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Sample records for broomcorn millet panicum

  1. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) Cultivars and Landraces in China Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minxuan; Xu, Yue; He, Jihong; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Yinyue; Lu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), one of the first domesticated crops, has been grown in Northern China for at least 10,000 years. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 88 accessions of broomcorn millet collected from various provinces of China. Amplification with 67 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers revealed moderate levels of diversity in the investigated accessions. A total of 179 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.043 to 0.729 (mean = 0.376) and 0.045 to 0.771 (mean = 0.445), respectively. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method of mathematical averages separated the 88 accessions into four groups at a genetic similarity level of 0.633. A genetic structure assay indicated a close correlation between geographical regions and genetic diversity. The uncovered information will be valuable for defining gene pools and developing breeding programs for broomcorn millet. Furthermore, the millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study should serve as useful tools for assessment of genetic diversity and elucidation of population structure in broomcorn millet. PMID:26985894

  2. Reticulate evolution in Panicum (Poaceae): the origin of tetraploid broomcorn millet, P. miliaceum.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Harriet V; Badakshi, Farah; Romanova, Olga; Howe, Christopher J; Jones, Martin K; Heslop-Harrison, J S Pat

    2014-07-01

    Panicum miliaceum (broomcorn millet) is a tetraploid cereal, which was among the first domesticated crops, but is now a minor crop despite its high water use efficiency. The ancestors of this species have not been determined; we aimed to identify likely candidates within the genus, where phylogenies are poorly resolved. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences from P. miliaceum and a range of diploid and tetraploid relatives were used to develop phylogenies of the diploid and tetraploid species. Chromosomal in situ hybridization with genomic DNA as a probe was used to characterize the genomes in the tetraploid P. miliaceum and a tetraploid accession of P. repens. In situ hybridization showed that half the chromosomes of P. miliaceum hybridized more strongly with labelled genomic DNA from P. capillare, and half with labelled DNA from P. repens. Genomic DNA probes differentiated two sets of 18 chromosomes in the tetraploid P. repens. Our phylogenetic data support the allotetraploid origin of P. miliaceum, with the maternal ancestor being P. capillare (or a close relative) and the other genome being shared with P. repens. Our P. repens accession was also an allotetraploid with two dissimilar but closely related genomes, the maternal genome being similar to P. sumatrense. Further collection of Panicum species, particularly from the Old World, is required. It is important to identify why the water-efficient P. miliaceum is now of minimal importance in agriculture, and it may be valuable to exploit the diversity in this species and its ancestors.

  3. De novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome of Broomcorn Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) for Gene Discovery and Marker Development

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Le; Liu, Hui; Yue, Wenjie; Du, Xianghong; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world’s oldest cultivated cereals, which is well-adapted to extreme environments such as drought, heat, and salinity with an efficient C4 carbon fixation. Discovery and identification of genes involved in these processes will provide valuable information to improve the crop for meeting the challenge of global climate change. However, the lack of genetic resources and genomic information make gene discovery and molecular mechanism studies very difficult. Here, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of broomcorn millet using Illumina sequencing technology. After sequencing, a total of 45,406,730 and 51,160,820 clean paired-end reads were obtained for two genotypes Yumi No. 2 and Yumi No. 3. These reads were mixed and then assembled into 113,643 unigenes, with the length ranging from 351 to 15,691 bp, of which 62,543 contings could be assigned to 315 gene ontology (GO) categories. Cluster of orthologous groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses assigned could map 15,514 unigenes into 202 KEGG pathways and 51,020 unigenes to 25 COG categories, respectively. Furthermore, 35,216 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified in 27,055 unigene sequences, of which trinucleotides were the most abundant repeat unit, accounting for 66.72% of SSRs. In addition, 292 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two genotypes, which were significantly enriched in 88 GO terms and 12 KEGG pathways. Finally, the expression patterns of four selected transcripts were validated through quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Our study for the first time sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of broomcorn millet, which not only provided a rich sequence resource for gene discovery and marker development in this important crop, but will also facilitate the further investigation of the molecular mechanism of its favored agronomic traits and beyond. PMID

  4. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression profiles of the WRKY transcription factor family in Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.).

    PubMed

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Meng; Liu, Siyan; Du, Xianghong; Song, Weining; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-10

    WRKY genes, as the most pivotal transcription factors in plants, play the indispensable roles in regulating various physiological processes, including plant growth and development as well as in response to stresses. Broomcorn millet is one of the most important crops in drought areas worldwide. However, the WRKY gene family in broomcorn millet remains unknown. A total of 32 PmWRKY genes were identified in this study using computational prediction method. Structural analysis found that PmWRKY proteins contained a highly conserved motif WRKYGQK and two common variant motifs, namely WRKYGKK and WRKYGEK. Phylogenetic analysis of PmWRKYs together with the homologous genes from the representative species could classify them into three groups, with the number of 1, 15, and 16, respectively. Finally, the transcriptional profiles of these 32 PmWRKY genes in various tissues or under different abiotic stresses were systematically investigated using qRT-PCR analysis. Results showed that the expression level of 22 PmWRKY genes varied significantly under one or more abiotic stress treatments, which could be defined as abiotic stress-responsive genes. This was the first study to identify the organization and transcriptional profiles of PmWRKY genes, which not only facilitates the functional analysis of the PmWRKY genes, and also lays the foundation to reveal the molecular mechanism of stress tolerance in this important crop.

  5. Waxy-phenotype evolution in the allotetraploid cereal broomcorn millet: Mutations at the GBSSI locus in their functional and phylogenetic context

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Waxy mutants, in which endosperm starch contains ~100% amylopectin rather than the wild-type composition of ~70% amylopectin and ~30% amylose, occur in many domesticated cereals. The cultivation of waxy varieties of broomcorn (proso) millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is restricted to east Asia, where t...

  6. Waxy Phenotype Evolution in the Allotetraploid Cereal Broomcorn Millet: Mutations at the GBSSI Locus in Their Functional and Phylogenetic Context

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Harriet V.; Moots, Hannah M.; Graybosch, Robert A.; Jones, Huw; Parker, Mary; Romanova, Olga; Jones, Martin K.; Howe, Christopher J.; Trafford, Kay

    2013-01-01

    Waxy mutants, in which endosperm starch contains ∼100% amylopectin rather than the wild-type composition of ∼70% amylopectin and ∼30% amylose, occur in many domesticated cereals. The cultivation of waxy varieties is concentrated in east Asia, where there is a culinary preference for glutinous-textured foods that may have developed from ancient food processing traditions. The waxy phenotype results from mutations in the GBSSI gene, which catalyzes amylose synthesis. Broomcorn or proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world’s oldest cultivated cereals, which spread across Eurasia early in prehistory. Recent phylogeographic analysis has shown strong genetic structuring that likely reflects ancient expansion patterns. Broomcorn millet is highly unusual in being an allotetraploid cereal with fully waxy varieties. Previous work characterized two homeologous GBSSI loci, with multiple alleles at each, but could not determine whether both loci contributed to GBSSI function. We first tested the relative contribution of the two GBSSI loci to amylose synthesis and second tested the association between GBSSI alleles and phylogeographic structure inferred from simple sequence repeats (SSRs). We evaluated the phenotype of all known GBSSI genotypes in broomcorn millet by assaying starch composition and protein function. The results showed that the GBSSI-S locus is the major locus controlling endosperm amylose content, and the GBSSI-L locus has strongly reduced synthesis capacity. We genotyped 178 individuals from landraces from across Eurasia for the 2 GBSSI and 16 SSR loci and analyzed phylogeographic structuring and the geographic and phylogenetic distribution of GBSSI alleles. We found that GBSSI alleles have distinct spatial distributions and strong associations with particular genetic clusters defined by SSRs. The combination of alleles that results in a partially waxy phenotype does not exist in landrace populations. Our data suggest that broomcorn millet

  7. Millets across Eurasia: chronology and context of early records of the genera Panicum and Setaria from archaeological sites in the Old World.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Harriet V; Vander Linden, Marc; Liu, Xinyi; Motuzaite-Matuzeviciute, Giedre; Colledge, Sue; Jones, Martin K

    2008-12-01

    We have collated and reviewed published records of the genera Panicum and Setaria (Poaceae), including the domesticated millets Panicum miliaceum L. (broomcorn millet) and Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. (foxtail millet) in pre-5000 cal b.c. sites across the Old World. Details of these sites, which span China, central-eastern Europe including the Caucasus, Iran, Syria and Egypt, are presented with associated calibrated radiocarbon dates. Forty-one sites have records of Panicum (P. miliaceum, P. cf. miliaceum, Panicum sp., Panicum type, P. capillare (?) and P. turgidum) and 33 of Setaria (S. italica, S. viridis, S. viridis/verticillata, Setaria sp., Setaria type). We identify problems of taphonomy, identification criteria and reporting, and inference of domesticated/wild and crop/weed status of finds. Both broomcorn and foxtail millet occur in northern China prior to 5000 cal b.c.; P. miliaceum occurs contemporaneously in Europe, but its significance is unclear. Further work is needed to resolve the above issues before the status of these taxa in this period can be fully evaluated. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00334-008-0187-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  8. [Comparison of growth and field microclimate characteristics of broomcorn millet under different fertilization conditions].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pan-pan; Zhou, Yu; Song, Hui; Qiao, Zhi-jun; Wang, Hai-gang; Zheng, Dian-feng; Feng, Bai-li

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment with two broomcorn millet varieties Longmi 8 (strong drought-resistant variety) and Jinmi 4 (drought-sensitive variety) was conducted to compare their differences in growth, field microclimate and photosynthetic capacity from anthesis to maturity under different fertility conditions. The results showed that, fertilization decreased canopy temperature, air temperature, soil temperature, illumination, but improved the relative humidity among broomcorn millet plants compared with the non-fertilization treatment. With an increase of the fertilizer level, the plant height, SPAD, LAI, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration in broomcorn millet showed an increasing trend, which of the high fertilization treatment were 9.2%, 15.1%, 56.6%, 17.8%, 24.6%, 14.2%, 29.7% higher than those of non-fertilization treatment, respectively. Compared with Jinmi 4, Longmi 8 showed a cold wet characteristic, with lower canopy temperature, air temperature, soil temperature; illumination, and higher plant height, LAI, SPAD and relative humidity during grain filling. Moreover, each photosynthetic index of Longmi 8 slowly decreased and extended the period of leaf photosynthetic function so as to accumulate more photosynthetic products.

  9. Phytoliths Analysis for the Discrimination of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Common Millet (Panicum miliaceum)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Kam-biu; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Ω-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations. PMID:19212442

  10. Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum).

    PubMed

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.

  11. New use of broomcorn millets for production of granular cultures of aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis for high sporulation potential and infectivity to Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2003-10-24

    Glutinous broomcorn millets from the crop Panicum miliaceum were first used as substrate to produce granular cultures of Pandora neoaphidis, an obligate fungal pathogen specific to aphids. Carrying a water content of 36.5% after being steamed in a regular autoclaving procedure, millet grains of each 15 g (dry weight) in a 100-ml flask were mixed with 3 ml modified Sabouraud dextrose broth containing half a mashed colony of P. neoaphidis grown on egg yolk milk agar and then incubated at 20 degrees C and a light/dark cycle of 12 h/12 h for 21 days. Based on individually monitoring conidial production potential of 20 millet grains sampled from an arbitrarily taken flask at 3-day intervals, the millet cultures incubated for 6-15 days were capable of producing 16.8-23.4 x 10(4) conidia per millet grain with conidial ejection lasting for up to 6 days. The cultured millet grains individually produced significantly more conidia than apterous adults of Myzus persicae killed by P. neoaphidis (8.4 x 10(4) conidia per cadaver) and sporulated twice longer. The modeling of time-dose-mortality data from bioassays on M. persicae apterae exposed to conidial showers from the cultured millet grains and the mycelial mats produced in liquid culture resulted in similar estimates of LC(50) (millets: 21.4, 7.3, and 4.9 conidia mm(-2) on days 5-7 after exposure; mycelial mats: 22.1, 10.6, and 7.7 conidia mm(-2)) although the LT(50) estimated at a given conidial concentration was slightly smaller for the millet cultures than for the mycelial mats. This indicates that the millet grains cultured with P. neoaphidis produced conidia as infective as or slightly more infective to M. persicae than those from the mycelial mats. Based on the sporulation potential, infectivity, and ease and cost of the millet cultures, the method developed in this study highly improved in vitro cultures of P. neoaphidis and may adapt to culturing other entomophthoralean fungi for microbial control of insect pests.

  12. [Effects of mulching patterns on soil water, broomcorn millet growth, photosynthetic charac- teristics and yield in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China].

    PubMed

    Su, Wang; Zhang, Yan-Ping; Qu, Yang; Li, Cui; Miao, Jia-Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Li; Liu, Jian-Hua; Feng, Bai-Li

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of mulching patterns on soil water, growth, photosynthetic characteristics, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of broomcorn millet in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China. In a three-year field experiment from 2011 to 2013, we compared four different mulching patterns with traditional plat planting (no mulching) as the control (CK). The mulching patterns included W ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (SG), common ridge covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (LM), double ridges covered with common plastic film + intredune covered with straw (QM), and the traditional plat planting covered with straw (JG). The results showed that the soil water storage in 0-100 cm layer was significantly higher in all mulching patterns than in CK, particularly in SG then followed by LM, QM and JG, and the differences among the mulching patterns reached a significant level at the different growth stages of broomcorn millet. Among all mulching patterns, SG had the greatest effect on the growth and photosynthesis of broomcorn millet, respectively increasing the yield and WUE by 55.9% and 64.9% over CK, and the differences among the mulching patterns also reached a significant level. Therefore, SG was recommended as an efficient planting pattern for broomcorn millet production in the dryland of Loess Plateau in China.

  13. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Kam-biu; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Yumei; Zhou, Kunshu; Ye, Maolin; Zhang, Tianyu; Zhang, Haijiang; Yang, Xiaoyan; Shen, Licheng; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan

    2009-01-01

    The origin of millet from Neolithic China has generally been accepted, but it remains unknown whether common millet (Panicum miliaceum) or foxtail millet (Setaria italica) was the first species domesticated. Nor do we know the timing of their domestication and their routes of dispersal. Here, we report the discovery of husk phytoliths and biomolecular components identifiable solely as common millet from newly excavated storage pits at the Neolithic Cishan site, China, dated to between ca. 10,300 and ca. 8,700 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP). After ca. 8,700 cal yr BP, the grain crops began to contain a small quantity of foxtail millet. Our research reveals that the common millet was the earliest dry farming crop in East Asia, which is probably attributed to its excellent resistance to drought. PMID:19383791

  14. Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Its Potential for Cultivation in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.: A Review.

    PubMed

    Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B; D'Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M; Whiteman, Michael R; Kidwell, Kimberlee K; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60-100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets.

  15. Proso Millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) and Its Potential for Cultivation in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B.; D’Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M.; Whiteman, Michael R.; Kidwell, Kimberlee K.; Murphy, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60–100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets. PMID:28119699

  16. Mechanical response of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seeds under quasi-static compression: Experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning

    2017-01-06

    The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression.

  17. Sporulation, storage and infectivity of obligate aphid pathogen Pandora nouryi grown on novel granules of broomcorn millet and polymer gel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Feng, M-G

    2009-12-01

    Producing granular cultures of obligate aphid pathogen Pandora nouryi for improved sporulation and storage. Small millet-gel granules were made of the mixtures of 80-95% millet powder with 5-20% polymer gel (polyacrylamide, polyacrylate or acrylate-acrylamide copolymer) and inoculated with mycelia at 30 mg biomass g(-1) dry granules plus 87.5% water, followed by static incubation at 20 degrees C for 4-12 days. The fungus grew well on 12 preparations but best on that including 10% copolymer. An 8-day culture of this preparation discharged maximally 58.5 x 10(4) conidia mg(-1) granule at 100% RH and was capable of ejecting conidia at the nonsaturated regimes of 86-97% RH. During storage at 6 degrees C, granular cultures with >85% water content had twofold longevity (120 days) and half-decline period (34-36 days) of those stored at room temperature. The steadily high water content preserved the cultures better than that decreasing at 6 degrees C. However, conidia from 70-day-stored granules were less infective to Myzus persicae nymphs than those from fresh ones based on their LC(50)s. The millet-gel granules had higher sporulation capacity than reported Pandora cultures and a capability of spore discharge at nonsaturated humidity. The granular cultures are more useful for aphid control.

  18. Factors affecting the sporulation capacity during long-term storage of the aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis grown on broomcorn millet.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Hua, Li

    2005-04-15

    Aphid-pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis, grown on broomcorn millet possesses greater sporulation capacity (C(s)) than aphid cadavers. The most sporulating cultures (32.0x10(4) spores millet(-1) grain) with water content (C(w)) of 48.7% were prepared by incubation at 20 degrees C for 15 days and used to study the effect of temperature and humidity on C(s) during long-term storage. Cultures were sealed with paper to retain ambient humidity, with parafilm for saturated humidity, or kept in 85% and 98% RH chambers. The C(w) and C(s) were monitored during 200-day storage at 5-20 degrees C. The paper-sealed cultures at 5 degrees C, associated with 21-25% of C(w), were best preserved and their 120-day C(s) was similar to that of the fresh cadavers. Consistently or variably high RH at 5 degrees C resulted in significantly higher C(w) and lower C(s) despite longer viability. The regimes at 10 degrees C preserved the cultures for 40 days. The observations fit well to the logistic model C(s)=35.28/{1+exp[-2.36+(-0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T)t]} (r(2)=0.95) for all regimes of temperature (T) or C(s)=35.55/[1+exp(-2.33+0.001C(w)t)] (r(2)=0.93) at 5 degrees C only. The rate of decline of C(s) of -0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T or 0.001 C(w) over days (t) highlights the primary effect of C(w). The daily C(s)-decline rates obtained for the best-stored cultures and air-dried cadavers stored at 5 degrees C were surprisingly identical. The results suggest a possible cheap method for preparing and storing large quantities of P. neoaphiodis inocula.

  19. Cloning and structural analysis of an Indian little millet (Panicum sumatrense) zein-like storage protein: implications for molecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, S; Franco, O L; Thayumanavan, B; Murad, A M; Manickam, A; Mohan, M; Mridula, M

    2006-11-01

    Zeins are prolamin storage proteins that accumulate in kernel endosperm of several cereals. For cloning of genes coding for zein-like proteins that accumulate in enhanced quantities in the filling stages of little millet (Panicum sumatrense Roth.) developing grains, RT-PCR was performed using specific primers. A 750-bp cDNA was directly sequenced and in silico analysis showed high identity degree to alpha-prolamins. This family is composed of zeins from Zea mays, coixins from Coix lachryma-jobi, and alpha-kafirins from Sorghum bicolor. The putative conserved domain of zein-like proteins was identified by primary structure comparisons. Furthermore, threading analyses indicated that the millet zein-like protein forms an anti-parallel alpha-helical hairpin with two opposite surfaces: one hydrophobic and the other hydrophilic that probably could be involved in protein storage assembly. Knowledge about zein-like alpha-prolamins in little millet will lead to cloning and transfer of this gene to other major food crops, such as cereals and legumes, with inferior nutritional quality for monogastric animals.

  20. Glycemic index and quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) flakes with enhanced shelf life.

    PubMed

    Patil, Kavita B; Chimmad, Bharati V; Itagi, Sunanda

    2015-09-01

    Little millet is a minor cereal crop contains several nutraceutical components. Ready To Cook (RTC) flakes of the millet exhibited higher total dietary fiber content (22.40 %) compared to dehulled grain (15.80 %). One serving (30 g) of RTC flakes provided 2.25 g of protein, 0.13 g of fat, 0.13 g of total minerals, 9.67 mg of iron and zero trans fats. The flakes possessed a medium Glycemic Index (GI) of 52.11 ranging from 41.57 to 61.80 among normal volunteers. Glycemic Load (GL) of the flakes was a low of 9.24. The RTC flakes exhibited an acceptability index of 81.11. The flakes possessed a shelf life of more than 6 months with an acceptability index of 67.55, moisture content of 11.82 per cent and Free fatty acid content of 18.02 per cent at the end of sixth month of storage period.

  1. [Border effect and physiological characteristics of broomcorn millet under film mulching on ridge-furrow for harvesting rainwater model in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Su, Wang; Li, Cui; Gao, Jin-Feng; Gao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Peng-Ke; Feng, Bai-Li; Chai, Yan

    2014-03-01

    To explore the border effect and physiological characteristic of broomcorn millet growing under different film mulching on ridge-furrow for harvesting rainwater models in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi, China, a three-year field experiment was conducted with four different widths of ridge and furrow, and the bare land flat sowing as the control (NM). The width of ridge and furrow varied as ridge: furrow = 40 cm: 40 cm (P40), 60 cm: 60 cm (P60), 80 cm: 80 cm (P80), and 100 cm:100 cm (P100). The results showed that the wider the width of furrow and ridge was, the stronger the border advantage and the border effect index of the yield were. With the increase in width of furrow and ridge, the yield increasing effect of side rows increased with the maximum of 207.7%, and the yield increasing effect of middle rows decreased with the minimum of 10.3%. P60 reached the highest yield within three years. The yield contribution rate of side rows was higher than that of middle rows (P < 0.05). The chlorophyll contents, Ch1 a/Ch1 b, and photosynthetic rate of side rows were higher than those of middle rows among the different harvesting rainwater models. The wider the width of furrow and ridge was, the stronger the photosynthetic capacity of side rows was, and the weaker the photosynthetic capacity of middle rows was. The optimal type of ridge and furrow was P60 in the semi-arid region of Northern Shaanxi.

  2. Comparative relationships and chromosome evolution in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and its genomic model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) consensus map was developed that combined data from two mapping populations and integrated recombination data from both parents of this largely obligate outcrossing species. The consensus map consisted of 1,321 loci and spanned 2,122 cM. An analysis of the distri...

  3. Uptake of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements (La, Gd, Er, Nd) by white mustard (Brassica alba L.) and common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) as affected by Phosphorus Nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zill, Juliane; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The effect of phosphate nutrition is important due to the future usage of fertilizer treatment in phytomining experiments e.g. in accumulation of the economically important rare earth elements (REE). It is expected that the trivalent charge of REE will result in complexation with phosphate and REEs could be immobilized and not further bioavailable for plants which would cause losses of REE concentration in biomass. To investigate this influence on lanthanum, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium two plant species Brassica alba (white mustard) and Panicum miliaceum (common millet) were cultured in a greenhouse study. The plants were cultivated onto two different substrates and were poured with modified REE and phosphate solutions within an eight-week period. The concentrations of REE in soil, soil solution and plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show an increase of concentration of REE with increasing levels of element solution applied for both species. REE accumulations are elevated in roots and decrease in the order of roots> leaves> stem> fruit/blossom. Brassica accumulated more REE in root whereas Panicum showed higher REE concentrations in leaves. Exposure to increased phosphate addition did not significantly change the concentrations of REE in both plant species yet the REE concentrations in leaves slightly decreased with increasing phosphate addition. For root and stem no precise trend could be determined. It is most likely that REEs precipitate with phosphate on root surfaces and in the roots. The bioavailability of REE to plants is affected by complexation processes of REEs with phosphate in the rhizosphere. The results indicate that phosphate application plays an important role on REE uptake by roots and accumulation in different parts of a plant and it might have an influence on translocation of REE within the plant.

  4. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop. PMID:28004742

  5. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  6. First molecular and isotopic evidence of millet processing in prehistoric pottery vessels.

    PubMed

    Heron, Carl; Shoda, Shinya; Breu Barcons, Adrià; Czebreszuk, Janusz; Eley, Yvette; Gorton, Marise; Kirleis, Wiebke; Kneisel, Jutta; Lucquin, Alexandre; Müller, Johannes; Nishida, Yastami; Son, Joon-Ho; Craig, Oliver E

    2016-12-22

    Analysis of organic residues in pottery vessels has been successful in detecting a range of animal and plant products as indicators of food preparation and consumption in the past. However, the identification of plant remains, especially grain crops in pottery, has proved elusive. Extending the spectrum is highly desirable, not only to strengthen our understanding of the dispersal of crops from centres of domestication but also to determine modes of food processing, artefact function and the culinary significance of the crop. Here, we propose a new approach to identify millet in pottery vessels, a crop that spread throughout much of Eurasia during prehistory following its domestication, most likely in northern China. We report the successful identification of miliacin (olean-18-en-3β-ol methyl ether), a pentacyclic triterpene methyl ether that is enriched in grains of common/broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), in Bronze Age pottery vessels from the Korean Peninsula and northern Europe. The presence of millet is supported by enriched carbon stable isotope values of bulk charred organic matter sampled from pottery vessel surfaces and extracted n-alkanoic acids, consistent with a C4 plant origin. These data represent the first identification of millet in archaeological ceramic vessels, providing a means to track the introduction, spread and consumption of this important crop.

  7. Early millet use in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Zhiwei; Perry, Linda; Lu, Houyuan; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Chaohong; Li, Jun; Xie, Fei; Yu, Jincheng; Cui, Tianxing; Wang, Tao; Li, Mingqi; Ge, Quansheng

    2012-01-01

    It is generally understood that foxtail millet and broomcorn millet were initially domesticated in Northern China where they eventually became the dominant plant food crops. The rarity of older archaeological sites and archaeobotanical work in the region, however, renders both the origins of these plants and their processes of domestication poorly understood. Here we present ancient starch grain assemblages recovered from cultural deposits, including carbonized residues adhering to an early pottery sherd as well as grinding stone tools excavated from the sites of Nanzhuangtou (11.5–11.0 cal kyBP) and Donghulin (11.0–9.5 cal kyBP) in the North China Plain. Our data extend the record of millet use in China by nearly 1,000 y, and the record of foxtail millet in the region by at least two millennia. The patterning of starch residues within the samples allow for the formulation of the hypothesis that foxtail millets were cultivated for an extended period of two millennia, during which this crop plant appears to have been undergoing domestication. Future research in the region will help clarify the processes in place. PMID:22355109

  8. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  9. Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907

  10. Influence of water use and environmental parameters on proso millet yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a short-season, drought-tolerant C4 species capable of making use of limited available water supplies and is suitable for dryland crop rotations in the central Great Plains. Previously published water use/yield production functions for proso millet have slopes ...

  11. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Goron, Travis L.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed “orphan cereals.” Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. PMID:25852710

  12. Genetic diversity and genomic resources available for the small millet crops to accelerate a New Green Revolution.

    PubMed

    Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.

  13. Rust fungi on Panicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rusts are economically important diseases of switchgrass and other Panicum grasses. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer ITS2 region, the large subunit, and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) showed that species of rust fungi infecting switchgrass are clos...

  14. Registration of ‘plateau’ waxy (amylose-free) proso millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The waxy (amylose-free starch) proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) cultivar ‘Plateau’ was developed by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station. In addition, faculty and staff from University of Wyoming (UW), Colorado State University (CSU), and USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE and Akron, CO assisted in tr...

  15. Proso Millet Yield and Residue Mass Following Direct Harvest with a Stripper-header

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (PM) is an important crop for dryland agricultural rotations in the central Great Plains. The crop is traditionally swathed prior to combining to promote uniform drying of the panicle and to minimize seed shattering losses. Direct harvesting of PM with a stripper ...

  16. Proso millet yield and residue mass following direct harvest with a stripper-header

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) (PM) is an important crop for dryland agricultural rotations in the central Great Plains. The crop is traditionally swathed prior to combining to promote uniform drying of the panicle and to minimize seed shattering losses. Direct harvesting of PM with a stripper ...

  17. Characterization of crystals of satellite panicum mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Day, J; Ban, N; Patel, S; Larson, S B; McPherson, A

    1994-05-20

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) has been purified from pearl millet and obtained in a variety of different crystal forms, at least two of which appear suitable for high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis. The first is of cubic space group P4(2)32 with a = b = c = 183.1 A and two virus particles in the unit cell. The second is of a primitive orthorhombic space group with a = 166.1 A, b = 266.7 A and c = 269.1 A, with four virus particles in the unit cell. While the cubic crystal has as its asymmetric unit one twelfth of the icosahedron, or five capsid protein subunits, the asymmetric unit of the orthorhombic crystals is an entire particle. The cubic crystals diffract to at least 2.8 A resolution. We have also succeeded in crystallizing, but not yet characterizing the master virus, PMV.

  18. Genetic identification of multiple biological roles associated with the capsid protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, W; Scholthof, K B

    2001-01-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), an 824-nucleotide, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, depends on Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) for replication and spread in host plants. Compared with PMV infection alone, symptoms are intensified and develop faster on millet plants infected with SPMV and PMV. SPMV encodes a 157 amino acid capsid protein (CP) (17.5 kDa) to encapsidate SPMV RNA and form T = 1 satellite virions. The present study identifies additional biological activities of the SPMV CP, including the induction of severe chlorosis on proso millet plants (Panicum miliaceum cv. Sunup or Red Turghai). Initial deletion mutagenesis experiments mapped the chlorosis-inducing domain to amino acids 50 to 157 on the C-terminal portion of the SPMV CP. More defined analyses revealed that amino acids 124 to 135 comprised a critical domain associated with chlorosis induction and virion formation, whereas the extreme C-terminal residues 148 to 157 were not strictly essential for either role. The results also demonstrated that the absence of SPMV CP tended to stimulate the accumulation of defective RNAs. This suggests that the SPMV CP plays a significant role in maintaining the structural integrity of the full-length satellite virus RNA and harbors multiple functions associated with pathogenesis in SPMV-infected host plants.

  19. Five Nuclear Loci Resolve the Polyploid History of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Relatives

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Jimmy K.; Wang, Yunjing; Zhong, Jinshun; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum). Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels. PMID:22719924

  20. The capsid protein of satellite Panicum mosaic virus contributes to systemic invasion and interacts with its helper virus.

    PubMed

    Omarov, Rustem T; Qi, Dong; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2005-08-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) for replication and spread in host plants. The SPMV RNA encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) that is essential for formation of its 16-nm virions. The results of this study indicate that in addition to the expression of the full-length SPMV CP from the 5'-proximal AUG start codon, SPMV RNA also expresses a 9.4-kDa C-terminal protein from the third in-frame start codon. Differences in solubility between the full-length protein and its C-terminal product were observed. Subcellular fractionation of infected plant tissues showed that SPMV CP accumulates in the cytosol, cell wall-, and membrane-enriched fractions. However, the 9.4-kDa protein exclusively cofractionated with cell wall- and membrane-enriched fractions. Earlier studies revealed that the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from nucleotides 63 to 104 was associated with systemic infection in a host-specific manner in millet plants. This study shows that nucleotide deletions and insertions in the 5'-UTR plus simultaneous truncation of the N-terminal part of the CP impaired SPMV spread in foxtail millet, but not in proso millet plants. In contrast, the expression of the full-length version of SPMV CP efficiently compensated the negative effect of the 5'-UTR deletions in foxtail millet. Finally, immunoprecipitation assays revealed the presence of a specific interaction between the capsid proteins of SPMV and its helper virus (PMV). Our findings show that the SPMV CP has several biological functions, including facilitating efficient satellite virus infection and movement in millet plants.

  1. The Genetics of Biofuel Traits in Panicum Grasses: Developing a Model System with Diploid Panicum Hallii

    SciTech Connect

    Juenger, Thomas; Wolfrum, Ed

    2016-07-31

    Our DOE funded project focused on characterizing natural variation in C4 perennial grasses including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Hall’s panicgrass (Panicum hallii). The main theme of our project was to better understand traits linked with plant performance and that impact the utility of plant biomass as a biofuel feedstock. In addition, our project developed tools and resources for studying genetic variation in Panicum hallii. Our project successfully screened both Panicum virgatum and Panicum hallii diverse natural collections for a host of phenotypes, developed genetic mapping populations for both species, completed genetic mapping for biofuel related traits, and helped in the development of genomic resources of Panicum hallii. Together, these studies have improved our understanding of the role of genetic and environmental factors in impacting plant performance. This information, along with new tools, will help foster the improvement of perennial grasses for feedstock applications.

  2. 7 CFR 319.41a - Administrative instructions relating to entry into Guam of broomcorn, brooms, and similar articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Indian Corn or Maize, Broomcorn, and Related Plants Quarantine § 319.41a... chapter. (b) Shelled corn and seeds of other plants listed in § 319.41, and mature corn on the cob, may be... § 319.37-4(a). (c) Green corn on the cob may be imported into Guam without restriction under this...

  3. 7 CFR 319.41a - Administrative instructions relating to entry into Guam of broomcorn, brooms, and similar articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Indian Corn or Maize, Broomcorn, and Related Plants Quarantine § 319.41a... chapter. (b) Shelled corn and seeds of other plants listed in § 319.41, and mature corn on the cob, may be... § 319.37-4(a). (c) Green corn on the cob may be imported into Guam without restriction under this...

  4. 7 CFR 319.41a - Administrative instructions relating to entry into Guam of broomcorn, brooms, and similar articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Indian Corn or Maize, Broomcorn, and Related Plants Quarantine § 319.41a... chapter. (b) Shelled corn and seeds of other plants listed in § 319.41, and mature corn on the cob, may be... § 319.37-4(a). (c) Green corn on the cob may be imported into Guam without restriction under this...

  5. 7 CFR 319.41a - Administrative instructions relating to entry into Guam of broomcorn, brooms, and similar articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Indian Corn or Maize, Broomcorn, and Related Plants Quarantine § 319.41a... chapter. (b) Shelled corn and seeds of other plants listed in § 319.41, and mature corn on the cob, may be... § 319.37-4(a). (c) Green corn on the cob may be imported into Guam without restriction under this...

  6. 7 CFR 319.41a - Administrative instructions relating to entry into Guam of broomcorn, brooms, and similar articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Indian Corn or Maize, Broomcorn, and Related Plants Quarantine § 319.41a... chapter. (b) Shelled corn and seeds of other plants listed in § 319.41, and mature corn on the cob, may be... § 319.37-4(a). (c) Green corn on the cob may be imported into Guam without restriction under this...

  7. Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Antony Ceasar, S.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Vinod, K. K.; Kalpana, Krishnan; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal

  8. Purification and characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from germinating millet seeds.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Fujimoto, Mikio; Kariya, Junji; Konno, Haruyoshi

    2005-04-01

    An alpha-glucosidase (alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.20) was isolated from germinating millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) seeds by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, chromatography on CM-cellulofine/Fractogel EMD SO(3), Sephacryl S-200 HR and TSK gel Phenyl-5 PW, and preparative isoelectric focusing. The enzyme was homogenous by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 86,000 based on its mobility in SDS-PAGE and 80,000 based on gel filtration with TSKgel super SW 3000, which showed that it was composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.3. The enzyme readily hydrolyzed maltose, malto-oligosaccharides, and alpha-1,4-glucan, but hydrolyzed polysaccharides more rapidly than maltose. The K(m) value decreased with an increase in the molecular weight of the substrate. The value for maltoheptaose was about 4-fold lower than that for maltose. The enzyme preferably hydrolyzed amylopectin in starch, but also readily hydrolyzed nigerose, which has an alpha-1,3-glucosidic linkage and exists as an abnormal linkage in the structure of starch. In particular, the enzyme readily hydrolyzed millet starch from germinating seeds that had been degraded to some extent.

  9. QTLs for Biomass and Developmental Traits in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic and genomic resources have recently been developed for the bioenergy crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Despite these advances, little research has been focused on identifying genetic loci involved in natural variation of important bioenergy traits, including biomass. Quantitative trait l...

  10. The influence of phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium in Panicum miliaceum and Brassica alba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaden, Ute Susanne; Székely, Balázs; Wiche, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the phosphorus nutritional status on the uptake of germanium (Ge) in biomass two species, white millet (Panicum miliaceum) and white mustard (Brassica alba) were grown and sampled in a greenhouse experiment. The cultivation took place on two different substrates. The plants were fertilized with different nutrient solutions which differed in their phosphate content, and artificial addition of Ge was held via the casting solution. During the test period, measurements of the pH value, electric conductivity, and phosphate content of the soil solution were conducted. To transfer germanium from soil and plant material in solution, melting and microwave digestion processes were done. The experiment showed that in both species the additional Ge supply also leads to an increasing germanium content in the aboveground plant material. The two species, however, behave differently in response to this Ge supply. Panicum miliaceum accumulates Ge in the above-ground parts of plants stem, leaf and fruit to a much greater extent than Brassica alba. On the other hand the Ge accumulation in the roots of both B. alba and P. miliaceum was very high. In case of B. alba the root content was found by far higher as compared to the other parts of the plant. The addition of phosphate in the system changes the behavior. Without additional Ge its natural uptake from soil decreases in both species but in B. alba it is more characteristic. Increasing Ge supply (for both species) leads to an increased Ge uptake, until it reaches a maximum, regardless of the presence of phosphate addition. Phosphate, on the other hand, has positive effects on Ge uptake only in the case of B. alba roots, and to a limited extent in roots of P. miliaceum. In addition, for Panicum miliaceum an increase of germanium mainly in the underground parts was achieved. A further addition of phosphate did not have a positive effect on a greater enrichment of germanium. Whereas in Brassica

  11. Effect of dry heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and structure of proso millet flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-09-22

    Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) flour and starch were heated in a dry state at 130°C for 2 or 4 h. The effects of dry heat treatment (DHT) on the pasting, morphological and structural properties of the samples were evaluated. Dry heat treatment had a more significant effect on the pasting viscosity of flour than starch; it increased the pasting viscosity of the flour while it only increased the final viscosity of the starch. After dry heating, the onset of gelatinization and the peak temperatures of the samples increased significantly while the endothermic enthalpy decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the gel structure of the samples became more compact and the particles were plumper when compared with the native ones. Crystallinity of the samples decreased while the X-ray diffraction patterns remained the same after DHT.

  12. Cytotoxic steroidal saponins from Panicum turgidum Forssk.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed A; Ali, Zulfiqar; Wang, Yan-Hong; El-Amier, Yasser A; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-09-01

    Three new bidesmosidic cholestane-type steroidal glycosides, 16-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-cholest-5-en-3β,16β-diol-22-one-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[(β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), 16-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcholest-5-en-3β,16β-diol-22-one-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), and 16-O-β-d-glucopyranosylcholestan-3β,16β-diol-6,22-dione-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3) were isolated from a methanolic extract of Panicum turgidum. In addition four known compounds, pennogenin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), yamogenin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (5), yamogenin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6), and pennogenin 3β-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7) were also isolated and characterized. Their structures were established using extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The isolated compounds were screened for cytotoxicity towards a panel of mammalian cell lines and 4-7 were found to be cytotoxic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of steroidal saponins in Panicum and Brachiaria grasses in the USA and Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several grasses in the Panicum genus have been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in animals throughout the world. In the United States, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs and horses. In Brazil, cultivars of Panicum ...

  14. The USDA Pearl Millet Germplasm Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA National Plant Germplasm System pearl millet collection is maintained at the Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit located in Griffin, Ga. The germplasm collection contains 1297 unique accessions collected from 31 different countries. The majority of the accessions were collected or d...

  15. Evaluation of nutraceutical properties of selected small millets

    PubMed Central

    Rao, B. Raghavendra; Nagasampige, Manojkumar H.; Ravikiran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutraceutical properties and nutritional value of grains of four selected small millets viz. finger millet, foxtail millet, prosomillet and khodomillet. Materials and Methods: The qualitative analysis of phytochemicals viz. phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins present in the four small millets was done. The water-soluble proteins, crude fiber content and the reducing power of the grains of these four millets were analyzed. Results and Conclusions: The khodomillet showed maximum phenolic content (10.3%) and foxtail millet showed minimum phenolics (2.5%). As far as reducing capacity was concerned, finger millet was highest (5.7%). The prosomillet showed least reducing property (2.6%). The finger millet (391.3 mg/g each) showed maximum reducing sugar content. The prosomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (195 mg/g). The foxtail millet showed maximum protein content (305.76 mg/g) and prosomillet showed minimum protein content (144.23 mg/g). The khodomillet showed maximum crude fiber content (14.3%).The finger millet showed maximum reducing sugar content (391.3 mg/g) whereas, the khodomillet showed minimum reducing sugar (130.43 mg/g). PMID:21687358

  16. Satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein elicits symptoms on a nonhost plant and interferes with a suppressor of virus-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenping; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2004-03-01

    The capsid protein (CP) of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) has been implicated as a pathogenicity factor, inducing severe chlorosis on millet plants co-infected with SPMV and its helper virus, Panicum mosaic virus (PMV). In this study, we tested the effects of SPMV CP on Nicotiana benthamiana, a plant that does not support PMV+SPMV infections. SPMV CP expressed from a Potato virus X (PVX) gene vector elicited necrotic lesions on N. benthamiana. Pathogenicity factors often have the additional feature of acting as suppressors of gene silencing; therefore, several assays were developed to test if SPMV CP could act in such a capacity. The results showed that SPMV CP failed to act as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing when such tests were performed with transgenic N. benthamiana plants silenced for green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression by agroinfiltration or plant virus vectors. However SPMV CP expressed from the PVX gene vector did interfere with suppressor activity associated with PVX p25. This included a rebounded level of GFP silencing along the vascular tissues, including the veins on upper noninoculated leaves. Therefore, the roles of the SPMV CP now include encapsidation of the SPMV RNA, activity as a pathogenicity factor in both host and nonhost plants, and the enigmatic feature of interfering with suppression of gene silencing.

  17. Cultural treatments for accelerated growth and flowering of Panicum virgatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Exploiting heterosis through hybrid breeding is essential to increase switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) biomass yields; however, the time to evaluate parental genotypes and produce clones for field evaluation is a major limitation to hybrid production. In order to reduce the seed-to-seed ge...

  18. Breaking seed dormancy of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): A review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial warm-season grass identified as a model species for bioenergy feedstock. Established switchgrass stand are very resilient to environmental fluctuations, however, seed dormancy and weak seedling vigor make establishment difficult. Seeds with high leve...

  19. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of minor millets.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db.

  20. Biofortification in Millets: A Sustainable Approach for Nutritional Security

    PubMed Central

    Vinoth, A.; Ravindhran, R.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world’s population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition. HarvestPlus group realized the importance of millet biofortification and released conventionally bred high iron pearl millet in India to tackle iron deficiency. Molecular basis of waxy starch has been identified in foxtail millet, proso millet, and barnyard millet to facilitate their use in infant foods. With close genetic-relatedness to cereals, comparative genomics has helped in deciphering quantitative trait loci and genes linked to protein quality in finger millet. Recently, transgenic expression of zinc transporters resulted in the development of high grain zinc while transcriptomics revealed various calcium sensor genes involved in uptake, translocation, and accumulation of calcium in finger millet. Biofortification in millets is still limited by the presence of antinutrients like phytic acid, polyphenols, and tannins. RNA interference and genome editing tools [zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)] needs to be employed to reduce these antinutrients. In this review paper, we discuss the strategies to accelerate biofortification in millets by summarizing the opportunities and challenges to increase the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients. PMID:28167953

  1. Biofortification in Millets: A Sustainable Approach for Nutritional Security.

    PubMed

    Vinoth, A; Ravindhran, R

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional insecurity is a major threat to the world's population that is highly dependent on cereals-based diet, deficient in micronutrients. Next to cereals, millets are the primary sources of energy in the semi-arid tropics and drought-prone regions of Asia and Africa. Millets are nutritionally superior as their grains contain high amount of proteins, essential amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. Biofortification of staple crops is proved to be an economically feasible approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition. HarvestPlus group realized the importance of millet biofortification and released conventionally bred high iron pearl millet in India to tackle iron deficiency. Molecular basis of waxy starch has been identified in foxtail millet, proso millet, and barnyard millet to facilitate their use in infant foods. With close genetic-relatedness to cereals, comparative genomics has helped in deciphering quantitative trait loci and genes linked to protein quality in finger millet. Recently, transgenic expression of zinc transporters resulted in the development of high grain zinc while transcriptomics revealed various calcium sensor genes involved in uptake, translocation, and accumulation of calcium in finger millet. Biofortification in millets is still limited by the presence of antinutrients like phytic acid, polyphenols, and tannins. RNA interference and genome editing tools [zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)] needs to be employed to reduce these antinutrients. In this review paper, we discuss the strategies to accelerate biofortification in millets by summarizing the opportunities and challenges to increase the bioavailability of macro and micronutrients.

  2. RNA: protein interactions associated with satellites of panicum mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Desvoyes, B; Scholthof, K B

    2000-11-17

    The interactions between satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) capsid protein (CP) and its 824 nucleotide (nt) single stranded RNA were investigated by gel mobility shift assay and Northwestern blot assay. SPMV CP has specificity for its RNA at high affinity, but little affinity for non-viral RNA. The SPMV CP also bound a 350 nt satellite RNA (satRNA) that, like SPMV, is dependent on panicum mosaic virus for its replication. SPMV CP has the novel property of encapsidating SPMV RNA and satRNA. Competition gel mobility shift assays performed with a non-viral RNA and unlabeled SPMV RNA and satRNA revealed that these RNA:protein interactions were in part sequence specific.

  3. FmMDb: A Versatile Database of Foxtail Millet Markers for Millets and Bioenergy Grasses Research

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Gopal; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html), a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity. PMID:23951158

  4. Phytochemical and Antiproliferative Activity of Proso Millet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lizhen; Liu, Ruihai; Niu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20) to 151.14 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20) to 305.81 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6) to 147.32 (Gumi20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52) to 136.48 (Gumi 20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties. PMID:25098952

  5. Phytochemical and antiproliferative activity of proso millet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhen; Liu, Ruihai; Niu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The phytochemical content, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative properties of three diverse varieties of proso millet are reported. The free phenolic content ranged from 27.48 (Gumi 20) to 151.14 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The bound phenolic content ranged from 55.95 (Gumi20) to 305.81 (Mi2504-6) mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW. The percentage contribution of bound phenolic to the total phenolic content of genotype samples analyzed ranged between 62.08% and 67.05%. Ferulic acid and chlorogenic acid are the predominant phenolic acid found in bound fraction. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid were also detected. Syringic acid was detected only in the free fraction. The antioxidant activity was assessed using the hydrophilic peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The PSC antioxidant activity of the free fraction ranged from 57.68 (Mi2504-6) to 147.32 (Gumi20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The PSC antioxidant activity of the bound fraction ranged from 95.38 (Mizao 52) to 136.48 (Gumi 20) µmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g DW. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of the extract was assessed using the HepG2 model. CAA value ranged from 2.51 to 6.10 µmol equiv quercetin/100 g DW. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro against MDA human breast cancer and HepG2 human liver cancer cells. Results exhibited a differential and possible selective antiproliferative property of the proso millet. These results may be used to direct the consumption of proso millet with improved health properties.

  6. Total Iron Absorption by Young Women from Iron-Biofortified Pearl Millet Composite Meals Is Double That from Regular Millet Meals but Less Than That from Post-Harvest Iron-Fortified Millet Meals123

    PubMed Central

    Cercamondi, Colin I.; Egli, Ines M.; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Iron biofortification of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a promising approach to combat iron deficiency (ID) in the millet-consuming communities of developing countries. To evaluate the potential of iron-biofortified millet to provide additional bioavailable iron compared with regular millet and post-harvest iron-fortified millet, an iron absorption study was conducted in 20 Beninese women with marginal iron status. Composite test meals consisting of millet paste based on regular-iron, iron-biofortified, or post-harvest iron-fortified pearl millet flour accompanied by a leafy vegetable sauce or an okra sauce were fed as multiple meals for 5 d. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Fractional iron absorption from test meals based on regular-iron millet (7.5%) did not differ from iron-biofortified millet meals (7.5%; P = 1.0), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the meals based on iron-biofortified millet (1125 vs. 527 μg; P < 0.0001). Fractional iron absorption from post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (10.4%) was higher than from regular-iron and iron-biofortified millet meals (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (1500 μg; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Results indicate that consumption of iron-biofortified millet would double the amount of iron absorbed and, although fractional absorption of iron from biofortification is less than that from fortification, iron-biofortified millet should be highly effective in combatting ID in millet-consuming populations. PMID:23884388

  7. Total iron absorption by young women from iron-biofortified pearl millet composite meals is double that from regular millet meals but less than that from post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-09-01

    Iron biofortification of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a promising approach to combat iron deficiency (ID) in the millet-consuming communities of developing countries. To evaluate the potential of iron-biofortified millet to provide additional bioavailable iron compared with regular millet and post-harvest iron-fortified millet, an iron absorption study was conducted in 20 Beninese women with marginal iron status. Composite test meals consisting of millet paste based on regular-iron, iron-biofortified, or post-harvest iron-fortified pearl millet flour accompanied by a leafy vegetable sauce or an okra sauce were fed as multiple meals for 5 d. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Fractional iron absorption from test meals based on regular-iron millet (7.5%) did not differ from iron-biofortified millet meals (7.5%; P = 1.0), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the meals based on iron-biofortified millet (1125 vs. 527 μg; P < 0.0001). Fractional iron absorption from post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (10.4%) was higher than from regular-iron and iron-biofortified millet meals (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), resulting in a higher quantity of total iron absorbed from the post-harvest iron-fortified millet meals (1500 μg; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Results indicate that consumption of iron-biofortified millet would double the amount of iron absorbed and, although fractional absorption of iron from biofortification is less than that from fortification, iron-biofortified millet should be highly effective in combatting ID in millet-consuming populations.

  8. Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunfang; Chen, Jinfeng; Zhi, Hui; Yang, Lu; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Zhao, Baohua; Chen, Mingsheng; Diao, Xianmin

    2010-10-11

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv.). Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (θ = 0.0059), θ means Watterson's estimator of θ. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (θ = 0.0027) when compared to rice and sorghum (θ = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively). The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ρ/θ = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population based studies in foxtail millet.

  9. Quantitative reconstruction of summer precipitation using a mid-Holocene δ13C common millet record from Guanzhong Basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qing; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Xinying; Zhao, Keliang; Sun, Nan

    2016-12-01

    To quantitatively reconstruct Holocene precipitation for particular geographical areas, suitable proxies and faithful dating controls are required. The fossilized seeds of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are found throughout the sedimentary strata of northern China and are suited to the production of quantitative Holocene precipitation reconstructions: their isotopic carbon composition (δ13C) gives a measure of the precipitation required during the growing season of summer (here the interval from mid-June to September) and allows these seeds to be dated. We therefore used a regression function, as part of a systematic study of the δ13C of common millet, to produce a quantitative reconstruction of mid-Holocene summer precipitation in the Guanzhong Basin (107°40'-107°49' E, 33°39'-34°45' N). Our results showed that mean summer precipitation at 7.7-3.4 ka BP was 353 mm, ˜ 50 mm or 17 % higher than present levels, and the variability increased, especially after 5.2 ka BP. Maximum mean summer precipitation peaked at 414 mm during the period 6.1-5.5 ka BP, ˜ 109 mm (or 36 %) higher than today, indicating that the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) peaked at this time. This work can provide a new proxy for further research into continuous paleoprecipitation sequences and the variability of summer precipitation, which will promote the further research into the relation between early human activity and environmental change.

  10. In vitro- and in vivo-generated defective RNAs of satellite panicum mosaic virus define cis-acting RNA elements required for replication and movement.

    PubMed

    Qiu, W; Scholthof, K B

    2000-03-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper virus, panicum mosaic virus (PMV), to provide trans-acting proteins for replication and movement. The 824-nucleotide (nt) genome of SPMV possesses an open reading frame encoding a 17.5-kDa capsid protein (CP), which is shown to be dispensable for SPMV replication. To localize cis-acting RNA elements required for replication and movement, a comprehensive set of SPMV cDNA deletion mutants was generated. The results showed that the 263-nt 3' untranslated region (UTR) plus 73 nt upstream of the CP stop codon and the first 16 nt in the 5' UTR are required for SPMV RNA amplification and/or systemic spread. A region from nt 17 to 67 within the 5' UTR may have an accessory role in RNA accumulation, and a fragment bracketing nt 68 to 104 appears to be involved in the systemic movement of SPMV RNA in a host-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, defective RNAs (D-RNAs) accumulated de novo in millet plants coinfected with PMV and either of two SPMV mutants: SPMV-91, which is incapable of expressing the 17.5-kDa CP, and SPMV-GUG, which expresses low levels of the 17.5-kDa CP. The D-RNA derived from SPMV-91 was isolated from infected plants and used as a template to generate a cDNA clone. RNA transcripts derived from this 399-nt cDNA replicated and moved in millet plants coinoculated with PMV. The characterization of this D-RNA provided a biological confirmation that the critical RNA domains identified by the reverse genetic strategy are essential for SPMV replication and movement. The results additionally suggest that a potential "trigger" for spontaneous D-RNA accumulation may be associated with the absence or reduced accumulation of the 17.5-kDa SPMV CP. This represents the first report of a D-RNA associated with a satellite virus.

  11. Effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein of foxtail millet after extruding or fermenting and the raw foxtail millet was extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive protea...

  12. Population genetics and structure of a global foxtail millet germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foxtail millet is one among the most ancient crops of dryland agriculture. It is the second most important crop among millets, grown for grains or forage. Foxtail millet germplasm resources provide reservoirs of novel alleles and genes for crop improvement that have remained mostly unexplored. We ge...

  13. Apomictic and sexual pearl millet X Pennisetum squamulatum hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Dujardin, M.; Hanna, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen, an apomictic East African grass (2n = 54) was crossed to tetraploid (2n = 28) sexual pearl millet, P. americanum L. Leeke to study the potential for germplasm exchange. Twenty interspecific hybrids (2n = 41) with 14 pearl millet and 27 P. squamulatum chromosomes were obtained. All resembled P. squamulatum in perennial growth habit and inflorescence characteristics and resembled pearl millet in leafiness and pencillate anther tips. Seventeen of these hybrids were more vigorous than either parent. The most common chromosome association at metaphase I was 18 bivalents plus 5 univalents. At anaphase I and telophase I laggards, fragments, and unequal chromosome distribution were observed. Fifteen of 17 interspecific hybrids reproduced by facultative apomixis, one was sexual and one was an obligate apomict. Ovules with aposporous embryo sacs ranged from 1 to 93% in facultative apomictic plants. Morphological characteristics and chromosome numbers of open-pollinated progeny from the apomictic interspecific hybrid were identical to those of the seed parent indicating obligate apomictic reproduction. Both sexual and apomictic hybrids were partially male fertile with pollen stainability ranging from 29 percent to 79 percent and seed-set ranging from 1 to 60 seed per inflorescence under open-pollination. Development of fertile apomictic pearl millet-P. squamulatum interspecific hybrids appears to be a very useful tool for the transfer of genes for apomixis from the wild species to pearl millet.

  14. Monocrotophos poisoning through contaminated millet flour.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashwin B; Dewan, Aruna; Kaji, Bharat C

    2012-09-01

    Several episodes of mass poisoning by organophosphates (OPs) have been reported from the developing countries. The diagnosis of OP-poisoning is mainly based on the characteristic clinical features and history of exposure to a known OP compound. Estimation of serum and red blood cell (RBC) cholinesterase activities are helpful in confirming the diagnosis. However, there is controversy regarding a definite relationship between serum cholinesterase activity and the severity of clinical manifestations and prognosis. This report describes an episode of mass monocrotophos poisoning that occurred due to accidental ingestion of monocrotophos-contaminated millet (so-called bavta) flour involving eight severely poisoned persons. Clinical presentation included severe abdominal pain, diarrhoea, vomiting, pupil narrowing, and difficulty breathing. On hospital admission, plasma cholinesterase (PChE) and especially RBC acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities correlated well with clinical symptoms presented by the patients. This case study highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of OP-pesticide poisoning from food sources and the need to look for depressed PChE and AChE activities that may point to OP exposure, so that OP-poisoning can be identified immediately and patients can receive specific treatment, rather than general treatment for food poisoning.

  15. In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic response of foxtail millet and its products.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin; Chen, Jing; Molla, Mohammad Mainuddin; Wang, Chao; Diao, Xianmin; Shen, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet, as a leading variety in arid and semi-arid areas of Asia and Africa, can provide broad potential benefits to human health. However, its digestion properties have not been reported. So in this study, the in vitro starch digestibilities and in vivo glycemic indices (GI) of foxtail millet and pure millet products were investigated. The results showed that starch digestibility of the foxtail millet flour is obviously lower than that of wheat flour. However, deproteinization and heating significantly increased its rapidly digestible starch and decreased its slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. The GIs of pure millet products were in the following order: millet porridge (93.6 ± 11.3) > millet steamed bread (89.6 ± 8.8) > No. 1 millet pancake (75.0% millet flour and 25.0% extrusion flour, 83.0 ± 9.6) > No. 2 millet pancake (without extrusion flour, 76.2 ± 10.7) > cooked millet (64.4 ± 8.5). They were significantly positively correlated with the rapidly digestible starch (r = 0.959), degree of gelatinization (r = 0.967) and estimated glycemic index (r = 0.988). Both in vitro and in vivo tests suggested that boiling, steaming and extrusion enhanced the formation of digestible starch and subsequently increased the GI values. Additionally, the No. 1 millet pancake and cooked millet had a relatively gentle stimulation on β-cell. Therefore, foxtail millet, especially the cooked millet, may serve as a potential source of nutraceutical and functional food that could delay the development of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Dominant gene for rust resistance in pearl millet

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Wells, H.D.; Burton, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Rust (Puccinia substriata var. indica) resistance was discovered in three Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke subspecies monodii (Maire) Brunken accessions from Senegal. Resistant plant were free of rust, although the bottom one or two leaves of some plants did develop a brown discoloration without pustules. Resistance was controlled by a dominant gene assigned the gene symbol Rr1. Backcrossing has been effective in transferring resistance from the wild grassy, monodii to cultivated pearl millet. The Rr1 gene should be useful in the production of rust resistant pearl millet hybrids and cultivars. 6 references, 1 table.

