Science.gov

Sample records for brown medical school

  1. Future health disparity initiatives at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Leah; Coleman, Natasha; Dumenco, Luba; Tobin-Tyler, Elizabeth; Dollase, Richard H; George, Paul

    2014-09-02

    As the United States embarks on health care reform through the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to practice medicine will change. Education centered on health disparities and social determinants of health will become increasingly more important as 32 million Americans receive coverage through the ACA. In this paper, we describe future initiatives at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in training medical students on health disparities and social determinants of health through mechanisms such as the Primary Care-Population Medicine Program, the Rhode Island Area Health Education Center, the Scholarly Concentration program and other mechanisms.

  2. Dermatoethics: a curriculum in bioethics and professionalism for dermatology residents at Brown Medical School.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Lionel; Long, Thomas P

    2007-04-01

    Both American and Canadian residency accreditation bodies have formal requirements in core competencies that include training in ethics and professionalism without prescribing content. A structured seminar series in medical ethics and professionalism relating to dermatology practice was started at Brown Medical School's dermatology residency in 2001. Methods of instruction include discussion groups, review of medical and lay literature, book review, didactic teaching, case presentation, and informal e-mail exchange. Some of the topics that have been covered include basic medical ethics, research ethics, physician-industry relationships, truth telling, privacy and confidentiality, duty to treat, and ethical and legal issues in cosmetic dermatology, dermatologic surgery, dermatologic genetics, occupational dermatology, and pediatric dermatology. The main goals of the curriculum are to fulfill the core competency requirement in professionalism of the specialty certifying boards, introduce trainees to the cross-disciplinary literature of biomedical ethics and current ethical controversies, and encourage dialogue on ethics and professionalism among faculty, colleagues in other specialties, and dermatology trainees.

  3. The Primary Care-Population Medicine Program at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    PubMed

    George, Paul; Tunkel, Allan R; Dollase, Richard; Gruppuso, Philip; Dumenco, Luba; Rapoza, Brenda; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The United States healthcare system has been in a period of rapid evolution over the past decade, a trend that is anticipated to continue for the foreseeable future. Physicians are increasingly responsible for the quality of care they provide, and are being held accountable not just for the patient in front of them, but also for the outcomes of their patient panels, communities, and populations. In response to these changes, as well as the projected shortage of primary care physicians, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) developed the Primary Care-Population Medicine (PC-PM) program, which builds upon the traditional curriculum with major integrated curricular innovations. The first is a Master of Science Degree in Population Medicine that requires students to take nine additional courses over four years, complete a thesis project focused on an area of Population Medicine, and take part in significant leadership training. Another significant innovative element is the development of a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship (LIC) during the 3rd year of medical school in which the students complete a longitudinal outpatient experience with the same preceptors and patients. During the LIC students will follow a panel of patients wherever care is provided, while focusing on population health and healthcare delivery issues, in addition to medical topics throughout their clinical and didactic experiences. Though several of the innovative elements are being piloted, the inaugural PC-PM class of up to 24 students will only begin in August 2015. While the outcomes from this program will not be known for many years, the potential impact of the program is significant for AMS, medical education, and the future of healthcare delivery. PMID:26324970

  4. Health disparity curriculum at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

    PubMed

    Erlich, Matthew; Blake, Rachel; Dumenco, Luba; White, Jordan; Dollase, Richard H; George, Paul

    2014-09-02

    There is increasing recognition that, in addition to acquiring knowledge of basic sciences and clinical skills, medical students must also gain an understanding of health disparities, and develop a defined skill set to address these inequalities. There are few descriptions in the literature of a systematic, longitudinal curriculum in health disparities. Using Kern's six-step approach to curriculum development along with principles of experiential and active learning, student champions and the Office of Medical Education developed a multimodal health disparities curriculum. This curriculum includes required experiences for medical students in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year, along with elective experiences throughout medical school. Students are examined on their knowledge, skills and attitudes towards health disparities prior to graduation. It is our hope this curriculum empowers students with the knowledge, skills and attitudes to care for patients while helping patients navigate the socioeconomic and cultural issues that may affect their health.

  5. Advancing the Integration of Population Medicine into Medical Curricula at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University: A New Master's Degree Program.

    PubMed

    Mello, Michael J; Feller, Edward; George, Paul; Borkan, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Additional knowledge, attitudes and skills are required for the next generation of medical students as they expand the traditional focus on individual patients to include population-based health and scholarly investigation. The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University (AMS) is initiating a master's degree program as a key component of the new Primary Care-Population Medicine program at AMS leading to both a Doctorate in Medicine (MD) and Master of Science in Population Medicine (ScM) degrees in four years. The ScM is composed of a series of nine courses, integrated into the four-year MD curriculum, as well as a thesis. Additional attention will be given to leadership and quality improvement training. The goal is to produce graduates competent in the care of individual patients, panels, communities, and populations. PMID:26324971

  6. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  7. Medics in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify medicine. It…

  8. Medical School Hotline

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Winona K

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of an ongoing series describing various components of the John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) medical education curricula, activities, and initiatives relevant to the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) accreditation standards.1 JABSOM's LCME visit will take place in early 2017. This article provides an overview of JABSOM's diversity/pipeline programs and partnerships. PMID:27437165

  9. After "Brown": The Rise and Retreat of School Desegregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    2006-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court's 1954 landmark decision, "Brown v. Board of Education," set into motion a process of desegregation that would eventually transform American public schools. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of how "Brown's" most visible effect--contact between students of different racial groups--has…

  10. Children Facing School: Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, William

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the comic strip "Peanuts" characters Sally Brown and Peppermint Patty as they illustrate children's difficulties in school and their emotional responses to school. Explores how Sally illustrates the conflict between the creative impulses of childhood with school demands, while Patty illustrates the extent to which many children can be…

  11. Women in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Glynis; Kidder, Louise H.

    Research on the characteristics of women in non-traditional fields, e.g., medicine, has yielded complex information in terms of adherence to sex-role stereotypes. To determine whether students' attitudes toward helping and achieving followed sex-role typing and were different at various stages in medical school, 384 male and female oncology…

  12. Teaching in Spanish Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombi, Josep Antoni

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the current situation of medical teaching, available healthcare facilities, and teaching staff employed at Spanish medical schools. Response rate was 100% from 27 schools surveyed. (Author/NB)

  13. "Brown" at 62: School Segregation by Race, Poverty and State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Ee, Jongyeon; Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    As the anniversary of "Brown v. Board of Education" decision arrives again without any major initiatives to mitigate spreading and deepening segregation in the nation's schools, the Civil Rights Project adds to a growing national discussion with a research brief drawn from a much broader study of school segregation to be published in…

  14. Medical School Hotline

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the “Galapagos Islands” for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States. PMID:25821652

  15. [Medical schools: students today].

    PubMed

    Kunakov, Natasha

    2011-04-01

    Physicians that are faculty members in medical schools receive new students every year, and they are expected to prepare those students to become professionals. They usually appeal to their experience to meet that challenge. However, newer generations of students are different, and experience, with no formal training for teaching them, can be insufficient. New characteristics of students can be related to their early contact in life with information technology. Their brain has been somehow modified by stimuli offered by this technology, and the way they learn has also been modified. This paper is a reflection about how students have changed and it analyzes how their learning experience needs to be modified accordingly. Teaching based only on experience might be insufficient to fulfill the expectations of young students that have chosen the medical profession for their future.

  16. Good Guys Finish Last: "Tom Brown's School Days" and "Flashman."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riga, Frank P.

    Instructors and students of literature should look to George McDonald Fraser's "Flashman: From the Flashman Papers, 1839-1842" for a clever critique of 19th-century notions of character, virtue, and moral teleology. Written to criticize Thomas Hughes's famous 19th-century novel, "Tom Brown's School Days," Fraser's 20th-century novel turns on end…

  17. School Desegregation Since Brown (1954): 30-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    Views concerning the influence of the 1954 Supreme Court decision in "Brown versus the Board of Education" which ended school segregation are discussed. Historian Raymond Wolters believes that while segregation was wrong and the Supreme Court's unanimous decision reversing the "separate but equal" interpretation was right, the Court erred in…

  18. The New Jersey Medical School.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    The New Jersey Medical School (NJMS) was the first medical school in the state of New Jersey. Its creation required the vision and support of many, including a group of leaders at the Jersey City Medical Center, century old Seton Hall University and the Archdiocese of Newark. Chartered in 1954 as Seton Hall College of Medicine, it opened its doors in Jersey City in 1956. It was renamed as the New Jersey College of Medicine (1965-1970), and since 1970 as New Jersey Medical School.

  19. Schooling Poor Minority Children: New Segregation in the Post-"Brown" Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bireda, Martha R.

    2011-01-01

    "Schooling Poor Minority Children: New Segregation in the Post-Brown Era" explores the "redesign of school segregation" and explains why resegregation of schools in the post-"Brown" era is so destructive for poor minority students. The book provides an answer to why schools that serve predominately poor minority students remain "low performing" or…

  20. [New medical schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castillo, P

    1994-03-01

    In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection.

  1. [New medical schools in Chile].

    PubMed

    Castillo, P

    1994-03-01

    In Chile there are six established medical schools at public (Chile, Valparaiso and Temuco) or private (Catholic, Concepción and Austral) universities created between 1833 and 1971. Since 1990, three new medical schools (two private) were created and a fourth is projected, concerning the chilean medical corps. We present three position articles on the subject written by Dean Pedro Rosso, from the Catholic University, Dr Pedro Castillo, Chief of Human Resources of the Ministry of Health and Dean Alejandro Goic from the University of Chile. Dean Rosso emphasizes the need to have assessment procedures that guarantee quality standards in the new medical schools. Dr Castillo attracts attention on preserving the compromise with the society, inherent to chilean medicine. Dean Goic analyzes systematically the reasons to prevent the proliferation of medical schools in the country, maintaining an equilibrium between freedom of teaching and public faith protection. PMID:7809525

  2. Medical Student Health Promotion: The Increasing Role of Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estabrook, Kristi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author proposes courses of action for medical schools to increase positive health promotion among medical students. Method: This article will review the current literature on medical student health care. Strategies of action for medical schools are proposed for increasing student wellness. Results: Medical schools can positively…

  3. Integrating Geriatrics into Medical School: Student Journaling as an Innovative Strategy for Evaluating Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Renee R.; Farrell, Timothy W.; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: The Alpert Medical School of Brown University began to integrate geriatrics content into all preclerkship courses and key clerkship cases as part of a major medical school curriculum redesign in 2006. This study evaluates students' responses to geriatrics integration within the curriculum using journals kept by volunteer…

  4. The VA-Medical School Partnership: The Medical School Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersdorf, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Issues in the relationship between the Veterans' Administration (VA) and medical schools are discussed, including VA faculty recruitment and retention, ambulatory care in VA teaching hospitals, governance and growth of research within VA medical centers, and effects of cost containment and competition on teaching and training in VA hospitals. (MSE)

  5. The Medical School Tuition Crunch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John

    1978-01-01

    New federal policies on student aid favor guaranteed loans rather than direct government aid. Private medical schools may find themselves at a growing competitive disadvantage, and better financial-aid staffing will be needed by all schools. Trustees and administrators should encourage banks to participate in loan programs. (Author/LBH)

  6. "Brown v Board of Education" at 50: An Update on School Desegregation in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    "Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" (1954) ("Brown I"), is the United States Supreme Court's most significant ruling on education, if not of all time. In "Brown I", the Court unanimously held that "de jure" racial segregation in public schools violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by depriving African American…

  7. An overview of the medical informatics curriculum in medical schools.

    PubMed Central

    Espino, J. U.; Levine, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    As medical schools incorporate medical informatics into their curriculum the problems of implementation arise. Because there are no standards regarding a medical informatics curriculum, medical schools are implementing the subjects in various ways. A survey was undertaken to amass an overview of the medical informatics curriculum nationally. Of the responding schools, most have aspects of medical informatics incorporated into current courses and utilize existing faculty. Literature searching, clinical decision-making, and Internet are the basic topics in the current curricula. The trend is for medical informatics to be incorporated throughout all four years of medical school. Barriers are the difficulties in faculty training, and slow implementation. PMID:9929263

  8. Barrio School: White School in a Brown Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, Zaher

    As an agent of the sociocultural system, the school is a formal means of cultural transmission, conveying values, skills, attitudes, cognitive skills, and behavior patterns necessary for membership in society and survival of the sociocultural system. For Mexican Americans and other immigrants, the school also has the responsibility of…

  9. "Brown" and School Choice: The Ultimate Dilemma of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elizabeth K.; Sutton, Lenford; Smith, Marian W.

    2005-01-01

    Today, school reform efforts that called for the expansion of school choice options for American families and their children are based upon the theory that the ability to select among educational alternatives was connected to rights and privileges guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution. As a part of a national movement toward increased school…

  10. National Medical School Matching Program: optimizing outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam EM; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    The medical school admissions process is inefficient and costly to both applicants and medical schools. For the many rejected applicants, this process represents a costly, unproductive use of time. For medical schools, numerous applications are reviewed that ultimately do not yield matriculants, representing a substantial inefficiency. In order to streamline the process and reduce costs, we propose the development of a national medical school matching program. PMID:27445512

  11. New Medical Schools at Home and Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, John Z., Ed.; Purcell, Elizabeth F., Ed.

    The emphasis, scope area, and development of new medical schools at home and abroad are examined in these papers presented at the Macy Foundation Conference in October 1977. Representatives from new medical schools were present from the United States, Britain, Canada, and Hong Kong. Medical schools and agencies presenting papers include: Eastern…

  12. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  13. Physics Instruction in European Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letic, M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the curricula of medical schools in Europe in order to establish a formal representation of physics in the study of medicine. Information on the curricular representation of physics was gathered from the Internet presentations of medical schools. It was intended to explore at least 25% of medical schools in…

  14. Medication Administration Practices in Pennsylvania Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficca, Michelle; Welk, Dorette

    2006-01-01

    As a result of various health concerns, children are receiving an increased number of medications while at school. In Pennsylvania, the School Code mandates a ratio of 1 certified school nurse to 1,500 students, which may mean that 1 school nurse is covering 3-5 buildings. This implies that unlicensed personnel are administering medications, a…

  15. Texas Medical Schools Beef Up Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge. PMID:26536515

  16. Texas Medical Schools Beef Up Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge.

  17. Guidelines for Medication Administration in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    These guidelines present standards for administering medication in Maryland schools, both prescribed and over-the-counter medications. In general, medication during school hours is discouraged unless necessary. The guidelines recommend that, whenever possible, children administer their own medication under appropriate supervision. Specifically,…

  18. Medical school type and physician income.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Tanner A

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to determine whether the type of medical school attended--private US, public US, or foreign medical school--is associated with practice characteristics or incomes of physicians. Therefore, we used survey responses obtained during the 1990s from 10,436 actively practicing white male physicians who worked in one of 13 medical specialties and who graduated from a public US (5,702), private US (3,797), or international (937) medical school. We used linear regression modeling to determine the association between type of medical school attended and physicians' annual incomes after controlling for specialty, work hours, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. We found that, for most specialties, international medical school graduates worked longer hours, were less likely to be board certified, had practiced medicine for fewer years, and were less likely to work in rural settings than US medical school graduates. After controlling for key variables, international medical school graduates' annual incomes were 2.6 percent higher (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.4%, p = .043) and public US medical school graduates' were 2.2 percent higher (95% CI: -0.9% -6.1%, p = 0.2) than private US medical school graduates' incomes. Because of their lower tuition expenses, international and public US medical school graduates may experience higher returns on educational investment than their counterparts who graduated from private US medical schools. PMID:18468377

  19. School Desegregation under Brown: The Role of Court Master Guidelines and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, Eugene E.

