of natural streamflow in the study reach further suggests that natural streamflow provided adequate passage at some times in most months and locations in the study reach, although not for all individual days and locations. Limitations of our analysis include assumptions about minimum passage geometry, measurement error, limitations of the cross-sectional model we used to characterize passage, the relation of Sherburne Dam releases to streamflow in the downstream study reach in the presence of ephemeral accretions, and the relation of passage geometry as we have measured it to fish responses of movement, stranding, and mortality, especially in the presence of ice cover.

  5. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposures of cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Welsh, Paul G; Lipton, Josh; Cacela, Dave; Dailey, Anne D

    2002-01-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Present and historical habitat of this species includes waterways that have been impacted by metals released from mining and mineral processing activities. We conducted paired bioassays with bull trout and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to examine the relative sensitivity of each species to Cd and Zn independently and as a mixture. A total of 15 pairs of acute toxicity bioassays were completed to evaluate the effects of different water hardness (30 or 90 mg/L as CaCO3), pH (6.5 or 7.5), and temperature (8 or 12 degrees C) on Cd and Zn toxicity. For both species, the acute toxicity of both Cd and Zn was greater than previously observed in laboratory studies. Bull trout were about twice as tolerant of Cd and about 50% more tolerant of Zn than were rainbow trout. Higher hardness and lower pH water produced lower toxicity and slower rates of toxicity in both species. Elevated temperature significantly increased the sensitivity of bull trout to Zn but decreased the sensitivity (not significantly) of rainbow trout to Zn. At a hardness of 30 mg/L, the toxicity values (i.e., median lethal concentration; 120-h LC50) for both species were lower than the current U.S. national water quality criteria for protection of aquatic life, indicating that current national criteria may not be protective of sensitive salmonids--including the threatened bull trout--in low calcium waters.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA variation in bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from northwestern North America: implications for zoogeography and conservation.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E B; Pollard, S; Louie, D

    1999-07-01

    Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Salmonidae), are distributed in northwestern North America from Nevada to Yukon Territory, largely in interior drainages. The species is of conservation concern owing to declines in abundance, particularly in southern portions of its range. To investigate phylogenetic structure within bull trout that might form the basis for the delineation of major conservation units, we conducted a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) survey in bull trout from throughout its range. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of four segments of the mtDNA genome with 11 restriction enzymes resolved 21 composite haplotypes that differed by an average of 0.5% in sequence. One group of haplotypes predominated in 'coastal' areas (west of the coastal mountain ranges) while another predominated in 'interior' regions (east of the coastal mountains). The two putative lineages differed by 0.8% in sequence and were also resolved by sequencing a portion of the ND1 gene in a representative of each RFLP haplotype. Significant variation existed within individual sample sites (12% of total variation) and among sites within major geographical regions (33%), but most variation (55%) was associated with differences between coastal and interior regions. We concluded that: (i) bull trout are subdivided into coastal and interior lineages; (ii) this subdivision reflects recent historical isolation in two refugia south of the Cordilleran ice sheet during the Pleistocene: the Chehalis and Columbia refugia; and (iii) most of the molecular variation resides at the interpopulation and inter-region levels. Conservation efforts, therefore, should focus on maintaining as many populations as possible across as many geographical regions as possible within both coastal and interior lineages.

  7. The effects of long-term cadmium exposure on the growth and survival of juvenile bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus).

    PubMed

    Hansen, J A; Welsh, P G; Lipton, J; Suedkamp, M J

    2002-08-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) have been listed recently as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. This species currently resides, or historically resided, in several waterways that either are impacted or are under threat of impact from metals mining activities. We conducted a 55-day sub-chronic (i.e. sublethal) cadmium (Cd) exposure in water at 30 mg l(-1) (as CaCO(3)) hardness, pH 7.5, and 8 degrees C. Exposures were conducted using six replicate exposure tanks for each of the six treatments (five Cd concentrations and one control). Measured Cd concentrations were <0.013 (control), 0.052, 0.089, 0.197, 0.383, and 0.786 microg Cd l(-1). Exposure to 0.786 microg Cd l(-1) caused increased mortality (37%) and reduced growth (28% reduction in weight change) in fish exposed for 55 days. All Cd exposure concentrations caused significant whole body accumulation of Cd compared with controls. Our results indicate that even though fish are significantly accumulating Cd in each non-control treatment, growth reductions in bull trout occurred only at Cd concentrations that also caused significant mortality. The Cd concentration that reduced growth and survival in this long-term exposure (0.786 microg Cd l(-1)) is greater than the recently-revised US federal aquatic life criteria (ALC) value for the corresponding hardness concentration (ALC=0.62 microg Cd l(-1) for acute effects and 0.11 microg Cd l(-1) for chronic effects).

  8. Ice age fish in a warming world: minimal variation in thermal acclimation capacity among lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Nicholas I.; Burness, Gary; McDermid, Jenni L.; Wilson, Chris C.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of climate change, the persistence of cold-adapted species will depend on their adaptive capacity for physiological traits within and among populations. The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a cold-adapted salmonid and a relict from the last ice age that is well suited as a model species for studying the predicted effects of climate change on coldwater fishes. We investigated the thermal acclimation capacity of upper temperature resistance and metabolism of lake trout from four populations across four acclimation temperatures. Individuals were reared from egg fertilization onward in a common environment and, at 2 years of age, were acclimated to 8, 11, 15 or 19°C. Although one population had a slightly higher maximal metabolic rate (MMR), higher metabolic scope for activity and faster metabolic recovery across all temperatures, there was no interpopulation variation for critical thermal maximum (CTM) or routine metabolic rate (RMR) or for the thermal acclimation capacity of CTM, RMR, MMR or metabolic scope. Across the four acclimation temperatures, there was a 3°C maximal increase in CTM and 3-fold increase in RMR for all populations. Above 15°C, a decline in MMR and increase in RMR resulted in sharply reduced metabolic scope for all populations acclimated at 19°C. Together, these data suggest there is limited variation among lake trout populations in thermal physiology or capacity for thermal acclimatization, and that climate change may impact lake trout populations in a similar manner across a wide geographical range. Understanding the effect of elevated temperatures on the thermal physiology of this economically and ecologically important cold-adapted species will help inform management and conservation strategies for the long-term sustainability of lake trout populations. PMID:27293646

  9. [Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus Pallas, 1814 (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae): mediated gene introgression?].

    PubMed

    Shed'ko, S V; Ginatulina, L K; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A

    2007-02-01

    In 41 individuals of South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus, nucleotide sequences of tRNA-Pro gene fragment (27 bp) and mtDNA control region (483-484 bp) were analyzed. The fish were collected in 20 localities covering virtually the whole range of the species: Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island. and Primorye. In addition, six individuals of three other char species (S. albus, S. malma, and S. leucomaenis), which are closely related to S. curilus and inhabit the Russian Far East, were examined. In all, we detected 12 different variants of mtDNA haplotypes that formed three distinct groups differing in 14--20 nucleotide positions. The first group consisted of six haplotypes found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and Primorye (mtDNA phylogroup OKHOTSKIA). The second group comprised four haplotypes representing the mtDNA phylogroup BERING, which had been described earlier (Brunner et al, 2001); they were found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, as well as in S. albus and S. malma in Kamchatka and northern Kurils. The third group included two haplotypes detected in S. leucomaenis. The existence of two mtDNA lineages (OKHOTSKIA and BERING) in S. curilus from Kurils and Sakhalin was explained by hybridization and DNA transfer from S. malma to S. curilus. The absence of the BERING haplotypes in S. curilus from Primorye water reservoirs is related to the physical isolation of the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan basins in past epochs. On the basis of comparing phylogenetic trees, constructed from the data on allozyme and mtDNA variation, we suggest that in this case, an indirect transfer of mtDNA in Alpinoid chars--> S. malma-->S. curilus chain could occur.

  10. Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination. PMID:25226430

  11. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    PubMed

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  12. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  13. Laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiencies of PCB congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination.

  14. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought.

  15. Environmental planning as a tool for economic development: The black brook watershed experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ryner, P.C.; Heller, G.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Keene, New Hampshire Planning Department has attempted to use environmental planning as a tool to facilitate industrial development of the Black Brook Watershed. The City has established detailed modeling of drainage, floodplains and groundwater, and has placed that information on accurate computer-based maps. When provided to developers at the beginning of the development process, this environmental information expidites design and permitting while also improving the likelihood of protecting sensitive environmental areas. Starting in 1987 as part of a Master Plan revision process, the Planning Department decided to concentrate on the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern Keene as a target area for a new approach to economic development and environmental protection. The entire watershed was chosen as the boundary for this study area and detailed studies were conducted. During this effort the City formulated a new Economic Development Master Plan which called for the creation of approximately 300 acres of new industrial development within the next ten years. The Black Brook basin was identified as the preferred site. Because of pro-active environmental planning, the City is now able to work in active, cooperative partnership with the private sector in the development of this area. It is clear from this first specific development project that the project development and permitting process will be shortened by at least 60 days, and a minimum of $5,000 to $10,000 in preliminary site information costs will be saved. The availability of good information on wetlands and floodplains has already had a dramatic impact upon proposed site design and has achieved the desired objective of avoiding these sensitive areas whenever possible. The City is now working on the design of an Industrial Design and Permitting System which will be applied to the entire City, based upon what has been learned from this effort.

  16. New orbit recalculations of comet C/1890 F1 Brooks and its dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2016-08-01

    C/1890 F1 Brooks belongs to a group of 19 comets used by Jan Oort to support his famous hypothesis on the existence of a spherical cloud containing hundreds of billions of comets with orbits of semi-major axes between 50 000 and 150 000 au. Comet Brooks stands out from this group because of a long series of astrometric observations as well as a nearly 2-yr-long observational arc. Rich observational material makes this comet an ideal target for testing the rationality of an effort to recalculate astrometric positions on the basis of original (comet-star) measurements using modern star catalogues. This paper presents the results of such a new analysis based on two different methods: (i) automatic re-reduction based on cometary positions and the (comet-star) measurements and (ii) partially automatic re-reduction based on the contemporary data for the reference stars originally used. We show that both methods offer a significant reduction in the uncertainty of orbital elements. Based on the most preferred orbital solution, the dynamical evolution of comet Brooks during three consecutive perihelion passages is discussed. We conclude that C/1890 F1 is a dynamically old comet that passed the Sun at a distance below 5 au during its previous perihelion passage. Furthermore, its next perihelion passage will be a little closer than during the 1890-1892 apparition. C/1890 F1 is interesting also because it suffered extremely small planetary perturbations when it travelled through the planetary zone. Therefore, in the next passage through perihelion, it will once again be a comet from the Oort spike.

  17. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, B.W.; Abbott, M.B.; Finney, B.P.; Kutchko, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r2 = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varve-temperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation.

  18. Thermal Vacuum Testing of ICPTA RCS at Plum Brook B-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, M. J.; Hurlbert, E. A.; Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum and thermal vacuum testing of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) was performed at the Plum Brook B-2 facility as a part of a system checkout and facility characterization effort. Multiple test objectives included: integrated Reaction Control System (RCS) characterization, cold helium pressurization system characterization, modal propellant gaging experiment (Orion), CFM propellant loading experiments, main engine characterization. The ICPTA is a test bed for LOX/LCH4 technologies built in 2016 using new components and hardware from the former Morpheus vehicle and other projects.

  19. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects: summary report. Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, D.H.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-02-01

    This document summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Plum Brook Reactor Facility, which was placed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved safe storage configuration. The data were placed in a computerized information retrieval/manipulation system which permits future utilization of this information in decommissioning of similar facilities. The information is presented both in computer output form and a manually assembled summarization. Complete cost data were not readily available and decommissioning activities did not in all cases conform with current criteria for the SAFSTOR decommissioning mode, therefore no cost comparisons were made.

  20. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  1. Industrial cogeneration case study No. 2: American Cyanamid Chemical Company, Bound Brook, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Within a project for evaluating the economics of cogeneration for industrial plants with an electrical capacity of 10,000 to 30,000 kW, the American Cyanamid plant at Bound Brook, NJ was selected for study. Built between 1915 and 1920 this power plant was converted in the 1960's from coal-fueling to oil and natural gas. Information is presented on the plant site, fuel usage, generation costs, comparative cost of purchasable electric power, equipment used, performance, and reliability and capital and maintenance costs. (LCL)

  2. Middle Cambrian fossils from the Doonerak anticlinorium, central Brooks Range, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutro, J.T.; Palmer, A.R.; Repetski, J.E.; Brosge, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Middle Cambrian fossils collected near Wolf Creek in the Wiseman quadrangle, northern Alaska, include trilobites and paraconodonts. Trilobites date the strata as early Middle Cambrian, correlative with the Amgan Stage of Siberia. The assemblage includes: Kootenia cf. K. anabarensis Lermontova, cf. 'Parehmania' lata Chernysheva and Pagetia sp. Specimens of the paracondont genus Westergaardodina, from the same sample as the megafossils, record the earliest known occurrence of this taxon. These fossils, the first to establish an age for part of the sedimentary sequence in the Doonerak Anticlinorium, are the oldest fossils yet taken from the central and western Brooks Range.-Authors

  3. Enhancing Inquiry, Evidence-Based Reflection, and Integrative Learning with the Lifelong ePortfolio Process: The Implementation of Integrative ePortfolios at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Nancy McCoy

    2013-01-01

    Reflection plays a critical role in moving learning to the next level of inquiry. Stony Brook University has adopted an approach to using ePortfolios within the curriculum that emphasizes reflection. Stony Brook University successfully piloted ePortfolios in the Fall 2010 Semester and discovered their use facilitated the inquiry process for the…

  4. 75 FR 3217 - J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission J&T Hydro Company; H. Dean Brooks and W. Bruce Cox; Notice of Application... 30, 2009, J&T Hydro Company (transferor) and W. Dean Brooks, and H. Bruce Cox (transferees) filed...

  5. Can nutrient limitations explain low and declining white spruce growth near the Arctic treeline in the eastern Brooks Range, Alaska?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, S.; Sullivan, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The position of the Arctic treeline is of critical importance for global carbon cycling and surface energy budgets. However, controls on tree growth at treeline remain uncertain. In the Alaskan Brooks Range, 20th century warming has caused varying growth responses among treeline trees, with trees in the west responding positively, while trees in the east have responded negatively. The prevailing explanation of this trend ascribes the negative growth response to warming-induced drought stress in the eastern Brooks Range. However, recent measurements of carbon isotope discrimination in tree rings, xylem sap flow and needle gas exchange suggest that drought stress cannot explain these regional growth declines. Additionally, evidence from the western Brooks Range suggests that nutrient availability, rather than drought stress, may be the proximate control on tree growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that low and declining growth of eastern Brooks Range trees is due to low and declining soil nutrient availability, which may continue to decrease with climate change as soils become drier and microbial activity declines. We compared microclimate, tree performance, and a wide range of proxies for soil nutrient availability in four watersheds along a west-east transect in the Brooks Range during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We hypothesized that soil nutrient availability would track closely with the strong west-east precipitation gradient, with higher rainfall and greater soil nutrient availability in the western Brooks Range. We expected to find that soil water contents in the west are near optimum for nitrogen mineralization, while those in the east are below optimum. Needle nitrogen concentration, net photosynthesis, branch extension growth, and growth in the main stem are expected to decline with the hypothesized decrease in soil nutrient availability. The results of our study will elucidate the current controls on growth of trees near the

  6. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Kanayut Conglomerate, central and western Brooks Range, Alaska; report of 1981 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, T.H.; Moore, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian(?) Kanayut Conglomerate forms a major stratigraphic unit along the crest of the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. It crops out for an east-west distance of about 900 km and a north-south distance of about 65 km. The Kanayut is wholly allochthonous and has probably been transported northward on a series of thrust plates. The Kanayut is as thick as 2,600 m in the east-central Brooks Range. It thins and fines to the south and west. The Kanayut forms the middle part of the allochthonous sequence of the Endicott Group, an Upper Devonian and Mississippian clastic sequence underlain by platform limestones of the Baird Group and overlain by platform limestone, carbonaceous shale, and black chert of the Lisburne Group. The Kanayut overlies the marine Upper Devonian Noatak Sandstone or, where it is missing, the marine Upper Devonian Hunt Fork Shale. It is overlain by the marine Mississippian Kayak Shale. The Kanayut Conglomerate forms the fluvial part of a large, coarse-grained delta that prograded to the southwest in Late Devonian time and retreated in Early Mississippian time. Four sections of the Kanayut Conglomerate in the central Brooks Range and five in the western Brooks Range were measured in 1981. The sections from the western Brooks Range document the presence of fluvial cycles in the Kanayut as far west as the shores of the Chukchi Sea. The Kanayut in this area is generally finer grained than it is in the central and eastern Brooks Range, having a maximum clast size of 3 cm. It is probably about 300 m thick. The upper and lower contacts of the Kanayut are gradational. The lower Kanayut contains calcareous, marine-influenced sandstone within channel deposits, and the upper Kanayut contains probable marine interdistributary-bay shale sequences. The members of the Kanayut Conglomerate cannot be differentiated in this region. In the central Brooks Range, sections of the Kanayut Conglomerate at Siavlat Mountain and Kakivilak

  7. Stony Brook Seismic Network on Long Island, New York: operation and maintenance. Final report, September 1979-March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Liebermann, R.C.; Thurber, C.H.