  17. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P.; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops. PMID:27965689

  18. Setaria viridis as a Model System to Advance Millet Genetics and Genomics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pu; Shyu, Christine; Coelho, Carla P; Cao, Yingying; Brutnell, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Millet is a common name for a group of polyphyletic, small-seeded cereal crops that include pearl, finger and foxtail millet. Millet species are an important source of calories for many societies, often in developing countries. Compared to major cereal crops such as rice and maize, millets are generally better adapted to dry and hot environments. Despite their food security value, the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits in millets, including both morphological traits and climate resilience remains poorly studied. These complex traits have been challenging to dissect in large part because of the lack of sufficient genetic tools and resources. In this article, we review the phylogenetic relationship among various millet species and discuss the value of a genetic model system for millet research. We propose that a broader adoption of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) as a model system for millets could greatly accelerate the pace of gene discovery in the millets, and summarize available and emerging resources in S. viridis and its domesticated relative S. italica. These resources have value in forward genetics, reverse genetics and high throughput phenotyping. We describe methods and strategies to best utilize these resources to facilitate the genetic dissection of complex traits. We envision that coupling cutting-edge technologies and the use of S. viridis for gene discovery will accelerate genetic research in millets in general. This will enable strategies and provide opportunities to increase productivity, especially in the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa where millets are staple food crops.

  19. A population genetic transect of Panicum hallii (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B; Purmal, Colin T; Juenger, Thomas E

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate, adaptation, and population structure is of fundamental importance to botanists because these factors are crucial for the evolution of biodiversity and the response of species to future climate change. Panicum hallii is an emerging model system for perennial grass and bioenergy research, yet very little is known about the relationship between climate and population structure in this system. • We analyzed geographic population differentiation across 39 populations of P. hallii along a longitudinal transect from the savannas of central Texas through the deserts of Arizona and New Mexico. A combination of morphological and genetic (microsatellite) analysis was used to explore patterns of population structure. • We found strong differentiation between high elevation western desert populations and lower elevation eastern populations of P. hallii, with a pronounced break in structure occurring in western Texas. In addition, we confirmed that there are high levels of morphological and genetic structure between previous recognized varieties (var. hallii and var. filipes) within this species. • The results of this study suggest that patterns of population structure within P. hallii may be driven by climatic variation over space. Overall, this study lays the groundwork for future studies on the genetics of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in this system.

  20. Response of `Alamo` switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to weed management practices

    SciTech Connect

    Sledge, S.L.; Walker, R.H.

    1995-11-01

    Field studies were conducted in 1992 and 1994 to evaluate herbicides that would provide weed control and biomass yield of `Alamo` switchgrass during the year of establishment. For grass weed control, bensulide was applied preplant incorporated (PPI) at 4.4 kg ai ha{sup -1}, while MSMA was applied postemergence over the top (POST) at 2.2 kg ai ha{sup -1} to switchgrass that had two to four leaves. Herbicides applied POST for control of broadleaf weed species included 2,4-D at 0.6 kg ai ha{sup -1} or metsulfuron at 0.02 kg ai ha{sup -1}. Herbicide treatments included bensulide and MSMA applied alone or in combination with s,3-D or metsulfuron. They were arranged in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times. Weed control, crop tolerance and yield data were taken over time. Bensulide or MSMA applied alone provided 80% or greater control of large crabgrass, broadleaf signalgrass and fall panicum for the two years. The addition of metsulfuron or 2,4-D provided acceptable control of smooth pigweed, prickly sida, pitted morningglory and sicklepod. MSMA treatments produced slight PANVI injury that ranged from 20 to 36%. Bensulide injury was mostly moderate ranging from 19 to 88%. Although less injury was recorded with MSMA treatments, bensulide treatments trended higher for establishment-year biomass production that averaged 5123 kg ha{sup -1} as compared to 4239 kg ha{sup -1} for MSMA treatments.

  1. Biolistic transformation of elite genotypes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    King, Zachary R; Bray, Adam L; Lafayette, Peter R; Parrott, Wayne A

    2014-02-01

    Transformation of elite switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) genotypes would facilitate the characterization of genes related to cell wall recalcitrance to saccharification. However, transformation of explants from switchgrass plants has remained difficult. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a biolistic transformation protocol for elite genotypes. Three switchgrass genotypes (ST1, ST2, and AL2) were previously selected for tissue culture responsiveness. One genotype, SA37, was selected for further use due to its improved formation of callus amenable to transformation. Various medium sets were compared and a previously published medium set provided cultures with >96 % embryogenic callus, and data on transient and stable gene expression of RFP were used to optimize biolistic parameters, and further validate the switchgrass (PvUbi1) promoter. SA37 proved to be the most transformable, whereas eight transgenic calli on average were recovered per bombardment of 20 calli (40 % efficiency) when using a three-day day preculture step, 0.6 M osmotic adjustment medium, 4,482 kPa rupture disks and 0.4 μm gold particles which traveled 9 cm before hitting the target callus tissue. Regenerability was high, especially for ST2, for which it is possible to recover on average over 400 plants per half-gram callus tissue. It is now possible to routinely and efficiently engineer elite switchgrass genotypes using biolistic transformation.

  2. Repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum (Jacq.) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Braz, T G S; Fonseca, D M; Jank, L; Cruz, C D; Martuscello, J A

    2015-12-29

    When evaluating plants, in particular perennial species, it is common to obtain repeated measures of a given trait from the same individual to evaluate the traits' repeatability in successive harvests. The degree of correlation among these measures defines the coefficient of repeatability, which has been widely utilized in the study of forage traits of interest for breeding. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the repeatability of agronomic traits in Panicum maximum hybrids. Hybrids from three progenies totaling 320 hybrids were evaluated in an incomplete-block design, with consideration of production and morpho-agronomic traits. Of the production traits, total dry matter and leaf dry matter showed the highest repeatability and varied from 0.540 to 0.769, whereas stem dry matter had lower coefficients (0.265-0.632). Among the morpho-agronomic traits, plant height and incidence of Bipolaris maydis had higher coefficients (0.118-0.460). The repeatability values of the agronomic traits were low-to-moderate, and six evaluations were sufficient to provide accuracy in the selection of hybrids regarding total dry matter, leaf dry matter, plant height, and incidence of B. maydis, whereas the other traits require more repeated measures to increase reliability in the prediction of their response.

  3. The genetic makeup of a global barnyard millet germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.) is an important crop for many smallholder farmers in southern and eastern Asia. It is valued for its drought tolerance, rapid maturation, and superior nutritional qualities. Despite these characteristics there are almost no genetic or genomic resources for this cro...

  4. Producing and Marketing Proso Millet in the Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proso millet is a short-season summer crop that produces well in the semi-arid western Great Plains and is suitable for diversifying and intensifying dryland production systems. Proso allows transition back to winter wheat in cropping rotations. No-till methods work well with proso establishment. Pr...

  5. Inheritance of Chinch bug resistance in pearl millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.)] is a promising alternative feed grain for southeastern crop productions systems, because of its ability to reliably produce grain, under drought conditions on sandy, acidic, and low fertility soils. Chinch bug [Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say) (Heteropter...

  6. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and green foxtail (Setaria viridis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-05-06

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  7. Phytolith Analysis for Differentiating between Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant. PMID:21573069

  8. Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens sp. nov., isolated from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; McInroy, John A; Xu, Jia; Glaeser, Stefanie P

    2015-09-01

    A yellow, nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain, NXU-44(T), isolated from the rhizosphere of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Auburn, Alabama, USA, was studied to determine its taxonomic position. Cells of the isolate were rod-shaped and Gram-stain-negative. A comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence with the sequences of the type strains of the most closely related species showed that the strain belongs to the genus Flavobacterium with highest sequence similarities to the type strains of Flavobacterium ginsenosidimutans (97.9%), Flavobacterium phragmitis (97.6%) and Flavobacterium anhuiense (97.5%). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other species of the genus Flavobacterium were below 97.5%. The fatty acid profile of strain NXU-44(T) consisted of the major fatty acids iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 2-OH/C16 : 1ω7c and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major compounds in the polar lipid profile were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, one aminolipid and two polar lipids. The quinone system was composed exclusively of menaquinone MK-6. The polyamine pattern contained the major compound sym-homospermidine and only minor amounts of other polyamines. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. These data and the differential biochemical and chemotaxonomic properties show that strain NXU-44(T) represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium for which the name Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NXU-44(T) ( = LMG 28694(T) = CIP 110894(T)).

  9. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700-500 BC).

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300-6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200-1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north.

  10. From Early Domesticated Rice of the Middle Yangtze Basin to Millet, Rice and Wheat Agriculture: Archaeobotanical Macro-Remains from Baligang, Nanyang Basin, Central China (6700–500 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhenhua; Qin, Ling; Gao, Yu; Weisskopf, Alison Ruth; Zhang, Chi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Baligang is a Neolithic site on a northern tributary of the middle Yangtze and provides a long archaeobotanical sequence from the Seventh Millennium BC upto the First Millennium BC. It provides evidence for developments in rice and millet agriculture influenced by shifting cultural affiliation with the north (Yangshao and Longshan) and south (Qujialing and Shijiahe) between 4300 and 1800 BC. This paper reports on plant macro-remains (seeds), from systematic flotation of 123 samples (1700 litres), producing more than 10,000 identifiable remains. The earliest Pre-Yangshao occupation of the sites provide evidence for cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) between 6300–6700 BC. This rice appears already domesticated in on the basis of a dominance of non-shattering spikelet bases. However, in terms of grain size changes has not yet finished, as grains are still thinner than more recent domesaticated rice and are closer in grain shape to wild rices. This early rice was cultivated alongside collection of wild staple foods, especially acorns (Quercus/Lithicarpus sensu lato). In later periods the sites has evidence for mixed farming of both rice and millets (Setaria italica and Panicum miliaceum). Soybean appears on the site in the Shijiahe period (ca.2500 BC) and wheat (Triticum cf. aestivum) in the Late Longshan levels (2200–1800 BC). Weed flora suggests an intensification of rice agriculture over time with increasing evidence of wetland weeds. We interpret these data as indicating early opportunistic cultivation of alluvial floodplains and some rainfed rice, developing into more systematic and probably irrigated cultivation starting in the Yangshao period, which intensified in the Qujialing and Shijiahe period, before a shift back to an emphasis on millets with the Late Longshan cultural influence from the north. PMID:26460975

  11. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.

  12. Evaluation of dough rheological properties and bread texture of pearl millet-wheat flour mix.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Moulis, Claire; Hajji, Hejer; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making.

  13. Culinary archaeology: Millet noodles in Late Neolithic China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Houyuan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Ye, Maolin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xia, Zhengkai; Ren, Xiaoyan; Cai, Linhai; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Tung-Sheng

    2005-10-13

    Noodles have been a popular staple food in many parts of the world for at least 2,000 years, although it is debatable whether the Chinese, the Italians or the Arabs invented them first. Here we analyse a prehistoric sample of noodles contained in a well preserved, sealed earthenware bowl discovered in the Late Neolithic archaeological site of Lajia in northwestern China. We identify millet as the source of the abundant seed-husk phytoliths and starch grains present in the vessel. This shows that the conversion of ground millet flour into dough that could be repeatedly stretched into long, thin strands for the preparation of boiled noodles was already established in this region 4,000 years ago.

  14. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes.

    PubMed

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Mombaça' (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day(-1)) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day(-1)) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change.

  15. Leaf Dynamics of Panicum maximum under Future Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Panicum maximum Jacq. ‘Mombaça’ (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day-1) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day-1) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change. PMID:26894932

  16. Phenolic and carotenoid profiles and antiproliferative activity of foxtail millet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Zhen; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-05-01

    Commonly consumed foxtail millet varieties Jingu28 and Jingu34 were compared in terms of phytochemical composition, antioxidant property, and antiproliferative activity. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was evaluated based on HepG2 cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties against HepG2 and MDA cell were assayed by methylene blue assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was 78.79 and 114.22 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW in Jingu28 and Jingu34. Both varieties contained ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid. Xanthophylls and zeaxanthin were also detected. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the foxtail millet were 228.13 (Jingu28) and 355.03 (Jingu34) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g, respectively. CAA values of the foxtail millet varieties ranged from 1.52 to 8.97 μmol quercetin equiv/100 g DW. The proliferation of MDA and HepG2 cancer cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to Jingu28 and Jingu34 extractions.

  17. Genetic structure of landraces in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) revealed with transposon display and interpretation to crop evolution of foxtail millet.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ryoko; Naito, Ken; Fukunaga, Kenji; Watanabe, Kazuo N; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kawase, Makoto

    2011-06-01

    Although the origin and domestication process of foxtail millet (Setaria italica subsp. italica (L.) P. Beauv.) has been studied by several groups, the issue is still ambiguous. It is essential to resolve this issue by studying a large number of accessions with sufficient markers covering the entire genome. Genetic structures were analyzed by transposon display (TD) using 425 accessions of foxtail millet and 12 of the wild ancestor green foxtail (Setaria italica subsp. viridis (L.) P. Beauv.). We used three recently active transposons (TSI-1, TSI-7, and TSI-10) as genome-wide markers and succeeded in demonstrating geographical structures of the foxtail millet. A neighbor-joining dendrogram based on TD grouped the foxtail millet accessions into eight major clusters, each of which consisted of accessions collected from adjacent geographical areas. Eleven out of 12 green foxtail accessions were grouped separately from the clusters of foxtail millet. These results indicated strong regional differentiations and a long history of cultivation in each region. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship between foxtail millet and green foxtail and suggest a monophyletic origin of foxtail millet domestication.

  18. Effect of drought stress on gas exchange in channel millet (Echinochloa turneriana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum)

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.G.; Sovonick-Dunford, S. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on well-watered and droughted plants of the drought resistant pearl millet and of channel millet, a potential new crop for semi-arid regions. Photosynthesis and water use efficiency were similar for controls of both species at atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and were reduced similarly by drought in both species. The CO{sub 2} saturated rate and the carboxylation efficiency were lowered by drought in both species, while stomatal limitation was increased by drought. Autoradiograms indicated that photosynthesis occurs evenly over the surface of well-watered control leaves of both species, but not in leaves of droughted plants. This could result in an overestimate of the effect of nonstomatal inhibition of photosynthesis by drought.

  19. [Effects of climate warming and drying on millet yield in Gansu Province and related countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Wang, Qiang; Deng, Zhen-yong; Guo, Xiao-qin; Ma, Xing-xiang; Ning, Hui-fang

    2010-11-01

    Based on the data of air temperature, precipitation, and millet yield from Ganzhou, Anding, and Xifeng, the representative stations in Hexi moderate arid oasis irrigation area, moderate sub-arid dry area in middle Gansu, and moderate sub-humid dry area in eastern Gansu, respectively, this paper calculated the regional active accumulated temperature of > or = 0 degrees C, > or =5 degrees C, > or =10 degrees C, > or =15 degrees C, and > or =20 degrees C in millet growth period, and the average temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages. The millet climatic yield was isolated by orthogonal polynomial, and the change characteristics of climate and millet climatic yield as well as the effects of climate change on millet yield were analyzed by statistical methods of linear tendency, cumulative anomaly, and Mann-Kendall. The results showed that warming and drying were the main regional features in the modern climatic change of Gansu. The regional temperature had a significant upward trend since the early 1990s, while the precipitation was significantly reduced from the late 1980s. There were significant correlations between millet yield and climatic factors. The millet yield in dry areas increased with the increasing temperature and precipitation in millet key growth stages, and that in Hexi Corridor area increased with increasing temperature. Warming and drying affected millet yield prominently. The weather fluctuation index of regional millet yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou accounted for 73%, 72%, and 54% of real output coefficient variation, respectively, and the percentages increased significantly after warming. Warming was conducive to the increase of millet production, and the annual increment of millet climatic yield in Xifeng, Anding, and Ganzhou after warming was 30.6, 43.1, and 121.1 kg x hm(-2), respectively. Aiming at the warming and drying trend in Gansu Province in the future, the millet planting area in the Province should be further

  20. Genome-size variation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum): flow cytometry and cytology reveal rampant aneuploidy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a native perennial dominant of the prairies of North America, has been targeted as a model herbaceous species for biofeedstock development. A flow-cytometric survey of a core set of 11 primarily upland polyploid switchgrass accessions indicated that there was con...

  1. Preference by horses for bedding pellets made from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bedding system used for stalled horses can impact their health and well-being. This study examined the saponin concentration in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw, and bedding pellets made from switchgrass straw. Further, this study determined the palatability of bedding pellets made from sw...

  2. Nitrogen and harvest impact on biomass yield of established switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified as the model herbaceous biomass energy crop by the United States Department of Energy as it is capable of being a viable bioenergy feedstock while providing multiple environmental benefits when grown on marginal soil landscapes. Nitrogen (N) fert...

  3. Isolation, Characterization, and Quantification of Steroidal Saponins in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environment friendly biomass energy crop. A recent five-year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540 percent more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest and process...

  4. Global changes in mineral transporters in tetraploid switchgrasses (Panicum virgatum L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L) is perennial, C4 grass with great potential as a biofuel crop. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that control mineral uptake, distribution and remobilization will benefit sustainable production. Nutrients are mobilized from aerial portions to below-ground ...

  5. Soil type and species diversity influence selection on physiology in Panicum virgatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species diversity influences the productivity and stability of plant communities, but its effect on the evolution of species within those communities is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether species diversity and soil type influence selection on physiology in switchgrass (Panicum virga...

  6. QTL x environment interactions and latitudinal adaptation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a polyploid C4 perennial grass that is native to North America and has been championed as a promising biofuel feedstock. It is a common member of most native prairie communities and exhibits extensive phenotypic variability and adaptation across its range, especial...

  7. Colic Caused by Panicum maximum Toxicosis in Equidae in Northern Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the Amazon region of northern Brazil, Panicum maximum cultivars Mombaça, Tanzânia, and Massai cause severe colic and death in horses and mules. The disease occurs in the rainy season, when sprouting pastures are grazed by equidae. In the 8 separate disease outbreaks studied, a total of 52 out of ...

  8. Higher iron pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) provides more absorbable iron that is limited by increased polyphenolic content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Our objective was to compare the capacity of iron (Fe) biofortified and standard pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) to deliver Fe for hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. It is common primarily in West Africa and the Indian subcontinent, and ...

  9. Development of high density SNP-based linkage map in pearl millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is a gluten free grain crop which is additionally gaining importance in the USA due to the increased demand for pearl millet flour by many ethnic groups. As a result, efforts are underway in the Southeast to develop high grain yielding adapted pearl mi...

  10. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health benefits.

    PubMed

    Shobana, S; Krishnaswamy, K; Sudha, V; Malleshi, N G; Anjana, R M; Palaniappan, L; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Finger millet or ragi is one of the ancient millets in India (2300 BC), and this review focuses on its antiquity, consumption, nutrient composition, processing, and health benefits. Of all the cereals and millets, finger millet has the highest amount of calcium (344mg%) and potassium (408mg%). It has higher dietary fiber, minerals, and sulfur containing amino acids compared to white rice, the current major staple in India. Despite finger millet's rich nutrient profile, recent studies indicate lower consumption of millets in general by urban Indians. Finger millet is processed by milling, malting, fermentation, popping, and decortication. Noodles, vermicilli, pasta, Indian sweet (halwa) mixes, papads, soups, and bakery products from finger millet are also emerging. In vitro and in vivo (animal) studies indicated the blood glucose lowering, cholesterol lowering, antiulcerative, wound healing properties, etc., of finger millet. However, appropriate intervention or randomized clinical trials are lacking on these health effects. Glycemic index (GI) studies on finger millet preparations indicate low to high values, but most of the studies were conducted with outdated methodology. Hence, appropriate GI testing of finger millet preparations and short- and long-term human intervention trials may be helpful to establish evidence-based health benefits.

  11. Identification of the ``a'' Genome of Finger Millet Using Chloroplast DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hilu, K. W.

    1988-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine corocana subsp. coracana), an important cereal in East Africa and India, is a tetraploid species with unknown genomic components. A recent cytogenetic study confirmed the direct origin of this millet from the tetraploid E. coracana subsp. africana but questioned Eleusine indica as a genomic donor. Chloroplast (ct) DNA sequence analysis using restriction fragment pattern was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships between E. coracana subsp. coracana (domesticated finger millet), E. coracana subspecies africana (wild finger millet), and E. indica. Eleusine tristachya was included since it is the only other annual diploid species in the genus with a basic chromosome number of x = 9 like finger millet. Eight of the ten restriction endonucleases used had 16 to over 30 restriction sites per genome and were informative. E. coracana subsp. coracana and subsp. africana and E. indica were identical in all the restriction sites surveyed, while the ct genome of E. tristachya differed consistently by at least one mutational event for each restriction enzyme surveyed. This random survey of the ct genomes of these species points out E. indica as one of the genome donors (maternal genome donor) of domesticated finger millet contrary to a previous cytogenetic study. The data also substantiate E. coracana subsp. africana as the progenitor of domesticated finger millet. The disparity between the cytogenetic and the molecular approaches is discussed in light of the problems associated with chromosome pairing and polyploidy. PMID:8608927

  12. Influence of hydrothermal processing on functional properties and grain morphology of finger millet.

    PubMed

    Dharmaraj, Usha; Meera, M S; Reddy, S Yella; Malleshi, Nagappa G

    2015-03-01

    Finger millet was hydrothermally processed followed by decortication. Changes in color, diameter, density, sphericity, thermal and textural characteristics and also some of the functional properties of the millet along with the grain morphology of the kernels after hydrothermal processing and decortication were studied. It was observed that, the millet turned dark after hydrothermal processing and color improved over native millet after decortication. A slight decrease in grain diameter was observed but sphericity of the grains increased on decortication. The soft and fragile endosperm turned into a hard texture and grain hardness increased by about 6 fold. Hydrothermal processing increased solubility and swelling power of the millet at ambient temperature. Pasting profile indicated that, peak viscosity decreased significantly on hydrothermal processing and both hydrothermally processed and decorticated millet exhibited zero breakdown viscosity. Enthalpy was negative for hydrothermally processed millet and positive for decorticated grains. Microscopic studies revealed that the orderly structure of endosperm changed to a coherent mass after hydrothermal processing and the different layers of seed coat get fused with the endosperm.

  13. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    PubMed

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low.

  14. Comparative study on nutritional and sensory quality of barnyard and foxtail millet food products with traditional rice products.

    PubMed

    Verma, Suman; Srivastava, Sarita; Tiwari, Neha

    2015-08-01

    Millets have the potential to contribute to food security and nutrition, but still these are underutilized crops. The present study was undertaken with a view to analyse the physico-chemical, functional and nutritional composition of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice and to compare the sensory quality and nutritive value of food products from foxtail and barnyard millet with rice. Analysis of physico- chemical and functional characteristics revealed that the thousand kernel weight of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 2.5, 3.0 and 18.3 g, respectively and thousand kernel volume was 1.6, 13 2.0 and 7.1 ml, respectively. The water absorption capacity of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 1.90, 1.96 and 1.98 ml/g, respectively and water solubility index was 2.8, 1.2 and 1.0 %, respectively. Viscosity was measured for foxtail millet (1650.6 cps), barnyard millet (1581 cps) and rice (1668.3 cps). Analysis of nutritional composition showed that the moisture content of foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 9.35, 11.93 and 11.91 %, respectively. The total ash, crude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and carbohydrate of foxtail millet were 3.10, 10.29, 3.06, 4.25 and 69.95 %, respectively, for barnyard millet were 4.27, 6.93, 2.02, 2.98 and 71.87 %, respectively and the corresponding values for rice were 0.59, 6.19, 0.53, 0.21 and 80.58 %, respectively. The energy value for foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice was 349, 407 and 352 Kcal, respectively. The foxtail millet contained 30.10 mg/100 g calcium and 3.73 mg/100 g iron whereas barnyard millet contained 23.16 mg/100 g calcium and 6.91 mg/100 g iron. Values of 10 mg/100 g calcium and 0.10 mg/100 g iron were observed for rice. The formulated products viz. laddu, halwa and biryani from foxtail millet, barnyard millet and rice (control) were analysed for their sensory qualities. Among the products prepared, there was non significant difference with regard to the

  15. Effect of genotype and environment on branching in weedy green millet (Setaria viridis) and domesticated foxtail millet (Setaria italica) (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Doust, Andrew N; Kellogg, Elizabeth A

    2006-04-01

    Many domesticated crops are derived from species whose life history includes weedy characteristics, such as the ability to vary branching patterns in response to environmental conditions. However, domesticated crop plants are characterized by less variable plant architecture, as well as by a general reduction in vegetative branching compared to their progenitor species. Here we examine weedy green millet and its domesticate foxtail millet that differ in the number of tillers (basal branches) and axillary branches along each tiller. Branch number in F(2:3) progeny of a cross between the two species varies with genotype, planting density, and other environmental variables, with significant genotype-environment interactions (GEI). This is shown by a complex pattern of reaction norms and by variation in the pattern of significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) amongst trials. Individual and joint analyses of high and low density trials indicate that most QTL have significant GEI. Dominance and epistasis also explain some variation in branching. Likely candidate genes underlying the QTL (based on map position and phenotypic effect) include teosinte branched1 and barren stalk1. Phytochrome B, which has been found to affect response to shading in other plants, explains little or no variation. Much variation in branching is explained by QTL that do not have obvious candidate genes from maize or rice.

  16. Agricultural origins and the isotopic identity of domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Loukas; Newsome, Seth D.; Chen, Fa-Hu; Wang, Hui; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Bettinger, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope biochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) and radiocarbon dating of ancient human and animal bone document 2 distinct phases of plant and animal domestication at the Dadiwan site in northwest China. The first was brief and nonintensive: at various times between 7900 and 7200 calendar years before present (calBP) people harvested and stored enough broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) to provision themselves and their hunting dogs (Canis sp.) throughout the year. The second, much more intensive phase was in place by 5900 calBP: during this time both broomcorn and foxtail (Setaria viridis spp. italica) millets were cultivated and made significant contributions to the diets of people, dogs, and pigs (Sus sp.). The systems represented in both phases developed elsewhere: the earlier, low-intensity domestic relationship emerged with hunter–gatherers in the arid north, while the more intensive, later one evolved further east and arrived at Dadiwan with the Yangshao Neolithic. The stable isotope methodology used here is probably the best means of detecting the symbiotic human–plant–animal linkages that develop during the very earliest phases of domestication and is thus applicable to the areas where these connections first emerged and are critical to explaining how and why agriculture began in East Asia. PMID:19307567

  17. Evaluation of health potential of nutritionally enriched Kodo millet (Eleusine coracana) grown in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shakshi; Sharma, Nivedita; Handa, Shweta; Pathania, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Kodo millet grains were phytochemically investigated for their nutritional and antioxidant potential for their use as functional foods. Methanolic extracts of grains showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity. TLC studies of the extracted polyphenols from kodo millet showed the predominant presence of ferulic acid and cinnamic acid in the millet. Further quantification of these polyphenols was done by using HPLC, analysing ferulic acid and cinnamic acid. Antagonistic spectrum of the polyphenols extracted showed inhibition against four bacterial test indicators viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis proving its antimicrobial action. The grains of kodo millet grains taken under study were found to posses' high protein, carbohydrates, minerals, crude fibers, polyphenols and antioxidants thus can be used as a good source of nutrition with additional health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Millet and Sorghum-Sudangrass Hybrids Grown in Untreated Soil and Soil Treated with Two Nematicides

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Burton, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Aldicarb and Bay 68138 (ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphoramidate) were effective in increasing the plant height and yield of millet and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids. Stunting of plants and reduction in yield were inversely proportional to the number of Pratylenchus spp. and Belonolaimus longicaudatus present in the rhizosphere. Millet and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids supported large numbers of Criconemoides ornatus, Pratylenchus spp., B. longicaudatus, and Xiphinema americanum. Funk's sorghum × sudangrass Hybrid 78 was more sensitive to injury by the nematode complex than were Tift 23A × 186 or Gahi-I pearl millet. 'Tiflate' pearl millet was more resistant than other millets or sorghums to injury caused by C. ornatus, Pratylenchus spp., Trichodorus christiei, and B. longicaudatus. Millet and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids are poor summer cover crops because they favor intensive development of P. brachyurus, P. zeae, T. christiei, and B. longicaudatus. PMID:19319298

  19. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste.

  20. Functionality, in Vitro Digestibility and Physicochemical Properties of Two Varieties of Defatted Foxtail Millet Protein Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Tabita Kamara; Zhu, Kexue; Issoufou, Amadou; Fatmata, Tarawalie; Zhou, Huiming

    2009-01-01

    Two varieties of foxtail millet protein concentrates (white and yellow) were characterized for in vitro trypsin digestibility, functional and physicochemical properties. Millet protein concentrate was easily digested by trypsin in vitro. Essential amino acids were above the amounts recommended by the Food Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO/UNU) for humans. Yellow millet protein concentrate (YMPC) possessed the highest differential scanning calorimetry result (peak temperature of 88.98 °C, delta H = 0.01 J/g), white millet protein concentrate (WMPC) had the lowest (peak temperature 84.06 °C, delta H = 0.10 J/g). The millet protein concentrates had molecular sizes around 14.4 and 97.4 kDa. They have U-shape solubility curves. Water-binding capacity was in the range of 5.0 and 7.0 g/g, while oil absorption capacity ranged between 4.8 and 5.9 g/g. WMPC had higher bulk density (0.22 g/mL) and emulsifying capacity than YMPC and Soy Protein Concentrate (SPC). Foam capacity and foam stability ranged from 137 to 73 g/mL for WMPC, from 124 to 61 g/mL SPC and from 124 to 46 g/mL for YMPC. Millet protein concentrates are potential functional food ingredients.

  1. Assessment of Important Sensory Attributes of Millet Based Snacks and Biscuits.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Matthew B; Duizer, Lisa M; Seetharaman, Koushik; Dan Ramdath, D

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing push by consumers for new food products that can provide health benefits. To develop these products, sometimes it is necessary to look to alternative crops, 1 of which is millet. For millet to be successfully adopted by consumers, it is necessary to identify and develop product types that are acceptable to North Americans. Biscuits and extruded snacks were produced using varying amounts of refined proso millet flour (0%, 25%, 75%, and 100%). Sensory analysis was conducted on 8 products (4 types of biscuits and 4 types of extruded snack) in 2 separate tests (1 for biscuits and 1 for snacks). Preferred Attribute Elicitation (PAE), a relatively new sensory method, was used to determine attributes affecting liking of the products. Results indicated that as the amount of millet in the biscuits and extruded snacks increased, the liking of the flavor, texture and overall liking decreased. Millet contributed to a bitter taste and bitter aftertaste, and resulted in gritty and dry food products. Further work is required to refine the products tested as well as to identify further products that can be added to the diet in order to take advantage of the health benefits that millet provides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Apomictic interspecific hybrids between pearl millet and Pennisetum orientale L. C. Rich

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Dujardin, M.

    1982-07-01

    Pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke, is an important world food and forage crop. Pennisetum orientale L. C. Rich. has genes for apomixis, perennial growth habit, pest resistance, and drought tolerance which could be used to improve pearl millet. The objectives of this research were to determine the cytotaxonomic relationship of these two species and to explore the feasibility of interspecific germplasm transfer. Five interspecific hybrids, 2n = 25, with 7 large P. americanum millet (A) and 18 small P. orientale (O) chromosomes were produced by pollinating cytoplasmic male sterile pearl millet with P. orientale pollen. The O chromosomes paired mainly as bivalents and the A chromosomes remained as univalents. A low frequency of AO chromosome associations were observed. Although the possibility of germplasm exchange existed, the two species appeared to be not closely related. Among three hybrids examined, one was a facultative apomict, one was an obligate apomict and another was highly apomictic with 3% of ovules with sexual embryo sacs. Sixteen backcross progenies were established from interspecific hybrids pollinated with pearl millet pollen. Seven plants were 2n = 23 with 14 A + 9 O chromosomes, five were 2n = 27 with 7 A + 20 O chromosomes and four were 2n = 32 with 14 A and 18 O chromosomes. The balanced chromosome number for both species in these latter plants should provide a mechanism for restoring fertility in the interspecific hybrid thus enabling germplasm transfer. The interspecific hybrids were male sterile but set about 1% seed when pollinated with pearl millet pollen.

  3. Apomictic interspecific hybrids between pearl millet and Pennisetum orientale L. C. Rich

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Dujardin, M.

    1982-07-01

    Pearl millet, Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke, is an important world food and forage crop. Pennisetum orientale L.C. Rich. has genes for apomixis, perennial growth habit, pest resistance, and drought tolerance which could be used to improve pearl millet. The objectives of this research were to determine the cytotaxonomic relationship of these two species and to explore the feasibility of interspecific germplasm transfer. Five interspecific hybrids, 2n = 25, with 7 large P. americanum millet (A) and 18 small P. orientale (0) chromosomes were produced by pollinating cytoplasmic male sterile pearl millet with P. orientale pollen. Although the possibility of germplasm exchange existed, the two species appeared to be not closely related. Among three hybrids examined, one was a facultative apomict, one was an obligate apomict and another was highly apomictic with 3% of ovules with sexual embryo sacs. Sixteen backcross progenies were established from interspecific hybrids pollinated with pearl millet pollen. The balanced chromosome number for both species in these latter plants should provide a mechanism for restoring fertility in the interspecific hybrid thus enabling germplasm transfer. The interspecific hybrids were male sterile but set about 1% seed when pollinated with pearl millet pollen.

  4. Proximate, mineral composition and antioxidant activity of traditional small millets cultivated and consumed in Rayalaseema region of south India.

    PubMed

    Vali Pasha, Kotwal; Ratnavathi, Chamarthy Venkata; Ajani, Jayanna; Raju, Dugyala; Manoj Kumar, Sriramoju; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2017-06-30

    Millets are a diverse group of small seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal foods. This communication details the proximate, mineral profile and antioxidant activity of six different small millets (Finger, Foxtail, Proso, Little, Barnyard and Kodo millets) and their 21 cultivars that are traditionally cultivated and consumed in the region of Ralayaseema, south India. The proximate analysis revealed that these millets are rich in protein, fat, ash (mineral), total dietary fibre and total phenols with appreciable antioxidant activity. However, starch and amylose content was comparatively lower as compared to major millet sorghum. ICP-MS analysis of small millets demonstrated that they are rich in minerals such as Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo and Se. Finger and kodo millets were found to be nutritionally superior over other small millets. The results suggest that small millets have a potential to provide food security and can combat micronutrient malnutrition. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics, nutritional quality and shelf-life of pearl millet based extrusion cooked supplementary foods.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, A; Ushakumari, S R; Malleshi, N G

    2007-08-01

    The process variables for extrusion cooking of pearl millet were standardized and some of the physicochemical characteristics of the millet extrudates and also the nutritional qualities of the millet and legume-based extruded supplementary foods were determined. The millet grits less than 355 microm in size, equilibrated to 18+/-1% moisture content, extruded at 150+/-5 degrees C temperature and at 200+/-10 rpm of the barrel of a twin-screw extruder yielded the extrudates of 1.75+/-0.21 expansion ratio and 7.5+/-1.5 kg breaking strength. The cold and cooked paste viscosity, the melt energy and also the carbohydrate digestibility of the extrudates indicated that the products were pre-cooked and were of ready-to-eat nature. The millet was blended with grain legumes (30%) and also with defatted soy (15%) separately and extruded to prepare ready-to-eat nutritious foods suitable as food supplements to children and mothers. The foods based on the millet and legumes and also the millet and soy contained 14.7% and 16.0% protein with 2.0 and 2.1 protein efficiency ratio values, respectively. The shelf-life of the foods was about 6 months in different flexible pouches at ambient storage conditions. The study showed that applications of extrusion cooking technology to pearl millet have promise for preparation of diversified and value-added food products from the millet.

  6. Exploration of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet is one of the most important small-grained C4 Panicoid crops with a large genome size (∼2352 Mb), short life cycle and outbreeding nature. It is highly resilient to areas with scanty rain and high temperature. Pearl millet is a nutritionally superior staple crop for people inhabiting hot, drought-prone arid and semi-arid regions of South Asia and Africa where it is widely grown and used for food, hay, silage, bird feed, building material, and fuel. Having excellent nutrient composition and exceptional buffering capacity against variable climatic conditions and pathogen attack makes pearl millet a wonderful model crop for stress tolerance studies. Pearl millet germplasm show a large range of genotypic and phenotypic variations including tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Conventional breeding for enhancing abiotic and biotic stress resistance in pearl millet have met with considerable success, however, in last few years various novel approaches including functional genomics and molecular breeding have been attempted in this crop for augmenting yield under adverse environmental conditions, and there is still a lot of scope for further improvement using genomic tools. Discovery and use of various DNA-based markers such as EST-SSRs, DArT, CISP, and SSCP-SNP in pearl millet not only help in determining population structure and genetic diversity but also prove to be important for developing strategies for crop improvement at a faster rate and greater precision. Molecular marker-based genetic linkage maps and identification of genomic regions determining yield under abiotic stresses particularly terminal drought have paved way for marker-assisted selection and breeding of pearl millet cultivars. Reference collections and marker-assisted backcrossing have also been used to improve biotic stress resistance in pearl millet specifically to downy mildew. Whole genome sequencing of pearl millet genome will give new insights for processing of functional

  7. Exploration of Genetic and Genomic Resources for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Tolerance in Pearl Millet.

    PubMed

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet is one of the most important small-grained C4 Panicoid crops with a large genome size (∼2352 Mb), short life cycle and outbreeding nature. It is highly resilient to areas with scanty rain and high temperature. Pearl millet is a nutritionally superior staple crop for people inhabiting hot, drought-prone arid and semi-arid regions of South Asia and Africa where it is widely grown and used for food, hay, silage, bird feed, building material, and fuel. Having excellent nutrient composition and exceptional buffering capacity against variable climatic conditions and pathogen attack makes pearl millet a wonderful model crop for stress tolerance studies. Pearl millet germplasm show a large range of genotypic and phenotypic variations including tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Conventional breeding for enhancing abiotic and biotic stress resistance in pearl millet have met with considerable success, however, in last few years various novel approaches including functional genomics and molecular breeding have been attempted in this crop for augmenting yield under adverse environmental conditions, and there is still a lot of scope for further improvement using genomic tools. Discovery and use of various DNA-based markers such as EST-SSRs, DArT, CISP, and SSCP-SNP in pearl millet not only help in determining population structure and genetic diversity but also prove to be important for developing strategies for crop improvement at a faster rate and greater precision. Molecular marker-based genetic linkage maps and identification of genomic regions determining yield under abiotic stresses particularly terminal drought have paved way for marker-assisted selection and breeding of pearl millet cultivars. Reference collections and marker-assisted backcrossing have also been used to improve biotic stress resistance in pearl millet specifically to downy mildew. Whole genome sequencing of pearl millet genome will give new insights for processing of functional

  8. Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratrichodorus minor, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)

    PubMed Central

    Timper, P.; Hanna, W. W.

    2005-01-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) has potential as a grain crop for dryland crop production in the southeastern United States. Whether or not pearl millet will be compatible in rotation with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) will depend, in part, on its host status for important plant-parasitic nematodes of these crops. The pearl millet hybrid 'TifGrain 102' is resistant to both Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1; however, its host status for other plant-parasitic nematodes was unknown. In this study, the reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Paratrichodorus minor, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Meloidogyne javanica race 3 on pearl millet ('HGM-100' and TifGrain 102) was compared relative to cotton, corn, and peanut. Separate greenhouse experiments were conducted for each nematode species. Reproduction of B. longicaudatus was lower on peanut and the two millet hybrids than on cotton and corn. Reproduction of P. minor was lower on peanut and TifGrain 102 than on cotton, corn, and HGM-100. Reproduction of P. brachyurus was lower on both millet hybrids than on cotton, corn, and peanut. Reproduction of M. javanica race 3 was greater on peanut than on the two millet hybrids and corn. Cotton was a nonhost. TifGrain 102 was more resistant than HGM-100 to reproduction of B. longicaudatus, P. minor, and M. javanica. Our results demonstrated that TifGrain 102 was a poor host for B. longicaudatus and P. brachyurus (Rf < 1) and, relative to other crops tested, was less likely to increase densities of P. minor and M. javanica. PMID:19262863

  9. Stable expression of mtlD gene imparts multiple stress tolerance in finger millet.

    PubMed

    Hema, Ramanna; Vemanna, Ramu S; Sreeramulu, Shivakumar; Reddy, Chandrasekhara P; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2014-01-01

    Finger millet is susceptible to abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity stress, in the field during seed germination and early stages of seedling development. Therefore developing stress tolerant finger millet plants combating drought, salinity and associated oxidative stress in these two growth stages is important. Cellular protection through osmotic adjustment and efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. Mannitol, an osmolyte, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses and thereby minimize stress damage in several plant species. In this study transgenic finger millet plants expressing the mannitol biosynthetic pathway gene from bacteria, mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD), were developed through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. mtlD gene integration in the putative transgenic plants was confirmed by Southern blot. Further, performance of transgenic finger millet under drought, salinity and oxidative stress was studied at plant level in T1 generation and in T1 and T2 generation seedlings. Results from these experiments showed that transgenic finger millet had better growth under drought and salinity stress compared to wild-type. At plant level, transgenic plants showed better osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll retention under drought stress compared to the wild-type. However, the overall increase in stress tolerance of transgenics for the three stresses, especially for oxidative stress, was only marginal compared to other mtlD gene expressing plant species reported in the literature. Moreover, the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocol developed for finger millet in this study can be used to introduce diverse traits of agronomic importance in finger millet.

  10. High resolution record of millet cultivation during the Bronze Age around Lake le Bourget (French Alps). Is there any climatic control?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, J.; Disnar, J. R.; Arnaud, F.; Billaud, Y.; Chapron, E.; Sicre, M.-A.; Boscardin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Our understanding of past interactions between the development of human societies, the evolution of climate and associated changes in ecosystems and landscape dynamics is conditioned by the acquisition of high resolution records within which specific tracers allow us estimating variability. The recent development of a molecular biomarker (miliacin) specific of Panicum miliaceum (common millet) associated with the determination of a biomarker allowing to track soil erosion in the sediments of Lake le Bourget (French Alps; [1], [2]) expands the possibilities afforded by organic geochemistry applied to sedimentary archives to unravel these interactions. Within the frame of the Pygmalion project (ANR Blanc, France) we improved the previous miliacin record from Lake le Bourget sediments [1] to reach an infra-decadal resolution for the 2000-600 BC time period that covers the Bronze Age. Miliacin is detected for the first time in sediment samples dated back to ca. 1700 BC, in agreement with the supposed date of introduction of P. miliaceum in the region. Miliacin concentration is low (ca. 20 ng.g-1) during the 1700-1400 BC interval and then rises to values up to 300 ng.g-1 at 850 BC before the strong decrease to 20 ng.g-1 at 750 BC imputable to the abandonment of palaffitic habitats due to a climatic deterioration at the Bronze Age/Iron Age transition. In addition to this general trend, miliacin concentration shows century-scale variations in the 1700-800 BC interval that share similarities with other records. Two periods of miliacin high concentrations at 950 and 850 BC coincide with high densities of dendrochronological dates acquired on wooden piles and with two periods of lake level lowering. The comparison of miliacin evolution in Lake le Bourget with the high resolution alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) record obtained in the North Atlantic off Iceland [3] shows striking coincidences. Previous studies showed that periods of elevated SSTs in this area

  11. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-06-07

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later.

  12. Revealing a 5,000-y-old beer recipe in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajing; Liu, Li; Ball, Terry; Yu, Linjie; Li, Yuanqing; Xing, Fulai

    2016-01-01

    The pottery vessels from the Mijiaya site reveal, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of in situ beer making in China, based on the analyses of starch, phytolith, and chemical residues. Our data reveal a surprising beer recipe in which broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), Job’s tears (Coix lacryma-jobi), and tubers were fermented together. The results indicate that people in China established advanced beer-brewing technology by using specialized tools and creating favorable fermentation conditions around 5,000 y ago. Our findings imply that early beer making may have motivated the initial translocation of barley from the Western Eurasia into the Central Plain of China before the crop became a part of agricultural subsistence in the region 3,000 y later. PMID:27217567

  13. Response of millet and sorghum to a varying water supply around the primary and nodal roots.

    PubMed

    Rostamza, M; Richards, R A; Watt, M

    2013-07-01

    Cereals have two root systems. The primary system originates from the embryo when the seed germinates and can support the plant until it produces grain. The nodal system can emerge from stem nodes throughout the plant's life; its value for yield is unclear and depends on the environment. The aim of this study was to test the role of nodal roots of sorghum and millet in plant growth in response to variation in soil moisture. Sorghum and millet were chosen as both are adapted to dry conditions. Sorghum and millet were grown in a split-pot system that allowed the primary and nodal roots to be watered separately. When primary and nodal roots were watered (12 % soil water content; SWC), millet nodal roots were seven times longer than those of sorghum and six times longer than millet plants in dry treatments, mainly from an 8-fold increase in branch root length. When soil was allowed to dry in both compartments, millet nodal roots responded and grew 20 % longer branch roots than in the well-watered control. Sorghum nodal roots were unchanged. When only primary roots received water, nodal roots of both species emerged and elongated into extremely dry soil (0.6-1.5 % SWC), possibly with phloem-delivered water from the primary roots in the moist inner pot. Nodal roots were thick, short, branchless and vertical, indicating a tropism that was more pronounced in millet. Total nodal root length increased in both species when the dry soil was covered with plastic, suggesting that stubble retention or leaf mulching could facilitate nodal roots reaching deeper moist layers in dry climates. Greater nodal root length in millet than in sorghum was associated with increased shoot biomass, water uptake and water use efficiency (shoot mass per water). Millet had a more plastic response than sorghum to moisture around the nodal roots due to (1) faster growth and progression through ontogeny for earlier nodal root branch length and (2) partitioning to nodal root length from primary roots

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Foxtail Millet during Incompatible Interaction with Uromyces setariae-italicae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li; Bai, Hui; Quan, Jian Zhang; Liu, Lei; Dong, Zhi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important food and fodder grain crop that is grown for human consumption. Production of this species is affected by several plant diseases, such as rust. The cultivar Shilixiang has been identified as resistant to the foxtail millet rust pathogen, Uromyces setariae-italicae. In order to identify signaling pathways and genes related to the plant’s defense mechanisms against rust, the Shilixiang cultivar was used to construct a digital gene expression (DGE) library during the interaction of foxtail millet with U. setariae-italicae. In this study, we determined the most abundant differentially expressed signaling pathways of up-regulated genes in foxtail millet and identified significantly up-regulated genes. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze the expression of nine selected genes, and the patterns observed agreed well with DGE analysis. Expression levels of the genes were also compared between a resistant cultivar Shilixiang and a susceptible cultivar Yugu-1, and the result indicated that expression level of Shilixiang is higher than that of Yugu-1. This study reveals the relatively comprehensive mechanisms of rust-responsive transcription in foxtail millet. PMID:25885767

  15. Inference of domestication history and differentiation between early- and late-flowering varieties in pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Dussert, Y; Snirc, A; Robert, T

    2015-04-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is a staple crop in Sahelian Africa. Farmers usually grow varieties with different cycle lengths and complementary functions in Sahelian agrosystems. Both the level of genetic differentiation of these varieties and the domestication history of pearl millet have been poorly studied. We investigated the neutral genetic diversity and population genetic structure of early- and late-flowering domesticated and wild pearl millet populations using 18 microsatellite loci and 8 nucleotide sequences. Strikingly, early- and late-flowering domesticated varieties were not differentiated over their whole distribution area, despite a clear difference in their isolation-by-distance pattern. Conversely, our data brought evidence for two well-differentiated genetic pools in wild pearl millet, allowing us to test scenarios with different numbers and origins of domestication using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). The ABC analysis showed the likely existence of asymmetric migration between wild and domesticated populations. The model choice procedure indicated that a single domestication from the eastern wild populations was the more likely scenario to explain the polymorphism patterns observed in cultivated pearl millet. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-02-01

    Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours). The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU). Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU), trough (442 RVU), breakdown viscosity (20 RVU), final viscosity (975 RVU), setback (533 RVU), peak time (5.47 min) and pasting temperature (89.60 °C). These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab) showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  17. Genomic valorization of the fine scale classification of small millet landraces in southern India.

    PubMed

    Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Dhivya, Shanmughanandhan; Jijo, Chitilappilly Joseph; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam; Patel, Kirit

    2013-02-01

    Our research seeks to investigate genomic diversity of landraces of millet, addressing a key uncertainty that will provide a framework for (i) a DNA barcode method that could be used for fast, sensitive, and accurate identification of millet landraces, and (ii) millet landrace conservation including biocultural diversity. We found considerable intraspecific variation among 15 landraces representing six species of small millets using nuclear regions (ITS, ITS1, and ITS2); there was no variation in plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA). An efficacious ITS2 DNA barcode was used to make 100% accurate landrace assignments for 150 blind samples representing 15 landraces. Our research revealed that genomic variation is aligned with a fine-scale classification of landraces using traditional knowledge (TK) of local farmers. The landrace classification was highly correlated with traits (morphological, agricultural, and cultural utility) associated with considerable factors such as yield, drought tolerance, growing season, medicinal properties, and nutrition. This could provide a DNA-based model for conservation of genetic diversity and the associated bicultural diversity (TK) of millet landraces, which has sustained marginal farming communities in harsh environments for many generations.

  18. Insights using the molecular model of Lipoxygenase from Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.))

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) protein provides defense against pests and pathogens and its presence have been positively correlated with plant resistance against pathogens. Linoleate is a known substrate of lipoxygenase and it induces necrosis leading to the accumulation of isoflavonoid phytoalexins in plant leaves. Therefore, it is of interest to study the structural features of LOX-1 from Finger millet. However, the structure ofLOX-1 from Finger millet is not yet known. A homology model of LOX-1 from Finger millet is described. Domain architecture study suggested the presence of two domains namely PLAT (Phospho Lipid Acyl Transferase) and lipoxygenase. Molecular docking models of linoleate with lipoxygenase from finger millet, rice and sorghum are reported. The features of docked models showed that finger millet have higher pathogen resistance in comparison to other cereal crops. This data is useful for the molecular cloning of fulllength LOX-1 gene for validating its role in improving plant defense against pathogen infection and for various other biological processes. PMID:28149050

  19. Characterization of Pearl Millet Root Architecture and Anatomy Reveals Three Types of Lateral Roots

    PubMed Central

    Passot, Sixtine; Gnacko, Fatoumata; Moukouanga, Daniel; Lucas, Mikaël; Guyomarc’h, Soazig; Ortega, Beatriz Moreno; Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Belko, Marème N.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Gantet, Pascal; Wells, Darren M.; Guédon, Yann; Vigouroux, Yves; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Muller, Bertrand; Laplaze, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet plays an important role for food security in arid regions of Africa and India. Nevertheless, it is considered an orphan crop as it lags far behind other cereals in terms of genetic improvement efforts. Breeding pearl millet varieties with improved root traits promises to deliver benefits in water and nutrient acquisition. Here, we characterize early pearl millet root system development using several different root phenotyping approaches that include rhizotrons and microCT. We report that early stage pearl millet root system development is characterized by a fast growing primary root that quickly colonizes deeper soil horizons. We also describe root anatomical studies that revealed three distinct types of lateral roots that form on both primary roots and crown roots. Finally, we detected significant variation for two root architectural traits, primary root lenght and lateral root density, in pearl millet inbred lines. This study provides the basis for subsequent genetic experiments to identify loci associated with interesting early root development traits in this important cereal. PMID:27379124

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure of elite foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] germplasm in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    China is among the countries that have the most severe water deficiency. Due to its excellent drought tolerance, foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] has become one of the important cereal crops in China. Information on genetic diversity and population structure of foxtail millet may faci...

  1. The earliest evidence of millet as a staple crop: New light on neolithic foodways in North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyi; Jones, Martin K; Zhao, Zhijun; Liu, Guoxiang; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing body of archaeobotanical evidence for the harvesting of millet in Eurasia prior to 5,000 cal. BC. Yet direct evidence for the extent of millet consumption in this time period is rare. This contradiction may be due to millet crops making only a minor contribution to the diet before 5,000 BC. In this article, drawing from recent excavations in North China, we present evidence for millet crops making a substantial contribution to human and animal diets in periods, which correspond chronologically with the time depth of the archaeobotanical record. We infer that in eastern Inner Mongolia, human adoption of millets, which may or may be not related to substantial agriculture, happened at the Early Neolithic, with direct dates between 5,800 and 5,300 cal. BC. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A haplotype map of genomic variations and genome-wide association studies of agronomic traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Jia, Guanqing; Huang, Xuehui; Zhi, Hui; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Wenjun; Chai, Yang; Yang, Lifang; Liu, Kunyan; Lu, Hengyun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Zhou, Congcong; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Guo, Yunli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Feng, Qi; Hao, Hangfei; Liu, Hongkuan; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Ning; Li, Yuhui; Guo, Erhu; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Suying; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Wenfei; Chen, Guoqiu; Zhang, Baojin; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Zhao, Baohua; Li, Jiayang; Diao, Xianmin; Han, Bin

    2013-08-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is an important grain crop that is grown in arid regions. Here we sequenced 916 diverse foxtail millet varieties, identified 2.58 million SNPs and used 0.8 million common SNPs to construct a haplotype map of the foxtail millet genome. We classified the foxtail millet varieties into two divergent groups that are strongly correlated with early and late flowering times. We phenotyped the 916 varieties under five different environments and identified 512 loci associated with 47 agronomic traits by genome-wide association studies. We performed a de novo assembly of deeply sequenced genomes of a Setaria viridis accession (the wild progenitor of S. italica) and an S. italica variety and identified complex interspecies and intraspecies variants. We also identified 36 selective sweeps that seem to have occurred during modern breeding. This study provides fundamental resources for genetics research and genetic improvement in foxtail millet.

  3. Dietary Japanese millet protein ameliorates plasma levels of adiponectin, glucose, and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Naoyuki; Togawa, Tubasa; Park, Kyung-Ok; Sato, Daiki; Miyakoshi, Yo; Inagaki, Kazuya; Ohmori, Norimasa; Ito, Yoshiaki; Nagasawa, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Millet is an important food crop in Asia and Africa, but the health benefits of dietary millet are little known. This study defined the effects of dietary Japanese millet on diabetic mice. Feeding of a high-fat diet containing Japanese millet protein concentrate (JMP, 20% protein) to type 2 diabetic mice for 3 weeks significantly increased plasma levels of adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and decreased the levels of glucose and triglyceride as compared to control. The starch fraction of Japanese millet had no effect on glucose or adiponectin levels, but the prolamin fraction beneficially modulated plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression. Considering the physiological significance of adiponectin and HDL cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease, our findings imply that dietary JMP has the potential to ameliorate these diseases.

  4. Isolation and characterization of unhydrolyzed oligosaccharides from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) xylan after exhaustive enzymatic treatment with commercial enzyme preparations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) is a potential renewable source of carbohydrates for use in microbial conversion to biofuels. Xylan comprises approximately 30% of the switchgrass cell wall. To understand the limitations of commercial enzyme mixtures, alkali-extracted, isolated switchgrass xylan w...

  5. Range-wide genomic variation and population structure of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) measured using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geographic patterns of genetic variation are shaped by historical and contemporary processes including migration, genetic drift, and natural selection. Natural populations of Panicum virgatum, a warm-season (C4) perennial grass and emerging bioenergy crop, are found in a variety of habitats that va...

  6. Effect of alfalfa (medicago sativa) on fermentation profile and nutritive value of switchgrass (panicum virgatum) and bermudagrass (cynodon dactylon) silages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...

  7. Genetic Linkage Mapping and Segregation Distortion in a Three-Generation Four-Founder Population of Panicum vigatum (L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season, C4, perennial grass, is one of the predominant grass species of the North American tall grass prairies. It is viewed as a high-potential bioenergy feedstock species because it can produce large amounts of lignocellulosic material with relatively few ...

  8. Nucleotide polymorphism and copy number variant detection using exome capture and next generation sequencing in the polyploid grass Panicum virgatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a polyploid, outcrossing grass species native to North America. Traditionally grown as forage and ground cover, switchgrass has recently been recognized as a potential biofuel feedstock crop. Significant phenotypic variation is present across the two primary ecotyp...

  9. Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) contains XIP but not TAXI and TLXI type xylanase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mokrane, Hind; Gebruers, Kurt; Beaugrand, Johnny; Proost, Paul; Nadjemi, Boubekeur; Belhanèche-Bensemra, Naima; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A

    2009-06-24

    An XIP (xylanase inhibiting protein) type xylanase inhibitor was purified from Algerian pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum L.) grains and characterized for the first time. Cation exchange and affinity chromatography with immobilized Trichoderma longibrachiatum glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11 xylanase resulted in electrophoretically pure protein with a molecular mass of 27-29 kDa and a pI value of 6.7. The experimentally determined N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified XIP protein is 87.5%, identical to that of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) XIP and 79.2% identical to that of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) XIP-I. The biochemical properties of pearl millet XIP are comparable to those described earlier for sorghum XIP, except for the higher specific activity toward a T. longibrachiatum GH family 11 xylanase. On the basis of immunoblot neither TAXI nor TLXI type xylanase inhibitors were detected in pearl millet grains.

  10. Rheological properties of refined wheat - millet flour based dough under thermo-mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Subir K; Tiwari, Anu; Mishra, Atishay; Singh, Alok

    2015-05-01

    Designed experiments were conducted to study the rheological properties of baking dough prepared from different refined wheat flour (RWF) - barnyard millet blends with varying amount of water (WA), salt and sugar. Dough was subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in Mixolab, in which rheological properties were recorded in terms of five different torques. Second order polynomial models were developed using response surface methodology (RSM) to understand the effect of input variables (WA, barnyard millet, salt and sugar; all expressed as per cent of base flour) on torques recorded by Mixolab. Optimum values of input variables were obtained with constraints based on torque values which represented the qualities of acceptable bread dough. The models predicted that a dough with 57, 26, 1.8 and 3.3% of water, barnyard millet, salt and sugar, respectively, can be used for bread baking purposes.

  11. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    PubMed

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p < 0.05) than those fed the CTL diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p < 0.05) by raw pearl millet supplementation than CTL diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development.