    2004-01-01

    The 50th anniversary celebration of "Brown", issues of transportation facilities in many districts like Kansas City, extra-curricular activities and teacher assignment all the major successes of "Brown" are discussed. It is believed that the culture of schooling, that inhibits real life changes for minority youth, remains in place.

  20. Centralization vs. Decentralization in Medical School Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Helen

    1966-01-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  1. Medication Administration Practices of School Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Reed, David

    2000-01-01

    Assessed medication administration practices among school nurses, surveying members of the National Association of School Nurses. Respondents were extremely concerned about medication administration. Errors in administering medications were reported by 48.5 percent of respondents, with missed doses the most common error. Most nurses followed…

  2. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  3. Integrating and Evaluating Geriatrics in Medical School: A Novel Approach for the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besdine, Richard W.; Shield, Renee R.; McNicoll, Lynn; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie

    2011-01-01

    Brown Medical School developed a comprehensive curriculum in which enriched aging content increased from 22 to 80 hours in preclerkship courses and was also added for clerkships, residencies, and nongeriatrician physicians. Innovative evaluation strategies are also described. Highlights include "treasure hunts" in the anatomy laboratory, a…

  4. A Medical School Changes Its Curriculum to Increase the Emphasis on Care and Compassion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1996-01-01

    The Brown University (Rhode Island) medical school curriculum content remains the same, but students must now demonstrate proficiency in relationships with patients, both real and simulated. In addition to traditional skill areas, students must demonstrate competency in effective communication, moral reasoning and ethical judgment, lifelong…

  5. Dr. David Brown poses with students at Ronald McNair Middle School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. David Brown (right), a NASA astronaut, poses with students in the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla. From left, the students are Kristin Rexford, Danitra Anderson, Dominique Smith, Fallon Davis, and Qiana Taylor. Brown was at the school to attend a tribute to NASA astronaut Ronald McNair. The school had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut who was one of a crew of seven, who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  6. The medical school Web site: medical education's newest tool.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, D; Beyar, R

    2000-10-01

    There are few technological advancements that have had as much impact on the dissemination of information as the Internet, and especially the worldwide web. It is not surprising then that this tool is also changing the way medicine is studied, taught and practiced today. This impressive infrastructure enables us to teach and study medicine in an entirely different way. The web provides medical students and physicians with access to continuing medical education, patient education services, telemedicine, and unparalleled communication between colleagues via email. The medical school web site may be used as a dynamic newspaper or bulletin board to disseminate information internally among the faculty as well as to the outside world. It can also be the vehicle for virtual learning modules that enhance the medical school core curriculum by including lectures, exercises, tests, etc. In addition, the web allows the student access to medical literature, medical software applications and medical resource depots. To date no work has been published on the medical school web site, its construction process, and its advantages, drawbacks and future. The purpose of this article is to examine the evolution of the web as a tool for medical schools, medical students and associated physicians. We discuss the building of a web site for a medical faculty, and look to the future.

  7. Funding Formulas for California Schools III: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…

  8. Medical school tuition and young physicians' indebtedness.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Medical school tuition and medical student debt have increased dramatically during the past two decades, but loans are available on favorable terms, which makes it possible for students without personal or family means to get a medical education. As an investment, medical education is an excellent choice; its net present value is more than a million dollars. Cost is nevertheless a strong deterrent to potential applicants, especially minority applicants. If tuition and indebtedness continue to increase while physician incomes do not, there may come a time when only the wealthy can finance a medical education, and medical schools may have increasing difficulty recruiting qualified students. PMID:15757940

  9. Medical school tuition and young physicians' indebtedness.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Medical school tuition and medical student debt have increased dramatically during the past two decades, but loans are available on favorable terms, which makes it possible for students without personal or family means to get a medical education. As an investment, medical education is an excellent choice; its net present value is more than a million dollars. Cost is nevertheless a strong deterrent to potential applicants, especially minority applicants. If tuition and indebtedness continue to increase while physician incomes do not, there may come a time when only the wealthy can finance a medical education, and medical schools may have increasing difficulty recruiting qualified students.

  10. Medical School Salary Study, 1971-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges presents the results of their Annual Salary Questionnaire for medical school faculties for the fiscal year 1971-72. Ninety-five schools submitted returns and salaries of 4,930 basic scientists and 11,941 clinical scientists are reported in the survey. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty…

  11. Medical School Salary Study, 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges conducted a survey by means of a questionnaire in 1970-71 to determine the salaries of medical school faculties. Ninety-three schools submitted returns; salaries for 4,366 basic scientists and 12,701 clinical scientists are reported. The areas covered include strict full-time faculty by department, and…

  12. Medical School Salary Study, 1972-73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The Association of American Medical Colleges presents the results of their Annual Salary Questionnaire for medical school faculties for the fiscal year 1972-73. One hundred five schools submitted returns and salaries of 4,925 basic scientists and 11,567 clinical scientists are reported in the survey. The areas covered include strict full-time…

  13. Unbiased consideration of applicants to medical schools.

    PubMed

    Schweiker, R S

    1977-05-01

    Medical schools are discriminating against prospective students who do not support abortion on demand. Abortion is an important issue concerning the question of when life begins, the power of the goverment to protect the unborn, and a woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy. Congress enacted legislation that guaranteed freedom of conscience of medical practitioners. Dr. Eugene Diamond reported that on a survey of medical schools he found that a large number asked students their views on abortion and sterilization. Some reported that opposition to abortion would be a detriment to admission. Medical schools are discriminating on the basis of a person's opinion founded on religious or moral grounds. Medical schools may "by the actions they take today, eliminate...dissent" of many doctors who do not approve of the current state of the law on abortion. Senator Schweiker has introduced S 784 "to prevent any school or other institution that receives federal funds from inquiring into the abortion views of prospective students."

  14. Sixty Years after "Brown v. Board of Education": Legal and Policy Fictions in School Desegregation, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Brenda L. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    The "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) Supreme Court decision ruled that segregated schools were unequal and unconstitutional. Since Brown's ruling, scholars have questioned whether African American children have benefitted from school desegregation and subsequent school reform initiatives. In spite of several post-Brown school reform…

  15. School Nurses' Experiences with Medication Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael W.; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Mordhorst, Matthew J.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports school nurses' experiences with medication administration through qualitative analyses of a written survey and focus groups. From a random sample of 1,000 members of the National Association of School Nurses, 649 (64.9%) school nurses completed the survey. The quantitative data from the survey were presented previously.…

  16. Emotional intelligence predicts success in medical school.

    PubMed

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems.

  17. Emotional intelligence predicts success in medical school.

    PubMed

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems. PMID:24219393

  18. Cubism and the Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wear, Delese

    1991-01-01

    Presents cubism as metaphor to think about medical humanities curriculum in medical school curriculum. Uses Kafka's "The Metamorphosis," Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilych," and Olsen's "Tell Me a Riddle" to illustrate how literary inquiry might enable medical students and other health care providers to think about lives of dying patients from…

  19. Self-Medication among School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Tawalbeh, Loai; Tubaishat, Ahmad; AlAzzam, Manar

    2015-01-01

    Self-medication, usually with over-the-counter (OTC) medication, is reported as a community health problem that affects many people worldwide. Most self-medication practice usually begins with the onset of adolescence. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, using a simple random sampling method to select…

  20. Medical School Policies Regarding Medical Students and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch, Bonnie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A telephone survey of 42 medical schools in areas of high, medium, and low incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) investigated school policies concerning prevention and reporting of HIV infection, confidentiality, screening, limiting clinical activities, counseling, vaccination, prophylactic drug administration, and disability and health…

  1. Racism in the Schools. Desegregation--From Brown to Bakke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrikson, Leslie

    Following the desegregationists' victory in "Brown v. Board of Education" in 1954, there came a succession of gains for desegregation, until a new phenomenon developed in "Bakke v. Regents of University of California" in 1973. Since Bakke's grades and test scores were higher than those of some minority applicants admitted to the University's…

  2. Dismantling Segregation Together: Interconnections between the "Mendez v. Westminster" (1946) and "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) School Segregation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Lisa Y.

    2004-01-01

    May 17, 2004 marked the 50th anniversary of the most significant school segregation case: "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954). While the Brown decision eliminated the legal theory of "separate but equal," the success of the "Mendez et al. v. Westminster School District et al". (1946) case helped boost public sentiment against segregation, setting…

  3. School Board and Superintendent Accountability: A Policy Analysis regarding the Implementation of the Ralph M. Brown Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Craig Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The Ralph M. Brown Act's enforcement language implies striking a proper balance between school public officials and the public at large. This study of The Brown Act's enforcement provisions is presented in the context of school districts. The investigation focused on the following overarching question: Does a policy analysis support a finding that…

  4. Library links on medical school home pages.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sheila L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the websites of American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-member medical schools for the presence of library links. Sixty-one percent (n = 92) of home pages of the 150 member schools of the AAMC contain library links. For the 58 home pages not offering such links, 50 provided a pathway of two or three clicks to a library link. The absence of library links on 39% of AAMC medical school home pages indicates that the designers of those pages did not consider the library to be a primary destination for their visitors.

  5. Dermatology Interest Groups in Medical Schools.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shannon K; Riemer, Christie; Beers, Paula J; Browning, Richard J; Correa, Mark; Fawaz, Bilal; Lehrer, Michael; Mounessa, Jessica; Lofgreen, Seth; Oetken, Tara; Saley, Taylor P; Tinkey, Katherine; Tracey, Elisabeth H; Dellavalle, Robert; Dunnick, Cory

    2016-01-01

    Involvement in a Dermatology Interest Group (DIG) allows students to learn about dermatology, partake in service projects, get involved in research, and ask questions about the application process for residency programs. In this article, we review the activities and member involvement of DIGs from 11 medical schools. To our knowledge, this is the first descriptive analysis of DIGs across the United States. This comparison of DIGs is not only potentially helpful for medical schools interested in establishing a DIG, but it also offers insight into how previously established DIGs could improve and have a greater impact both in individual medical schools and in the community at-large. PMID:27617719

  6. Tracking a medically important spider: climate change, ecological niche modeling, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa).

    PubMed

    Saupe, Erin E; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A; Vetter, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  7. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  8. Cheating in medical school: the unacknowledged ailment.

    PubMed

    Kusnoor, Anita V; Falik, Ruth

    2013-08-01

    The reported prevalence of cheating among US medical students ranges from 0% to 58%. Cheating behaviors include copying from others, using unauthorized notes, sharing information about observed structured clinical encounters, and dishonesty about performing physical examinations on patients. Correlates of cheating in medical school include prior cheating behavior, burnout, and inadequate understanding about what constitutes cheating. Institutional responses include expulsion, reprimands, counseling, and peer review. Preventing cheating requires establishing standards for acceptable behavior, focusing on learning rather than assessment, involving medical students in peer review, and creating a culture of academic integrity. Cheating in medical school may have serious long-term consequences for future physicians. Institutions should develop environments that promote integrity.

  9. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course.

  10. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. PMID:27333063

  11. Psychotropic Medications: An Update for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…

  12. Changes in Medications Administered in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Johnson, Shella; Roman, Jaclyn; Zimmerman, M. Bridget

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to determine if there have been changes in the type and number of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) medications administered in schools since the introduction of long-acting stimulants. A survey was sent to 1,000 school nurses randomly selected from the National Association…

  13. How do we Define a Medical School?

    PubMed Central

    Karle, Hans

    2010-01-01

    A century after the Flexner Report on medical education in North America, which revolutionised the training of medical doctors all over the world, it is time to revisit this famous document and analyse symptoms and signs of a return to pre-Flexnerian conditions. With the ongoing mushroom growth over the last decades of small, proprietary educational institutions of low quality and driven by for-profit purposes, medical education is in a threatened position. This trend is of general international interest because of the increasing migration of medical doctors. There is a need for discussion of what should be the rational criteria and basic requirements for establishing new medical schools. PMID:21509225

  14. Teaching law in medical schools: first, reflect.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"?

  15. Medical school entrance and career plans of Malaysian medical students.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M

    1996-11-01

    This study investigates the reasons for entry to medicine and the career perspectives of phase III medical students of the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The majority of the students were Malays from low socio-economic backgrounds who entered medical school after completing a 2-year matriculation course. An interest in medicine and helping people were the two main stated reasons for entry to medical school. A group of students wishing to work in private practice was identified. In comparison to the rest of the study body, students in the group were: not well prepared to enter medical school; dissatisfied with the course; and subject to family influences. A desire for monetary gain motivated their choice of medicine as a career. Overall, 13% of the students wished to change career because they were dissatisfied with their experience of medicine as undergraduates. The study did not find a significant difference in career intentions between female and male medical students. However, women were less likely to seek entrance into private practice or pursue formal postgraduate education. The choice of surgery as a career was confined to men. About 90% of the students had already decided on their future specialty. Four well-established specialties were their most popular choices. The gender of the students had no significant influences of the decision to continue into postgraduate education. The proportion of female students who wished to marry doctors was significantly higher than for male students.