    1986-04-01

    The seismology group in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the State University of New York at Stony Brook currently operates two short period seismic stations on Long Island, New York. These stations are part of the larger Northeastern United States Seismic Network (NEUSSN) operated by several university groups in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and New England. The Stony Brook stations provide data for specific studies of earthquakes in the vicinity of Long Island, including southeastern New England and offshore areas. This report discusses network operation and results of research using NEUSSN and related data.

  8. Structural provinces of the northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L. )

    1990-07-01

    The dominant Cenozoic structures of the northeastern Brooks Range are anticlinoria with cores of sub-Mississippian rocks, reflecting a regional north-vergent duplex with a floor thrust in the sub-Mississippian sequence and a roof thrust in the Mississippian Kayak Shale. The number of horses forming each anticlinorium and the structural style of the overlying Mississippian and younger cover sequence varies regionally, providing a basis for dividing the northeastern Brooks Range into structural provinces. In the western province, each anticlinorium contains a single horse, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated mainly by detachment folds. To the north in the Sadlerochit Mountains, the Kayak Shale is depositionally discontinuous and rocks elsewhere separated by this detachment deformed together. In the eastern province, each anticlinorium contains multiple horses, and shortening above the Kayak Shale was accommodated largely by thrust duplication of Mississippian through Triassic rocks. In the narrow central province, the Devonian Okpilak batholith was detached from its roots, internally shortened along shear zones and by penetrative strain, and transported northward. Because the Kayak Shale is locally absent, the Mississippian and younger cover sequence deformed in part penetratively along with the batholith. 13 figs.

  9. Modeling of a theoretical stream of comet 12P/Pons-Brooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, Dušan

    2015-12-01

    We show the modeling of the theoretical stream of the Halley type comet 12P/Pons-Brooks in a single perihelion passage that was 250P0 orbital periods in the past (the orbital period is 70.85 years). The modeled stream consisted of 10,000 particles. We followed its dynamical evolution by the numerical integration from the moment of their ejection up to present. From the total number of 10,000 particles, 1227 particles are passing around the Earth's orbit within the distance 0.05 AU. These particles have a well-defined radiant (Fig. 2) predicted on the northern sky, with a high declination (from about 61° to 81°). The subsequent identification with available meteor databases can confirm whether the meteor shower is real or not. For this purpose we used three databases: the photographical, radio-meteor, and video-meteor database. Despite the well-defined radiant, which it consists of 1227 particles, we cannot certainly confirm, that comet 12P/Pons-Brooks is a parent body of some meteor shower observable on the Earth.

  10. High-resolution geophysical data collected within Red Brook Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, in 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turecek, Aaron M.; Danforth, William W.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a high-resolution geophysical survey within Red Brook Harbor, Massachusetts, from September 28 through November 17, 2009. Red Brook Harbor is located on the eastern edge of Buzzards Bay, south of the Cape Cod Canal. The survey area was approximately 7 square kilometers, with depths ranging from 0 to approximately 10 meters. Data were collected aboard the U.S. Geological Survey Research Vessel Rafael. The research vessel was equipped with a 234-kilohertz interferometric sonar system to collect bathymetry and backscatter data, a dual frequency (3.5- and 200-kilohertz) compression high-intensity radar pulse seismic reflection profiler to collect subbottom data, a sound velocity profiler to acquire speed of sound within the water column, and a sea floor sampling device to collect sediment samples, video, and photographs. The survey was part of an ongoing cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to map the geology of the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. In addition to inclusion within the cooperative geologic mapping effort, these data will be used to assess the shallow-water mapping capability of the geophysical systems deployed for this project, with an emphasis on identifying resolution benchmarks for the interferometric sonar system.

  11. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  12. Plant communities as indicators of salt marsh hydrology A study at Goose Fare Brook, Saco, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, P.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Salt marsh stratigraphy often relies on vegetation fragment distribution as an indicator of paleo-sea level. This study is attempting to validate the use of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at Goose Fare Brook in Saco, Maine as paleo-sea level indicators. Plant zones were mapped and each zone boundary was surveyed to describe the relationship between sea level and plant species zonation. Data showing the contact elevations between S. patens and S. alterniflora were examined, and contacts from different environments in the marsh were compared. Differences in contact elevations ranged from only a few centimeters to more than eighty centimeters. Three series of groundwater monitoring wells were installed along transects. Within a single transect, one well was placed in the creek bottom, measuring the free water surface, and one was placed at each of several plant zone boundaries. Strip chart recordings from one series of monitoring wells show the flood dominated patterns of tidally influenced groundwater fluctuations in the wells. Root depths of 100 plugs each of S. alterniflora and S. patens were also measured. A comparison of these measurements and those from monitoring wells will assist in the determination of the average length of submergence time for each species. Preliminary findings suggest that sea level is not the only force affecting the modern zonation of these two indicator plants in Goose Fare Brook.

  13. Acoustical measurements of DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine at Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Etter, C.L.; Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Linn, C.; Garrelts, R.

    1983-06-01

    This report documents the evaluation of low-frequency acoustic emissions associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-0 wind turbine generator located at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA Brook Station, Ohio. These measurements were taken as part of a joint SERI/NASA effort to study acoustic noise generation by utility-sized wind turbines. The machine-operating conditions closely simulated the operation of the larger DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed near Boone, NC, in both its design downwind configuration and theoretical upwind mode. Measurement results indicated that acoustic impulses characteristic of the MOD-1 turbine were detectable only with a downwind configuration and a 35-rpm rotor speed, a situation which parallels a 23-rpm rotor speed operation on the MOD-1. Under the available meteorological conditions, no impulses were detected during downwind 23 rpm or by wind-induced noise, indicating a severe limitation of the microphone configuration used in these tests.

  14. Water age and stream solute dynamics at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (US)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Gianluca; Benettin, Paolo; McGuire, Kevin; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The contribution discusses experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA) to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is used to model both conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to estimate the relevant hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). Within this framework, dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow were simulated by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation at Hubbard Brook. The analysis of the results provided by the calibrated model allowed a robust estimate of the emerging concentration-discharge relationship, streamflow age distributions (including the fraction of event water) and storage size, and their evolution in time due to hydrologic variability.

  15. Diversifying and correlational selection on behavior toward conspecific and heterospecific competitors in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans)

    PubMed Central

    Peiman, Kathryn S; Robinson, Beren W

    2012-01-01

    Behaviors toward heterospecifics and conspecifics may be correlated because of shared mechanisms of expression in both social contexts (nonadaptive covariation) or because correlational selection favors adaptive covariation. We evaluated these hypotheses by comparing behavior toward conspecifics and heterospecifics in brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) from three populations sympatric with and three allopatric from a competitor, the ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius). Behavioral traits were classified into three multivariate components: overt aggression, sociability, and activity. The correlation of behavior between social contexts for both overt aggression and activity varied among populations in a way unrelated to sympatry with ninespine stickleback, while mean aggression was reduced in sympatry. Correlations in allopatric populations suggest that overt aggression and activity may genetically covary between social contexts for nonadaptive reasons. Sociability was rarely correlated in allopatry but was consistently correlated in sympatry despite reduced mean sociability, suggesting that correlational selection may favor a sociability syndrome in brook stickleback when they coexist with ninespine stickleback. Thus, interspecific competition may impose diversifying selection on behavior among populations, although the causes of correlated behavior toward conspecifics and heterospecifics and whether it can evolve in one social context independent of the other may depend on the type of behavior. PMID:23139874

  16. NASA's Hydrogen Outpost: The Rocket Systems Area at Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrighi, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    "There was pretty much a general knowledge about hydrogen and its capabilities," recalled former researcher Robert Graham. "The question was, could you use it in a rocket engine? Do we have the technology to handle it? How will it cool? Will it produce so much heat release that we can't cool the engine? These were the questions that we had to address." The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center, referred to historically as the Lewis Research Center, made a concerted effort to answer these and related questions in the 1950s and 1960s. The center played a critical role transforming hydrogen's theoretical potential into a flight-ready propellant. Since then NASA has utilized liquid hydrogen to send humans and robots to the Moon, propel dozens of spacecraft across the universe, orbit scores of satellite systems, and power 135 space shuttle flights. Rocket pioneers had recognized hydrogen's potential early on, but its extremely low boiling temperature and low density made it impracticable as a fuel. The Lewis laboratory first demonstrated that liquid hydrogen could be safely utilized in rocket and aircraft propulsion systems, then perfected techniques to store, pump, and cleanly burn the fuel, as well as use it to cool the engine. The Rocket Systems Area at Lewis's remote testing area, Plum Brook Station, played a little known, but important role in the center's hydrogen research efforts. This publication focuses on the activities at the Rocket Systems Area, but it also discusses hydrogen's role in NASA's space program and Lewis's overall hydrogen work. The Rocket Systems Area included nine physically modest test sites and three test stands dedicated to liquid-hydrogen-related research. In 1962 Cleveland Plain Dealer reporter Karl Abram claimed, "The rocket facility looks more like a petroleum refinery. Its test rigs sprout pipes, valves and tanks. During the night test runs, excess hydrogen is burned from special stacks in the best

  17. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  18. Residues of DDT in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Bergman, Harold L.

    1974-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were higher in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan in 1966–70 (average 18.1 ppm in fish 558–684 mm long) than in lake trout of the same size-class from Lake Superior in 1968–69 (4.4 ppm), and higher in adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from Lake Michigan in 1968–71 (averages for different year-classes, 9.9–14.0 ppm) than in those from Lake Erie in 1969 (2.2 ppm). Residues were significantly higher in lake trout from southern Lake Michigan than in those from the northern part of the lake. In lakes Michigan and Superior, the levels increased with length of fish and percentage oil. In Lake Michigan coho salmon, the residues remained nearly stable (2–4 ppm) from September of the 1st yr of lake residence through May or early June of the 2nd yr, but increased three to four times in the next 3 mo. Residues in Lake Erie coho salmon did not increase during this period, which preceded the spawning season. Although the concentrations of total residues in whole, maturing Lake Michigan coho salmon remained unchanged from August 1968 until near the end of the spawning season in January 1969, the residues were redistributed in the tissues of the spawning-run fish; concentrations in the loin and brain were markedly higher in January than in August. This relocation of DDT residues accompanied a marked decrease in the percentage of oil in the fish, from 13.2 in August to 2.8 in January. Concentrations of residues were relatively high in eggs of both lake trout (4.6 ppm) and coho salmon (7.4–10.2 ppm) from Lake Michigan. The percentage composition of the residues (p,p′DDE, o,p′/DDT, p,p′DDT, and p,p′DDT) did not differ significantly with life stage, size, age, or locality, or date of collection of lake trout or coho salmon.

  19. What Do Facts Have to Do with It? Exploring Instructional Emphasis in Stony Brook News Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An analytic matrix comprised of multiple media literacy teaching and learning principles is conceptualized to examine a model of news literacy developed by journalism educators at Stony Brook University. The multidimensional analysis indicates that news literacy instructors focus on teaching students how to question and assess the veracity of news…

  20. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  1. Performance Characterization of Influent and Effluent Treatment Systems: A Case Study at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes the performance of influent and effluent disinfection systems at Craig Brook National Fish Hatchery, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) restoration facility in East Orland, ME. Influent treatment of the hatchery’s water supply limits fish ...

  2. Brief Report: Stony Brook Guidelines on the Ethics of the Care of People with Autism and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Stephen G.; Pomeroy, John; Keirns, Carla C.; Cover, Virginia Isaacs; Dorn, Michael Leverett; Boroson, Louis; Boroson, Florence; Coulehan, Anne; Coulehan, Jack; Covell, Kim; Kubasek, Kim; Luchsinger, Elizabeth; Nichols, Shana; Parles, James; Schreiber, Linda; Tetenbaum, Samara P.; Walsh, Rose Ann

    2013-01-01

    The increased prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with associated societal and clinical impacts, calls for a broad community-based dialogue on treatment related ethical and social issues. The Stony Brook Guidelines, based on a community dialogue process with affected individuals, families and professionals, identify and discuss the…

  3. Growth of a Science Center: The Center for Science and Mathematics Education (CESAME) at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafney, Leo; Bynum, R. David; Sheppard, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the origin and development of CESAME (The Center for Science and Mathematics Education) at Stony Brook University. The analysis identifies key ingredients in areas of personnel, funding, organizational structures, educational priorities, collaboration, and institutionalization. After a discussion of relevant issues in…

  4. Media Literacy, News Literacy, or News Appreciation? A Case Study of the News Literacy Program at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This case study provides practical and theoretical insights into the Stony Brook news literacy program, which is one of the most ambitious and well-funded curricular experiments in modern journalism education and media literacy. Analysis of document, interview, and observation data indicates that news literacy educators sought to teach students…

  5. Physician Provider Profiling in Brooke Army Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Clinic: A Multiple Regression and Process Control Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    in Brooke Army Medical Center’s Internal Medicine Clinic during the 3rd & 4th quarter of FY 1998. Data regarding 26,502 individual patient-provider...accomplished by selecting internists and internal medicine residents and a single primary diagnosis. Second level case mix adjustment accounted for other

  6. On Conceptual Metaphor and the Flora and Fauna of Mind: Commentary on Brookes and Etkina; and Jeppsson, Haglund, and Amin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author presents his thoughts on two papers appearing in this special issue. The first, "The Importance of Language in Students' Reasoning about Heat in Thermodynamic Processes," by David T. Brookes and Eugenia Etkina (See: EJ1060728), and the second, "Varying Use of Conceptual Metaphors Across Levels of…

  7. Past and projected future changes in snowpack and soil frost at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire show that air temperature has increased by about 1 °C over the last half century. The warmer climate has caused significant declines in snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snow cover duration. Paradoxically, it has been su...

  8. State University of New York, Health Science Center at Stony Brook: Clinical Practice Management Plan. Report 94-S-34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    An evaluation was done of the use of funds generated by clinical practices at the Clinical Practice Management Plan of the State University of New York (SUNY) Health Science Center (HSC) at Stony Brook. The audit looked at compliance with Board of Trustee policies regarding: (1) whether 5 percent of the gross receipts from clinical practices were…

  9. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: Oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Budahn, James R.; Murchey, Benita L.

    1989-11-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic (Devonian to Mississippean), Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks (pillow basalt, subordinate diabase, basaltic tuff, and radiolarian chert). Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. Classification based on immobile trace elements confirms the tholeiitic character of most of the basalts but suggests that some had primary compositions transitional to alkali basalt. Although field and petrographic features of the basalts are similar, trace element characteristics allow definition of geographically distinct suites. A central outcrop belt along the crest of the mountains is made up of basalt with relatively flat rare earth element (REE) patterns. This belt is flanked to the north and south by LREE (light rare earth element)-enriched basalts. Radiolarian and conodont ages from interpillow and interlayered chert and limestone indicate that the central belt of basalts is Triassic in age, the southern belt is Jurassic in age, and the northern belt contains a mixture of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages. Data for most of the basalts cluster in the "within-plate basalt" fields of trace element discriminant diagrams; none have trace-element characteristics of island arc basalt. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted

  10. Deformation and the timing of gas generation and migration in the eastern Brooks Range foothills, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parris, T.M.; Burruss, R.C.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2003-01-01

    Along the southeast border of the 1002 Assessment Area in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, an explicit link between gas generation and deformation in the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt is provided through petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope analyses of fracture cements integrated with zircon fission-track data. Predominantly quartz-cemented fractures, collected from thrusted Triassic and Jurassic rocks, contain crack-seal textures, healed microcracks, and curved crystals and fluid inclusion populations, which suggest that cement growth occurred before, during, and after deformation. Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures (175-250??C) and temperature trends in fracture samples suggest that cements grew at 7-10 km depth during the transition from burial to uplift and during early uplift. CH4-rich (dry gas) inclusions in the Shublik Formation and Kingak Shale are consistent with inclusion entrapment at high thermal maturity for these source rocks. Pressure modeling of these CH4-rich inclusions suggests that pore fluids were overpressured during fracture cementation. Zircon fission-track data in the area record postdeposition denudation associated with early Brooks Range deformation at 64 ?? 3 Ma. With a closure temperature of 225-240??C, the zircon fission-track data overlap homogenization temperatures of coeval aqueous inclusions and inclusions containing dry gas in Kingak and Shublik fracture cements. This critical time-temperature relationship suggests that fracture cementation occurred during early Brooks Range deformation. Dry gas inclusions suggest that Shublik and Kingak source rocks had exceeded peak oil and gas generation temperatures at the time structural traps formed during early Brooks Range deformation. The timing of hydrocarbon generation with respect to deformation therefore represents an important exploration risk for gas exploration in this part of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. The persistence of gas high at

  11. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey's water retention parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasta, Paolo; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Romano, Nunzio

    2013-05-01

    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this study, we derive a simple closed-form equation that predicts the saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks from the WRF parameters of Brooks and Corey (1964). This physically based analytical expression uses an empirical tortuosity parameter (τ) and exploits the information embedded in the measured pore-size distribution. Our proposed model is compared against the current state of the art using more than 250 soil samples from the Grenoble soil catalog (GRIZZLY) and hydraulic properties of European soils (HYPRES) databases. Results demonstrate that the proposed model provides better predictions of the saturated hydraulic conductivity values with reduced size of the 90% confidence intervals of about 3 orders of magnitude.