  12. Nickel accumulation and its effect on growth, physiological and biochemical parameters in millets and oats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vibha; Jatav, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Raini; Kothari, Shanker Lal; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2017-09-05

    With the boom in industrialization, there is an increase in the level of heavy metals in the soil which drastically affect the growth and development of plants. Nickel is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, but elevated level of Ni causes stunted growth, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and alterations in the defense mechanism of plants in terms of accumulation of osmolytes or change in enzyme activities like guiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ni-induced toxic response was studied in seedlings of finger millet, pearl millet, and oats in terms of seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, total chlorophyll, proline content, and enzymatic activities. On the basis of germination and growth parameters of the seedling, finger millet was found to be the most tolerant. Nickel accumulation was markedly lower in the shoots as compared to the roots, which was the highest in finger millet and the lowest in shoots of oats. Plants treated with a high concentration of Ni showed significant reduction in chlorophyll and increase in proline content. Considerable difference in level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates generation of redox imbalance in plants due to Ni-induced stress. Elevated activities of POD and SOD were observed with high concentrations of Ni while CAT activity was found to be reduced. It was observed that finger millet has higher capability to maintain homeostasis by keeping the balance between accumulation and ROS scavenging system than pearl millet and oats. The data provide insight into the physiological and biochemical changes in plants adapted to survive in Ni-rich environment. This study will help in selecting the more suitable crop species to be grown on Ni-rich soils.

  13. A Novel Millet-Based Probiotic Fermented Food for the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Elisa; White, Jessica; Seney, Shannon; Hekmat, Sharareh; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark; Reid, Gregor

    2017-05-22

    Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L. rhamnosus GR-1 when grown in 8% millet in water. Single cultures of L. rhamnosus GR-1 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of dextrose, galactose and fructose. Single cultures of S. thermophilus C106 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of sucrose and lactose. All tested recipes reached viable counts of the probiotic bacteria, with counts greater than 10⁶ colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Notably, a number of organic acids were quantified, in particular phytic acid, which was shown to decrease when fermentation time increased, thereby improving the bioavailability of specific micronutrients. Millet fermented in milk proved to be the most favorable, according to a sensory evaluation. In conclusion, this study has shown that sachets being provided to African communities to produce fermented milk, can also be used to produce fermented millet. This provides an option for when milk supplies are short, or if communities wish to utilize the nutrient-rich qualities of locally-grown millet.

  14. Foxtail millet: a model crop for genetic and genomic studies in bioenergy grasses.

    PubMed

    Lata, Charu; Gupta, Sarika; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Foxtail millet is one of the oldest domesticated diploid C4 Panicoid crops having a comparatively small genome size of approximately 515 Mb, short life cycle, and inbreeding nature. Its two species, Setaria italica (domesticated) and Setaria viridis (wild progenitor), have characteristics that classify them as excellent model systems to examine several aspects of architectural, evolutionary, and physiological importance in Panicoid grasses especially the biofuel crops such as switchgrass and napiergrass. Foxtail millet is a staple crop used extensively for food and fodder in parts of Asia and Africa. In its long history of cultivation, it has been adapted to arid and semi-arid areas of Asia, North Africa, South and North America. Foxtail millet has one of the largest collections of cultivated as well as wild-type germplasm rich with phenotypic variations and hence provides prospects for association mapping and allele-mining of elite and novel variants to be incorporated in crop improvement programs. Most of the foxtail millet accessions can be primarily abiotic stress tolerant particularly to drought and salinity, and therefore exploiting these agronomic traits can enhance its efficacy in marker-aided breeding as well as in genetic engineering for abiotic stress tolerance. In addition, the release of draft genome sequence of foxtail millet would be useful to the researchers worldwide in not only discerning the molecular basis of biomass production in biofuel crops and the methods to improve it, but also for the introgression of beneficial agronomically important characteristics in foxtail millet as well as in related Panicoid bioenergy grasses.

  15. Rates of return to sorghum and millet research investments: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zereyesus, Yacob A; Dalton, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015. The average rate of return to sorghum and millet R&D investment is between 54-76 percent per year. All studies computed social rather than private RORs because the technologies were developed using public funds originating from host country National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and international organizations such as the INTSORMIL CRSP, ICRISAT and others. Nearly three quarter of the studies focused only on sorghum (72 percent) and around one tenth of the studies (8 percent) on millet. Regression models analyzed the determinants of variation in the reported RORs. Results show that ex-ante type and self-evaluated type of analyses are positively and significantly associated with the ROR estimates. Compared to estimates conducted by a university, results from international institutions and other mixed organizations provided significantly smaller estimates. Estimates conducted at national level also are significantly lower than those conducted at sub-national levels. The ROR is higher for studies conducted in the United States and for those conducted more recently. The study also reconstructed modified internal rate of return (MIRR) for a sub-sample of the reported RORs following recent methods from the literature. These results show that the MIRR estimates are significantly smaller than the reported ROR estimates. Both results indicate that investment in sorghum and millet research generates high social rates of

  16. A Novel Millet-Based Probiotic Fermented Food for the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Di Stefano, Elisa; White, Jessica; Seney, Shannon; Hekmat, Sharareh; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark; Reid, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic yogurt, comprised of a Fiti sachet containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus C106, has been used in the developing world, notably Africa, to alleviate malnutrition and disease. In sub-Saharan African countries, fermentation of cereals such as millet, is culturally significant. The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation capability of millet when one gram of the Fiti sachet consortium was added. An increase of 1.8 and 1.4 log CFU/mL was observed for S. thermophilus C106 and L. rhamnosus GR-1 when grown in 8% millet in water. Single cultures of L. rhamnosus GR-1 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of dextrose, galactose and fructose. Single cultures of S. thermophilus C106 showed the highest μmax when grown in the presence of sucrose and lactose. All tested recipes reached viable counts of the probiotic bacteria, with counts greater than 106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Notably, a number of organic acids were quantified, in particular phytic acid, which was shown to decrease when fermentation time increased, thereby improving the bioavailability of specific micronutrients. Millet fermented in milk proved to be the most favorable, according to a sensory evaluation. In conclusion, this study has shown that sachets being provided to African communities to produce fermented milk, can also be used to produce fermented millet. This provides an option for when milk supplies are short, or if communities wish to utilize the nutrient-rich qualities of locally-grown millet. PMID:28531168

  17. Chromosome stickiness impairs meiosis and influences reproductive success in Panicum maximum (Poaceae) hybrid plants.

    PubMed

    Pessim, C; Pagliarini, M S; Silva, N; Jank, L

    2015-04-28

    Chromosome stickiness has been studied in several species of higher plants and is characterized by sticky clumps of chromatin resulting in sterility. Chromosome stickiness was recorded in Panicum maximum hybrid plants that were cultivated in the field. In the meiocytes affected, chromosomes clumped into amorphous masses that did not orient themselves on the equatorial plate, and anaphase I disjunction failed to occur. After a normal cytokinesis, the masses of chromatin were divided between both daughter cells. Metaphase and anaphase of the second division also did not occur, and after the second cytokinesis, polyads were formed. This abnormality arose spontaneously. Abnormalities that cause male sterility are an important tool for obtaining hybrid seeds in plant breeding. This is the first report of an abnormality affecting pollen viability in P. maximum. This finding can open a new opportunity in the breeding program of this species that is devoted to hybridization where manual cross-pollination is difficult and time consuming.

  18. Isolation, characterization, and quantification of steroidal saponins in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Mitchell, Robert B; Wang, Zhirui; Heiss, Christian; Gardner, Dale R; Azadi, Parastoo

    2009-03-25

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environmentally friendly biomass energy crop. A recent 5 year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540% more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest, and process it into cellulosic ethanol. If switchgrass is grown on a scale useful for a bioenergy source, some of the material could be used by livestock as hay or pasture. Switchgrass has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs (Ovis aries) and horses (Equus caballus). In this study, a simple extraction and rapid reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method was developed for quantifying the major saponins in switchgrass samples. Differences in the relative concentrations of different saponins were observed between switchgrass cultivars and plant parts.

  19. Antihepatotoxic Effect and Metabolite Profiling of Panicum turgidum Extract via UPLC-qTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Mohamed A.; El Fishawy, Ahlam M.; El-Toumy, Sayed A.; Amer, Khadiga F.; Mansour, Ahmed M.; Taha, Hala E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Panicum turgidum, desert grass, has not reported any detailed phytochemical or biological study as yet Objective: To establish P. turgidum secondary metabolite profile and to assess its antihepatotoxic effect Materials and Methods: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) was used for large-scale secondary metabolites profiling in P. turgidum extract, alongside assessing median lethal dose (LD50) and hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxication Results: A total of 39 metabolites were identified with flavonoids as the major class present as O/C-glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, isorhamnetin and naringenin, most of which are first time to be reported in Panicum sp. Antihepatotoxic effect of P. turgidum crude extract was revealed via improving several biochemical marker levels and mitigation against oxidative stress in the serum and liver tissues, compared with CCl4 intoxicated group and further confirmed by histopathological examination. Conclusion: This study reveals that P. turgidum, enriched in C-flavonoids, presents a novel source of safe antihepatotoxic agents and further demonstrates the efficacy of UPLC-MS metabolomics in the field of natural products drug discovery. SUMMARY UPLC coupled to qTOF-MS was used for large scale secondary metabolites profiling in P. turgidum.A total of 39 metabolites were identified with flavonoids amounting as the major metabolite class.Anti-hepatotoxic effect of P. turgidum extract was revealed via several biochemical markers and histopathological examination.This study reveals that P. turgidum, enriched in C-flavonoids, present a novel source of antihepatotoxic agents. Abbreviations used: UPLC: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), LD50: median lethal dose, MDA: malondialdehyde, GSH: glutathione reductase, CAT: catalase, SOD: superoxide dismutase, ALT: alanine aminotransferase, AST: aspartate

  20. Proso Millet Harvest: A Comparison of Conventional Harvest and Direct Harvest with a Stripper Header

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research was conducted to determine if proso millet can be harvested with a stripper header. Stripper headers use extremely fast rotating metal teeth to rip the seed off the plant and leave the majority of residue standing in the field as opposed to cutting off the entire plant and running tha...

  1. Evaluation of resistance to chinch bug in pearl millet in temperate and subtropical environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] inbreds and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to chinch bug [Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say)] at Lincoln, NE and Tifton, GA in 2003 and 2004. Plant damage from insect feeding was assessed throughout the growing season. Differences plant mortali...

  2. Application of pathological principles to evaluating pearl millet for chinch bug resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinch bug [Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say) (Heteroptera: Blissidae)] is one of the most important insect pests on forage and grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br.) in the southern US. Insect feeding damage is expressed as plant mortality, stunting, leaf sheath necrosis, and tiller ...

  3. Genomic Tools in Pearl Millet Breeding for Drought Tolerance: Status and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Serba, Desalegn D; Yadav, Rattan S

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production.

  4. Genomic Tools in Pearl Millet Breeding for Drought Tolerance: Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Serba, Desalegn D.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Penisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is a hardy cereal crop grown in the arid and semiarid tropics where other cereals are likely to fail to produce economic yields due to drought and heat stresses. Adaptive evolution, a form of natural selection shaped the crop to grow and yield satisfactorily with limited moisture supply or under periodic water deficits in the soil. Drought tolerance is a complex polygenic trait that various morphological and physiological responses are controlled by 100s of genes and significantly influenced by the environment. The development of genomic tools will have enormous potential to improve the efficiency and precision of conventional breeding. The apparent independent domestication events, highly outcrossing nature and traditional cultivation in stressful environments maintained tremendous amount of polymorphism in pearl millet. This high polymorphism of the crop has been revealed by genome mapping that in turn stimulated the mapping and tagging of genomic regions controlling important traits such as drought tolerance. Mapping of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance in independent populations envisaged the prospect for the development of molecular breeding in pearl millet. To accelerate genetic gains for drought tolerance targeted novel approaches such as establishment of marker-trait associations, genomic selection tools, genome sequence and genotyping-by-sequencing are still limited. Development and application of high throughput genomic tools need to be intensified to improve the breeding efficiency of pearl millet to minimize the impact of climate change on its production. PMID:27920783

  5. Hybrid and proximate composition effects on ethanol yield from pearl millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investors have committed to the construction of new ethanol plants in the southeast in spite of the grain-deficit status of this region. Pearl millet is likely to be a viable supplemental feedstock. The DDGS has a greater nutritional value, resulting in a lower net cost of ethanol production from pe...

  6. Inhibitory activities of soluble and bound millet seed phenolics on free radicals and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-01-12

    Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is responsible for modulating several pathological conditions and aging. Soluble and bound phenolic extracts of commonly consumed millets, namely, kodo, finger (Ravi), finger (local), foxtail, proso, little, and pearl, were investigated for their phenolic content and inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS, namely, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Inhibition of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals was detrmined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The peroxyl radical inhibitory activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The scavenging of H(2)O(2), HOCl, and (1)O(2) was evaluated using colorimetric methods. The results were expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram of grain on a dry weight basis. In addition, major hydroxycinnamic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). All millet varieties displayed effective radical and ROS inhibition activities, which generally positively correlated with phenolic contents, except for hydroxyl radical. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids as major hydroxycinnamic acids in phenolic extract and responsible for the observed effects. Bound extracts of millet contributed 38-99% to ROS scavenging, depending on the variety and the test system employed. Hence, bound phenolics must be included in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of millets and other cereals.

  7. Grain yield and component traits of pearl millet genotypes at different row spacing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultivation of grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), a semi-arid tropical crop, is spreading beyond conventional production areas. It is finding markets in USA in ethnic food, wildlife recreation markets, poultry feed, and has potential for biofuels. Fourteen diverse genotypes of the A1 MS cytopl...

  8. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, C N; Udom, I E; Frisvad, J C; Adetunji, M C; Houbraken, J; Fapohunda, S O; Samson, R A; Atanda, O O; Agi-Otto, M C; Onashile, O A

    2014-03-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46-48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = -0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame.

  9. Assessment of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus and other fungi in millet and sesame from Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Udom, I.E.; Frisvad, J.C.; Adetunji, M.C.; Houbraken, J.; Fapohunda, S.O.; Samson, R.A.; Atanda, O.O.; Agi-Otto, M.C.; Onashile, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen fonio millet and 17 sesame samples were analysed for incidence of moulds, especially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, in order to determine the safety of both crops to consumers, and to correlate aflatoxin levels in the crops with levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium. Diverse moulds including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma were isolated. Aspergillus was predominantly present in both crops (46–48%), and amongst the potentially aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species, A. flavus recorded the highest incidence (68% in fonio millet; 86% in sesame kernels). All A. parvisclerotigenus isolates produced B and G aflatoxins in culture while B aflatoxins were produced by only 39% and 20% of A. flavus strains isolated from the fonio millet and sesame kernels, respectively. Aflatoxin concentrations in fonio millet correlated inversely (r = −0.55; p = 0.02) with aflatoxin levels produced by toxigenic isolates on laboratory medium, but no correlation was observed in the case of the sesame samples. Both crops, especially sesame, may not be suitable substrates for aflatoxin biosynthesis. This is the first report on A. parvisclerotigenus in sesame. PMID:24772370

  10. The Genetic Basis for Inflorescence Variation Between Foxtail and Green Millet (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Doust, Andrew N.; Devos, Katrien M.; Gadberry, Mike D.; Gale, Mike D.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    Grass species differ in many aspects of inflorescence architecture, but in most cases the genetic basis of the morphological difference is unknown. To investigate the genes underlying the morphology in one such instance, we undertook a developmental and QTL analysis of inflorescence differences between the cereal grain foxtail millet and its presumed progenitor green millet. Inflorescence differences between these two species are the result of changes in primary branch number and density, spikelet number, and bristle (sterile branchlet) number; these differences also account for inflorescence variation within the clade of 300+ species that share the presence of bristles in the inflorescence. Fourteen replicated QTL were detected for the four inflorescence traits, and these are suggested to represent genes that control differences between the species. Comparative mapping using common markers from rice and maize allowed a number of candidate genes from maize to be localized to QTL regions in the millet genome. Searches of regions of the sequenced rice genome orthologous to QTL regions on foxtail millet identified a number of transcription factors and hormone pathway genes that may be involved in control of inflorescence branching. PMID:15654107

  11. Seeded-yet-sterile biomass feedstocks: Kinggrass and pearl millet-napiergrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. x P. glaucum [L.] R. Br.) and Pearl Millet-Napiergrass (PMN; P. glaucum x P. purpureum) are unique among energy grasses as 'Seeded-yet-Sterile' feedstocks, derived from fertile parents capable of producing significant quantities of hybrid seed while being st...

  12. Influence of germination on bioaccessible iron and calcium in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum).

    PubMed

    Suma, P Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2014-05-01

    Pearl millet is the staple for economically poorer section of the world's population and improving its mineral bioaccessibility is one of the important approaches to promote its utilization. In the absence of any data on the bioaccessible mineral content from commercially available millet, two varieties namely Kalukombu (native) and Maharastra Rabi Bajra (hybrid) were germinated and its effect on the bioaccessible iron and calcium content was explored using an in-vitro method which simulates gastrointestinal digestion. The millet was germinated for 72 h to facilitate maximum mineral extraction. The bioaccessibility of iron and calcium was considerably enhanced upon sprouting. This higher bioaccessibility could be attributed to decrease in antinutritional factors like phytate and oxalate as a result of germination. Changes in mineral and antinutrient content during sprouting led to significant variations in the antinutrient/mineral molar ratios which had a positive impact on the bioaccessible mineral content. Use of tap water for soaking prior to germination revealed contamination of the millet with iron. Contaminant iron in Kalukombu variety appeared to be less accessible; while the same was potentially bioaccessible in Maharashtra Rabi Bajra variety. Hence bioaccessibility of iron depends on the form in which it is present. The actual bioaccessibility of contaminated iron needs to be further investigated.

  13. Inheritance of chinch bug (Heteroptera: Blissidae) resistance in grain pearl millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.)] is a promising alternative feed grain for southeastern US crop productions systems, because of its ability to reliably produce grain, under drought conditions on sandy, acidic, and low fertility soils. Chinch bug [Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say) (Heterop...

  14. Effect of Forage and Grain Pearl Millet on Pratylenchus penetrans and Potato Yields in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Bélair, G.; Dauphinais, N.; Fournier, Y.; Dangi, O. P.; Clément, M. F.

    2005-01-01

    Rotation crop experiments were conducted from 1998 to 2000 to assess the impact of forage and grain pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on Pratylenchus penetrans populations in three potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior) fields in Quebec. These crops were compared to oats and(or) barley. Forage millet had a suppressive effect on P. penetrans populations after a 1 year rotation. The following year, marketable potato yields were negatively correlated with initial P. penetrans densities on two experimental sites (r = -0.454, P = 0.044; r = -0.426, P = 0.017). Average marketable and total yields were increased by 10% in plots previously grown in forage millet hybrid CFPM 101 when compared to oats (P = 0.017). Damage functions between preplant nematode density (Pi) and marketable yield (y = 42.0 -4.091 log₁₀ [Pi + 1]) and total yield (y = 43.9 -4.039 log₁₀ [Pi + 1]) of potato were established on pooled yield data. Forage pearl millet is an efficient and economically viable alternative for managing root-lesion nematodes and improving potato yields in Quebec. PMID:19262846

  15. Identification of earl millet cultivars using both microsatellites and enzymatic markers.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Neto, R P; Von Pinho, E V R; Carvalho, B L; Pereira, G S

    2013-01-07

    The increasing number of protected and registered cultivars and problems involving seed commercialization make distinction and identification of cultivars imperative. Millet (Pennisetum glaucum), a crop species with protected cultivars in Brazil, has been the target of seed piracy. Thus, with the objective of identifying different lots with regard to origin, we characterized six cultivars of commercialized millet of proven origin by means of the electrophoretic patterns of the isoenzymes alcohol dehydrogenase, esterase and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and by microsatellite markers, using primers specific for millet. The six cultivars were separated with four microsatellite loci. Based on this characterization, certification of genetic purity was undertaken for public domain commercialized seed lots. The isoenzymatic markers were also tested for stability of the patterns. Esterase patterns were altered in seeds with different physiological quality and health conditions, but this alteration did not hinder identification of the cultivars. It was observed that most of the millet seed lots commercialized in Brazil as being in public domain belong to other cultivars.

  16. Development and genetic mapping of SSR markers in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaoping; Zhang, Zhongbao; Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Chengwei; Shi, Yunsu; Song, Yanchun; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu

    2009-02-01

    SSR markers are desirable markers in analysis of genetic diversity, quantitative trait loci mapping and gene locating. In this study, SSR markers were developed from two genomic libraries enriched for (GA)n and (CA)n of foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.], a crop of historical importance in China. A total of 100 SSR markers among the 193 primer pairs detected polymorphism between two mapping parents of an F(2) population, i.e. "B100" of cultivated S. italica and "A10" of wild S. viridis. Excluding 14 markers with unclear amplifications, and five markers unlinked with any linkage group, a foxtail millet SSR linkage map was constructed by integrating 81 new developed SSR markers with 20 RFLP anchored markers. The 81 SSRs covered nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. The length of the map was 1,654 cM, with an average interval distance between markers of 16.4 cM. The 81 SSR markers were not evenly distributed throughout the nine chromosomes, with Ch.8 harbouring the least (3 markers) and Ch.9 harbouring the most (18 markers). To verify the usefulness of the SSR markers developed, 37 SSR markers were randomly chosen to analyze genetic diversity of 40 foxtail millet accessions. Totally 228 alleles were detected, with an average 6.16 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value for each locus ranged from 0.413 to 0.847, with an average of 0.697. A positive correlation between PIC and number of alleles and between PIC and number of repeat unit were found [0.802 and 0.429, respectively (P < 0.01)]. UPGMA analysis revealed that the 40 foxtail millet cultivars could be grouped into five clusters in which the landraces' grouping was largely consistent with ecotypes while the breeding varieties from different provinces in China tended to be grouped together.

  17. Bioethanol production from spent mushroom compost derived from chaff of millet and sorghum.

    PubMed

    Ryden, Peter; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Tindyebwa, Teddy A M; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; Waldron, Keith W; Malakar, Pradeep K

    2017-01-01

    In Uganda, the chaff remaining from threshed panicles of millet and sorghum is a low value, lignocellulose-rich agricultural by-product. Currently, it is used as a substrate for the cultivation of edible Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). The aim of this study was to assess the potential to exploit the residual post-harvest compost for saccharification and fermentation to produce ethanol. Sorghum and millet chaff-derived spent oyster mushroom composts minus large mycelium particles were assessed at small-scale and low substrate concentrations (5% w/v) for optimal severity hydrothermal pre-treatment, enzyme loading and fermentation with robust yeasts to produce ethanol. These conditions were then used as a basis for larger scale assessments with high substrate concentrations (30% w/v). Millet-based compost had a low cellulose content and, at a high substrate concentration, did not liquefy effectively. The ethanol yield was 63.9 g/kg dry matter (DM) of original material with a low concentration (19.6 g/L). Compost derived from sorghum chaff had a higher cellulose content and could be liquefied at high substrate concentration (30% w/v). This enabled selected furfural-resistant yeasts to produce ethanol at up to 186.9 g/kg DM of original material and a concentration of 45.8 g/L. Spent mushroom compost derived from sorghum chaff has the potential to be an industrially useful substrate for producing second-generation bioethanol. This might be improved further through fractionation and exploitation of hemicellulosic moieties, and possibly the exploitation of the mycelium-containing final residue for animal feed. However, spent compost derived from millet does not provide a suitably high concentration of ethanol to make it industrially attractive. Further research on the difficulty in quantitatively saccharifying cellulose from composted millet chaff and other similar substrates such as rice husk is required.

  18. Genome-Wide Development and Use of Microsatellite Markers for Large-Scale Genotyping Applications in Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Garima; Misra, Gopal; Kumari, Kajal; Gupta, Sarika; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The availability of well-validated informative co-dominant microsatellite markers and saturated genetic linkage map has been limited in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In view of this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 28 342 microsatellite repeat-motifs spanning 405.3 Mb of foxtail millet genome. The trinucleotide repeats (∼48%) was prevalent when compared with dinucleotide repeats (∼46%). Of the 28 342 microsatellites, 21 294 (∼75%) primer pairs were successfully designed, and a total of 15 573 markers were physically mapped on 9 chromosomes of foxtail millet. About 159 markers were validated successfully in 8 accessions of Setaria sp. with ∼67% polymorphic potential. The high percentage (89.3%) of cross-genera transferability across millet and non-millet species with higher transferability percentage in bioenergy grasses (∼79%, Switchgrass and ∼93%, Pearl millet) signifies their importance in studying the bioenergy grasses. In silico comparative mapping of 15 573 foxtail millet microsatellite markers against the mapping data of sorghum (16.9%), maize (14.5%) and rice (6.4%) indicated syntenic relationships among the chromosomes of foxtail millet and target species. The results, thus, demonstrate the immense applicability of developed microsatellite markers in germplasm characterization, phylogenetics, construction of genetic linkage map for gene/quantitative trait loci discovery, comparative mapping in foxtail millet, including other millets and bioenergy grass species. PMID:23382459

  19. Plants and people from the Early Neolithic to Shang periods in North China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W; Liu, Li; Chen, Xingcan

    2007-01-16

    An assemblage of charred plant remains collected from 26 sites in the Yiluo valley of North China as part of an archaeological survey spans the period from the sixth millennium to 1300 calibrated calendrical years (cal) B.C. The plant remains document a long sequence of crops, weeds, and other plants in the country. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness of sediment sampling as part of an archaeological survey. Ten accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates on crop remains inform an assessment of the sequence of agricultural development in the region. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica subsp. italica) was grown during the Early Neolithic period and was the principal crop for at least four millennia. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) was significantly less important throughout the sequence. Rice (Oryza sativa) was introduced by 3000 cal B.C. but apparently was not an important local crop. Wheat became a significant crop between 1600 and 1300 cal B.C. The weed flora diversified through time and were dominated by annual grasses, some of which were probably fodder for domesticated animals. The North China farming tradition that emphasized dry crops (millets, wheat, and legumes) with some rice appears to have been established at the latest by the Early Shang (Erligang; 1600-1300 B.C.) period.

  20. Diapause initiation and incidence in the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): the role of the host plant.

    PubMed

    Tanzubil, P B; Mensah, G W; McCaffery, A R

    2000-08-01

    The role of the host plant in the development of larval diapause in the millet stem borer, Coniesta ignefusalis (Hampson) was investigated in northern Ghana in 1996 and 1997. Surveys conducted in farmers' fields in the Guinea and Sudan savannah revealed that of all the upland cereals grown, the insect survived the dry season only in stalks and stubble of pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum and late sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. This observation was confirmed by results from field trials conducted at the Manga Research Station. In these studies, C. ignefusalis larvae entered diapause only in late millet and late sorghum, with a higher incidence in the former. The insect neither attacked nor entered diapause in maize planted during the same period as the other crops. Results from controlled experiments showed that diapause incidence in the preferred host, millet, was higher in older than in younger plants, suggesting that host plant maturation is a key factor influencing the development of larval diapause in C. ignefusalis.

  1. Comparative analysis of solid-state bioprocessing and enzymatic treatment of finger millet for mobilization of bound phenolics.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Singh, Anshu; Bhattacharya, Patrali; Yuvraj, Jude; Banerjee, Rintu

    2013-11-01

    The present work investigates the probable bioprocessing technique to mobilize the bound phenolics naturally found in finger millet cell wall for enriching it with dietary antioxidants. Comparative study was performed between the exogenous enzymatic treatment and solid-state fermentation of grain (SSF) with a food grade organism Rhizopus oryzae. SSF results indicated that at the 6th day of incubation, total phenolic content (18.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/gds) and antioxidant property (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 39.03 %, metal chelating ability of 54 % and better reducing power) of finger millet were drastically enhanced when fermented with GRAS filamentous fungi. During the enzymatic bioprocessing, most of the phenolics released during the hydrolysis, leached out into the liquid portion rather than retaining them within the millet grain, resulting in overall loss of dietary antioxidant. The present study establishes the most effective strategy to enrich the finger millet with phenolic antioxidants.

  2. Impact of processing on the phenolic profiles of small millets: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, P M; Sreerama, Yadahally N

    2015-02-15

    The effects of germination, steaming and microwave treatments of whole grain millets (barnyard, foxtail and proso) on their phenolic composition, antioxidant activities and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were investigated. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed that vanillic and ferulic acids were the principal phenolic acids and kaempferol was the predominant flavonoid found in raw millets. Different processing treatments brought about relevant changes in the composition and content of certain phenolic acids and flavonoids in processed millets. Phenolic extracts of raw and processed millets exhibited multiple antioxidant activities and are also potent inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In general, germinated millets showed highest phenolic content as well as superior antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. These results suggest that germinated millet grains are potential source of phenolic antioxidants and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

  3. Identification of SNP and SSR Markers in Finger Millet Using Next Generation Sequencing Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Gimode, Davis; Odeny, Damaris A.; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Wanyonyi, Solomon; Dida, Mathews M.; Mneney, Emmarold E.; Muchugi, Alice; Machuka, Jesse; de Villiers, Santie M.

    2016-01-01

    Finger millet is an important cereal crop in eastern Africa and southern India with excellent grain storage quality and unique ability to thrive in extreme environmental conditions. Since negligible attention has been paid to improving this crop to date, the current study used Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies to develop both Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genomic DNA from cultivated finger millet genotypes KNE755 and KNE796 was sequenced using both Roche 454 and Illumina technologies. Non-organelle sequencing reads were assembled into 207 Mbp representing approximately 13% of the finger millet genome. We identified 10,327 SSRs and 23,285 non-homeologous SNPs and tested 101 of each for polymorphism across a diverse set of wild and cultivated finger millet germplasm. For the 49 polymorphic SSRs, the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.42, ranging from 0.16 to 0.77. We also validated 92 SNP markers, 80 of which were polymorphic with a mean PIC of 0.29 across 30 wild and 59 cultivated accessions. Seventy-six of the 80 SNPs were polymorphic across 30 wild germplasm with a mean PIC of 0.30 while only 22 of the SNP markers showed polymorphism among the 59 cultivated accessions with an average PIC value of 0.15. Genetic diversity analysis using the polymorphic SNP markers revealed two major clusters; one of wild and another of cultivated accessions. Detailed STRUCTURE analysis confirmed this grouping pattern and further revealed 2 sub-populations within wild E. coracana subsp. africana. Both STRUCTURE and genetic diversity analysis assisted with the correct identification of the new germplasm collections. These polymorphic SSR and SNP markers are a significant addition to the existing 82 published SSRs, especially with regard to the previously reported low polymorphism levels in finger millet. Our results also reveal an unexploited finger millet genetic resource that can be included in the regional

  4. Satellite panicum mosaic virus coat protein enhances the performance of plant virus gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Everett, Anthany L; Scholthof, Herman B; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2010-01-05

    The coat protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPCP) is known to effectively protect its cognate RNA from deleterious events, and here, we tested its stabilizing potential for heterologous virus-based gene vectors in planta. In support of this, a Potato virus X (PVX) vector carrying the SPMV capsid protein (PVX-SPCP) gene was stable for at least three serial systemic passages through Nicotiana benthamiana. To test the effect of SPCP in trans, PVX-SPCP was co-inoculated onto N. benthamiana together with a Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) vector carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene that normally does not support systemic GFP expression. In contrast, co-inoculation of TBSV-GFP plus PVX-SPCP resulted in GFP accumulation and concomitant green fluorescent spots in upper, non-inoculated leaves in a temperature-responsive manner. These results suggest that the multifaceted SPMV CP has intriguing effects on virus-host interactions that surface in heterologous systems.

  5. The genetics of divergence and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Panicum hallii

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, David B; Hernandez, Kyle; Taylor, Samuel H; Meyer, Eli; Logan, Tierney L; Barry, Kerrie W; Chapman, Jarrod A; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Juenger, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    The process of plant speciation often involves the evolution of divergent ecotypes in response to differences in soil water availability between habitats. While the same set of traits is frequently associated with xeric/mesic ecotype divergence, it is unknown whether those traits evolve independently or if they evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization either by pleiotropy or genetic linkage. The self-fertilizing C4 grass species Panicum hallii includes two major ecotypes found in xeric (var. hallii) or mesic (var. filipes) habitats. We constructed the first linkage map for P. hallii by genotyping a reduced representation genomic library of an F2 population derived from an intercross of var. hallii and filipes. We then evaluated the genetic architecture of divergence between these ecotypes through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Overall, we mapped QTLs for nine morphological traits that are involved in the divergence between the ecotypes. QTLs for five key ecotype-differentiating traits all colocalized to the same region of linkage group five. Leaf physiological traits were less divergent between ecotypes, but we still mapped five physiological QTLs. We also discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky–Muller hybrid incompatibility. Our study suggests that ecotype-differentiating traits may evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization. PMID:25252269

  6. Developmental expression of ASG- 1 during gametogenesis in apomictic guinea grass (Panicum maximum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lanzhuang; Guan, Liming; Seo, Misuk; Hoffmann, Franz; Adachi, Taiji

    2005-10-01

    We have used Western blue-visualized in situ-hybridization (ISH) to monitor the expression of apomixis-specific gene-1 (ASG-1, GenBank accession number AB000809) during gametogenesis in obligate-sexual and facultative-apomictic (aposporic) genotypes of guinea grass (Panicum maximum). The in situ-analysis revealed that ASG-1 is not expressed in the ovule during early floral development in both, the facultative apomicts (A1 stage) and the obligate sexuals (S1 stage). With the appearance of the aposporous initial cell(s) in the ovule of the apomictic type (A2-1 stage), ASG-1 expression is strong and specific to this apomixis-specific cell. ASG-1 expression continued through different stages of aposporous embryo sac development (A2-2 stage), indicating that the gene may play a role in this developmental process. Regular embryo sacs in sexual types did not show hybridization signals (S2 stage). However, strong ASG-1 expression was detected in immature pollen grains and young embryos in both reproductive types, suggesting that ASG-1 may be an allele derived from the obligate-sexual wild type. Expression in pollen grains faded with maturation. In a heterologous system, using Paspalum notatum, a facultative-aposporic tropical grass (bahia grass), identical results were obtained. The results are discussed in view of the fact, that ASG-1 shows some homology to genes known to be seed- or embryo-specific or involved in processes related to cell growth.

  7. Growth, yield and photosynthesis of Panicum maximum and Stylosanthes hamata under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R K; Baig, M J; Tiwari, H S; Roy, Sharmila

    2010-07-01

    Plant height, biomass production, assimilatory functions and chlorophyll accumulation of Panicum maximum and Stylosanthes hamata in intercropping systems was influenced significantly under elevated CO2 (600 +/- 50 ppm) in open top chambers (OTCs). The plant height increased by 32.0 and 49.0% over the control in P. maximum and S. hamata respectively in intercropping system under elevated CO2 over open field grown crops (Ca). P. maximum and S. hamata produced 67 and 85% higher fresh and dry biomass respectively under elevated CO2. Rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance increased in both the crop species in intercropping systems under elevated CO2. The canopy photosynthesis (photosynthesis x leaf area index) of these crop species increased significantly under elevated CO2 over the open grown crops. The chlorophyll a and b accumulation were also higher in the leaves of both the crop species as grown in OTC with elevated CO2. The increased chlorophyll content, leaf area index and canopy photosynthesis led to higher growth and biomass production in these crop species under elevated CO2. The total carbon sequestration in crop biomass and soils during the three years was 21.53 Mg C/ha under elevated CO2. The data revealed that P. maximum and S. hamata intercropping system is the potential as a sink for the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere in the semi-arid tropics.

  8. The genetics of divergence and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Panicum hallii.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B; Hernandez, Kyle; Taylor, Samuel H; Meyer, Eli; Logan, Tierney L; Barry, Kerrie W; Chapman, Jarrod A; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Schmutz, Jeremy; Juenger, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    The process of plant speciation often involves the evolution of divergent ecotypes in response to differences in soil water availability between habitats. While the same set of traits is frequently associated with xeric/mesic ecotype divergence, it is unknown whether those traits evolve independently or if they evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization either by pleiotropy or genetic linkage. The self-fertilizing C4 grass species Panicum hallii includes two major ecotypes found in xeric (var. hallii) or mesic (var. filipes) habitats. We constructed the first linkage map for P. hallii by genotyping a reduced representation genomic library of an F2 population derived from an intercross of var. hallii and filipes. We then evaluated the genetic architecture of divergence between these ecotypes through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Overall, we mapped QTLs for nine morphological traits that are involved in the divergence between the ecotypes. QTLs for five key ecotype-differentiating traits all colocalized to the same region of linkage group five. Leaf physiological traits were less divergent between ecotypes, but we still mapped five physiological QTLs. We also discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller hybrid incompatibility. Our study suggests that ecotype-differentiating traits may evolve in tandem as a result of genetic colocalization.

  9. Gene flow matters in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a potential widespread biofuel feedstock.

    PubMed

    Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists a large push for the use, improvement, and expansion via landscape modification of dedicated biofuel crops (feedstocks) in the United States and in many parts of the world. Ecological concerns have been voiced because many biofuel feedstocks exhibit characteristics associated with invasiveness, and due to potential negative consequences of agronomic genes in native wild populations. Seed purity concerns for biofuel feedstock cultivars whose seeds would be harvested in agronomic fields also exist from the agribusiness sector. The common thread underlying these concerns, which have regulatory implications, is gene flow; thus detailed knowledge of gene flow in biofuel crop plants is important in the formulation of environmental risk management plans. Here, we synthesize the current state of knowledge of gene flow in an exemplary biofuel crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), which is native to eastern North America and is currently experiencing conventional and technological advances in biomass yields and ethanol production. Surprisingly little is known regarding aspects of switchgrass pollen flow and seed dispersal, and whether native populations of conspecific or congeneric relatives will readily cross with current agronomic switchgrass cultivars. We pose that filling these important gaps will be required to confront the sustainability challenges of widespread planting of biofuel feedstocks.

  10. Accelerating the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) breeding cycle using genomic selection approaches.

    PubMed

    Lipka, Alexander E; Lu, Fei; Cherney, Jerome H; Buckler, Edward S; Casler, Michael D; Costich, Denise E

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial grass undergoing development as a biofuel feedstock. One of the most important factors hindering breeding efforts in this species is the need for accurate measurement of biomass yield on a per-hectare basis. Genomic selection on simple-to-measure traits that approximate biomass yield has the potential to significantly speed up the breeding cycle. Recent advances in switchgrass genomic and phenotypic resources are now making it possible to evaluate the potential of genomic selection of such traits. We leveraged these resources to study the ability of three widely-used genomic selection models to predict phenotypic values of morphological and biomass quality traits in an association panel consisting of predominantly northern adapted upland germplasm. High prediction accuracies were obtained for most of the traits, with standability having the highest ten-fold cross validation prediction accuracy (0.52). Moreover, the morphological traits generally had higher prediction accuracies than the biomass quality traits. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the quality of current genomic and phenotypic resources available for switchgrass is sufficiently high for genomic selection to significantly impact breeding efforts for biomass yield.

  11. Colic caused by Panicum maximum toxicosis in equidae in northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Valíria D; Riet-Correa, Gabriela; Barbosa, José D; Duarte, Marcos D; Oliveira, Carlos M C; de Oliveira, Carlos A; Tokarnia, Carlos; Lee, Stephen T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2009-11-01

    In the Amazon region of northern Brazil, Panicum maximum cultivars Mombaça, Tanzânia, and Massai cause severe colic and death in horses and mules. The disease occurs in the rainy season, when sprouting pastures are grazed by equidae. In the 8 separate disease outbreaks studied, a total of 52 out of 153 equidae were affected, including 19 that died (10 mules and 9 horses). Clinical signs were colic and abdominal dilatation, with a clinical manifestation period of 12 hr to 4 days. Serum activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase and aspartate aminotransferase were within reference intervals; however, serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations were occasionally elevated. The primary gross and histologic lesions were observed in the digestive system. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine had severe hemorrhages and occasional mucosal erosions and ulcerations. Ulceration and hemorrhage of the urinary bladder were rarely observed. Histologic examination revealed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and enteritis with severe congestion, hemorrhage, and occasional epithelial necrosis and ulceration. Lymphocellular necrosis was occasionally observed within gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Tubular nephrosis occurred in some animals. Degeneration and occasional necrosis of bile duct epithelial cells and degeneration of hepatocytes were observed in the liver. Toxic pastures were negative for diosgenin- and yamogenin-based saponins, and oxalate concentrations were within reference intervals for the species. The toxin or toxins causing disease and the reason for the toxicity of the plant in the northern region are unknown.

  12. The Genetic Basis of Upland/Lowland Ecotype Divergence in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Elizabeth R.; Lowry, David B.; Juenger, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of locally adapted ecotypes is a common phenomenon that generates diversity within plant species. However, we know surprisingly little about the genetic mechanisms underlying the locally adapted traits involved in ecotype formation. The genetic architecture underlying locally adapted traits dictates how an organism will respond to environmental selection pressures, and has major implications for evolutionary ecology, conservation, and crop breeding. To understand the genetic architecture underlying the divergence of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) ecotypes, we constructed a genetic mapping population through a four-way outbred cross between two northern upland and two southern lowland accessions. Trait segregation in this mapping population was largely consistent with multiple independent loci controlling the suite of traits that characterizes ecotype divergence. We assembled a joint linkage map using ddRADseq, and mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits that are divergent between ecotypes, including flowering time, plant size, physiological processes, and disease resistance. Overall, we found that most QTL had small to intermediate effects. While we identified colocalizing QTL for multiple traits, we did not find any large-effect QTL that clearly controlled multiple traits through pleiotropy or tight physical linkage. These results indicate that ecologically important traits in switchgrass have a complex genetic basis, and that similar loci may underlie divergence across the geographic range of the ecotypes. PMID:27613751

  13. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Intercropping within Managed Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Does Not Affect Wild Bee Communities

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Joshua W.; Miller, Darren A.; Martin, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations. PMID:27827916

  14. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    PubMed

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  15. Pearl millet genome sequence provides a resource to improve agronomic traits in arid environments.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Shi, Chengcheng; Thudi, Mahendar; Mariac, Cedric; Wallace, Jason; Qi, Peng; Zhang, He; Zhao, Yusheng; Wang, Xiyin; Rathore, Abhishek; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Fan, Guangyi; Bajaj, Prasad; Punnuri, Somashekhar; Gupta, S K; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Yong; Couderc, Marie; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Paudel, Dev R; Mungra, K D; Chen, Wenbin; Harris-Shultz, Karen R; Garg, Vanika; Desai, Neetin; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Conner, Joann A; Ghatak, Arindam; Chaturvedi, Palak; Subramaniam, Sabarinath; Yadav, Om Parkash; Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Hamidou, Falalou; Wang, Jianping; Liang, Xinming; Clotault, Jérémy; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Cubry, Philippe; Rhoné, Bénédicte; Gueye, Mame Codou; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Dupuy, Christian; Sparvoli, Francesca; Cheng, Shifeng; Mahala, R S; Singh, Bharat; Yadav, Rattan S; Lyons, Eric; Datta, Swapan K; Hash, C Tom; Devos, Katrien M; Buckler, Edward; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Paterson, Andrew H; Ozias-Akins, Peggy; Grando, Stefania; Wang, Jun; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Xin; Vigouroux, Yves; Xu, Xun

    2017-09-18

    Pearl millet [Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone] is a staple food for more than 90 million farmers in arid and semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa, India and South Asia. We report the ∼1.79 Gb draft whole genome sequence of reference genotype Tift 23D2B1-P1-P5, which contains an estimated 38,579 genes. We highlight the substantial enrichment for wax biosynthesis genes, which may contribute to heat and drought tolerance in this crop. We resequenced and analyzed 994 pearl millet lines, enabling insights into population structure, genetic diversity and domestication. We use these resequencing data to establish marker trait associations for genomic selection, to define heterotic pools, and to predict hybrid performance. We believe that these resources should empower researchers and breeders to improve this important staple crop.

  16. Rheological properties of reduced fat ice cream mix containing octenyl succinylated pearl millet starch.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Singh, Ashish K; Yadav, Deep N

    2017-05-01

    The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level. The aged ice cream mixes exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour as flow behaviour index values were less than one. Apparent viscosity (at 50 s(-1) shear rate) of control as well as ice cream mix containing 1% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch samples was 417 and 415 mPas, respectively and did not differ significantly. The overrun of the ice cream (with 5 and 7.5% fat) containing 1 and 2% of above fat replacers ranged between 29.7 and 34.3% and was significantly lower than control (40.3%). The percent melted ice cream was also low for the ice creams containing 2% of above fat replacers at 5% fat content as compared to control. However, sensory acceptability and rheological characteristics of reduced fat ice creams containing 1.0 and 2.0% OSA-esterified pearl millet starch were at par with other fat replacers under the study. Thus, OSA-esterified pearl millet starch has potential to be used as fat replacer in reduced fat ice cream.

  17. An assessment of yield gains under climate change due to genetic modification of pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Singh, Piara; Boote, K J; Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Gupta, S K; Srinivas, K; Bantilan, M C S

    2017-12-01

    Developing cultivars with traits that can enhance and sustain productivity under climate change will be an important climate smart adaptation option. The modified CSM-CERES-Pearl millet model was used to assess yield gains by modifying plant traits determining crop maturity duration, potential yield and tolerance to drought and heat in pearl millet cultivars grown at six locations in arid (Hisar, Jodhpur, Bikaner) and semi-arid (Jaipur, Aurangabad and Bijapur) tropical India and two locations in semi-arid tropical West Africa (Sadore in Niamey and Cinzana in Mali). In all the study locations the yields decreased when crop maturity duration was decreased by 10% both in current and future climate conditions; however, 10% increase in crop maturity significantly (p<0.05) increased yields at Aurangabad and Bijapur, but not at other locations. Increasing yield potential traits by 10% increased yields under both the climate situations in India and West Africa. Drought tolerance imparted the lowest yield gain at Aurangabad (6%), the highest at Sadore (30%) and intermediate at the other locations under current climate. Under climate change the contribution of drought tolerance to the yield of cultivars either increased or decreased depending upon changes in rainfall of the locations. Yield benefits of heat tolerance substantially increased under climate change at most locations, having the greatest effects at Bikaner (17%) in India and Sadore (13%) in West Africa. Aurangabad and Bijapur locations had no yield advantage from heat tolerance due to their low temperature regimes. Thus drought and heat tolerance in pearl millet increased yields under climate change in both the arid and semi-arid tropical climates with greater benefit in relatively hotter environments. This study will assists the plant breeders in evaluating new promising plant traits of pearl millet for adapting to climate change at the selected locations and other similar environments. Copyright © 2017 The

  18. Nutraceutical Value of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and Their Improvement Using Omics Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Metwal, Mamta; Kaur, Sanveen; Gupta, Atul K; Puranik, Swati; Singh, Sadhna; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Supriya; Babu, B K; Sood, Salej; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    The science of nutritional biology has progressed extensively over the last decade to develop food-based nutraceuticals as a form of highly personalized medicine or therapeutic agent. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is a crop with potentially tremendous but under-explored source of nutraceutical properties as compared to other regularly consumed cereals. In the era of growing divide and drawback of nutritional security, these characteristics must be harnessed to develop finger millet as a novel functional food. In addition, introgression of these traits into other staple crops can improve the well-being of the general population on a global scale. The objective of this review is to emphasize the importance of biofortification of finger millet in context of universal health and nutritional crisis. We have specifically highlighted the role that recent biotechnological advancements have to offer for enrichment of its nutritional value and how these developments can commission to the field of nutritional biology by opening new avenues for future research.

  19. Malting process optimization for protein digestibility enhancement in finger millet grain.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Sara Najdi; Orsat, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a nutritious, gluten-free, and drought resistant cereal containing high amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and minerals. However, bio-availability of these nutrients is restricted due to the presence of an excessive level of anti-nutrient components, mainly phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate. It has been shown that a well-designed malting/germination process can significantly reduce these anti-nutrients and consequently enhance the nutrient availability. In the present study, the effects of two important germination factors, duration and temperature, on the enhancement of in-vitro protein digestibility of finger millet were thoroughly investigated and optimized. Based on a central composite design, the grains were germinated for 24, 36, and 48 h at 22, 26, and 30 °C. For all factor combinations, protein, peptide, phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents were evaluated and digestibility was assessed. It was shown that during the malting/germinating process, both temperature and duration factors significantly influenced the investigated quantities. Germination of finger millet for 48 h at 30 °C increased protein digestibility from 74 % (for native grain) up to 91 %. Besides, it notably decreased phytic acid, tannin, and oxalate contents by 45 %, 46 %, and 29 %, respectively. Linear correlations between protein digestibility and these anti-nutrients were observed.

  20. No-Cook Process for Ethanol Production Using Indian Broken Rice and Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Gohel, Vipul; Duan, Gang

    2012-01-01

    No-cook process using granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) was evaluated for Indian broken rice and pearl millet. One-factor-at-a-time optimization method was used in ethanol production to identify optimum concentration of GSHE, under yeast fermentation conditions using broken rice and pearl millet as fermentation feedstocks. An acid fungal protease at a concentration of 0.2 kg per metric ton of grain was used along with various dosages of GSHE under yeast fermentation conditions to degrade the grain proteins into free amino nitrogen for yeast growth. To measure the efficacy of GSHE to hydrolyze no-cook broken rice and pearl millet, the chemical composition, fermentation efficiency, and ethanol recovery were determined. In both feedstocks, fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery obtained through single-step no-cook process were higher than conventional multistep high-temperature process, currently considered the ideal industrial process. Furthermore, the no-cook process can directly impact energy consumption through steam saving and reducing the water cooling capacity needs, compared to conventional high-temperature process. PMID:22518148

  1. Health benefits of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) polyphenols and dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Priyadarisini, Venkatesan Brindha

    2014-06-01

    The growing public awareness of nutrition and health care research substantiates the potential of phytochemicals such as polyphenols and dietary fiber on their health beneficial properties. Hence, there is in need to identify newer sources of neutraceuticals and other natural and nutritional materials with the desirable functional characteristics. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), one of the minor cereals, is known for several health benefits and some of the health benefits are attributed to its polyphenol and dietary fiber contents. It is an important staple food in India for people of low income groups. Nutritionally, its importance is well recognised because of its high content of calcium (0.38%), dietary fiber (18%) and phenolic compounds (0.3-3%). They are also recognized for their health beneficial effects, such as anti-diabetic, anti-tumerogenic, atherosclerogenic effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This review deals with the nature of polyphenols and dietary fiber of finger millet and their role with respect to the health benefits associated with millet.

  2. Preparation and characterization of foxtail millet bran oil using subcritical propane and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuzhong; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhang, Ruitin; Ma, Hanjun; Liu, Benguo

    2015-05-01

    The foxtail millet (Setaria italica Beauv) bran oil was extracted with traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and subcritical propane extraction (SPE) and analyzed the yield, physicochemical property, fatty acid profile, tocopherol composition, oil oxidative stability in this study. The yields of foxtail millet bran oil by SE, SCE and SPE were 17.14 %, 19.65 %, 21.79 % of raw material weight (corresponded to 75.54 %, 86.60 %, 96.03 % of the total amount of the oil measured by using Soxhlet extraction), respectively. The effect of the extraction methods on the physicochemical properties (peroxide value, saponification value and color) was significant while the difference in fatty acid profile was negligible based on GC analysis. The major components of vitamin E in the obtained oils were identified as α- and β-tocopherols by HPLC, and SPE was superior to SE and SCE in the extraction of tocopherols. In Rancimat test, the oil obtained by SPE showed the highest oil oxidative stability, which could attribute to its high tocopherol content and low peroxide value. In view of oil quality, SPE employed smaller times and lower pressures compared to SE and SCE. SPE was a suitable and selective method for the extraction of the foxtail millet bran oil.

  3. Analyzing millet price regimes and market performance in Niger with remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essam, Timothy Michael

    This dissertation concerns the analysis of staple food prices and market performance in Niger using remotely sensed vegetation indices in the form of normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI). By exploiting the link between weather-related vegetation production conditions, which serve as a proxy for spatially explicit millet yields and thus millet availability, this study analyzes the potential causal links between NDVI outcomes and millet market performance and presents an empirical approach for predicting changes in market performance based on NDVI outcomes. Overall, the thesis finds that inter-market price spreads and levels of market integration can be reasonably explained by deviations in vegetation index outcomes from the growing season. Negative (positive) NDVI shocks are associated with better (worse) than expected market performance as measured by converging inter-market price spreads. As the number of markets affected by negatively abnormal vegetation production conditions in the same month of the growing season increases, inter-market price dispersion declines. Positive NDVI shocks, however, do not mirror this pattern in terms of the magnitude of inter-market price divergence. Market integration is also found to be linked to vegetation index outcomes as below (above) average NDVI outcomes result in more integrated (segmented) markets. Climate change and food security policies and interventions should be guided by these findings and account for dynamic relationships among market structures and vegetation production outcomes.

  4. Nutraceutical Value of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], and Their Improvement Using Omics Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Metwal, Mamta; Kaur, Sanveen; Gupta, Atul K.; Puranik, Swati; Singh, Sadhna; Singh, Manoj; Gupta, Supriya; Babu, B. K.; Sood, Salej; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    The science of nutritional biology has progressed extensively over the last decade to develop food-based nutraceuticals as a form of highly personalized medicine or therapeutic agent. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] is a crop with potentially tremendous but under-explored source of nutraceutical properties as compared to other regularly consumed cereals. In the era of growing divide and drawback of nutritional security, these characteristics must be harnessed to develop finger millet as a novel functional food. In addition, introgression of these traits into other staple crops can improve the well-being of the general population on a global scale. The objective of this review is to emphasize the importance of biofortification of finger millet in context of universal health and nutritional crisis. We have specifically highlighted the role that recent biotechnological advancements have to offer for enrichment of its nutritional value and how these developments can commission to the field of nutritional biology by opening new avenues for future research. PMID:27446162

  5. An expression profiling analysis of hybrid millet and its parents at grain filling stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Zhang, H M; Li, G L; Zhang, Y M; Li, H C; Guo, X L

    2015-07-14

    Heterosis has been widely used in crop breeding and production. However, a shortage of genes known to function in heterosis significantly limits our understanding of the molecular basis underlying heterosis. Here, we report 740 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the leaves of the hybrid millet Zhang No.5 and its parents at the grain filling stage determined using Solexa Illumina digital gene expression. Of the 740 DEGs, 546 were from the hybrid and its parents and most were up-regulated in the hybrid. Particularly, a large number of DEGs related to starch and carbohydrate metabolism and 2 DEGs encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins were up-regulated in hybrid millet. Moreover, all DEGs were enriched in the biological process and molecular function, and no DEGs were found to be enriched in the cellular component of GO terms. Pathway enrichment using KEGG showed that several DEGs were enriched in the circadian rhythm pathway. Further analysis revealed that the altered circadian rhythm, which mediates photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation, may play an important role in heterosis of the hybrid millet.

  6. Quality evaluation of millet-soy blended extrudates formulated through linear programming.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, S; Singh, K K; Patil, R T; Onkar, Kolhe K

    2012-08-01

    Whole pearl millet, finger millet and decorticated soy bean blended (millet soy) extrudates formulations were designed using a linear programming (LP) model to minimize the total cost of the finished product. LP formulated composite flour was extruded through twin screw food extruder at different feed rate (6.5-13.5 kg/h), screw speed (200-350 rpm, constant feed moisture (14% wb), barrel temperature (120 °C) and cutter speed (15 rpm). The physical, functional, textural and pasting characteristics of extrudates were examined and their responses were studied. Expansion index (2.31) and sectional expansion index (5.39) was found to be was found maximum for feed rate and screw speed combination 9.5 kg/h and 250 rpm. However, density (0.25 × 10(-3) g/mm(3)) was maximum for 9.5 kg/h and 300 rpm combination. Maximum color change (10.32) was found for 9.5 kg/h feed rate and 200 rpm screw speed. The lower hardness was obtained for the samples extruded at lowest feed rate (6.5 kg/h) for all screw speed and feed rate at 9.5 kg/h for 300-350 rpm screw speed. Peak viscosity decreases with all screw speed of 9.5 kg/h feed rate.

  7. Harnessing Finger Millet to Combat Calcium Deficiency in Humans: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Swati; Kam, Jason; Sahu, Pranav P.; Yadav, Rama; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Ojulong, Henry; Yadav, Rattan

    2017-01-01

    Humans require more than 20 mineral elements for healthy body function. Calcium (Ca), one of the essential macromineral, is required in relatively large quantities in the diet for maintaining a sound overall health. Young children, pregnant and nursing women in marginalized and poorest regions of the world, are at highest risk of Ca malnutrition. Elderly population is another group of people most commonly affected by Ca deficiency mainly in the form of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Improved dietary intake of Ca may be the most cost-effective way to meet such deficiencies. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], a crop with inherently higher Ca content in its grain, is an excellent candidate for understanding genetic mechanisms associated with Ca accumulation in grain crops. Such knowledge will also contribute toward increasing Ca contents in other staple crops consumed on daily basis using plant-breeding (also known as biofortification) methods. However, developing Ca-biofortified finger millet to reach nutritional acceptability faces various challenges. These include identifying and translating the high grain Ca content to an adequately bioavailable form so as to have a positive impact on Ca malnutrition. In this review, we assess some recent advancements and challenges for enrichment of its Ca value and present possible inter-disciplinary prospects for advancing the actual impact of Ca-biofortified finger millet. PMID:28798761

  8. Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars as Influenced by Processing

    PubMed Central

    Suma Pushparaj, Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effect of processing on the retention of bioactive components with potential antioxidant activity is gaining importance. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of various processing methods (milling, boiling, pressure cooking, roasting and germination respectively) on the antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K) and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra (MRB). The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay (RPA) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays respectively. The samples were also evaluated for tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid content which was then correlated with the antioxidant activity assayed using three methods. The results indicated that the bran rich fraction showed high antioxidant activity (RPA) owing to high tannin, phytic acid and flavonoid levels. Heat treatments exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity and RPA) reflecting the high flavonoid content. Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay in the K variety was largely due to the presence of flavonoid content, however in MRB, no relationship was found between antioxidant activities and antioxidant components. PMID:26784663

  9. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    PubMed

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  10. Harnessing Finger Millet to Combat Calcium Deficiency in Humans: Challenges and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Swati; Kam, Jason; Sahu, Pranav P; Yadav, Rama; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Ojulong, Henry; Yadav, Rattan

    2017-01-01

    Humans require more than 20 mineral elements for healthy body function. Calcium (Ca), one of the essential macromineral, is required in relatively large quantities in the diet for maintaining a sound overall health. Young children, pregnant and nursing women in marginalized and poorest regions of the world, are at highest risk of Ca malnutrition. Elderly population is another group of people most commonly affected by Ca deficiency mainly in the form of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Improved dietary intake of Ca may be the most cost-effective way to meet such deficiencies. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], a crop with inherently higher Ca content in its grain, is an excellent candidate for understanding genetic mechanisms associated with Ca accumulation in grain crops. Such knowledge will also contribute toward increasing Ca contents in other staple crops consumed on daily basis using plant-breeding (also known as biofortification) methods. However, developing Ca-biofortified finger millet to reach nutritional acceptability faces various challenges. These include identifying and translating the high grain Ca content to an adequately bioavailable form so as to have a positive impact on Ca malnutrition. In this review, we assess some recent advancements and challenges for enrichment of its Ca value and present possible inter-disciplinary prospects for advancing the actual impact of Ca-biofortified finger millet.