  16. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females) who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%), nonmedical community services (39.8%), club activities (22.9%), club officials (10%), and research (13.4%). On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds. PMID:26996435

  17. Challenges in teaching ethics in medical schools.

    PubMed

    Perkins, H S; Geppert, C M; Hazuda, H P

    2000-05-01

    Modern medical ethics has effected dramatic changes in medicine. Yet teaching medical ethics still presents many challenges. The main teaching methods used--inpatient ethics consultations, courses, and case conferences--have notable weaknesses. In addition, the attitudes and knowledge gaps of some learners may hamper these methods further. To encourage open discussion of the challenges, we outline our current approach to teaching medical ethics. We teach with the conviction that ethics instruction gives physicians vital knowledge not available from science. Our teaching addresses ethical issues directly relevant to residents and students, emphasizes a few important concepts, and nurtures learners' critical reasoning skills. Our teaching also tries to use scarce faculty time efficiently. However, we believe successful medical ethics teaching requires medical schools to commit significant material and moral support. We hope the discussion here encourages medical ethics teachers everywhere to describe the challenges they face and to collaborate on finding solutions.

  18. Affirmative action policy in medical school admissions.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Ricardo A

    2005-02-01

    Legal challenges to affirmative action are growing, a trend suggesting that a proactive stance is needed to maintain a policy that still has viability, legitimacy, and utility. Medical schools admissions offices in the United States emphasize the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), even though many studies have found that grade point averages are better single predictors of future academic achievement, regardless of the student's socioeconomic or racial category. The current essay suggests there is an overreliance on the MCAT in medical school admissions. Medical colleges should encourage the development of additional applicant selection criteria, while continuing to use affirmative action programs, in part to address the need for increased community-oriented health care. PMID:15741705

  19. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs.

  20. Black and Brown: Race, Ethnicity, and School Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Here, author William A. Sampson examines the role of the family in the school preparation process among poor Blacks and Latinos. It is based upon the data collected during intense long-term observations of 21 disadvantaged minority students and families in their homes within the same community. The data suggests that the differences in…

  1. Research, Ideology, and the Brown Decision: Counter-Narratives to the Historical and Contemporary Representation of Black Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Most narratives of Brown v. Board of Education primarily focus on integrated schooling as the ultimate objective in Black people's quest for quality schooling. Rather than uniformly assuming integration as Black people's ideological model, the push by Black people for quality schooling instead should be viewed within the…

  2. Medication Administration in the School Setting. Position Statement. Amended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharski, Susan; Kain, Carole A.; Fleming, Robin; Pontius, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that school districts develop written medication administration policies and procedures that focus on safe and efficient medication administration at school by a registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse). Policies should include prescription…

  3. Medical School Programs Resources and Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Joseph

    The current efforts of the Association of American Medical Colleges to test the feasibility of broadening the application, utility, and scope of the cost-finding studies conducted by many academic health centers and individual schools of the health professions are examined. The current effort is an outgrowth of the existing foundations of cost…

  4. Preparing Aboriginal Students for Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Krause, R.G.; Stephens, M.C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the Special Premedical Studies Program at the University of Manitoba and results of interviews with its graduates. This program prepares aboriginal students for admission to medical school. Six physicians and several other health professionals have graduated from the program. Respondents noted similarities in the needs of rural students and those of aboriginal students. PMID:21221337

  5. Evolutionary Biology in the Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neese, Randolph M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which a questionnaire was given to deans at North American medical schools to determine which aspects of evolutionary biology are included in the curricula and the factors that influence this. Suggests that most future physicians should learn evolutionary biology as undergraduates if they are to learn it at all. (Author/NB)

  6. Unique medical education programs at Nippon Medical School.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Toshiro; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Saito, Takuya; Aso, Ryoko

    2008-08-01

    In an attempt to improve the content of the educational programs offered by Nippon Medical School and to better prepare our students to work in the rapidly changing world of medicine, the school has recently revamped its teaching methodology. Particular emphasis has been placed on 1) simulator-based education involving the evaluation of students and residents in a new clinical simulation laboratory; 2) improving communication skills with the extensive help of simulated patients; 3) improving medical English education; 4) providing early clinical exposure with a one-week clinical nursing program for the first year students to increase student motivation at an early stage in their studies; 5) a new program called Novel Medical Science, which aims to introduce first-year students to the schools fundamental educational philosophy and thereby increase their motivation to become ideal physicians. The programs have been designed in line with 2006 guidelines issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology to allow flexibility for students to take part in education outside their own departments and year groups as part of the Ministry's program to encourage distinctive education at Japanese universities.

  7. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools.

    PubMed

    Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N

    2003-11-01

    Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.

  8. Faculty tenure in American medical schools.

    PubMed

    Spellman, M W; Meiklejohn, G

    1977-08-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of academic tenure for clinical faculties, including an appraisal of its financial burdens, the utility of modified or alternative systems, and the issue of abolition of tenure, were examined through a questionnaire to which deans and faculty representatives of 106 American medical schools responded during 1975-76. Tenure is valued by most deans and faculty members. A flexible tenure policy permitting appointment of some faculty members to senior academic posts without tenure was endorsed by the deans of 10 selected medical schools who were interviewed. Growth of medical faculties is decelerating; a steady state has not been attained but is imminent. Financial pressures and demands for change will increasingly challenge the tenure system. PMID:886568

  9. Headaches in medical school students.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, J M; Matos, E; Calheiros, J M

    1994-01-01

    Medical students of the Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas 'Abel Salazar' at the University of Oporto were interviewed using a structured headache questionnaire in order to assess the prevalence and characteristics of headaches in a young adult university population. This was the first population-based study of headaches in Portugal. 491 students were questioned. The parameters evaluated included age, sex, headache characteristics (frequency, localization, severity, duration), premonitory and associated symptoms and family history. Headaches were classified using the Ad Hoc Committee (1962) and the International Headache Society (1988) criteria. There was a high prevalence of overall headaches in this young population. The results of the application of these two types of criteria to the same population showed for the most prevalent forms, migraine and tension-type headaches, a prevalence that depends on the classification adopted and the number of criteria items considered. If all (9 items) were used, the statistics obtained for migraine were 6.9% (Ad Hoc) and 6.1% (IHS), an insignificant difference, and for tension-type headache 14.3% (Ad Hoc) and 16.0% (IHS), which corresponds to a significant difference (p = 0.0129, McNemar test). It is concluded that IHS classification criteria identify less cases of migraine and more cases of tension-type headaches, which means a higher specificity for migraine and a higher sensitivity for tension-type headache.

  10. Assessment and accreditation of Mexican medical schools.

    PubMed

    Cordova, J A; Aguirre, E; Hernández, A; Hidalgo, V; Domínguez, F; Durante, I; Jesús, R; Castillo, O

    1996-09-01

    With the objective of evaluating and accrediting the quality of medical education in the country, the Mexican Association of Medical Schools initiated the National Programme for the Strengthening of the Quality of Medical Education (PNFCE). This programme led to the establishment of the National System of Accreditation. Medical school deans in Mexico determined the criteria for the evaluation of quality and its subsequent standards through a consensus process. The following 10 criteria resulted: general basis and educational objectives; government and institutional orientation; educational programme and academic structure; educational process assessment; students; teaching staff; institutional coherence; resources; clinical sites; and administration. Eighty-eight standards were developed in the instrument designed for the self-evaluation phase. The information resulting from the self-evaluation will be verified by a group of experts during a survey visit, which will be finalized with a report to serve as the basis for the decision to be made by the Accreditation Commission. The self-evaluation phase started in 1994. In 1996 four schools submitted their request for accreditation. As of July 1996, one survey visit has been completed and three more are programmed for the second half of the year.

  11. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh Beltline. This system won…

  12. Foreign Medical Schools Establish a Toehold in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1999-01-01

    Two foreign medical schools plan to open branch campuses in the United States. Opponents, including the American Medical Association and a physician group, argue that allowing unaccredited medical schools to operate here could jeopardize health care. The two institutions are distinctly different: a for-profit school in the West Indies, and a…

  13. Expanding the Biomedical Model: Case Studies of Five Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tresolini, Carol P.; And Others

    This study examined five representative medical schools for approaches to teaching integrated approaches to health care. Traditionally medical schools have taught from a biomedical, technological approach. The study used a qualitative, multiple case study design to explore which medical schools were attempting integrated health care education. On…

  14. A Survey of Medical School Programs on Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCally, Michael; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Several medical schools have sponsored courses on medical aspects of nuclear war, and faculties of medical schools conducting or considering such courses have many questions about the organization of their teaching. A survey of U.S. schools of medicine presentations of nuclear war-related subject matter is discussed. (MLW)

  15. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D’Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul

    2010-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LDs) represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE) institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context. PMID:23745060

  16. Mentoring program design and implementation in new medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S.; Menzin, Andrew W.; Woo, Vivian A.; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established. PMID:24962112

  17. Chat reference service in medical libraries: part 2--Trends in medical school libraries.

    PubMed

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.

  18. Implementing TQM in a medical school department.

    PubMed

    Fried, R A

    1993-01-01

    In a modest way, our medical school department has succeeded in applying continuous quality improvement and TQM methods to its ambulatory practice. We are close enough to our experience not to have forgotten what Rosabeth Moss Kanter calls the "messy, mistake-ridden, muddling stage." This article is a narrative of some of our stumbling attempts to change the way our practice works. The lessons we have learned are relevant to other ambulatory practices, both inside and outside the academic world.

  19. Funding Formulas for California Schools IV: An Analysis of Governor Brown's Weighted Pupil Funding Formula, May Budget Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    In his 2012-13 budget, Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. In May the governor revised his proposal. Using the Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) School Finance Model (available at www.ppic.org/main/dataSet.asp?i=1229), in this update the authors show how these proposals…

  20. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-02-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan.

  1. Analysis of factors that predict clinical performance in medical school.

    PubMed

    White, Casey B; Dey, Eric L; Fantone, Joseph C

    2009-10-01

    Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT predict performance in medical school consistently across students, and whether either predicts clinical performance in clerkships. A path model was developed to examine relationships among indices of medical student performance during the first three years of medical school for five cohorts of medical students. A structural equation approach was used to calculate the coefficients hypothesized in the model for majority and minority students. Significant differences between majority and minority students were observed. MCAT scores, for example, did not predict performance of minority students in the first year of medical school but did predict performance of majority students. This information may be of use to medical school admissions and resident selection committees. PMID:18030590

  2. Children's Medications: A Guide for Schools and Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard D.; Nahata, Milap C.

    Noting the lack of reference sources available on the use of medications in schools and day care centers, this book was created to help school and day care center personnel become more aware of the medicine being given to children at home and at school. Using detailed medication charts, the book answers questions about how to administer medicines…

  3. Commercial Sites Outbid Medical Schools for Instructors in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Reports that prominent medical professors are being solicited away from medical schools by large honoraria or high remuneration offered by commercial companies that provide continuing education services to physicians on the Internet. Suggests that medical schools consider potential partnerships with dot-com companies to develop continuing…

  4. Faculty Evaluation of Educational Strategies in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Mandira; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate faculty opinion of existing medical curricula in two medical schools in different countries in terms of six educational strategies using the "SPICES continuum." Significant differences between existing educational plans of the two medical schools were identified. (LZ)

  5. Observing the Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1954 United States Supreme Court School Desegregation Decision in Brown v the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles U.

    2005-01-01

    As Americans commemorate the 50th anniversary of the "Brown v the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" U.S. Supreme Court public school desegregation decision on (the Brown decision), the author was tempted to refer to it as a "celebration of the Golden Anniversary of the legal end to racial segregation in the public schools of the United…

  6. Predicting minority students' success in medical school.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, W E; Prieto, D O

    1990-03-01

    Despite recent attention to minority student recruitment and retention, data on predicting the success of minority medical students are scarce. Traditional predictors (college grades and scores on the Medical College Admission Test) have modest correlations with medical school grades and scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners examination for minority students. Nonetheless, admission committees also consider nontraditional variables when selecting minority students. Measures of nontraditional variables seem to assess types of intelligence not covered by traditional means. A system of organizing nontraditional or noncognitive variables into eight dimensions is proposed. The dimensions are self-concept, realistic, self-appraisal, understanding and dealing with racism, long-range goals, having a strong support person, showing leadership, having community involvement, and nontraditional knowledge acquired. Further, assessment should place more emphasis on recognizing and defining problems and on performance rather than knowledge. Combining traditional and nontraditional methods is best in selecting minority students, and sufficiently well developed measures exist in each area to make this a practical recommendation for any admission program.

  7. Principles of Pedagogy in Teaching in a Diverse Medical School: The University of Capetown South Africa Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol

    This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…

  8. Worldwide survey of education on tobacco in medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, R.; Debono, D.; Larcos, D.; Kehoe, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the extent of teaching about tobacco, tobacco-related diseases, and smoking cessation techniques in medical schools around the world; and to ascertain the problems of getting the teaching about tobacco onto the medical curriculum.
DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were sent to the 1353 medical schools in 143 countries around the world using the World Health Organization's Directory of Medical Schools. The questionnaire was translated from English into French, Russian, Mandarin, and Japanese.
SUBJECTS—Deans of medical schools worldwide, or their nominees.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Extent and format of teaching about tobacco in the medical curriculum, objectives and content of the courses on tobacco, and problems encountered in introducing the topic of tobacco.
RESULTS—493 medical schools responded, representing 64% of countries and 36% of schools. Only 12% of medical schools did not cover the topic of tobacco in the medical curriculum. 58% of medical schools taught about tobacco during the teaching of other subjects. 40% taught tobacco by systematically integrating teaching with other modules. 11% had a specific module on tobacco. The medical schools reported on the objectives and content of their courses on tobacco, which commonly included knowledge about tobacco-related diseases and pharmacological issues. Only a third taught about smoking cessation techniques. 22% had encountered problems in introducing the topic of tobacco, and respondents offered solutions to overcome these problems.
CONCLUSIONS—Medical schools need continued encouragement to include tobacco issues in their curricula, with particular emphasis on teaching about smoking cessation techniques.


Keywords: smoking cessation; medical schools; tobacco education PMID:9825419

  9. Chronic Disease Medication Administration Rates in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Lawrence; Fredrickson, Doren D.; Burbach, Cindy; Molgaard, Craig A.; Ngong, Lolem

    2004-01-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest school nurses and staff treat increasing numbers of public school students with chronic diseases. However, professionals know little about actual disease burden in schools. This study measured prevalence of chronic disease medication administration rates in a large, urban midwestern school district. Data from daily…

  10. The Social Structure of Criminalized and Medicalized School Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, David M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author examines how school- and district-level racial/ethnic and socioeconomic compositions influence schools' use of different types of criminalized and medicalized school discipline. Using a large data set containing information on over 60,000 schools in over 6,000 districts, the authors uses multilevel modeling and a…

  11. Factors That Correlate with Cognitive Preferences of Medical School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Cohen, Sabina

    1980-01-01

    The Medical Cognitive Preference Inventory was used to determine the preferred cognitive styles of medical school professors and students. The most important results indicate a general similarity in the cognitive preferences of teachers and students. (CJ)

  12. Perceptions of racism by black medical students attending white medical schools.

    PubMed

    Bullock, S C; Houston, E

    1987-06-01

    Thirty-one black medical students attending five white medical schools were seen in individual interviews of one to two hours to evaluate their perceptions of racism in their medical school education. The interviews focused on racism experienced in high school, college, and medical school. Over one half of the population experienced racism during their high school and college education, while 30 of 31 subjects reported racist experiences in their medical school education. The students reported a variety of methods of coping with racist experiences and emphasized the importance of fellow minority students, faculty, and the minority office in coping with the stresses of racist experiences. Those offering counseling services to minority students should recognize the reality of racist experiences in medical education.