  12. Restoration of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center, Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodling, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF), located at the Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is a non-vitiated, free-jet facility, capable of testing large-scale propulsion systems at Mach Numbers from 5 to 7. As a result of a component failure in September of 1996, a restoration project was initiated in mid- 1997 to repair the damage to the facility. Following the 2-1/2 year effort, the HTF has been returned to an operational condition. Significant repairs and operational improvements have been implemented in order to ensure facility reliability and personnel safety. As of January 2000, this unique, state-of-the-art facility was ready for integrated systems testing.

  13. Neocomian source and reservoir rocks in the western Brooks Range and Arctic Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mull, C.G.; Reifenstuhl, R.R.; Harris, E.E.; Crowder, R.K.

    1995-04-01

    Detailed (1:63,360) mapping of the Tingmerkpuk sandstone and associated rocks in the Misheguk Mountain and DeLong Mountains guadrangles of the western Brooks Range thrust belt documents potential hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks in the northern foothills of the western Delong Mountains and adjacent Colville basin of northwest Alaska. Neocomian (?) to Albian micaceous shale, litharenite, and graywacke that overlies the Tingmerkpuk represents the onset of deposition of orogenic sediments derived from the Brooks Range to the south, and the merging of northern and southern sediment sources in the Colville basin. Both the proximal and distal Tingmerkpuk facies contain clay shale interbeds and overlie the Upper Jurassic to Neocomian Kingak Shale. Preliminary geochemical data show that in the thrust belt, these shales are thermally overmature (Ro 1.4-1.6), but are good source rocks with total organic content (TOC) that ranges from 1.2 to 1.8 percent. Shale in the overlying Brookian rocks is also thermally overmature (Ro 1.2-1.5 percent), but contains up to 1.8 percent TOC from a dominantly terrigenous source, and has generated gas. In outcrops at Surprise Creek, in the foothills north of the thrust belt, the Kingak (1.9 percent TOC) and underlying Triassic Shublik Formation (4.6 percent TOC) are excellent oil source rocks with thermal maturity close to peak oil generation stage (Ro0.75-0.9 percent). These rocks have lower thermal maturity values than expected for their stratigraphic position within the deeper parts of the Colville basin and indicate anomalous burial and uplift history in parts of the basin. Preliminary apatite fission-track (AFTA) data from the thrust belt indicate a stage of rapid uplift and cooling at about 53.61 Ma.

  14. Brown bear response to elevated viewing structures at Brooks River, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBruyn, T.D.; Smith, T.S.; Proffitt, K.; Partridge, S.; Drummer, T.D.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing popularity of brown bear (Ursus arctos) viewing at Brooks River in Katmai National Park, Alaska has resulted in overcrowded facilities, increasing bear-human conflicts, displacement of bears from important habitats, and degradation of cultural resources. To partially address these issues, the National Park Service (NPS) constructed a 300-m-long elevated boardwalk with interconnected viewing platforms in August 2000. To determine what effects the new structures might have on individual bears, we observed bear movements and behaviors before and after construction. We used direct observations and motion-detection cameras to construct temporal-spatial profiles of bear activity. Although bear numbers were similar (59 bears in 2000 and 56 bears in 2001) and bear activity within the greater Brooks River area did not differ (P = 0.62, n = 29) between the 2 years of this study, trail crossings in the vicinity of the new structures decreased 78% (7,436 crossings in 2000 and 1,646 crossings in 2001; ??2 = 762, df = 14, P < 0.001). Bear temporal use of the boardwalk area changed such that when human use was highest, bear use was proportionally lower in the post- versus pre-construction phase (??2 = 34, df = 3, P < 0.005). Of 123 direct observations of bears approaching to pass beneath the structures, only 19.5% rerouted or avoided crossing under the structures. Bears' responses to the new structures were influenced by the behavior of visitors upon the structures. Potential management tools to minimize impacts of these structures on bears include enhanced public education regarding visitor conduct on the boardwalk, as well as visitor management and monitoring.

  15. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and the Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on 1 year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  16. The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS): application to the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. C.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Teuling, A. J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS) is a new parametric (conceptual) rainfall-runoff model which accounts explicitly for processes that are important in lowland areas, such as groundwater-unsaturated zone coupling, wetness-dependent flowroutes, groundwater-surface water feedbacks, and seepage and surface water supply (see companion paper by Brauer et al., 2014). Lowland catchments can be divided into slightly sloping, freely draining catchments and flat polders with controlled water levels. Here, we apply WALRUS to two contrasting Dutch catchments: the Hupsel Brook catchment and Cabauw polder. In both catchments, WALRUS performs well: Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies obtained after calibration on one year of discharge observations are 0.87 for the Hupsel Brook catchment and 0.83 for the Cabauw polder, with values of 0.74 and 0.76 for validation. The model also performs well during floods and droughts and can forecast the effect of control operations. Through the dynamic division between quick and slow flowroutes controlled by a wetness index, temporal and spatial variability in groundwater depths can be accounted for, which results in adequate simulation of discharge peaks as well as low flows. The performance of WALRUS is most sensitive to the parameter controlling the wetness index and the groundwater reservoir constant, and to a lesser extent to the quickflow reservoir constant. The effects of these three parameters can be identified in the discharge time series, which indicates that the model is not overparameterised (parsimonious). Forcing uncertainty was found to have a larger effect on modelled discharge than parameter uncertainty and uncertainty in initial conditions.

  17. Structure, metamorphism, and geochronology of the Cosmos Hills and Ruby Ridge, Brooks Range schist belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Peter B.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    The boundary of the internal zones of the Brooks Range orogenic belt (the schist belt) is a fault contact that dips toward the hinterland (the Yukon-Koyukuk province). This fault, here referred to as the Cosmos Hills fault zone, juxtaposes oceanic rocks and unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks structurally above blueschist-to-greenschist facies metamorphic rocks of the schist belt. Near the fault contact, schist belt rocks are increasingly affected by a prominent, subhorizontal transposition foliation that is locally mylonitic in the fault zone. Structural and petrologic observations combined with 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release geochronology give evidence for a polyphase metamorphic and deformational history beginning in the Middle Jurassic and continuing until the Late Cretaceous. Our 40Ar/39Ar cooling age for Jurassic metamorphism is consistent with stratigraphic and other evidence for the onset of Brooks Range orogenesis. Jurassic metamorphism is nearly everywhere overprinted by a regional greenschist-facies event dated at 130–125 Ma. Near the contact with the Cosmos Hills fault zone, the schist belt is increasingly affected by a younger greenschist metamorphism that is texturally related to a prominent foliation that folds and transposes an older fabric. The 40Ar/39Ar results on phengite and fuchsite that define this younger fabric give recrystallization ages ranging from 103 to less than 90 Ma. We conclude that metamorphism that formed the transposition fabric peaked around 100 Ma and may have continued until well after 90 Ma. This age for greenschist metamorphism is broadly synchronous with the depositional age of locally derived, shallow-marine clastic sedimentary strata in the hanging wall of the fault zone and thus substantiates the interpretation that the fault zone accommodated extension in the Late Cretaceous. This extension unroofed and exhumed the schist belt during relative subsidence of the Yukon-Koyukuk province.

  18. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems.

  19. [Differentiation of Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma from Asia and North America inferred from PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA].

    PubMed

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, V A; Crane, P A; Wenburg, J K

    2005-05-01

    Genetic differentiation of Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma Walbaum from the Asian and North American Pacific coasts was studied. We examined restriction fragment length polymorphism of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments amplified in polymerase chain reaction, which encoded four NADH dehydrogenase subunits, the cytochrome b gene, and a D-loop segment. The mtDNA haplotypes were shown to form three phylogenetic groups, whose geographic distribution corresponded to three Dolly Varden subspecies: S. malma malma, S. malma krascheninnikovi, and S. malma lordi. The nucleotide sequence divergence between S. malma malma and S. malma krascheninnikovi was 3.8%; between S. malma malma and S. malma lordi, 3.1%; and between S. malma krascheninnikovi and S. malma lordi, 2.5%. The northern Dolly Varden S. malma malma from Asia was shown to be genetically identical to that from North America.

  20. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  1. Seismic images of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt, Arctic Alaska, from an integrated seismic reflection/refraction experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levander, A.; Fuis, G.S.; Wissinger, E.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Oldow, J.S.; Moore, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    We describe results of an integrated seismic reflection/refraction experiment across the Brooks Range and flanking geologic provinces in Arctic Alaska. The seismic acquisition was unusual in that reflection and refraction data were collected simultaneously with a 700 channel seismograph system deployed numerous times along a 315 km profile. Shot records show continuous Moho reflections from 0-180 km offset, as well as numerous upper- and mid-crustal wide-angle events. Single and low-fold near-vertical incidence common midpoint (CMP) reflection images show complex upper- and middle-crustal structure across the range from the unmetamorphosed Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA) in the north, to the metamorphic belts in the south. Lower-crustal and Moho reflections are visible across the entire reflection profile. Travel-time inversion of PmP arrivals shows that the Moho, at 33 km depth beneath the North Slope foothills, deepens abruptly beneath the EMA to a maximum of 46 km, and then shallows southward to 35 km at the southern edge of the range. Two zones of upper- and middle-crustal reflections underlie the northern Brooks Range above ~ 12-15 km depth. The upper zone, interpreted as the base of the EMA, lies at a maximum depth of 6 km and extends over 50 km from the range front to the north central Brooks Range where the base of the EMA outcrops above the metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Doonerak window. We interpret the base of the lower zone, at ~ 12 km depth, to be from carbonate rocks above the master detachment upon which the Brooks Range formed. The seismic data suggest that the master detachment is connected to the faults in the EMA by several ramps. In the highly metamorphosed terranes south of the Doonerak window, the CMP section shows numerous south-dipping events which we interpret as a crustal scale duplex involving the Doonerak window rocks. The basal detachment reflections can be traced approximately 100 km, and dip southward from about 10-12 km

  2. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Knapp Brook Site Number 1 (VT 00076), Connecticut River Basin, Cavendish, Vermont. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    RIVER BASIN CAVENDISH , VERMONT KNAPP BROOK SITE NO. 1 0b VT. 00076 CD PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT 6 NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM D)EPARTMLNT OF TfHE...34Imnus on roemue side to necessary end identify br Wieek swimb..) DAMS, INSPECTION, DAM SAFETY, Connecticut River Basin * Cavendish , VT.- Knapp Brook... CAVENDISH , VERMONT - -- * . - . - . - . t -.- -. v-_ - -- - t . . . - . . . . .. -. . 7_ ... NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT

  3. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Powdermill Brook Detention Dam (MA 00605) Connecticut River Basin, Westfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    desilting tasins. Karl R. Klingelhof erjmgc State Conservation Engineer cc: George I’ cDonnell , County Enjlineer George Hartley, Chairman, Hampden Cons...AD-Ai56 POWDERNILL BROOK DETE..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAM "R NEW ENGLAND DIV AUG 78 UNCLSSIFIED F/G 13/3 NL 112. WI’ t 1 .- III - II&~’ .1.6...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A ’ ,, CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN * 0 WESTFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS U POWDERMILL BROOK DETENTION

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Arm Brook Multiple Purpose Dam (MA 00604) Connecticut River Basin, Westfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    Engineer .. . . -... . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARM BROOK MULTIPLE PURPOSE DAM MA 0 0604 CONNECTICUT RIVER BASIN WESTFIELD...ation of desilting Lasins. - I 5 6 Karl R. Klincelhofer-/Mgc State Conservation Engineer aorge ’Mcflonnelle, County Engineer aorge Hartley, Chairman...AD-Ai56 161 NATIONAL PROGRRH FOR INSPECTION OF NON-FEDERAL DAS R 12’. BROOK MULTIPLE PU..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS WALTHAN MR I NEW ENGLAND DIV AUG

  5. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  6. Growth, age at metamorphosis, and sex ratio of northern brook lamprey in a tributary of southern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, Harold A.

    1970-01-01

    Growth was studied of five year classes of the northern brook lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, collected from the Sturgeon River during intervals between treatment of the stream with a lampricide. Growth varied considerably among year classes. Larvae of the 1963 year class were slightly longer at age II and 30% longer at age III than the III-group larvae of the 1960 year class. About 6% of 558 III-group lampreys of the 1963 year class had metamorphosed by 17 August 1966. Although the sex ratio of larvae was about 1:1, 97% of the metamorphosed lampreys were males. The distribution of pigmentation on the caudal fin and upper lip in ammocoetes less than 40 mm long permitted accurate and rapid separation of northern brook lampreys from the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

  7. New U/Pb ages from granite and granite gneiss in the Ruby geanticline and southern Brooks Range, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, W.W.; Stern, T.W.; Arth, Joseph G.; Carlson, C.

    1987-01-01

    New U/Pb zircon ages from the Ray Mountains of central Alaska clarify the plutonic history of the Ruby geanticline and support earlier suggestions that the Ruby geanticline and S Brooks Range were once parts of the same tectonostratigraphic terrane. U/Pb zircon ages of 109 to 112 Ma from the Ray Mountains pluton confirm previously reported mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid-Cretaceous K/Ar ages and rule out the possibility that the earliest intrusive phase of the pluton is older than mid- Cretaceous. New U/Pb zircon ages from 4 granite gneiss samples in the Ray Mountains indicate a Devonian protolith age of 390+ or -12 Ma and suggest that the Ruby geanticline, like the S Brooks Range, underwent a major plutonic event in mid-Paleozoic time.-Authors

  8. Crustal implications of bedrock geology along the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) in the Brooks Range, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Wallace, W.K.; Mull, C.G.; Adams, K.E.; Plafker, G.; Nokleberg, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT) project along the Dalton Highway in northern Alaska indicates that the Endicott Mountains allochthon and the Hammond terrane compose a combined allochthon that was thrust northward at least 90 km in the Early Cretaceous. The basal thrust of the combined allochthon climbs up section in the hanging wall from a ductile shear zone, in the south through lower Paleozoic rocks of the Hammond terrane and into Upper Devonian rocks of the Endicott Mountains allochthon at the Mount Doonerak antiform, culminating in Early Cretaceous shale in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range. Footwall rocks north of the Mount Doonerak antiform are everywhere parautochthonous Permian and Triassic shale of the North Slope terrane rather than Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous strata of the Colville Basin as shown in most other tectonic models of the central Brooks Range. Stratigraphic and structural relations suggest that this thrust was the basal detachment for Early Cretaceous deformation. Younger structures, such as the Tertiary Mount Doonerak antiform, deform the Early Cretaceous structures and are cored by thrusts that root at a depth of about 10 to 30 km along a deeper detachment than the Early Cretaceous detachment. The Brooks Range, therefore, exposes (1) an Early Cretaceous thin-skinned deformational belt developed during arc-continent collision and (2) a mainly Tertiary thick-skinned orogen that is probably the northward continuation of the Rocky Mountains erogenic belt. A down-to-the-south zone of both ductile and brittle normal faulting along the southern margin of the Brooks Range probably formed in the mid-Cretaceous by extensional exhumation of the Early Cretaceous contractional deformation. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Distribution of Brook Trout and Their Food Sources in Meadow vs. Wooded Areas of Sierra Nevada Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, N. J.; Blumenshine, S.

    2005-05-01

    Stocked eastern brook trout are now well established in historically fishless, small headwater streams in the Sierra Nevada. Although non-native, brook trout have maintained healthy populations since stocking ended 60-80 years ago. Our primary research question was whether brook trout distribution and feeding ecology is influenced by variation in headwater stream habitats and food sources. Stream habitat characteristics and trout demographic data were collected during June and August 2004 from four forested and three meadow sites among five tributaries to Bull Creek in the Sierra Nevada. Both mean fish mass and total fish biomass were greater in forested versus meadow reaches. Macroinvertebrate drift rate did not differ between meadow versus wooded reaches, but were greater in June than August. However, despite higher fish biomass, trout in forests apparently selected prey from drift, whereas trout diets in meadows reflected availability in drift. The results of this research will ultimately be used in a larger, collaborative, whole-ecosystem study conducted by the USDA-Forest Service addressing how current forest management practices affect stream ecosystems.