  11. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] Genomics—An Important Nutri-Cereal of Future

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil; Babu, B. Kalyana; Gaur, Vikram S.; Pandey, Dinesh; Kant, Lakshmi; Pattnayak, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat) of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologs from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2–4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet. PMID:27881984

  12. Gene Discovery and Advances in Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] Genomics-An Important Nutri-Cereal of Future.

    PubMed

    Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil; Babu, B Kalyana; Gaur, Vikram S; Pandey, Dinesh; Kant, Lakshmi; Pattnayak, Arunava

    2016-01-01

    The rapid strides in molecular marker technologies followed by genomics, and next generation sequencing advancements in three major crops (rice, maize and wheat) of the world have given opportunities for their use in the orphan, but highly valuable future crops, including finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.]. Finger millet has many special agronomic and nutritional characteristics, which make it an indispensable crop in arid, semi-arid, hilly and tribal areas of India and Africa. The crop has proven its adaptability in harsh conditions and has shown resilience to climate change. The adaptability traits of finger millet have shown the advantage over major cereal grains under stress conditions, revealing it as a storehouse of important genomic resources for crop improvement. Although new technologies for genomic studies are now available, progress in identifying and tapping these important alleles or genes is lacking. RAPDs were the default choice for genetic diversity studies in the crop until the last decade, but the subsequent development of SSRs and comparative genomics paved the way for the marker assisted selection in finger millet. Resistance gene homologs from NBS-LRR region of finger millet for blast and sequence variants for nutritional traits from other cereals have been developed and used invariably. Population structure analysis studies exhibit 2-4 sub-populations in the finger millet gene pool with separate grouping of Indian and exotic genotypes. Recently, the omics technologies have been efficiently applied to understand the nutritional variation, drought tolerance and gene mining. Progress has also occurred with respect to transgenics development. This review presents the current biotechnological advancements along with research gaps and future perspective of genomic research in finger millet.

  13. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Lines.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL)], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass.

  14. In situ embryo rescue for generation of wide intra- and interspecific hybrids of Panicum virgatum L.

    DOE PAGES

    Kausch, Albert P.; Tilelli, Michael; Hague, Joel; ...

    2016-06-01

    Wide crosses have been used for decades as a method for transferring novel genetic material and traits in plant breeding. Historically, many products of wide crosses require tedious and inefficient surgical embryo rescue prior to embryo abortion to recover single plantlets. Here, we utilize transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv Alamo) as a pollen donor in conjunction with antibiotic or herbicide selection for recovery of intra-and interspecific F1 crosses by using developing ovules from the female parent and selecting for embryogenic cultures derived from the in situ immature embryo. Furthermore, by using this approach, several intravarietial crosses were generated betweenmore » transgenic Alamo and the switchgrass varieties Kanlow, Blackwell and Cave-in-Rock as well as an interspecific cross with Atlantic coastal panicgrass. This procedure selected F1 embryogenic callus produced from the developing embryo contained within isolated immature ovules. Several clonal plants were successfully regenerated from each cross. Southern blot, PCR, phenotypic analyses and genomic analysis confirmed F1 hybrids. Using genotyping-bysequencing shows the hybridization of the recovered plants by determining the ratio of transgressive markers to total compared markers between parents and their potential offspring. The ratio of transgressive markers to total compared markers was significantly lower between parents and their predicted offspring than between parents and offspring unrelated to them. Our approach provides the possibility to move useful transgenes into varieties that are recalcitrant to direct transformation which can be optionally segregated thus useful to create new hybrids, as well as recovery of wide crosses that are either difficult or impossible using traditional techniques.« less

  15. Enhanced characteristics of genetically modified switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for high biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Ziebell, Angela; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Gjersing, Erica; Engle, Nancy L; Katahira, Rui; Pu, Yunqiao; Sykes, Robert; Chen, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Hahn, Michael G; Davis, Mark; Stewart, C Neal; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-05-07

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy resources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels. However, the resistance to accessibility of sugars embedded in plant cell walls (so-called recalcitrance) is a major barrier to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. A recent report from the US National Academy of Sciences indicated that, "absent technological breakthroughs", it was unlikely that the US would meet the congressionally mandated renewable fuel standard of 35 billion gallons of ethanol-equivalent biofuels plus 1 billion gallons of biodiesel by 2022. We here describe the properties of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) biomass that has been genetically engineered to increase the cellulosic ethanol yield by more than 2-fold. We have increased the cellulosic ethanol yield from switchgrass by 2.6-fold through overexpression of the transcription factor PvMYB4. This strategy reduces carbon deposition into lignin and phenolic fermentation inhibitors while maintaining the availability of potentially fermentable soluble sugars and pectic polysaccharides. Detailed biomass characterization analyses revealed that the levels and nature of phenolic acids embedded in the cell-wall, the lignin content and polymer size, lignin internal linkage levels, linkages between lignin and xylans/pectins, and levels of wall-bound fucose are all altered in PvMYB4-OX lines. Genetically engineered PvMYB4-OX switchgrass therefore provides a novel system for further understanding cell wall recalcitrance. Our results have demonstrated that overexpression of PvMYB4, a general transcriptional repressor of the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway, can lead to very high yield ethanol production through dramatic reduction of recalcitrance. MYB4-OX switchgrass is an excellent model system for understanding recalcitrance, and provides new germplasm for developing switchgrass cultivars as biomass feedstocks for biofuel

  16. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  17. Early lignin pathway enzymes and routes to chlorogenic acid in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Escamilla-Treviño, Luis L; Shen, Hui; Hernandez, Timothy; Yin, Yanbin; Xu, Ying; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-03-01

    Studying lignin biosynthesis in Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) has provided a basis for generating plants with reduced lignin content and increased saccharification efficiency. Chlorogenic acid (CGA, caffeoyl quinate) is the major soluble phenolic compound in switchgrass, and the lignin and CGA biosynthetic pathways potentially share intermediates and enzymes. The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HQT) is responsible for CGA biosynthesis in tobacco, tomato and globe artichoke, but there are no close orthologs of HQT in switchgrass or in other monocotyledonous plants with complete genome sequences. We examined available transcriptomic databases for genes encoding enzymes potentially involved in CGA biosynthesis in switchgrass. The protein products of two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) genes (PvHCT1a and PvHCT2a), closely related to lignin pathway HCTs from other species, were characterized biochemically and exhibited the expected HCT activity, preferring shikimic acid as acyl acceptor. We also characterized two switchgrass coumaroyl shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) enzymes (PvC3'H1 and PvC3'H2); both of these cytochrome P450s had the capacity to hydroxylate 4-coumaroyl shikimate or 4-coumaroyl quinate to generate caffeoyl shikimate or CGA. Another switchgrass hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, PvHCT-Like1, is phylogenetically distant from HCTs or HQTs, but exhibits HQT activity, preferring quinic acid as acyl acceptor, and could therefore function in CGA biosynthesis. The biochemical features of the recombinant enzymes, the presence of the corresponding activities in plant protein extracts, and the expression patterns of the corresponding genes, suggest preferred routes to CGA in switchgrass.

  18. Physiological Evaluation of Alkali-Salt Tolerance of Thirty Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Lines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H.; Zhao, Bingyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL) ], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass. PMID:26146987

  19. Development of a rapid, low-cost protoplast transfection system for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Burris, Kellie P; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Collins, A Grace; Stewart, C Neal; Lenaghan, Scott C

    2016-03-01

    A switchgrass protoplast system was developed, achieving a cost reduction of ~1000-fold, a threefold increase in transformation efficiency, and a fourfold reduction in required DNA quantity compared to previous methods. In recent years, there has been a resurgence in the use of protoplast systems for rapid screening of gene silencing and genome-editing targets for siRNA, miRNA, and CRISPR technologies. In the case of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), to achieve economic feasibility for biofuel production, it is necessary to develop plants with decreased cell wall recalcitrance to reduce processing costs. To achieve this goal, transgenic plants have been generated with altered cell wall chemistry; however, with limited success owing to the complexity of cell walls. Because of the considerable cost, time, and effort required to screen transgenic plants, a protoplast system that can provide data at an early stage has potential to eliminate low performing candidate genes/targets prior to the creation of transgenic plants. Despite the advantages of protoplast systems, protoplast isolation in switchgrass has proven costly, requiring expensive lab-grade enzymes and high DNA quantities. In this paper, we describe a low-cost protoplast isolation system using a mesophyll culture approach and a cell suspension culture. Results from this work show a cost reduction of ~1000-fold compared to previous methods of protoplast isolation in switchgrass, with a cost of $0.003 (USD) per reaction for mesophyll protoplasts and $0.018 for axenic cell culture-derived protoplasts. Further, the efficiency of protoplast transformation was optimized threefold over previous methods, despite a fourfold reduction in DNA quantity. The methods developed in this work remove the cost barrier previously limiting high-throughput screening of genome-editing and gene silencing targets in switchgrass, paving the way for more efficient development of transgenic plants.

  20. Enhanced characteristics of genetically modified switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for high biofuel production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy resources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels. However, the resistance to accessibility of sugars embedded in plant cell walls (so-called recalcitrance) is a major barrier to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. A recent report from the US National Academy of Sciences indicated that, “absent technological breakthroughs”, it was unlikely that the US would meet the congressionally mandated renewable fuel standard of 35 billion gallons of ethanol-equivalent biofuels plus 1 billion gallons of biodiesel by 2022. We here describe the properties of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) biomass that has been genetically engineered to increase the cellulosic ethanol yield by more than 2-fold. Results We have increased the cellulosic ethanol yield from switchgrass by 2.6-fold through overexpression of the transcription factor PvMYB4. This strategy reduces carbon deposition into lignin and phenolic fermentation inhibitors while maintaining the availability of potentially fermentable soluble sugars and pectic polysaccharides. Detailed biomass characterization analyses revealed that the levels and nature of phenolic acids embedded in the cell-wall, the lignin content and polymer size, lignin internal linkage levels, linkages between lignin and xylans/pectins, and levels of wall-bound fucose are all altered in PvMYB4-OX lines. Genetically engineered PvMYB4-OX switchgrass therefore provides a novel system for further understanding cell wall recalcitrance. Conclusions Our results have demonstrated that overexpression of PvMYB4, a general transcriptional repressor of the phenylpropanoid/lignin biosynthesis pathway, can lead to very high yield ethanol production through dramatic reduction of recalcitrance. MYB4-OX switchgrass is an excellent model system for understanding recalcitrance, and provides new germplasm for developing switchgrass cultivars as

  1. In situ embryo rescue for generation of wide intra- and interspecific hybrids of Panicum virgatum L.

    PubMed

    Kausch, Albert P; Tilelli, Michael; Hague, Joel; Heffelfinger, Christopher; Cunha, David; Moreno, Maria; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Nelson, Kimberly

    2016-11-01

    Wide crosses have been used for decades as a method for transferring novel genetic material and traits in plant breeding. Historically, many products of wide crosses require tedious and inefficient surgical embryo rescue prior to embryo abortion to recover single plantlets. We have utilized transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. cv Alamo) as a pollen donor in conjunction with antibiotic or herbicide selection for recovery of intra-and interspecific F1 crosses by using developing ovules from the female parent and selecting for embryogenic cultures derived from the in situ immature embryo. Using this approach, several intravarietial crosses were generated between transgenic Alamo and the switchgrass varieties Kanlow, Blackwell and Cave-in-Rock as well as an interspecific cross with Atlantic coastal panicgrass. This procedure selected F1 embryogenic callus produced from the developing embryo contained within isolated immature ovules. Several clonal plants were successfully regenerated from each cross. Southern blot, PCR, phenotypic analyses and genomic analysis confirmed F1 hybrids. Using genotyping-by-sequencing shows the hybridization of the recovered plants by determining the ratio of transgressive markers to total compared markers between parents and their potential offspring. The ratio of transgressive markers to total compared markers was significantly lower between parents and their predicted offspring than between parents and offspring unrelated to them. This approach provides the possibility to move useful transgenes into varieties that are recalcitrant to direct transformation which can be optionally segregated thus useful to create new hybrids, as well as recovery of wide crosses that are either difficult or impossible using traditional techniques. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cardiovascular responses to millet pounding activity among women in a rural community in Northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y; Jajimaji, Fati; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Jabbo, Abdul-Hameed A

    2017-01-01

    Pounding food items in a wooden mortal is a common home chore in many communities in African and Asian countries. However, no empirical data exist on energy expenditure during this activity, and whether the activity can be considered a light, moderate, or vigorous intensity physical activity is unknown. This study was aimed at gaining insights into energy expenditure during millet pounding through cardiovascular responses to millet pounding activity, and to explore possible differences in response between women who pound millet as their occupation (habitual millet pounders) and those who pound millet only for their own home cooking but not as a job (nonhabitual pounders). A total of forty apparently healthy women performed millet pounding activity in standing position for 15 min durations, and their cardiovascular parameters including heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBPs), and rated perceived exertion (RPE) at rest, and immediately after pounding activity were assessed. Significant increases in the subjects' cardiovascular parameters in the range of 7-12, 1-5, and 19-21 point values above the resting levels for SBP, DBP, and HR, respectively, were observed. Significantly higher SBP was also observed for the habitual pounders than the values for the nonhabitual pounders, whereas RPE was significantly higher for the nonhabitual pounders than for the habitual pounders in response to pounding. This study suggests that millet pounding substantially stresses the cardiovascular system sufficiently to place the activity within the moderate intensity category. Further studies on energy cost of this house chore, using instrumentation that is capable of direct measure of oxygen consumption, is warranted. Résumé Contexte: Le fait de battre des aliments dans un mortier en bois est une corvée à domicile fréquente dans de nombreuses communautés des pays d'Afrique et d'Asie. cependant, Il n'existe pas de données empiriques sur

  3. Phosphate translocator of mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of a C sub 4 plant, Panicum miliaceum L

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Junichi; Fluegge, U.I.; Heldt, H.W. )

    1989-12-01

    The phosphate translocator was identified in the envelope membranes of both mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts of Panicum miliaceum L. by labeling with (1,2-{sup 3}H)1,2-(2,2{prime}-disulfo-4,4{prime}-diisothiocyano)diphenylethane (({sup 3}H)H{sub 2}DIDS) and by using SDS-PAGE. Assay of {sup 32}Pi uptake by the chloroplasts showed that the phosphate translocators of both types of chloroplasts have a higher affinity for phosphoenolpyruvate than the C{sub 3} counterpart and can be regarded as C{sub 4} types.

  4. Effect of germination temperatures on proteolysis of the gluten-free grains sorghum and millet during malting and mashing.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Y; Bryce, J H; Goodfellow, V; MacKinlay, J; Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Harrison, B

    2012-04-11

    Our study showed that sorghum and millet followed a similar pattern of changes when they were malted under similar conditions. When the malt from these cereals was mashed, both cereal types produced wide spectra of substrates (sugars and amino acids) that are required for yeast fermentation when malted at either lower or higher temperatures. At the germination temperatures of 20, 25, and 30 °C used in malting both cereal types, production of reducing sugars and that of free amino nitrogen (FAN) were similar. This is an important quality attribute for both cereals because it implies that variation in temperature during the malting of sorghum and millet, especially when malting temperature is difficult to control, and also reflecting temperature variations, experienced in different countries, will not have an adverse effect on the production and release of amino acids and sugars required by yeast during fermentation. Such consistency in the availability of yeast food (substrates) for metabolism during fermentation when sorghum and millet are malted at various temperatures is likely to reduce processing issues when their malts are used for brewing. Although sorghum has gained wide application in the brewing industry, and has been used extensively in brewing gluten-free beer on industrial scale, this is not the case with millet. The work described here provides novel information regarding the potential of millet for brewing. When both cereals were malted, the results obtained for millet in this study followed patterns similar to those of sorghum. This suggests that millet, in terms of sugars and amino acids, can play a role similar to that of sorghum in the brewing industry. This further suggests that millet, like sorghum, would be a good raw material for brewing gluten-free beer. Inclusion of millet as a brewing raw material will increase the availability of suitable materials (raw material sustainability) for use in the production of gluten-free beer, beverages, and

  5. Simultaneous inclusion of sorghum and cottonseed meal or millet in broiler diets: effects on performance and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Bastianelli, D; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Umar Faruk, M

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the use of sorghum, cottonseed meal and millet in broiler diets and their interaction when they are used simultaneously. In Experiment 1, a corn-soybean meal control diet was compared with eight experimental treatments based on low tannin sorghum (S30, S45 and S60), cottonseed meal (CM15, CM40) or both ingredients included in the same diet (S30/CM40, S45/CM25 and S60CM15). Results showed that BW gain was not affected by the inclusion of sorghum or cottonseed meal. However, feed intake tended to be affected by the cereal type with the highest values with sorghum-based diets. Feed conversion ratio increased (P<0.001) with sorghum-based diets compared with the control diet, whereas a combination of cottonseed meal and sorghum in the same diet did not affect the feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (P<0.001) were observed in apparent ileal digestibility (%) of protein and energy with the cottonseed meal and sorghum/cottonseed meal-based diets having lower protein and energy digestibility compared with corn-based diets. In Experiment 2, a control diet was compared with six diets in which corn was substituted at 60%, 80% or 100% by either sorghum or millet and other three diets with simultaneous inclusion of these two ingredients (S30/M30, S40/M40, S50/M50). Single or combined inclusion of sorghum and millet resulted in similar feed intake and growth performance as the control diet. Apparent ileal digestibility of protein and energy was higher with millet-based diets (P<0.001). Total tract digestibility of protein in sorghum and millet-based diets tended to decrease linearly with the increasing level of substitution. Sorghum-based diets resulted in lower total tract digestibility of fat compared with millet and sorghum/millet-based diets (P<0.001). Higher total tract digestibility of starch were obtained with the control diet and millet-based diets compared with the sorghum-based treatments. Results of the two

  6. The complex subcellular distribution of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein reflects its multifunctional role during infection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dong; Omarov, Rustem T; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2008-06-20

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions. We determined that SPMV CP accumulates in both cytosolic and non-cytosolic fractions, but cytosolic accumulation of SPMV CP is exclusively associated with virions. An N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) on SPMV CP is used to bind its cognate RNA and to form virus particles. Intriguingly, virion formation is dispensable for successful systemic SPMV RNA accumulation, yet this process still depends on an intact N-ARM. In addition, a C-terminal domain on the SPMV CP is necessary for self-interaction. Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a satellite virus CP not only accumulates exclusively as virions in the cytosol but also is directed to the nucleolus and membranes. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport.

  7. Preliminary analysis of crystals of panicum mosaic virus (PMV) by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Makino, Debora L; Larson, Steven B; McPherson, Alexander

    2005-02-01

    Panicum mosaic virus (PMV), a spherical virus of diameter about 300 A, has been crystallized in a form suitable for high-resolution structural analysis. The crystals were grown from 15% PEG 400 at room temperature and could be flash-frozen directly from their mother liquor. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2.7 A resolution. A data set was collected at 100 K to an effective resolution of 3.2 A [Weiss (2001), J. Appl. Cryst. 34, 130-135]. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=411.7, b=403.9, c=412.5 A, beta=89.7 degrees . Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement with tobacco necrosis virus as the probe model yielded tentative positions and orientations for the two entire virus particles comprising the asymmetric unit and implied a pseudo-face-centered cubic packing arrangement. Investigation of lightly glutaraldehyde-fixed crystals in water using atomic force microscopy confirms the packing arrangement given by the molecular-replacement result. The images also show that contaminating virions of the satellite virus to PMV, known as satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV), can be incorporated into the PMV crystals by insertion into the interstices between PMV virions in the lattice. This is the first observation of such a phenomenon in macromolecular crystals.

  8. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    DOE PAGES

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; ...

    2011-01-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination wasmore » recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, Trailblazer, and Tusca), intermediate (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Shawnee, and Shelter) and tolerant (Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to low temperatures. The cardinal temperature estimates would

  9. Purification and Characterization of NAD Malic Enzyme from Leaves of Eleusine coracana and Panicum dichotomiflorum1

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Takao; Ohsugi, Ryu; Matsuoka, Makoto; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    1989-01-01

    NAD malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.39), which is involved in C4 photosynthesis, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from leaves of Eleusine coracana and to near homogeneity from leaves of Panicum dichotomiflorum. The enzyme from each C4 species was found to have only one type of subunit by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Mr of subunits of the enzme from E. coracana and P. dichotommiflorum was 63 and 61 kilodaltons, respectively. The native Mr of the enzyme from each species was determined by gel filtration to be about 500 kilodaltons, indicating that the NAD malic enzyme from C4 species is an octamer of identical subunits. The purified NAD malic enzyme from each C4 species showed similar kinetic properties with respect to concentrations of malate and NAD; each had a requirement for Mn2+ and activation by fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) or CoA. A cooperativity with respect to Mn2+ was apparent with both enzymes. The activator (FBP) did not change the Hill value but greatly decreased K0.5 (the concentration giving half-maximal activity) for Mn2+. The enzyme from E. coracana showed a very low level of activity when NADP was used as substrate, but this activity was also stimulated by FBP. Significant differences between the enzymes from E. coracana and P. dichotomiflorum were observed in their responses to the activators and their immunochemical properties. The enzyme from E. coracana was largely dependent on the activators FBP or CoA, regardless of concentration of Mn2+. In contrast, the enzyme from P. dichotomiflorum showed significant activity in the absence of the activator, especially at high concentrations of Mn2+. Both immunodiffusion and immunoprecipitation, using antiserum raised against the purified NAD malic enzyme from E. coracana, revealed partial antigenic differences between the enzymes from E. coracana and P. dichotomiflorum. The activity of the NAD malic enzyme from Amaranthus edulis, a typical NAD malic enzyme type C4 dicot, was not

  10. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Intraspecific Variation and Thermotolerance Classification Using in Vitro Seed Germination Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Seepaul, Ramdeo; Macoon, Bisoondat; Reddy, K. Raja; Baldwin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Cardinal temperatures for plant processes have been used for thermotolerance screening of genotypes, geoclimatic adaptability determination and phenological prediction. Current simulation models for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) utilize single cardinal temperatures across genotypes for both vegetative and reproductive processes although in-tra-specific variation exists among genotypes. An experiment was conducted to estimate the cardinal temperatures for seed germination of 14 diverse switchgrass genotypes and to classify genotypes for temperature tolerance. Stratified seeds of each genotype were germinated at eight constant temperatures from 10 °C to 45 °C under a constant light intensity of 35 μmol m-2s-1 for 12 hd-1. Germination was recorded at 6-h intervals in all treatments. Maximum seed germination (MSG) and germination rate (GR), estimated by fitting Sigmoidal function to germination-time series data, varied among genotypes. Quadratic and bilinear models best described the MSG and GR responses to temperature, respectively. The mean cardinal temperatures, Tmin, Topt, and Tmax, were 8.1, 26.6, and 45.1 °C for MSG and 11.1, 33.1, and 46.0 °C for GR, respectively. Cardinal temperatures for MSG and GR; however, varied significantly among genotypes. Genotypes were classified as sensitive (Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Expresso, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, Trailblazer, and Tusca), intermediate (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Shawnee, and Shelter) and tolerant (Summer) to high temperature based on cumulative temperature response index (CTRI) estimated by summing individual response indices estimated from the MSG and GR cardinal temperatures. Similarly, genotypes were also classified as sensitive (Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Dacotah, Shawnee, Shelter and Summer), moderately sensitive (Cave-in-rock, Forestburg, Kanlow, Sunburst, and Tusca), moderately tolerant (Trailblazer), and tolerant (Expresso) to

  11. Transcriptome analysis of heat stress response in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Fang; Wang, Yixing; Tang, Yuhong; Kakani, Vijaya Gopal; Mahalingam, Ramamurthy

    2013-10-06

    Global warming predictions indicate that temperatures will increase by another 2-6°C by the end of this century. High temperature is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a model herbaceous bioenergy crop, due to its rapid growth rate, reliable biomass yield, minimal requirements of water and nutrients, adaptability to grow on marginal lands and widespread distribution throughout North America. The effect of high temperature on switchgrass physiology, cell wall composition and biomass yields has been reported. However, there is void in the knowledge of the molecular responses to heat stress in switchgrass. We conducted long-term heat stress treatment (38°/30°C, day/night, for 50 days) in the switchgrass cultivar Alamo. A significant decrease in the plant height and total biomass was evident in the heat stressed plants compared to controls. Total RNA from control and heat stress samples were used for transcriptome analysis with switchgrass Affymetrix genechips. Following normalization and pre-processing, 5365 probesets were identified as differentially expressed using a 2-fold cutoff. Of these, 2233 probesets (2000 switchgrass unigenes) were up-regulated, and 3132 probesets (2809 unigenes) were down-regulated. Differential expression of 42 randomly selected genes from this list was validated using RT-PCR. Rice orthologs were retrieved for 78.7% of the heat stress responsive switchgrass probesets. Gene ontology (GOs) enrichment analysis using AgriGO program showed that genes related to ATPase regulator, chaperone binding, and protein folding was significantly up-regulated. GOs associated with protein modification, transcription, phosphorus and nitrogen metabolic processes, were significantly down-regulated by heat stress. Plausible connections were identified between the identified GOs, physiological responses and heat response phenotype observed in switchgrass plants

  12. Optimization of the formulation and technology of pearl millet based 'ready-to-reconstitute' kheer mix powder.

    PubMed

    Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Jha, Alok; Mahajan, Ankur

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the process of manufacturing instant kheer mix based on pearl millet instead of rice. Dairy whitener, pearl millet and powdered sugar were the responses studied by employing the 3-factor Central Composite Rotatable Design. The formulation with 15 g sugar, 30 g dairy whitener and 20 g pearl millet was found suitable for obtaining dry kheer mix. The analyses were based on scores of consistency, cohesiveness, viscosity and overall acceptability. The reconstituted product from the formulated kheer mix had an overall acceptability score of 7.66 and desirability index of 0.7663. The moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash contents of the dry mix product were 2.8, 4.38, 5.84, 85.88 and 1.1 %, respectively.

  13. Effect of germination on the structures and physicochemical properties of starches from brown rice, oat, sorghum, and millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Baik, Hyun-Wook; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2017-07-22

    Four selected grains (brown rice, oat, sorghum, and millet) were subjected to germinate and changes in granule morphology, molecular structure, crystalline structure, and physicochemical properties of isolated starch were investigated. The germinated starches showed pits and holes on the surface of the starch granules and the particle size distributions shifted slightly to smaller size as the germination time increased. Germination led to decrease in amylose content, while molecular weights of the germinated starches showed no significant changes. The relative crystallinity of all selected grain starches decreased significantly during germination. Compared to the native starches, the germinated starches had lower retrogradation enthalpy. Brown rice and oat starches exhibited marginal increases in peak viscosities, whereas those of sorghum and millet starches decreased significantly during germination. Amylose leaching of brown rice and oat starches decreased after germination, whereas sorghum and millet starches showed an increase in amylose leaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cereal Domestication and Evolution of Branching: Evidence for Soft Selection in the Tb1 Orthologue of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum [L.] R. Br.)

    PubMed Central

    Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Lakis, Ghayas; Rekima, Samah; Leveugle, Magalie; Fontaine, Michaël C.; Langin, Thierry; Sarr, Aboubakry; Robert, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background During the Neolithic revolution, early farmers altered plant development to domesticate crops. Similar traits were often selected independently in different wild species; yet the genetic basis of this parallel phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Plant architecture ranks among these target traits composing the domestication syndrome. We focused on the reduction of branching which occurred in several cereals, an adaptation known to rely on the major gene Teosinte-branched1 (Tb1) in maize. We investigate the role of the Tb1 orthologue (Pgtb1) in the domestication of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), an African outcrossing cereal. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene cloning, expression profiling, QTL mapping and molecular evolution analysis were combined in a comparative approach between pearl millet and maize. Our results in pearl millet support a role for PgTb1 in domestication despite important differences in the genetic basis of branching adaptation in that species compared to maize (e.g. weaker effects of PgTb1). Genetic maps suggest this pattern to be consistent in other cereals with reduced branching (e.g. sorghum, foxtail millet). Moreover, although the adaptive sites underlying domestication were not formerly identified, signatures of selection pointed to putative regulatory regions upstream of both Tb1 orthologues in maize and pearl millet. However, the signature of human selection in the pearl millet Tb1 is much weaker in pearl millet than in maize. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that some level of parallel evolution involved at least regions directly upstream of Tb1 for the domestication of pearl millet and maize. This was unanticipated given the multigenic basis of domestication traits and the divergence of wild progenitor species for over 30 million years prior to human selection. We also hypothesized that regular introgression of domestic pearl millet phenotypes by genes from the wild gene pool could explain why the selective

  15. Unexpected pattern of pearl millet genetic diversity among ethno-linguistic groups in the Lake Chad Basin.

    PubMed

    Naino Jika, A K; Dussert, Y; Raimond, C; Garine, E; Luxereau, A; Takvorian, N; Djermakoye, R S; Adam, T; Robert, T

    2017-01-25

    Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin. 69 pearl millet populations, representing 27 landraces collected in eight ethno-linguistic farmer groups, were analyzed. We found that the farmers' local taxonomy was not a good proxy for population's genetic differentiation as previously shown at smaller scales. Our results show the existence of a genetic structure of pearl millet mainly associated with ethno-linguistic diversity in the western side of the lake Chad. It suggests there is a limit to gene flow between landraces grown by different ethno-linguistic groups. This result was rather unexpected, because of the highly outcrossing mating system of pearl millet, the high density of pearl millet fields all along the green belt of this Sahelian area and the fact that seed exchanges among ethno-linguistic groups are known to occur. In the eastern side of the Lake, the pattern of genetic diversity suggests a larger efficient circulation of pearl millet genes between ethno-linguistic groups that are less numerous, spatially intermixed and, for some of them, more prone to exogamy. Finally, other historical and environmental factors which may contribute to the observed diversity patterns are discussed.Heredity advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.128.

  16. Unexpected pattern of pearl millet genetic diversity among ethno-linguistic groups in the Lake Chad Basin

    PubMed Central

    Naino Jika, A K; Dussert, Y; Raimond, C; Garine, E; Luxereau, A; Takvorian, N; Djermakoye, R S; Adam, T; Robert, T

    2017-01-01

    Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin. 69 pearl millet populations, representing 27 landraces collected in eight ethno-linguistic farmer groups, were analyzed. We found that the farmers’ local taxonomy was not a good proxy for population’s genetic differentiation as previously shown at smaller scales. Our results show the existence of a genetic structure of pearl millet mainly associated with ethno-linguistic diversity in the western side of the lake Chad. It suggests there is a limit to gene flow between landraces grown by different ethno-linguistic groups. This result was rather unexpected, because of the highly outcrossing mating system of pearl millet, the high density of pearl millet fields all along the green belt of this Sahelian area and the fact that seed exchanges among ethno-linguistic groups are known to occur. In the eastern side of the Lake, the pattern of genetic diversity suggests a larger efficient circulation of pearl millet genes between ethno-linguistic groups that are less numerous, spatially intermixed and, for some of them, more prone to exogamy. Finally, other historical and environmental factors which may contribute to the observed diversity patterns are discussed. PMID:28121310

  17. Sequential fermentation of pearl millet by yeasts and lactobacilli--effect on the antinutrients and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Khetarpaul, N; Chauhan, B M

    1991-10-01

    Sequential culture fermentation by yeasts (S. diastaticus or S. cerevisiae) at 30 degrees C for 72 hr and then followed by lactobacilli fermentation (L. brevis or L. fermentum) at 30 degrees C for 72 h more resulted in a significant reduction in phytic acid and polyphenol content of pearl millet flour. Fermentation by S. diastaticus and L. brevis combination almost eliminated phytic acid from pearl millet flour. The combinations of S. diastaticus with both the lactobacilli reduced phytic acid more effectively than those of S. cerevisiae. The products fermented by S. cerevisiae and L. brevis and by S. diastaticus and L. brevis combinations had the highest protein and starch digestibility (in vitro).

  18. Exploring Potential of Pearl Millet Germplasm Association Panel for Association Mapping of Drought Tolerance Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Skot, Leif; Singh, Richa; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Sankar Prasad; Taunk, Jyoti; Sharma, Parbodh C.; Pal, Ram; Raj, Bhasker; Hash, Charles T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2015-01-01

    A pearl millet inbred germplasm association panel (PMiGAP) comprising 250 inbred lines, representative of cultivated germplasm from Africa and Asia, elite improved open-pollinated cultivars, hybrid parental inbreds and inbred mapping population parents, was recently established. This study presents the first report of genetic diversity in PMiGAP and its exploitation for association mapping of drought tolerance traits. For diversity and genetic structure analysis, PMiGAP was genotyped with 37 SSR and CISP markers representing all seven linkage groups. For association analysis, it was phenotyped for yield and yield components and morpho-physiological traits under both well-watered and drought conditions, and genotyped with SNPs and InDels from seventeen genes underlying a major validated drought tolerance (DT) QTL. The average gene diversity in PMiGAP was 0.54. The STRUCTURE analysis revealed six subpopulations within PMiGAP. Significant associations were obtained for 22 SNPs and 3 InDels from 13 genes under different treatments. Seven SNPs associations from 5 genes were common under irrigated and one of the drought stress treatments. Most significantly, an important SNP in putative acetyl CoA carboxylase gene showed constitutive association with grain yield, grain harvest index and panicle yield under all treatments. An InDel in putative chlorophyll a/b binding protein gene was significantly associated with both stay-green and grain yield traits under drought stress. This can be used as a functional marker for selecting high yielding genotypes with ‘stay green’ phenotype under drought stress. The present study identified useful marker-trait associations of important agronomics traits under irrigated and drought stress conditions with genes underlying a major validated DT-QTL in pearl millet. Results suggest that PMiGAP is a useful panel for association mapping. Expression patterns of genes also shed light on some physiological mechanisms underlying pearl millet

  19. Grain Yield and Quality of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) in Response to Tribenuron-Methyl

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiangyang; Dong, Shuqi; Wen, Yinyuan; Gao, Zhenpan; Guo, Meijun; Guo, Pingyi

    2015-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is cultivated around the world for human and animal consumption. There is no suitable herbicide available for weed control in foxtail millet fields during the post-emergence stage. In this study, we investigated the effect and safety of the post-emergence herbicide tribenuron-methyl (TBM) on foxtail millet in terms of grain yield and quality using a split-plot field design. Field experiments were conducted using two varieties in 2013 and 2014, i.e., high-yielding hybrid Zhangzagu 10 and high-quality conventional Jingu 21. TBM treatments at 11.25 to 90 g ai ha−1 reduced root and shoot biomass and grain yield to varying degrees. In each of the two years, grain yield declined by 50.2% in Zhangzagu 10 with a herbicide dosage of 45 g ai ha−1 and by 45.2% in Jingu 21 with a herbicide dosage of 22.5 g ai ha−1 (recommended dosage). Yield reduction was due to lower grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, panicle length, and panicle diameter. Grain yield was positively correlated with grains per panicle and 1000-grain weight, but not with panicles ha−1. With respect to grain protein content at 22.5 g ai ha−1, Zhangzagu 10 was similar to the control, whereas Jingu 21 was markedly lower. An increase in TBM dosage led to a decrease in grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations. In conclusion, the recommended dosage of TBM was relatively safe for Zhangzagu 10, but not for Jingu 21. Additionally, the hybrid variety Zhangzagu 10 had a greater tolerance to TBM than the conventional variety Jingu 21. PMID:26565992

  20. Deciphering Genomic Regions for High Grain Iron and Zinc Content Using Association Mapping in Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, N.; Satyavathi, C. Tara; Bharadwaj, C.; Nepolean, T.; Sankar, S. Mukesh; Singh, Sumer P.; Meena, Mahesh C.; Singhal, Tripti; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition, especially deficiency of two mineral elements, iron [Fe] and zinc [Zn] in the developing world needs urgent attention. Pearl millet is one of the best crops with many nutritional properties and is accessible to the poor. We report findings of the first attempt to mine favorable alleles for grain iron and zinc content through association mapping in pearl millet. An association mapping panel of 130 diverse lines was evaluated at Delhi, Jodhpur and Dharwad, representing all the three pearl millet growing agro-climatic zones of India, during 2014 and 2015. Wide range of variation was observed for grain iron (32.3–111.9 ppm) and zinc (26.6–73.7 ppm) content. Genotyping with 114 representative polymorphic SSRs revealed 0.35 mean gene diversity. STRUCTURE analysis revealed presence of three sub-populations which was further supported by Neighbor-Joining method of clustering and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Marker-trait associations (MTAs) were analyzed with 267 markers (250 SSRs and 17 genic markers) in both general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM), however, MTAs resulting from MLM were considered for more robustness of the associations. After appropriate Bonferroni correction, Xpsmp 2261 (13.34% R2-value), Xipes 0180 (R2-value of 11.40%) and Xipes 0096 (R2-value of 11.38%) were consistently associated with grain iron and zinc content for all the three locations. Favorable alleles and promising lines were identified for across and specific environments. PPMI 1102 had highest number (7) of favorable alleles, followed by four each for PPMFeZMP 199 and PPMI 708 for across the environment performance for both grain Fe and Zn content, while PPMI 1104 had alleles specific to Dharwad for grain Fe and Zn content. When compared with the reference genome Tift 23D2B1-P1-P5, Xpsmp 2261 amplicon was identified in intergenic region on pseudomolecule 5, while the other marker, Xipes 0810 was observed to be overlapping with aspartic

  1. Differential responses of forage pearl millet genotypes to chinch bug (Heteroptera: Blissidae) feeding.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinzhi; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Buntin, G David

    2009-10-01

    Chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus leucopterus (Say) (Heteroptera: Blissidae), is one of the most important insect pests on forage pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum L. R. Br., production in the southeastern United States. Twenty-nine forage pearl millet genotypes were assessed for chinch bug resistance by using stunt and necrosis ratings in combination with quantitative measurements of chlorophyll content and leaf photosynthetic rate. Plant stunt and leaf sheath necrosis ratings, and chlorophyll content in flag leaves differed among the 29 genotypes. Photosynthetic rate differed both among the noninfested control and among the chinch bug-infested plants. The chinch bug-infested plants had lower photosynthetic rate than the noninfested control plants. Inbreds with resistance superior to that of Tift 23DB were identified for hybrid development. When the 29 pearl millet genotypes were assessed by the six parameters by using cluster analysis, genotypes 07F-1226, 07F-1229, 07F-1231, 07F-1235, 07F-1238, 07F-1239, and 07F-1240 were the most resistant, whereas the genotypes 07F-1220, 07F-1221, 07F-1225, 07F-1227, 07F-1232, 07F-1246, and Tift 23DB were the most susceptible to chinch bug feeding. The rest of the genotypes expressed intermediate responses to the six parameters. To differentiate the physiological impact of chinch bug feeding on light and dark reactions of plant photosynthesis, photosynthesis capacity was assessed using light and CO2 (A/Ci) response curves on noninfested and chinch bug-infested plants of genotypes 07F-1246, 07F-1223, and 07F-1245, which expressed low, intermediate, and high chlorophyll content, respectively. Based on the A/Ci curves, photosynthesis capacity of injured leaves was suppressed in 07F-1223 and 07F-1246, whereas the chinch bug-injured 07F-1245 leaves showed an increase of photosynthetic rate compared with the noninfested plants. In contrast, light response curves were suppressed in the chinch bug-injured plants compared with the

  2. Tracking 800-year-old Shipments: An Archaeological Investigation of the Mado Shipwreck Cargo, Taean, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minkoo; Moon, Whan Suk

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines cargo from an 800-year-old shipwreck and discusses its implications in relation to the exchange networks and maritime transportation of the Goryeo period (A.D. 918-1392) in Korea. In 2007, two local fishermen fortuitously discovered porcelain vessels from a Goryeo-period shipwreck off the mid-western coast of the Korean peninsula. Underwater excavation conducted by the National Research Institute of Maritime Cultural Heritage (NRIMCH) revealed that the ship was carrying a myriad of cargoes destined for Gaegyeong, the capital of the Goryeo dynasty. Excavation indicates that the main body of the cargo was porcelain vessels produced in the southern part of the peninsula. Archaeobotanical investigation of the wreck deposits revealed that the ship was carrying crops such as rice ( Oryza sativa L.), broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.), foxtail millet ( Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.), and buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) bound for the capital. Among the recovered objects were 73 wooden cargo tags with Chinese letters. These tags, equivalent to the modern day air bill, contained detailed information about the senders, recipients, and shipped goods. These findings indicate that during the Goryeo period maritime transportation played an important role in the interpersonal exchange of products over long distances.

  3. Effect of traditional fermentation and malting on phytic acid and mineral availability from sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) grain varieties grown in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makokha, Anselimo O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Njoroge, Simon M; Kamar, Oliver K

    2002-09-01

    Sorghum and finger millet grains are traditional staple foods in Kenya. However, they have naturally occurring anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid, that decrease their dietary availability. This work determined the effect of fermentation and malting on the phytic acid content of, and mineral availability in five varieties of sorghum and four varieties of finger millet grain grown in Kenya. Phytic acid ranged from 875.1 to 2,211.9 mg/100 g in sorghum. The levels in finger millet ranged from 851.6 to 1,419.4 mg/100 g grain. Fermentation resulted in a mean decrease of phytic acid in of 64.8% after 96 hours and 39.0% after 72 hours in sorghum grain. In finger millet, there was a mean decrease of 72.3% and 54.3% after 96 and 72 hours, respectively. Malting also resulted in a mean decrease of 23.9 and 45.3% after 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The extent of decrease of phytic acid differed among the grain varieties. Fermentation increased the rate of available iron, manganese, and calcium in both sorghum and finger millet. The available minerals were generally higher in finger millet than in sorghum after fermentation. Fermentation was also more effective than malting in reducing phytic acid in sorghum and finger millet. Simple traditional food processing methods can therefore be used to increase mineral availability.

  4. Assessment of Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumx P. glaucum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) trap crops for the management of Chilo partellus on maize.

    PubMed

    Hari, N S; Jindal, J

    2009-04-01

    Two Napier millet (Pennisetum purpureumxP. glaucum) hybrids, namely PBN 83 and PBN 233 and one sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) variety, SL 44, were assessed for their potential role as a trap crop in the management of the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on maize. Oviposition preference and larval survival and development were determined for different test plants under laboratory and screen house conditions. Further, field dispersal of C. partellus larvae was assessed between Napier millet and maize crops. Results from no-choice and dual-choice tests indicated that Napier millet hybrids were preferred for oviposition over maize by C. partellus moths. Sorghum was, however, not preferred over maize in this respect. Napier millet hybrids were poor larval hosts, and a rapid decline in larval numbers was noticed within the first five days after hatching and virtually no larvae survived to pupation. Leaf area eaten by the borer larvae was significantly less on these hybrids than on maize or sorghum. Plant damage was more severe in maize and sorghum than Napier millet hybrids. No appreciable larval shift was noticed from Napier millet hybrids to the adjoining maize crop. The evaluated Napier millet hybrids, therefore, had potential for use as trap crop in C. partellus management. Sorghum, however, did not hold promise in this respect.

  5. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P < 0.05). However, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P < 0.05) and the treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  6. Biology, Genetics, and Management of Ergot (Claviceps spp.) in Rye, Sorghum, and Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Miedaner, Thomas; Geiger, Hartwig H.

    2015-01-01

    Ergot is a disease of cereals and grasses caused by fungi in the genus Claviceps. Of particular concern are Claviceps purpurea in temperate regions, C. africana in sorghum (worldwide), and C. fusiformis in pearl millet (Africa, Asia). The fungi infect young, usually unfertilized ovaries, replacing the seeds by dark mycelial masses known as sclerotia. The percentage of sclerotia in marketable grain is strictly regulated in many countries. In winter rye, ergot has been known in Europe since the early Middle Ages. The alkaloids produced by the fungus severely affect the health of humans and warm-blooded animals. In sorghum and pearl millet, ergot became a problem when growers adopted hybrid technology, which increased host susceptibility. Plant traits reducing ergot infection include immediate pollination of receptive stigmas, closed flowering (cleistogamy), and physiological resistance. Genetic, nonpollen-mediated variation in ergot susceptibility could be demonstrated in all three affected cereals. Fungicides have limited efficacy and application is weather dependent. Sorting out the sclerotia from the harvest by photocells is expensive and time consuming. In conclusion, molecular-based hybrid rye breeding could improve pollen fertility by introgressing effective restorer genes thus bringing down the ergot infection level to that of conventional population cultivars. A further reduction might be feasible in the future by selecting more resistant germplasm. PMID:25723323

  7. Effect of incorporating finger millet in wheat flour on mixolab behavior, chapatti quality and starch digestibility.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bharati; Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Solah, Vicky

    2017-09-15

    Wheat and finger millet flour (two cultivars) were blended in the ratio (3:1) to form a composite flour and its dough properties were studied on the mixolab. The chapatti making and digestibility behavior of the composite flour was also investigated. The wheat finger millet (WFM) flour blend displayed up to 30.7% higher total phenolic content (TPC), 38.2% higher total flavonoid content (TFC) and 75.4% higher antioxidant activity (AOA) than the wheat flour. Chapattis prepared from the composite blends exhibited lower retrogradation as evident by the mixolab retrogradation index, higher values of soluble starch and soluble amylose in stored chapatti. The slowly digestible starch (SDS) correlated positively (R=0.816, p<0.05) with TPC and water absorption correlated positively (R=0.995, p<0.05) with damage starch content. The chapattis made from the composite flour had higher SDS and resistant starch (RS) values demonstrating potential as a food with functional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes: How Millet Comes to Help

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jason; Puranik, Swati; Yadav, Rama; Manwaring, Hanna R.; Pierre, Sandra; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes has become a highly problematic and increasingly prevalent disease world-wide. It has contributed toward 1.5 million deaths in 2012. Management techniques for diabetes prevention in high-risk as well as in affected individuals, beside medication, are mainly through changes in lifestyle and dietary regulation. Particularly, diet can have a great influence on life quality for those that suffer from, as well as those at risk of, diabetes. As such, considerations on nutritional aspects are required to be made to include in dietary intervention. This review aims to give an overview on the general consensus of current dietary and nutritional recommendation for diabetics. In light of such recommendation, the use of plant breeding, conventional as well as more recently developed molecular marker-based breeding and biofortification, are discussed in designing crops with desired characteristics. While there are various recommendations available, dietary choices are restricted by availability due to geo-, political-, or economical- considerations. This particularly holds true for countries such as India, where 65 million people (up from 50 million in 2010) are currently diabetic and their numbers are rising at an alarming rate. Millets are one of the most abundant crops grown in India as well as in Africa, providing a staple food source for many poorest of the poor communities in these countries. The potentials of millets as a dietary component to combat the increasing prevalence of global diabetes are highlighted in this review. PMID:27729921

  9. Flavonoids extracted from fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) reveal potent antithyroid properties.

    PubMed

    Sartelet, H; Serghat, S; Lobstein, A; Ingenbleek, Y; Anton, R; Petitfrère, E; Aguie-Aguie, G; Martiny, L; Haye, B

    1996-02-01

    Digitaria exilis (fonio) is a tiny variety of millet commonly eaten by inhabitants of semiarid regions. A sample of fonio collected right in the middle of a severely iodine-depleted goitrous endemic was submitted to phytochemical investigations in order to assess the potential contributory roles played by vegetable molecules to the goitrogenic processes. The total content of flavonoids amounts to 500 mg/kg of the edible whole cereal grains. Their extraction and identification fail to detect the C-glycosylflavones described in other millet varieties but point out the presence of apigenin (A = 150 mg/kg) and of luteolin (L1 = 350 mg/kg). Ten percent of A and 80% of L1 are present in free form, whereas the remaining 90% of A and 20% of L1 are bound as O-glycosylflavones. Both A and L1 aglycones manifest strong anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activities, resulting in a significant reduction of the hormonogenic capacity of this enzyme. In addition, L1 significantly depresses the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase, implying a concomitant overproduction of the thyrotropin-dependent nucleotide. These last unreported data are regarded as counteracting to some extent the TPO-mediated goitrogenic properties of L1. Since fonio is devoid of other molecules likely to interfere with the thyroid function, our results are directly and casually attributed to A and L1 found in the customary diet.

  10. Utilization of chemically modified pearl millet starches in preparation of custards with improved cold storage stability.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Marium; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Hasnain, Abid

    2017-11-01

    Custards were prepared using five ingredients: milk powder, modified pearl millet starch, sugar, vanilla essence and water. The effect of adding hydroxypropylated starch (HPS), succinylated starch (SUS), oxidised starch (OXS) and acetylated starch (ACS) on cold storage stability, pasting, textural and sensory properties was studied and compared to custards containing native pearl millet starch (NS). Interestingly, all chemically modified starches reduced syneresis and no water weeping was observed in custard sample incorporating hydroxypropylated starch (HPC) even after 7days of cold storage. Viscoamylographic analysis revealed that custard containing succinylated starch (SUC) had the highest peak viscosity (108.8 BU), whereas HPC showed the least set back viscosity (19.0 BU). Sensory results suggested that assessors preferred HPC over other custards. Custards are preferred for their chewy semi-solid texture. Incorporation of hydroxypropylated starch (HPS) increased hardness, gumminess and chewiness which subsequently led to higher sensory scores during subjective analysis. Also, no retrogradation peak was observed for HPS and acetylated starch (ACS) when rescanned after 14 days. Thus, it could be concluded that HPS could be used in custards to confer low temperature stability by reducing syneresis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  12. Genome scan reveals selection acting on genes linked to stress response in wild pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Thuillet, Anne-Céline; Rhoné, Bénédicte; Mariac, Cédric; Ousseini, Issaka Salia; Couderc, Marie; Tenaillon, Maud I; Vigouroux, Yves

    2016-11-01

    Uncovering genomic regions involved in adaption is a major goal in evolutionary biology. High-throughput sequencing now makes it possible to tackle this challenge in nonmodel species. Yet, despite the increasing number of methods targeted to specifically detect genomic footprints of selection, the complex demography of natural populations often causes high rates of false positive in gene discoveries. The aim of this study was to identify climate adaptations in wild pearl millet populations, Cenchrus americanus ssp. monodii. We focused on two climate gradients, one in Mali and one in Niger. We used a two-step strategy to limit false-positive outliers. First, we considered gradients as biological replicates and performed RNA sequencing of four populations at the extremities. We combined four methods-three based on differentiation among populations and one based on diversity patterns within populations-to identify outlier SNPs from a set of 87 218 high-quality SNPs. Among 11 155 contigs of pearl millet reference transcriptome, 540 exhibited selection signals as evidenced by at least one of the four methods. In a second step, we genotyped 762 samples in 11 additional populations distributed along the gradients using SNPs from the detected contigs and random SNPs as control. We further assessed selection on this large data set using a differentiation-based method and a method based on correlations with environmental variables based. Four contigs displayed consistent signatures between the four extreme and 11 additional populations, two of which were linked to abiotic and biotic stress responses.

  13. [cDNA library construction from panicle meristem of finger millet].

    PubMed

    Radchuk, V; Pirko, Ia V; Isaenkov, S V; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    The protocol for production of full-size cDNA using SuperScript Full-Length cDNA Library Construction Kit II (Invitrogen) was tested and high quality cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) was created. The titer of obtained cDNA library comprised 3.01 x 10(5) CFU/ml in avarage. In average the length of cDNA insertion consisted about 1070 base pairs, the effectivity of cDNA fragment insertions--99.5%. The selective sequencing of cDNA clones from created library was performed. The sequences of cDNA clones were identified with usage of BLAST-search. The results of cDNA library analysis and selective sequencing represents prove good functionality and full length character of inserted cDNA clones. Obtained cDNA library from meristematic tissue of finger millet panicle represents good and valuable source for isolation and identification of key genes regulating metabolism and meristematic development and for mining of new molecular markers to conduct out high quality genetic investigations and molecular breeding as well.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Selection of Genes Associated with Pearl Millet Varietal Quantitative Traits In situ

    PubMed Central

    Mariac, Cédric; Ousseini, Issaka S.; Alio, Abdel-Kader; Jugdé, Hélène; Pham, Jean-Louis; Bezançon, Gilles; Ronfort, Joelle; Descroix, Luc; Vigouroux, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing global climate changes imply new challenges for agriculture. Whether plants and crops can adapt to such rapid changes is still a widely debated question. We previously showed adaptation in the form of earlier flowering in pearl millet at the scale of a whole country over three decades. However, this analysis did not deal with variability of year to year selection. To understand and possibly manage plant and crop adaptation, we need more knowledge of how selection acts in situ. Is selection gradual, abrupt, and does it vary in space and over time? In the present study, we tracked the evolution of allele frequency in two genes associated with pearl millet phenotypic variation in situ. We sampled 17 populations of cultivated pearl millet over a period of 2 years. We tracked changes in allele frequencies in these populations by genotyping more than seven thousand individuals. We demonstrate that several allele frequencies changes are compatible with selection, by correcting allele frequency changes associated with genetic drift. We found marked variation in allele frequencies from year to year, suggesting a variable selection effect in space and over time. We estimated the strength of selection associated with variations in allele frequency. Our results suggest that the polymorphism maintained at the genes we studied is partially explained by the spatial and temporal variability of selection. In response to environmental changes, traditional pearl millet varieties could rapidly adapt thanks to this available functional variability. PMID:27507986

  15. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection

    PubMed Central

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet. PMID:27499196

  16. Successful application of new cost-effective procedures for genotyping pearl millets for genetic diversity and linkage mapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In spite of technology advancement, procedures of DNA extraction and genotyping of large plant populations are cumbersome and expensive. Therefore, in order to genotype large mapping populations for studying genetic diversity, and linkage/QTL mapping for disease and pest resistance in pearl millet (...

  17. A simplified, cost- and time-effective procedure for genotyping pearl millet in resource-limited laboratories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Procedures for DNA extraction and genotyping of large plant populations are cumbersome and expensive for resource-limited laboratories. Through eliminating or changing several steps used in DNA extraction, PCR amplification and PAGE electrophoresis in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], w...

  18. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen. PMID:28322224

  19. The Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Biofortification of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) with Elevated Levels of Grain Iron and Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Manwaring, Hanna R.; Bligh, H. F. J.; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as iron and zinc are the cause of extensive health problems in developing countries. They adversely affect performance, productivity and are a major hindrance to economic development. Since many people who suffer from micronutrient deficiencies are dependent on staple crops to meet their dietary requirements, the development of crop cultivars with increased levels of micronutrients in their edible parts is becoming increasingly recognized as a sustainable solution. This is largely facilitated by genetics and genomic platforms. The cereal crop pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), is an excellent candidate for genetic improvement due to its ability to thrive in dry, semi-arid regions, where farming conditions are often unfavorable. Not only does pearl millet grow in areas where other crops such as maize and wheat do not survive, it contains naturally high levels of micronutrients, proteins and a myriad of other health benefitting characteristics. This review discusses the current status of iron and zinc deficiencies and reasons why interventions such as fortification, supplementation, and soil management are neither practicable nor affordable in poverty stricken areas. We argue that the most cost effective, sustainable intervention strategy is to biofortify pearl millet with enhanced levels of bioavailable iron and zinc. We discuss how naturally occurring genetic variations present in germplasm collections can be incorporated into elite, micronutrient rich varieties and what platforms are available to drive this research. We also consider the logistics of transgenic methods that could facilitate the improvement of the pearl millet gene pool. PMID:28066495

  20. Inclusion of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler diets: a meta-analysis of effects on performance.

    PubMed

    Batonon-Alavo, D I; Umar Faruk, M; Lescoat, P; Weber, G M; Bastianelli, D

    2015-07-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.

  1. The Challenges and Opportunities Associated with Biofortification of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) with Elevated Levels of Grain Iron and Zinc.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, Hanna R; Bligh, H F J; Yadav, Rattan

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies of essential micronutrients such as iron and zinc are the cause of extensive health problems in developing countries. They adversely affect performance, productivity and are a major hindrance to economic development. Since many people who suffer from micronutrient deficiencies are dependent on staple crops to meet their dietary requirements, the development of crop cultivars with increased levels of micronutrients in their edible parts is becoming increasingly recognized as a sustainable solution. This is largely facilitated by genetics and genomic platforms. The cereal crop pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), is an excellent candidate for genetic improvement due to its ability to thrive in dry, semi-arid regions, where farming conditions are often unfavorable. Not only does pearl millet grow in areas where other crops such as maize and wheat do not survive, it contains naturally high levels of micronutrients, proteins and a myriad of other health benefitting characteristics. This review discusses the current status of iron and zinc deficiencies and reasons why interventions such as fortification, supplementation, and soil management are neither practicable nor affordable in poverty stricken areas. We argue that the most cost effective, sustainable intervention strategy is to biofortify pearl millet with enhanced levels of bioavailable iron and zinc. We discuss how naturally occurring genetic variations present in germplasm collections can be incorporated into elite, micronutrient rich varieties and what platforms are available to drive this research. We also consider the logistics of transgenic methods that could facilitate the improvement of the pearl millet gene pool.