  13. Streamlining administration at the University of Minnesota Medical School.

    PubMed

    Mitsch, Peter; Jensen, Allison Campbell

    2007-03-01

    The authors describe the events and restructuring efforts of the 1990s that led the University of Minnesota Medical School leadership to advocate a new administrative model for its clinical departments. This new streamlined model established six administrative centers, each serving a cluster of two to four clinical departments. Each administrative center was charged with managing functions of finance, human resources, information technology, clinical service unit operations, research support, and education support for its departments. These centers, first proposed in 1993 when an outside firm analyzed the medical school's administration, were initially seen by most medical school department heads as too radical. Yet, after a campaign of one-on-one persuasion by medical school dean's office leadership, combined with a successful example of clustering that occurred spontaneously among three medical school departments, the administrative centers were launched in late 1998 to serve clustered clinical departments. The administrative centers were intended to improve departmental responsiveness to the dean of the medical school; improve internal medical school controls; improve on administrative services traditionally provided by outside units, such as grants management and information systems; and reduce administrative costs. Since their establishment, these administrative centers have evolved into a flexible, efficient system of administration. In a 2005 evaluation, ECG Management Consultants found the administrative center model appropriate and effective in managing the school's clinical departments. In addition, the consultants estimated that if the medical school still had stand-alone departmental administrative units, annual administrative costs would be $3 million higher.

  14. Current trends in medical ethics education in Japanese medical schools.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Mitsuyasu

    2012-09-01

    The Japanese medical education program has radically improved during the last 10 years. In 1999, the Task Force Committee on Innovation of Medical Education for the 21st Century proposed a tutorial education system, a core curriculum, and a medical student evaluation system for clinical clerkship. In 2001, the Model Core Curriculum of medical education was instituted, in which medical ethics became part of the core material. Since 2005, a nationwide medical student evaluation system has been applied for entrance to clinical clerkship. Within the Japan Society for Medical Education, the Working Group of Medical Ethics proposed a medical ethics education curriculum in 2001. In line with this, the Japanese Association for Philosophical and Ethical Research in Medicine has begun to address the standardization of the curriculum of medical ethics. A medical philosophy curriculum should also be included in considering illness, health, life, death, the body, and human welfare.

  15. [The educational change in medical schools].

    PubMed

    Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678

  16. Can medical schools teach high school students to be scientists?

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, James T; Martin, Tammy M; Farris, Kendra H; Rosenbaum, Richard B; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2007-07-01

    The preeminence of science in the United States is endangered for multiple reasons, including mediocre achievement in science education by secondary school students. A group of scientists at Oregon Health and Science University has established a class to teach the process of scientific inquiry to local high school students. Prominent aspects of the class include pairing of the student with a mentor; use of a journal club format; preparation of a referenced, hypothesis driven research proposal; and a "hands-on" laboratory experience. A survey of our graduates found that 73% were planning careers in health or science. In comparison to conventional science classes, including chemistry, biology, and algebra, our students were 7 times more likely to rank the scientific inquiry class as influencing career or life choices. Medical schools should make research opportunities widely available to teenagers because this experience dramatically affects one's attitude toward science and the likelihood that a student will pursue a career in science or medicine. A federal initiative could facilitate student opportunities to pursue research.

  17. Medication Lists and Brown Bag Reviews: Potential Positive and Negative Impacts on Patients Beliefs about Their Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Cornelia; Steinhaeuser, Jost; Freund, Tobias; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Goetz, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Medication lists and structured medication counselling (SMC) including “brown bag reviews” (BBR) are important instruments for medication safety. The aim of this study was to explore whether patients' use of a medication list is associated with their beliefs about their medicine and their memory of SMC. Methods. Baseline data of 344 patients enrolled into the “Polypharmacy in Multimorbid Patients study” were analysed. Linear regression models were calculated for the “specific necessity subscale” (SNS) and the “specific concerns subscale” (SCS) of the German “Beliefs About Medicine Questionnaire,” including self-developed variables assessing patients' use of a medication list, their memory of SMC, and sociodemographic data. Results. 62.8% (n = 216) remembered an appointment for SMC and 32.0% (n = 110) BBR. The SNS correlated positively with regular receipt of a medication list (β = 0.286, p < 0.01) and negatively with memory of a BBR (β = −0.268; p < 0.01). The SCS correlated positively with memory of a BBR (β = 0.160, p = 0.02) and negatively with the comprehensiveness of the mediation list (β = −0.224; p < 0.01). Conclusions. A comprehensive medication list may reduce patients' concerns and increase the perceived necessity of their medication. A potential negative impact of BBR on patients' beliefs about their medicine should be considered and quality standards for SMC developed. PMID:26539533

  18. Brown's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Eustis, H S; Parks, M M

    1989-01-01

    Brown's syndrome is a well-recognized clinical disorder of ocular motility manifesting most notably a restriction of active and passive elevation in adduction. The original name, "superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome," is no longer appropriate, since it has been shown that the tissue surrounding the anterior superior oblique tendon is blameless as a restrictive force. "True" and "simulated" as descriptive modifiers should also be discarded, as they relate to the disproven sheath concept. Brown's syndrome occurs as a congenital or acquired, constant or intermittent condition; the common link is restriction of free movement through the trochlea pulley mechanism. The various etiologic theories are reviewed and the spectrum of medical and surgical treatments are described and evaluated. Evidence suggests that subtypes of Brown's syndrome lie on a single continuum and that spontaneous resolution occurs in each group, probably more often than previously recognized. A simplified classification scheme is encouraged and possible future directions in Brown's syndrome research are introduced.

  19. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  20. Status of neurology medical school education

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  1. Popular but Troubled, Historically Black Medical School Plans Ambitious Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Two years ago, the only historically black medical school west of the Mississippi faced a grim prognosis after county officials pulled the plug on its relationship with a troubled hospital. Today the medical school that has reportedly trained about a third of Los Angeles County's black and Hispanic physicians is back on its feet and planning an…

  2. Acceptance of Nontraditional Scholarship at LCME Accredited Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candler, Christopher Scott

    2011-01-01

    The definition and nature of scholarship is undergoing a transformation across North American medical schools. Some medical schools have adopted broadened views of scholarship that recognize and reward nontraditional scholarly works. This study investigated whether nontraditional scholarly works such as MedEdPORTAL publications contribute to…

  3. Academic Deans' Views on Curriculum Content in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, David R.; Bellack, Janis P.; Musham, Catherine; O'Neil, Edward H.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of academic deans (n=100) in universities associated with medical and osteopathy schools found that administrators' attitudes about curriculum content are being influenced by changes in health care delivery and an increasingly generalist orientation. There appears to be support for medical school curricula fostering a broader, more…

  4. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education

  5. Longitudinal trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medication among middle and high school students

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J.; Cranford, James A.; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical use of prescription medications has been identified as a major public health problem among youth, although few longitudinal studies have examined non-medical use of prescription medications in the context of other drug use. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown gender and race differences in non-medical use of prescription medications. It was hypothesized that (1) non-medical use of prescription medications increases with age, and (2) these increases will be stronger in magnitude among female and Caucasian adolescents. Changes in non-medical use of prescription medications across 4 years were examined and compared with changes in other drug use (e.g., alcohol and marijuana). Middle and high school students enrolled in 5 schools in southeastern Michigan completed web-based surveys at 4 annual time points. The cumulative sample size was 5,217. The sample ranged from 12 to 18 years, 61% were Caucasian, 34% were African American, and 50% were female. Using a series of repeated measures latent class analyses, the trajectories of non-medical use of prescription medications were examined, demonstrating a 2-class solution: (1) the no/low non-medical use of prescription medications group had low probabilities of any non-medical use of prescription medications across all grades, and (2) the any non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a roughly linear increase in the probability of non-medical use of prescription medications over time. The probability of any non-medical use of prescription medications increased during the transition from middle school to high school. Results from this longitudinal study yielded several noteworthy findings: Participants who were classified in the any/high non-medical use of prescription medications group showed a discontinuous pattern of non-medical use of prescription medications over time, indicating that non-medical use of prescription medications is a relatively sporadic behavior that does not persist

  6. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh?

    PubMed

    McIlwraith, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Terror Medicine as Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Leonard A.; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D.; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training. PMID:25309891

  8. Terror medicine as part of the medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Cole, Leonard A; Wagner, Katherine; Scott, Sandra; Connell, Nancy D; Cooper, Arthur; Kennedy, Cheryl Ann; Natal, Brenda; Lamba, Sangeeta

    2014-01-01

    Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  9. Medical schools seeking new ways to cope with funding cutbacks.

    PubMed

    Thorne, S

    1997-06-01

    Cuts in government funding mean that Canada's medical schools have to seek new ways to raise funds. Susan Thorne examines some of the ways faculties of medicine are coping with change. In the brave new world of medical education, schools are combining classes for medical students and other health professionals, seeking business alliances, encouraging attendance by full-tuition students from other countries and diversifying revenue bases through new programs, such as McGill's new 5-year MD-MBA degree.

  10. Student Health Policies of U.S. Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diekema, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of student affairs deans at 108 medical schools found most schools required hepatitis vaccination, evidence of immunity, or waiver refusing vaccination. Nearly all required health insurance, and usually offered a plan, but fewer offered disability insurance. Schools often held students responsible for costs of vaccination, serologic…

  11. New Medical Schools Pair Students with Patients from the Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the schools of old, where students spent two years focused on science and theory before they set foot in a hospital, new medical schools are integrating clinical care into the first two years. Existing schools have taken steps in this direction. But, says John E. Prescott, chief academic officer of the Association of American Medical…

  12. Dr. David Sawyer, Mickey Mouse and Dr. David Brown attend a ceremony at Ronald McNair Middle School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. David Sawyer (left), Superintendent of the Brevard County School District, Mickey Mouse, and Dr. David Brown, a NASA astronaut, attend a tribute to NASA astronaut Ronald McNair held in the gymnasium of Ronald McNair Magnet School in Cocoa, Fla. During the tribute, Walt Disney World presented a portrait of McNair to the school, which had previously been renamed for the fallen astronaut. McNair was one of a crew of seven who lost their lives during an accident following launch of the Space Shuttle Challenger in January 1986.

  13. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

  14. Relationship Between Performance in Medical School and Postgraduate Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonnella, Joseph S.; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that the relationship between medical school achievement and postgraduate performance would vary by specialty was confirmed in a comparison of grades, standardized medical exams, and ratings in four areas of competence (medical knowledge, data-gathering skills, clinical judgment, and professional attitudes) in internal medicine,…

  15. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  16. Surgeons as Medical School Educators: An Untapped Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubert, Lisa M.; Way, David; DePhilip, Robert; Tam, Marty; Bishop, Julie; Jones, Kenneth; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive experience teaching residents, surgeons are an untapped resource for educating medical students. We hypothesized that by involving surgeons as teachers earlier in the medical school curriculum, medical students' interest in surgery will increase and their opinions of surgeons will improve. Five programs designed to involve…

  17. Revisiting black medical school extinctions in the Flexner era.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M

    2012-04-01

    Abraham Flexner's 1910 exposé on medical education recommended that only two of the seven extant medical schools for blacks be preserved and that they should train their students to "serve their people humbly" as "sanitarians." Addressing charges of racism, this article traces the roots of the recommendation that blacks serve a limited professional role to the schools themselves and presents evidence that, in endorsing the continuance of Howard's and Meharry's medical programs, Flexner exhibited greater leniency than he had toward comparable schools for white students. Whether his recommendations to eliminate the other five schools were key factors in their extinction is addressed here by examining 1901-30 enrollment patterns. Those patterns suggest that actions of the American Medical Association and state licensing boards, combined with the broader problem of limited premedical educational opportunities for blacks, were more consequential than was the Flexner report both for the extinction of the schools and for the curtailed production of black doctors.

  18. Educational programs in US medical schools, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Etzel, S I

    2001-09-01

    We used data from the 2000-2001 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 2000-2001, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 103, 553, a 1.1% increase from 1999-2000. The 37, 092 applicants for the class entering in 2000 represented a 3.7% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999. The majority of medical schools (58%) were in the process of major curriculum review and change during 2000-2001. In 72 schools (58%), students were required to pass both Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examinations to advance or graduate. The availability of patients to participate in clinical teaching during 2000-2001 decreased in almost half of schools compared with 1999-2000. Many schools reported difficulty in recruiting or retaining volunteer faculty members to provide clinical education in the community. Forty medical schools provided monetary payment to some or all community volunteer faculty members. PMID:11559289

  19. Educational programs in US medical schools, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Etzel, S I

    2001-09-01

    We used data from the 2000-2001 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 2000-2001, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 103, 553, a 1.1% increase from 1999-2000. The 37, 092 applicants for the class entering in 2000 represented a 3.7% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999. The majority of medical schools (58%) were in the process of major curriculum review and change during 2000-2001. In 72 schools (58%), students were required to pass both Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examinations to advance or graduate. The availability of patients to participate in clinical teaching during 2000-2001 decreased in almost half of schools compared with 1999-2000. Many schools reported difficulty in recruiting or retaining volunteer faculty members to provide clinical education in the community. Forty medical schools provided monetary payment to some or all community volunteer faculty members.

  20. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools].

    PubMed

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  1. Education programs in US medical schools, 1995-1996.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I

    1996-09-01

    We present herein data on US medical education programs and describe how medical schools are adapting to a changing health care environment. The data mainly derive from the 1995-1996 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate. The data indicate that in the 1995-1996 academic year there were 91 451 full-time faculty members in basic science and clinical departments, a 1.6% increase from 1994-1995. In clinical departments, major increases occurred in emergency medicine (a 10.6% increase in full-time faculty) and family medicine (a 13.5% increase). Applicants for the class entering in 1995 numbered 46 591, an increase of 2.7% from 1994; however, the number of first-time applicants decreased slightly (0.6%). Of the 17 357 applicants accepted, 2179 (12.6%) were members of underrepresented minority groups. Health system changes are affecting medical school clinical affiliations. During the past 2 years, 42 schools saw a merger, acquisition, or closure involving medical school-owned or medical school-affiliated hospitals used for core clinical clerkships. At 15 sites, this change affected the distribution of students across clinical sites. In 1995-1996, 40 medical schools or their universities owned a health maintenance organization or other managed care organization, 93 schools contracted with a managed care organization to provide primary care services, and 96 schools contracted with managed care to provide specialty services. During the past year, 57 schools acquired primary care physician practices, and 70 started primary care clinics in the community.