  10. Stratigraphic controls on lateral variations in the structural style of northeastern Brooks Range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structural style of the range-front region of the northeastern Brooks Range in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is strongly controlled by (1) the existence of detachment horizons in both pre-Mississippian rocks and the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous cover sequence, and (2) lithology and structural competency of the pre-Mississippian rocks. These variables strongly influence lateral changes in structural style. The Brooks Range of northwestern ANWR is dominated by a series of narrow linear anticlinoria, whereas in northeastern ANWR the Brooks Range is characterized by only two broad and strongly arcuate anticlinoria. In both areas, the anticlinoria are controlled by the geometry of a duplex bounded by a floor thrust in pre-Mississippian rocks and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale, near the base of the cover sequence. In the west, where the pre-Mississippian partially consists of structurally competent carbonates, each anticlinorium marks a single horse in the duplex. However, in the east, pre-Mississippian rocks are relatively incompetent and each anticlinorium is cored by multiple horses. In the west, shortening above the roof thrust is by detachment folding, except where the shale detachment horizon is depositionally absent. In contrast, in eastern ANWR shortening above the roof thrust is by major thrust duplication of the entire cover sequence, perhaps due to lithology and thickness changes within the detachment horizon.

  11. Streambed-material characteristics and surface-water quality, Green Pond Brook and tributaries, Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, 1983-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storck, D.A.; Lacombe, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study designed to determine whether Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contain contaminated streambed sediments and to characterize the quaity of water in the brook. Results of previous investigations at Picatinny Arsenal, Morris County, New Jersey, indicate that significant contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil is present at the arsenal. Forty-five streambed-material samples were collected for analysis to determine whether contaminants have migrated to the brook from the surrounding area. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, base/neutral- and acid-etractable compounds, insecticides, and other constituents. Results of an electromagnetic-conductivity and natural-gamma-ray survey were used to describe the distribution of particle sizes in streambed and substreambed sediments. Historical results of analyses of streambed-material and surface-water samples also are presented. Samples of streambed material from three areas in Green Pond Brook and its tributaries contained organic and (or) inorganic constituents in concentrations greater than those typically found at the arsenal. These areas are Green Pond Brook, from the area near the outflow of Picatinny Lake downstream to Farley Avenue; Bear Swamp Brook, from the area near building 241 downstream to the confluence with Green Pond Brook; and Green Pond Brook, from the open burning area downstream to the dam near building 1178. Contaminants identified include trace elements, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine insecticides. Surface water in Green Pond Brook contained several volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichloroethylene, at maximum concen- trations of 3.8, 4.6, and 11 micrograms per liter, respectively. Volatilization is expected to remove volatile organic compounds in the steep, fast- flowing reaches of the brook. No organic or inorganic constituents were

  12. Lateral continuity of the Blarney Creek Thrust, Doonerak Windown, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Seidensticker, C.M.; Julian, F.E.; Phelps, J.C.; Oldow, J.S.; Avellemant, H.G.

    1985-04-01

    The contact between Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks, exposed along the northern margin of the Doonerak window in the central Brooks Range, is a major thrust fault called the Blarney Creek thrust (BCT). The BCT has been traced over a distance of 25 km, from Falsoola Mountain to Wien Mountain. The tectonic nature of this contact is demonstrated by: (1) omission of stratigraphic units above and below the BCT; (2) large angular discordance in orientation of first-generation cleavage at the BCT; (3) numerous thrust imbricates developed in the upper-plate Carboniferous section that sole into the BCT; and (4) truncation of an upper-plate graben structure at the BCT. Lack of evidence for pre-Carboniferous deformation in the lower plate casts doubt on the interpretation of the contact as an angular unconformity. However, the localized presence below the BCT of Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak Shale, in apparent depositional contact with lower Paleozoic rocks, suggests that the BCT follows an originally disconformable contact between the Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks. The juxtaposition of younger over older rocks at the BCT is explained by calling upon the BCT to act as the upper detachment surface of a duplex structure. Duplex development involves initial imbrication of the Carboniferous section using the BCT as a basal decollement, followed by formation of deeper thrusts in the lower Paleozoic section, which ramp up and merge into the BCT.

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  14. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities at NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2014-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world's largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  15. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  16. Analysis of reinjection problems at the Stony Brook ATES field test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supkow, D. J.; Shultz, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) is one of several energy storage technologies being investigated by the DOE to determine the feasibility of reducing energy consumption by means of energy management systems. The State University of New York, (SUNY) Stony Brook, Long Island, New York site was selected by Battelle PNL for a Phase 1 investigation to determine the feasibility of an ATES demonstration to seasonally store chill energy by injecting chilled water in the winter and recovering it at a maximum rate of 100 MBTU/hr (30 MW) in the summer. The Phase 1 study was performed during 1981 by Dames & Moore under subcontract to Batelle PLN. The pumping and injection tests were performed using two wells in a doublet configuration. Well PI-1 is a previously existing well and PI-2 was installed specifically for this investigation. Both wells are screened in the Upper Magothy aquifer from approximately 300 to 350 feet below ground surface. Nine observation wells were also installed as a portion of the investigation to monitor water level and aquifer temperature changes during the test.

  17. Evidence for a Flushing Mechanism of Nitrate Export from Susannah Brook Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, C. J.; Sivapalan, M.; Turner, J. V.; Oldham, C.

    2001-12-01

    The mechanism of nitrate export from catchments can be addressed by the identification of flow paths along which water is routed and the different time scales at which hydrologic and biogeochemical processes occur. This mechanism was investigated in Susannah Brook catchment (SB), a 24 square kilometre area rural catchment near Perth, Western Australia (Australia), which experiences high nitrate-nitrogen export to the Swan-Canning Rivers and Estuaries. Storm event isotopic (deuterium) and chemical (chloride) data were used to obtain the time source components of stormflow hydrographs and to relate them to nitrate export from the catchment. Storm, seasonal, and inter-annual variation of those components were investigated using standard isotopic and chemical hydrograph separation techniques, performed over 50 storm events recorded in three different hydrological catchment conditions: mean, wet, and dry years. Results from the hydrograph separation indicate the dominance of a pre-event water source in the catchment. The dynamics of contributing areas for saturated overland flow estimated from the event component was found to be consistent with hydrometric data and nitrate discharges from the catchment. There is evidence of a flushing mechanism of nitrate discharges operating within the catchment controlled by the dynamics of a shallow ephemeral perched aquifer built up during the raining season. Results suggest the viability in using hydrologic state variables in our approaches linking hydrologic and biogeochemical processes at catchment scale.

  18. Predicting acidification recovery at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire: evaluation of four models.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Koji; Aherne, Julian; Watmough, Shaun A; Alveteg, Mattias; Cosby, Bernard J; Driscoll, Charles T; Posch, Maximilian; Pourmokhtarian, Afshin

    2010-12-01

    The performance and prediction uncertainty (owing to parameter and structural uncertainties) of four dynamic watershed acidification models (MAGIC, PnET-BGC, SAFE, and VSD) were assessed by systematically applying them to data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, where long-term records of precipitation and stream chemistry were available. In order to facilitate systematic evaluation, Monte Carlo simulation was used to randomly generate common model input data sets (n = 10,000) from parameter distributions; input data were subsequently translated among models to retain consistency. The model simulations were objectively calibrated against observed data (streamwater: 1963-2004, soil: 1983). The ensemble of calibrated models was used to assess future response of soil and stream chemistry to reduced sulfur deposition at the HBEF. Although both hindcast (1850-1962) and forecast (2005-2100) predictions were qualitatively similar across the four models, the temporal pattern of key indicators of acidification recovery (stream acid neutralizing capacity and soil base saturation) differed substantially. The range in predictions resulted from differences in model structure and their associated posterior parameter distributions. These differences can be accommodated by employing multiple models (ensemble analysis) but have implications for individual model applications.

  19. Reconstructing the demographic history of divergence between European river and brook lampreys using approximate Bayesian computations

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Camille; Neuenschwander, Samuel; Goudet, Jérôme; Launey, Sophie; Evanno, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Inferring the history of isolation and gene flow during species divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. The European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and brook lamprey (L. planeri) show a low reproductive isolation but have highly distinct life histories, the former being parasitic-anadromous and the latter non-parasitic and freshwater resident. Here we used microsatellite data from six replicated population pairs to reconstruct their history of divergence using an approximate Bayesian computation framework combined with a random forest model. In most population pairs, scenarios of divergence with recent isolation were outcompeted by scenarios proposing ongoing gene flow, namely the Secondary Contact (SC) and Isolation with Migration (IM) models. The estimation of demographic parameters under the SC model indicated a time of secondary contact close to the time of speciation, explaining why SC and IM models could not be discriminated. In case of an ancient secondary contact, the historical signal of divergence is lost and neutral markers converge to the same equilibrium as under the less parameterized model allowing ongoing gene flow. Our results imply that models of secondary contacts should be systematically compared to models of divergence with gene flow; given the difficulty to discriminate among these models, we suggest that genome-wide data are needed to adequately reconstruct divergence history. PMID:27077007

  20. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 Test Facility: Thermal Vacuum and Propellant Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  1. Data Acquisition System Architecture and Capabilities At NASA GRC Plum Brook Station's Space Environment Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Richard K.; Hill, Gerald M.

    2012-01-01

    Very large space environment test facilities present unique engineering challenges in the design of facility data systems. Data systems of this scale must be versatile enough to meet the wide range of data acquisition and measurement requirements from a diverse set of customers and test programs, but also must minimize design changes to maintain reliability and serviceability. This paper presents an overview of the common architecture and capabilities of the facility data acquisition systems available at two of the world?s largest space environment test facilities located at the NASA Glenn Research Center?s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio; namely, the Space Propulsion Research Facility (commonly known as the B-2 facility) and the Space Power Facility (SPF). The common architecture of the data systems is presented along with details on system scalability and efficient measurement systems analysis and verification. The architecture highlights a modular design, which utilizes fully-remotely managed components, enabling the data systems to be highly configurable and support multiple test locations with a wide-range of measurement types and very large system channel counts.

  2. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 test facility-Thermal vacuum and propellant test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlac, Maureen; Weaver, Harold; Cmar, Mark

    2012-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/m2. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  3. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; Budahn, J.R.; Murchey, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic, Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks. Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted from obduction faulting, but the lack of fault slabs of gabbro or peridotite suggests that obduction faults did not penetrate below oceanic layer 2, a likely occurrence if layer 2 were anomalously thick, as in the vicinity of an oceanic island. -from Authors

  4. The Cenozoic structural evolution of a fold-and-thrust belt, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, C.L. )

    1993-03-01

    A Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt in the eastern structural province of the northeastern Brooks Range exposes polydeformed low-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the pre-Mississippian basement and its sedimentary cover immediately adjacent to much younger foredeep deposits. Analysis of mesoscopic and map-scale structures in the range-front region suggests that at least one pre-Mississippian deformational event was recorded into the basement sequence by north-vergent fold-and-thrust structures and associated penetrative structures. Most of later Cenozoic shortening of the pre-Mississippian rocks was accommodated by thrust duplication, with little development of penetrative mesoscopic structures. Although separated from the underlying basement rocks by a major regional decollement horizon, Cenozoic deformation in the overlying Mississippian through Lower Cretaceous cover sequence also was primarily by thrust duplication. Although local and regional structural trends within the cover sequence suggest that Cenozoic deformation was north-northwest directed, east-west Cenozoic structural trends within the pre-Mississippian rocks may reflect an inherited pre-Mississippian structural grain and/or pre-Mississippian-age structures reactivated during Cenozoic deformation. A regional balanced cross section of the eastern structural province was constructed. 29 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Insights from transformations under way at four Brookings-Dartmouth accountable care organization pilot sites.

    PubMed

    Larson, Bridget K; Van Citters, Aricca D; Kreindler, Sara A; Carluzzo, Kathleen L; Gbemudu, Josette N; Wu, Frances M; Nelson, Eugene C; Shortell, Stephen M; Fisher, Elliott S

    2012-11-01

    This cross-site comparison of the early experience of four provider organizations participating in the Brookings-Dartmouth Accountable Care Organization Collaborative identifies factors that sites perceived as enablers of successful ACO formation and performance. The four pilots varied in size, with between 7,000 and 50,000 attributed patients and 90 to 2,700 participating physicians. The sites had varying degrees of experience with performance-based payments; however, all formed collaborative new relationships with payers and created shared savings agreements linked to performance on quality measures. Each organization devoted major efforts to physician engagement. Policy makers now need to consider how to support and provide incentives for the successful formation of multipayer ACOs, and how to align private-sector and CMS performance measures. Linking providers to learning networks where payers and providers can address common technical issues could help. These sites' transitions to the new payment model constitutes an ongoing journey that will require continual adaptation in the structure of contracts and organizational attributes.

  6. Nesting by Golden Eagles on the North Slope of the Brooks Range in Northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Donald D.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Bente, Peter J.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Ambrose, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-two Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting territories and 31 occupied eagle nests were documented on the north slope of the Brooks Range in northeastern Alaska, 1988-1990, in an area previously thought to be marginal breeding habitat for eagles. The mean number of young/successful nest was 1.25 in 1988, 1.27 in 1989, and 1.13 in 1990; means did not differ significantly among years. Eighty percent (20/25) of the nestlings for which age was estimated were assumed to have successfully fledged. Nesting success was 79% (11/14) in 1989, the only year nesting success could be determined. Laying dates ranged from 23 March (1990) to 11 May (1989) with mean estimated laying dates differing significantly among years. Annual variation in nesting phenology coincided with annual differences in snow accumulations during spring. These results indicate that Golden Eagles consistently and successfully breed at the northern extent of their range in Alaska, although, productivity may be lower than that for eagles at more southern latitudes.

  7. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  8. Geochronology of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska: Implications for the geologic evolution of the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rombach, C.S.; Layer, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    A compilation of published geochronology of rocks and minerals from the western and central Brooks Range provides a framework for understanding the complex history of the Brooks Range and northern Alaska. A simplified timeline of events comprises (1) Devonian extension, (2) Mississippian extension and Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization, (3) a passive interval, (4) pre-Brooks Range orogeny rock-formation and thermal event, (5) inception of Brooks Range orogeny, (6) exhumation and the end of main-stage deformation, and (7) subsequent episodic deformation. This compilation is supplemented by new 40Ar/39Ar dates of white mica from the Anarraaq and Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag (+ barite) deposits from the western Brooks Range. The deposits are hosted in black shale and carbonate rocks of the Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian Kuna Formation. Quartz-pyrite-white mica grains in sedimentary rocks above the Anarraaq deposit yield an age of 195.0 ?? 2.0 Ma, and paragenetically late quartz-pyrite-white mica from the Main orebody at the Red Dog deposit has an age of 126.1 ?? 0.7 Ma. These white micas are much younger than the age of Zn-Pb-Ag mineralization at Red Dog (338 ?? 5.8 Ma Re-Os age of pyrite). The date for white mica from Anarraaq (???195 Ma) appears to be related to a large-scale thermal event in the region immediately before the inception of the Brooks Range orogeny. The white mica from the Red Dog deposit (???126 Ma) correlates with the later stages of the orogeny, a period of blueschist metamorphism, extension, and rapid exhumation, which varied with geographic location. These dates suggest that the Red Dog deposits underwent significant hydrothermal overprinting during multiple episodes of the Brooks Range orogeny. ?? 2004 by Economic Geology.

  9. Groundwater discharge and base flow variability in the Brooks Range, North Slope, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Hinzman, L.; Kane, D.