  2. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  3. Elicitation of resistance and associated defense responses in Trichoderma hamatum induced protection against pearl millet downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siddaiah, Chandra Nayaka; Satyanarayana, Niranjan Raj; Mudili, Venkataramana; Kumar Gupta, Vijai; Gurunathan, Selvakumar; Rangappa, Shobith; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-03-21

    Endophytic Trichoderma hamatum UoM 13 isolated from pearl millet roots was evaluated for its efficiency to suppress downy mildew disease. Under laboratory conditions, T. hamatum seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination and seedling vigor. T. hamatum seed treatment resulted in systemic and durable immunity against pearl millet downy mildew disease under greenhouse and field conditions. T. hamatum treated seedlings responded to downy mildew infection with high lignification and callose deposition. Analysis of defense enzymes showed that T. hamatum treatment significantly enhanced the activities of glucanase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in comparison to untreated control. RT-PCR analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts of the defense enzymes and PR-proteins in treated, untreated, and checks, wherein PR-1, PR-5, and cell wall defense HRGPs were significantly over expressed in treated seedlings as against their lower expression in controls. T. hamatum treatment significantly stimulated endogenous salicylic acid (SA) levels and significantly upregulated important SA biosynthesis gene isochorismate synthase. The results indicated that T. hamatum UoM13 treatment induces resistance corresponding to significant over expression of endogenous SA, important defense enzymes, PR-proteins, and HRGPs, suggesting that SA biosynthetic pathway is involved in pearl millet for mounting systemic immunity against downy mildew pathogen.

  4. Gamma radiation effects on microbiological, physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of Tunisian millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.R.Br.).

    PubMed

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Jerbi, Taïeb; Ben Bettaïeb, Nasreddine; Fattouch, Sami

    2014-07-01

    Hygienic quality of Tunisian pearl millet flour is always of major concern to consumers as well as all involved in the production, processing and distribution sectors. In the present study, the microbiological and biochemical properties of this food were examined following gamma-radiation. The D10-values for the Total Aerobic Plate Count, yeasts and moulds were respectively 1.5 and 3.7kGy. Furthermore, millet flour is commonly susceptible to mycotoxin contaminations, so the Ochratoxin A residues were also investigated; a reduction of 74% was observed with 10kGy. Moreover, the radiation process did not significantly alter fatty acids composition of the millet flour as obtained with Gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector technic. The peroxide value had increased from 26.16 to 34.43meqO2/kg with 3kGy. At 1kGy, we noticed an important loss of vitamin A of about 88.6%. In contrast, the total phenolic content, the ABTS-RSA and the DPPH-RSA of the radiated millet flour exhibited non-significant changes (p<0.05).

  5. Intervarietal variations in various oxidative stress markers and antioxidant potential of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) subjected to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Bartwal, Arti; Pande, Anjali; Sharma, Priyadarshini; Arora, Sandeep

    2016-07-01

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress leading to lower crop productivity. Experiment was carried out for selecting the most tolerant genotype among six different genotypes of finger millet under drought stress. Seeds of six finger millet genotypes were sown in pots and grown for 35 days. After this period, drought was induced by withholding watering for stressed plants while control plants were watered regularly for comparison. Among all six different varieties of finger millet screened (PR202, PES400, PRM6107, VL283, VL328 and VL149) under varying intensities of drought stress,PRM6107 and PR202 showed highest stress tolerance by limiting excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through activation of ROS scavenging antioxidative enzymes. A 200% increase in ascorbate content was recorded in PRM6107 and PR202, while in other varieties limited increase in ascorbate content was observed. Maximum decrease in chlorophyll content was observed in VL328 (83%) while least drop was observed in VL149 (65%). Relative water content indicated that PR202 was able to retain maximum water content under stress, as it recorded least drop in relative water content (55%), contributing to its better survival under stress. In conclusion finger millet genotypes PRM6107 and PR202 possessed maximum drought tolerance potential and thus may be used for allele mining of drought tolerant genes, which can further be employed for the development of more drought stress tolerant staple crops using biotechnological approach.

  6. Isolation and evaluation of proteolytic actinomycete isolates as novel inducers of pearl millet downy mildew disease protection.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Kurjogi, Mahantesh; Govind, Sharathchandra Ramasandra; Huntrike, Shekar Shetty; Basappa, Vedamurthy Ankala; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-08

    Native endophytic actinomycetes isolated from pearl millet roots were examined for their efficacy to protect pearl millet against downy mildew. Nineteen of 39 isolates were found to be proteolytic, of which 7 strains could directly suppress the sporangium formation of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Thus, mycelial suspensions containing either spores or cell-free extract of these 7 isolates were used for seed-coating and -soaking treatments to test for their induction of downy mildew resistance. Results indicated that seed-coating overall provided better protection to downy mildew than seed-soaking. In both treatments, the tested isolates demonstrated differential abilities in downy mildew disease protection, with Streptomyces griseus SJ_UOM-07-09 and Streptosporangium roseum SJ_UOM-18-09 showing the highest protection rates. Additionally, the levels of disease protection conferred by the actinomycetes were just slightly lower than that of the systemic fungicide Apron, suggesting their effectiveness. Further studies revealed that the more rapid root colonization by SJ_UOM-18-09 resulted in faster and higher induced resistance in comparison with SJ_UOM-07-09 under greenhouse conditions, indicating that SJ_UOM-18-09 was superior than SJ_UOM-07-09 in inducing resistance. Results from this study provide comprehensive information on biocontrol functions of SJ_UOM- 18-09 with great potential to control downy mildew disease in pearl millet.

  7. The extent of variation in salinity tolerance of the minicore collection of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Upadhyaya, Hari Deo; Purushothaman, Ramamoorthy; Gowda, Cholenahalli Lakkegowda Laxmipathi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Dwivedi, Sangam Lal; Singh, Sube; Vadez, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) ranks third in production among the dry land cereals. It is widely cultivated in Africa and South Asia where soil salinization is a major production constraint. It is a potential crop for salt affected soils. To identify salt tolerant germplasm, the minicore finger millet germplasm (n=80) was screened for grain yield performance in a soil saturated with NaCl solution of 100 or 125mM. Genotype effect was significant for most traits, while salinity×genotype interaction was significant only in one year. Salinity delayed phenology, marginally reduced shoot biomass and grain yield. There was a large range of genotypic variation in grain yield under salinity and other traits. The yield loss was higher in accessions with prolific growth and yield potential was associated with saline yields. Based on saline yields, accessions were grouped in to four groups and the top tolerant group had 22 accessions with IE 4797 remaining at the top. Salinity had no adverse impact on grain yield of five accessions. Root anatomy in selected genotype of pearl and finger millet showed presence of porous cortex and well fortified endodermis in finger millet that can exclude Na(+) and enhance N absorption.

  8. Updated foxtail millet genome assembly and gene mapping of nine key agronomic traits by resequencing a RIL population.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xuemei; Xia, Qiuju; Zhang, Houbao; Cheng, Shu; Li, Hui; Fan, Guangyu; Guo, Tao; Huang, Ping; Xiang, Haitao; Chen, Qingchun; Li, Ning; Zou, Hongfeng; Cai, Xuemei; Lei, Xuejing; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Chengshu; Zhao, Zhihai; Zhang, Gengyun; Du, Guohua; Cai, Wei; Quan, Zhiwu

    2017-02-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides food and fodder in semi-arid regions and infertile land. Resequencing of 184 foxtail millet recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was carried out to aid essential research on foxtail millet improvement. A total 483 414 single nucleotide polymorphisms were determined. Bin maps were constructed based on the RILs' recombination data. Based on the high-density bin map, we updated Zhanggu reference with 416 Mb after adding 16 Mb unanchored scaffolds and Yugu reference with some assembly error correction and 3158 gaps filled. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of nine agronomic traits was done based on this RIL population, five of which were controlled by a single gene. Meanwhile, two QTLs were found for plant height, and a candidate gene showed 89% identity to the known rice gibberellin-synthesis gene sd1. Three QTLs were found for the trait of heading date. The whole genome resequencing and QTL mapping provided important tools for foxtail millet research and breeding. Resequencing of the RILs could also provide an effective way for high-quality genome assembly and gene identification. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Cadmium accumulation in deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.) and potential for trophic transfer to microtine rodents.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2007-07-01

    Site 36 at the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge includes a Cd-contaminated soil dominated by deer tongue grass (Panicum clandestinum L.). Analysis of deer tongue grass from this site indicated that biomass and leaf surface area were reduced and that there was a linear relationship between both plant bioavailable soil Cd and total soil Zn and tissue Cd concentration. The Cd concentrations in stems and leaves were also used to estimate the dietary Cd exposures that might be experienced by prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and pine voles (M. pinetorum) consuming deer tongue grass. Renal and hepatic Cd burdens predicted from exclusive consumption of deer tongue grass would be comparable to those that have resulted in chronic toxicity in rodents. The results suggest that for the contaminated soil at Site 36, conditions could allow for the accumulation of Cd in deer tongue grass to concentrations that may pose an ecological risk.

  10. Host-specific variation in infection by toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins in pearl millet and corn.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J P; Jurjevic, Z; Hanna, W W; Wilson, D M; Potter, T L; Coy, A E

    2006-02-01

    Pearl millet is widely consumed in regions of Africa and Asia, and is increasingly being grown as an alternative grain in drought-prone regions of the United States. Pearl millet and corn were grown in dryland conditions at Tifton, Georgia, USA and grains were compared for pre-harvest infection by potentially toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. Corn hybrids Agripro 9909 and Pioneer 3146, and pearl millet Tifgrain 102 were grown in 2000 and 2001; pearl millet HGM 100 was included in the test in 2001. Hybrids were sown on multiple planting dates in each year to induce variation in flowering time. Host species differed in the frequency of isolation of potentially toxigenic fungal species in both years. Across years, corn hybrids were more prone to infection by Aspergillus flavus Link (maximum isolation frequency = 8.8%) and Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon sensu lato (maximum isolation frequency = 72.8%), with corresponding greater concentrations of aflatoxins (maximum concentration = 204.9 microg kg(-1)) and fumonisins (maximum concentration = 34,039 microg kg(-1)). Pearl millet was more prone to infection by F. semitectum Berk. & Ravenel (maximum isolation = 74.2%) and F. chlamydosporum Wollenweb & Reinking (maximum isolation = 33.0%), and contamination by moniliformin (maximum contamination = 92.1 microg kg(-1)). Beauvericin (maximum concentration = 414.6 microg kg(-1)) was present in both hosts. Planting date of corn affected aflatoxin and beauvericin contamination in 2000, and fumonisin concentration in 2001. The observed differences in mycotoxin contamination of the grains, which are likely due to host-specific differences in susceptibility to pre-harvest mycoflora, may affect food safety when the crops are grown under stress conditions.

  11. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-09-01

    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.

  12. Association of Shifting Populations in the Root Zone Microbiome of Millet with Enhanced Crop Productivity in the Sahel Region (Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Assigbetse, Komi; Bayala, Roger; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Dick, Richard P.; McSpadden Gardener, Brian B.

    2015-01-01

    This study characterized specific changes in the millet root zone microbiome stimulated by long-term woody-shrub intercropping at different sites in Senegal. At the two study sites, intercropping with woody shrubs and shrub residue resulted in a significant increase in millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] yield (P < 0.05) and associated patterns of increased diversity in both bacterial and fungal communities in the root zone of the crop. Across four experiments, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to Chitinophaga were consistently significantly (P < 0.001) enriched in the intercropped samples, and “Candidatus Koribacter” was consistently significantly enriched in samples where millet was grown alone. Those OTUs belonging to Chitinophaga were enriched more than 30-fold in residue-amended samples and formed a distinct subgroup from all OTUs detected in the genus. Additionally, OTUs belonging to 8 fungal genera (Aspergillus, Coniella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, Lasiodiplodia, Penicillium, and Phoma) were significantly (P < 0.005) enriched in all experiments at all sites in intercropped samples. The OTUs of four genera (Epicoccum, Fusarium, Gibberella, and Haematonectria) were consistently enriched at sites where millet was grown alone. Those enriched OTUs in intercropped samples showed consistently large-magnitude differences, ranging from 30- to 1,000-fold increases in abundance. Consistently enriched OTUs in intercropped samples in the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium also formed phylogenetically distinct subgroups. These results suggest that the intercropping system used here can influence the recruitment of potentially beneficial microorganisms to the root zone of millet and aid subsistence farmers in producing higher-yielding crops. PMID:25681183

  13. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased.

  14. Comparative Genomics and Association Mapping Approaches for Blast Resistant Genes in Finger Millet Using SSRs

    PubMed Central

    Babu, B. Kalyana; Dinesh, Pandey; Agrawal, Pawan K.; Sood, S.; Chandrashekara, C.; Bhatt, Jagadish C.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    The major limiting factor for production and productivity of finger millet crop is blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea. Since, the genome sequence information available in finger millet crop is scarce, comparative genomics plays a very important role in identification of genes/QTLs linked to the blast resistance genes using SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 58 genic SSRs were developed for use in genetic analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes. The 58 SSRs yielded ninety five scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content varied from 0.186 to 0.677 at an average of 0.385. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.208 to 0.726 with an average of 0.487. Association mapping for blast resistance was done using 104 SSR markers which identified four QTLs for finger blast and one QTL for neck blast resistance. The genomic marker RM262 and genic marker FMBLEST32 were linked to finger blast disease at a P value of 0.007 and explained phenotypic variance (R2) of 10% and 8% respectively. The genomic marker UGEP81 was associated to finger blast at a P value of 0.009 and explained 7.5% of R2. The QTLs for neck blast was associated with the genomic SSR marker UGEP18 at a P value of 0.01, which explained 11% of R2. Three QTLs for blast resistance were found common by using both GLM and MLM approaches. The resistant alleles were found to be present mostly in the exotic genotypes. Among the genotypes of NW Himalayan region of India, VHC3997, VHC3996 and VHC3930 were found highly resistant, which may be effectively used as parents for developing blast resistant cultivars in the NW Himalayan region of India. The markers linked to the QTLs for blast resistance in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of blast resistant alleles into locally adapted cultivars. PMID:24915067

  15. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products.

  16. Efficient regeneration of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) from shoot tip cultures.

    PubMed

    Mythili, P K; Madhavi, A; Reddy, V D; Seetharama, N

    2001-12-01

    A simple, genotype-independent and efficient method for plant regeneration using shoot tip explants of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) was established. Linsmaier and Skoog (LS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (0. 2 mg l(-1)) was used for induction of embryogenic calli. Development of numerous somatic embryos was observed within 10 days after transferring onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzyl aminopurine (2 mg l(-1)) and indole 3-butyric acid (0. 5 mg l(-1)) under light (16 hr photoperiod). Histological observations confirmed the origin of somatic pro-embryoids and globular embryoids. Regenerated plants established in soil, grew normally and produced fertile seeds. RAPD analysis also revealed genetic uniformity of the regenerants. The short duration of time taken for regeneration (30-35 days) and its high frequency (78-87%) makes this system highly suitable for applications such as genetic transformation.

  17. Modification of foxtail millet starch by combining physical, chemical and enzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashim; Sit, Nandan

    2017-02-01

    Modification of foxtail millet starch was carried out by heat moisture treatment (HT), acid hydrolysis (AH), enzymatic treatment (EH), Ultrasound treatment (UT) and their combinations. A total of 15 modified starches were prepared by combining the various methods and properties were compared with native starch. The solubilities of the starches modified by HT were found to decrease whereas for other single modifications it increased. It also increased with number of modifications applied. The swelling power decreased for all the modified starches and a decrease in swelling power was observed with increase in number of modifications. Freeze-thaw stability improved for starches modified by single physical modifications i.e. HT and UT. Decrease in viscosities was observed for the modified starches and was particularly affected by AH. The pasting temperature was found to increase for those modified starches where HT was carried out. The modified starches gave softer gels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Gong, Min; Li, Ying; Xiong, Liu

    2014-10-13

    Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).

  19. Effect of cadmium on physiological parameters of cereal and millet plants-A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Asopa, Prem Prakash; Bhatt, Ritika; Sihag, Santosh; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita

    2017-03-04

    Metal load is an abiotic stress that becomes stronger by continual industrial production, wastage, and long-range transport of contaminants. It deteriorates the conditions of agricultural soil that leads to lower growth of cereals as well as decreasing nutritional value of harvested grains. Cadmium (Cd) entry by food chain also affects the health of population. The present study is focused on finding out the superior cereal variety under increasing Cd regime. The plants were grown in increasing Cd levels (0-1000 µM) in the medium and were investigated on 15th day of the exposure. Various parameters like antioxidative enzymes and osmoprotectant levels were studied in both roots and shoots. Cd accumulation in plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Analysis of stress tolerance mechanisms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and better partitioning of Cd in roots indicated kodo millet to be more stress tolerant than wheat.

  20. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  1. Intraspecific carbon and nitrogen isotopic variability in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Emma; Przelomska, Natalia; Craven, Martha; O Connell, Tamsin C; He, Lu; Hunt, Harriet V; Jones, Martin K

    2016-07-15

    Isotopic palaeodietary studies generally focus on bone collagen from human and/or animal remains. While plant remains are rarely analysed, it is known that plant isotope values can vary as a result of numerous factors, including soil conditions, the environment and type of plant. The millets were important food crops in prehistoric Eurasia, yet little is known about the isotopic differences within millet species. Here we compare the stable isotope ratios within and between Setaria italica plants grown in a controlled environment chamber. Using homogenised samples, we compare carbon isotope ratios of leaves and grains, and nitrogen isotope ratios of grains, from 29 accessions of Setaria italica. We find significant isotopic variability within single leaves and panicles, and between leaves and panicles within the same plant, which must be considered when undertaking plant isotope studies. We find that the leaves and grains from the different accessions have a ca 2‰ range in δ(13) C values, while the nitrogen isotope values in the grains have a ca 6‰ range. We also find an average offset of 0.9‰ between leaves and grains in their δ(13) C values. The variation found is large enough to have archaeological implications and within- and between-plant isotope variability should be considered in isotope studies. The range in δ(15) N values is particularly significant as it is larger than the typical values quoted for a trophic level enrichment, and as such may lead to erroneous interpretations of the amount of animal protein in human or animal diets. It is therefore necessary to account for the variability in plant stable isotope values during palaeodietary reconstructions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization and structural modeling of prolamin from maize and pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Bugs, Milton Roque; Forato, Lucimara Aparecida; Bortoleto-Bugs, Raquel Kely; Fischer, Hannes; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano; Ward, Richard John; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Biophysical methods and structural modeling techniques have been used to characterize the prolamins from maize ( Zea mays) and pearl millet ( Pennisetum americanum). The alcohol-soluble prolamin from maize, called zein, was extracted using a simple protocol and purified by gel filtration in a 70% ethanol solution. Two protein fractions were purified from seed extracts of pearl millet with molecular weights of 25.5 and 7 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. The high molecular weight protein corresponds to pennisetin, which has a high alpha-helical content both in solution and the solid state, as demonstrated by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Fluorescence spectroscopy of both fractions indicated changes in the tryptophan microenvironments with increasing water content of the buffer. Low-resolution envelopes of both fractions were retrieved by ab initio procedures from small-angle X-ray scattering data, which yielded maximum molecular dimensions of about 14 nm and 1 nm for pennisetin and the low molecular weight protein, respectively, and similar values were observed by dynamic light scattering experiments. Furthermore, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of zein and pennisetin do not show any signal below 0.9 ppm, which is compatible with more extended solution structures. The molecular models for zein and pennisetin in solution suggest that both proteins have an elongated molecular structure which is approximately a prolate ellipsoid composed of ribbons of folded alpha-helical segments with a length of about 14 nm, resulting in a structure that permits efficient packing within the seed endosperm.

  3. Sources of water used by trees and millet in Sahelian windbreak systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. Mark; Jarvis, Paul G.; Odongo, Julius C. W.

    1997-11-01

    The extent to which water use by trees and crops is complementary in agroforestry systems may be affected by the proximity of groundwater to the soil surface. This may have important implications for the planning and management of agroforestry in semi-arid regions such as the Sahel of West Africa. A method of distinguishing uptake of water by plants from different sources was used, therefore, at locations with contrasting water table levels, to determine whether Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) trees in windbreaks utilised water from the same depths as adjacent crops of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). Comparisons of ratios of the stable isotopes of oxygen ( 18O/ 16O) in plant sap, groundwater and water in the unsaturated zone of the soil profile were made in the Majjia Valley, in south-central Niger, where groundwater was found at depths of 6-8 m, and at Sadoré in south-western Niger, where the water table was at a depth of 35 m. In the Majjia Valley, the trees obtained large portions of their water from surface layers of the soil only after rain, when water there was abundant. During dry periods, roots of the trees extracted groundwater or deep reserves of soil water, while the millet crop extracted water from closer to the top of the soil profile. In contrast, at Sadoré, both the trees and crop fulfilled their water requirements from the top 2-3 m of the soil throughout the year. Thus, utilisation of water by windbreak trees and crops is more complementary where groundwater is accessible to tree roots. Competition for water is likely reduced at such locations as a consequence, but may affect the productivity of windbreak systems where groundwater is inaccessible. To maximise the benefits of establishing windbreaks, therefore, it is important that planners recommend strategies for reducing competition for water between trees and crops at sites where groundwater cannot be reached by tree roots.

  4. Species and population variation to salinity stress in Panicum hemitomon, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora: Morphological and physiological constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hester, M.W.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    Panicum hemitomon, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora are wide-spread dominant grasses of fresh, brackish, and salt marsh plant communities, respectively. Our previous research identified significant intraspecific variation in salt tolerance and morphology among populations within each species. In this study our objectives were to determine shorter-term physiological/biochemical responses to salinity stress and identify potential indicators of salt tolerance, with the ultimate goal of discerning similarities and differences in the mechanisms of salinity stress resistance. We subjected a subset of six populations within each species, ranging from high to low salt tolerance, to sublethal salinity levels (4, 20, and 30 ppt, respectively, for species) and monitored physiological and growth responses after 1 week (early harvest) and 5 weeks (late harvest). In all three species sublethal salinity levels generally resulted in significantly reduced net CO2 assimilation, leaf expansion, midday leaf xylem pressure, water use efficiency, and live and total biomass; and significantly increased leaf Na+/K+ ratio, leaf proline, leaf glycine betaine, leaf sucrose, root-to-shoot ratio, and dead:total aboveground biomass ratio. All three species displayed significant population (intraspecific) variation in net CO2 assimilation, leaf expansion, water use efficiency, midday leaf xylem pressure, leaf proline, leaf glycine betaine (except Panicum, where it could not be accurately determined), leaf Na+/K+ ratio, leaf sucrose, total plant biomass, dead:total aboveground biomass ratio, and root-to-shoot ratio. General indicators of salt tolerance (regardless of species) included high net CO2 assimilation rates and water use efficiencies, and low ratios of root-to-shoot and dead:total aboveground biomass. Factor analysis and a-priori linear contrasts revealed some unique differences between species in terms of the relative importance of morphology and physiology in explaining

  5. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    SciTech Connect

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-03-15

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [Spanish] La conota, Panicum repens L., es una especie foranea de pasto que produce rizomas que ha convertido en ser una maleza invasora de ambientes terrestres, pantanosos y acuaticos en regiones tropicales y subtropicales en todo el mundo. Hasta hace un tiempo reciente, las estrategias para controlar conota en los EEUU eran enfocadas casi exclusivamente en los metodos mecanicos y quimicos, solos o en combinacion, con resultados variables. Un muestreo de los artropodos y nematodos asociados corrientemente con esta planta en el Lago de Okeechobee, Florida, fue

  6. Levels of antinutritional factors in pearl millet as affected by processing treatments and various types of fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Kapoor, A C

    1996-04-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) was fermented with Lactobacilli or yeasts alone and in combination, and with natural microflora after various processing treatments, as grinding, soaking, debranning, dry heat treatment, autoclaving and germination. Fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C for 48 hours with Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and Rhodotorula (R) isolated from naturally fermented pearl millet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Candida utilis (CU) and natural microflora (NF). Germination and autoclaving, and debranning and autoclaving were the most effective processing treatments to reduce the phytic acid, amylase inhibitors and polyphenols. There was a further reduction in these antinutrients due to fermentation. Phytic acid and amylase inhibitors were completely eliminated after fermentation in some of the samples especially in soaked, debranned and germinated ones. Polyphenols were altered non-significantly in general but fermentation with Lp + R and NF caused a significant increase in polyphenols.

  7. Constitutive water-conserving mechanisms are correlated with the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Kholová, Jana; Hash, C. Tom; Kakkera, Aparna; Kočová, Marie; Vadez, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Pearl millet, a key staple crop of the semi-arid tropics, is mostly grown in water-limited conditions, and improving its performance depends on how genotypes manage limited water resources. This study investigates whether the control of water loss under non-limiting water conditions is involved in the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet. Two pairs of tolerant×sensitive pearl millet genotypes, PRLT 2/89-33–H77/833-2 and 863B-P2–ICMB 841-P3, and near-isogenic lines (NILs), introgressed with a terminal drought tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) from the donor parent PRLT 2/89-33 into H77/833-2 (NILs-QTL), were tested. Upon exposure to water deficit, transpiration began to decline at lower fractions of transpirable soil water (FTSW) in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes, and NILs-QTL followed the pattern of the tolerant parents. The transpiration rate (Tr, in g water loss cm−2 d−1) under well-watered conditions was lower in tolerant than in sensitive parental genotypes, and the Tr of NILs-QTL followed the pattern of the tolerant parents. In addition, Tr measured in detached leaves (g water loss cm−2 h−1) from field-grown plants of the parental lines showed lower Tr values in tolerant parents. Defoliation led to an increase in Tr that was higher in sensitive than in tolerant genotypes. The differences in Tr between genotypes was not related to the stomatal density. These results demonstrate that constitutive traits controlling leaf water loss under well-watered conditions correlate with the terminal drought tolerance of pearl millet. Such traits may lead to more water being available for grain filling under terminal drought. PMID:19861657

  8. Synergistic and Antagonistic Effects of Salinity and pH on Germination in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Quanzhen; Zhang, Yunwei; Cui, Jian; Chen, Guo; Xie, Bao; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress on switchgrass were investigated by evaluating seed germination and the proline, malondialdehyde (MDA) and soluble sugar contents in three switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars in order to identify which can be successfully produced on marginal lands affected by salt-alkaline mixed stress. The experimental conditions consisted of four levels of salinity (10, 60, 110 and 160 mM) and four pH levels (7.1, 8.3, 9.5 and 10.7). The effects of salt-alkaline mixed stress with equivalent coupling of the salinity and pH level on the switchgrass were explored via model analyses. Switchgrass was capable of germinating and surviving well in all treatments under low-alkaline pH (pH≤8.3), regardless of the salinity. However, seed germination and seedling growth were sharply reduced at higher pH values in conjunction with salinity. The salinity and pH had synergetic effects on the germination percentage, germination index, plumular length and the soluble sugar and proline contents in switchgrass. However, these two factors exhibited antagonistic effects on the radicular length of switchgrass. The combined effects of salinity and pH and the interactions between them should be considered when evaluating the strength of salt-alkaline mixed stress. PMID:24454834

  9. Allelopathic Potential of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) on Perennial Ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China’s Loess Plateau.

  10. Effects of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Rotations with Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) on Nematode Populations and Soil Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Mahaffee, W. F.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.; BOWEN, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    A 3-year field rotation study was conducted to assess the potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) to suppress root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii), and aflatoxigenic fungi (Aspergillus sp.) in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and to assess shifts in microbial populations following crop rotation. Switchgrass did not support populations of root-knot nematodes but supported high populations of nonparasitic nematodes. Peanut with no nematicide applied and following 2 years of switchgrass had the same nematode populations as continuous peanut plus nematicide. Neither previous crop nor nematicide significantly reduced the incidence of pods infected with Aspergillus. However, pod invasion by A. flavus was highest in plots previously planted with peanut and not treated with nematicide. Peanut with nematicide applied at planting following 2 years of switchgrass had significantly less incidence of southern blight than either continuous peanut without nematicide application or peanut without nematicide following 2 years of cotton. Peanut yield did not differ among rotations in either sample year. Effects of crop rotation on the microbial community structure associated with peanut were examined using indices for diversity, richness, and similarity derived from culture-based analyses. Continuous peanut supported a distinctly different rhizosphere bacterial microflora compared to peanut following 1 year of switchgrass, or continuous switchgrass. Richness and diversity indices for continuous peanut rhizosphere and geocarposphere were not consistently different from peanut following switchgrass, but always differed in the specific genera present. These shifts in community structure were associated with changes in parasitic nematode populations. PMID:19265915

  11. Risk of Soil Recontamination Due to Using Eleusine coracana and Panicum maximum Straw After Phytoremediation of Picloram.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Alex Favaro; Pires, Fábio Ribeiro; Chagas, Kristhiano; de Oliveira Procópio, Sergio; Oliveira, Marcelo Antonio; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Belo, Alessandra Ferreira; Egreja Filho, Fernando Barboza

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the herbicidal activity of picloram on the biomass of the remediation plants Eleusine coracana and Panicum maximum after cultivation in a soil contaminated with this herbicide. These species were grown in three soils, differentiated based on texture (clayish, middle, and sandy, with 460, 250, and 40 g kg(-1) of the clay, respectively), previously contaminated with picloram (0, 80, and 160 g ha(-1)). After 90 days, the plants were harvested and an extract was produced by maceration of leaves and stems of these plants. It was applied to pots containing washed sand, comprising a bioassay in a growth chamber using soybean as a bioindicator for picloram. Soil and plant samples were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed the presence of picloram or metabolites with herbicidal activity in the shoots of E. coracana and P. maximum at phytotoxic levels with regard to soybean plants, indicating that they work only as phytoextractors and that the presence of straw on the soil surface can promote recontamination within the area. It is not recommended to cultivate species susceptible to picloram in areas where it was reported remediation by E. indica and P. maximum and still present residues of these species.

  12. Gateway-compatible vectors for high-throughput gene functional analysis in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and other monocot species.

    PubMed

    Mann, David G J; Lafayette, Peter R; Abercrombie, Laura L; King, Zachary R; Mazarei, Mitra; Halter, Mathew C; Poovaiah, Charleson R; Baxter, Holly; Shen, Hui; Dixon, Richard A; Parrott, Wayne A; Neal Stewart, C

    2012-02-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial grass and has been identified as a potential bioenergy crop for cellulosic ethanol because of its rapid growth rate, nutrient use efficiency and widespread distribution throughout North America. The improvement of bioenergy feedstocks is needed to make cellulosic ethanol economically feasible, and genetic engineering of switchgrass is a promising approach towards this goal. A crucial component of creating transgenic switchgrass is having the capability of transforming the explants with DNA sequences of interest using vector constructs. However, there are limited options with the monocot plant vectors currently available. With this in mind, a versatile set of Gateway-compatible destination vectors (termed pANIC) was constructed to be used in monocot plants for transgenic crop improvement. The pANIC vectors can be used for transgene overexpression or RNAi-mediated gene suppression. The pANIC vector set includes vectors that can be utilized for particle bombardment or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. All the vectors contain (i) a Gateway cassette for overexpression or silencing of the target sequence, (ii) a plant selection cassette and (iii) a visual reporter cassette. The pANIC vector set was functionally validated in switchgrass and rice and allows for high-throughput screening of sequences of interest in other monocot species as well.

  13. Allelopathic potential of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China's Loess Plateau.

  14. Leaf gas exchange of Andropogon gerardii Vitman, Panicum virgatum L., and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash in a tallgrass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polley, H. W.; Norman, J. M.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E. A.; Greegor, D. H., Jr.; Bramer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Net CO2 assimilation as a function of internal CO2 and stomatal conductance to water vapor were measured on blades of the C4 grasses Andropogon gerardii Vitman, Panicum virgatrum L., and Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash in northeast Kansas over two growing seasons to determine the comparative physiological responses of these dominant grasses of the tallgrass prairie to environmental variables. The response of dark respiration to temperature and of net assimilation to CO2 concentration and absorbed quantum flux differed little among species. A. gerardii had lower potential photosynthetic rates at internal CO2 concentrations below saturation than P. virgatum and S. nutans, but net assimilation under ambient conditions was similar in the three species. Net assimilation and both the initial slope of assimilation versus internal CO2 curves and the maximum potential assimilation rate decreased as leaf water potential declined in blades of A. gerardii and S. nutans. Changes in assimilation capacity were paralleled by changes in stomatal conductance that were similar in all three species. The strong correlations among processes regulating leaf CO2 assimilation and transpiration in A. gerardii, P. virgatum, and S. nutans suggest that the processes are tightly and similarly coupled in these grasses over a wide range of environmental conditions encountered in the tallgrass prairie.

  15. Optimization of the malting process for nutritional improvement of finger millet and amaranth flours in the infant weaning food industry.

    PubMed

    Najdi Hejazi, Sara; Orsat, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Malting is a beneficial approach to improve the nutritional value of cereals used in infant preparations. Malted finger millet and amaranth might be considered as potentially appropriate gluten-free alternatives for common wheat-based weaning products, especially in case of those suffering from celiac disease. In this study, the effects of germination temperature and duration on the main nutrients of malted finger millet and amaranth, are evaluated and optimized. Grains were germinated for 24, 36 and 48 h at 22, 26 and 30 °C. In the case of finger millet, germinating for 48 h at 30 °C resulted into 17% increase in protein availability, 10% increase in total energy and 60% reduction in resistant starch (RS). For amaranth, germinating for 48 h at 26 °C was preferable, resulting in 8% increase in protein availability, 11% increase in total energy, 70% reduction in RS and a 10% increase in the linoleic acid.

  16. Fermented and malted millet products in Africa: Expedition from traditional/ethnic foods to industrial value-added products.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, J A; Obadina, A O; Adebo, O A; Kayitesi, E

    2016-05-31

    With the prevalent food insecurity in Africa, there is a growing need to utilize the available crops to develop nutritious, affordable and palatable food for the populace. Millet is critical in this role, relative to its abundance in the continent and good nutritional composition. For ages, fermentation and malting have been traditionally used to transform millet into variety of produce. A paradigm shift has however occurred over the years, giving birth to new commercially available products. This review thus appraises and gives an overview of traditional and modern fermented and malted products. Although, millet has been diversified to several products, its major food uses are still restrained to traditional consumers and largely remains underutilized. Considering the potential embedded in this grain, it is important to explore this crop through the application of appropriate modern fermentation and malting technologies. This will ensure the availability of ready to eat (RTE) and ready to use (RTU) food products and to a large extent address the incessant food security challenges plaguing Africa.

  17. Selection of suitable reference genes for assessing gene expression in pearl millet under different abiotic stresses and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] a widely used grain and forage crop, is grown in areas frequented with one or more abiotic stresses, has superior drought and heat tolerance and considered a model crop for stress tolerance studies. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target stress-responsive gene expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of improved stress tolerance. For precise normalization of gene expression data in pearl millet, ten candidate reference genes were examined in various developmental tissues as well as under different individual abiotic stresses and their combinations at 1 h (early) and 24 h (late) of stress using geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed EF-1α and UBC-E2 as the best reference genes across all samples, the specificity of which was confirmed by assessing the relative expression of a PgAP2 like-ERF gene that suggested use of these two reference genes is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization under different stress conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different individual and multiple abiotic stresses in pearl millet. The study can further facilitate fastidious discovery of stress-tolerance genes in this important stress-tolerant crop. PMID:26972345

  18. Selection of suitable reference genes for assessing gene expression in pearl millet under different abiotic stresses and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-03-14

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] a widely used grain and forage crop, is grown in areas frequented with one or more abiotic stresses, has superior drought and heat tolerance and considered a model crop for stress tolerance studies. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target stress-responsive gene expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of improved stress tolerance. For precise normalization of gene expression data in pearl millet, ten candidate reference genes were examined in various developmental tissues as well as under different individual abiotic stresses and their combinations at 1 h (early) and 24 h (late) of stress using geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed EF-1α and UBC-E2 as the best reference genes across all samples, the specificity of which was confirmed by assessing the relative expression of a PgAP2 like-ERF gene that suggested use of these two reference genes is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization under different stress conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different individual and multiple abiotic stresses in pearl millet. The study can further facilitate fastidious discovery of stress-tolerance genes in this important stress-tolerant crop.

  19. Genome-Wide Investigation and Expression Profiling of AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Superfamily in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Charu; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Khan, Yusuf; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (∼7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (∼13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic

  20. Increasing Selenium and Yellow Pigment Concentrations in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.) Grain with Foliar Application of Selenite.

    PubMed

    Ning, Na; Yuan, Xiang-Yang; Dong, Shu-Qi; Wen, Yin-Yuan; Gao, Zhen-Pan; Guo, Mei-Jun; Guo, Ping-Yi

    2016-03-01

    Although addition of selenium (Se) is known to increase Se in crops, it is unclear whether exogenous Se is linked to nutritional and functional components in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In this study, we examined the potential of increasing Se and yellow pigment (YP) in foxtail millet grain by foliar application of Se. Field experiments were conducted during the growing season of foxtail millet in 2013 and 2014 to assess the effects of foliar spray of sodium selenite (10-210 g Se ha(-1)) on the yield, Se uptake and accumulation, total YP, and microminerals in the grain. Average grain yields with Se application were 5.60 and 4.53 t ha(-1) in the 2 years, showing no significant differences from the unfertilized control. However, grain Se concentration increased linearly with Se application rate, by 8.92 and 6.09 μg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1) (maximum grain recovery rates of Se fertilizer, 52 and 28 %). Likewise, total grain YP concentration markedly increased by 0.038 and 0.031 mg kg(-1) in the 2 years with application of 1 g Se ha(-1). Grain Mn, Cu, Fe, and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by Se application. This study indicated that foliar application of Se effectively and reliably increased the concentrations of Se and YP in foxtail millet grain without affecting the yield or mineral micronutrient concentrations. Thus, foliar-applied selenite has a significant potential to increase the concentrations of selenium and YP (putative lutein (Shen, J Cereal Sci 61:86-93, 2015; Abdel-Aal, Cereal Chem 79:455-457, 2002; Abdel-Aal, J Agric Food Chem 55:787-794, 2007)) of foxtail millet and, thus, the health benefits of this crop.

  1. Kinetics of changes in shelf life parameters during storage of pearl millet based kheer mix and development of a shelf life prediction model.

    PubMed

    Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Jha, Alok; Mahajan, Ankur; Unnikrishnan, V S

    2014-12-01

    Pearl millet, dairy whitener and sugar powder were blended for preparing pearl millet kheer mix. Pearl millet based kheer mix samples were stored at 8, 25, 37 and 45 °C under nitrogen flushing environment. Changes in HMF and TBA formation in the dry mix and sensory changes in reconstituted kheer were studied upto 180 days. In fresh dry mix, the average value of HMF recorded was 4.87 μmol/g which increased to 11.23, 13.67, 18.13, and 21.43 μmol/g at 8, 25, 37 and 45 °C, respectively after 180 days of storage. From an initial value of 0.067, the TBA value increased to 0.219, 0.311, 0.432 and 0.613 at 532 nm at 8, 25, 37 and 45 °C, respectively after 180 days of storage. Data generated from the chemical kinetics of HMF and TBA development that progressed during storage of pearl millet kheer mix were modeled using Arrhenius equations to predict the shelf life of the product. Changes in HMF and TBA followed first order reaction kinetics. It was found that the potential shelf life of the pearl millet based kheer mix was 396 days at 8 and 288 days at 25 °C, respectively.

  2. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri

    2015-02-01

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g).

  3. Arabinoxylan from finger millet (Eleusine coracana, v. Indaf 15) bran: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Savitha Prashanth, M R; Muralikrishna, G

    2014-01-01

    Water unextractable portion from finger millet bran was sequentially extracted with saturated barium hydroxide (BE) and 1M potassium hydroxide (KE) solutions. They consisted preponderantly of arabinose and xylose in different ratios. Ferulic, caffeic, coumaric and vanillic acids were identified as major bound phenolic acids. BE and KE were purified on DEAE-cellulose column by eluting successively with different eluants. The major fractions (0.1 M ammonium carbonate) were resolved into one (BE) and two subfractions (KE1 and KE2) respectively on Sephacryl S-400 gel filtration chromatography and their homogeneity was ascertained by gel filtration, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. The average molecular weight of BE, KE1 and KE2 were found to be 430, 1028 and 40 kDa respectively. The structural elucidation of the purified polysaccharides by (1)H and (13)C NMR analysis indicated the backbone to be 1,4-β-D-linked xylan with substitution mainly at O-2 or O-3 and/or both by α-l-arabinose residues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic analysis of reciprocal differences in the inheritance of in vitro characters in pearl millet

    PubMed Central

    Satyavathi, Valluri V; Manga, V.; Rao, Muktinutalapati V. Subba; Chittibabu, Malladi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Reciprocal differences persist in nature because of the unequal contribution of cytoplasmic determinants from male and female gametes to the zygote. The inheritance of genetic differences is an important factor that influences various traits, including somatic embryogenesis and regeneration in vitro. In this report, we estimate the cytoplasmic and maternal effects in pearl millet and their adequacy in describing the observed reciprocal differences based on an in depth study of the parents, F2s and reciprocal backcross progenies needed for fitting genetical models. Our study revealed that of the two characters examined, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency, the former showed a greater proportion of cytoplasmic nuclear interaction whereas the latter showed a greater role of nuclear factors. Additive-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity and dominance-maternal effects influenced total callus quantity, embryogenic callus quantity and regeneration frequency. Dwarfing was associated with the production of large quantities of embryogenic callus that had visually recognizable characteristics. The phenotypic nature of dwarf parents (green dwarf with long narrow leaves) with a genetic basis for a given character controlled by nuclear and cytoplasmic determinants can be exploited for other breeding programs. PMID:27007899

  5. Genome-wide characterization of the SiDof gene family in foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Baoling; Zheng, Gewen; Zhang, Aiying; Li, Runzhi

    2017-01-01

    Dof (DNA binding with one finger) proteins, which constitute a class of transcription factors found exclusively in plants, are involved in numerous physiological and biochemical reactions affecting growth and development. A genome-wide analysis of SiDof genes was performed in this study. Thirty five SiDof genes were identified and those genes were unevenly distributed across nine chromosomes in the Seteria italica genome. Protein lengths, molecular weights, and theoretical isoelectric points of SiDofs all vary greatly. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that most SiDof genes lack introns. Phylogenetic analysis of SiDof proteins and Dof proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, sorghum, and Setaria viridis revealed six major groups. Analysis of RNA-Seq data indicated that SiDof gene expression levels varied across roots, stems, leaves, and spike. In addition, expression profiling of SiDof genes in response to stress suggested that SiDof 7 and SiDof 15 are involved in drought stress signalling. Overall, this study could provide novel information on SiDofs for further investigation in foxtail millet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide and proline cooperate to alleviate cadmium stress in foxtail millet seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baohua; Qiao, Zengjie; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Pei, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and some functional amino acids in crops have been involved in the defense system against heavy-metal pollution. Here we report the relationships and functions of H2S and proline to cadmium (Cd) stress. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) pretreatment decreased the electrolytic leakage and the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents while enhancing photosynthesis in Cd-treated seedlings. Furthermore, pretreatment with NaHS markedly exacerbated Cd-induced alterations in proline content, the activities of proline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH), and the transcript levels of P5CR and PDH. When endogenous H2S was scavenged or inhibited by various H2S modulators, the Cd-induced increase in endogenous proline was weakened. Combined pretreatment with H2S and proline was moderately higher in the Cd-stressed growth status, stomata movements and oxidative damage of seedlings compared to a single treatment with H2S or proline. These results suggest that H2S and proline cooperate to alleviate Cd-damage in foxtail millet.

  7. Pearl Millet Genetic Traits Shape Rhizobacterial Diversity and Modulate Rhizosphere Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ndour, Papa M. S.; Gueye, Mariama; Barakat, Mohamed; Ortet, Philippe; Bertrand-Huleux, Marie; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Dezette, Damien; Chapuis-Lardy, Lydie; Assigbetsé, Komi; Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Vigouroux, Yves; Achouak, Wafa; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Heulin, Thierry; Cournac, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Root exudation contributes to soil carbon allocation and also to microbial C and energy supply, which subsequently impacts soil aggregation around roots. Biologically-driven soil structural formation is an important driver of soil fertility. Plant genetic determinants of exudation and more generally of factors promoting rhizosphere soil aggregation are largely unknown. Here, we characterized rhizosphere aggregation in a panel of 86 pearl millet inbred lines using a ratio of root-adhering soil dry mass per root tissue dry mass (RAS/RT). This ratio showed significant variations between lines, with a roughly 2-fold amplitude between lowest and highest average values. For 9 lines with contrasting aggregation properties, we then compared the bacterial diversity and composition in root-adhering soil. Bacterial α-diversity metrics increased with the “RAS/RT ratio.” Regarding taxonomic composition, the Rhizobiales were stimulated in lines showing high aggregation level whereas Bacillales were more abundant in lines with low ratio. 184 strains of cultivable exopolysaccharides-producing bacteria have been isolated from the rhizosphere of some lines, including members from Rhizobiales and Bacillales. However, at this stage, we could not find a correlation between abundance of EPS-producing species in bacterial communities and the ratio RAS/RT. These results illustrated the impact of cereals genetic trait variation on soil physical properties and microbial diversity. This opens the possibility of considering plant breeding to help management of soil carbon content and physical characteristics through carbon rhizodeposition in soil. PMID:28798755

  8. Expression of Finger Millet EcDehydrin7 in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Raghavendrarao, Sanagala; Phanindra, Mullapudi Lakshmi Venkata; Venkat Raman, K; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-09-01

    One of the critical alarming constraints for agriculture is water scarcity. In the current scenario, global warming due to climate change and unpredictable rainfall, drought is going to be a master player and possess a big threat to stagnating gene pool of staple food crops. So it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that enable the plants to cope with drought stress. In this study, effort was made to prospect the role of EcDehydrin7 protein from normalized cDNA library of drought tolerance finger millet in transgenic tobacco. Biochemical and molecular analyses of T0 transgenic plants were done for stress tolerance. Leaf disc assay, seed germination test, dehydration assay, and chlorophyll estimation showed EcDehydrin7 protein directly link to drought tolerance. Northern and qRT PCR analyses shows relatively high expression of EcDehydrin7 protein compare to wild type. T0 transgenic lines EcDehydrin7(11) and EcDehydrin7(15) shows superior expression among all lines under study. In summary, all results suggest that EcDehydrin7 protein has a remarkable role in drought tolerance and may be used for sustainable crop breeding program in other food crops.

  9. Nutritional and antioxidant dispositions of sorghum/millet-based beverages indigenous to Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Abdussalam, Folakemi A; Akinpelu, Shakirat A; Ogunbode, Simiat M; Jimoh, Simiat O; Oloyede, Oyelola B

    2014-01-01

    Sorghum/millet-based beverages, Obiolor and Pito, were evaluated for their nutritional and antioxidant dispositions. Analyzed Obiolor and Pito contained 96% and 97% moisture; 7.8% and 3.7% crude protein; 8.9% and 5.6% available carbohydrate; 0.39% and 0.31% crude fat; 0.3% and 0.2% crude fiber; 2.4% and 1.5% ash; and 459.3 and 164 kJ/g energy value, respectively. Obiolor and Pito (1.0 mL) scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl by 87% and 81%; superoxide ion by 65% and 59%; hydrogen peroxide by 79% and 76%; and hydroxyl radical by 82% and 85%, respectively. The beverages significantly reduced ferric ion. Aflatoxin B1-mediated increase in lipid peroxidation products (conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, and malondialdehydes) and protein carbonyl in the microsomes were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced by the beverages. The data obtained from this study show that the sorghum-based beverages (Obiolor and Pito) can serve as functional foods, as evident from their antioxidant capabilities in addition to their gross energy content. PMID:25473519

  10. Identification and Overexpression of a Knotted1-Like Transcription Factor in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for Lignocellulosic Feedstock Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2016-01-01

    High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway is one strategy to reduce recalcitrance. Here, we identified a switchgrass Knotted1 transcription factor, PvKN1, with the aim of genetically engineering switchgrass for reduced biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. Gene expression of the endogenous PvKN1 gene was observed to be highest in young inflorescences and stems. Ectopic overexpression of PvKN1 in switchgrass altered growth, especially in early developmental stages. Transgenic lines had reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes accompanied by a reduction in lignin content suggesting the involvement of PvKN1 in the broad regulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the reduced expression of the Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene in tandem with the increased expression of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) genes in transgenic PvKN1 lines suggest that PvKN1 may exert regulatory effects via modulation of GA signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of PvKN1 altered the expression of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes and increased sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines. Our results demonstrated that switchgrass PvKN1 is a putative ortholog of maize KN1 that is linked to plant lignification and cell wall and development traits as a major regulatory gene. Therefore, targeted overexpression of PvKN1 in bioenergy feedstocks may provide one feasible strategy for reducing biomass recalcitrance and simultaneously improving plant growth characteristics. PMID:27200006

  11. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between Coastal Sites and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast. PMID:26125564

  12. Identification and overexpression of a knotted1-like transcription factor in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for lignocellulosic feedstock improvement

    DOE PAGES

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji -Yi; ...

    2016-04-28

    High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway is one strategy to reduce recalcitrance. Here, we identified a switchgrass Knotted1 transcription factor, PvKN1, with the aim of genetically engineering switchgrass for reduced biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. Gene expressionmore » of the endogenous PvKN1 gene was observed to be highest in young inflorescences and stems. Ectopic overexpression of PvKN1 in switchgrass altered growth, especially in early developmental stages. Transgenic lines had reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes accompanied by a reduction in lignin content suggesting the involvement of PvKN1 in the broad regulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the reduced expression of the Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene in tandem with the increased expression of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) genes in transgenic PvKN1 lines suggest that PvKN1 may exert regulatory effects via modulation of GA signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of PvKN1 altered the expression of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes and increased sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines. Our findings demonstrated that switchgrass PvKN1 is a putative ortholog of maize KN1 that is linked to plant lignification and cell wall and development traits as a major regulatory gene. Therefore, targeted overexpression of PvKN1 in bioenergy feedstocks may provide one feasible strategy for reducing biomass recalcitrance and simultaneously improving plant growth characteristics.« less

  13. Non-parasitic life cycle of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Panicum maximum pastures in northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this work was to study the non-parasitic phase of the Rhipicephalus microplus life cycle in Panicum maximum grasses from northern Argentina, in order to provide ecological information for designing methods of tick control. Four localities were chosen as replicates. The biological parameters measured were proportion of females ovipositing, the pre-oviposition period, the proportion of egg clusters hatching, the incubation period of eggs, larval longevity, and the total non-parasitic period (time from the exposure of the female to the date of death of the last larva) (TNPP)). The following general trends were observed: I) a longer TNPP occurred when female ticks were exposed in mid- and late summer and early spring; II) the shortest TNPP occurred when female ticks were exposed from late winter to late spring; III) larvae that were active in early and mid-summer had the shortest longevity; IV) incubation periods of eggs, which originated from females exposed in late summer, early autumn and mid-spring, were longer than the incubation period of eggs produced by females exposed in late spring and early summer; V) eggs did not hatch when the engorged females were exposed in the pastures in mid- and late autumn and winter. The spelling period of the P. maximum grasses that is needed to ensure total control of R. microplus consists of 19-20weeks if the spelling starts in late spring and early summer, and 27-28weeks if the spelling begins in mid- and late summer or in autumn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Competition Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Palik, D. J.; Snow, A. A.; Stottlemyer, A. L.; Miriti, M. N.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production) of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium), and high (with Bromus inermis). In both states, the two “lowland” cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels. PMID:27120201

  15. Relative Performance of Non-Local Cultivars and Local, Wild Populations of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) in Competition Experiments.

    PubMed

    Palik, D J; Snow, A A; Stottlemyer, A L; Miriti, M N; Heaton, E A

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of increased invasiveness in cultivated varieties of native perennial species is a question of interest in biofuel risk assessment. Competitive success is a key factor in the fitness and invasive potential of perennial plants, and thus the large-scale release of high-yielding biomass cultivars warrants empirical comparisons with local conspecifics in the presence of competitors. We evaluated the performance of non-local cultivars and local wild biotypes of the tallgrass species Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) in competition experiments during two growing seasons in Ohio and Iowa. At each location, we measured growth and reproductive traits (plant height, tiller number, flowering time, aboveground biomass, and seed production) of four non-locally sourced cultivars and two locally collected wild biotypes. Plants were grown in common garden experiments under three types of competition, referred to as none, moderate (with Schizachyrium scoparium), and high (with Bromus inermis). In both states, the two "lowland" cultivars grew taller, flowered later, and produced between 2x and 7.5x more biomass and between 3x and 34x more seeds per plant than local wild biotypes, while the other two cultivars were comparable to wild biotypes in these traits. Competition did not affect relative differences among biotypes, with the exception of shoot number, which was more similar among biotypes under high competition. Insights into functional differences between cultivars and wild biotypes are crucial for developing biomass crops while mitigating the potential for invasiveness. Here, two of the four cultivars generally performed better than wild biotypes, indicating that these biotypes may pose more of a risk in terms of their ability to establish vigorous feral populations in new regions outside of their area of origin. Our results support an ongoing assessment of switchgrass cultivars developed for large-scale planting for biofuels.

  16. A new peroxidase from leaves of guinea grass (Panicum maximum): A potential biocatalyst to build amperometric biosensors.

    PubMed

    Centeno, Diana A; Solano, Xuxan H; Castillo, John J

    2017-08-01

    A new plant peroxidase was isolated from the leaves of guinea grass (Panicum maximum) and partially purified using a biphasic polymer system (poly(ethylene glycol) - ammonium sulfate) followed by size-exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation until obtaining a homogeneous extract containing a high peroxidase activity. The novel peroxidase was characterized as having a specific activity of 408U/mg and a molecular weight of 30kDa. The pH for its optimum activity was 8.0 and exhibited a high thermostability at 66°C with a kinact of 8.0×10(-3)min(-1). The best substrates for peroxidase from guinea grass are o-dianisidine and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). POD from guinea grass was directly immobilized on the surface of a graphene screen printed electrode and cyclic voltammograms in the presence of potassium ferrocyanide ([Fe(CN)6](3-/4-)) as a redox species demonstrated an increase in the electron transfer process. The graphene- modified electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to the reduction of H2O2, with a linear response in the 100μM to 3.5mM concentration range and a detection limit of 150μM. The new peroxidase from guinea grass allowed the modification of a graphene electrode providing a potential sensor detection system for determination of H2O2 in real samples with some biomedical or environmental importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between Coastal Sites and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast.

  18. Effects of fluoride emissions on two tropical grasses: Chloris gayana and Panicum maximum cv. Colonião.

    PubMed

    Divan Junior, Armando Molina; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; Cambraia, José

    2007-06-01

    In order to detect early effects of plant contamination by fluoride emission on two tropical grasses, Chloris gayana and Panicum maximum, previously cultivated under greenhouse conditions, were exposed to a single source of fluoride emission at a station at 1.1 km from an aluminum smelter in Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Controls were placed at a reference station 78km from the fluoride source. During an 8-day period of exposure leaf injury, ionic permeability, photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a fluorescence and chlorophyll, soluble carbohydrates and fluoride contents were evaluated. Plants at the Ouro Preto station showed an increase in fluoride content, leaf injury and ionic permeability. Symptoms of injury by fluoride exposure were visible after 3-4 days in both species. High electrolyte leakage and correlation coefficients between the total ionic permeability and the fluoride content in leaves indicate a fluoride effect on the structural and/or functional integrity of the cellular membranes. Leaf fluoride injuries were quite different in the two species. In C. gayana necroses were limited to the leaf tips, while in P. maximum damages were observed in the whole leaf, suggesting a higher susceptibility of this latter species to fluoride. Nonetheless, neither grass showed statistical differences with respect to photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a fluorescence and chlorophyll content in leaves without any apparent fluoride injury. Plants at the Ouro Preto station showed a significant decrease in reducing sugar content between 3 and 5 days of exposure to fluoride, but thereafter reducing sugar content increased reaching the content of control plants. Fluoride exposed plants also showed a remarkable starch content reduction, remaining always much lower than those at the reference station.

  19. Performance and nematode infection of ewe lambs on intensive rotational grazing with two different cultivars of Panicum maximum.

    PubMed

    Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P

    2007-05-01

    The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.

  20. Simple and economical assay systems for evaluation of phosphinothricin resistant transgenics of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor. (L.) Moench., and pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed

    Harshavardhan, D; Santha, B; Rani, T S; Ulaganathan, K; Madhulety, T Y; Laxminarayana, C; Seetharama, N

    2003-02-01

    Five simple and rapid methods for evaluation of sorghum and pearl millet transgenics resistant to herbicide phosphinothricin (used as selectable marker) were studied. For rapid in vitro selection, three assays (establishment of sensitivity curves for embryogenic calli, determination of lethal doses for seed germination, and a rapid screening of cut young leaves based on the colour change of the medium) were established. For rapid screening of transgenic progeny, effects of in vivo Basta leaf spray and dip tests were studied at three different morphological stages. For all the above assays, LD50, and LD100 values were higher for pearl millet than sorghum. However, in both the crops, genotype effect was not significant. The assays standardized in the study were found to be effective for rapid, economical and mass-scale identification and characterization of transgenic plants of sorghum and pearl millet.

  1. Finger Millet: A "Certain" Crop for an "Uncertain" Future and a Solution to Food Insecurity and Hidden Hunger under Stressful Environments.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Arora, Sandeep; Mirza, Neelofar; Pande, Anjali; Lata, Charu; Puranik, Swati; Kumar, J; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth and productivity has largely been vulnerable to various abiotic and biotic stresses that are only set to be compounded due to global climate change. Therefore developing improved varieties and designing newer approaches for crop improvement against stress tolerance have become a priority now-a-days. However, most of the crop improvement strategies are directed toward staple cereals such as rice, wheat, maize etc., whereas attention on minor cereals such as finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] lags far behind. It is an important staple in several semi-arid and tropical regions of the world with excellent nutraceutical properties as well as ensuring food security in these areas even during harsh environment. This review highlights the importance of finger millet as a model nutraceutical crop. Progress and prospects in genetic manipulation for the development of abiotic and biotic stress tolerant varieties is also discussed. Although limited studies have been conducted for genetic improvement of finger millets, its nutritional significance in providing minerals, calories and protein makes it an ideal model for nutrition-agriculture research. Therefore, improved genetic manipulation of finger millets for resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as for enhancing nutrient content will be very effective in millet improvement. Key message: Apart from the excellent nutraceutical value of finger millet, its ability to tolerate various abiotic stresses and resist pathogens make it an excellent model for exploring vast genetic and genomic potential of this crop, which provide us a wide choice for developing strategies for making climate resilient staple crops.