  2. Medical-School Partnership in Guiding Return to School Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Youth.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury is recognized as a prevalent and significant risk concern for youth. Appropriate school return is particularly challenging. The medical and school systems must be prepared partners to support the school return of the student with mild traumatic brain injury. Medical providers must be trained in assessment and management skills with a focused understanding of school demands. Schools must develop policies and procedures to prepare staff to support a gradual return process with the necessary academic accommodations. Ongoing communication between the family, student, school, and medical provider is essential to supporting recovery. A systematic gradual return to school process is proposed including levels of recommended activity and criteria for advancement. Targets for intervention are described with associated strategies for supporting recovery. A 10-element Progressive Activities of Controlled Exertion (PACE) model for activity-exertion management is introduced to manage symptom exacerbation. A strong medical-school partnership will maximize outcomes for students with mild traumatic brain injury.

  3. Fulfilling the social contract between medical schools and the public.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, L; Goode, L D; Inui, T S; Daugherty, R M; Wilson, D E; Wallace, A G; Weinstein, B M; Copeland, E M

    1997-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the effects of medical schools related to transformations in medical practice, science, and public expectations, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) established the Advisory Panel on the Mission and Organization of Medical Schools (APMOMS) in 1994. Recognizing the privileges academic medicine enjoys as well as the power of and the strain on its special relationship with the American public, APMOMS formed the Working Group on Fulfilling the Social Contract. That group focused on the question: What are the roles and responsibilities involved in the social contract between medical schools and various interested communities and constituencies? This article reports the working group's findings. The group describes the historical and philosophical reasons supporting the concept of a social contract and asserts that medical schools have individual and collective social contracts with various subsets of the public, referred to as "stakeholders." Obligations derive implicitly from the generous public funding and other benefits medical school receive. Schools' primary obligation is to improve the nation's health. This obligation is carried out most directly by educating the next generation of physicians and biomedical scientists in a manner that instills appropriate professional attitudes, values, and skills. Group members identified 27 core stakeholders (e.g., government, patients, local residents, etc.) and outlined the expectations those stakeholders have of medical schools and the expectations medical schools have of those stakeholders. The group conducted a survey to test how leaders at medical schools responded to the notion of a social contract, to gather data on school leaders' perceptions of what groups they considered their schools' most important stakeholders, and to determine how likely it was that the schools' and the stakeholders expectations of each other were being met. Responses from 69 deans suggested that

  4. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving

  5. Are medical schools hesitant to teach undergraduate students teaching skills? A medical student's critical view.

    PubMed

    Mileder, Lukas Peter

    2013-11-13

    Junior medical staff provides a large proportion of undergraduate student education. However, despite increasing numbers of resident-as-teacher training programs, junior doctors may still not be sufficiently prepared to teach medical students. Hence, medical schools should consider implementing formal teaching skills training into undergraduate curricula.

  6. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    PubMed

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  7. School Administration Handbook for Approved Schools for Medical Record Technicians. Revised April 66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Medical Record Librarians, Chicago, IL.

    These guidelines are for the development and operation of approved programs to prepare medical record technicians. "School Approval" discusses the cooperative roles of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education and the American Association of Medical Record Librarians (AAMRL) in connection with program approval, and other…

  8. The founding of the medical school in Singapore in 1905.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K

    2005-07-01

    This article traces briefly the origins of medical education in the early years of the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Penang and Malacca), which culminated in the founding of Medical School in Singapore in 1905. The first attempt was made in the early 19th century, when boys were recruited from local schools as Medical Apprentices to be trained as "assistant doctors". They were to assist the British doctors and doctors from India in running the medical services. This scheme was not successful. There are 3 landmark years in the evolution of medical education in the Straits Settlements, namely 1852, 1867 and 1904. In 1852, the Governor, to relieve the shortage of staff in the Medical Department, instructed the Principal Civil Medical Officer to organise a proper course of training for Medical Apprentices and to establish a local Medical Service. This scheme was also unsuccessful and the Straits Settlements continued to rely on doctors recruited from India. In 1867, the Straits Settlements were transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office and became a Crown Colony. The Indian Government requested that all its doctors be sent back. This would have led to the collapse of the Straits Settlements Medical Service. As a stop-gap measure, the Governor offered the Indian doctors appointment in the new Straits Settlements Medical Service, and at the same time arranged with the Madras Government for boys from the Straits Settlements to be trained in its Medical Colleges. The first 2 boys were sent in 1869. In 1889, the Principal Civil Medical Officer proposed to the Governor that a Medical School should be founded in Singapore, but not enough candidates passed the preliminary entrance examination. The plan was shelved and boys continued to be sent to Madras for training. In 1902, the Committee on English Education proposed that a Medical School should be started in Singapore, but senior British doctors opposed this. On 8 September 1904, Mr Tan Jiak Kim and other

  9. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pooja; Barai, Ishani; Prasad, Sunila; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. PMID:27051330

  10. Educational programs in US medical schools, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, Barbara; Etzel, Sylvia I

    2002-09-01

    We used data mainly from the 2001-2002 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, to describe the status of US medical education programs. In 2001-2002, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 104 949, a 2.4% increase from 1999-2000. The 34,859 applicants for the class entering in 2001 represented a 9.5% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999-2000. There were 2 applicants for every acceptance, and the academic qualifications of medical students entering in 2001 were unchanged from 1999. Women comprised 47.8% of entering students in 2001, and 13.1% were members of underrepresented minority groups. Of all first-year students, 67% were in-state residents. Most medical schools had mandatory required night call during at least some required clinical clerkships, but only 17 had formal policies on medical student work hours. In 74 schools (60%), medical students were required to pass Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination to advance or graduate.

  11. [International accreditation of medical school towards quality assurance of medical education].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    An internationalization of practical medicine evoked international migrations of medical professionals. Since basic medical education is different among countries, the internationalization required international quality assurance of medical education. Global trend moves toward establishment of international accreditation system based on international standards. The World Federation for Medical Education proposed Global Standards for Quality Improvement as the international standards. Medical schools in Japan have started to establish program evaluation system. The standards which incorporated international standards have been published. The system for accreditation is being considered. An accreditation body, Japan Accreditation Council for Medical Education, is under construction. The accreditation is expected to enhance quality of education in Japan. PMID:24291905

  12. On the Alert: Preparing for Medical Emergencies in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Medical emergencies can happen in any school at any time. They can be the result of preexisting health problems, accidents, violence, unintentional actions, natural disasters, and toxins. Premature deaths in schools from sudden cardiac arrest, blunt trauma to the chest, firearm injuries, asthma, head injuries, drug overdose, allergic reactions,…

  13. Instruction in Fertility Regulation in Medical Schools of Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John W.; and others

    1969-01-01

    A 1967 survey of 112 Latin American medical school indicates that instruction in fertility regulation was offered in 47 of the 76 responding schools, that 13 more expressed the intention of initiating such teaching, but that clinical facilities were limited. These responses are compared with those from a previous survey of North American medical…

  14. The mixed impact of medical school on medical students’ implicit and explicit weight bias

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Burke, Sara E.; Hardeman, Rachel; Dovidio, John F.; Nelson, David B.; Przedworski, Julia; Burgess, Diana J.; Perry, Sylvia; Yeazel, Mark W.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare trainees demonstrate implicit (automatic, unconscious) and explicit (conscious) bias against people from stigmatized and marginalized social groups, which can negatively influence communication and decision-making. Medical schools are well positioned to intervene and reduce bias in new physicians. Objective To assess medical school factors that influence change in implicit and explicit bias against individuals from one stigmatized group, people with obesity. Design Prospective cohort study of medical students enrolled at 49 US medical schools randomly selected from all US medical schools within strata of public/private schools and region. Participants 1,795 medical students surveyed at the beginning of their 1st year and end of their 4th year. Measurement Web-based surveys included measures of weight bias, and medical school experiences and climate. We compared bias change to changes in the general public over the same time period. We used linear mixed models to assess the impact of curriculum, contact with people who have obesity, and faculty role-modeling on weight bias change. Results Increased implicit and explicit biases were associated with less positive contact with patients who have obesity and more exposure to faculty role-modeling of discriminatory behavior or negative comments about patients with obesity. Increased implicit bias was associated with training in how to deal with difficult patients. On average, implicit weight bias decreased and explicit bias increased during medical school, over a period of time where implicit weight bias in the general public increased and explicit bias remained stable. Conclusion Medical schools may reduce students’ weight biases by increasing positive contact between students and patients with obesity, eliminating unprofessional role-modeling by faculty and residents, and altering curricula focused on treating difficult patients. PMID:26383070

  15. Research in Medical School: A Survey Evaluating Why Medical Students Take Research Years

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests.

  16. Anatomy of a new U.S. medical school: The Commonwealth Medical College.

    PubMed

    Smego, Raymond A; D'Alessandri, Robert M; Linger, Barry; Hunt, Virginia A; Ryan, James; Monnier, John; Litwack, Gerald; Katz, Paul; Thompson, Wayne

    2010-05-01

    In response to the Association of American Medical Colleges' call for increases in medical school enrollment, several new MD-granting schools have opened in recent years. This article chronicles the development of one of these new schools, The Commonwealth Medical College (TCMC), a private, not-for-profit, independent medical college with a distributive model of education and regional campuses in Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, and Williamsport, Pennsylvania. TCMC is unique among new medical schools because it is not affiliated with a parent university. The authors outline the process of identifying a need for a new regional medical school in northeastern Pennsylvania, the financial planning process, the recruitment of faculty and staff, the educational and research missions of TCMC, and details of the infrastructure of the new school. TCMC's purpose is to increase the number of physicians in northeastern Pennsylvania, and in the next 20 years it is expected to add 425 practicing physicians to this part of the state. TCMC is characterized by autonomy, private and public support, assured resources in good supply, a relatively secure clinical base, strong cultural ties to the northeast, recruiting practices that reflect the dean's convictions, and strong support from its board of directors. TCMC has invested heavily in social and community medicine in its educational programs while still developing a strong research emphasis. Major challenges have centered on TCMC's lack of a parent university in areas of accreditation, infrastructure development, faculty recruitment, and graduate medical education programs. These challenges, as well as solutions and benefits, are discussed.

  17. Research in Medical School: A Survey Evaluating Why Medical Students Take Research Years

    PubMed Central

    Taleghani, Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, an increasing number of medical students have taken time off during medical school in order to conduct research. Schools and students have invested millions of dollars and thousands of person-years on research projects, but little is known as to why students choose to take this time off. We aim to characterize why students take research years during medical school. Methods: The authors distributed an online survey about research in medical school to students at five medical schools that have highly regarded research programs. Results: 328 students responded to the survey. The most common reasons students take years off for research are: “increase competitiveness for residency application” (32%), “time to pursue other opportunities” (24%), and “academic interest” (23%). Students who would still take a research year even if they were already assured a position in a residency program of their choice were at 65%, while 35% would not take a research year. Responses varied based on whether students intended to go into a competitive specialty. Discussion: Medical students take research years for multiple reasons, although they frequently are not motivated by an interest in the research itself. Many student projects consume a substantial amount of time and money despite having little educational value. Medical schools, residency programs, and policymakers should rethink incentives to increase value and help students better pursue their academic interests. PMID:27672532

  18. Medical education reform efforts and failures of U.S. medical schools, 1870-1930.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lynn E; Weiss, Richard M

    2008-07-01

    The dramatic decline in the number of US medical schools in the early twentieth century has been traced to a medical education reform movement that gained momentum after the Civil War. The major parties to reform-the universities themselves, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), state licensing boards, the American Medical Association (AMA), and Flexner-had different interests and strategies, however, and scholars have continued to debate the impact each had on the decline. To isolate the independent effects that the temporally intertwined forces for reform had on medical school failures, this study applies statistical survival analysis to an extensive and unique data set on medical schools operating in the United States between 1870 and 1930. Contrary to the views of some scholars, the results indicate that schools closed in response to critical evaluations published by the Illinois State Board of Health in the nineteenth century and the AMA and Flexner in the twentieth century. Additionally, the results indicate that schools were less likely to have failed if they adopted certain reforms implemented at leading schools or joined the AAMC, and were more likely to have failed if their state's licensing regulations mandated lengthier premedical and medical training. PMID:18276605

  19. Following Their Dreams: Native American Students Pursuing Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Evelyn

    1997-01-01

    Four Native American first-year medical school students from Montana discuss their career choice and their goals for establishing medical practices in Native American communities. A regional program has enabled the students to take their first year of classes at Montana State University-Bozeman and to complete their studies at the University of…

  20. Review of Medical School Administrative Staff Salaries, 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Results of the most recent Administrative Salary Survey of the Association of American Medical Colleges are analyzed. The data represent 94 U.S. medical schools, with the number of applicable staff positions ranging from two to 52 per institution. The positions considered included those in which at least 20 percent of the time was spent in…

  1. Student Perceptions of the First Year of Veterinary Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…

  2. Is the Medical School a Proper Part of the University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxon, David S.

    1976-01-01

    The aloofness of those in the medical schools from general faculty and students and the still narrow education of medical students are considered to be among the causes of the deep problems facing modern medicine. The current state of American medicine is assessed in this regard. (Author/LBH)

  3. Statistical Criteria for Setting Thresholds in Medical School Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Mark A.; Farrell, Philip; Dottl, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, Dr. Jordan Cohen, President of the AAMC, called for medical schools to consider using an Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) threshold to eliminate high-risk applicants from consideration and then to use non-academic qualifications for further consideration. This approach would seem to be consistent with the recent Supreme Court ruling…

  4. Educational programs in US medical schools, 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I

    1998-09-01

    To describe the current status of medical education programs in the United States, we used data from the 1997-1998 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and from other sources. There were 96733 full-time medical school faculty members, a 1.2% increase from 1996-1997. The 43020 applicants for the class entering in 1997 represents an 8.4% decrease from 1996. The number of 1997 applicants who were members of underrepresented minority groups decreased 11.1 % from 1996, and the number of entering underrepresented minority group students decreased 8.4%. More than half of medical schools reported that the number of inpatients available for medical student education had decreased in at least some of their clinical sites or in some disciplines during the past 2 years. Thirty-nine medical schools (31.2%) reported having more difficulty recruiting or retaining volunteer clinical faculty to participate in medical student teaching in 1997 than in 1995.