    2004-12-01

    More than 30,000 liters/sec. of spring water discharges along the eastern part of foothills of the Brooks Range, North Slope, Alaska. These springs flow all year around and cover wide areas with aufeis every winter. In Arctic regions, aufeis is among the biggest temporary storage of freshwater during winter period (more than 8 months). This study examines the historical volume of the aufeis using aerial photographs and satellite imagery as well as MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS). The energy balance of the aufeis is also an important parameter for estimating perennial aufeis formations. We estimate the Holocene ice volume of aufeis using CaCO3 deposits in the soil. Carbonate material distributions and 13C isotope enrichment signals are indicative of the area occupied by aufeis. Thermal enrichment of the 13C spring water was around 0 to -2 permil at the Hulahula River aufeis area. The 13C isotope of the area immediately outside the aufeis field is around -25 permil and is also very low in carbonate content. The analysis of in-situ soil sample for d13C complemented with remote sensing analyses reveals historic aufeis distributions. The CaCO3 deposits appears to possess a characteristic spectral signature that is evident in the 2300 and 2550 nm wavelength range (two absorption bands 2500-2550 nm and 2300-2350 nm and a band between those two at ~ 2400 nm (2375-2425nm ). The aufeis area was not much greater during historical times such as Little Ice Age (LIA) or Last Glacial Maximum(LGM). However, some of the aufeis and springs (at least Shubik and Sadlerochit springs) survived during LGM. In case of the Sadlerochit spring, the total winter discharge (16,510,000 m3) was almost all turned to aufeis,(15,988,866 m3) preserved as ice on the tundra terrain. Questions of the spring water's ground residence time and infiltration processes are also examined in this study. We collected water from springs, wells, surface water, and precipitation samples for isotope (C, O, H, Sr

  10. A Bayesian assessment of the mercury and PCB temporal trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Sander vitreus) from lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Visha, Ariola; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) are two of the most prevalent contaminants, resulting in restrictive advisories on consuming fish from the Laurentian Great Lakes. The goal of this study is to examine the temporal trends of the two contaminants in walleye (Sander vitreus) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) for Lake Ontario. We employed Bayesian inference techniques to parameterize three different strategies of time series analysis: dynamic linear, exponential decay, and mixed-order modeling. Our analysis sheds light on the role of different covariates (length, lipid content) that can potentially hamper the detection of the actual temporal patterns of fish contaminants. Both PCBs and mercury demonstrate decreasing temporal trends in lake trout males and females. Decreasing PCB trends are evident in walleye, but the mean annual mercury levels are characterized by a "wax and wane" pattern, suggesting that specific fish species may not act as bio-indicators for all contaminants. This finding may be attributed to the shifts in energy trophodynamics along with the food web alterations induced from the introduction of non-native species, the intricate nature of the prey-predator interactions, the periodicities of climate factors, and the year-to-year variability of the potentially significant fluxes from atmosphere or sediments. Finally, a meaningful risk assessment exercise will be to elucidate the role of within-lake fish contaminant variability and evaluate the potential bias introduced when drawing inference from pooled datasets.

  11. [Developmental abnormalities in salmonids (Salmonidae) under the conditions of large-scale volcanic pollution of their spawning ground (using dolly varden Salvelinus malma as an example)].

    PubMed

    Esin, E V

    2015-01-01

    Rivers originating from the areas of active volcanism in Kamchatka serve a spawning ground for anadromous and resident populations of dolly varden (Salvelinus malma). In some cases, watercourses with a long-term continuous spawning of S. malma are subjected to chronic pollution with dissolved toxicants and suspended mineral particles. The revealed development conditions range from background ("clean" rivers) to critical (most "polluted" rivers). Medium pollution leads to the development of hatchlings with abnormalities in the ethmoidal head segment, lower jaw, operculum, lobes of the paired fins, and axial skeleton (up to 40% of all specimens). Delayed ossification of skeletal elements takes place. Abnormalities in the development of spinous processes occur more often (up to 49-55% compared to 25-30% in the background areas). The average number of asymmetries per specimen.(in four bilateral structures) increases from 1.1-1.4 to 1.7- 2.5. Similar developmental abnormalities have been registered in underyearlings, both anadromous and resident, influenced by various pollutant combinations. While fish continue to grow, some of them die because of abnormalities; thus, their frequency in 3-year-old specimens nears the background one. Upon extreme pollution, deviant specimens are sampled at earlier developmental stages and characterized by a lower frequency of morphological abnormalities.

  12. Differential growth in estuarine and freshwater habitats indicated by plasma IGF1 concentrations and otolith chemistry in Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma.

    PubMed

    Bond, M H; Beckman, B R; Rohrbach, L; Quinn, T P

    2014-11-01

    This study employed a combination of otolith microchemistry to indicate the recent habitat use, and plasma concentrations of the hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) as an index of recent growth rate, to demonstrate differences in growth and habitat use by Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma occupying both freshwater and estuarine habitats in south-west Alaska. Extensive sampling in all habitats revealed that fish had higher IGF1 levels in estuarine compared to lake habitats throughout the summer, and that the growth rates in different habitats within the estuary varied seasonally. In addition, otolith microchemistry indicated differentiation in estuarine habitat use among individual S. malma throughout summer months. Although growth in the estuary was higher than in fresh water in nearly all sites and months, the benefits and use of the estuarine habitats varied on finer spatial scales. Therefore, this study further illustrates the diverse life histories of S. malma and indicates an evaluation of the benefits of marine waters needs to include sub-estuary scale habitat use.

  13. Detecting declines in the abundance of a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) population: Understanding the accuracy, precision, and costs of our efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, R.; Budy, P.; Conner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Using empirical field data for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), we evaluated the trade-off between power and sampling effort-cost using Monte Carlo simulations of commonly collected mark-recapture-resight and count data, and we estimated the power to detect changes in abundance across different time intervals. We also evaluated the effects of monitoring different components of a population and stratification methods on the precision of each method. Our results illustrate substantial variability in the relative precision, cost, and information gained from each approach. While grouping estimates by age or stage class substantially increased the precision of estimates, spatial stratification of sampling units resulted in limited increases in precision. Although mark-resight methods allowed for estimates of abundance versus indices of abundance, our results suggest snorkel surveys may be a more affordable monitoring approach across large spatial scales. Detecting a 25% decline in abundance after 5 years was not possible, regardless of technique (power = 0.80), without high sampling effort (48% of study site). Detecting a 25% decline was possible after 15 years, but still required high sampling efforts. Our results suggest detecting moderate changes in abundance of freshwater salmonids requires considerable resource and temporal commitments and highlight the difficulties of using abundance measures for monitoring bull trout populations.

  14. Distinguishing wild vs. stocked lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Ontario: Evidence from carbon and oxygen stable isotope values of otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaner, T.; Patterson, W.P.; Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the potential for using carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate as a method to distinguish naturally produced (wild) lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from hatchery-reared lake trout in Lake Ontario. We determined δ 13C(CaCO3) and δ 18O(CaCO3) values of otoliths from juvenile fish taken from two hatcheries, and of otoliths from wild yearlings. Clear differences in isotope values were observed between the three groups. Subsequently we examined otoliths from large marked and unmarked fish captured in the lake, determining isotope values for regions of the otolith corresponding to the first year of life. Marked (i.e., stocked) fish showed isotope ratios similar to one of the hatchery groups, whereas unmarked fish, (wild fish or stocked fish that lost the mark) showed isotope ratios similar either to one of the hatchery groups or to the wild group. We interpret these data to suggest that carbon and oxygen isotope values can be used to determine the origin of lake trout in Lake Ontario, if a catalogue of characteristic isotope values from all candidate years and hatcheries is compiled.

  15. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

  16. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats.

  17. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome: report of two cases not associated with a mutation in the CYLD and PTCH tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Nasti, Sabina; Losi, Lorena; Pastorino, Lorenza; Pollio, Annamaria; Benassi, Luisa; Giudice, Stefania; Bertazzoni, Giorgia; Veratti, Eugenia; Azzoni, Paola; Bianchi Scarrà, Giovanna; Seidenari, Stefania

    2012-03-01

    Brooke-Spiegler syndrome represents an autosomal dominant disease characterized by the occurrence of multiple cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas and (sporadically) spiroadenomas. Patients with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome are also at risk of developing tumors of the major and minor salivary glands. Patients with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome have various mutations in the CYLD gene, a tumor-suppressor gene located on chromosome 16q. To date, 68 unique CYLD mutations have been identified. We describe two families with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, one with familial cylindromatosis and one with multiple familial trichoepithelioma, which showed wide inter-family phenotypic variability. Analysis of germline mutations of the CYLD and PTCH genes was performed using peripheral blood. In addition, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples were analyzed for PTCH somatic mutations and cylindroma cell cultures were obtained directly from patients for further growth and analysis. Clinically, the major features of Brooke-Spiegler syndrome include the presence of heterogeneous skin tumors and wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic variability. Histopathologically, both cylindromas and trichoepitheliomas were found in affected individuals. Mutations or loss of heterozygosity was not found in CYLD and PTCH genes. In CYLD and PTCH mutation-negative patients, other genes may be affected and further studies are needed to clarify whether these patients may be affected by de novo germline mutations.

  18. Flood of October 8 and 9, 2005, on Cold River in Walpole, Langdon, and Alstead and on Warren Brook in Alstead, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Southwestern New Hampshire experienced damaging flooding on October 8 and 9, 2005. The flooding was the result of a storm producing at least 7 inches of rain in a 30-hour period. The heavy, intense rainfall resulted in runoff and severe flooding, especially in regions of steep topography that are vulnerable to flash flooding. Some of the worst property damage was in the towns of Alstead, Langdon, and Walpole, New Hampshire along Cold River and Warren Brook. Warren Brook was severely flooded and had flows that exceeded a 100-year recurrence interval upstream of Cooper Hill Road. Downstream of Cooper Hill Road, the flooding was worsened as a result of a sudden release of impounded water, making the flood levels greater than what would be experienced from a 500-year recurrence-interval flood. Along Cold River, upstream of its confluence with Warren Brook, flooding was at approximately a 100-year recurrence interval. Downstream of the confluence of Cold River and Warren Brook, the streamflows, which were swollen by the surge of water from Warren Brook, exceeded a 500year recurrence interval.

  19. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Wahoo Limestone forms the upper part of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) in the Sadlerochit Mountains. The Lisburne Group is a thick (> 600 m) sequence of platform carbonate rocks that extends across the Brooks Range of northern Alaska and beneath the North Slope. At Prudhoe Bay, the Lisburne Group forms a major hydrocarbon reservoir. In the easternmost Sadlerochit Mountains, the Wahool Limestone is divisible into informal lower (64 m) and upper (192 m) members. The basal 46 m is chiefly bryozoan and pelmatozoan packstone that formed on a relatively shallow platform during the latest Mississippian lower muricatus subzone (as shown by the occurrence of the zonal index with representatives of Cavusgnathus). Cavusgnathus is dominant in this part of the section and occurs with representatives of Kladognathus, Ghathodus, Adetognathus, Hindeodus, and Rhachistognathus (in order of decreasing abundance). Declinognathodus noduliferus, the index for the base of the Pennsylvanian, first occurs at 49 m above the base of the Wahoo and 1 m above a discontinuity surface that marks the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. The unconformity represents the highest conodont subzone of the Mississippian and probably part of the earliest Pennsylvanian. Previously, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary was placed t the lower-upper Wahoo contact based on endothyroids; conodont data now indicate that this boundary is 15 m lower. The remaining lower Wahoo is possibly of noduliferus-primus zone age and chiefly yields, in order of decreasing abundance, species of Adetognathus, Declinognathodus, and Rhachistognathus, as well as redeposited Mississipian conodonts. The lower 15 m of the upper member of the Wahoo contains silty (5-40%) carbonate rock types that yield very few conodonts. Conodonts no older than the minutus-sinuatus zone are relatively abundant from 15 to 106 m above the base of the upper Wahoo.

  20. Meteoroid stream of 12P/Pons-Brooks, December κ-Draconids, and Northern June Aquilids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomko, D.; Neslušan, L.

    2016-08-01

    Context. It was found that some parent bodies of meteoroid streams can be related to more than one meteor shower observable in the atmosphere of Earth. The orbits of the members of such showers must evolve to the locations, which are far from the orbit of their parent, to cross the orbit of the Earth. An extensive simulation of the stream evolution is necessary to reveal such a complex of showers of the given parent body. Aims: We continue the investigation of the evolution of the theoretical stream originating from the comet 12P/Pons-Brooks to understand its meteor-shower complex in more detail. Methods: We model a theoretical comet stream assuming an ejection of 10 000 particles, representing the meteoroids, from its nucleus in several past perihelion passages. Adding to our previous work, here we also consider the Poynting-Robertson drag in our study of the particles' dynamics. The orbits currently occurring in a vicinity of the Earth's orbit are used to predict the showers associated with comet 12P. Results: Two nighttime and two daytime showers are predicted to originate from 12P. The showers must consist of only relatively large particles, which are influenced to only a small extent by the Poynting-Robertson drag, because in this case, it deflects the particles from the collisional course with the Earth when efficient. The shower predicted to have the most particles is the nighttime shower, which can clearly be identified to the December κ-Draconids, No. 336 in the IAU MDC list. Another predicted nighttime shower has no counterpart in the considered observational data. Some characteristics of this shower are vaguely similar to those of Northern June Aquilids, No. 164. The observed counterparts of two predicted daytime showers were not found in the observational data we used or in the IAU MDC list.

  1. Effects of chronic ammonium sulfate treatment on the forest at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine.

    PubMed

    Elvir, Jose Alexander; Wiersma, G Bruce; Bethers, Suzanne; Kenlan, Peter

    2010-12-01

    At the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM), the forest tree composition was characterized and the effects of the chronic ammonium sulfate ((NH(4))(2)SO(4)) treatment on basal area growth, foliar chemistry, and gas exchange were investigated on forest species. The BBWM is a paired watershed forest ecosystem study with one watershed, West Bear (WB), treated since 1989 with 26.6 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 30 kg S ha(-1) year(-1)applied bimonthly as (NH(4))(2)SO(4), while the other watershed, East Bear (EB), serves as a reference. Tree species richness, density, and mortality were found to be similar between watersheds. Basal area increment was estimated from red spruce and sugar maple, showing that, for the first 7 years of treatment, it was significantly higher for sugar maple growing in WB compared to EB, but no differences were observed for red spruce between watersheds. However, the initial higher sugar maple basal area growth in WB subsequently decreased after 8 years of treatment. Foliar chemical analysis performed in trees, saplings, and ground flora showed higher N concentrations in the treated WB compared to the reference EB. But, foliar cation concentrations, especially Ca and Mg, were significantly lower for most of the species growing in WB compared with those growing in EB. For sugar maple, foliar N was higher on WB, but there were no differences in foliar Ca and Mg concentrations between treated and reference watersheds. In addition, only sugar maple trees in the treated WB showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates compared to reference EB trees.

  2. Habitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes in the lowland rivers of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Jażdżewski, M; Marszał, L; Przybylski, M

    2016-02-01

    The pattern of microhabitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes was examined in two rivers of central Poland: the Pilica River (the Vistula River basin) and the Grabia River (the Odra River basin). A comparison of abiotic factors of the rivers revealed differences in water speed and principal components: PC1 (determining gradient from decreasing medium sand to the increasing share of three fractions of gravel), PC2 (a gradient from the declining share of very coarse and coarse sand fractions to the growing content of fine sand) and PC3 (correlated with an increasing proportion of silt). The sites did not differ significantly in terms of water depth. Relative abundance and frequency of ammocoete occurrence in the Grabia River were higher than in the Pilica River. Only speed, PC1 and PC2 made a significant contribution to the prediction of larval occurrence. Eudontomyzon mariae larvae preferred substrata with a reduced amount of medium sand and increased content of gravel (PC1) as well as with a lower content of coarse sand and higher proportion of fine-grained sand (PC2). The ammocoetes also preferred areas with a water speed of 0·2 m s(-1) but avoided speeds ≥ 0·6 m s(-1). The abundance of E. mariae was affected by water speed, as well as by all PCs. The mean ± s.e. optimal current speed was 0·265 ± 0·007 m s(-1), while abundance decreased with increasing amounts of gravel (PC1) and increased with increasing amounts of fine sand and silt in the bottom substratum (PC2 and PC3). Comparison of ammocoete microhabitat use in the Pilica and Grabia Rivers showed the lack of differences in distribution in the preferred values of current speed, PC1 and PC2.

  3. Multistory duplexes with forward dipping roofs, north central Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.; Plafker, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Endicott Mountains allochthon has been thrust far northward over the North Slope parautochthon in the northern Brooks Range. Progressively younger units are exposed northward within the allochthon. To the south, the incompetent Hunt Fork Shale has thickened internally by asymmetric folds and thrust faults. Northward, the competent Kanayut Conglomerate forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Hunt Fork and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale. To the north, the competent Lisburne Group forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Kayak and a roof thrust in the Siksikpuk Formation. Both duplexes formed from north vergent detachment folds whose steep limbs were later truncated by south dipping thrust faults that only locally breach immediately overlying roof thrusts. Within the parautochthon, the Kayak, Lisburne, and Siksikpuk-equivalent Echooka Formation form a duplex identical to that in the allochthon. This duplex is succeeded abruptly northward by detachment folds in Lisburne. These folds are parasitic to an anticlinorium interpreted to reflect a fault-bend folded horse in North Slope "basement," with a roof thrust in Kayak and a floor thrust at depth. These structures constitute two northward tapered, internally deformed wedges that are juxtaposed at the base of the allochthon. Within each wedge, competent units have been shortened independently between detachments, located mainly in incompetent units. The basal detachment of each wedge cuts upsection forward (northward) to define a wedge geometry within which units dip regionally forward. These dips reflect forward decrease in internal structural thickening by forward vergent folds and hindward dipping thrust faults. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Depositional settings, correlation, and age carboniferous rocks in the western Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Anita G.; Blome, Charles D.; Young, Lorne E.