  2. Finger Millet: A “Certain” Crop for an “Uncertain” Future and a Solution to Food Insecurity and Hidden Hunger under Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Arora, Sandeep; Mirza, Neelofar; Pande, Anjali; Lata, Charu; Puranik, Swati; Kumar, J.; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth and productivity has largely been vulnerable to various abiotic and biotic stresses that are only set to be compounded due to global climate change. Therefore developing improved varieties and designing newer approaches for crop improvement against stress tolerance have become a priority now-a-days. However, most of the crop improvement strategies are directed toward staple cereals such as rice, wheat, maize etc., whereas attention on minor cereals such as finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.] lags far behind. It is an important staple in several semi-arid and tropical regions of the world with excellent nutraceutical properties as well as ensuring food security in these areas even during harsh environment. This review highlights the importance of finger millet as a model nutraceutical crop. Progress and prospects in genetic manipulation for the development of abiotic and biotic stress tolerant varieties is also discussed. Although limited studies have been conducted for genetic improvement of finger millets, its nutritional significance in providing minerals, calories and protein makes it an ideal model for nutrition-agriculture research. Therefore, improved genetic manipulation of finger millets for resistance to both abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as for enhancing nutrient content will be very effective in millet improvement. Key message: Apart from the excellent nutraceutical value of finger millet, its ability to tolerate various abiotic stresses and resist pathogens make it an excellent model for exploring vast genetic and genomic potential of this crop, which provide us a wide choice for developing strategies for making climate resilient staple crops. PMID:28487720

  3. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    PubMed

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Gemenet, Dorcus C.; Leiser, Willmar L.; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H.; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F. W.; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T.; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I. G.

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  5. Overcoming Phosphorus Deficiency in West African Pearl Millet and Sorghum Production Systems: Promising Options for Crop Improvement.

    PubMed

    Gemenet, Dorcus C; Leiser, Willmar L; Beggi, Francesca; Herrmann, Ludger H; Vadez, Vincent; Rattunde, Henry F W; Weltzien, Eva; Hash, Charles T; Buerkert, Andreas; Haussmann, Bettina I G

    2016-01-01

    West Africa (WA) is among the most food insecure regions. Rapid human population growth and stagnating crop yields greatly contribute to this fact. Poor soil fertility, especially low plant available phosphorus (P) is constraining food production in the region. P-fertilizer use in WA is among the lowest in the world due to inaccessibility and high prices, often unaffordable to resource-poor subsistence farmers. This article provides an overview of soil P-deficiency in WA and opportunities to overcome it by exploiting sorghum and pearl millet genetic diversity. The topic is examined from the perspectives of plant breeding, soil science, plant physiology, plant nutrition, and agronomy, thereby referring to recent results obtained in a joint interdisciplinary research project, and reported literature. Specific objectives are to summarize: (1) The global problem of P scarcity and how it will affect WA farmers; (2) Soil P dynamics in WA soils; (3) Plant responses to P deficiency; (4) Opportunities to breed for improved crop adaptation to P-limited conditions; (5) Challenges and trade-offs for improving sorghum and pearl millet adaptation to low-P conditions in WA; and (6) Systems approaches to address soil P-deficiency in WA. Sorghum and pearl millet in WA exhibit highly significant genetic variation for P-uptake efficiency, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under P-limited conditions indicating the possibility of breeding P-efficient varieties. Direct selection under P-limited conditions was more efficient than indirect selection under high-P conditions. Combining P-uptake and P-utilization efficiency is recommendable for WA to avoid further soil mining. Genomic regions responsible for P-uptake, P-utilization efficiency, and grain yield under low-P have been identified in WA sorghum and pearl millet, and marker-assisted selection could be possible once these genomic regions are validated. Developing P-efficient genotypes may not, however, be a sustainable

  6. Improvement of resistance to rust through recurrent selection in pearl millet

    SciTech Connect

    Tapsoba, H.; Wilson, J.P.; Hanna, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Two pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. = P. typhoides (Burm.) Staff & Hubb., P. americanum (L.) K. Schum.] bulk populations, Tift No. 2 and Tift No. 5, served as base populations for four cycles of recurrent selection against susceptibility to Puccinia substriata Ell. & Barth, var. indica Ramachar & Cumm. A bulk inoculum of the pathogen was used. The objectives were to evaluate the progress achieved regarding overall resistance to the pathogen in the field and resistance to different races of the pathogen, and also to evaluate changes in unselected traits. During selection, the frequency of rust resistant plants continuously increased from about 30% in each base population to more than 85% by the third cycle of selection in both populations. An average increase of about 21 and 18% per cycle was obtained in Tift No. 2 and Tift No. 5, respectively. A continuous increase of the frequency of plants resistant to some races of the pathogen was also obtained. In Tift No. 5, 80% of the plants were resistant to eight races by the third cycle of selection. The accumulation of resistance observed in the seedlings was manifested in the field, both in 1993 and 1994, by a reduction of the final rust severity from the base population to the fourth selection cycle of both populations. This improvement in resistance to the rust pathogen was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of plants resistant to Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc. only in Tift No. 2. Despite the improvement in the selected character, genetic variability for agronomic traits such as plant height, number of culms/plant, flowering date, and panicle length was successfully maintained within each population. 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by wood millet carbon optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Nasiri Kokhdan, Syamak

    2015-02-05

    The use of cheep, non-toxic, safe and easily available adsorbent are efficient and recommended material and alternative to the current expensive substance for pollutant removal from wastewater. The activated carbon prepared from wood waste of local tree (millet) extensively was applied for quantitative removal of methylene blue (MB), while simply. It was used to re-used after heating and washing with alkaline solution of ethanol. This new adsorbent was characterized by using BET surface area measurement, FT-IR, pH determination at zero point of charge (pHZPC) and Boehm titration method. Response surface methodology (RSM) by at least the number of experiments main and interaction of experimental conditions such as pH of solution, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage was optimized and set as pH 7, contact time 18 min, initial dye concentration 20 ppm and 0.2 g of adsorbent. It was found that variable such as pH and amount of adsorbent as solely or combination effects seriously affect the removal percentage. The fitting experimental data with conventional models reveal the applicability of isotherm models Langmuir model for their well presentation and description and Kinetic real rate of adsorption at most conditions efficiently can be represented pseudo-second order, and intra-particle diffusion. It novel material is good candidate for removal of huge amount of MB (20 ppm) in short time (18 min) by consumption of small amount (0.2 g). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Whole plant acclimation responses by finger millet to low nitrogen stress

    PubMed Central

    Goron, Travis L.; Bhosekar, Vijay K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Watts, Sophia; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    The small grain cereal, finger millet (FM, Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn), is valued by subsistence farmers in India and East Africa as a low-input crop. It is reported by farmers to require no added nitrogen (N), or only residual N, to produce grain. Exact mechanisms underlying the acclimation responses of FM to low N are largely unknown, both above and below ground. In particular, the responses of FM roots and root hairs to N or any other nutrient have not previously been reported. Given its low N requirement, FM also provides a rare opportunity to study long-term responses to N starvation in a cereal species. The objective of this study was to survey the shoot and root morphometric responses of FM, including root hairs, to low N stress. Plants were grown in pails in a semi-hydroponic system on clay containing extremely low background N, supplemented with N or no N. To our surprise, plants grown without deliberately added N grew to maturity, looked relatively normal and produced healthy seed heads. Plants responded to the low N treatment by decreasing shoot, root, and seed head biomass. These declines under low N were associated with decreased shoot tiller number, crown root number, total crown root length and total lateral root length, but with no consistent changes in root hair traits. Changes in tiller and crown root number appeared to coordinate the above and below ground acclimation responses to N. We discuss the remarkable ability of FM to grow to maturity without deliberately added N. The results suggest that FM should be further explored to understand this trait. Our observations are consistent with indigenous knowledge from subsistence farmers in Africa and Asia, where it is reported that this crop can survive extreme environments. PMID:26347768

  9. Crop Monitoring as a Tool for Modelling the Genesis of Millet Prices in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, D.; Marinho, E.; Defourny, P.; Waldner, F.; d'Andrimont, R.

    2015-12-01

    Food security in Sahelian countries strongly relies on the ability of markets to transfer staplesfrom surplus to deficit areas. Market failures, leading to the inefficient geographical allocation of food,are expected to emerge from high transportation costs and information asymmetries that are commonin moderately developed countries. As a result, important price differentials are observed betweenproducing and consuming areas which damages both poor producers and food insecure consumers. Itis then vital for policy makers to understand how the prices of agricultural commodities are formed byaccounting for the existing market imperfections in addition to local demand and supply considerations. To address this issue, we have gathered an unique and diversified set of data for Senegal andintegrated it in a spatially explicit model that simulates the functioning of agricultural markets, that isfully consistent with the economic theory. Our departure point is a local demand and supply modelaround each market having its catchment areas determined by the road network. We estimate the localsupply of agricultural commodities from satellite imagery while the demand is assumed to be a functionof the population living in the area. From this point on, profitable transactions between areas with lowprices to areas with high prices are simulated for different levels of per kilometer transportation costand information flows (derived from call details records i.e. mobile phone data). The simulated prices are then comparedwith the actual millet prices. Despite the parsimony of the model that estimates only two parameters, i.e. the per kilometertransportation cost and the information asymmetry resulting from low levels of mobile phone activitybetween markets, it impressively explains more than 80% of the price differentials observed in the 40markets included in the analysis. In one hand these results can be used in the assessment of the socialwelfare impacts of the further development of

  10. Multi-Year Pathogen Survey of Biofuel Switchgrass Breeding Plots Reveals High Prevalence of Infections by Panicum mosaic virus and Its Satellite Virus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Catherine L; Pyle, Jesse D; Jochum, Charlene C; Vogel, Kenneth P; Yuen, Gary Y; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2015-08-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) cultivars are currently under development as lignocellulosic feedstock. Here we present a survey of three established switchgrass experimental nurseries in Nebraska in which we identified Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) as the most prevalent virus. In 2012, 72% of 139 symptomatic plants tested positive for PMV. Of the PMV-positive samples, 19% were coinfected with its satellite virus (SPMV). Less than 14% of all sampled plants in 2012 were positive for four additional viruses known to infect switchgrass. In 2013, randomized sampling of switchgrass individuals from the same 2012 breeding plots revealed that infection by PMV or PMV+SPMV was both more prevalent and associated with more severe symptoms in the cultivar Summer, and experimental lines with Summer parentage, than populations derived from the cultivar Kanlow. A 3-year analysis, from 2012 to 2014, showed that previously uninfected switchgrass plants acquire PMV or PMV+SPMV between harvest cycles. In contrast, some plants apparently did not maintain PMV infections at detectable levels from year-to-year. These findings suggest that PMV and SPMV should be considered important pathogens of switchgrass and serious potential threats to biofuel crop production efficiency.

  11. Influence of endophytic root bacteria on the growth, cadmium tolerance and uptake of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Afzal, S; Begum, N; Zhao, H; Fang, Z; Lou, L; Cai, Q

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of five cadmium-tolerant endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) strains on the biomass and cadmium tolerance, and accumulation of the bioenergy plant switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) under cadmium (Cd)-contaminated conditions. Five bacterial strains (Bj05, Le14, Ps14, So02 and Bo03) that could tolerate up to 2000 μmol l(-1) CdCl2 with a high Cd-binding capacity were isolated from plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil. These strains could promote the growth of switchgrass in the presence of 20 μmol l(-1) CdCl2 . Under Cd stress, both the root and shoot length and biomass in two switchgrass cultivars, Alamo and Cave-in-Rock (CIR), increased significantly after treatment with PGPB (P ˂ 0·05). Of the five PGPB strains, Bj05 and Le14 most effectively alleviated the Cd-induced growth inhibition of Alamo plants. Interestingly, the five PGPB strains increased Cd tolerance and decreased the accumulation and translocation factor (TF) of Cd in switchgrass when grown in the presence of 20 μmol l(-1) CdCl2 . The Cd concentrations in roots and shoots of Alamo and CIR plants were significantly reduced (P ˂ 0·05) compared with noninoculated plants. By 16S rRNA sequencing, these PGPB strains were classified as Pseudomonas putida Bj05, Pseudomonas fluorescens Ps14, and Enterobacter spp. Le14, So02 and Bo03. Inoculation with PGPB protects plants from the inhibitory effects of Cd, improves plant growth and decreases Cd concentration. These observations suggest that these strains could be used to promote growth and lower the bioavailability of Cd in switchgrass. These strains are potential candidates for the development of low Cd-accumulating switchgrass, particularly in areas of Cd contamination and pollution, and could be used efficiently for the bioremediation of contaminated soil. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Novel Phl-producing genotypes of finger millet rhizosphere associated pseudomonads and assessment of their functional and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Jegan; Prabavathy, Vaiyapuri Ramalingam

    2014-07-01

    Genetic diversity of phlD gene, an essential gene in the biosynthesis of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, was studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in 20 Phl-producing pseudomonads isolated from finger millet rhizosphere. RFLP analysis of phlD gene displayed three patterns with HaeIII and TaqI enzymes. phlD gene sequence closely correlated with RFLP results and revealed the existence of three new genotypes G, H and I. Further, the phylogenetic and concatenated sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB, rpoD genes supported the hypothesis that these genotypes G, H and I were different from reported genotypes A-F. In all phylogenetic studies, the genotype G formed a distant clade from the groups of Pseudomonas putida and P. aeruginosa (sensu strictu), but the groups H and I were closely related to P. aeruginosa/P. stutzeri group. The Phl-producing pseudomonads exhibited antagonistic activity against Pyricularia grisea (TN508), Gaeumannomyces graminis (DSM1463), Fusarium oxysporum (DSM62297), Xanthomonas campestris (DSM3586) and Erwinia persicina (HMGU155). In addition, these strains exhibited various plant growth-promoting traits. In conclusion, this study displays the existence of novel Phl-producing pseudomonads genotypes G, H and I from finger millet rhizosphere, which formed taxonomically outward phylogenetic lineage from the groups of P. putida and P. aeruginosa (sensu strictu). © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 ubiquitously regulates plant growth and development from Arabidopsis to foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaige; Qi, Shuanghui; Li, Dong; Jin, Changyu; Gao, Chenhao; Duan, Shaowei; Feng, Baili; Chen, Mingxun

    2017-01-01

    TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTTG1) is a WD40 repeat transcription factor that plays multiple roles in plant growth and development, particularly in seed metabolite production. In the present study, to determine whether SiTTG1 of the phylogenetically distant monocot foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has similar functions, we used transgenic Arabidopsis and Nicotiana systems to explore its activities. We found that SiTTG1 functions as a transcription factor. Overexpression of the SiTTG1 gene rescued many of the mutant phenotypes in Arabidopsis ttg1-13 plants. Additionally, SiTTG1 overexpression fully corrected the reduced expression of mucilage biosynthetic genes, and the induced expression of genes involved in accumulation of seed fatty acids and storage proteins in developing seeds of ttg1-13 plants. Ectopic expression of SiTTG1 restored the sensitivity of the ttg1-13 mutant to salinity and high glucose stresses during germination and seedling establishment, and restored altered expression levels of some stress-responsive genes in ttg1-13 seedlings to the wild type level under salinity and glucose stresses. Our results provide information that will be valuable for understanding the function of TTG1 from monocot to dicot species and identifying a promising target for genetic manipulation of foxtail millet to improve the amount of seed metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of nutritional value of finger millet-based food (Indian dosa) by co-fermentation with horse gram flour.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Bruntha Devi; Rajendran, Vijayabharathi; Sathyaseelan, Sathyabama; Bhat, Rajeev; Venkatesan, Brindha Priyadarisini

    2012-02-01

    Co-fermentation of finger millet with horse gram was carried out to produce inexpensive protein-rich food (dosa-an Indian breakfast food). Natural fermentation of finger millet-horse gram flour blend in different proportions (2:1, 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1) was performed for 24 h. Biochemical analysis showed reasonable drop in pH (6.6-4.2) and starch content (25.52%) with considerable augment in titratable acidity (0.168-1.046%), soluble proteins (1.1-fold) and free amino acids (2.6-fold) at 16 h. Lactic acid bacteria dominated yeast counts throughout the fermentation accompanied by a decrease in total soluble and reducing sugars. Total essential amino acids increased 1.1-fold at 16-h fermentation with protein containing 48.68% of essential amino acids over total amino acids. Lysine increased from 5.87 to 6.73 g of amino acid/100 g of total amino acids. Dosa, prepared from 16-h fermented batter, showed better sensory attributes for 4:1 ratio. The formulated new product might be used to overcome the protein-energy malnutrition problems.

  15. Plant Growth Substances Produced by Azospirillum brasilense and Their Effect on the Growth of Pearl Millet (Pennisetum americanum L.) †

    PubMed Central

    Tien, T. M.; Gaskins, M. H.; Hubbell, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense, a nitrogen-fixing bacterium found in the rhizosphere of various grass species, was investigated to establish the effect on plant growth of growth substances produced by the bacteria. Thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and bioassay were used to separate and identify plant growth substances produced by the bacteria in liquid culture. Indole acetic acid and indole lactic acid were produced by A. brasilense from tryptophan. Indole acetic acid production increased with increasing tryptophan concentration from 1 to 100 μg/ml. Indole acetic acid concentration also increased with the age of the culture until bacteria reached the stationary phase. Shaking favored the production of indole acetic acid, especially in a medium containing nitrogen. A small but biologically significant amount of gibberellin was detected in the culture medium. Also at least three cytokinin-like substances, equivalent to about 0.001 μg of kinetin per ml, were present. The morphology of pearl millet roots changed when plants in solution culture were inoculated. The number of lateral roots was increased, and all lateral roots were densely covered with root hairs. Experiments with pure plant hormones showed that gibberellin causes increased production of lateral roots. Cytokinin stimulated root hair formation, but reduced lateral root production and elongation of the main root. Combinations of indole acetic acid, gibberellin, and kinetin produced changes in root morphology of pearl millet similar to those produced by inoculation with A. brasilense. Images PMID:16345372

  16. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops.

  17. Calcium Biofortification: Three Pronged Molecular Approaches for Dissecting Complex Trait of Calcium Nutrition in Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) for Devising Strategies of Enrichment of Food Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Divya; Jamra, Gautam; Singh, Uma M.; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Calcium is an essential macronutrient for plants and animals and plays an indispensable role in structure and signaling. Low dietary intake of calcium in humans has been epidemiologically linked to various diseases which can have serious health consequences over time. Major staple food-grains are poor source of calcium, however, finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], an orphan crop has an immense potential as a nutritional security crop due to its exceptionally high calcium content. Understanding the existing genetic variation as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the uptake, transport, accumulation of calcium ions (Ca2+) in grains is of utmost importance for development of calcium bio-fortified crops. In this review, we have discussed molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation and transport thoroughly, emphasized the role of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic approaches to understand the intricate mechanism of calcium nutrition in finger millet. The objective is to provide a comprehensive up to date account of molecular mechanisms regulating calcium nutrition and highlight the significance of bio-fortification through identification of potential candidate genes and regulatory elements from finger millet to alleviate calcium malnutrition. Hence, finger millet could be used as a model system for explaining the mechanism of elevated calcium (Ca2+) accumulation in its grains and could pave way for development of nutraceuticals or designer crops. PMID:28144246

  18. Development of Genomic and Genetic Tools for Foxtail Millet, and Use of These Tools in the Improvement of Biomass Production for Bioenergy Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Doust, Andrew, N.

    2011-11-11

    The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al., in prep). In particular, the annotation and analysis of candidate genes for architecture, biomass production and flowering has led to new insights into the control of branching and flowering time, and has shown how closely related flowering time is to vegetative architectural development and biomass accumulation. The differences in genetic control identified at high and low density plantings have direct relevance to the breeding of bioenergy grasses that are tolerant of high planting densities. The developmental analyses have shown how plant architecture changes over time and may indicate which genes may best be manipulated at various times during development to obtain required biomass characteristics. This data contributes to the overall aim of significantly improving genetic and genomic tools in foxtail millet that can be directed to improvement of bioenergy grasses such as switchgrass, where it is important to maximize vegetative growth for greatest biomass production.

  19. Development of high-density linkage map and tagging leaf spot resistance in pearl millet using genotyping-by-sequencing markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pearl millet is an important forage and grain crop in many parts of the world. Genome mapping studies are a prerequisite for tagging agronomically important traits. Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) markers can be used to build high density linkage maps even in species lacking a reference genome. A re...

  20. Structural characterization (1->2)-beta-xylose-(1->3)-alpha-arabinose-containing oligosaccharide products of extracted switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) xylan treatment with alpha-arabinofuranosidase and beta-endo-xylanase.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.) is a potential dedicated biomass crop for use in biocatalytic conversion systems to biofuels. Nearly 30% of switchgrass cell wall material is xylan. The complete depolymerization of xylan is desirable both as an additional carbon source for microbial fermentation a...

  1. Effects of raw and diluted municipal sewage effluent with micronutrient foliar sprays on the growth and nutrient concentration of foxtail millet in southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Asgharipour, Mohammad Reza; Reza Azizmoghaddam, Hamid

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the effect of irrigation with raw or diluted municipal sewage effluent accompanied by foliar micronutrient fertilizer sprays was examined on the growth, dry matter accumulation, grain yield, and mineral nutrients in foxtail millet plants. The experimental design was a split plot with three irrigation sources: raw sewage, 50% diluted sewage, and well water comprising the main treatments, and four combinations of Mn and Zn foliar sprays as sub-treatments that were applied with four replications. The experiment was conducted in 2009 at the Zabol University research farm in Zabol, south Iran. The applied municipal sewage effluent contained higher levels of micronutrients and macronutrients and exhibited greater degrees of electrical conductivity compared to well water. Because of the small scale of industrial activities in Zabol, the amount of heavy metals in the sewage was negligible (below the limits set for irrigation water in agricultural lands); these contaminants would not be severely detrimental to crop growth. The experimental results indicated that irrigation of plants with raw or diluted sewage stimulates the measured growth and productivity parameters of foxtail millet plants. The concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients were also positively affected. These stimulations were attributed to the presence of high levels of such essential nutrients as N, P, and organic matter in wastewater. Supplied in sewage water alone, Mn and Zn were not able to raise the productivity of millet to the level obtained using fertilizers at the recommended values; this by itself indicated that additional nutrients from fertilizers are required to obtain higher levels of millet productivity with sewage farming. Despite the differences in nutrient concentrations among the different irrigation water sources, the micronutrient foliar sprays did not affect the concentrations of micronutrients and macronutrients in foxtail millet plants. These results suggested

  2. Using combined optimization, GC-MS and analytical technique to analyze the germination effect on phenolics, dietary fibers, minerals and GABA contents of Kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2017-10-15

    A central composite rotatable design was applied to study the effects of soaking time, germination time and temperature on the responses; total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity for the biochemical enhancement of bioactive components of Kodo millet. The optimum conditions for producing germinated Kodo millet flour of highest TPC (83.01mgGAE/100g), TFC (87.53mgRUE/g) and AoxA (91.34%), were soaking time (13.81h), germination temperature (38.75°C) and germination time (35.82h). Protein increased significantly form, 6.7 to 7.9%, dietary fibers from 35.30 to 38.34g/100g, minerals from 232.82 to 251.73mg/100g, GABA contents from 9.36 to 47.43mg/100g, whereas phytates and tannins decreased from 1.344 to 0.997mol/kg and 1.603 to 0.234mg/100g respectively, in optimized germinated Kodo millet sample. Six new bioactive compounds [n-propyl-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (0.86%), pregan,20-one-2hydroxy,5,6,epox-15-methyl (3.45%), hexa-decanoicacid (8.19%), 9,O-ctadecenoicacid (5.00%), butyl-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoate (4.03%), hexadecanoicacid-methylester (1.43%)], synthesized as a result of germination under optimum conditions in the Kodo millet depicted the germination potential of millets as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptome changes in foxtail millet genotypes at high salinity: identification and characterization of a PHGPX gene specifically upregulated by NaCl in a salt-tolerant line.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Miranda, Manoela; Prakash, Harischandra Sripathy; Wobus, Ulrich; Weschke, Winfriede

    2004-04-01

    Using a macro array filter with 711 cDNA inserts representing 620 unigenes selected from a barley EST collection, we identified transcripts differentially expressed in salt (NaCl)-treated tolerant (cv. Prasad) and sensitive (cv. Lepakshi) seedlings of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). Transcripts of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes such as phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase 1 (CAT1) in addition to some genes of cellular metabolism were found to be especially up-regulated at high salinity in the tolerant line. To analyse this process at the protein level we examined protein expression patterns under various stress conditions. A 25 kD protein with a pI of 4.8 was found to be induced prominently under high salt concentrations (250 mmol/L). This salt-induced 25 kD protein has been purified and identified by peptide sequencing as PHGPX protein. The increase of the PHGPX protein level under salt stress in the tolerant line parallels the PHGPX mRNA results of array analysis but was more pronounced. We cloned and characterized the foxtail millet PHGPX cDNA, which shows 85% and 95% homology at the DNA and protein level, respectively, to one stress-induced member of the small barley PHGPX gene family encoding non-selenium glutathione peroxidases. As shown by Southern blot analysis, a small family of PHGPX genes exists in foxtail millet, too. The specific expression pattern of the PHGPX gene in salt-induced tolerant millet seedlings suggests that its product plays an important role in the defense reaction against salt-induced oxidative damage and that the characterized glutathione peroxidase is one of the components conferring resistance against salt to the tolerant foxtail millet cultivar.

  4. Large-scale production, harvest and logistics of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) - current technology and envisioning a mature technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Turhollow, Jr., Anthony; Mani, Sudhagar; Kumar, Amit; Bransby, David; Lynd, L.; Laser, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising cellulosic biomass feedstock for biorefineries and biofuel production. This paper reviews current and future potential technologies for production, harvest, storage, and transportation of switchgrass. Our analysis indicates that for a yield of 10 Mg ha 1, the current cost of producing switchgrass (after establishment) is about $41.50 Mg 1. The costs may be reduced to about half this if the yield is increased to 30 Mg ha 1 through genetic improvement, intensive crop management, and/or optimized inputs. At a yield of 10 Mg ha 1, we estimate that harvesting costs range from $23.72 Mg 1 for current baling technology to less than $16 Mg 1 when using a loafing collection system. At yields of 20 and 30 Mg ha 1 with an improved loafing system, harvesting costs are even lower at $12.75 Mg 1 and $9.59 Mg 1, respectively. Transport costs vary depending upon yield and fraction of land under switchgrass, bulk density of biomass, and total annual demand of a biorefinery. For a 2000 Mg d 1 plant and an annual yield of 10 Mg ha 1, the transport cost is an estimated $15.42 Mg 1, assuming 25% of the land is under switchgrass production. Total delivered cost of switchgrass using current baling technology is $80.64 Mg 1, requiring an energy input of 8.5% of the feedstock higher heating value (HHV). With mature technology, for example, a large, loaf collection system, the total delivered cost is reduced to about $71.16 Mg 1 with 7.8% of the feedstock HHV required as input. Further cost reduction can be achieved by combining mature technology with increased crop productivity. Delivered cost and energy input do not vary significantly as biorefinery capacity increases from 2000 Mg d 1 to 5000 Mg d 1 because the cost of increased distance to access a larger volume feedstock offsets the gains in increased biorefinery capacity. This paper outlines possible scenarios for the expansion of switchgrass handling to 30 Tg (million Mg) in 2015 and

  5. Etude de production et de caracterisation de biocharbons de panic erige (Panicum virgatum L.) obtenus par pyrolyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilon, Guillaume

    This research aimed at the production of biomass char under pyrolytic conditions, targeting biochar as soil amendment, while also considering its application as biocoal, either for bioenergy or subsequent upgrading. The production of biomass char was performed using two bench-scale, batch-type, fixed-bed reactors, each with an operating capacity of 1 and 25 gw.b. /batch, respectively. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been used for the tests. Production conditions studied implied temperatures of 300, 400 and 500 °C with short residence times (2.5 and 5 min). As well, the effect of using CO2 as vector gas has been compared to a common inert environment of N2. The effects of the previously mentioned parameters were correlated with some important physicochemical characteristics of biomass char. Analyses were also performed on complementary pyrolytic products (bio-oil and gas). The biomass char extraction was performed using a Soxhlet and dichloromethane was used as extracting solvent. The extracts were then characterized by GC-MS thus allowing the identification of several compounds. Specific pyrolysis conditions used at 300 °C - N2 with the 1 g/batch reactor, such as high heating rates as well as high convection conditions, presented advantegeous biomass char yields and properties, and, possible torrefaction process productivity improvement (in comparison to reported literature, such as Gilbert et al. [2009]). The char extracts as well as the bio-oils analysis (also performed using GC-MS), all generated from the 25 g/batch reactor, showed major differences among the compounds obtained from the CO2 and N2 environments, respectively. Several compounds observed in the char extracts appeared less concentrated in the CO2 environment vs N2, for the same reaction temperatures. As an example, at 400 °C, furfural was found only in char extracts from N2 environment as compared to the CO2 environment. Among all studied conditions (for both reactors), only naphthalene and

  6. Assessing climate change impacts on sorghum and millet yields in the Sudanian and Sahelian savannas of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, B.; Roudier, P.; Quirion, P.; Alhassane, A.; Muller, B.; Dingkuhn, M.; Ciais, P.; Guimberteau, M.; Traore, S.; Baron, C.

    2013-03-01

    Sub-Saharan West Africa is a vulnerable region where a better quantification and understanding of the impact of climate change on crop yields is urgently needed. Here, we have applied the process-based crop model SARRA-H calibrated and validated over multi-year field trials and surveys at eight contrasting sites in terms of climate and agricultural practices in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger. The model gives a reasonable correlation with observed yields of sorghum and millet under a range of cultivars and traditional crop management practices. We applied the model to more than 7000 simulations of yields of sorghum and millet for 35 stations across West Africa and under very different future climate conditions. We took into account 35 possible climate scenarios by combining precipitation anomalies from -20% to 20% and temperature anomalies from +0 to +6 °C. We found that most of the 35 scenarios (31/35) showed a negative impact on yields, up to -41% for +6 °C/ - 20% rainfall. Moreover, the potential future climate impacts on yields are very different from those recorded in the recent past. This is because of the increasingly adverse role of higher temperatures in reducing crop yields, irrespective of rainfall changes. When warming exceeds +2 °C, negative impacts caused by temperature rise cannot be counteracted by any rainfall change. The probability of a yield reduction appears to be greater in the Sudanian region (southern Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, northern Togo and Benin), because of an exacerbated sensitivity to temperature changes compared to the Sahelian region (Niger, Mali, northern parts of Senegal and Burkina Faso), where crop yields are more sensitive to rainfall change. Finally, our simulations show that the photoperiod-sensitive traditional cultivars of millet and sorghum used by local farmers for centuries seem more resilient to future climate conditions than modern cultivars bred for their high yield potential (-28% versus -40% for

  7. Optimizing rainwater partitioning and millet production on degraded land in Niger using Water and Soil Conservation practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildemeersch, Jasmien C. J.; Garba, Maman; Al-Barri, Bashar; Sabiou, Mahamane; Cornelis, Wim M.

    2015-04-01

    As a result of growing population pressure and severe soil erosion, farmers in the Sahel increasingly rely on degraded lands for millet production. The adverse Sahelian rainfall distribution and imbalanced rainfall partitioning over the rootzone of these degraded lands therefore calls for sustainable land management strategies that are water resource efficient. This study evaluates the soil-water balance of promising Nigerien Water and Soil Conservation (WSC) techniques (i.e., zaï pits, demi-lune microcatchments and scarification with standing crop residue) and their impact on millet yield by means of an in-situ field experiment (2011-2013) on degraded laterite soil classified as Plinthosol with a 1% slope. All WSC practices received the same amount of fertilizer and were compared to two control practices, one with and one without fertilizer. Soil-water content was recorded with a neutron probe till 105 cm depth and runoff by means of a cemented gutter directing runoff water with a multi-pipe divisor into a collector drum. WSC techniques proved to significantly reduce runoff (blue water) with overall runoff coefficients beings reduced from 25% (control practice) to 5-10%. Consequently, significantly more water was stored inside the catchments of the zaï pits and demi-lunes (green water). With the scarification treatment, no considerable differences in soil-water storage were found with the control. On the other hand, WSC practices had little impact on soil evaporation, which was only 12% of rainfall by the self-mulching soil. Crop transpiration increased with WSC and highest millet yields were found with zaï pits (4 to 5 times higher than under the fertilized control). Although rainwater was better partitioned in case of demi-lune microcatchments resulting in highest amounts of water stored in the soil, yield was only 40-60% of that with zaï pits. This was due to a higher plant density within each demi-lune microcatchment in an attempt to attain similar plant

  8. Association mapping of agro-morphological characters among the global collection of finger millet genotypes using genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kalyana Babu, B; Agrawal, P K; Pandey, Dinesh; Jaiswal, J P; Kumar, Anil

    2014-08-01

    Identification of alleles responsible for various agro-morphological characters is a major concern to further improve the finger millet germplasm. Forty-six genomic SSRs were used for genetic analysis and population structure analysis of a global collection of 190 finger millet genotypes and fifteen agro-morphological characters were evaluated. The overall results showed that Asian genotypes were smaller in height, smaller flag leaf length, less basal tiller number, early flowering and early maturity nature, small ear head length, and smaller in length of longest finger. The 46 SSRs yielded 90 scorable alleles and the polymorphism information content values varied from 0.292 to 0.703 at an average of 0.442. The gene diversity was in the range of 0.355 to 0.750 with an average value of 0.528. The 46 genomic SSR loci grouped the 190 finger millet genotypes into two major clusters based on their geographical origin by the both phylogenetic clustering and population structure analysis by STRUCTURE software. Association mapping of QTLs for 15 agro-morphological characters with 46 genomic SSRs resulted in identification of five markers were linked to QTLs of four traits at a significant threshold (P) level of ≤ 0.01 and ≤ 0.001. The QTL for basal tiller number was strongly associated with the locus UGEP81 at a P value of 0.001 by explaining the phenotypic variance (R (2)) of 10.8%. The QTL for days to 50% flowering was linked by two SSR loci UGEP77 and UGEP90, explained 10 and 8.7% of R (2) respectively at a P value of 0.01. The SSR marker, FM9 found to have strong association to two agro-morphological traits, flag leaf width (P-0.001, R(2)-14.1 %) and plant height (P-0.001, R(2)-11.2%). The markers linked to the QTLs for above agro-morphological characters found in the present study can be further used for cloning of the full length gene, fine mapping and their further use in the marker assisted breeding programmes for introgression of alleles into locally well

  9. Experimental and bioinformatic characterization of a recombinant polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein from pearl millet and its interaction with fungal polygalacturonases

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, S. Ashok; Singh, Ratna; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Sujeeth, Neerakkal; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.; Kini, Ramachandra K.; Wagenknecht, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (PGs) are hydrolytic enzymes employed by several phytopathogens to weaken the plant cell wall by degrading homopolygalacturonan, a major constituent of pectin. Plants fight back by employing polygalacturonase-inhibitor proteins (PGIPs). The present study compared the inhibition potential of pearl millet PGIP (Pennisetum glaucum; PglPGIP1) with the known inhibition of Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP (PvPGIP2) against two PGs, the PG-II isoform from Aspergillus niger (AnPGII) and the PG-III isoform from Fusarium moniliforme (FmPGIII). The key rationale was to elucidate the relationship between the extent of sequence similarity of the PGIPs and the corresponding PG inhibition potential. First, a pearl millet pgip gene (Pglpgip1) was isolated and phylogenetically placed among monocot PGIPs alongside foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Upstream sequence analysis of Pglpgip1 identified important cis-elements responsive to light, plant stress hormones, and anoxic stress. PglPGIP1, heterologously produced in Escherichia coli, partially inhibited AnPGII non-competitively with a pH optimum between 4.0 and 4.5, and showed no inhibition against FmPGIII. Docking analysis showed that the concave surface of PglPGIP1 interacted strongly with the N-terminal region of AnPGII away from the active site, whereas it weakly interacted with the C-terminus of FmPGIII. Interestingly, PglPGIP1 and PvPGIP2 employed similar motif regions with few identical amino acids for interaction with AnPGII at non-substrate-binding sites; however, they engaged different regions of AnPGII. Computational mutagenesis predicted D126 (PglPGIP1)–K39 (AnPGII) to be the most significant binding contact in the PglPGIP1–AnPGII complex. Such protein–protein interaction studies are crucial in the future generation of designer host proteins for improved resistance against ever-evolving pathogen virulence factors. PMID:24980909

  10. Antinutritional factor content and hydrochloric acid extractability of minerals in pearl millet cultivars as affected by germination.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahaman, Samia M; Elmaki, Hagir B; Idris, Wisal H; Hassan, Amro B; Babiker, Elfadil E; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2007-02-01

    Four pearl millet cultivars of two different species--Kordofani and Ugandi (Pennisetum typhoideum) and Madelkawaya and Shambat (Pennisetum glaucum)--were germinated for 6 days. The germinated grains were dried and milled. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents and hydrochloric acid (HCl) extractability of minerals from the malt flours were determined at intervals of 2 days during germination. Phytic acid and polyphenol contents decreased significantly (P <0.01) with an increase in germination time, with a concomitant increase in HCl extractable minerals. However, the major mineral content was significantly decreased while that of trace minerals was increased with germination time. When the grains were germinated for 6 days, Madelkawaya had higher extractable calcium while Ugandi had higher extractable phosphorus, whereas iron and manganese recorded high levels in Shambat and Madelkawaya, respectively. There was good correlation between antinutritional factors reduction and the increment in extractable minerals with germination time.

  11. High frequency embryoid and plantlet formation from tissue cultures of the Finger millet-Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Sivadas, P; Kothari, S L; Chandra, N

    1990-07-01

    Compact nodulated embryogenic callus differentiated from cultured seeds of Eleusine coracana (Finger Millet) on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1.0, 3.0 mg (l)). This embryogenic callus was maintained on a medium with a lower level of 2,4 - dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. At every subculture the embryogenic callus had some preexisting embryoids in it. With this method of subculture the callus has retained its morphogenic potential for four years. Following transfer to media with different levels of auxins and cytokinins, the callus showed varied patterns of growth and morphogenesis. Embryoids could be germinated in profusion to form plantlets which could be transferred to the field. Shoot buds also differentiated from the whole surface of the embryoid or from the flattened meristemoids.

  12. Twin screw extrusion of kodo millet-chickpea blend: process parameter optimization, physico-chemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Geetha, R; Mishra, H N; Srivastav, P P

    2014-11-01

    Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80-150 °C), screw speed (250-300 rpm) and feeder speed (15-30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.

  13. Aflatoxin contamination of pearl millet during field and storage conditions with reference to stage of grain maturation and insect damage.

    PubMed

    Raghavender, C R; Reddy, B N; Shobharani, G

    2007-12-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in five varieties of pearl millet (ICMH-451, ICMP-50I, ICTP-8203, WCC-75 and ICMV-155) was studied from field and storage conditions in three districts of Andhra Pradesh State, India and the inter-relationships between various parameters such as stage of grain maturation in the field and insect pest infestation in storage in relation to aflatoxin production were evaluated. Aflatoxin contamination was more frequent in the seed samples collected from the fields during rainy season than winter season. All major aflatoxins were isolated from one or the other varieties of pearl millet, whereas aflatoxin G2 was not commonly observed in the seed samples collected during winter. Among all the varieties tested, ICMH-451 was vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination whereas ICMV-155 was the least susceptible variety. The higher amount of aflatoxins was observed in the matured seed samples followed by pre-matured and milky stage. Among all the toxins reported in the field, aflatoxin B1 was found in higher concentration (185 (μg/kg) followed by B2 (105 μg/kg). The four major types of aflatoxins with higher levels (35, 40, 140, 190 μg/kg of G1, G2, B2, B1 were reported in the rainy season seed samples after six months of storage, whereas aflatoxin G1 was not observed in any variety of stored seed sample from winter. Statistical analysis revealed that the aflatoxin incidence in relation to different parameters studied was significantly different for each factor. The relationship between aflatoxin contamination and insect damaged-grain clearly indicated that the seed samples with 16-40% of insect damage contained higher amounts of aflatoxins (758 μg/kg).

  14. cDNA-AFLP analysis reveals differential gene expression in response to salt stress in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Ananthi; Puranik, Swati; Rai, Neeraj Kumar; Vidapu, Sudhakar; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Lata, Charu; Prasad, Manoj

    2008-11-01

    Plant growth and productivity are affected by various abiotic stresses such as heat, drought, cold, salinity, etc. The mechanism of salt tolerance is one of the most important subjects in plant science as salt stress decreases worldwide agricultural production. In our present study we used cDNA-AFLP technique to compare gene expression profiles of a salt tolerant and a salt-sensitive cultivar of foxtail millet (Seteria italica) in response to salt stress to identify early responsive differentially expressed transcripts accumulated upon salt stress and validate the obtained result through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profile was compared between a salt tolerant (Prasad) and susceptible variety (Lepakshi) of foxtail millet in both control condition (L0 and P0) and after 1 h (L1 and P1) of salt stress. We identified 90 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) that are differentially expressed, out of which 86 TDFs were classified on the basis of their either complete presence or absence (qualitative variants) and 4 on differential expression pattern levels (quantitative variants) in the two varieties. Finally, we identified 27 non-redundant differentially expressed cDNAs that are unique to salt tolerant variety which represent different groups of genes involved in metabolism, cellular transport, cell signaling, transcriptional regulation, mRNA splicing, seed development and storage, etc. The expression patterns of seven out of nine such genes showed a significant increase of differential expression in tolerant variety after 1 h of salt stress in comparison to salt-sensitive variety as analyzed by qRT-PCR. The direct and indirect relationship of identified TDFs with salinity tolerance mechanism is discussed.

  15. De novo Transcriptome Sequencing to Dissect Candidate Genes Associated with Pearl Millet-Downy Mildew (Sclerospora graminicola Sacc.) Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Kalyani S.; Zala, Harshvardhan N.; Bosamia, Tejas C.; Shukla, Yogesh M.; Kumar, Sushil; Fougat, Ranbir S.; Patel, Mruduka S.; Narayanan, Subhash; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the plant-pathogen interactions is of utmost importance to design strategies for minimizing the economic deficits caused by pathogens in crops. With an aim to identify genes underlying resistance to downy mildew, a major disease responsible for productivity loss in pearl millet, transcriptome analysis was performed in downy mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes upon infection and control on 454 Roche NGS platform. A total of ~685 Mb data was obtained with 1 575 290 raw reads. The raw reads were pre-processed into high-quality (HQ) reads making to ~82% with an average of 427 bases. The assembly was optimized using four assemblers viz. Newbler, MIRA, CLC and Trinity, out of which MIRA with a total of 14.10 Mb and 90118 transcripts proved to be the best for assembling reads. Differential expression analysis depicted 1396 and 936 and 1000 and 1591 transcripts up and down regulated in resistant inoculated/resistant control and susceptible inoculated/susceptible control respectively with a common of 3644 transcripts. The pathways for secondary metabolism, specifically the phenylpropanoid pathway was up-regulated in resistant genotype. Transcripts up-regulated as a part of defense response included classes of R genes, PR proteins, HR induced proteins and plant hormonal signaling transduction proteins. The transcripts for skp1 protein, purothionin, V type proton ATPase were found to have the highest expression in resistant genotype. Ten transcripts, selected on the basis of their involvement in defense mechanism were validated with qRT-PCR and showed positive co-relation with transcriptome data. Transcriptome analysis evoked potentials of hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance as possible mechanism operating in defense mechanism in pearl millet against downy mildew infection. PMID:27446100

  16. The synergistic effect of drought and light stresses in sorghum and pearl millet. [Pennisetum glaucum; Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Masojidek, M.; Trivedi, S.; Halshaw, L.; Alexiou, A.; Hall, D.O. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought stress and high irradiance and their combination were studied under laboratory conditions using young plants of a very drought-resistant variety, ICMH 451, of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and three varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) - one drought-resistant from India, one drought-tolerant from Texas, and one drought-sensitive variety from France. CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and photosystem II fluorescence in leaves were analyzed in parallel with photosynthetic electron transport, photosystem II fluorescence, and chlorophyll-protein composition in chloroplasts isolated from these leaves. High irradiance slightly increased CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and electron transport activities of irrigated plants but not fluorescence. Drought stress (less than {minus}1 megapascal) depressed CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effect of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates, fluorescence, and electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport. Under the combined effects of drought stress and high irradiance, CO{sub 2} assimilation rates and fluorescence were severely inhibited in leaves, as were the photosynthetic electron transport activities and fluorescence in chloroplasts (but not photosystem I activity). The synergistic or distinctive effect of drought and high irradiance is discussed. The experiments with pearl millet and three varieties of sorghum showed that different responses of plants to drought and light stresses can be monitored by plant physiological and biochemical techniques. Some of these techniques may have a potential for selection of stress-resistant varieties using seedlings.

  17. Quantitative trait loci associated with constitutive traits control water use in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br].

    PubMed

    Aparna, K; Nepolean, T; Srivastsava, R K; Kholová, J; Rajaram, V; Kumar, S; Rekha, B; Senthilvel, S; Hash, C T; Vadez, V

    2015-09-01

    There is substantial genetic variation for drought adaption in pearl millet in terms of traits controlling plant water use. It is important to understand genomic regions responsible for these traits. Here, F7 recombinant inbred lines were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) and allelic interactions for traits affecting plant water use, and their relevance is discussed for crop productivity in water-limited environments. Four QTL contributed to increased transpiration rate under high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) conditions, all with alleles from drought-sensitive parent ICMB 841. Of these four QTL, a major QTL (35.7%) was mapped on linkage group (LG) 6. The alleles for 863B at this QTL decreased transpiration rate and this QTL co-mapped to a previously detected LG 6 QTL, with alleles from 863B for grain weight and panicle harvest index across severe terminal drought stress environments. This provided additional support for a link between water saving from a lower transpiration rate under high VPD and drought tolerance. 863B alleles in this same genomic region also increased shoot weight, leaf area and total transpiration under well-watered conditions. One unexpected outcome was reduced transpiration under high VPD (15%) from the interaction of two alleles for high VPD transpiration (LG 6 (B), 40.7) and specific leaf mass and biomass (LG 7 (A), 35.3), (A, allele from ICMB 841, B, allele from 863B, marker position). The LG 6 QTL appears to combine alleles for growth potential, beneficial for non-stress conditions, and for saving water under high evaporative demand, beneficial under stressful conditions. Mapping QTL for water-use traits, and assessing their interactions offers considerable potential for improving pearl millet adaptation to specific stress conditions through physiology-informed marker-assisted selection. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Biofortification of pearl millet with iron and zinc in a randomized controlled trial increases absorption of these minerals above physiologic requirements in young children.

    PubMed

    Kodkany, Bhalchandra S; Bellad, Roopa M; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S; Westcott, Jamie E; Krebs, Nancy F; Kemp, Jennifer F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-09-01

    Millet is unusually drought resistant and consequently there is a progressive increase in the use of these grains as a human food staple, especially in large areas of India and sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorption of iron and zinc from pearl millet biofortified with 2 micronutrients that are typically deficient in nonfortified, plant-based diets globally. The study was undertaken in 40 children aged 2 y in Karnataka, India (n = 21 test/19 controls). Three test meals providing ∼84 ± 17 g dry pearl millet flour were fed on a single day for zinc and 2 d for iron between 0900 and 1600 h. The quantities of zinc and iron absorbed were measured with established stable isotope extrinsic labeling techniques and analyses of duplicate diets. The mean (± SD) quantities of iron absorbed from test and control groups were 0.67 ± 0.48 and 0.23 ± 0.15 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.001). The quantities of zinc absorbed were 0.95 ± 0.47 and 0.67 ± 0.24 mg/d, respectively (P = 0.03). These data did not include absorption of the modest quantities of iron and zinc contained in snacks eaten before and after the 3 test meals. In conclusion, quantities of both iron and zinc absorbed when iron and zinc biofortified pearl millet is fed to children aged 2 y as the major food staple is more than adequate to meet the physiological requirements for these micronutrients.

  19. Genome-Wide Investigation and Expression Analyses of WD40 Protein Family in the Model Plant Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Khan, Yusuf; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    WD40 proteins play a crucial role in diverse protein-protein interactions by acting as scaffolding molecules and thus assisting in the proper activity of proteins. Hence, systematic characterization and expression profiling of these WD40 genes in foxtail millet would enable us to understand the networks of WD40 proteins and their biological processes and gene functions. In the present study, a genome-wide survey was conducted and 225 potential WD40 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis categorized the WD40 proteins into 5 distinct sub-families (I–V). Gene Ontology annotation revealed the biological roles of the WD40 proteins along with its cellular components and molecular functions. In silico comparative mapping with sorghum, maize and rice demonstrated the orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of WD40 genes. Estimation of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates revealed its evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence. Expression profiling against abiotic stresses provided novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiWD40 genes. Homology modeling enabled three-dimensional structure prediction was performed to understand the molecular functions of WD40 proteins. Although, recent findings had shown the importance of WD40 domains in acting as hubs for cellular networks during many biological processes, it has invited a lesser research attention unlike other common domains. Being a most promiscuous interactors, WD40 domains are versatile in mediating critical cellular functions and hence this genome-wide study especially in the model crop foxtail millet would serve as a blue-print for functional characterization of WD40s in millets and bioenergy grass species. In addition, the present analyses would also assist the research community in choosing the candidate WD40s for comprehensive studies towards crop improvement of millets and

  20. Biofortification of Pearl Millet with Iron and Zinc in a Randomized Controlled Trial Increases Absorption of These Minerals above Physiologic Requirements in Young Children123

    PubMed Central

    Kodkany, Bhalchandra S.; Bellad, Roopa M.; Mahantshetti, Niranjana S.; Westcott, Jamie E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Kemp, Jennifer F.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Millet is unusually drought resistant and consequently there is a progressive increase in the use of these grains as a human food staple, especially in large areas of India and sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the absorption of iron and zinc from pearl millet biofortified with 2 micronutrients that are typically deficient in nonfortified, plant-based diets globally. The study was undertaken in 40 children aged 2 y in Karnataka, India (n = 21 test/19 controls). Three test meals providing ∼84 ± 17 g dry pearl millet flour were fed on a single day for zinc and 2 d for iron between 0900 and 1600 h. The quantities of zinc and iron absorbed were measured with established stable isotope extrinsic labeling techniques and analyses of duplicate diets. The mean (± SD) quantities of iron absorbed from test and control groups were 0.67 ± 0.48 and 0.23 ± 0.15 mg/d, respectively (P < 0.001). The quantities of zinc absorbed were 0.95 ± 0.47 and 0.67 ± 0.24 mg/d, respectively (P = 0.03). These data did not include absorption of the modest quantities of iron and zinc contained in snacks eaten before and after the 3 test meals. In conclusion, quantities of both iron and zinc absorbed when iron and zinc biofortified pearl millet is fed to children aged 2 y as the major food staple is more than adequate to meet the physiological requirements for these micronutrients. PMID:23843474

  1. Estimating millet production for famine early warning: An application of crop simulation modelling using satellite and ground-based data in Burkina Faso

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornton, P. K.; Bowen, W. T.; Ravelo, A.C.; Wilkens, P. W.; Farmer, G.; Brock, J.; Brink, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Early warning of impending poor crop harvests in highly variable environments can allow policy makers the time they need to take appropriate action to ameliorate the effects of regional food shortages on vulnerable rural and urban populations. Crop production estimates for the current season can be obtained using crop simulation models and remotely sensed estimates of rainfall in real time, embedded in a geographic information system that allows simple analysis of simulation results. A prototype yield estimation system was developed for the thirty provinces of Burkina Faso. It is based on CERES-Millet, a crop simulation model of the growth and development of millet (Pennisetum spp.). The prototype was used to estimate millet production in contrasting seasons and to derive production anomaly estimates for the 1986 season. Provincial yields simulated halfway through the growing season were generally within 15% of their final (end-of-season) values. Although more work is required to produce an operational early warning system of reasonable credibility, the methodology has considerable potential for providing timely estimates of regional production of the major food crops in countries of sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Association Analysis of SSR Markers with Phenology, Grain, and Stover-Yield Related Traits in Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)

    PubMed Central

    Senapathy, Senthilvel; Chandra, Subhash; Muthiah, Arunachalam; Dhanapal, Arun Prabhu; Hash, Charles Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet is a staple food crop for millions of people living in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Molecular markers have been used to identify genomic regions linked to traits of interest by conventional QTL mapping and association analysis. Phenotypic recurrent selection is known to increase frequencies of favorable alleles and decrease those unfavorable for the traits under selection. This study was undertaken (i) to quantify the response to recurrent selection for phenotypic traits during breeding of the pearl millet open-pollinated cultivar “CO (Cu) 9” and its four immediate progenitor populations and (ii) to assess the ability of simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker alleles to identify genomic regions linked to grain and stover yield-related traits in these populations by association analysis. A total of 159 SSR alleles were detected across 34 selected single-copy SSR loci. SSR marker data revealed presence of subpopulations. Association analysis identified genomic regions associated with flowering time located on linkage group (LG) 6 and plant height on LG4, LG6, and LG7. Marker alleles on LG6 were associated with stover yield, and those on LG7 were associated with grain yield. Findings of this study would give an opportunity to develop marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or marker-assisted population improvement (MAPI) strategies to increase the rate of gain for pearl millet populations undergoing recurrent selection. PMID:24526909

  3. Fine-mapping and identification of a candidate gene underlying the d2 dwarfing phenotype in pearl millet, Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone.

    PubMed

    Parvathaneni, Rajiv K; Jakkula, Vinod; Padi, Francis K; Faure, Sebastien; Nagarajappa, Nethra; Pontaroli, Ana C; Wu, Xiaomei; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Devos, Katrien M

    2013-03-01

    Pearl millet is one of the most important subsistence crops grown in India and sub-Saharan Africa. In many cereal crops, reduced height is a key trait for enhancing yield, and dwarf mutants have been extensively used in breeding to reduce yield loss due to lodging under intense management. In pearl millet, the recessive d2 dwarfing gene has been deployed widely in commercial germplasm grown in India, the United States, and Australia. Despite its importance, very little research has gone into determining the identity of the d2 gene. We used comparative information, genetic mapping in two F2 populations representing a total of some 1500 progeny, and haplotype analysis of three tall and three dwarf inbred lines to delineate the d2 region by two genetic markers that, in sorghum, define a region of 410 kb with 40 annotated genes. One of the sorghum genes annotated within this region is ABCB1, which encodes a P-glycoprotein involved in auxin transport. This gene had previously been shown to underlie the economically important dw3 dwarf mutation in sorghum. The cosegregation of ABCB1 with the d2 phenotype, its differential expression in the tall inbred ICMP 451 and the dwarf inbred Tift 23DB, and the similar phenotype of stacked lower internodes in the sorghum dw3 and pearl millet d2 mutants suggest that ABCB1 is a likely candidate for d2.

  4. Combined small RNA and degradome sequencing to identify miRNAs and their targets in response to drought in foxtail millet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongqiang; Li, Lin; Tang, Sha; Liu, Jianguang; Zhang, Hanshuang; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Diao, Xianmin

    2016-04-12

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is a diploid C4 panicoid species. Because of its prominent drought resistance, small genome size, self-pollination, and short life cycle, foxtail millet has become an ideal model system for studying drought tolerance of crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small RNAs that play important regulatory roles in the development and stress response in plants. In this study, we applied Illumina sequencing to systematically investigate the drought-responsive miRNAs derived from S. italica inbred An04-4783 seedlings grown under control and drought conditions. Degradome sequencing was applied to confirm the targets of these miRNAs at a global level. A total of 81 known miRNAs belonging to 28 families were identified, among which 14 miRNAs were upregulated and four were downregulated in response to drought. In addition, 72 potential novel miRNAs were identified, three of which were differentially expressed under drought conditions. Degradome sequencing analysis showed that 56 and 26 genes were identified as targets of known and novel miRNAs, respectively. Our analysis revealed post-transcriptional remodeling of cell development, transcription factors, ABA signaling, and cellar homeostasis in S.italica in response to drought. This preliminary characterization provided useful information for further studies on the regulatory networks of drought-responsive miRNAs in foxtail millet.