  5. Organizational Culture, Values, and Routines in Iranian Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Zavareh, Davoud Khorasani; Masiello, Italo

    2009-01-01

    In Iran, restructuring of medical education and the health care delivery system in 1985 resulted in a rapid shift from elite to mass education, ultimately leading to an increase in the number of medical schools, faculties, and programs and as well as some complications. This study aimed to investigate views on academic culture, values, and…

  6. Analysis of Factors that Predict Clinical Performance in Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Casey B.; Dey, Eric L.; Fantone, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT…

  7. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  8. Is There an Identity Crisis in Medical School Pharmacology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csaky, T. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Rudolf Buchheim's thesis on why and how to teach pharmacology to medical students is reexamined in view of the so-called identity crisis. It is suggested that the crisis is not one of identity but one of acceptance of medical school pharmacology by clinical colleagues and professional educators. (LBH)

  9. The Medically Fragile Child in the School Setting. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This guide for teachers whose classes include a medically fragile child considers roles and responsibilities of teachers with these students, teachers' rights as school employees, and possible solutions and protections for local unions to pursue. Chapter 1 provides an overview. It defines "medically fragile," summarizes legal requirements under…

  10. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency.

  11. Course Offerings in the Fourth Year of Medical School: How U.S. Medical Schools Are Preparing Students for Internship.

    PubMed

    Elnicki, D Michael; Gallagher, Susan; Willett, Laura; Kane, Gregory; Muntz, Martin; Henry, Daniel; Cannarozzi, Maria; Stewart, Emily; Harrell, Heather; Aiyer, Meenakshy; Salvit, Cori; Chudgar, Saumil; Vu, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The fourth year of medical school remains controversial, despite efforts to reform it. A committee from the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine examined transitions from medical school to internship with the goal of better academic advising for students. In 2013 and 2014, the committee examined published literature and the Web sites of 136 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited schools for information on current course offerings for the fourth year of medical school. The authors summarized temporal trends and outcomes when available.Subinternships were required by 122 (90%) of the 136 schools and allow students to experience the intern's role. Capstone courses are increasingly used to fill curricular gaps. Revisiting basic sciences in fourth-year rotations helps to reinforce concepts from earlier years. Many schools require rotations in specific settings, like emergency departments, intensive care units, or ambulatory clinics. A growing number of schools require participation in research, including during the fourth year. Students traditionally take fourth-year clinical electives to improve skills, both within their chosen specialties and in other disciplines. Some students work with underserved populations or seek experiences that will be henceforth unavailable, whereas others use electives to "audition" at desired residency sites. Fourth-year requirements vary considerably among medical schools, reflecting different missions and varied student needs. Few objective outcomes data exist to guide students' choices. Nevertheless, both medical students and educators value the fourth year of medical school and feel it can fill diverse functions in preparing for residency. PMID:27002885

  12. Educational programs in US medical schools, 1993-1994.

    PubMed

    Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I; Barzansky, B

    1994-09-01

    From the data on faculty, students, and curriculum, is it possible to identify any responses to actual or anticipated health system changes? While one could foresee medical school downsizing in response to a potentially more competitive environment in which income from faculty practice would be reduced, what has occurred, on average, is steady growth in the number of faculty members across departments, with a large increase in the past year. However, expansion is not consistent across states. Between 1992-1993 and 1993-1994, the number of full-time faculty members decreased 1.5% in California medical schools, increased 3% in Minnesota medical schools, increased 6% in North Carolina medical schools, and increased 10% in New York and Pennsylvania medical schools. These differences may reflect the fiscal situation at the state level as well as differences in the practice environment in different areas. For example, managed care has not had a major effect in many markets. It will be important to monitor trends in faculty at both the national and regional levels to understand the full impact of health system changes. There is considerable diversity among US medical schools: in goals, in student profiles, and in curriculum structure. A number of schools have goals or objectives that contain a reference to the training of primary care physicians. The majority of these are public institutions, but a number of private schools have chosen to address the issue as well. Many schools, both public and private, are under external scrutiny related to the performance and specialty and practice location choices of their graduates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8064985

  13. Educational programs in US medical schools, 1996-1997.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I

    1997-09-01

    We use data from the 1996-1997 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, to describe medical education programs in the United States. In the 1996-1997 academic year, there were 95 568 full-time medical school faculty members, a 4.5% increase from 1995-1996. In clinical departments, the largest increases were in emergency medicine (a 29% increase from 1995-1996) and family medicine (a 13% increase). Of all full-time faculty members in clinical departments, 76.9% have an MD or DO as the highest degree, 4.5% have both an MD and PhD, 13.9% have a PhD, and 4.7% have an academic or professional bachelor's or master's degree as their final degree. The total number of applicants for the class entering in 1996 was 46968 (0.8% increase from 1995), while the number of first-time applicants decreased 1% from 1995. First-year medical students who were members of underrepresented minority groups numbered 2236, a 4% decrease from 1995. In 1996-1997, the total number of medical students was 66712 (0.3% less than in 1995-1996). For students graduating during the 1995-1996 academic year, 13% took longer than 4 years to complete the program. There were 47 medical schools that reported that 1 or more hospitals used for required clinical clerkships had changed ownership, merged, or closed during 1996. Medical schools used an average of 6 (range, 1-36) hospitals for core clinical clerkship. Ninety-five schools required a passing grade on Step 1 of the US Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) for promotion or graduation; 54 schools required a passing grade on Step 2 of the USMLE.

  14. End-of-life care curricula in undergraduate medical education: a comparison of allopathic and osteopathic medical schools.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret D; Gugliucci, Marilyn R

    2008-01-01

    End-of-life care curricula in osteopathic medical schools were compared with allopathic school offerings. An 8-question online survey of undergraduate medical education administrators at all United States osteopathic medical schools (n = 26) and 26 allopathic schools geographically closest to them was conducted in 2007. Responses from 80% (n = 21) of osteopathic schools and 77% (n = 20) of allopathic schools revealed that both osteopathic and allopathic medical schools offered end-of-life care education. Of note is that 71% of the osteopathic medical school respondents had a course that concentrates on end-of-life care compared with 37% of allopathic school respondents (P = .03). This disparity in percentages may be due to a number of reasons, 2 of which may include course identification methods and the primary care orientation and philosophy inherent in osteopathic medical schools.

  15. Educational programs in US medical schools, 1999-2000.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I

    2000-09-01

    We used data from the 1999-2000 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and other sources to describe the status of medical education programs in the United States. In 1999-2000, the number of full-time faculty members was 102,446, a 4.3% increase from 1998-1999. The number of basic science faculty increased by less than 0.5%, while the number of clinical faculty increased by about 5%. There were 38,529 medical school applicants in 1999, a 6% decrease from 1998. Women constituted 45.8% and underrepresented minorities made up 12.1% of the 1999-2000 first-year class. New content, such as alternative medicine and cultural competence, and new methods of instruction, such as computer-based learning, are being incorporated by many schools. Seventy schools (56% of the total) require students to pass both Step 1 and Step 2 of the US Medical Licensing Examination for advancement or graduation, an increase from 62 schools (50%) in 1998-1999. The use of standardized methods of assessment, such as objective structured clinical examinations, to evaluate students' clinical performance was highly variable among schools. JAMA. 2000;284:1114-1120

  16. Developing a Nursing Protocol for Over-the-Counter Medications in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Lucinda Mejdell; Juarez, Sandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Management of medications in school is one of the critical roles that school nurses carry out in the school setting. In recent years, parents have come to question the medication procedures that school districts follow. Parents question why a physician's order is required for school personnel to provide over-the-counter (OTC) medications to their…

  17. Medication Management in Schools: A Systems Approach to Reducing Risk and Strengthening Quality in School Medication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper and the invitational meeting for which it has been prepared make certain assumptions about the challenge of strengthening the quality of medication management in school. The participants believe that recent research on improving the safety and quality of patient care has relevance for health services in school, particularly the safety…

  18. Chorasmia Medical School from the beginning until the Mongol invasion

    PubMed Central

    Golshani, Seyyed Alireza; Seddigh, Fatemeh; Pirouzan, Hadi; Daneshfard, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In research on the history of medicine, less attention is paid to the subject of historical geography. Considering the importance of this subject in the history of science, this paper discusses one of the most important science centers in the world. This outstanding medical research center was located in Gorganch city, Chorasmia area, in the Eastern part of the Islamic. Chorasmia medical school was one of the important Iranian medical schools before the Mongols’ attack. Its history (305-1231 A.D.) can be divided into three eras; Ale Iraq, Ale Ma'mun, and era of the Khwarazmian dynasty. This geographical area in the Northeast of Iran has escaped the notice of researchers in recent studies. The presence of great Persian physicians and scientists throughout history in this area indicates its scientific importance. The present article focuses on Chorasmia Medical School since its establishment until the Mongols’ attack. PMID:27350864

  19. Why Medical Schools Are Tolerant of Unethical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Silva, Vanessa dos Santos; dos Santos, Maria Fernanda; Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Boas, Paulo José Fortes Villas; Fukushima, Fernanda Bono

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to unethical and unprofessional behavior is thought to play a major role in the declining empathy experienced by medical students during their training. We reflect on the reasons why medical schools are tolerant of unethical behavior of faculty. First, there are barriers to reporting unprofessional behavior within medical schools including fear of retaliation and lack of mechanisms to ensure anonymity. Second, deans and directors do not want to look for unethical behavior in their colleagues. Third, most of us have learned to take disrespectful circumstances in health care institutions for granted. Fourth, the accreditation of medical schools around the world does not usually cover the processes or outcomes associated with fostering ethical behavior in students. Several initiatives promise to change that picture. PMID:25755040

  20. School Counselors and Psychotropic Medication: Assessing Training, Experience, and School Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Ann L.; Ingersoll, Elliott; Burns, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the results of a national survey of school counselors that gathered information about the extent of school children's psychiatric diagnoses and usage of psychotropic medication, school policy issues arising from these practices, and counselors' perceived need for further training. Results support the assertion that…

  1. The Impact of Education Reform: An Asian Medical School's Experience.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gerald Ch; Lee, Jeremy Ne; Agrawal, Neelima; Tam, John Kc; Samarasekera, Dujeepa; Koh, Dow Rhoon; Wong, John El; Tan, Chay Hoon

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of education reforms on student-reported learning outcomes at the end of the 5-year medical school (M5) and 1-year internship (HO) in 2006, 2007 and 2008. A self-administered anonymous survey with 17 learning outcomes assessed, derived from Harden's Three-Circle Outcomes Model for outcomes-based education, was administered to 683 students at the end of medical school (M5) and internship (HO) from 2006, 2007 and 2008. We identified learning outcomes which changed significantly for internship (Cohorts A, B and C) and medical school (Cohorts B, C and D) between cohorts from 2006 to 2008, and compared learning outcomes between medical school and internship within cohorts (i.e. Cohort B which was M5 in 2006 and HO in 2007; Cohort C which was M5 in 2007 and HO in 2008). The proportion of students who agreed that medical school helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 15 out of 17 learning outcomes assessed. The proportion of students who agreed that internship helped them achieve learning outcomes increased significantly from 2006 to 2008 for 6 learning outcomes assessed. For Cohorts B and C, internship was more effective than medical school in achieving 8 learning outcomes. Cohort C reported that internship was more effective than medical school in 3 additional learning outcomes than Cohort B: patient management, humility and dedication. We conclude that a successful journey of education reform is an ongoing process that needs to comprehensively address multifaceted components such as faculty, administration and curriculum. PMID:27383719

  2. Educational programs in US medical schools, 1994-1995.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I

    1995-09-01

    This is a time of considerable uncertainty about the future of medical education. There are threats to medical school finances from state and federal levels. While medical schools derive only an average of about 11% of total revenues from state and local sources, these funds potentially give states the basis for imposing specific mandates on medical schools, in areas such as enrollment levels, curriculum content, and a desired specialty mix of graduates. Medical schools appear to be changing at varying rates in response to the health care system, including the growth of managed care. While the total number of full-time faculty members continues to increase, there are regional differences. It is unclear how the faculty size and composition ultimately will be affected or what implications this will have for educational programs. A number of medical schools are expanding into the community to ensure a patient base, and educational opportunities for medical students appear to be increasing in the community, including some limited use of managed care organizations. as educational settings. Medical school practice sites in the community have the potential to exacerbate "town-gown" tensions in the increasingly competitive health care environment. This, in turn, could jeopardize community-based medical education by the large number of practicing physicians who serve as volunteer faculty members and who are a valuable resource. Care will need to be taken to minimize these tensions as much as possible. As the health care system becomes even more competitive, concerns are being raised about whether volunteer faculty will continue to serve without compensation. The ability to begin to compensate community physicians who serve as teachers could be affected by decreasing medical school revenues from patient care, which, in the past, have been used to support activities such as community-based education. This is a time for strong and visionary academic leadership: medical schools

  3. 77 FR 75151 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Foreign Graduate Medical School...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... a new collection to obtain consumer information from foreign graduate medical institutions that... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Foreign Graduate Medical School Consumer... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Foreign Graduate Medical School...

  4. The Evaluation of Teaching in Medical Schools. Springer Series on Medical Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippey, Robert M.

    Strengths and weaknesses of systems for evaluating teaching in medical schools are reviewed, and a framework for dealing with issues and critical questions is presented. The model addresses the following areas: goals of the school, the purpose of evaluating teaching, standards that characterize the quality of teaching evaluation measures, measures…

  5. The Big Brown Bus: Teaching Future Elementary School Teachers about Mass Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Charles C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that helps teachers introduce the concept of mass production in the elementary classroom. Provides instructions for the activity in which students produce "buses" made of juice containers and brown paper on an assembly line. (JOW)

  6. How Medical School Did and Did Not Prepare Me for Graduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangione, Carol M.