    2004-01-01

    The Kuna Formation (Lisburne Group) in northwest Alaska hosts the Red Dog and other Zn-Pb-Ag massive sulfide deposits in the Red Dog district. New studies of the sedimentology and paleontology of the Lisburne Group constrain the setting, age, and thermal history of these deposits. In the western and west-central Brooks Range, the Lisburne Group includes both deep- and shallow-water sedimentary facies and local volcanic rocks that are exposed in a series of thrust sheets or allochthons. Deep-water facies in the Red Dog area (i.e., the Kuna Formation and related rocks) are found chiefly in the Endicott Mountains and structurally higher Picnic Creek allochthons. In the Red Dog plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, the Kuna consists of at least 122 m of thinly interbedded calcareous shale, calcareous spiculite, and bioclastic supportstone (Kivalina unit) overlain by 30 to 240 m of siliceous shale, mudstone, calcareous radiolarite, and calcareous lithic turbidite (Ikalukrok unit). The Ikalukrok unit in the Red Dog plate hosts all massive sulfide deposits in the area. It is notably carbonaceous, is generally finely laminated, and contains siliceous sponge spicules and radiolarians. The Kuna Formation in the Key Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains allochthon (60–110 m) resembles the Ikalukrok unit but is unmineralized and has thinner carbonate layers that are mainly organic-rich dolostone. Correlative strata in the Picnic Creek allochthon include less shale and mudstone and more carbonate (mostly calcareous spiculite). Conodonts and radiolarians indicate an age range of Osagean to early Chesterian (late Early to Late Mississippian) for the Kuna in the Red Dog area. Sedimentologic, faunal, and geochemical data imply that most of the Kuna formed in slope and basin settings characterized by anoxic or dysoxic bottom water and by local high productivity.

  5. Multistory duplexes with forward dipping roofs, north central Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Wesley K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Plafker, George

    1997-01-01

    The Endicott Mountains allochthon has been thrust far northward over the North Slope parautochthon in the northern Brooks Range. Progressively younger units are exposed northward within the allochthon. To the south, the incompetent Hunt Fork Shale has thickened internally by asymmetric folds and thrust faults. Northward, the competent Kanayut Conglomerate forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Hunt Fork and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale. To the north, the competent Lisburne Group forms a duplex between a floor thrust in Kayak and a roof thrust in the Siksikpuk Formation. Both duplexes formed from north vergent detachment folds whose steep limbs were later truncated by south dipping thrust faults that only locally breach immediately overlying roof thrusts. Within the parautochthon, the Kayak, Lisburne, and Siksikpuk-equivalent Echooka Formation form a duplex identical to that in the allochthon. This duplex is succeeded abruptly northward by detachment folds in Lisburne. These folds are parasitic to an anticlinorium interpreted to reflect a fault-bend folded horse in North Slope "basement," with a roof thrust in Kayak and a floor thrust at depth/These structures constitute two northward tapered, internally deformed wedges that are juxtaposed at the base of the allochthon. Within each wedge, competent units have been shortened independently between detachments, located mainly in incompetent units. The basal detachment of each wedge cuts upsection forward (northward) to define a wedge geometry within which units dip regionally forward. These dips reflect forward decrease in internal structural thickening by forward vergent folds and hindward dipping thrust faults.

  6. Caledonian Deformation in Polydeformed Pre-Mississippian Rocks of the Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. G.; Toro, J.; Benowitz, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the northeastern Brooks Range of Alaska there are polydeformed metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks exposed below a major pre-Mississippian unconformity. Elsewhere in northern Alaska it has been challenging to correlate the tectonic fabrics of these early Paleozoic to Neoproterozoic rocks to the different orogenic events of the Arctic because of the strong overprint of Mesozoic and Tertiary Brookian deformation. However, our recent field investigations along the Kongakut and Aichiklik rivers of ANWR have identified an older (pre-Brookian) structural event based on the orientation of penetrative cleavage planes and a contrast in folding style to Brookian structures. Many of the cleavage planes are north dipping and orientated parallel to the axial planes of south-vergent folds. Although metamorphic grade is generally low, in localized areas the cleavage planes contain white micas, whose petrologic and isotopic characteristics indicate that they crystallized during fabric formation. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the white micas yield a metamorphic age of ~400 Ma (Early Devonian). This is evidence for a south-directed structural event which is contemporaneous with Caledonian deformation in East Greenland and Svalbard. Stratigraphicaly, the basement consists of a diverse package of highly deformed marine clastic sediments, and a thick section of basaltic to andesitic flows and volcaniclastic rocks, the Whale Mountain volcanics, which have a sharp southern contact but grade northward and upwards into the clastic rocks. All units are metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. We are currently investigating the age and geochemical characteristics of the Whale Mountain volcanics to determine their tectonic affinity and role in the assemblage of the North Slope block of Northern Alaska.

  7. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  8. Frozen debris lobe morphology and movement: an overview of eight dynamic features, southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrow, Margaret M.; Gyswyt, Nora L.; Simpson, Jocelyn M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Hubbard, Trent D.

    2016-05-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are elongated, lobate permafrost features that mostly move through shear in zones near their bases. We present a comprehensive overview of eight FDLs within the Dalton Highway corridor (southern Brooks Range, Alaska), including their catchment geology and rock strengths, lobe soil characteristics, surface movement measurements collected between 2012 and 2015, and analysis of historic and modern imagery from 1955 to 2014. Field mapping and rock strength data indicate that the metasedimentary and metavolcanic bedrock forming the majority of the lobe catchments has very low to medium strength and is heavily fractured, thus easily contributing to FDL formation. The eight investigated FDLs consist of platy rocks typical of their catchments, organic debris, and an ice-poor soil matrix; massive ice, however, is present within FDLs as infiltration ice, concentrated within cracks open to the surface. Exposure of infiltration ice in retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) and associated debris flows leads to increased movement and various stages of destabilization, resulting in morphological differences among the lobes. Analysis of historic imagery indicates that movement of the eight investigated FDLs has been asynchronous over the study period, and since 1955, there has been an overall increase in movement rates of the investigated FDLs. The formation of surface features, such as cracks, scarps, and RTSs, suggests that the increased movement rates correlate to general instability, and even at their current distances, FDLs are impacting infrastructure through increased sediment mobilization. FDL-A is the largest of the investigated FDLs. As of August 2015, FDL-A was 39.2 m from the toe of the Dalton Highway embankment. Based on its current distance and rate of movement, we predict that FDL-A will reach the Dalton Highway alignment by 2023.

  9. Organic Compounds in Running Gutter Brook Water Used for Public Supply near Hatfield, Massachusetts, 2003-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig J.; Trombley, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The 258 organic compounds studied in this U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment generally are man-made, including pesticides, solvents, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use products, and pavement and combustion-derived compounds. Of these 258 compounds, 26 (about 10 percent) were detected at least once among the 31 samples collected approximately monthly during 2003-05 at the intake of a flowthrough reservoir on Running Gutter Brook in Massachusetts, one of several community water systems on tributaries of the Connecticut River. About 81 percent of the watershed is forested, 14 percent is agricultural land, and 5 percent is urban land. In most source-water samples collected at Running Gutter Brook, fewer compounds were detected and their concentrations were low (less than 0.1 micrograms per liter) when compared with compounds detected at other stream sites across the country that drain watersheds that have a larger percentage of agricultural and urban areas. The relatively few compounds detected at low concentrations reflect the largely undeveloped land use at Running Gutter Brook. Despite the absence of wastewater discharge points on the stream, however, the compounds that were detected could indicate different sources and uses (point sources, precipitation, domestic, and agricultural) and different pathways to drinking-water supplies (overland runoff, groundwater discharge, leaking of treated water from distribution lines, and formation during treatment). Six of the 10 compounds detected most commonly (in at least 20 percent of the samples) in source water also were detected commonly in finished water (after treatment but prior to distribution). Concentrations in source and finished water generally were below 0.1 micrograms per liter and always less than humanhealth benchmarks, which are available for about one-half of the compounds detected. On the basis of this screening-level assessment, adverse effects to human health are expected to be

  10. Stratigraphic controls on lateral variations in the structural style of northeastern Brooks range, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.K.; Hanks, C.L.

    1988-02-01

    The structural style of the range-front region of the northeastern Brooks Range in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is strongly controlled by (1) the existence of detachment horizons in both pre-Mississippian rocks and the unconformably overlying Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous cover sequence, and (2) lithology and structural competency of the pre-Mississippian rocks. These variables strongly influence lateral changes in structural style. The Brooks Range of northwestern ANWR is dominated by a series of narrow linear anticlinoria, whereas in northeastern ANWR the Brooks Range is characterized by only two broad and strongly arcuate anticlinoria. In both areas, the anticlinoria are controlled by the geometry of a duplex bounded by a floor thrust in pre-Mississippian rocks and a roof thrust in the Kayak Shale, near the base of the cover sequence. In the west, where the pre-Mississippian partially consists of structurally competent carbonates, each anticlinorium marks a single horse in the duplex. However, in the east, pre-Mississippian rocks are relatively incompetent and each anticlinorium is cored by multiple horses. In the west, shortening above the roof thrust is by detachment folding, except where the shale detachment horizon is depositionally absent. In contrast, in eastern ANWR shortening above the roof thrust is by major thrust duplication of the entire cover sequence, perhaps due to lithology and thickness changes within the detachment horizon. A Devonian batholith marks the boundary between the eastern and western structural provinces. The thrust-controlled range front of eastern ANWR extends north of the batholith, suggesting that the batholith itself may be underlain by a thrust fault.

  11. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Suites, Final Feasibility Study Report, Cold Spring Brook Landfill Operable Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    Interpreted Wetland Delineation 1-5 Summary of Cancer Risk Estimates: Current Land Use 1-6 Summary of Noncancer Risk Estimates: Current Land Use 1-7...Summary of Cancer Risk Estimates: Future Land Use 1-8 Summary of Noncancer Risk Estimates: Future Land Use 4-1 Alternative CSBL-1: Proposed Groundwater...Cold Spring Brook Landfill Wells 3-1 Summary of Cancer Risk Estimates: Future Land UseI 3-2 Summary of Noncancer Risk Estimates: Future Land Use 3-3

  12. ERDA/NASA 100 kilowatt mod-o wind turbine operations and performance. [at the NASA Plum Brook Station, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Richards, T. R.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA/NASA 100 kW Mod-0 wind turbine is operating at the NASA Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio. The operation of the wind turbine has been fully demonstrated and includes start-up, synchronization to the utility network, blade pitch control for control of power and speed, and shut-down. Also, fully automatic operation has been demonstrated by use of a remote control panel, 50 miles from the site, similar to what a utility dispatcher might use. The operation systems and experience with the wind turbine loads, electrical power and aerodynamic performance obtained from testing are described.

  13. Potential tight gas resources in a frontier province - Jurassic through Tertiary strata beneath the Brooks Range foothills, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Potter, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Beneath the foothills of the Brooks Range, rocks of the Lower Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian and Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Beaufortian megasequences have been deeply buried and exhumed, and now exhibit characteristics of 'tight gas sandstones'. The data recovered from drilling, well tests, and cores exhibit the potential for substantial gas reserves over a large area. These data include recovery of gas from drillstem tests, indications of overpressure from well tests and mud weights, low porosity and permeability in sandstones, and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 percent throughout substantial depth intervals.

  14. The Mothball, Sustainment, and Proposed Reactivation of the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) at NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Scott R.; Lee, Jinho; Stephens, John W.; Hostler, Robert W., Jr.; VonKamp, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, is the nation s only large-scale, non-vitiated, hypersonic propulsion test facility. The HTF, with its 4-story graphite induction heater, is capable of duplicating Mach 5, 6, and 7 flight conditions. This unique propulsion system test facility has experienced several standby and reactivation cycles. The intent of the paper is to overview the HTF capabilities to the propulsion community, present the current status of HTF, and share the lessons learned from putting a large-scale facility into mothball status for a later restart

  15. Analysis of brook trout spatial behavior during passage attempts in corrugated culverts using near-infrared illumination video imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, Normand E.; Constantin, Pierre-Marc; Goerig, Elsa; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.

    2016-01-01

    We used video recording and near-infrared illumination to document the spatial behavior of brook trout of various sizes attempting to pass corrugated culverts under different hydraulic conditions. Semi-automated image analysis was used to digitize fish position at high temporal resolution inside the culvert, which allowed calculation of various spatial behavior metrics, including instantaneous ground and swimming speed, path complexity, distance from side walls, velocity preference ratio (mean velocity at fish lateral position/mean crosssectional velocity) as well as number and duration of stops in forward progression. The presentation summarizes the main results and discusses how they could be used to improve fish passage performance in culverts.

  16. Fabrication of (U, Zr) C-fueled/tungsten-clad specimens for irradiation in the Plum Brook Reactor Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Fuel samples, 90UC - 10 ZrC, and chemically vapor deposited tungsten fuel cups were fabricated for the study of the long term dimensional stability and compatibility of the carbide-tungsten fuel-cladding systems under irradiation. These fuel samples and fuel cups were assembled into the fuel pins of two capsules, designated as V-2E and V-2F, for irradiation in NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility at a fission power density of 172 watts/c.c. and a miximum cladding temperature of 1823 K. Fabrication methods and characteristics of the fuel samples and fuel cups prepared are described.

  17. INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY REPORT FOR THE REACTOR BUILDING, HOT LABORATORY, PRIMARY PUMP HOUSE, AND LAND AREAS AT THE PLUM BROOK REACTOR FACILITY, SANDUSKY, OHIO

    SciTech Connect

    Erika N. Bailey

    2011-10-10

    In 1941, the War Department acquired approximately 9,000 acres of land near Sandusky, Ohio and constructed a munitions plant. The Plum Brook Ordnance Works Plant produced munitions, such as TNT, until the end of World War II. Following the war, the land remained idle until the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics later called the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) obtained 500 acres to construct a nuclear research reactor designed to study the effects of radiation on materials used in space flight. The research reactor was put into operation in 1961 and was the first of fifteen test facilities eventually built by NASA at the Plum Brook Station. By 1963, NASA had acquired the remaining land at Plum Brook for these additional test facilities

  18. Genomic patterns of diversity and divergence of two introduced salmonid species in Patagonia, South America.

    PubMed

    Narum, Shawn R; Gallardo, Pablo; Correa, Cristian; Matala, Amanda; Hasselman, Daniel; Sutherland, Ben J G; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-04-01

    Invasive species have become widespread in aquatic environments throughout the world, yet there are few studies that have examined genomic variation of multiple introduced species in newly colonized environments. In this study, we contrast genomic variation in two salmonid species (anadromous Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 11,579 SNPs and resident Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis, 13,522 SNPs) with differing invasion success after introduction to new environments in South America relative to populations from their native range in North America. Estimates of genetic diversity were not significantly different between introduced and source populations for either species, indicative of propagule pressure that has been shown to maintain diversity in founding populations relative to their native range. Introduced populations also demonstrated higher connectivity and gene flow than those in their native range. Evidence for candidate loci under divergent selection was observed, but was limited to specific introduced populations and was not widely evident. Patterns of genomic variation were consistent with general dispersal potential of each species and therefore also the notion that life history variation may contribute to both invasion success and subsequent genetic structure of these two salmonids in Patagonia.

  19. Erythrocyte heat shock protein responses to chronic (in vivo) and acute (in vitro) temperature challenge in diploid and triploid salmonids.

    PubMed

    Saranyan, Pillai V; Ross, Neil W; Benfey, Tillmann J

    2017-04-01

    This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates. After chronic (100d) acclimation of fish to 5, 15 and 25°C, triploid erythrocytes had lower HSP70, HSP90, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and ubiquitin (free and total) levels than diploids in both species. Furthermore, Atlantic salmon erythrocytes showed significantly higher protein breakdown (based on conjugated ubiquitin levels) in triploids than diploids after acute heat stress in vitro, but no significant difference was detected between ploidies after acute cold stress. These results indicate that: 1) triploid erythrocytes synthesize more total protein per cell than diploids as a result of increased cell size; 2) triploids have sufficient total HSP levels for survival under low stress conditions; and 3) the lower basal titres of HSPs in triploids may be a handicap when combating acute stress. Taken together, this suggests that triploids are limited in their ability to withstand thermal stress because of a reduced ability to maintain proteostasis under stressful conditions.

  20. A test for the genetic basis of natural selection: an individual-based longitudinal study in a stream-dwelling fish.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael B; Ferguson, Moira M

    2011-04-01

    In addition to the well-studied evolutionary parameters of (1) phenotype-fitness covariance and (2) the genetic basis of phenotypic variation, adaptive evolution by natural selection requires that (3) fitness variation is effected by heritable genetic differences among individuals and (4) phenotype-fitness covariances must be, at least in part, underlain by genetic covariances. These latter two requirements for adaptive evolutionary change are relatively unstudied in natural populations. Absence of the latter requirements could explain stasis of apparently directionally selected heritable traits. We provide complementary analyses of selection and variation at phenotypic and genetic levels for juvenile growth rate in brook charr Salvelinus fontinalis in Freshwater River, Newfoundland, Canada. Contrary to the vast majority of reports in fish, we found very little viability selection of juvenile body size. Large body size appears nonetheless to be selectively advantageous via a relationship with early maturity. Genetic patterns in evolutionary parameters largely reflected phenotypic patterns. We have provided inference of selection based on longitudinal data, which are uncommon in high fecundity organisms. Furthermore we have provided a practicable framework for further studies of the genetic basis of natural selection.