  5. Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] consensus linkage map constructed using four RIL mapping populations and newly developed EST-SSRs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a widely cultivated drought- and high-temperature tolerant C4 cereal grown under dryland, rainfed and irrigated conditions in drought-prone regions of the tropics and sub-tropics of Africa, South Asia and the Americas. It is considered an orphan crop with relatively few genomic and genetic resources. This study was undertaken to increase the EST-based microsatellite marker and genetic resources for this crop to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. Results Newly developed EST-SSR markers (99), along with previously mapped EST-SSR (17), genomic SSR (53) and STS (2) markers, were used to construct linkage maps of four F7 recombinant inbred populations (RIP) based on crosses ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 (RIP A), H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 (RIP B), 81B-P6 × ICMP 451-P8 (RIP C) and PT 732B-P2 × P1449-2-P1 (RIP D). Mapped loci numbers were greatest for RIP A (104), followed by RIP B (78), RIP C (64) and RIP D (59). Total map lengths (Haldane) were 615 cM, 690 cM, 428 cM and 276 cM, respectively. A total of 176 loci detected by 171 primer pairs were mapped among the four crosses. A consensus map of 174 loci (899 cM) detected by 169 primer pairs was constructed using MergeMap to integrate the individual linkage maps. Locus order in the consensus map was well conserved for nearly all linkage groups. Eighty-nine EST-SSR marker loci from this consensus map had significant BLAST hits (top hits with e-value ≤ 1E-10) on the genome sequences of rice, foxtail millet, sorghum, maize and Brachypodium with 35, 88, 58, 48 and 38 loci, respectively. Conclusion The consensus map developed in the present study contains the largest set of mapped SSRs reported to date for pearl millet, and represents a major consolidation of existing pearl millet genetic mapping information. This study increased numbers of mapped pearl millet SSR markers by >50%, filling important gaps in previously published SSR-based linkage maps for this

  6. Foxtail Millet NF-Y Families: Genome-Wide Survey and Evolution Analyses Identified Two Functional Genes Important in Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhi-Juan; He, Guan-Hua; Zheng, Wei-Jun; Lu, Pan-Pan; Chen, Ming; Gong, Ya-Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2015-01-01

    It was reported that Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) genes were involved in abiotic stress in plants. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an elite stress tolerant crop, provided an impetus for the investigation of the NF-Y families in abiotic responses. In the present study, a total of 39 NF-Y genes were identified in foxtail millet. Synteny analyses suggested that foxtail millet NF-Y genes had experienced rapid expansion and strong purifying selection during the process of plant evolution. De novo transcriptome assembly of foxtail millet revealed 11 drought up-regulated NF-Y genes. SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 were highly activated in leaves and/or roots by drought and salt stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) and H2O2 played positive roles in the induction of SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 under stress treatments. Transient luciferase (LUC) expression assays revealed that SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate the LUC gene driven by the tobacco (Nicotiana tobacam) NtERD10, NtLEA5, NtCAT, NtSOD, or NtPOD promoter under normal or stress conditions. Overexpression of SiNF-YA1 enhanced drought and salt tolerance by activating stress-related genes NtERD10 and NtCAT1 and by maintaining relatively stable relative water content (RWC) and contents of chlorophyll, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic lines under stresses. SiNF-YB8 regulated expression of NtSOD, NtPOD, NtLEA5, and NtERD10 and conferred relatively high RWC and chlorophyll contents and low MDA content, resulting in drought and osmotic tolerance in transgenic lines under stresses. Therefore, SiNF-YA1 and SiNF-YB8 could activate stress-related genes and improve physiological traits, resulting in tolerance to abiotic stresses in plants. All these results will facilitate functional characterization of foxtail millet NF-Ys in future studies. PMID:26734043

  7. Further evidence that a terminal drought tolerance QTL of pearl millet is associated with reduced salt uptake

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Parbodh C.; Singh, Dhananjay; Sehgal, Deepmala; Singh, Gurbachan; Hash, C.T.; Yadav, Rattan S.

    2014-01-01

    Earlier, we established that a major drought tolerance QTL on linkage group 2 of pearl millet is also associated with reduced salt uptake and enhanced growth under salt stress. Present study was undertaken to re-assess the performance of drought tolerant (PRLT 2/89-33) and drought sensitive (H 77/833-2) parents along with two QTL-NILs (ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01040), under salinity stress specifically imposed during post-flowering growth stages when plants had developed their ion sinks in full. Time course changes in ionic accumulation and their compartmentalization in different plant parts was studied, specifically to monitor and capture changes conferred by the two alleles at this QTL, at small intervals. Amongst different plant parts, higher accumulation of toxic ion Na+ was recorded in roots. Further, the Na+ concentration in roots of the testcross hybrid of the drought-sensitive parent (H 77/833-2) reached its maximum at ECiw 15 dS m−1 within 24 h after salinity imposition, whereas it continued to increase with time in the testcross hybrids of the drought tolerant parent PRLT 2/89-33 as well as those of its QTL-NILs (ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004) and reached at its maximum at 120 h stage. Comparison of differential distribution of toxic ions in individual leaves revealed that Na+ ions were not uniformly distributed in the leaves of the drought-tolerant parent and drought-tolerant QTL-NILs; but accumulated preferentially in the older leaves, whereas the hybrid of the drought-sensitive parent showed significantly higher Na+ concentration in all main stem leaves irrespective of their age. Dynamics of chlorophyll and proline concentration variation studied under salt stress at late flowering stages revealed a greater reduction, almost twice, in both leaf chlorophyll and proline concentrations in younger leaves in the hybrids of the sensitive parent as compared to the tolerant parent and QTL NILs. Imposition of salinity stress even at flowering stage affected the

  8. Further evidence that a terminal drought tolerance QTL of pearl millet is associated with reduced salt uptake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parbodh C; Singh, Dhananjay; Sehgal, Deepmala; Singh, Gurbachan; Hash, C T; Yadav, Rattan S

    2014-06-01

    Earlier, we established that a major drought tolerance QTL on linkage group 2 of pearl millet is also associated with reduced salt uptake and enhanced growth under salt stress. Present study was undertaken to re-assess the performance of drought tolerant (PRLT 2/89-33) and drought sensitive (H 77/833-2) parents along with two QTL-NILs (ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01040), under salinity stress specifically imposed during post-flowering growth stages when plants had developed their ion sinks in full. Time course changes in ionic accumulation and their compartmentalization in different plant parts was studied, specifically to monitor and capture changes conferred by the two alleles at this QTL, at small intervals. Amongst different plant parts, higher accumulation of toxic ion Na(+) was recorded in roots. Further, the Na(+) concentration in roots of the testcross hybrid of the drought-sensitive parent (H 77/833-2) reached its maximum at ECiw 15 dS m(-1) within 24 h after salinity imposition, whereas it continued to increase with time in the testcross hybrids of the drought tolerant parent PRLT 2/89-33 as well as those of its QTL-NILs (ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004) and reached at its maximum at 120 h stage. Comparison of differential distribution of toxic ions in individual leaves revealed that Na(+) ions were not uniformly distributed in the leaves of the drought-tolerant parent and drought-tolerant QTL-NILs; but accumulated preferentially in the older leaves, whereas the hybrid of the drought-sensitive parent showed significantly higher Na(+) concentration in all main stem leaves irrespective of their age. Dynamics of chlorophyll and proline concentration variation studied under salt stress at late flowering stages revealed a greater reduction, almost twice, in both leaf chlorophyll and proline concentrations in younger leaves in the hybrids of the sensitive parent as compared to the tolerant parent and QTL NILs. Imposition of salinity stress even at flowering stage

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity associated with Eleocharis obtusa and Panicum capillare growing in an extreme petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted sedimentation basin.

    PubMed

    de la Providencia, Ivan E; Stefani, Franck O P; Labridy, Manuel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been extensively studied in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but little is known about their diversity and community structure in highly petroleum-polluted soils. In this study, we described an unexpected diversity of AMF in a sedimentation basin of a former petrochemical plant, in which petroleum hydrocarbon (PH) wastes were dumped for many decades. We used high-throughput PCR, cloning and sequencing of 18S rDNA to assess the molecular diversity of AMF associated with Eleocharis obtusa and Panicum capillare spontaneously inhabiting extremely PH-contaminated sediments. The analyses of rhizosphere and root samples over two years showed a remarkable AMF richness comparable with that found in temperate natural ecosystems. Twenty-one taxa, encompassing the major families within Glomeromycota, were detected. The most abundant OTUs belong to genera Claroideoglomus, Diversispora, Rhizophagus and Paraglomus. Both plants had very similar overall community structures and OTU abundances; however, AMF community structure differed when comparing the overall OTU distribution across the two years of sampling. This could be likely explained by variations in precipitations between 2011 and 2012. Our study provides the first view of AMF molecular diversity in soils extremely polluted by PH, and demonstrated the ability of AMF to colonize and establish in harsh environments.

  10. Phytoremediation of biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon using cattail (Typha latifolia L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Hassan, Adenike O; Zvomuya, Francis

    2017-03-04

    Land spreading of biosolids as a disposal option is expensive and can disperse pathogens and contaminants in the environment. This growth room study examined phytoremediation using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) as an alternative to land spreading of biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 3.9 kg of biosolids (dry wt.). Aboveground biomass (AGB) was harvested either once or twice during each 90-day growth period. Switchgrass AGB yield was greater with two harvests than with one harvest during the first 90-day growth period, whereas cattail yield was not affected by harvest frequency. In the second growth period, harvesting frequency did not affect the yield of either plant species. However, repeated harvesting significantly improved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake by both plants in the first period. Phytoextraction of P was significantly greater for switchgrass (3.9% of initial biosolids P content) than for cattail (2.8%), while plant species did not have a significant effect on N phytoextraction. The trace element accumulation in the AGB of both plant species was negligible. Phytoextraction rates attained in this study suggest that phytoremediation can effectively remove P from biosolids and offers a potentially viable alternative to the disposal of biosolids on agricultural land.

  11. Distribution models for Panicum virgatum (Poaceae) reveal an expanded range in present and future climate regimes in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Collin W; Meyer, Thomas H; Auer, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Expanded area cultivated with the bioenergy crop Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) could alter the genetics of native populations through gene flow, so understanding current and future species distribution is a first step toward estimating ecological impacts. We surveyed switchgrass distribution in the northeastern United States and generated statistical models to address hypotheses about current distribution relative to historical records and responses to climate change. Surveys were conducted on 1600 km of road verges along environmental gradients. Switchgrass abundance became the training data for two multivariate generalized linear models that generated maps representing the probability of switchgrass in road verges. Models were evaluated and the superior model was used with variables from three climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2099. Switchgrass populations were found in 41% of roadside plots and up to 188 km from the coast. The environmental variables temperature, urban areas, and sandy soils were positively correlated with switchgrass presence, while elevation, soil pH, and distance to the coast were negatively correlated. The model without spatial autocorrelation performed better. Models and maps incorporating climate change predictions showed a sharp northward shift in suitable habitat. Switchgrass populations in the northeastern United States occur on inland road verges, supporting the idea that species distribution has expanded relative to historical descriptions of a restricted coastal habitat. The optimal model showed that mean temperature, elevation, and urban development were important in switchgrass distribution today, and climate change will increase suitable habitat for future bioenergy production and wild populations. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Expression of ZmGA20ox cDNA alters plant morphology and increases biomass production of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).

    PubMed

    Do, Phat T; De Tar, Joann R; Lee, Hyeyoung; Folta, Michelle K; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2016-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is considered a model herbaceous energy crop for the USA, for its adaptation to marginal land, low rainfall and nutrient-deficient soils; however, its low biomass yield is one of several constraints, and this might be rectified by modulating plant growth regulator levels. In this study, we have determined whether the expression of the Zea mays gibberellin 20-oxidase (ZmGA20ox) cDNA in switchgrass will improve biomass production. The ZmGA20ox gene was placed under the control of constitutive CaMV35S promoter with a strong TMV omega enhancer, and introduced into switchgrass via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgene integration and expression levels of ZmGA20ox in T0 plants were analysed using Southern blot and qRT-PCR. Under glasshouse conditions, selected transgenic plants exhibited longer leaves, internodes and tillers, which resulted in twofold increased biomass. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the levels of transgene expression and the particular gibberellin content. Expression of ZmGA20ox also affected the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the employment of ectopic ZmGA20ox and selection for natural variants with high level expression of endogenous GA20ox are appropriate approaches to increase biomass production of switchgrass and other monocot biofuel crops.

  13. Comparative Analysis of End Point Enzymatic Digests of Arabino-Xylan Isolated from Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L) of Varying Maturities using LC-MSn †

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Michael J.; Dien, Bruce S.; O’Bryan, Patricia J.; Sarath, Gautam; Cotta, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., SG) is a perennial grass presently used for forage and being developed as a bioenergy crop for conversion of cell wall carbohydrates to biofuels. Up to 50% of the cell wall associated carbohydrates are xylan. SG was analyzed for xylan structural features at variable harvest maturities. Xylan from each of three maturities was isolated using classical alkaline extraction to yield fractions (Xyl A and B) with varying compositional ratios. The Xyl B fraction was observed to decrease with plant age. Xylan samples were subsequently prepared for structure analysis by digesting with pure endo-xylanase, which preserved side-groups, or a commercial carbohydrase preparation favored for biomass conversion work. Enzymatic digestion products were successfully permethylated and analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (RP-HPLC-MSn). This method is advantageous compared to prior work on plant biomass because it avoids isolation of individual arabinoxylan oligomers. The use of RP-HPLC- MSn differentiated 14 structural oligosaccharides (d.p. 3–9) from the monocomponent enzyme digestion and nine oligosaccharide structures (d.p. 3–9) from hydrolysis with a cellulase enzyme cocktail. The distribution of arabinoxylan oligomers varied depending upon the enzyme(s) applied but did not vary with harvest maturity. PMID:24957770

  14. Identification and Characterization of microRNA319a and Its Putative Target Gene, PvPCF5, in the Bioenergy Grass Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Liu, Xue; Zhang, Yinbing; Tang, Jinfu; Yin, Dedong; Fan, Bo; Zhu, Lihuang; Han, Liebao; Song, Guilong; Li, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    Due to its high biomass yield, low environmental impact, and widespread adaptability to poor soils and harsh conditions, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm-region perennial herbaceous plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. However, little is known about microRNAs (miRNAs) and their functions in this bioenergy grass. Here, we identified and characterized a miRNA gene, Pvi-MIR319a, encoding microRNA319a in switchgrass. Transgenic rice lines generated by overexpressing the Pvi-MIR319a precursor gene exhibited broader leaves and delayed flowering compared with the control. Gene expression analysis indicated at least four putative target genes were downregulated. Additionally, we cloned a putative target gene (PvPCF5) of Pvi-MIR319a from switchgrass. PvPCF5, a TCP transcription factor, is a nuclear-localized protein with transactivation activity and control the development of leaf. Our results suggest that Pvi-MIR319a and its target genes may be used as potential genetic regulators for future switchgrass genetic improvement. PMID:28424710

  15. Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle fattened on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) or Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures.

    PubMed

    Jaturasitha, S; Norkeaw, R; Vearasilp, T; Wicke, M; Kreuzer, M

    2009-01-01

    Carcass and meat quality of Thai native cattle, fattened for 2 years on Guinea grass (Panicum maxima) and Guinea grass-legume (Stylosanthes guianensis) pastures, were investigated in twelve 3-years old males. Groups had similar carcass quality except for kidney fat percentage (higher in cattle of the grass-legume group). This group also had a lighter meat (Longissimus dorsi, Infraspinatus) than the grass-only fed cattle. Shear force was generally at the borderline to tender meat, and was unaffected by treatment as were other texture-related properties except muscle fibre diameter. Meat of the grass-legume group was perceived less juicy (P<0.05) but more tender (P<0.1). The meat of the grass-legume-fed cattle also had more intramuscular fat (4.3% vs. 3.4%) and a slightly less favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio (2.2 vs. 2.0). In conclusion, the mostly weak differences in carcass and meat quality did not clearly favour one of the grazing systems.

  16. Intake and Performance of Yearling Steers Grazing Guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) Pasture Supplemented with Different Energy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santana, M. C. A.; Euclides, V. B. P.; Mancio, A. B.; Medeiros, S. R.; Costa, J. A. R.; Oliveira, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplements containing different energy sources in relation to mineral supplementation of steers grazing guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv Tanzânia) pasture, during the dry season. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of a mineral supplementation and two other supplements, one based on corn seed and the other based on soybean hulls, and provided at 0.8% of body weight. Forty-eight, 12 month-old crossbred steers with an average initial body weight of 267 kg, were assigned to twelve paddocks (1,125 ha) of guineagrass. The animals that were fed with soybean hulls and corn seed presented a greater average daily gain (0.982 and 0.937) when compared with the mineral supplementation. Soybean hulls can be used as a satisfactory food source, replacing corn as an energy source in the supplementation of beef cattle without compromising animal performance. PMID:25049797

  17. Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 Using Pearl Millet and Its Structural Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Bijay K.; Jana, Arijit; Nanda, Prativa K.; DasMohapatra, Pradeep K.; Sahoo, Santi L.; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF) and solid state (SSF) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. One-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol) was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM) as substrate by SSF (19.19 ± 0.9 Ug−1) and also in presence of 1 mM magnesium sulfate, 0.025% (w/v) gibberellic acid, and 30 mg/100 ml (w/v) of vitamin E (~60-fold higher production of amylase) with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 °C for 96 h. In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. The enzyme comprised of a typical secondary structure containing α-helix (12.2%), β-pleated sheet (23.6%), and β-turn (27.4%). Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications. PMID:27242841

  18. Three alpha-amylases from malted finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana, Indaf-15)--purification and partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, M; Muralikrishna, G

    2003-01-01

    Three alpha-amylases (E.C. 3.2.1.1) were purified to apparent homogeneity from 72 h finger millet malt by three step purification via fractional acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel ion exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel permeation chromatographies with a recovery of 6.5, 2.9, 9.6% and fold purification of 26, 17 and 31, respectively. alpha-Nature of these amylases was identified by their ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of starch solution and also in liberating oligosaccharides of higher D.P. and were accordingly designated as amylases alpha-1((b)), alpha-2 and alpha-3, respectively. These amylases, having a molecular weight of 45+/-2 kDa were found to be monomeric. The pH and temperature optima of these alpha-amylases were found to be in the range of 5.0-5.5 and 45-50 degrees C, respectively. K(m) values of these amylases for various cereal starches varied between 0.59 and 1.43%. Carbodiimide (50 mM) and metal ions such as Al(3+), Fe(2+), and Hg(2+) (5 mM) have completely inhibited these enzymes at 45 degrees C. Amino acid analysis of these enzymes indicated high amounts of glycine which is an unusual feature of these enzymes.

  19. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites.

  20. Isolation and expression analysis of EcbZIP17 from different finger millet genotypes shows conserved nature of the gene.

    PubMed

    Chopperla, Ramakrishna; Singh, Sonam; Mohanty, Sasmita; Reddy, Nanja; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2017-10-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors comprise one of the largest gene families in plants. They play a key role in almost every aspect of plant growth and development and also in biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report isolation and characterization of EcbZIP17, a group B bZIP transcription factor from a climate smart cereal, finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.). The genomic sequence of EcbZIP17 is 2662 bp long encompassing two exons and one intron with ORF of 1722 bp and peptide length of 573 aa. This gene is homologous to AtbZIP17 (Arabidopsis), ZmbZIP17 (maize) and OsbZIP60 (rice) which play a key role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. In silico analysis confirmed the presence of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) and transmembrane (TM) domains in the EcbZIP17 protein. Allele mining of this gene in 16 different genotypes by Sanger sequencing revealed no variation in nucleotide sequence, including the 618 bp long intron. Expression analysis of EcbZIP17 under heat stress exhibited similar pattern of expression in all the genotypes across time intervals with highest upregulation after 4 h. The present study established the conserved nature of EcbZIP17 at nucleotide and expression level.

  1. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively.

  2. [Salinity effect on germination, growth, and grain production of some autochthonous pear millet ecotypes (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.)].

    PubMed

    Radhouane, Leila

    2008-04-01

    This study compared the behaviour of six autochthonous pear millet ecotypes collected through the Tunisian territory under salt stress from germination to maturity. It showed that salt has little effect on germination rate and coleoptile emergence. However, this effect is more significant for radicular growth and between ecotypes. Salinity did not influence plant height, which seems to be a varietal characteristic, but revealed a positive effect on the foliar expansion. On the productivity level, salinity did not exert a prejudicial effect over the length of the principal candle, but improved the yield component. This adaptation to salinity is mainly due to its root system. This effect varied according to stress intensity and ecotype. Vegetative growth and yield of high-straw ecotypes was decreased by severe salinity, while ecotypes with low or medium height appear very stable on the productivity level. Such ecotypes can play an important role in the conservation and development of fragile grounds, and also be useful as a source of desirable genes for genetic improvement in salinity conditions.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF GENOMIC AND GENETIC TOOLS FOR FOXTAIL MILLET, AND USE OF THESE TOOLS IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION FOR BIOENERGY CROPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xinlu; Zale, Janice; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-22

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a warm-season, C4 annual crop commonly grown for grain and forage worldwide. It has a relatively short generation time, yet produces hundreds of seeds per inflorescence. The crop is inbred and it has a small-size genome (~500 Mb). These features make foxtail millet an attractive grass model, especially for bioenergy crops. While a number of genomic tools have been established for foxtail millet, including a fully sequenced genome and molecular markers, the objectives of this project were to develop a tissue culture system, determine the best explant(s) for tissue culture, optimize transient gene expression, and establish a stable transformation system for foxtail millet cultivar Yugu1. In optimizing a tissue culture medium for the induction of calli and somatic embryos from immature inflorescences and mature seed explants, Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.5 mg l-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.6 mg l-1 6- benzylaminopurine was determined to be optimal for callus induction of foxtail millet. The efficiency of callus induction from explants of immature inflorescences was significantly higher at 76% compared to that of callus induction from mature seed explants at 68%. The calli induced from this medium were regenerated into plants at high frequency (~100%) using 0.2 mg l-1 kinetin in the regeneration media. For performing transient gene expression, immature embryos were first isolated from inflorescences. Transient expression of the GUS reporter gene in immature embryos was significantly increased after sonication, a vacuum treatment, centrifugation and the addition of L-cysteine and dithiothreitol, which led to the efficiency of transient expression at levels greater than 70% after Agrobacterium inoculation. Inoculation with Agrobacterium was also tested with germinated seeds. The radicals of germinated seeds were pierced with needles and dipped into Agrobacterium solution. This method achieved a 10% transient

  4. Immuno-affinity purification of PglPGIP1, a polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein from pearl millet: studies on its inhibition of fungal polygalacturonases and role in resistance against the downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Wagenknecht, Martin; Melvin, Prasad; Gnanesh Kumar, Belur Shivappa; Veena, Mariswamy; Shailasree, Sekhar; Moerschbacher, Bruno Maria; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2015-06-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibitor proteins (PGIPs) are important plant defense proteins which modulate the activity of microbial polygalacturonases (PGs) leading to elicitor accumulation. Very few studies have been carried out towards understanding the role of PGIPs in monocot host defense. Hence, present study was taken up to characterize a native PGIP from pearl millet and understand its role in resistance against downy mildew. A native glycosylated PGIP (PglPGIP1) of ~43 kDa and pI 5.9 was immunopurified from pearl millet. Comparative inhibition studies involving PglPGIP1 and its non-glycosylated form (rPglPGIP1; recombinant pearl millet PGIP produced in Escherichia coli) against two PGs, PG-II isoform from Aspergillus niger (AnPGII) and PG-III isoform from Fusarium moniliforme, showed both PGIPs to inhibit only AnPGII. The protein glycosylation was found to impact only the pH and temperature stability of PGIP, with the native form showing relatively higher stability to pH and temperature changes. Temporal accumulation of both PglPGIP1 protein (western blot and ELISA) and transcripts (real time PCR) in resistant and susceptible pearl millet cultivars showed significant Sclerospora graminicola-induced accumulation only in the incompatible interaction. Further, confocal PGIP immunolocalization results showed a very intense immuno-decoration with highest fluorescent intensities observed at the outer epidermal layer and vascular bundles in resistant cultivar only. This is the first native PGIP isolated from millets and the results indicate a role for PglPGIP1 in host defense. This could further be exploited in devising pearl millet cultivars with better pathogen resistance.

  5. Replacing corn silage with different forage millet silage cultivars: effects on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of corn silage (CS) with 2 cultivars of forage millet silages [i.e., regular millet (RM) and sweet millet (SM)] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a high-forage total mixed ration (68:32 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included CS (control), RM, and SM diets. Experimental silages constituted 37% of each diet DM. Three ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Relative to CS, RM and SM silages contained 36% more crude protein, 66% more neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 88% more acid detergent fiber. Cows fed CS consumed more dry matter (DM; 24.4 vs. 22.7 kg/d) and starch (5.7 vs. 3.7 kg/d), but less NDF (7.9 vs. 8.7 kg/d) than cows fed RM or SM. However, DM, starch and NDF intakes were not different between forage millet silage types. Feeding RM relative to CS reduced milk yield (32.7 vs. 35.2 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (35.8 vs. 38.0 kg/d) and SCM (32.7 vs. 35.3 kg/d). However, cows fed SM had similar milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk yields than cows fed CS or RM. Milk efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Milk protein concentration was greatest for cows fed CS, intermediate for cows fed SM, and lowest for cows fed RM. Milk concentration of solids-not-fat was lesser, whereas milk urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed RM than for those fed CS. However, millet silage type had no effect on milk solids-not-fat and milk urea nitrogen levels. Concentrations of milk fat, lactose and total solids were not affected by silage type. Ruminal pH and ruminal NH3-N were greater for cows fed RM and SM than for cows fed CS. Total-tract digestibility of DM (average=67.9%), NDF (average=53

  6. The development of low glycemic index cookie bars from foxtail millet (Setaria italica), arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) flour, and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Lestari, Lily Arsanti; Huriyati, Emy; Marsono, Yustinus

    2017-05-01

    Wholegrain foods are becoming increasingly popular as a high fiber dietary supplement recommended for people with diabetes. In Indonesia, the incidence of diabetes mellitus has almost doubled recently and poses a significant health risk with the high prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The present research aimed to develop cookie bars from foxtail millet, arrowroot flour, and kidney beans. The physical, chemical, and sensory properties were evaluated by selecting the best formula to test the glycemic index. Three formulae of cookie bars, which had different percentages of foxtail millet, kidney beans, and arrowroot flour were evaluated. The results showed that the three formulae (F1, F2, F3) had °Hue values of 53.77, 58.46, and 58.31, and breaking force of 8.37, 10.12, and 5.87 N, respectively. While all other nutritional content were significantly different between formulae, the total crude fat was not. The F2 cookie bar was selected and evaluated for the glycemic index because it has the best sensory properties, lowest total sugar and available carbohydrate content. F2 cookie bars that contain 15% foxtail millet, 15% arrowroot flour, and 30% of kidney beans have a glycemic index of 37.6 hence it could be classified as a low glycemic index cookie bar. In conclusion, our findings indicated that F2 cookie bars can be further developed as a suitable diabetic food since it has the best physico-chemical properties, sensory properties, and low glycemic index.

  7. Phosphate Concentration and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonisation Influence the Growth, Yield and Expression of Twelve PHT1 Family Phosphate Transporters in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica)

    PubMed Central

    Ceasar, S. Antony; Hodge, Angela; Baker, Alison; Baldwin, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet) is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12) in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet. PMID:25251671

  8. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of traditional fonio millet (Digitaria spp.) landraces from different agro-ecological zones of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Adoukonou-Sagbadja, H; Wagner, C; Dansi, A; Ahlemeyer, J; Daïnou, O; Akpagana, K; Ordon, F; Friedt, W

    2007-11-01

    Fonio millets (Digitaria exilis Stapf, D. iburua Stapf) are valuable indigenous staple food crops in West Africa. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and population differentiation in these millets, a total of 122 accessions from five countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Togo) were analysed by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs). Genetic distance-based UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear-cut differentiation between the two species and a clustering of D. exilis accessions in three major genetic groups fitting to their geographical origins. Shannon's diversity index detected in D. iburua was low (H = 0.02). In D. exilis, the most widespread cultivated species, moderate levels of genetic diversity (Shannon's diversity H = 0.267; Nei's gene diversity H' = 0.355) were detected. This genetic diversity is unequally distributed with the essential part observed in the Upper Niger River basin while a very low diversity is present in the Atacora mountain zone. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that a large part of the genetic variation resides among the genetic groups (70%) and the country of origin (56%), indicating a clear genetic differentiation within D. exilis. Influence of mating system (inbreeding or apomixis), agricultural selection and ecological adaptations as well as founding effects in the genetic make-up of the landraces were visible and seemed to jointly contribute to the genetic structure detected in this species. The genetic variability found between the analysed accessions was weakly correlated with their phenotypic attributes. However, the genetic groups identified differed significantly in their mean performance for some agro-morphologic traits. The results obtained are relevant for fonio millets breeding, conservation and management of their genetic resources in West Africa.

  9. Molecular cloning of a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat gene from pearl millet and its expression pattern in response to the downy mildew pathogen.

    PubMed

    Veena, Mariswamy; Melvin, Prasad; Prabhu, Sreedhara Ashok; Shailasree, Sekhar; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Kini, Kukkundoor Ramachandra

    2016-03-01

    Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola is a devastating disease of pearl millet. Based on candidate gene approach, a set of 22 resistance gene analogues were identified. The clone RGPM 301 (AY117410) containing a partial sequence shared 83% similarity to rice R-proteins. A full-length R-gene RGA RGPM 301 of 3552 bp with 2979 bp open reading frame encoding 992 amino acids was isolated by the degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) approach. It had a molecular mass of 113.96 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 8.71. The sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis grouped it to a non-TIR NBS LRR group. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed higher accumulation of the transcripts following inoculation with S. graminicola in the resistant cultivar (IP18296) compared to susceptible cultivar (7042S). Further, significant induction in the transcript levels were observed when treated with abiotic elicitor β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and biotic elicitor Pseudomonas fluorescens. Exogenous application of phytohormones jasmonic acid or salicylic acid also up-regulated the expression levels of RGA RGPM 301. The treatment of cultivar IP18296 with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) inhibitors (PD98059 and U0126) suppressed the levels of RGA RGPM 301. A 3.5 kb RGA RGPM 301 which is a non-TIR NBS-LRR protein was isolated from pearl millet and its up-regulation during downy mildew interaction was demonstrated by qRT-PCR. These studies indicate a role for this RGA in pearl millet downy mildew interaction.

  10. Enhancement of downy mildew disease resistance in pearl millet by the G_app7 bioactive compound produced by Ganoderma applanatum.

    PubMed

    Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shetty, Hunthrike Shekar; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) stands sixth among the most important cereal crops grown in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an oomycete pathogen, has been recognized as a major biotic constraint in pearl millet production. On the other hand, basidiomycetes are known to produce a large number of antimicrobial metabolites, providing a good source of anti-oomycete agrochemicals. Here, we report the discovery and efficacy of a compound, named G_app7, purified from Ganoderma applanatum on inhibition of growth and development of S. graminicola, as well as the effects of seed treatment with G_app7 on protection of pearl millet from downy mildew. G_app7 consistently demonstrated remarkable effects against S. graminicola by recording significant inhibition of sporangium formation (41.4%), zoospore release (77.5%) and zoospore motility (91%). Analyses of G_app7 compound using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed its close resemblance to metominostrobin, a derivative of strobilurin group of fungicides. Furthermore, the G_app7 was shown to stably maintain the inhibitory effects at different temperatures between 25 and 80 °C. In addition, the anti-oomycete activity of G_app7 was fairly stable for a period of at least 12 months at 4 °C and was only completely lost after being autoclaved. Seed treatment with G_app7 resulted in a significant increase in disease protection (63%) under greenhouse conditions compared with water control. The identification and isolation of this novel and functional anti-oomycete compound from G. applanatum provide a considerable agrochemical importance for plant protection against downy mildew in an environmentally safe and economical manner.

  11. Terminal drought-tolerant pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] have high leaf ABA and limit transpiration at high vapour pressure deficit

    PubMed Central

    Kholová, Jana; Hash, C. T.; Kumar, P. Lava; Yadav, Rattan S.; Kočová, Marie; Vadez, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    It was previously shown that pearl millet genotypes carrying a terminal drought tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) had a lower transpiration rate (Tr; g cm−2 d−1) under well-watered conditions than sensitive lines. Here experiments were carried out to test whether this relates to leaf abscisic acid (ABA) and Tr concentration at high vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and whether that leads to transpiration efficiency (TE) differences. These traits were measured in tolerant/sensitive pearl millet genotypes, including near-isogenic lines introgressed with a terminal drought tolerance QTL (NIL-QTLs). Most genotypic differences were found under well-watered conditions. ABA levels under well-watered conditions were higher in tolerant genotypes, including NIL-QTLs, than in sensitive genotypes, and ABA did not increase under water stress. Well-watered Tr was lower in tolerant than in sensitive genotypes at all VPD levels. Except for one line, Tr slowed down in tolerant lines above a breakpoint at 1.40–1.90 kPa, with the slope decreasing >50%, whereas sensitive lines showed no change in that Tr response across the whole VPD range. It is concluded that two water-saving (avoidance) mechanisms may operate under well-watered conditions in tolerant pearl millet: (i) a low Tr even at low VPD conditions, which may relate to leaf ABA; and (ii) a sensitivity to higher VPD that further restricts Tr, which suggests the involvement of hydraulic signals. Both traits, which did not lead to TE differences, could contribute to absolute water saving seen in part due to dry weight increase differences. This water saved would become critical for grain filling and deserves consideration in the breeding of terminal drought-tolerant lines. PMID:20142425

  12. Transcriptome Wide Identification and Validation of Calcium Sensor Gene Family in the Developing Spikes of Finger Millet Genotypes for Elucidating Its Role in Grain Calcium Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Uma M.; Chandra, Muktesh; Shankhdhar, Shailesh C.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background In finger millet, calcium is one of the important and abundant mineral elements. The molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation in plants remains poorly understood. Transcriptome sequencing of genetically diverse genotypes of finger millet differing in grain calcium content will help in understanding the trait. Principal Finding In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of spike tissues of two genotypes of finger millet differing in their grain calcium content, were performed for the first time. Out of 109,218 contigs, 78 contigs in case of GP-1 (Low Ca genotype) and out of 120,130 contigs 76 contigs in case of GP-45 (High Ca genotype), were identified as calcium sensor genes. Through in silico analysis all 82 unique calcium sensor genes were classified into eight calcium sensor gene family viz., CaM & CaMLs, CBLs, CIPKs, CRKs, PEPRKs, CDPKs, CaMKs and CCaMK. Out of 82 genes, 12 were found diverse from the rice orthologs. The differential expression analysis on the basis of FPKM value resulted in 24 genes highly expressed in GP-45 and 11 genes highly expressed in GP-1. Ten of the 35 differentially expressed genes could be assigned to three documented pathways involved mainly in stress responses. Furthermore, validation of selected calcium sensor responder genes was also performed by qPCR, in developing spikes of both genotypes grown on different concentration of exogenous calcium. Conclusion Through de novo transcriptome data assembly and analysis, we reported the comprehensive identification and functional characterization of calcium sensor gene family. The calcium sensor gene family identified and characterized in this study will facilitate in understanding the molecular basis of calcium accumulation and development of calcium biofortified crops. Moreover, this study also supported that identification and characterization of gene family through Illumina paired-end sequencing is a potential tool for generating the genomic information of

  13. Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Tang, Chanjuan; Zhao, Qiang; Li, Jing; Yang, Lifang; Qie, Lufeng; Fan, Xingke; Li, Lin; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Meicheng; Liu, Xiaotong; Chai, Yang; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Li, Yingtao; Li, Wen; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-28

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1' by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei's genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species.

  14. Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. Result A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1’ by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei’s genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. Conclusions A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species. PMID:24472631

  15. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling High Iron and Zinc Content in Self and Open Pollinated Grains of Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, Charles T.; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Singh, Govind; Rajaram, Vengaldas; Rathore, Abhishek; Senapathy, Senthilvel; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D.; Yadav, Rattan S.; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet is a multipurpose grain/fodder crop of the semi-arid tropics, feeding many of the world’s poorest and most undernourished people. Genetic variation among adapted pearl millet inbreds and hybrids suggests it will be possible to improve grain micronutrient concentrations by selective breeding. Using 305 loci, a linkage map was constructed to map QTLs for grain iron [Fe] and zinc [Zn] using replicated samples of 106 pearl millet RILs (F6) derived from ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2. The grains of the RIL population were evaluated for Fe and Zn content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Grain mineral concentrations ranged from 28.4 to 124.0 ppm for Fe and 28.7 to 119.8 ppm for Zn. Similarly, grain Fe and Zn in open pollinated seeds ranged between 22.4–77.4 and 21.9–73.7 ppm, respectively. Mapping with 305 (96 SSRs; 208 DArT) markers detected seven linkage groups covering 1749 cM (Haldane) with an average intermarker distance of 5.73 cM. On the basis of two environment phenotypic data, two co-localized QTLs for Fe and Zn content on linkage group (LG) 3 were identified by composite interval mapping (CIM). Fe QTL explained 19% phenotypic variation, whereas the Zn QTL explained 36% phenotypic variation. Likewise for open pollinated seeds, the QTL analysis led to the identification of two QTLs for grain Fe content on LG3 and 5, and two QTLs for grain Zn content on LG3 and 7. The total phenotypic variance for Fe and Zn QTLs in open pollinated seeds was 16 and 42%, respectively. Analysis of QTL × QTL and QTL × QTL × environment interactions indicated no major epistasis. PMID:27933068

  16. Overexpression of miR156 in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) results in various morphological alterations and leads to improved biomass production

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chunxiang; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Zhou, Chuanen; Shen, Hui; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Matts, Jessica; Wolf, Jennifer; Mann, David G J; Stewart, C Neal; Tang, Yuhong; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been developed into a dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crop. Biomass yield is a major target trait for genetic improvement of switchgrass. microRNAs have emerged as a prominent class of gene regulatory factors that has the potential to improve complex traits such as biomass yield. A miR156b precursor was overexpressed in switchgrass. The effects of miR156 overexpression on SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) genes were revealed by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Morphological alterations, biomass yield, saccharification efficiency and forage digestibility of the transgenic plants were characterized. miR156 controls apical dominance and floral transition in switchgrass by suppressing its target SPL genes. Relatively low levels of miR156 overexpression were sufficient to increase biomass yield while producing plants with normal flowering time. Moderate levels of miR156 led to improved biomass but the plants were non-flowering. These two groups of plants produced 58%–101% more biomass yield compared with the control. However, high miR156 levels resulted in severely stunted growth. The degree of morphological alterations of the transgenic switchgrass depends on miR156 level. Compared with floral transition, a lower miR156 level is required to disrupt apical dominance. The improvement in biomass yield was mainly because of the increase in tiller number. Targeted overexpression of miR156 also improved solubilized sugar yield and forage digestibility, and offered an effective approach for transgene containment. PMID:22239253

  17. Identification and overexpression of a knotted1-like transcription factor in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for lignocellulosic feedstock improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Wuddineh, Wegi A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji -Yi; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Sykes, Robert W.; Decker, Stephen R.; Davis, Mark F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; C. Neal Stewart, Jr.

    2016-04-28

    High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway is one strategy to reduce recalcitrance. Here, we identified a switchgrass Knotted1 transcription factor, PvKN1, with the aim of genetically engineering switchgrass for reduced biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. Gene expression of the endogenous PvKN1 gene was observed to be highest in young inflorescences and stems. Ectopic overexpression of PvKN1 in switchgrass altered growth, especially in early developmental stages. Transgenic lines had reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes accompanied by a reduction in lignin content suggesting the involvement of PvKN1 in the broad regulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the reduced expression of the Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA20ox) gene in tandem with the increased expression of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) genes in transgenic PvKN1 lines suggest that PvKN1 may exert regulatory effects via modulation of GA signaling. Furthermore, overexpression of PvKN1 altered the expression of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes and increased sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines. Our findings demonstrated that switchgrass PvKN1 is a putative ortholog of maize KN1 that is linked to plant lignification and cell wall and development traits as a major regulatory gene. Therefore, targeted overexpression of PvKN1 in bioenergy feedstocks may provide one feasible strategy for reducing biomass recalcitrance and simultaneously improving plant growth characteristics.

  18. Nutrients intake, performance and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf sheep fed graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplement to Panicum maximum.

    PubMed

    Idowu, O J; Arigbede, O M; Dele, P A; Olanite, J A; Adelusi, O O; Ojo, V O A; Sunmola, A S

    2013-12-01

    A study was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Enterolobium cyclocarpum seeds as supplementary feed for ruminant animals during the dry season when grasses are either not available or of low quality. Matured fruits of E. cyclocarpum were collected, toasted, peeled and then used for the trial. Thirty two West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep aged between 12 +/- 2 months with an average body weight of 10 +/- 2 kg were used in assessing the nutritive value of graded levels of toasted Enterolobium cyclocarpum seed in a concentrate diets as supplement to Panicum maximum basal diet. The percent compositions of the experimental diets were toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds at various levels of inclusion (0, 10, 20 and 30%) for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4. respectively. The diets (1-4) were consecutively fed to each animal at 50 g kg(-1) b.wt. for 12 weeks in a completely randomized design. Parameters taken were weekly body weights, daily feed intake, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance status for each animal. Diet 2 had the highest significant (p < 0.05) nutrients intake being 871.88, 137.13, 147.59, 33.26 and 69.86 g day(-1) for DM, CP, CF, EE and ASH respectively. The Dry Matter Digestibility (DMD) coefficients decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increased inclusion levels of toasted E. cyclocarpum seeds supplementation. Sheep fed diet 4 had the lowest feed conversion ratio (8.61) and the highest daily average gain of 58.93 g. However the animals fed Diet 2 had the highest nitrogen retension and converted their feed to flesh.

  19. Discovery of Linear Cyclotides in Monocot Plant Panicum laxum of Poaceae Family Provides New Insights into Evolution and Distribution of Cyclotides in Plants*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Lian, Yilong; Pang, Edmund Weng Hou; Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Tran, Tuan Dinh; Tam, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotides are disulfide-rich macrocyclic peptides that display a wide range of bioactivities and represent an important group of plant defense peptide biologics. A few linear variants of cyclotides have recently been identified. They share a high sequence homology with cyclotides but are biosynthetically unable to cyclize from their precursors. All hitherto reported cyclotides and their acyclic variants were isolated from dicot plants of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and recently the Fabaceae and Solanaceae families. Although several cyclotide-like genes in the Poaceae family were known from the data mining of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nucleotide database, their expression at the protein level has yet to be proven. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of nine novel linear cyclotides, designated as panitides L1–9, from the Panicum laxum of the Poaceae family and provide the first evidence of linear cyclotides at the protein level in a monocot plant. Disulfide mapping of panitide L3 showed that it possesses a cystine knot arrangement similar to cyclotides. Several panitides were shown to be active against Escherichia coli and cytotoxic to HeLa cells. They also displayed a high stability against heat and proteolytic degradation. Oxidative folding of the disulfide-reduced panitide L1 showed that it can fold efficiently into its native form. The presence of linear cyclotides in both dicots and monocots suggests their ancient origin and existence before the divergence of these two groups of flowering plants. Moreover, the Poaceae family contains many important food crops, and our discovery may open up new avenues of research using cyclotides and their acyclic variants in crop protection. PMID:23195955

  20. Nucleotide polymorphism and copy number variant detection using exome capture and next-generation sequencing in the polyploid grass Panicum virgatum

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Joseph; Kim, Jeongwoon; Childs, Kevin L; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Crisovan, Emily; Nandety, Aruna; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Richmond, Todd A; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Casler, Michael D; Buell, C Robin

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a polyploid, outcrossing grass species native to North America and has recently been recognized as a potential biofuel feedstock crop. Significant phenotypic variation including ploidy is present across the two primary ecotypes of switchgrass, referred to as upland and lowland switchgrass. The tetraploid switchgrass genome is approximately 1400 Mbp, split between two subgenomes, with significant repetitive sequence content limiting the efficiency of re-sequencing approaches for determining genome diversity. To characterize genetic diversity in upland and lowland switchgrass as a first step in linking genotype to phenotype, we designed an exome capture probe set based on transcript assemblies that represent approximately 50 Mb of annotated switchgrass exome sequences. We then evaluated and optimized the probe set using solid phase comparative genome hybridization and liquid phase exome capture followed by next-generation sequencing. Using the optimized probe set, we assessed variation in the exomes of eight switchgrass genotypes representing tetraploid lowland and octoploid upland cultivars to benchmark our exome capture probe set design. We identified ample variation in the switchgrass genome including 1 395 501 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 8173 putative copy number variants and 3336 presence/absence variants. While the majority of the SNPs (84%) detected was bi-allelic, a substantial number was tri-allelic with limited occurrence of tetra-allelic polymorphisms consistent with the heterozygous and polyploid nature of the switchgrass genome. Collectively, these data demonstrate the efficacy of exome capture for discovery of genome variation in a polyploid species with a large, repetitive and heterozygous genome. PMID:24947485

  1. Discovery of linear cyclotides in monocot plant Panicum laxum of Poaceae family provides new insights into evolution and distribution of cyclotides in plants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang Kien Truc; Lian, Yilong; Pang, Edmund Weng Hou; Nguyen, Phuong Quoc Thuc; Tran, Tuan Dinh; Tam, James P

    2013-02-01

    Cyclotides are disulfide-rich macrocyclic peptides that display a wide range of bioactivities and represent an important group of plant defense peptide biologics. A few linear variants of cyclotides have recently been identified. They share a high sequence homology with cyclotides but are biosynthetically unable to cyclize from their precursors. All hitherto reported cyclotides and their acyclic variants were isolated from dicot plants of the Rubiaceae, Violaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and recently the Fabaceae and Solanaceae families. Although several cyclotide-like genes in the Poaceae family were known from the data mining of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nucleotide database, their expression at the protein level has yet to be proven. Here, we report the discovery and characterization of nine novel linear cyclotides, designated as panitides L1-9, from the Panicum laxum of the Poaceae family and provide the first evidence of linear cyclotides at the protein level in a monocot plant. Disulfide mapping of panitide L3 showed that it possesses a cystine knot arrangement similar to cyclotides. Several panitides were shown to be active against Escherichia coli and cytotoxic to HeLa cells. They also displayed a high stability against heat and proteolytic degradation. Oxidative folding of the disulfide-reduced panitide L1 showed that it can fold efficiently into its native form. The presence of linear cyclotides in both dicots and monocots suggests their ancient origin and existence before the divergence of these two groups of flowering plants. Moreover, the Poaceae family contains many important food crops, and our discovery may open up new avenues of research using cyclotides and their acyclic variants in crop protection.

  2. Phytoextraction of contaminated urban soils by Panicum virgatum L. enhanced with application of a plant growth regulator (BAP) and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Aderholt, Matthew; Vogelien, Dale L; Koether, Marina; Greipsson, Sigurdur

    2017-05-01

    Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA. Exogenous application of two plant hormones was compared in multiple concentrations to determine effects on switchgrass growth: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Gibberellic Acid (GA3), and one PGR benzylaminopurine (BAP), The PGR BAP (1.0 μM) was found to generate a 48% increase in biomass compared to Control plants. Chemical application of citric acid, EDTA, benomyl, and BAP were tested separately and in combination in a pot experiment in an environmentally controlled greenhouse to determine the efficacy of phtyoextraction by switchgrass. Soil acidification by citric acid application resulted in highest level of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in plants foliage resulting in severe phytotoxic effects. Total Pb phytoextraction was significantly highest in plants treated with combined chemical application of B + C and B + C + H. Suppression of AMF activities by benomyl application significantly increased concentrations of Al and Fe in roots. Application of benomyl reduced AMF colonization but was also shown to dramatically increase levels of septa fungi infection as compared to Control plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue-specific genome instability in synthetic interspecific hybrids of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass) and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) is caused by micronucleation.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gabriela Barreto; Ishii, Takayoshi; Fuchs, Joerg; Houben, Andreas; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2016-09-01

    Genome instability is observed in several species hybrids. We studied the mechanisms underlying the genome instability in hexaploid hybrids of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum R.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) using a combination of different methods. Chromosomes of both parental genomes are lost by micronucleation. Our analysis suggests that genome instability occurs preferentially in meristematic root tissue of hexaploid hybrids, and chromosome elimination is not only caused by centromere inactivation. Likely, beside centromere dysfunction, unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks result in fragmented chromosomes in synthetic hybrids.

  4. Association of an SNP in a novel DREB2-like gene SiDREB2 with stress tolerance in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Charu; Bhutty, Sarita; Bahadur, Ranjit Prasad; Majee, Manoj; Prasad, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The DREB genes code for important plant transcription factors involved in the abiotic stress response and signal transduction. Characterization of DREB genes and development of functional markers for effective alleles is important for marker-assisted selection in foxtail millet. Here the characterization of a cDNA (SiDREB2) encoding a putative dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 from foxtail millet and the development of an allele-specific marker (ASM) for dehydration tolerance is reported. A cDNA clone (GenBank accession no. GT090998) coding for a putative DREB2 protein was isolated as a differentially expressed gene from a 6 h dehydration stress SSH library. A 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) was carried out to obtain the full-length cDNA, and sequence analysis showed that SiDREB2 encoded a polypeptide of 234 amino acids with a predicted mol. wt of 25.72 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.14. A theoretical model of the tertiary structure shows that it has a highly conserved GCC-box-binding N-terminal domain, and an acidic C-terminus that acts as an activation domain for transcription. Based on its similarity to AP2 domains, SiDREB2 was classified into the A-2 subgroup of the DREB subfamily. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed significant up-regulation of SiDREB2 by dehydration (polyethylene glycol) and salinity (NaCl), while its expression was less affected by other stresses. A synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with dehydration tolerance was detected at the 558th base pair (an A/G transition) in the SiDREB2 gene in a core set of 45 foxtail millet accessions used. Based on the identified SNP, three primers were designed to develop an ASM for dehydration tolerance. The ASM produced a 261 bp fragment in all the tolerant accessions and produced no amplification in the sensitive accessions. The use of this ASM might be faster, cheaper, and more reproducible than other SNP genotyping methods, and thus will enable

  5. A new N-nitroso compound, N-2-methylpropyl-N-1-methylacetonyl-nitrosamine, in moldy millet and wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Ji, C; Xu, Z X; Li, M X; Li, G Y; Li, J L

    1984-06-01

    A new N-nitroso compound, N-2-methylpropyl-N-1-methylacetonyl-nitrosamine (MAMPNA), was found in millet and wheat flour inoculated with Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, a common species of fungi occurring in foods in Linxian County, after 8-day incubation and an addition of a small amount of NaNO2. The compound has been identified by GC-MS and confirmed by synthesized MAMPNA. The present paper reports the isolation and detection of MAMPNA in moldy foods, and discusses the role of the fungus in processes of nitrosamine formation and possible biosynthetic approach of the new compound.

  6. No Excess of Cis-Regulatory Variation Associated with Intraspecific Selection in Wild Pearl Millet (Cenchrus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Rhoné, Bénédicte; Mariac, Cédric; Couderc, Marie; Berthouly-Salazar, Cécile; Ousseini, Issaka Salia

    2017-01-01

    Several studies suggest that cis-regulatory mutations are the favorite target of evolutionary changes, one reason being that cis-regulatory mutations might have fewer deleterious pleiotropic effects than protein-coding mutations. A review of the process also suggests that this bias towards adaptive cis-regulatory variation might be less pronounced at the intraspecific level compared with the interspecific level. In this study, we assessed the contribution of cis-regulatory variation to adaptation at the intraspecific level using populations of wild pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus ssp. monodii) sampled along an environmental gradient in Niger. From RNA sequencing of hybrids to assess allele-specific expression, we identified genes with cis-regulatory divergence between two parental accessions collected in contrasted environmental conditions. This revealed that ∼15% of transcribed genes showed cis-regulatory variation. Intersecting the gene set exhibiting cis-regulatory variation with the gene set identified as targets of selection revealed no excess of cis-acting mutations among the selected genes. We additionally found no excess of cis-regulatory variation among genes associated with adaptive traits. As our approach relied on methods identifying mainly genes submitted to strong selection pressure or with high phenotypic effect, the contribution of cis-regulatory changes to soft selection or polygenic adaptive traits remains to be tested. However our results favor the hypothesis that enrichment of adaptive cis-regulatory divergence builds up over time. For short evolutionary time-scales, cis-acting mutations are not predominantly involved in adaptive evolution associated with strong selective signal. PMID:28137746

  7. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    PubMed

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of heat shock proteins in C4 model, foxtail millet identifies potential candidates for crop improvement under abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Roshan Kumar; Jaishankar, Jananee; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Shweta, Shweta; Dangi, Anand; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27586959

  9. Ability of selected lactic acid bacteria to ferment a pearl millet-soybean slurry to produce gruels for complementary foods for young children.

    PubMed

    Songré-Ouattara, Laurencia T; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Humblot, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Diawara, Bréhima; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or alpha-galactooligosaccharides (alpha-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a sample obtained from spontaneously fermented traditional pearl millet slurry obtained from a small scale processing unit in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). Starter cultures thrived on the slurry as shown by counts on MRS agar, TTGE fingerprints, and fermentation patterns. The fermentation of precooked slurries inoculated by back slopping or with mixed cultures containing the amylolytic strain Lb. plantarum A6 enabled partial starch hydrolysis. Corresponding gruels had a suitable consistency for young child feeding at high dry matter content, and a high energy density: 88.7 +/- 4.2 and 75.8 +/- 5.1 kcal/100 g of sweetened gruel, for the gruels inoculated by back slopping or with Lb. plantarum A6, respectively. Unexpectedly, no decrease in phytates was observed in any of the experiments, suggesting the presence of one or more inhibitory compounds in soybean. Furthermore, preprocessing conditions before fermentation affect the carbohydrate composition of slurry and have a more profound effect than fermentation on the reduction of the alpha-GOS content.

  10. Stable isotopic investigations of modern and charred foxtail millet and the implications for environmental archaeological reconstruction in the western Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Cheng-Bang; Dong, Weimiao; Chen, Yufeng; Li, Hu; Shi, Chao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Pingyu; Zhao, Xueye

    2015-07-01

    Stable isotopic analysis of carbon and nitrogen in human and faunal remains has been widely used to reconstruct prehistoric diets and environmental changes. Isotopic analysis of plant remains allows for a more extensive consideration of paleodiets and can potentially provide information about the environment in which the crops were grown. This paper reports the results of δ13C and δ15N analyses performed on modern and charred archaeological foxtail millet samples collected from the western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The δ13C mean value of modern samples is lower than that of ancient samples. There is a significant difference between grain and leaf δ15N values. These results challenge the standard assumption in isotope studies that the nitrogen isotope signals of the different part of plants consumed by humans and animals are the same. The 3-5‰ difference between human and animal δ15N values is always regarded as an indicator of whether human diets contained considerable animal protein. The difference between grain and leaf δ15N values makes this assumption problematic in a foxtail millet-dominated society.

  11. Ectopic expression of foxtail millet zip-like gene, SiPf40, in transgenic rice plants causes a pleiotropic phenotype affecting tillering, vascular distribution and root development.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yunxia; Wang, Baosheng; Zhao, Qian; Ao, Guangming; Yu, Jingjuan

    2010-12-01

    Plant architecture determines grain production in rice (Oryza sativa) and is affected by important agronomic traits such as tillering, plant height, and panicle morphology. Many key genes involved in controlling the initiation and outgrowth of axillary buds, the elongation of stems, and the architecture of inflorescences have been isolated and analyzed. Previous studies have shown that SiPf40, which was identified from a foxtail millet (Setaria italica) immature seed cDNA library, causes extra branches and tillers in SiPf40-transgenic tobacco and foxtail millet, respectively. To reconfirm its function, we generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing SiPf40 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. SiPf40-overexpressing transgenic plants have a greater tillering number and a wider tiller angle than wild-type plants. Their root architecture is modified by the promotion of lateral root development, and the distribution of xylem and phloem in the vascular bundle is affected. Analysis of hormone levels showed that the ratios of indole-3-acetic acid/zeatin (IAA/ZR) and IAA/gibberellic acid (IAA/GA) decreased in SiPf40-transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. These findings strongly suggest that SiPf40 plays an important role in plant architecture.

  12. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on pasting, rheological and viscoelastic properties of milk-barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) blends meant for spray drying.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Arun; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Simha, H V Vikram; Nath, B Surendra

    2016-10-01

    The influence of enzymatic hydrolysis of starch on the pasting properties of barnyard millet was studied using a rheometer. The effects of blending hydrolyzed barnyard millet wort with milk at different ratios (0:1, 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2) on flow and viscoelastic behavior were investigated. From the pasting curves, it was evident that enzymatically-hydrolyzed starch did not exhibit typical pasting characteristics expected of normal starch. The Herschel-Bulkley model fitted well to the flow behaviour data, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ranging from 0.942 to 0.988. All milk-wort blends demonstrated varying degree of shear thinning with flow behavior index (n) ranging from 0.252 to 0.647. Stress-strain data revealed that 1:1 blend of milk to wort had the highest storage modulus (7.09-20.06Pa) and an elastically-dominant behavior (phase angle <45°) over the tested frequency range. The crossover point of G' and G" shifted to higher frequencies with increasing wort content. From the flow and viscoelastic behavior, it was concluded that the 1:1 blend of milk to wort would have least phase separation and better flowability during spray drying.

  13. A new raw-starch-digesting α-amylase: production under solid-state fermentation on crude millet and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Kamoun, Amel; Moulis, Claire; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ghribi, Dhouha; Chaabouni, Semia Ellouz

    2013-04-01

    A new Bacillus strain degrading starch, named Bacillus sp. UEB-S, was isolated from a southern Tunisian area. Amylase production using solid-state fermentation on millet, an inexpensive and available agro-resource, was investigated. Response surface methodology was applied to establish the relationship between enzyme production and four variables: inoculum size, moisture-to-millet ratio, temperature, and fermentation duration. The maximum enzyme activity recovered was 680 U/g of dry substrate when using 1.38 × 10(9) CFU/g as inoculation level, 5.6:1 (ml/g) as moisture ratio (86%), for 4 days of cultivation at 37 degrees C, which was in perfect agreement with the predicted model value. Amylase was purified by Q-Sepharose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography with a 14-fold increase in specific activity. Its molecular mass was estimated at 130 kDa. The enzyme showed maximal activity at pH 5 and 70 degrees C, and efficiently hydrolyzed starch to yield glucose and maltose as end products. The enzyme proved its efficiency for digesting raw cereal below gelatinization temperature and, hence, its potentiality to be used in industrial processes.

  14. 7 CFR 319.41-5a - Administrative instructions; method used for the disinfection of imported broomcorn and broomcorn...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the equivalent of 2 inches of mercury (a 28-inch vacuum at sea level), after which the hydrocyanic... shall be reduced to the equivalent of 5 inches of mercury (a 25-inch vacuum at sea level). (2)...