    1986-01-01

    Four areas in which a resident felt least prepared by medical school are outlined: teaching medical students; working as an effective ambulatory care doctor; discussing the psycho-social issues that surround terminal illness, death, and dying; and functioning as a cost-conscious health care provider. (MLW)

  7. Medical Students' Evaluation of Physiology Learning Environments in Two Nigerian Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaehie, U. S. B.; Nwobodo, E.; Oze, G.; Nwagha, U. I.; Orizu, I.; Okeke, T.; Anyanwu, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of biomedical knowledge and the pursuit of more meaningful learning have led to world-wide evidence-based innovative changes in medical education and curricula. The recent emphasis on problem-based learning (PBL) and student-centred learning environments are, however, not being implemented in Nigerian medical schools. Traditional…

  8. Measuring the social responsiveness of medical schools: setting the standards.

    PubMed

    Peabody, J W

    1999-08-01

    This article calls for medical schools to use a new set of standards to gauge how well they contribute to social welfare. Because medical schools receive public funding and are given the authority to certify that providers are sufficiently trained, they incur an obligation to be socially responsible. In addition to setting and using higher standards, medical schools should call on their credibility and use their scientific expertise to find new policies that promote social welfare. In particular, they should do research on socially oriented policies and participate more actively in debates about health sector reform. Although societies vary and have different values, most countries and peoples probably share the following social objectives: They want to use limited public and private resources rationally to produce the best possible health, they do not want individuals or groups to suffer, and they want to protect people against catastrophic illness and associated financial losses. Although new standards are needed, medical schools should be encouraged to continue producing technically sophisticated providers and conducting high-level basic and clinical research. Available evidence suggests that medical schools can further contribute to the three social objectives noted above by increasing the intensity and relevancy of primary care training, expanding the curriculum beyond its biomedical focus, encouraging research in health services, and assessing the effectiveness of social policy in improving the health of the population. PMID:10495745

  9. Situational Analysis of Palliative Care Education in Thai Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. Methods A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. Results An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. Conclusions The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum. PMID:25278759

  10. Educational programs in US medical schools, 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, B; Jonas, H S; Etzel, S I

    1999-09-01

    To describe the current status of medical education programs in the United States and to trace trends in medical education over this century, we used data from the 1998-1999 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, and data from other sources. In 1998-1999, total full-time faculty members numbered 98202, a 1.5% increase from 1997-1998. The number of applicants to medical school declined for the second consecutive year, from 43020 in 1997 to 41004 in 1998, but the academic qualifications of entering students remained steady. The number of applicants from underrepresented minority groups decreased 1.3% from 1997 to 1998, compared with an 11.1% decrease between 1996 and 1997. Women constituted 43.4% of applicants in 1998, slightly more than the 42.5% in 1997. The total number of required hours in the first and second years of the curriculum and the number of scheduled hours per week have declined over the past 15 years, while the average lengths of clinical clerkships remained about the same. The number of schools requiring students to pass Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination continued to increase in 1998-1999, with 50% of schools requiring passing both examinations, compared with 46% in 1997-1998.

  11. Responsibly managing the medical school--teaching hospital power relationship.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2005-07-01

    The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.

  12. Recruitment of underrepresented minority students to medical school: minority medical student organizations, an untapped resource.

    PubMed Central

    Rumala, Bernice B.; Cason, Frederick D.

    2007-01-01

    Recruitment of more underrepresented minority students (black, Hispanic and native American) to increase racial diversity in the physician workforce is on the agenda for medical schools around the nation. The benefits of having a racially diverse class are indisputable. Minority physicians are more likely to provide care to minority, underserved, disadvantaged and low-income populations. Therefore, medical schools would benefit from diversity through utilizing strategies for recruitment of underrepresented minority (URM) students. Numerous recruitment strategies have been employed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students. However, formal collaboration with minority medical student organizations is an underutilized tool in the recruitment process. Many medical schools have informally used minority medical students and members of various minority organizations on campus in the recruitment process, but a formal collaboration which entails a strategic approach on using minority medical student organizations has yet to be included in the literature. This paper discusses the innovative collaboration between the University of Toledo College of Medicine (UTCOM) chapter of the Student National Medical Association (SNMA) and the college of medicine's admissions office to strategize a recruitment plan to increase the number of underrepresented minority students at the UTCOM. This paper suggests that minority medical student organizations, particularly the SNMA, can be used as a recruiting tool; hence, admissions offices cannot negate the usefulness of having formal involvement of minority medical student organizations as a recruiting tool. This approach may also be applicable to residency programs and other graduate professional fields with a severe shortage of URM students. PMID:17913109

  13. [The new medical schools in Chile and their influence on the medical scenario].

    PubMed

    Román A, Oscar

    2009-08-01

    There is concern about the possible consequences caused by the proliferation of private Medical Schools in Chile. Most of these schools have consolidated as health professional training centers, but its presence is changing the scenario of public health and medical profession. The most important consequence is the increase in the number of physicians that will occur, that may exceed the demand of the Chilean population and generate medical unemployment or emigration. There is also concern about the quality of the training process and the preparation and experience of teachers, that derives in the need for accreditation of medical schools. Private Universities are aware of these problems and are working on them. The struggle for clinical fields in the Public Health System has been regulated by an administrative norm of the Ministry of Health.

  14. Educational climate perception by preclinical and clinical medical students in five Spanish medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Gual, Arcadi; Escaneroi, Jesus; Tomás, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Elorudy, Marta; Virumbrales, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Arce, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate student's perceptions of Educational Climate (EC) in Spanish medical schools, comparing various aspects of EC between the 2nd (preclinical) and the 4th (clinical) years to detect strengths and weaknesses in the on-going curricular reform. Methods This study utilized a cross-sectional design and employed the Spanish version of the "Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure" (DREEM). The survey involved 894 2nd year students and 619 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools. Results The global average score of 2nd year students from the five medical schools was found to be significantly higher (116.2±24.9, 58.2% of maximum score) than that observed in 4th year students (104.8±29.5, 52.4% of maximum score). When the results in each medical school were analysed separately, the scores obtained in the 2nd year were almost always significantly higher than in the 4th year for all medical schools, in both the global scales and the different subscales. Conclusions The perception of the EC by 2nd and 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools is more positive than negative although it is significantly lower in the 4th  year. In both years, although more evident in the 4th year, students point out the existence of several important "problematic educational areas" associated with the persistence of traditional curricula and teaching methodologies. Our findings of this study should lead medical schools to make a serious reflection and drive the implementation of the necessary changes required to improve teaching, especially during the clinical period. PMID:26057355

  15. Impact of high tuition on medical school applicants and enrollees.

    PubMed

    Ayers, W R; Stangert, A C; Dennis, M J; Henry, J B

    1981-10-01

    As direct federal support of medical education has been reduced, tuition at U.S. medical schools has increased. Concern has been expressed over a decline in the socioeconomic diversity and the academic qualifications of the applicants. Experience gained at Georgetown University School of Medicine, the medical school with the highest tuition in the United States, indicates that the academic and nonacademic characteristics of the entering class have remained stable over a seven-year period despite a fourfold increase in tuition. Virtually all (98 percent) enrolled students currently receive some form of financial aid, mostly in the form of federally insured loans or federal scholarships with a service commitment. Maintenance of socioeconomic diversity depends on the continued availability of federally supported student loans and scholarships. PMID:7288842

  16. Impact of high tuition on medical school applicants and enrollees.

    PubMed

    Ayers, W R; Stangert, A C; Dennis, M J; Henry, J B

    1981-10-01

    As direct federal support of medical education has been reduced, tuition at U.S. medical schools has increased. Concern has been expressed over a decline in the socioeconomic diversity and the academic qualifications of the applicants. Experience gained at Georgetown University School of Medicine, the medical school with the highest tuition in the United States, indicates that the academic and nonacademic characteristics of the entering class have remained stable over a seven-year period despite a fourfold increase in tuition. Virtually all (98 percent) enrolled students currently receive some form of financial aid, mostly in the form of federally insured loans or federal scholarships with a service commitment. Maintenance of socioeconomic diversity depends on the continued availability of federally supported student loans and scholarships.

  17. The Department of Medical Education at the University of Michigan Medical School: a case study in medical education research productivity.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D

    2004-10-01

    The Department of Medical Education (DME) at the University of Michigan Medical School has a strong and sustained history of contributing to medical education research. The author identifies several dimensions that contribute to this productivity: (1) the quality of department faculty and the complementary areas of expertise they possess; (2) a critical mass of educational scholars, both within and outside the DME; (3) extensive collaborations of DME faculty with colleagues in other departments on educational innovation; (4) the departmental status of the DME; (5) the separation of the DME from the administration of the curriculum; (6) the need to balance the missions of research and educational support of the medical school; (7) the research-intensive nature of the larger University of Michigan environment; (8) the complex challenge of funding the educational scholarship mission; and (9) the importance of maintaining visibility within the institution. Factors that will affect the health of future educational scholarship include (1) the response to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's definition of resident competencies and similar initiatives; (2) the growth of opportunities for advanced training in educational scholarship and the corresponding expansion of medical school faculty with greater interest and skills in educational research; (3) an emerging emphasis on the importance of behavioral science in medical care; (4) demands on the clinical productivity of collaborating faculty; and (5) the paucity of funding for medical education research. PMID:15383363

  18. Medical student radiology education: summary and recommendations from a national survey of medical school and radiology department leadership.

    PubMed

    Straus, Christopher M; Webb, Emily M; Kondo, Kimi L; Phillips, Andrew W; Naeger, David M; Carrico, Caroline W; Herring, William; Neutze, Janet A; Haines, G Rebecca; Dodd, Gerald D

    2014-06-01

    The ACR Task Force on Medical Student Education in Radiology, in partnership with the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology, investigated the current status of how and to what extent medical imaging was being taught in medical schools. The task force executed a 3-part survey of medical school deans, radiology department chairs, and intern physicians. The results provided an updated understanding of the status of radiology education in medical schools in the United States. This summary includes recommendations about how individual radiology departments and ACR members can assist in advancing the specialty of diagnostic radiology through medical student education. PMID:24713496

  19. Orthopaedic Teaching in United Kingdom Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Paola, M; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study of medical students' training in orthopedics. Discusss discrepancies between course content and duration and the deficiencies that exist in basic knowledge of anatomy relevant to orthopedics. Recommends that orthopedic courses should appear earlier in the curriculum and practice should be emphasized. (TW)

  20. The Socialization of a Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Fox, Thomas G.

    This paper reports the recruitment, socialization, and retention of a faculty of medicine. The study shows the process of M.D. and Ph.D. conversion to academic medicine through socialization and the factors which affect retention and attrition of a medical faculty. The research utilizes Sherlock and Morris' professional development paradigm. As…

  1. The Computer Screening of Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosino, Robert J.; Brading, Paul L.

    This document reports the test of an experimental procedure designed by the Albany Medical College (AMC) to systematically reduce a large pool of applicants to one of manageable proportions for interviewing purposes. Data on nine predictor variables were coded and keypunched on 80-column cards for each applicant to September 1972 and 1973…

  2. Evaluation of an Early Medical School Selection Program for Underrepresented Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelin, Kenneth C.; Ugbolue, Augustine

    2001-01-01

    Correlated medical school performance of underrepresented minority students participating in Boston University's Early Medical School Selection Program with their Scholastic Aptitude Test and Medical College Admission Test scores. Found that students with higher scores had more success completing their first two years of medical school and passing…

  3. The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on School Health POLICY STATEMENT: Guidelines for the Administration of Medication in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Nursing, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing physicians as well as school administrators and health staff on the administration of medications to children at school. The statement addresses over-the-counter products, herbal medications, experimental drugs that are…

  4. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity

    PubMed Central

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim: Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Materials, Methods and Results: Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their

  5. Time to return medical schools to their primary purpose: education.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, S

    1996-04-01

    The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396

  6. Abraham Flexner and the black medical schools. 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Savitt, Todd

    2006-01-01

    "Abraham Flexner and the Black Medical Schools" first appeared in Beyond Flexner: Medical Education in the Twentieth Century, Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz, eds. Copyright 1992 by Barbara Barzansky and Norman Gevitz. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Group Inc., Westport, CT. The article will be reprinted in a collection of the author's writings on African-American medical history called Race and Medicine in Nineteenth- and Early-Twentieth-Century America, to be published in December 2006 by Kent State University Press and published here with permission of the Kent State University Press. PMID:17019906

  7. Exploring Emotional Intelligence in a Caribbean Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. Conclusions: These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251

  8. The Brown Decision, Pluralism, and the Schools in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The greatest effect of Brown v. Board of Education is that it removed race as a factor in making governmental decisions. Minority groups found greater solidarity and demanded their rights. This resulted in the myth of the melting pot being submerged by the myth of pluralism. Group identity can be mixed with society's ideals, which can then…

  9. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  10. Assessing the Written Communication Skills of Medical School Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulet, John R.; Rebbecchi, Thomas A.; Denton, Elizabeth C.; McKinley, Danette W.; Whelan, Gerald P.

    2004-01-01

    The ECFMG[R] Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA[R]) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools (IMGs) are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The patient note (PN) exercise, conducted after a 15-minute interview with a standardized patient (SP), is specifically used to assess a candidate's…

  11. Use of Medication in School Programs for Behaviorally Disordered Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Michael H.; Olinger, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    The article presents information on psychotrophic drugs used with behaviorally disordered students (stimulants, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and lithium), including desired effects and side effects. Guidelines for teachers and other school personnel who work with students on medication are also provided. (Author/JW)

  12. Children on Medication: A Primer for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    Intended as a primer for school personnel, the book discusses children whose various disorders require them to be on medication, and describes the behavioral effects of these drugs along with their major side effects. Fundamental concepts in pharmacotherapy are reviewed, including dosage adjustment and side effects, and a brief introduction to the…

  13. Organizational Models of Medical School Relationships to the Clinical Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Richard A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzed existing relationships between medical schools and clinical enterprises to develop models of these relationships. Four conceptual models were identified: (1) "single ownership, owned integrated system"; (2) "general partner"; (3) "limited partner"; and (4) "wholly owned, subsidiary." The advantages and disadvantages of each model are…

  14. Uncertainties in the Selection of Applicants for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2007-01-01

    Decisions about admissions to medical school are based on assessments of the applicants' cognitive achievements and non-cognitive traits. Admission criteria are expected to be fair, transparent, evidence-based and legally defensible. However, unlike cognitive criteria, which are highly reliable and moderately valid, the reliability and validity of…

  15. Getting Personal: Harvard Medical School's Approach to Debt Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Kathleen

    2000-01-01

    Describes a program of the financial aid office at Harvard University Medical School (Massachusetts) that helps students with debt management and personal financial planning through presentations to seniors by professionals in insurance and financial planning and by offering two individual consultations with a physician financial planning…

  16. Learning and Career Specialty Preferences of Medical School Applicants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Terry D.; Witzke, Donald B.; Elam, Carol L.; Cheever, Todd R.