  1. Inter Individual Variations of the Fish Skin Microbiota: Host Genetics Basis of Mutualism?

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Sébastien; Sauvage, Christopher; Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Derome, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota of fish skin is suspected to provide a protection against opportunist infections. The skin of fish harbors a complex and diverse microbiota that closely interacts with the surrounding water microbial communities. Up to now there is no clear evidence as to whether the host regulates the recruitment of environmental bacteria to build a specific skin microbiota. To address this question, we detected Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with the abundance of specific skin microbiota bacterial strains in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), combining 16S RNA tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with genetic linkage analysis. Skin microbiota analysis revealed high inter-individual variation among 86 F2 fish progeny based upon the relative abundance of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Out of those OTUs, the pathogenic strain Flavobacterium psychrophilum and the non-pathogenic strain Methylobacterium rhodesianum explained the majority of inter-individual distances. Furthermore, a strong negative correlation was found between Flavobacterium and Methylobacterium, suggesting a mutually competitive relationship. Finally, after considering a total of 266 markers, genetic linkage analysis highlighted three major QTL associated with the abundance of Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium. All these three genera are known for their beneficial antibacterial activity. Overall, our results provide evidence that host genotype may regulate the abundance of specific genera among their surface microbiota. They also indicate that Lysobacter, Rheinheimera and Methylobacterium are potentially important genera in providing protection against pathogens. PMID:25068850

  2. Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy (1808-1889), MD, FRS, LRCS Ed: Chemical pathologist, pharmacologist and pioneer in electric telegraphy.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Neil

    2015-09-18

    This article reviews the life and work of Sir William O'Shaughnessy Brooke (formerly Sir William Brooke O'Shaughnessy), an Edinburgh doctor of medicine and Fellow of the Royal Society who as a young doctor in London analysed the blood and excreta of cholera victims, an action which led to the first successful use of intravenous replacement therapy. His career in India was distinguished in several spheres: chemistry, pharmacology in which he introduced cannabis indica to Europe, and in the field of electric telegraphy where he became the superintendent of telegraphs for India.

  3. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, BW; Abbott, MB; Finney, BP; Kutchko, B

    2009-01-01

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve-thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r (2) = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varvetemperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation. Varve-inferred summer temperatures and precipitation decreased after 730 AD, averaging 0.4A degrees C above the last millennial average (LMA = 4.2A degrees C) from 730 to 850 AD, and 0.1A degrees C above the LMA from 850 to 980 AD. Cooling culminated between 980 and 1030 AD with temperatures 0.7A degrees C below the LMA. Varve-inferred summer temperatures increased between 1030 and 1620 AD to the LMA, though the period between 1260 and 1350 AD was 0.2A degrees C below the LMA. Although there is no equivalent to the European Medieval Warm Period in the Blue Lake record, two warm intervals occurred from 1350 to 1450 AD and 1500 to 1620 AD (0.4 and 0.3A degrees C above the LMA, respectively). During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1620 to 1880 AD), inferred summer temperature averaged 0.2A degrees C below the LMA. After 1880 AD, inferred summer temperature increased to 0.8A degrees C above the LMA, glaciers retreated, but aridity persisted based on a number of regional paleoclimate records. Despite warming and glacial retreat, varve thicknesses have not achieved pre-730 AD levels. This reflects limited sediment availability and transport due to a less extensive retreat compared to the first millennium, and continued relative aridity. Overall, the Blue Lake record is similar to varve records from the

  4. Population response to habitat fragmentation in a stream-dwelling brook trout population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; Nislow, K.H.; Coombs, J.A.; O'Donnell, M. J.; Dubreuil, T.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragmentation can strongly influence population persistence and expression of life-history strategies in spatially-structured populations. In this study, we directly estimated size-specific dispersal, growth, and survival of stream-dwelling brook trout in a stream network with connected and naturally-isolated tributaries. We used multiple-generation, individual-based data to develop and parameterize a size-class and location-based population projection model, allowing us to test effects of fragmentation on population dynamics at local (i.e., subpopulation) and system-wide (i.e., metapopulation) scales, and to identify demographic rates which influence the persistence of isolated and fragmented populations. In the naturally-isolated tributary, persistence was associated with higher early juvenile survival (-45% greater), shorter generation time (one-half) and strong selection against large body size compared to the open system, resulting in a stage-distribution skewed towards younger, smaller fish. Simulating barriers to upstream migration into two currently-connected tribuory populations caused rapid (2-6 generations) local extinction. These local extinctions in turn increased the likelihood of system-wide extinction, as tributaries could no longer function as population sources. Extinction could be prevented in the open system if sufficient immigrants from downstream areas were available, but the influx of individuals necessary to counteract fragmentation effects was high (7-46% of the total population annually). In the absence of sufficient immigration, a demographic change (higher early survival characteristic of the isolated tributary) was also sufficient to rescue the population from fragmentation, suggesting that the observed differences in size distributions between the naturally-isolated and open system may reflect an evolutionary response to isolation. Combined with strong genetic divergence between the isolated tributary and open system, these results

  5. Response of Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani to springtime acid episodes in humic brooks.

    PubMed

    Andrén, C M; Eriksson Wiklund, A-K

    2013-10-01

    While chronic acidification of water bodies has been steadily decreasing, episodic acidification continues to affect stream biology by temporarily decreasing pH and mobilizing aluminum. These events are becoming more common as climate change renders more frequent and intense storms and flooding. Throughout Scandinavia, the effects of acidification have been mitigated by liming since the 1980s, but remediation efforts can now be reduced. While transient acidity may reduce fish populations, also other species in streams are affected. In this in-stream study, two macro-invertebrates (Gammarus pulex and Baetis rhodani), both known as salmonid prey organisms, were exposed to snowmelt in six humic brooks with a natural gradient of pH and inorganic monomeric Al (Al(i)). We hypothesize that acid toxicity thresholds can be defined using lethal (mortality) and sublethal (changes in body elemental content) metrics. Periodic observations were made of mortality and whole body concentrations of base cations (BC: Ca, Mg, Na and K) and metals (Al, Fe, Zn and Mn). Mortality increased dramatically at pH<6.0 and Al(i)>15 μg/L for G. pulex and at pH<5.7 and Al(i)>20 μg/L for B. rhodani. No accumulation of Al was found. The invertebrate body Na concentration decreased when pH dropped, suggesting that osmoregulation in both species was affected. In contrast to general BC pattern, Ca concentration in G. pulex and Mg concentration in B. rhodani increased when pH decreased. Although Al(i) strongly correlates to pH, the Al composition of soil and bedrock also influences Al availability, potentially contributing to toxic Al(i) episodes. The estimated values calculated in this study can be used to improve water quality criteria and as thresholds to adjust doses of lime compared to old recommendations in ongoing liming programs. Such adjustments may be critical since both Al(i) and pH levels have to be balanced to mitigate damage to recovering stream ecosystems.

  6. Analysis of the shallow groundwater flow system near Connetqout Brook, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prince, K.R.; Reilly, T.E.; Franke, O.L.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow on Long Island is derived principally from shallow groundwater that flows above the deeper regional flow system. The movement of shallow groundwater was studied during 1975-1982 at Connetquot Brook - an undisturbed stream in Connetquot River State Park - in south-central Long Island. The investigation encompassed: (1) field studies of streamflow, groundwater levels, and age of water as indicated by tritium concentrations, and (2) numerical simulation of the shallow flow system to evaluate the hydraulic factors that influence groundwater flow near and beneath the stream. Analysis of water-level data indicates that groundwater flow is essentially horizontal throughout the drainage basin except near and beneath the stream, where it moves upward diagonally and discharges into the streambank at three sites were 1-2 ft higher than stream stage in the and in wells driven into the streambank at three sites were 1-2 ft higher than stream stage in the first 5 ft of penetration. Increases in head, which were detected to depths of 30 ft beneath the streambed, indicate upward movement of water above that depth. Water samples from selected wells were analyzed for tritium concentration to determine the relative age of water to locate the bottom boundary of the shallow flow system. Tritium concentrations indicate that the lower boundary is from 45 to 100 ft below the water table. A two-dimensional cross-sectional flow model of the shallow flow system indicated that: (1) stream width and streambed hydraulic conductivity influence heads mostly within about 50 ft of the stream; (2) the thickness of the shallow flow system influences heads more distant from the stream but has a negligible effect near the stream; and (3) the quantity of water entering the system as recharge from precipitation influences the heads throughout the area. Field measurements of hydraulic head indicate the shallow flow system to extend to about 30 ft below the stream channel. Results of the

  7. Organic matter and nutrient dynamics of the forest and forest floor in the Hubbard Brook forest.

    PubMed

    Gosz, James R; Likens, Gene E; Bormann, F Herbert

    1976-12-01

    The forest floor is a major reservoir of organic matter and nutrients for the ecosystem and as such it influences or regulates most of the functional processes occurring throughout the ecosystem. This study reports on the nutrient and organic matter content of the forest floor of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest during different seasons and attempts to correlate results from studies of vegetation, litter, decomposition, stemflow, throughfall, and soil. An organic matter budget is presented for an undisturbed watershed.Average weight of the forest floor on an undisturbed watershed ranged from 25,500 to 85,500 kg/ha. The weighted watershed average was 46,800 kg/ha. Although the F and H horizons did not vary significantly with time, the L horizon increased significantly during the period June to August largely as a result of a severe hail storm. The order of abundance of elements in the forest floor was Nτ;Ca≷Fe>S>P>Mn>K>Mg>Na>Zn>Cu. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mn decreased with depth in the forest floor while N, P, S, Na, Fe, Zn, and Cu concentrations increased. N:P ratios were similar in decomposing leaf tissue, the forest floor, litterfall, and net stemflow plus throughfall suggesting a similar pattern of cycling. S was proportional to N and P in decomposing leaf tissue, the forest floor, and litterfall. Net stemflow and throughfall were affected by a relatively large input of SO4=-S from the atmosphere. Residence times for elements in the forest floor were affected by inputs other than litterfall (precipitation, stemflow, and throughfall). Calculation of residence times using all inputs caused smaller values than if litterfall alone was used. While all residence times were reduced, the major differences occurred for K, S, and Na. N and P showed relatively long residence times as a result of retranslocation and immobilization by decomposers. The slow turnover rate because of the strong demand and retention by all biota must account for the efficiency

  8. Mafic and ultramafic rocks of the northwestern Brooks Range of Alaska produce nearly symmetric gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.L. )

    1993-04-01

    An arc of mafic and ultramafic rocks is mapped from Asik Mountain to Siniktanneyak Mountain in the northwestern Brooks Range of Alaska. Gravity data, although not very detailed, have been collected over the region and show some very conspicuous circular or oval gravity highs over portions of the mapped mafic-ultramafic bodies. Bodies which have large associated gravity anomalies are Asik Mountain (80 mGal), Avon Hills (20 mGal), Misheguk Mountain (30 mGal), and Siniktanneyak Mountain (20 mGal). Gabbros of the Siniktanneyak Mountain complex, where the gravity coverage is best, have densities of about 3.0 g/cm[sup 3] while the densities of the surrounding sedimentary rocks are about 2.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Volcanic rocks in the area have average densities of about 2.7 g/cm[sup 3]. Three-dimensional modeling indicates that the largest anomaly, on the southwestern part of the complex, could be caused by a polygonal prism of gabbro with vertical sides, about 6 km across and about 4.5 km deep. A smaller lobe of the anomaly on the northeast of the complex could be caused by another oblong polygonal prism about 4 km long and 2 km wide trending northeast and about 1.5 km deep. Modeling this anomaly with densities lower than gabbro would require greater thicknesses to produce the same anomaly. Modeling each anomaly along this arc in 2 1/2-dimensions shows many possible solutions using different body shapes and different density contrasts. There are several other gravity anomalies in this vicinity which could represent unexposed high density rocks. One such anomaly is in the Maiyumerak Mountains northeast of Asik Mountain (30 mGal). Another anomaly is to the northwest of Asik Mountain (20 mGal). There is also an anomaly at Uchugrak (20 mGal) east of Avan Hills. Although many of the anomalies in this region are poorly controlled, an attempt has been made to interpret the data to show possible solutions.

  9. K-Ar geochronology of the Survey Pass, Ambler River and Eastern Baird Mountains quadrangles, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, R.B.; Mayfield, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    We report 76 previously unpublished K-Ar mineral ages from 47 metamorphic and igneous rocks in the southwestern Brooks Range. The pattern of radiometric ages is complex, reflecting the complex geologic history of this area. Local and regional radiometric evidence suggests that the southern Brooks Range schist belt has, at least in part, undergone a late Precambrian metamorphism and that the parent sedimentary and igneous rocks for the metamorphic rocks dated as late Precambrian are at least this old (Precambrian Z). This schist terrane experienced a major thermal event in mid-Cretaceous time, causing widespread resetting of nearly all K-Ar mica ages. A series of apparent ages intermediate between late Precambrian and mid-Cretaceous are interpreted as indicating varying amounts of partial argon loss from older rocks during the Cretaceous event. The schist belt is characterized by dominant metasediments and subordinate metabasites and metafelsites. Blueschists occur within the schist belt from the Chandalar quadrangle westward to the Baird Mountains quadrangle, but geologic evidence does not support the existence of a fossil subduction zone.

  10. Comparative diel feeding ecology of brook silverside, golden shiner, and subyearling pumpkinseed in a Lake Ontario embayment during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; Diaz, Avriel R; Nack, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    Fish feeding ecology has been shown to vary over a 24-h period in terms of the prey consumed and feeding intensity. Consequently, in order to best determine the interspecific feeding associations within a fish community, examination of the diet at multiple times over a 24-h period is often necessary. We examined the diel feeding ecology of three fish species that were numerically dominant in a Lake Ontario embayment during summer. The diet of each of the three species, subyearling pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucus, and brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus, was distinct with no significant overlap in diet composition occurring within any of the 4-h time intervals. The diet composition of each species suggested that brook silverside were feeding at the surface (terrestrial invertebrates and aquatic surface dwelling hemipterans) whereas subyearling pumpkinseed (amphipods) and golden shiner (tipulids) were feeding on different benthic prey. Differences in feeding periodicity were most pronounced for subyearling pumpkinseed. Our findings provide valuable insights on interspecific feeding associations among these three fish species during summer in a Lake Ontario embayment.

  11. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.M.; Welsh, S.A.; Turk, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (<50 mm) and large (100-150 mm) ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). In aquaria, ammocoetes were given a choice to burrow into six equally-available substrate types: small gravel (2.360-4.750 mm), coarse sand (0.500-1.400 mm), fine sand (0.125-0.500 mm), organic substrate (approximately 70% decomposing leaves/stems and organic sediment particles, and 30% silt and fine sand), an even mixture of silt, clay, and fine sand, and silt/clay (<0.063 mm). Fine sand was selected with a significantly higher probability than any other substrate. Fine sand habitat is limited in many streams, in part owing to geology, but also as a result of channelization and excessive silt/clay sedimentation, which is a conservation concern. Our results indicate that ammocoetes of least brook lampreys are habitat specialists that prefer fine sand habitat. Hence, availability of fine sand habitat may limit distributions and population sizes. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. HUWE1 mutations in Juberg-Marsidi and Brooks syndromes: the results of an X-chromosome exome sequencing study

    PubMed Central

    Friez, Michael J; Brooks, Susan Sklower; Stevenson, Roger E; Field, Michael; Basehore, Monica J; Adès, Lesley C; Sebold, Courtney; McGee, Stephen; Saxon, Samantha; Skinner, Cindy; Craig, Maria E; Murray, Lucy; Simensen, Richard J; Yap, Ying Yzu; Shaw, Marie A; Gardner, Alison; Corbett, Mark; Kumar, Raman; Bosshard, Matthias; van Loon, Barbara; Tarpey, Patrick S; Abidi, Fatima; Gecz, Jozef; Schwartz, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Background X linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes account for a substantial number of males with ID. Much progress has been made in identifying the genetic cause in many of the syndromes described 20–40 years ago. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the rapid discovery of XLID genes and identifying novel mutations in known XLID genes for many of these syndromes. Methods 2 NGS approaches were employed to identify mutations in X linked genes in families with XLID disorders. 1 involved exome sequencing of genes on the X chromosome using the Agilent SureSelect Human X Chromosome Kit. The second approach was to conduct targeted NGS sequencing of 90 known XLID genes. Results We identified the same mutation, a c.12928 G>C transversion in the HUWE1 gene, which gives rise to a p.G4310R missense mutation in 2 XLID disorders: Juberg-Marsidi syndrome (JMS) and Brooks syndrome. Although the original families with these disorders were considered separate entities, they indeed overlap clinically. A third family was also found to have a novel HUWE1 mutation. Conclusions As we identified a HUWE1 mutation in an affected male from the original family reported by Juberg and Marsidi, it is evident the syndrome does not result from a mutation in ATRX as reported in the literature. Additionally, our data indicate that JMS and Brooks syndromes are allelic having the same HUWE1 mutation. PMID:27130160

  13. Selection and preference of benthic habitat by small and large Ammocoetes of the Least Brook Lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Dustin M.; Welsh, Stuart; Turk, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory study, we quantified substrate selection by small (<50 mm) and large (100–150 mm) ammocoetes of the least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). In aquaria, ammocoetes were given a choice to burrow into six equally-available substrate types: small gravel (2.360–4.750 mm), coarse sand (0.500–1.400 mm), fine sand (0.125–0.500 mm), organic substrate (approximately 70% decomposing leaves/stems and organic sediment particles, and 30% silt and fine sand), an even mixture of silt, clay, and fine sand, and silt/clay (<0.063 mm). Fine sand was selected with a significantly higher probability than any other substrate. Fine sand habitat is limited in many streams, in part owing to geology, but also as a result of channelization and excessive silt/clay sedimentation, which is a conservation concern. Our results indicate that ammocoetes of least brook lampreys are habitat specialists that prefer fine sand habitat. Hence, availability of fine sand habitat may limit distributions and population sizes.