  15. Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-associated genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and characterization of the function of SiATG8a in conferring tolerance to nitrogen starvation in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Erhui; Hu, Liqin; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Zhong, Li; Chen, Zhu; Xu, Zhaoshi; Li, Liancheng; Zhou, Yongbin; Guo, Changhong; Ma, Youzhi

    2016-10-12

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that is highly evolutionarily-conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. In plants, autophagy plays important roles in regulating intracellular degradation and recycling of amino acids in response to nutrient starvation, senescence, and other environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has strong resistance to stresses and has been proposed as an ideal material for use in the study of the physiological mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although the genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is available, the characteristics and functions of abiotic stress-related genes remain largely unknown for this species. A total of 37 putative ATG (autophagy-associated genes) genes in the foxtail millet genome were identified. Gene duplication analysis revealed that both segmental and tandem duplication events have played significant roles in the expansion of the ATG gene family in foxtail millet. Comparative synteny mapping between the genomes of foxtail millet and rice suggested that the ATG genes in both species have common ancestors, as their ATG genes were primarily located in similar syntenic regions. Gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of 31 SiATG genes by one or more phytohormone treatments, 26 SiATG genes by drought, salt and cold, 24 SiATG genes by darkness and 25 SiATG genes by nitrogen starvation. Results of qRT-PCR showing that among 37 SiATG genes, the expression level of SiATG8a was the highest after nitrogen starvation treatment 24 h, suggesting its potential role in tolerance to nutrient starvation. Moreover, the heterologous expression of SiATG8a in rice improved nitrogen starvation tolerance. Compared to wild type rice, the transgenic rice performed better and had higher aboveground total nitrogen content when the plants were grown under nitrogen starvation conditions. Our results deepen understanding about the characteristics and functions of ATG genes in

  16. Downregulation of a UDP-Arabinomutase Gene in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Results in Increased Cell Wall Lignin While Reducing Arabinose-Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Jonathan D.; Smith, James A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Sykes, Robert W.; Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Baxter, Holly L.; Mann, David G. J.; Davis, Mark F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Peña, Maria J.; Backe, Jason; Bar-Peled, Maor; Stewart, C. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall’s natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and cross-link other cell wall polymers. Grasses predominately have Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass. A primary component of arabinoxylan synthesis is uridine diphosphate (UDP) linked to arabinofuranose (Araf). A family of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase (UAM)/reversible glycosylated polypeptides catalyze the interconversion between UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) and UDP-Araf. Results: The expression of a switchgrass arabinoxylan biosynthesis pathway gene, PvUAM1, was decreased via RNAi to investigate its role in cell wall recalcitrance in the feedstock. PvUAM1 encodes a switchgrass homolog of UDP-arabinose mutase, which converts UDP-Arap to UDP-Araf. Southern blot analysis revealed each transgenic line contained between one to at least seven T-DNA insertions, resulting in some cases, a 95% reduction of native PvUAM1 transcript in stem internodes. Transgenic plants had increased pigmentation in vascular tissues at nodes, but were otherwise similar in morphology to the non-transgenic control. Cell wall-associated arabinose was decreased in leaves and stems by over 50%, but there was an increase in cellulose. In addition, there was a commensurate change in arabinose side chain extension. Cell wall lignin composition was altered with a concurrent increase in lignin content and transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes in mature tillers. Enzymatic saccharification efficiency was unchanged in the transgenic plants relative to the control. Conclusion: Plants with attenuated PvUAM1 transcript had increased cellulose and lignin in cell walls. A decrease in cell

  17. Downregulation of a UDP-Arabinomutase Gene in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Results in Increased Cell Wall Lignin While Reducing Arabinose-Glycans

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Jonathan D.; Smith, James A.; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Turner, Geoffrey B.; Decker, Stephen R.; Sykes, Robert W.; Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Baxter, Holly L.; Mann, David G. J.; Davis, Mark F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Peña, Maria J.; Backe, Jason; Bar-Peled, Maor; Stewart, C. N.

    2016-10-26

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall's natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and cross-link other cell wall polymers. Grasses predominately have Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass. A primary component of arabinoxylan synthesis is uridine diphosphate (UDP) linked to arabinofuranose (Araf). A family of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase (UAM)/reversible glycosylated polypeptides catalyze the interconversion between UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) and UDP-Araf. The expression of a switchgrass arabinoxylan biosynthesis pathway gene, PvUAM1, was decreased via RNAi to investigate its role in cell wall recalcitrance in the feedstock. PvUAM1 encodes a switchgrass homolog of UDP-arabinose mutase, which converts UDP-Arap to UDP-Araf. Southern blot analysis revealed each transgenic line contained between one to at least seven T-DNA insertions, resulting in some cases, a 95% reduction of native PvUAM1 transcript in stem internodes. Transgenic plants had increased pigmentation in vascular tissues at nodes, but were otherwise similar in morphology to the non-transgenic control. Cell wall-associated arabinose was decreased in leaves and stems by over 50%, but there was an increase in cellulose. In addition, there was a commensurate change in arabinose side chain extension. Cell wall lignin composition was altered with a concurrent increase in lignin content and transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes in mature tillers. Enzymatic saccharification efficiency was unchanged in the transgenic plants relative to the control. Plants with attenuated PvUAM1 transcript had increased cellulose and lignin in cell walls. A decrease in cell wall-associated arabinose

  18. Downregulation of a UDP-Arabinomutase Gene in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Results in Increased Cell Wall Lignin While Reducing Arabinose-Glycans

    DOE PAGES

    Willis, Jonathan D.; Smith, James A.; Mazarei, Mitra; ...

    2016-10-26

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a dedicated feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuels. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall's natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and cross-link other cell wall polymers. Grasses predominately have Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass. A primary component of arabinoxylan synthesis is uridine diphosphate (UDP) linked to arabinofuranose (Araf). A family of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase (UAM)/reversible glycosylated polypeptides catalyze the interconversion between UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) and UDP-Araf. The expression of amore » switchgrass arabinoxylan biosynthesis pathway gene, PvUAM1, was decreased via RNAi to investigate its role in cell wall recalcitrance in the feedstock. PvUAM1 encodes a switchgrass homolog of UDP-arabinose mutase, which converts UDP-Arap to UDP-Araf. Southern blot analysis revealed each transgenic line contained between one to at least seven T-DNA insertions, resulting in some cases, a 95% reduction of native PvUAM1 transcript in stem internodes. Transgenic plants had increased pigmentation in vascular tissues at nodes, but were otherwise similar in morphology to the non-transgenic control. Cell wall-associated arabinose was decreased in leaves and stems by over 50%, but there was an increase in cellulose. In addition, there was a commensurate change in arabinose side chain extension. Cell wall lignin composition was altered with a concurrent increase in lignin content and transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes in mature tillers. Enzymatic saccharification efficiency was unchanged in the transgenic plants relative to the control. Plants with attenuated PvUAM1 transcript had increased cellulose and lignin in cell walls. A decrease in cell wall-associated arabinose was

  19. Strategic control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in a subtropical semi-arid region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Morel, Nicolás; Signorini, Marcelo L; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. microplus in early spring and prevent in that way the appearance of the annual peak of abundance of R. microplus in summer and autumn. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0 (25th September 2015), with fluazuron on day 32 (27th October 2015) and with fipronil on day 75 (9th December 2015). Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant. The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts (P<0.01), with the only exception of the count of March. The distribution of parasites among cattle in all counts was adjusted to the negative binomial distribution, but a temporal variation in the tick aggregation levels associated to changes in tick abundance was found. The higher the abundance of R. microplus, the lower the aggregation. It was found that the steers (15.8% of the total number of animals evaluated) belonging to the high infestation group accounted for 23.0% of the total ticks. The strategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R. microplus because it significantly reduces the tick infestation on cattle with only three applications of acaricides in one-year period. The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible

  20. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) polyubiquitin gene (PvUbi1 and PvUbi2) promoters for use in plant transformation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The ubiquitin protein is present in all eukaryotic cells and promoters from ubiquitin genes are good candidates to regulate the constitutive expression of transgenes in plants. Therefore, two switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) ubiquitin genes (PvUbi1 and PvUbi2) were cloned and characterized. Reporter constructs were produced containing the isolated 5' upstream regulatory regions of the coding sequences (i.e. PvUbi1 and PvUbi2 promoters) fused to the uidA coding region (GUS) and tested for transient and stable expression in a variety of plant species and tissues. Results PvUbi1 consists of 607 bp containing cis-acting regulatory elements, a 5' untranslated region (UTR) containing a 93 bp non-coding exon and a 1291 bp intron, and a 918 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes four tandem, head -to-tail ubiquitin monomer repeats followed by a 191 bp 3' UTR. PvUbi2 consists of 692 bp containing cis-acting regulatory elements, a 5' UTR containing a 97 bp non-coding exon and a 1072 bp intron, a 1146 bp ORF that encodes five tandem ubiquitin monomer repeats and a 183 bp 3' UTR. PvUbi1 and PvUbi2 were expressed in all examined switchgrass tissues as measured by qRT-PCR. Using biolistic bombardment, PvUbi1 and PvUbi2 promoters showed strong expression in switchgrass and rice callus, equaling or surpassing the expression levels of the CaMV 35S, 2x35S, ZmUbi1, and OsAct1 promoters. GUS staining following stable transformation in rice demonstrated that the PvUbi1 and PvUbi2 promoters drove expression in all examined tissues. When stably transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), the PvUbi2+3 and PvUbi2+9 promoter fusion variants showed expression in vascular and reproductive tissues. Conclusions The PvUbi1 and PvUbi2 promoters drive expression in switchgrass, rice and tobacco and are strong constitutive promoter candidates that will be useful in genetic transformation of monocots and dicots. PMID:21745390

  1. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) using genomic SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation and population structure in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet using 87 genomic SSR primers. The 128 finger millet genotypes were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Eighty-seven genomic SSR primers with 60-70 % GC contents were used for PCR analysis of 128 finger millet genotypes. The PCR products were separated and visualized on a 6 % polyacrylamide gel followed by silver staining. The data were used to estimate major allele frequency using Power Marker v3.0. Dendrograms were constructed based on the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. Statistical fitness and population structure analyses were performed to find the genetic diversity. The mean major allele frequency was 0.92; the means of polymorphic alleles were 2.13 per primer and 1.45 per genotype; the average polymorphism was 59.94 % per primer and average PIC value was 0.44 per primer. Indian genotypes produced an additional 0.21 allele than non-Indian genotypes. Gene diversity was in the range from 0.02 to 0.35. The average heterozygosity was 0.11, close to 100 % homozygosity. The highest inbreeding coefficient was observed with SSR marker UGEP67. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.011 to 0.836. The highest similarity value was 0.836 between genotypes DPI009-04 and GPU-45. Indian genotypes were placed in Eleusine coracana major cluster (EcMC) 1 along with 6 non-Indian genotypes. AMOVA showed that molecular variance in genotypes from various geographical regions was 4 %; among populations it was 3 % and within populations it was 93 %. PCA scatter plot analysis showed that GPU-28, GPU-45 and DPI009-04 were closely dispersed in first component axis. In structural analysis, the genotypes were divided into three subpopulations (SP1, SP2 and SP3). All the three subpopulations had an admixture of alleles and no pure line was observed. These analyses confirmed that all the genotypes were genetically diverse and had been grouped based on

  3. Milk from cows grazing on cool-season pastures provides an enhanced profile of bioactive fatty acids compared to those grazed on a monoculture of pearl millet.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Melissa L; Egolf, Emily; Barlow, John W; Alvez, Juan P; Roman, Joe; Kraft, Jana

    2017-02-15

    The demand for dairy products from grass-fed cows is driven, in part, by their more desirable fatty acid (FA) profile, containing more n-3 FA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) than conventionally produced dairy products. This study investigated the effects of pearl millet (PM) vs. cool-season pasture (CSP) on animal performance and milk FA in a grazing system. Eight Holstein dairy cows were used in a repeated measures design with four-week periods. Forage type had no effect on animal performance (estimated dry matter intake, milk production, fat, or protein). The contents of CLA and n-3 FA in a serving of whole milk (3.25% fat) increased when cows grazed CSP compared to PM. A serving of whole milk from cows grazing PM had a higher content of saturated FA and branched-chain FA. In conclusion, the contents of various bioactive FA were higher in milk fat of cows grazing a CSP compared to PM.

  4. Effects of replacing grass silage with forage pearl millet silage on milk yield, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Brunette, T; Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary replacement of grass silage (GS) with forage millet silages that were harvested at 2 stages of maturity [i.e., vegetative stage and dough to ripe seed (mature) stage] on milk production, apparent total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (60:40 forage:concentrate ratio). Dietary treatments included control (GS), vegetative millet silage (EM), and mature millet silage (MM) diets. Experimental silages comprised 24% of dietary dry matter (DM). Soybean meal and slow-release urea were added in millet diets to balance for crude protein (CP). Three additional ruminally fistulated cows were used to determine the effect of treatments on ruminal fermentation and total-tract nutrient utilization. Cows fed the GS diet consumed more DM (22.9 vs. 21.7 ± 1.02 kg/d) and CP (3.3 vs. 3.1 ± 0.19 kg/d), and similar starch (4.9 ± 0.39 kg/d) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 8.0 ± 0.27 kg/d) compared with cows fed the MM diet. Replacing the EM diet with the MM diet did not affect DM, NDF, or CP intakes. Cows fed the MM diet produced less milk (26.1 vs. 29.1 ± 0.79 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (28.0 vs.30.5 ± 0.92 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (26.5 vs. 28.3 ± 0.92 kg/d) yields than cows fed the GS diet. However, cows fed diets with EM and GS produced similar yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and 4% fat-corrected milk. Feed efficiency (milk yield:DM intake) was greater only for cows fed the GS diet than those fed the MM diet. Milk protein yield and concentration were greater among cows fed the GS diet compared with those fed the EM or MM diets. Milk fat and lactose concentrations were not influenced by diet. However, milk urea N was lower for cows fed the GS diet than for those fed the MM diet. Ruminal NH3-N was greater for cows fed the EM diet than for

  5. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae).

    PubMed

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  6. Loose Panicle1 encoding a novel WRKY transcription factor, regulates panicle development, stem elongation, and seed size in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jishan; Tang, Sha; Zhi, Hui; Jia, Guanqing; Wang, Huajun; Diao, Xianmin

    2017-01-01

    Panicle development is an important agronomic trait that aids in determining crop productivity. Foxtail millet and its wild ancestor green foxtail have recently been used as model systems to dissect gene functions. Here, we characterized a recessive mutant of foxtail millet, loose-panicle 1 (lp1), which showed pleiotropic phenotypes, such as a lax primary branching pattern, aberrant branch morphology, semi-dwarfism, and enlarged seed size. The loose panicle phenotype was attributed to increased panicle lengths and decreased primary branch numbers. Map-based cloning, combined with high-throughput sequencing, revealed that LP1, which encodes a novel WRKY transcription factor, is responsible for the mutant phenotype. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LP1 belongs to the Group I WRKY subfamily, which possesses two WRKY domains (WRKY I and II). A single G-to-A transition in the fifth intron of LP1 resulted in three disorganized splicing events in mutant plants. For each of these aberrant splice variants, the normal C2H2 motif in the WRKY II domain was completely disrupted, resulting in a loss-of-function mutation. LP1 mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues examined, with higher expression levels observed in inflorescences, roots, and seeds at the grain-filling stage. A subcellular localization analysis showed that LP1 predominantly accumulated in the nucleus, which confirmed its role as a transcriptional regulator. This study provides novel insights into the roles of WRKY proteins in regulating reproductive organ development in plants and may help to develop molecular markers associated with crop yields.

  7. Drinking From the Same Straw: Crop Growth and Evidence of Water Transfer from Native Shrubs to Millet in a Sahelian Agro-Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, N. A.; Bayala, R.; Fogel, M. L.; Diedhiou, I.; Dick, R.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Soil moisture, transpiration rate, crop growth and soil and leaf water potential data were collected during a dry season millet irrigation experiment where stress was imposed in the intercropped system. Despite lower soil moisture content, crops grown in association with shrubs have increased biomass production and a faster development cycle. An isotopic tracer study investigating hydraulic redistribution was carried out by injecting deuterated water into the roots of three shrubs at one meter depth and sampling shrubs and nearby crops for isotopic analysis of plant water. Deuterium Enriched water was found in the shrubs of two out of three plots. Deuterium enriched water was found in the crops and shrubs in all three plots. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but point to larger differences in crop growth and strong evidence for the sharing of hydraulically redistributed water. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide swaths of the Sahel.

  8. Salt tolerance and activity of antioxidative enzymes of transgenic finger millet overexpressing a vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase gene (SbVPPase) from Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Ediga; Reddy, Palle Surender; Sunita, Merla Srilakshmi; Kishor, Polavarapu B Kavi; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-06-15

    A vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase cDNA clone was isolated from Sorghum bicolor (SbVPPase) using end-to-end gene-specific primer amplification. It showed 80-90% homology at the nucleotide and 85-95% homology at the amino acid level with other VPPases. The gene was introduced into expression vector pCAMBIA1301 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter and transformed into Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain LBA4404 to infect embryogenic calli of finger millet (Eleusine coracana). Successful transfer of SbVPPase was confirmed by a GUS histochemical assay and PCR analysis. Both, controls and transgenic plants were subjected to 100 and 200mM NaCl and certain biochemical and physiological parameters were studied. Relative water content (RWC), plant height, leaf expansion, finger length and width and grain weight were severely reduced (50-70%), and the flowering period was delayed by 20% in control plants compared to transgenic plants under salinity stress. With increasing salt stress, the proline and chlorophyll contents as well as the enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased by 25-100% in transgenics, while malondialdehyde (MDA) showed a 2-4-fold decrease. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and the reduction in the MDA content suggest efficient scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in transgenics and, as a consequence, probably alleviation of salt stress. Also, the leaf tissues of the transgenics accumulated 1.5-2.5-fold higher Na(+) and 0.4-0.8-fold higher K(+) levels. Together, these results clearly demonstrate that overexpression of SbVPPase in transgenic finger millet enhances the plant's performance under salt stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of putative QTLs for seedling stage phosphorus starvation response in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) by association mapping and cross species synteny analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Ceasar, S. Antony; Vinod, K. K.; Duraipandiyan, V.; Ajeesh Krishna, T. P.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    A germplasm assembly of 128 finger millet genotypes from 18 countries was evaluated for seedling-stage phosphorus (P) responses by growing them in P sufficient (Psuf) and P deficient (Pdef) treatments. Majority of the genotypes showed adaptive responses to low P condition. Based on phenotype behaviour using the best linear unbiased predictors for each trait, genotypes were classified into, P responsive, low P tolerant and P non-responsive types. Based on the overall phenotype performance under Pdef, 10 genotypes were identified as low P tolerants. The low P tolerant genotypes were characterised by increased shoot and root length and increased root hair induction with longer root hairs under Pdef, than under Psuf. Association mapping of P response traits using mixed linear models revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two QTLs (qLRDW.1 and qLRDW.2) for low P response affecting root dry weight explained over 10% phenotypic variation. In silico synteny analysis across grass genomes for these QTLs identified putative candidate genes such as Ser-Thr kinase and transcription factors such as WRKY and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH). The QTLs for response under Psuf were mapped for traits such as shoot dry weight (qHSDW.1) and root length (qHRL.1). Putative associations of these QTLs over the syntenous regions on the grass genomes revealed proximity to cytochrome P450, phosphate transporter and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) genes. This is the first report of the extent of phenotypic variability for P response in finger millet genotypes during seedling-stage, along with the QTLs and putative candidate genes associated with P starvation tolerance. PMID:28820887

  10. Study through surveys and fermentation kinetics of the traditional processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) into ben-saalga, a fermented gruel from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tou, E H; Guyot, J P; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Rochette, I; Counil, E; Traoré, A S; Trèche, S

    2006-01-15

    Traditional cereal-based fermented foods are frequently used as complementary foods for infants and young children in Africa. This is the case for ben-saalga, a popular fermented gruel produced from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Burkina Faso. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and sanitary qualities of the corresponding foodstuff. In this work, the traditional processing of pearl millet into ben-saalga was investigated in 24 production units, and fermentation kinetics were studied in pilot scale experiments. Processing steps include: washing (optional), soaking of the grains (first fermentation step), grinding and sieving of the wet flour, settling (second fermentation step), and cooking. The soaking step was mainly characterized by alcoholic fermentation whereas lactic acid fermentation occurred during the settling step. Fermentation kinetics during settling indicates a temporal variation of metabolic activity. Initially, both homofermentative and heterofermentative pathways were simultaneously active, and later only a homofermentative pathway was active. The paste produced at the end of settling had a low pH (4.0+/-0.4) and its microflora was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with an amylolytic LAB/LAB ratio of 12%. Sucrose disappeared in the grains during soaking but was not detected in the soaking water, whereas glucose, fructose and maltose appeared transiently. Glucose and fructose were the main substrates observed for lactic acid fermentation during the settling step; however unbalanced fermentation led to the hypothesis that starch hydrolysis products may also serve as substrates for lactic acid formation. At the end of the processing, a 75% and 83% decrease was observed in phytate (IP6) and raffinose, respectively. The sour gruel ben-saalga resulting from cooking the sour paste had inadequate nutritional characteristics with respect to infants' and young

  11. Studies on long-term impact of STCR based integrated fertilizer use on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system in semi arid condition of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Pandey, R N; Sharma, B M

    2015-01-01

    A long-term field experiment on pearl millet - wheat cropping system with soil test crop response correlation (STCR) based fertilizer application was initiated during kharif- 2003 on a sandy loam soil (Typic Halustept) at a research farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. The aim of the experiment was to study the impact of STCR based integrated fertilizer application for targeted yield of pearl millet - wheat cropping sequence yield and changes in soil health. The result showed a significant and positive impact of integrated use of the fertilizerwith FYM on productivity of the cropping sequence and soil fertility. The STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations with FYM produced significantly higher grain and straw yields of pearl millet and wheat crops as compared to other treatments. The highest average (2003 to 2010-11) grain and straw yield of pearl millet (2.85 and 6.59 t ha(-1)) and wheat (5.32 and 7.17 t ha(-1)) was recorded with the application of STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations (T2) for targeted level of yield 2.5 and 5.0 ha(-1), respectively. Average increase in grain and straw yield of pearl millet was 203 and 197% and 196 and 193% of wheat under T2 treatment over control (T4). After harvest of wheat crops (2010-11), the physical, biological properties and fertility status i.e. available N, P and K of soil were improved in the treatments where STCR based integrated fertilizer dose with 10 t FYM (T2) and FYM @20 t ha(-1)(T1) were applied in both the crops and were significantly higher as compared to T3 treatment except available phosphorus. Economic analysis based on average yield of eight cropping sequence (2003 to 2010-11), pearl millet - wheat cropping sequence gave maximum net return of Rs. 100,907 ha(-1) yr(-1) and total return of Rs. 64,992/ ha(-1)yr(-1) over control with STCR based integrated fertilizer recommendations (T2). It is concluded that STCR based integrated fertilizer can be adopted by the farmers

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from rice, peanut and millet farms in peninsular India: Effects of water and nitrogen management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritee, K.; Tiwari, R.; Nair, D.; Loecke, T. D.; Adhya, T. K.; Rudek, J.; Ahuja, R.; Hamburg, S.

    2013-12-01

    At Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), we recognize that any intervention to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should meet the interests of small scale farmers and low-carbon farming (LCF) is an integral component of our work on international climate. As a part of our Emissions Measurement and Methodology Development (EMD) Project, a joint undertaking with Indian NGO partners of the Fair Climate Network (FCN), five GHG measurement laboratories were set up across three states in peninsular (south) India. These labs represent different agro-ecological zones within the dryland agriculture belt in South India for which no reliable datasets on GHG emission have been available. Our approach for collecting gas samples was based on the Gracenet protocol. Sampling for nitrous oxide and methane emissions were made on approximately 50% of the total number of days in a growing season and once a week during fallow periods. In order to capture the peak emissions of nitrous oxide, samples were collected for 3-4 consecutive days after critical events like tillage, weeding, fertilization, and rainfall/irrigation. The research team collected field data at the time of sampling (temperature of the soil, water and air; and water levels). We also recorded parameters (e.g. water, fertilizer, labor and energy use; and yields) which were necessary for calculating farm profitability. Our data from 2012-2013 suggest that, for peninsular India, low-carbon rice cultivation techniques offer very large emission reduction potential (2-5 metric tons CO2e per acre per year), with smaller reductions from peanut and millet (0.15-0.5 metric ton CO2e per acre per season). The Tier 1 IPCC emissions factors 1) grossly underestimate both the amount of nitrous oxide emission from conventional rice cultivation practices, and the extent to which it can be reduced through better fertilizer management and 2) overestimate the methane emission reduction possible due to water management for rice paddies by a

  13. Overexpression of the autophagy-related gene SiATG8a from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) confers tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and drought stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-wei; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Li; Liu, Jia-ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Zhou, Yong-Bin; Guo, Chang-Hong; Ma, You-Zhi

    2015-12-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process in all eukaryotes for the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling. Autophagy is known to be involved in responses to low nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis. Foxtail millet has strong abiotic stress resistance to both low nutrient and drought stress. However, to date, there have only been a few genes reported to be related with abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, SiATG8a, from foxtail millet. SiATG8a is mainly expressed in stems and its expression was dramatically induced by drought stress and nitrogen starvation treatments. SiATG8a was localized in the membrane and cytoplasm of foxtail millet. Overexpression of SiATG8a in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and to drought stress. Under nitrogen starvation conditions, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had larger root and leaf areas and accumulated more total nitrogen than wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had lower total protein concentrations than did the WT plants. Under drought stress, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had higher survival rates, chlorophyll content, and proline content, but had lower MDA content than wild type plants. Taken together, our results represent the first identified case where overexpression of autophagy related gene can simultaneously improve plant resistance to low nitrogen and drought stresses. These findings implicate plant autophagy in plant stress responses to low nitrogen and drought and should be helpful in efforts to improve stresses resistance to nitrogen starvation and drought of crops by genetic transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Screening of Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria in a Fermented Pearl Millet Slurry and in the Metagenome of Fermented Starchy Foods▿

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas. PMID:22003019

  15. Genetic screening of functional properties of lactic acid bacteria in a fermented pearl millet slurry and in the metagenome of fermented starchy foods.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Williams; Humblot, Christèle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 152) in African pearl millet slurries and in the metagenomes of amylaceous fermented foods were investigated by screening 33 genes involved in probiotic and nutritional functions. All isolates belonged to six species of the genera Pediococcus and Lactobacillus, and Lactobacillus fermentum was the dominant species. We screened the isolates for the abilities to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract and to synthesize folate and riboflavin. The isolates were also tested in vitro for their abilities to survive exposure to bile salts and to survive at pH 2. Because the ability to hydrolyze starch confers an ecological advantage on LAB that grow in starchy matrixes as well as improving the nutritional properties of the gruels, we screened for genes involved in starch metabolism. The results showed that genes with the potential ability to survive passage through the gastrointestinal tract were widely distributed among isolates and metagenomes, whereas in vitro tests showed that only a limited set of isolates, mainly those belonging to L. fermentum, could tolerate a low pH. In contrast, the wide distribution of genes associated with bile salt tolerance, in particular bsh, is consistent with the high frequency of tolerance to bile salts observed. Genetic screening revealed a potential for folate and riboflavin synthesis in both isolates and metagenomes, as well as high variability among genes related to starch metabolism. Genetic screening of isolates and metagenomes from fermented foods is thus a promising approach for assessing the functional potential of food microbiotas.

  16. Both encouraging feeding style and high energy density may increase energy intakes from fermented millet gruels eaten by infants and toddlers in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Traoré, Tahirou; Soma, Adama; Kaboré, Claire; Trèche, Serge

    2016-04-01

    Traditional fermented millet gruel is frequently eaten by children in Burkina Faso as a complementary food or for breakfast. The effects of gruel energy density and feeding style on intakes (amounts and energy) were assessed in children in Ouagadougou. Twenty-three young children (11 infants and 12 toddlers) were given two meals of gruel per day for two periods of 11 consecutive days, first, the traditional fermented gruel (TFG), and second, an improved high energy density fermented gruel (IFG). On the first 10 days of each period, the children were fed as usual, while on the 11th day, the mothers were asked to use encouraging feeding. Intakes of TFG and IFG were also measured once a day for nine days in 25 preschoolers (2-5 years-old). After adjustment for the subject effect, IFG intakes did not significantly differ from TFG intakes in the groups of infants and toddlers, meaning there was a significant increase in energy intakes, which almost doubled. Encouraging feeding increased TFG intakes in both age groups, but IFG intakes only increased in toddlers, whose energy intake tripled compared to that from TFG with the usual feeding style. In preschoolers, mean IFG intakes were lower than TFG intakes and there were no increase in mean energy intakes. Improving fermented gruel and training the mothers to encourage their young children during feeding are two possible strategies to improve food intakes, and hence to better satisfy the children's nutritional needs.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of SET domain gene family in foxtail millet identifies the putative role of SiSET14 in abiotic stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Dangi, Anand; Shweta, Shweta; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    SET domain-containing genes catalyse histone lysine methylation, which alters chromatin structure and regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The present study identified 53 SET domain-containing genes in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and the genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic and structural analyses classified SiSET proteins into five classes (I–V). RNA-seq derived expression profiling showed that SiSET genes were differentially expressed in four tissues namely, leaf, root, stem and spica. Expression analyses using qRT-PCR was performed for 21 SiSET genes under different abiotic stress and hormonal treatments, which showed differential expression of these genes during late phase of stress and hormonal treatments. Significant upregulation of SiSET gene was observed during cold stress, which has been confirmed by over-expressing a candidate gene, SiSET14 in yeast. Interestingly, hypermethylation was observed in gene body of highly differentially expressed genes, whereas methylation event was completely absent in their transcription start sites. This suggested the occurrence of demethylation events during various abiotic stresses, which enhance the gene expression. Altogether, the present study would serve as a base for further functional characterization of SiSET genes towards understanding their molecular roles in conferring stress tolerance. PMID:27585852

  18. Impact of transgene inheritance on the mitigation of gene flow between crops and their wild relatives: the example of foxtail millet.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunsu; Wang, Tianyu; Li, Yu; Darmency, Henri

    2008-10-01

    Developing genetically modified crop plants that are biologically contained could reduce significantly the potential spread of transgenes to conventional and organic crop plants and to wild or weedy relatives. Among several strategies, the hereditary mode of transmission of transgenes, whether dominant, recessive, or maternal, could play a major role in interspecific gene flow. Here we report on the gene flow between foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an autogamous crop, and its weedy relative, S. viridis, growing within or beside fields containing the three kinds of inherited herbicide resistance. Over the 6-year study, in the absence of herbicide selection, the maternal chloroplast-inherited resistance was observed at a 2 x 10(-6) frequency in the weed populations. Resistant weed plants were observed 60 times as often, at 1.2 x 10(-4) in the case of the nuclear recessive resistance, and 190 times as often, at 3.9 x 10(-4) in the case of the dominant resistance. Because the recessive gene was not expressed in the first-generation hybrids, it should be more effective than dominant genes in reducing gene flow under normal agricultural conditions where herbicides are sprayed because interspecific hybrids cannot gain from beneficial genes.

  19. Relationship of Nitrogen Use Efficiency with the Activities of Enzymes Involved in Nitrogen Uptake and Assimilation of Finger Millet Genotypes Grown under Different Nitrogen Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Gupta, Atul K.; Gaur, Vikram S.; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen responsiveness of three-finger millet genotypes (differing in their seed coat colour) PRM-1 (brown), PRM-701 (golden), and PRM-801 (white) grown under different nitrogen doses was determined by analyzing the growth, yield parameters and activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase; GOGAT, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) at different developmental stages. High nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen utilization efficiency were observed in PRM-1 genotype, whereas high nitrogen uptake efficiency was observed in PRM-801 genotype. At grain filling nitrogen uptake efficiency in PRM-1 negatively correlated with NR, GS, GOGAT activities whereas it was positively correlated in PRM-701 and PRM-801, however, GDH showed a negative correlation. Growth and yield parameters indicated that PRM-1 responds well at high nitrogen conditions while PRM-701 and PRM-801 respond well at normal and low nitrogen conditions respectively. The study indicates that PRM-1 is high nitrogen responsive and has high nitrogen use efficiency, whereas golden PRM-701 and white PRM-801 are low nitrogen responsive genotypes and have low nitrogen use efficiency. However, the crude grain protein content was higher in PRM-801 genotype followed by PRM-701 and PRM-1, indicating negative correlation of nitrogen use efficiency with source to sink relationship in terms of seed protein content. PMID:22919342

  20. Comprehensive analysis of SET domain gene family in foxtail millet identifies the putative role of SiSET14 in abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Dangi, Anand; Shweta, Shweta; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-09-02

    SET domain-containing genes catalyse histone lysine methylation, which alters chromatin structure and regulates the transcription of genes that are involved in various developmental and physiological processes. The present study identified 53 SET domain-containing genes in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and the genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic and structural analyses classified SiSET proteins into five classes (I-V). RNA-seq derived expression profiling showed that SiSET genes were differentially expressed in four tissues namely, leaf, root, stem and spica. Expression analyses using qRT-PCR was performed for 21 SiSET genes under different abiotic stress and hormonal treatments, which showed differential expression of these genes during late phase of stress and hormonal treatments. Significant upregulation of SiSET gene was observed during cold stress, which has been confirmed by over-expressing a candidate gene, SiSET14 in yeast. Interestingly, hypermethylation was observed in gene body of highly differentially expressed genes, whereas methylation event was completely absent in their transcription start sites. This suggested the occurrence of demethylation events during various abiotic stresses, which enhance the gene expression. Altogether, the present study would serve as a base for further functional characterization of SiSET genes towards understanding their molecular roles in conferring stress tolerance.

  1. A fermented sorghum/millet-based beverage, Obiolor, extenuates high-fat diet-induced dyslipidaemia and redox imbalance in the livers of rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Kolawole, Fausat L; Bello, Sharafa A; Mohammed, Aisha O

    2016-02-01

    Obiolor, a non-alcoholic beverage produced from fermented sorghum and millet malts, is widely consumed on a daily basis by the Igala tribe in Nigeria and is closely associated with good health. The effect of Obiolor on dyslipidaemia, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet was investigated. High-fat diet-mediated alterations in liver and serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by Obiolor. The beverage increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver of rats. These increases significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the high-fat diet-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes. High-fat diet-mediated elevations in the levels of conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and DNA fragmentation in the livers of rats were lowered by the beverage. This study showed that Obiolor extenuated high-fat diet-mediated dyslipidaemia, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in rats. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A.; Hanna, Wayne W.; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen. PMID:27031857

  3. In Silico and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Mapping Reveals Collinearity between the Pennisetum squamulatum Apomixis Carrier-Chromosome and Chromosome 2 of Sorghum and Foxtail Millet.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Sirjan; Conner, Joann A; Hanna, Wayne W; Simon, Bindu; Fengler, Kevin; Deschamps, Stéphane; Cigan, Mark; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Apomixis, or clonal propagation through seed, is a trait identified within multiple species of the grass family (Poaceae). The genetic locus controlling apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum (syn Cenchrus squamulatus) and Cenchrus ciliaris (syn Pennisetum ciliare, buffelgrass) is the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). Previously, the ASGR was shown to be highly conserved but inverted in marker order between P. squamulatum and C. ciliaris based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and varied in both karyotype and position of the ASGR on the ASGR-carrier chromosome among other apomictic Cenchrus/Pennisetum species. Using in silico transcript mapping and verification of physical positions of some of the transcripts via FISH, we discovered that the ASGR-carrier chromosome from P. squamulatum is collinear with chromosome 2 of foxtail millet and sorghum outside of the ASGR. The in silico ordering of the ASGR-carrier chromosome markers, previously unmapped in P. squamulatum, allowed for the identification of a backcross line with structural changes to the P. squamulatum ASGR-carrier chromosome derived from gamma irradiated pollen.

  4. Transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) targeted for reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion: A two-year comparative analysis of field-grown lines modified for target gene or genetic element expression

    DOE PAGES

    Dumitrache, Alexandru; Natzke, Jace; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; ...

    2016-11-18

    Five different types of transgenic (GAUT4, miRNA, MYB4, COMT and FPGS) Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) were grown in a field in Knoxville, Tenn., USA over two consecutive years between 2011 and 2015 in separate experiments. Clonal replicates were established (year-one) and produced much greater biomass during the second year. After each growing season the above ground biomass was analyzed for cell wall sugars and for recalcitrance to enzymatic digestibility, and biofuel using a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) screen. Here, each transgenic event and control had more glucan, xylan and less ethanol (g/g basis) from the second year of growthmore » relative to the first year plants. There was no correlation between plant carbohydrate content and biofuel production. In each of cell wall-targeted transgenics, GAUT4, MYB4, COMT and FPGS, the second year of growth resulted in increased carbohydrate abundance (up to 12%) and reduced recalcitrance through higher ethanol yields (up to 21%) over the non-transgenic control plants.« less

  5. Transgenic switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) targeted for reduced recalcitrance to bioconversion: A two-year comparative analysis of field-grown lines modified for target gene or genetic element expression

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitrache, Alexandru; Natzke, Jace; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Yee, Kelsey L.; Thompson, Olivia A.; Poovaiah, Charleson R.; Shen, Hui; Mazarei, Mitra; Baxter, Holly L.; Fu, Chunxiang; Wang, Zeng -Yu; Biswal, Ajaya K.; Li, Guifen; Tang, Yuhong; Stewart, Jr., C. Neal; Dixon, Richard A.; Nelson, Richard S.; Mohnen, Debra; Mielenz, Jonathan; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.

    2016-11-18

    Five different types of transgenic (GAUT4, miRNA, MYB4, COMT and FPGS) Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) were grown in a field in Knoxville, Tenn., USA over two consecutive years between 2011 and 2015 in separate experiments. Clonal replicates were established (year-one) and produced much greater biomass during the second year. After each growing season the above ground biomass was analyzed for cell wall sugars and for recalcitrance to enzymatic digestibility, and biofuel using a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) screen. Here, each transgenic event and control had more glucan, xylan and less ethanol (g/g basis) from the second year of growth relative to the first year plants. There was no correlation between plant carbohydrate content and biofuel production. In each of cell wall-targeted transgenics, GAUT4, MYB4, COMT and FPGS, the second year of growth resulted in increased carbohydrate abundance (up to 12%) and reduced recalcitrance through higher ethanol yields (up to 21%) over the non-transgenic control plants.

  6. The C-terminal motif of SiAGO1b is required for the regulation of growth, development and stress responses in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotong; Tang, Sha; Jia, Guanqing; Schnable, James C.; Su, Haixia; Tang, Chanjuan; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv), which belongs to the Panicoideae tribe of the Poaceae, is an important grain crop widely grown in Northern China and India. It is currently developing into a novel model species for functional genomics of the Panicoideae as a result of its fully available reference genome sequence, small diploid genome (2n=18, ~510Mb), short life cycle, small stature and prolific seed production. Argonaute 1 (AGO1), belonging to the argonaute (AGO) protein family, recruits small RNAs and regulates plant growth and development. Here, we characterized an AGO1 mutant (siago1b) in foxtail millet, which was induced by ethyl methanesulfonate treatment. The mutant exhibited pleiotropic developmental defects, including dwarfing stem, narrow and rolled leaves, smaller panicles and lower rates of seed setting. Map-based cloning analysis demonstrated that these phenotypic variations were attributed to a C–A transversion, and a 7-bp deletion in the C-terminus of the SiAGO1b gene in siago1b. Yeast two-hybrid assays and BiFC experiments revealed that the mutated region was an essential functional motif for the interaction between SiAGO1b and SiHYL1. Furthermore, 1598 differentially expressed genes were detected via RNA-seq-based comparison of SiAGO1b and wild-type plants, which revealed that SiAGO1b mutation influenced multiple biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell growth, programmed death and abiotic stress responses in foxtail millet. This study may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms by which SiAGO1b regulates the growth and development of crops. PMID:27045099

  7. Isolation of Functional Components β-Glucan and γ-Amino Butyric Acid from Raw and Germinated Barnyard Millet (Echinochloa frumentaceae) and their Characterization.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2016-09-01

    The study was carried out to analyze the characteristics of two functional constituents' viz. γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and β-glucan extracted from raw and germination barnyard millet (var. PRJ-1). A significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect of germination (sprouting) was observed in yield, chemical composition, functional, rheological and antioxidant properties of β-glucan and GABA. The yield of GABA extract was 12.34 % and the content increased from 6.37 mg/100 g in raw to 35.70 mg/100 g in germinated sample. The DPPH, total antioxidant and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities of GABA extract increased after germination from 45.34 to 65.34 %, 15.3 to 33.3 millimole/g and 38.4 to 64.7 millimole/g, respectively. The yield of β-glucan extract of raw and germinated flour was 6.05 and 5.01 % whereas the β-glucan contents were 83.30 and 79.64 %, respectively. The functional properties of β-glucan i.e., swelling power, water binding capacity and DPPH scavenging activity increased from 1.45 to 1.76 g/g, 2.13 to 2.32 g/g and 44.39 to 57.42 %, respectively, after germination. Similarly there was an increase in the storage modulus after germination process which attributes a better viscoelastic capacity of β-glucan at low frequencies. The results exploit that the β-glucan and GABA might promise a polymeric incipient to be implemented as food additives with variable functional and structural characteristics.

  8. Evaluation of water-use efficiency in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) using visible-near infrared and thermal spectral sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Cousins, Asaph B; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-15

    Water limitations decrease stomatal conductance (g(s)) and, in turn, photosynthetic rate (A(net)), resulting in decreased crop productivity. The current techniques for evaluating these physiological responses are limited to leaf-level measures acquired by measuring leaf-level gas exchange. In this regard, proximal sensing techniques can be a useful tool in studying plant biology as they can be used to acquire plant-level measures in a high-throughput manner. However, to confidently utilize the proximal sensing technique for high-throughput physiological monitoring, it is important to assess the relationship between plant physiological parameters and the sensor data. Therefore, in this study, the application of rapid sensing techniques based on thermal imaging and visual-near infrared spectroscopy for assessing water-use efficiency (WUE) in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv) was evaluated. The visible-near infrared spectral reflectance (350-2500 nm) and thermal (7.5-14 µm) data were collected at regular intervals from well-watered and drought-stressed plants in combination with other leaf physiological parameters (transpiration rate-E, A(net), g(s), leaf carbon isotopic signature-δ(13)C(leaf), WUE). Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis was used to predict leaf physiological measures based on the spectral data. The PLSR modeling on the hyperspectral data yielded accurate and precise estimates of leaf E, gs, δ(13)C(leaf), and WUE with coefficient of determination in a range of 0.85-0.91. Additionally, significant differences in average leaf temperatures (~1°C) measured with a thermal camera were observed between well-watered plants and drought-stressed plants. In summary, the visible-near infrared reflectance data, and thermal images can be used as a potential rapid technique for evaluating plant physiological responses such as WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exogenous Trehalose Treatment Enhances the Activities of Defense-Related Enzymes and Triggers Resistance against Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet.

    PubMed

    Govind, Sharathchandra R; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Shetty, Hunthrike S; Tran, Lam Son P

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants. Commercially procured trehalose was applied to seeds of susceptible pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar "HB3," and tested for its ability to reduce downy mildew disease incidence by induction of resistance. Seed treatment with trehalose at 200 mM for 9 h recorded 70.25% downy mildew disease protection, followed by those with 100 and 50 mM trehalose which offered 64.35 and 52.55% defense, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, under field conditions treatment with 200 mM trehalose for 9 h recorded 67.25% downy mildew disease protection, and reduced the disease severity to 32.75% when compared with untreated control which displayed 90% of disease severity. Trehalose did not affect either sporangial formation or zoospore release from sporangia, indicating that the reduction in disease incidence was not due to direct inhibition but rather through induction of resistance responses in the host. Additionally, trehalose was shown to enhance the levels of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and peroxidase, which are known as markers of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Our study shows that osmoregulators like trehalose could be used to protect plants against pathogen attacks by seed treatment, thus offering dual benefits of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.

  10. Genetic architecture of purple pigmentation and tagging of some loci to SSR markers in pearl millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Varalakshmi, Pusapati; Mohan Dev Tavva, Surya S; Arjuna Rao, Palakollu V; Subba Rao, Muktinutalapati V; Hash, Charles T

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the construction of integrated genetic maps in pearl millet involving certain purple phenotype and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. These maps provide a direct means of implementing DNA marker-assisted selection and of facilitating “map-based cloning” for engineering novel traits. The purple pigmentation of leaf sheath, midrib and leaf margin was inherited together ‘en bloc’ under the control of a single dominant locus (the ‘midrib complex’) and was inseparably associated with the locus governing the purple coloration of the internode. The purple panicle was caused by a single dominant locus. Each of the three characters (purple lamina, purple stigma and purple seed) was governed by two complementary loci. One of the two loci governing purple seed was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2090 in linkage group 1, with a linkage value of 22 cM, while the other locus was associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2270 in linkage group 6, with a linkage value of 23 cM. The locus for purple pigmentation of the midrib complex was either responsible for pigmentation of the panicle in a pleiotropic manner or was linked to it very closely and associated with the SSR locus Xpsmp2086 in linkage group 4, with a suggestive linkage value of 21 cM. A dominant allele at this locus seems to be a prerequisite for the development of purple pigmentation in the lamina, stigma and seed. These findings suggest that the locus for pigmentation of the midrib complex might regulate the basic steps in anthocyanin pigment development by acting as a structural gene while other loci regulate the formation of color in specific plant parts. PMID:22481882

  11. Modelling of evaporation in a sparse millet crop using a two-source model including sensible heat advection within the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, M. R.; Soegaard, H.

    2003-09-01

    During two successive growing seasons meteorological measurements were made in a pearl millet field in the Sahel to investigate the evaporation process in relation to crop growth. The evaporation was measured by eddy correlation and simulated using the Shuttleworth Wallace (SW) model [Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 111 (1985) 839-855]. To take sun height and multi-layer scattering into account a radiation balance model was formulated. The model indicates that partitioning of the net radiation between the vegetation and the soil may be estimated ( r2=0.94) from the fraction of diffuse radiation, the leaf area index and an attenuation coefficient, but that the attenuation coefficient may not be similar in different locations. To solve the SW-model with respect to the soil resistance an iterative solution was employed with the total evaporation estimated from the Bowen-ratio calculated from eddy correlation measurements. The procedure made it possible to derive stable estimates of soil resistance at soil evaporation rates down to 25 W m -2. The soil resistance was found to be in accordance with evaporation through a dry surface layer. The SW-model indicates, that advection of sensible heat from the dry soil to the plants, increases transpiration considerably. This will cause management techniques, such as mulching and dry farming, aimed at reducing soil evaporation to be less effective than might be anticipated. The effects of raising the leaf area index to improve the microclimate is discussed in relation to management of the available water and crop security.

  12. Exogenous Trehalose Treatment Enhances the Activities of Defense-Related Enzymes and Triggers Resistance against Downy Mildew Disease of Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Govind, Sharathchandra R.; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Shetty, Hunthrike S.; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, diverse physiological functions of various sugars are the subject of investigations. Their roles in signal transduction in plant responses to adverse biotic and abiotic stress conditions have become apparent, and growing scientific evidence has indicated that disaccharides like sucrose and trehalose mediate plant defense responses in similar way as those induced by elicitors against the pathogens. Trehalose is a well-known metabolic osmoregulator, stress-protectant and non-reducing disaccharide existing in a variety of organisms, including fungi, bacteria, and plants. Commercially procured trehalose was applied to seeds of susceptible pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivar “HB3,” and tested for its ability to reduce downy mildew disease incidence by induction of resistance. Seed treatment with trehalose at 200 mM for 9 h recorded 70.25% downy mildew disease protection, followed by those with 100 and 50 mM trehalose which offered 64.35 and 52.55% defense, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. Furthermore, under field conditions treatment with 200 mM trehalose for 9 h recorded 67.25% downy mildew disease protection, and reduced the disease severity to 32.75% when compared with untreated control which displayed 90% of disease severity. Trehalose did not affect either sporangial formation or zoospore release from sporangia, indicating that the reduction in disease incidence was not due to direct inhibition but rather through induction of resistance responses in the host. Additionally, trehalose was shown to enhance the levels of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and peroxidase, which are known as markers of both biotic and abiotic stress responses. Our study shows that osmoregulators like trehalose could be used to protect plants against pathogen attacks by seed treatment, thus offering dual benefits of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:27895647

  13. Multiple origins of the phenol reaction negative phenotype in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., were caused by independent loss-of-function mutations of the polyphenol oxidase (Si7PPO) gene during domestication.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takahiko; Yuo, Takahisa; Ohta, Takeshi; Hitomi, Eriko; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Kawase, Makoto; Taketa, Shin; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Foxtail millet shows variation in positive phenol color reaction (Phr) and negative Phr in grains, but predominant accessions of this crop are negative reaction type, and the molecular genetic basis of the Phr reaction remains unresolved. In this article, we isolated polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene responsible for Phr using genome sequence information and investigated molecular genetic basis of negative Phr and crop evolution of foxtail millet. First of all, we searched for PPO gene homologs in a foxtail millet genome database using a rice PPO gene as a query and successfully found three copies of the PPO gene. One of the PPO gene homologs on chromosome 7 showed the highest similarity with PPO genes expressed in hulls (grains) of other cereal species including rice, wheat, and barley and was designated as Si7PPO. Phr phenotypes and Si7PPO genotypes completely co-segregated in a segregating population. We also analyzed the genetic variation conferring negative Phr reaction. Of 480 accessions of the landraces investigated, 87 (18.1 %) showed positive Phr and 393 (81.9 %) showed negative Phr. In the 393 Phr negative accessions, three types of loss-of-function Si7PPO gene were predominant and independently found in various locations. One of them has an SNP in exon 1 resulting in a premature stop codon and was designated as stop codon type, another has an insertion of a transposon (Si7PPO-TE1) in intron 2 and was designated as TE1-insertion type, and the other has a 6-bp duplication in exon 3 resulting in the duplication of 2 amino acids and was designated as 6-bp duplication type. As a rare variant of the stop codon type, one accession additionally has an insertion of a transposon, Si7PPO-TE2, in intron 2 and was designated as "stop codon +TE2 insertion type". The geographical distribution of accessions with positive Phr and those with three major types of negative Phr was also investigated. Accessions with positive Phr were found in subtropical and tropical regions at

  14. Recommended Species for Vegetative Stabilization of Training Lands in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    semibacata Awnless bush sunflower Helianthus sp. Bahia grass Paspalum notatum Barley Hordeum vulgare Basin wildrye Elymus cinereus Bearded wheatgrass...Boer lovegrass Eragrostis curvuLa *Brittlebush Encelia farinosa *Brome grasses Bromus spp. Buckwheat s Eriogonum spp. Buffalograss Buchloe dactyloides...mexicana *Millets Panicum spp. Mountain brome Bromus montanum Mountain mahogany Gercocarpus montanus *Mountain penstenion Penstemon montanus *Muhly grasses

  15. Fluctuation of Dof1/Dof2 expression ratio under the influence of varying nitrogen and light conditions: involvement in differential regulation of nitrogen metabolism in two genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Supriya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Anil

    2014-08-10

    In order to gain insights into the mechanism of high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of finger millet (FM) the role of Dof2 transcription factor (TF), which is a repressor of genes involved in C/N metabolism was investigated. The partial cDNA fragment of EcDof2 (912-bp; GenBank acc. no. KF261117) was isolated and characterized from finger millet (FM) that showed 63% and 58% homology with Dof2 of Zea mays at nucleotide and protein level, respectively. Its expression studies were carried out along with the activator EcDof1 in two genotypes (GE3885, high protein genotype (HPG); GE1437, low protein genotype (LPG)) of FM differing in grain protein contents (13.8% and 6.2%) showed that EcDof2 is expressed in both shoot and root tissues with significantly (p≤0.05) higher expression in the roots. The diurnal expression of both EcDof1 and EcDof2 in shoots was differential having different time of peak expression indicating a differential response to diurnal condition. Under continuous dark conditions, expression of EcDof1 and EcDof2 oscillated in both the genotypes whereas on illumination, the fold expression of EcDof1 was higher as compared to EcDof2. Under increasing nitrate concentration, EcDof2 expression increases in roots and shoots of LPG while it remains unchanged in HPG. However, the EcDof1 expression was found to increase in both genotypes. Further, time kinetics studies under single nitrate concentration revealed that EcDof2 was repressed in the roots of both genotypes whereas EcDof1 oscillated with time. The EcDof1/EcDof2 ratio measured showed differential response under different light and nitrogen conditions. It was higher in the roots of HPG indicating higher activation of genes involved in N uptake and assimilation resulting in high grain protein accumulation. The results indicate that both light and nitrogen concentration influence Dof1 and Dof2 expression and suggests a complex pattern of regulation of genes influenced by these plant specific TFs. In

  16. Isolation of a cDNA clone (PcSrp) encoding serine-rich-protein from Porteresia coarctata T. and its expression in yeast and finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) affording salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, S; Christopher, G S B; Reddy, T P; Rao, K V; Reddy, V D

    2006-07-01

    A 1.4 Kb cDNA clone encoding a serine-rich protein has been isolated from the cDNA library of salt stressed roots of Porteresia coarctata, and designated as P. coarctata serine-rich-protein (PcSrp) encoding gene. Northern analysis and in situ mRNA hybridization revealed the expression of PcSrp in the salt stressed roots and rhizome of P. coarctata. However, no such expression was seen in the salt stressed leaves and in the unstressed tissues of root, rhizome and leaf, indicating that PcSrp is under the control of a salt-inducible tissue-specific promoter. In yeast, the PcSrp conferred increased NaCl tolerance, implicating its role in salinity tolerance at cellular level. Further, PcSrp was cloned downstream to rice Actin-1 promoter and introduced into finger millet through particle-inflow-gun method. Transgenic plants expressing PcSrp were able to grow to maturity and set seed under 250 mM NaCl stress. The untransformed control plants by contrast failed to survive under similar salt stress. The stressed roots of transgenic plants invariably accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) ion contents compared to roots of untransformed plants; whereas, shoots of transgenics accumulated lower levels of both the ions than that of untransformed plants under identical stress, clearly suggesting the involvement of PcSrp in ion homeostasis contributing to salt tolerance.

  17. Iron bioavailability from a lipid-based complementary food fortificant mixed with millet porridge can be optimized by adding phytase and ascorbic acid but not by using a mixture of ferrous sulfate and sodium iron EDTA.

    PubMed

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Mitchikpe, Evariste; Tossou, Felicien; Hessou, Joamel; Zeder, Christophe; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-08-01

    Home fortification with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) is a promising approach to improve bioavailable iron and energy intake of young children in developing countries. To optimize iron bioavailability from an LNS named complementary food fortificant (CFF), 3 stable isotope studies were conducted in 52 young Beninese children. Test meals consisted of millet porridge mixed with CFF and ascorbic acid (AA). Study 1 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals with meals fortified with a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA. Study 2 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortifed meals without or with extra AA. Study 3 compared iron absorption from FeSO4-fortified meals with meals containing phytase added prior to consumption, once without or once with extra AA. Iron absorption was measured as erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. In study 1, iron absorption from FeSO4 (8.4%) was higher than that from the mixture of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 (5.9%; P < 0.05). In study 2, the extra AA increased absorption (11.6%) compared with the standard AA concentration (7.3%; P < 0.001). In study 3, absorption from meals containing phytase without or with extra AA (15.8 and 19.9%, respectively) increased compared with meals without phytase (8.0%; P < 0.001). The addition of extra AA to meals containing phytase increased absorption compared with the test meals containing phytase without extra AA (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that phytase and AA, and especially a combination of the two, but not a mixture of FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA would be useful strategies to increase iron bioavailability from a CFF mixed with cereal porridge.

  18. Investigations of the Host Range of the Corn Cyst Nematode, Heterodera zeae, from Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Ringer, Chloe E.; Sardanelli, Sandra; Krusberg, Lorin R.

    1987-01-01

    The host range of the corn cyst nematode, Heterodera zeae, recently detected in Maryland, was investigated. A total of 269 plant entries, representing 68 families, 172 genera, and 204 species, was inoculated with cysts or a mixture of eggs and second-stage juveniles of H. zeae. The host range of the Maryland population of H. zeae was limited to plants of the Gramineae and included 11 tribes, 33 genera, 42 species, and 77 entries. All 22 corn (Zea mays) cultivars tested were hosts. Other economic hosts included certain cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Arena sativa), rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), sugar cane (Saccharum interspecific hybrid), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum), a weed species common to cultivated fields in Maryland, was also a host for H. zeae. Other hosts included meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis), Calamagrostis eipgeios, Job's tears (Coix Lachryma-Jobi), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), witchgrass (Panicum capillare), broomcorn (Panicum miliaceum), fountain grass (Pennisetum rueppeli), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), common reed (Phragmites australis), eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), corn (Zea mays), and teosinte (Zea mexicana). PMID:19290286

  19. Adaptations between ecotypes and along environmental gradients in Panicum virgatum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Determining the patterns and mechanisms of adaptation to different habitats across the natural landscape is of fundamental importance to understanding the differentiation of populations and the evolution of new species. Most recent studies of habitat-mediated natural selection in the wild have focus...

  20. Selecting, Establishing, and Managing Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) for Biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, David J.; Fike, John H.

    Switchgrass is being widely considered as a feedstock for biofuel production. Much remains to be learned about ideal feedstock characteristics, but switchgrass offers many advantages already and can perhaps be manipulated to offer more. When planning to grow switchgrass, select a cultivar that is well adapted to the location - generally a lowland cultivar for the southern United States and an upland cultivar at higher latitudes. Plant non-dormant seed after soils are well warmed, preferably with no-till methods and always with good weed control. Except for weeds, few pests appear to be widespread; but disease and insect pests could become more important as acreages increase. Fertilization requirements are relatively low, with 50 kg N/ha/year being a good “generic” recommendation where a single harvest is taken after plants have senesced; more will be needed if biomass is harvested while still green. Switchgrass should be harvested no more than twice per year and may generally be expected to produce 12 to ≥20 mg/ha/year across its usual range of distribution. A single harvest may provide for maximum sustainable yields - especially if the harvest is taken after tops die back at the end of the season. Several harvesting technologies are available, but the preferred technology may depend on logistics and economics associated with the local processing point, or biorefinery.