  14. A comparative assessment of the Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks pubic aging methods on a North American sample, .

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Julie M

    2013-03-01

    Accurately estimating the age-at-death of adult human skeletons is fundamental in forensic anthropology. This study evaluates the accuracy of two pubic bone age estimation methods-Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks. Specimens were obtained from a known collection of modern pubic bones curated at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. A sample of 296 left male pubic bones of European ancestry was statistically evaluated via bias, absolute mean error, and intra- and inter-observer error. Results indicate that the two methods are similar; the Suchey-Brooks method is the most accurate for aging young adults (error c. 7 years), while the Revised Chen et al. method is most accurate for aging middle-age adults (error c. 6 years). Thus, the Chen et al. method is an important contribution to forensic anthropology for aging older adult skeletal remains. There are, however, some limitations such as subjectivity and the intricate scoring system of Chen et al. method.

  15. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.

  16. Comparison of CO2 trapping in highly heterogeneous reservoirs with Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten type capillary pressure curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Ritzi, Robert W., Jr.; Dominic, David F.; Mehnert, Edward; Okwen, Roland T.

    2016-10-01

    Geological heterogeneities affect the dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) plumes in subsurface environments in important ways. Previously, we showed how the dynamics of CO2 plumes are influenced by the multiscaled sedimentary architecture in deep brine fluvial-type reservoirs. The results confirm that representing small-scale features and the corresponding heterogeneity in saturation functions, along with hysteresis in saturation functions, are all critical to understanding capillary trapping processes. Here, we show that when heterogeneity and hysteresis are represented, the two conventional approaches for defining saturation functions, Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten, represent fundamentally different physical systems. The Brooks-Corey approach represents heterogeneity in entry pressures, and leads to trapping by capillary pinning. The van Genuchten approach represents a network of pores transporting the nonwetting fluid, across rock types, with negligible capillary entry pressure, and leads to capillary retardation. These differences significantly affect the large-scale characteristics of CO2 plumes (i.e., their mass, shape, and position).

  17. Allan Brooks, naturalist and artist (1869-1946): the travails of an early twentieth century wildlife illustrator in North America.

    PubMed

    Winearls, Joan

    2008-01-01

    British by birth Allan Cyril Brooks (1869-1946) emigrated to Canada in the 1880s, and became one of the most important North American bird illustrators during the first half of the twentieth century. Brooks was one of the leading ornithologists and wildlife collectors of the time; he corresponded extensively with other ornithologists and supplied specimens to many major North American museums. From the 1890s on he hoped to support himself by painting birds and mammals, but this was not possible in Canada at that time and he was forced to turn to American sources for illustration commissions. His work can be compared with that of his contemporary, the leading American bird painter Louis Agassiz Fuertes (1874-1927), and there are striking similarities and differences in their careers. This paper discusses the work of a talented, self-taught wildlife artist working in a North American milieu, his difficulties and successes in a newly developing field, and his quest for Canadian recognition.

  18. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    Prior to 1978, bull trout were commonly known as dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) and were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) described the interior form as a distinct species, classifying it as Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1994). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from latitude 41{sup o}N to 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette subbasins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is likely that bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. McKenzie River bull trout were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls prior to 1963. Three populations were isolated following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs which include the mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir, mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls, and the South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. On June 10, 1998 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act and Buchanan et al. (1997) listed the bull trout population in the mainstem McKenzie as ''of special concern'', the South Fork McKenzie population as ''high risk of extinction,'' and the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as ''high risk of extinction.'' Bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette

  19. Direct and indirect climatic drivers of biotic interactions: ice-cover and carbon runoff shaping Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus and brown trout Salmo trutta competitive asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Ulvan, Eva M; Finstad, Anders G; Ugedal, Ola; Berg, Ole Kristian

    2012-01-01

    One of the major challenges in ecological climate change impact science is to untangle the climatic effects on biological interactions and indirect cascading effects through different ecosystems. Here, we test for direct and indirect climatic drivers on competitive impact of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus L.) on brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) along a climate gradient in central Scandinavia, spanning from coastal to high-alpine environments. As a measure of competitive impact, trout food consumption was measured using (137)Cs tracer methodology both during the ice-covered and ice-free periods, and contrasted between lakes with or without char coexistence along the climate gradient. Variation in food consumption between lakes was best described by a linear mixed effect model including a three-way interaction between the presence/absence of Arctic char, season and Secchi depth. The latter is proxy for terrestrial dissolved organic carbon run-off, strongly governed by climatic properties of the catchment. The presence of Arctic char had a negative impact on trout food consumption. However, this effect was stronger during ice-cover and in lakes receiving high carbon load from the catchment, whereas no effect of water temperature was evident. In conclusion, the length of the ice-covered period and the export of allochthonous material from the catchment are likely major, but contrasting, climatic drivers of the competitive interaction between two freshwater lake top predators. While future climatic scenarios predict shorter ice-cover duration, they also predict increased carbon run-off. The present study therefore emphasizes the complexity of cascading ecosystem effects in future effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems.

  20. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Fairchild, J F; Feltz, K P; Sappington, L C; Allert, A L; Nelson, K J; Valle, J

    2009-05-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis.

  1. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic toxicity of the herbicide picloram to the threatened bull trout (salvelinus confluentus) and the rainbow trout (onchorhyncus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Feltz, K.P.; Sappington, L.C.; Allert, A.L.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted acute and chronic toxicity studies of the effects of picloram acid on the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the standard coldwater surrogate rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile fish were chronically exposed for 30 days in a proportional flow-through diluter to measured concentrations of 0, 0.30, 0.60, 1.18, 2.37, and 4.75 mg/L picloram. No mortality of either species was observed at the highest concentration. Bull trout were twofold more sensitive to picloram (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 0.80 mg/L) compared to rainbow trout (30-day maximum acceptable toxic concentration of 1.67 mg/L) based on the endpoint of growth. Picloram was acutely toxic to rainbow trout at 36 mg/L (96-h ALC50). The acute:chronic ratio for rainbow trout exposed to picloram was 22. The chronic toxicity of picloram was compared to modeled and measured environmental exposure concentrations (EECs) using a four-tiered system. The Tier 1, worst-case exposure estimate, based on a direct application of the current maximum use rate (1.1 kg/ha picloram) to a standardized aquatic ecosystem (water body of 1-ha area and 1-m depth), resulted in an EEC of 0.73 mg/L picloram and chronic risk quotients of 0.91 and 0.44 for bull trout and rainbow trout, respectively. Higher-tiered exposure estimates reduced chronic risk quotients 10-fold. Results of this study indicate that picloram, if properly applied according to the manufacturer's label, poses little risk to the threatened bull trout or rainbow trout in northwestern rangeland environments on either an acute or a chronic basis. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  3. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  4. Factors influencing trends of polychlorinated naphthalenes and other dioxin-like compounds in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario, North America (1979-2004).

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Lega, Rocsana; Crozier, Patrick W; Whittle, D Michael; Fayez, Laila; Reiner, Eric J; Helm, Paul A; Marvin, Chris H; Tomy, Gregg T

    2009-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in archived lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario, North America, collected between 1979 and 2004 to evaluate their temporal trends and the factors influencing their trends. Concentrations of PCNs, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), which were measured for comparative purposes, declined by eight-, seven-, and fivefold, respectively, between 1979 and 2004. Apparent elimination rate constants (k2) were calculated as the slopes of the regression lines of concentration versus time for PCN, DL-PCB, and PCDD/F congeners to compare the rate of decrease among congeners within and between compound classes. The k2 values for PCNs that had two pairs or three adjacent carbons unsubstituted with chlorine (congeners that can be biotransformed by vertebrates) were not significantly different from zero, indicating no decline in fish. For PCN congeners having no adjacent carbons unsubstituted with chlorine, the k2 values generally increased with hydrophobicity and degree of chlorination. This pattern differed from that of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs and from previous findings for non-DL-PCBs, for which the rate of contaminant decline decreased with hydrophobicity, and the pattern also differed from expectations based on thermodynamics. Differences in the rate of decline of PCN congeners may be caused by changes in source or mixture formulations over time and/or metabolic dechlorination of the less stable, higher-chlorinated PCNs 73, 74, and 75 to lower-chlorinated congeners. Based on suggested dioxin toxic equivalency factors, PCN concentrations in these whole lake trout may be sufficient to trigger consumption restrictions in Ontario, Canada, and our results suggest that PCNs merit incorporation into monitoring and assessment programs.

  5. Assessing the influence of migration barriers and feeding ecology on total mercury concentrations in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) from a glaciated and non-glaciated stream.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Andrew; Sergeant, Christopher J; Lopez, Juan Andres; O'Hara, Todd

    2017-02-15

    Assimilation of mercury (Hg) into food webs is directly influenced by ecological factors such as local habitat characteristics, species feeding behavior, and movement patterns. Total Hg concentrations ([THg]) in biota from Subarctic latitudes are driven both by broad spatial processes such as long-range atmospheric transport and more local influences such as biovectors and geology. Thus, even relatively pristine protected lands such as national parks are experiencing Hg accumulation. We analyzed [THg] and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in 104 Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) collected from two rivers in southeastern Alaska, upstream and downstream of apparent anadromous migration barriers in watersheds with and without glacial coverage. To assess the potential magnitude of marine-derived THg returning to freshwater, we analyzed [THg] in ten adult pink salmon from each study system. There were no differences in Dolly Varden mean [THg] between sites after the data were standardized for fork length, but unadjusted [THg] varied relative to fish size and δ(15)N values. While previous studies generally show that [THg] increases with higher δ(15)N values, we found that Dolly Varden below migration barriers and foraging on salmon eggs had the highest δ(15)N values among all sampled individuals, but the lowest [THg]. Dolly Varden residing below anadromous barriers had δ(13)C values consistent with marine influence. Since salmon eggs typically have low [Hg], our results suggest that abundant salmon populations and the dietary subsidy they provide may reduce the annual exposure to [Hg] in egg-eating stream fishes such as Dolly Varden. In addition to identifying a suitable species for freshwater Hg monitoring in southeastern Alaska, our study more broadly implies that river characteristics, location within a river, fish size, and feeding ecology are important factors influencing Hg accumulation.

  6. The effects of total dissolved solids on egg fertilization and water hardening in two salmonids--Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma).

    PubMed

    Brix, Kevin V; Gerdes, Robert; Curry, Nathan; Kasper, Amanda; Grosell, Martin

    2010-04-15

    Previous studies have indicated that salmonid fertilization success may be very sensitive to elevated concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) with effects at concentrations as low as 250mgl(-1) being reported. However, interpretation of these studies is complicated by poor control performance and variable concentration response relationships. To address this, a series of experiments were performed to evaluate TDS effects on Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) fertilization success and identify possible mechanisms for previously observed test variability and any observed effects of TDS. Results indicate that some of the experiments reported here were likely confounded by extended milt holding times prior to experiment initiation. Milt holding times >6h were shown to significantly reduce control fertilization and corresponding concentration response relationships were variable. When milt holding time was minimized during fertilization experiments, consistent control performance with >90% control fertilization was achieved and consistent concentration response relationships were observed for both species examined. Experiments performed under these conditions indicate that Arctic Grayling and Dolly Varden fertilization success is not sensitive to elevated TDS with EC20s (concentration causing 20% effect) of >2782 and >1817mgl(-1) (the highest concentrations tested), respectively. However, TDS was shown to significantly affect embryo water absorption during the water hardening phase immediately following fertilization. The lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) for this endpoint were 1402 and 964mgl(-1) for Arctic Grayling and Dolly Varden, respectively. The effect of reduced embryo turgidity, due to impaired water absorption, on resistance to mechanical damage under real world conditions needs further investigation in order to understand the implications of this observed effect.

  7. Changes in mortality of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Michigan waters of Lake Superior in relation to sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, 1968-78

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pycha, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    Total mortality rates of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of age VII and older from eastern Lake Superior were estimated from catch curves of age distributions each year in 1968–78. The instantaneous rate of total mortality Z varied from 0.62 to 2.31 in close synchrony with sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding rates on lake trout. The regression of transformed Z on the index of lamprey wounding, accounted for over 89% of the variation in lake trout mortality (r2 = 0.893). An iterative method of estimating rates of exploitation u, instantaneous rates of fishing mortality F, K (a constant relating sample catch per unit effort to population size), instantaneous normal natural mortality rate M, and instantaneous rate of mortality due to sea lamprey predationL from the sample catch per unit effort and total catch by the fishery is presented. A second method using the results of a 1970–71 tagging study to estimate the mean F in 1970–77 yielded closely similar results to the above and is presented as corroboration. The estimates of u, F, andM appear to be reasonable. F ranged from 0.17 in 1974 to 0.42 in 1969 and M was estimated at 0.26. L varied from 0.21 in 1974 to 1.70 in 1968. Management implications of various policies concerning sea lamprey control, exploitation, and stocking are discussed.Key words: lake trout, sea lamprey, lamprey control, mortality, predation, Lake Superior, fishery, management

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SPRING BROOK MOBILE HOME PARK IN WALES, ME SIX-MONTH EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first six months of the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Spring Brook Mobile Home Park in Wales, ME. The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiv...

  9. State University of New York, University of Stoney Brook, University and Clinical Practice Management Plan Space Leasing Practices. Report 96-S-36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany. Div. of Management Audit.

    This audit report assesses the propriety and economy of space leasing practices of the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY-SB) for the period July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1996, specifically those related to a health center that includes five professional schools, a 536-bed teaching hospital, and a 350-bed veterans' home. Some of…

  10. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Spring Brook Mobile Home Park in Wales, ME Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained for the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at Spring Brook Mobile Home Park (SBMHP) in Wales, Maine. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of an arsenic...

  11. Shall Our Leadership Preparation Programs Be Focused on Proactive Leadership for Social Justice? A Rejoinder to Jean-Marie, Normore, and Brooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2009-01-01

    A dominant conjecture underlying the literature about leadership for social justice brought up in Jean-Marie, Normore, and Brooks' (2009) paper suggests that leadership preparation programs (LPPs) need to prepare school leaders to promote a broader and deeper understanding of social justice, democracy, and equity, as well as to struggle with forms…

  12. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Farm Brook Dam (Site 1) (CT 00657), Connecticut Coastal Basin, Hamden, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    The 1,210-foot-long and 11-foot-high dam was designed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Services and constructed by the Nutmeg ...designed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Soils Conservation Service and was constructed by the Nutmeg Construction Company, Inc. Farm Brook Dam (Site

  13. ACIDIFICATION TRENDS AND THE EVOLUTION OF NEUTRALIZATION MECHANISMS THROUGH TIME AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE (BBWM), U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paired catchment study at the forested Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) U.S.A. documents interactions among short- to long-term processes of acidification. In 1987-1989, runoff from the two catchments was nearly identical in quality and quantity. Ammonium sulfate has been...

  14. A centennial-scale record of Holocene effective moisture from the southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, B. F.; Hu, F.

    2006-12-01

    Several decades of paleoecological research resulted in a dense network of pollen records for vegetational reconstruction in Alaska and adjacent regions. Much of this work was motivated by the importance of understanding the responses of boreal ecosystems to climatic change. However, pollen-independent evidence of climatic change remains sparse. We analyzed sediments from Takahula Lake (67°21.12'N, 153°39.89'W) in the south-central Brooks Range to infer variations in effective moisture (precipitation minus evaporation) over the last 8000 years. To help constrain the paleoclimate reconstruction, we conducted δ 18O and δ 2H analyses of monthly surface-water samples as well as inlet and groundwater samples collected from Takahula Lake during the summers of 2002 and 2004. Several lines of evidence indicate that Takahula Lake is isotopically highly sensitive t