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined relationships among medical school applicants' preferred approaches to learning, methods of instruction, and specialty areas (n=912). Based on confidential responses to a progressive series of paired comparisons, applicants' preferences for lecture (L), self-study (SS), group discussion (GD), and computers (C) were…

  17. Learning Environment in Medical Schools Adopting Different Educational Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Rukban, Mohammad Othman; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen

    2010-01-01

    Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) has adopted a problem based learning (PBL) curriculum. This study investigates the educational environment in the school; it also compares the educational environment prevailing in problem based learning curriculum with that of conventional and outcome based curricula. A cross sectional study…

  18. Preservice School Personnel's Knowledge of Stimulant Medication and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…

  19. A Medical School in Cuba Trains Doctors for Poor Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Marion

    2001-01-01

    Describes how the Latin American Medical School in Cuba attracts foreign students, including Americans, with a free course of study. Supporters say it shows Castro's commitment to humanitarian ideals, while critics see it as an attempt to curry favor with Central and Latin America. (EV)

  20. Investigating the Reliability of the Medical School Admissions Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiter, Clarence D.; Yin, Ping; Solow, Catherine; Brennan, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Determining the valid and fair use of the interview for medical school admissions is contingent upon a demonstration of the reproducibility of interview scores. This study seeks to establish the generalizability of interview scores, first assessing the existing research evidence, and then analyzing data from a non-experimental independent…

  1. Getting Our Own House in Order: Improving Psychiatry Education to Medical Students as a Prelude to Medical School Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Jonathan E.; Schlozman, Steve; Badaracco, Mary Anne; Burke, Jay; Borus, Jonathan F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors summarize efforts to revitalize psychiatry teaching to medical students at Harvard Medical School (HMS) in advance of a major overhaul of the medical school curriculum. Methods: This preliminary report chronicles key challenges and the organization of the reform effort within the departments of psychiatry affiliated with the…

  2. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  3. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  4. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  5. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  6. The Dangers of Schooling: The Introduction of School Medical Inspection in the Netherlands (c.1900)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Nelleke; de Beer, Fedor

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors address the question of why school medical inspection in the Netherlands developed not only considerably slower than the British service but did so also on a more modest scale in terms of the impact on children's lives. In the Netherlands school doctors were not allowed to treat children's illnesses and therefore never…

  7. Playing doctor, seriously: graduation follies at an American medical school.

    PubMed

    Segal, D

    1984-01-01

    In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation. PMID:6490261

  8. Legal Issues in School Health Services and School Psychology: Guidelines for the Administration of Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anna; Pierson, Eric E.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of psychoactive medications to augment behavioral and psychosocial interventions in schools has significantly increased within the last few decades. Yet, advising, administrating, and supervising the dispensation of medication (including psychostimulants and psychoactive substances) tend to be some of the most risky tasks of school…

  9. [Health and school: thoughts on the medicalization of education].

    PubMed

    Pais, Sofia Castanheira; Menezes, Isabel; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2016-01-01

    Children and youth reach school with different starting points. It is not known for sure how far these children and youth will go, and what path the school holds for them, particularly at a stage in which teachers are divided in multi-tasking (with some tasks that are merely administrative). Meanwhile, it is increasingly common to explain students' "inappropriate" behavior in biomedical terms. The increasing emergence of disorders and deficits calls for critical reflection on what they actually involve in public health terms. Thisarticle addresses the school's role in the educational achievement and comprehensive development of students flagged for or with clinical indication of medication based on "fuzzy" diagnoses. The concept of medicalization acquires a central position, and the article discusses its implications based on a set of field notes and interviews with parents and teachers in the North of Portugal. PMID:27653203

  10. Moving beyond Brown: Race and Education after Parents v. Seattle School District No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnor, Jamel K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: By a 5-4 margin, the U.S. Supreme Court in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 declared that voluntary public school integration programs were unconstitutional. Citing the prospective harm that students and their families might incur from being denied admission to the high school of their choice, the…

  11. [Shortening undergraduate medical training: now and for all medical schools in Chile?].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976

  12. Clinical learning environment at Shiraz Medical School.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Rita; Ebrahimi, Sedigheh

    2013-01-01

    Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment. PMID:23456587

  13. Do students' attitudes toward women change during medical school?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, S P; Ferguson, K E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical school has historically reinforced traditional views of women. This cohort study follows implementation of a revitalized curriculum and examines students' attitudes toward women on entry into an Ontario medical school, and 3 years later. METHODS: Of the 75 students entering first year at Queen's University medical school 70 completed the initial survey in September 1994 and 54 were resurveyed in May 1997. First-year students at 2 other Ontario medical schools were also surveyed in 1994, and these 166 respondents formed a comparison group. Changes in responses to statements about sex-role stereotypes, willingness to control decision-making of female patients, and conceptualization of women as "other" or "abnormal" because they are women were examined. Responses from the comparison group were used to indicate whether the Queen's group was representative. RESULTS: Attitudinal differences between the primary group and the comparison group were not significant. After 3 years of medical education students were somewhat less accepting of sex-role stereotypes and less controlling in the doctor-patient encounter. They continued, however, to equate adults with men and to see women as "not adult" or "other." Female students began and remained somewhat more open-minded in all areas studied. INTERPRETATION: A predicted trend toward conservatism was not seen as students became older, more aware and closer to completion of medical training, although they continued to equate adults with male and to see women as "other." Findings may validate new curricular approaches and increased attention to gender issues in the academic environment. PMID:10065081

  14. Teaching 'race' at medical school: social scientists on the margin.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2008-10-01

    This essay examines the efforts of social scientists and humanities scholars to teach students at a major US medical school about 'race'. The objectives were to explain that race is no longer considered a biologically legitimate concept and to demonstrate that race remains an influential social classification, causing social and biological harm. That is, these educators sought to reframe the medical significance of race. An examination of the email discussions of those involved in this teaching exercise (which included the author) reveals concerns over the credibility of social scientists and humanities scholars speaking on genetics in the modern medical school. It also indicates the intellectual and curricular marginalization of critiques of racial classification in medical education. In science studies journals one can read convincing deconstructions of the new genetics of race, but it is rare to find an analysis of how ideas about race figure in the mundane practice of educating future medical doctors and researchers. Through examination of an exemplary, wide-ranging discussion of an attempt to teach on race in the medical curriculum, this essay addresses the disciplinary and institutional difficulties of translating critiques of controversial science into pedagogy.

  15. How medical schools can encourage students' interest in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Rohan-Minjares, Felisha; Alfero, Charles; Kaufman, Arthur

    2015-05-01

    The discipline of family medicine is essential to improving quality and reducing the cost of care in an effective health care system. Yet the slow growth of this field has not kept pace with national demand. In their study, Rodríguez and colleagues report on the influence of the social environment and academic discourses on medical students' identification with family medicine in four countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Spain. They conclude that these factors-the social environment and discursive activity within the medical school-influence students' specialty choices. While the discourses in Canada, France, and Spain were mostly negative, in the United Kingdom, family medicine was considered a prestigious academic discipline, well paying, and with a wide range of practice opportunities. Medical students in the United Kingdom also were exposed early and often to positive family medicine role models.In the United States, academic discourses about family medicine are more akin to those in Canada, France, and Spain. The hidden curriculum includes negative messages about family medicine, and "badmouthing" primary care occurs at many medical schools. National education initiatives highlight the importance of social determinants in medical education and the integration of public health and medicine in practice. Other initiatives expose students to family medicine role models and practice during their undergraduate training and promote primary care practice through new graduate medical education funding models. Together, these initiatives can reduce the negative effects of the social environment and create a more positive discourse about family medicine.

  16. Van Swieten and the renaissance of the Vienna Medical School.

    PubMed

    Kidd, M; Modlin, I M

    2001-04-01

    The period until 1745 found the Viennese medical system languishing far behind advances made in other major European centers. This chaotic situation was reversed by the foresight and breadth of vision of the Empress Maria Theresa, who initiated considerable reform in Austria by actively recruiting the best minds of the time to reduce the intellectual and technologic differences. Her ability to entice one of Boerhaave's most eminent pupils, Gerard van Swieten, to leave Leiden for Vienna, particularly benefited the Vienna Medical School. In 1745 van Swieten assumed responsibility for reconfiguration of the patronage and nepotism-ridden medical system of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a first task, he swiftly expunged the influence of the Jesuits and other religious orders from medicine and established formal training and examinations, transforming the medical discipline into a meritocracy. Excelling as a physician and an innovative teacher, he also established a close personal relationship with the Empress and became her medical confidante. To a large part, the success of this first great Viennese medical school was owed to de Haen, who left Leiden to implement Boerhaave's method of clinical teaching. As a result of these innovations and with considerable support from the Empress, the University of Vienna, particularly its medical school, within a few decades achieved recognition throughout Europe as a seat of learning and scholarship. Van Swieten would not be remembered today if his contribution had been only scholarly or scientific achievements. He propelled Austrian medicine to a level commensurate with that of other European states of the day by 27 years of dedicated and industrious service.

  17. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? Some children with Brown syndrome have poor binocular ... In the congenital form of Brown syndrome, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  18. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that were established more than 10 years ago, asking fourth- and fifth-year medical students (men and women) to participate. Seven medical schools were selected. To assess knowledge on sleep and sleep disorders, we used the Assessment of Sleep Knowledge in Medical Education (ASKME) Survey, which is a validated 30-item questionnaire. The participants were separated into two groups: those who scored ≥60% and those who scored <60%. To assess the number of teaching hours dedicated to sleep medicine in the undergraduate curricula, the organizers of the major courses on sleep disorders were contacted to obtain the curricula for those courses and to determine the obstacles to education. Results A total of 348 students completed the survey (54.9% male). Among the participants, 27.7% had a specific interest in sleep medicine. More than 80% of the study sample had rated their knowledge in sleep medicine as below average. Only 4.6% of the respondents correctly answered ≥60% of the questions. There was no difference in the scores of the respondents with regard to university, gender, grade-point average (GPA) or student academic levels. Only five universities provided data on sleep medicine education. The time spent teaching sleep medicine in the surveyed medical schools ranged from 0-8 hours with a mean of 2.6 ±2.6 hours. Identified obstacles included the following: (1) sleep medicine has a lower priority in the curriculum (53%) and (2) time constraints do not allow the incorporation of

  19. The Role of the Medical School in Rural Graduate Medical Education: Pipeline or Control Valve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Howard K.; Paynter, Nina P.

    2000-01-01

    Outcomes data from seven medical schools with successful special programs to increase the rural physician work force identify three core features: a strong institutional mission, targeted selection of students likely to practice in rural areas, and a focus on primary care, especially family practice. Rural residency programs should collaborate…

  20. [The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School: a regional commitment].

    PubMed

    Grob, C

    1997-07-01

    The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.

  1. The design of a medical school social justice curriculum.

    PubMed

    Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.

  2. Impact of anti-affirmative action on medical school enrollment.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R C

    2001-03-01

    The nation's medical, dental and health profession school admissions of African American and other under-represented minority students needs reassessment in view of recent challenges to anti-affirmative action policies. Data suggest that low-income and medically underserved communities are more likely to be cared for by minority physicians. Experts project that the U.S. will need about twice as many African-American physicians as it now has to serve future patient needs. Currently, African Americans comprise 3% of the physician workforce. Decisive actions and policies--such as the recommendations made by the National Medical Association--are needed to ensure parity and cultural diversity in the medical workforce. PMID:12653394

  3. Relationships between Drug Company Representatives and Medical Students: Medical School Policies and Attitudes of Student Affairs Deans and Third-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierles, Frederick; Brodkey, Amy; Cleary, Lynn; McCurdy, Frederick A.; Mintz, Matthew; Frank, Julia; Lynn, Deborah Joanne; Chao, Jason; Morgenstern, Bruce; Shore, William; Woodard, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors sought to ascertain the details of medical school policies about relationships between drug companies and medical students as well as student affairs deans' attitudes about these interactions. Methods: In 2005, the authors surveyed deans and student affairs deans at all U.S. medical schools and asked whether their schools…

  4. Suggested New Standards to Measure Social Accountability of Medical Schools in the Accreditation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan

    2014-01-01

    The role of medical schools as stakeholder for health improvement is well recognized. Medical schools are responsible of producing competent doctors who are capable to meet the society health needs and expectations. Other functions of medical schools are its participation in service and conduction of research. The concept of social accountability…

  5. The Morehouse Mystique: Becoming a Doctor at the Nation's Newest African American Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasman, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    The Morehouse School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia, is one of only four predominantly Black medical schools in the United States. Among its illustrious alumni are surgeons general of the United States, medical school presidents, and numerous other highly regarded medical professionals. This book tells the engrossing history of this venerable…

  6. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  7. Evaluating Learning among Undergraduate Medical Students in Schools with Traditional and Problem-Based Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess knowledge and skills in a respiratory physiology course in traditional versus problem-based learning (PBL) groups in two different medical schools. Two different undergraduate medical schools were selected for this study. The first medical school followed the traditional [lecture-based learning (LBL)] curriculum, and the…

  8. From School to Adult Living: A Forum on Issues and Trends. An Interview with Lou Brown, Andrew S. Halpern, Susan Brody Hasazi, and Paul Wehman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gary M., Ed.; Knowlton, H. Earl, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    An interview with four leaders (L. Brown, A. Halpern, S. Hasazi, and P. Wehman) on the conceptualization and implementation of transition programming for handicapped students focuses on such issues as the role of political factors, the possibility of effective school/adult service agency coordination, the importance of social skills, and emerging…

  9. Are medical school students ready for e-readers?

    PubMed

    Atlas, Michel C

    2013-01-01

    College textbook publishers are planning to make college and professional education textbooks available online to be downloaded to personal communication devices (e.g., smartphones), digital audio players (e.g., iPods), and digital readers (e.g., Kindles). The current literature on the attitudes of current students to this technological change, especially as it relates to medical school students is reviewed. A short survey attempted to determine how ready the first-year medical students at the University of Louisville are to accept this change in their study habits. PMID:23394419

  10. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  11. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    PubMed

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  12. Perspective: Medical school admissions and noncognitive testing: some open questions.

    PubMed

    Bardes, Charles L; Best, Peggy Carey; Kremer, Sara J; Dienstag, Jules L

    2009-10-01

    Medical schools use a variety of criteria in selecting applicants for admission, attempting to assess both the academic preparation and the personal characteristics suitable for a career in medicine. While assessing academic preparation is fairly straightforward, assessing applicants' personal characteristics is difficult and controversial. The possibility of implementing standardized testing of personal characteristics, so-called "noncognitive testing," has been proposed as part of the admissions process. Such a proposal, however, raises numerous questions about the validity, fairness, and cost of such testing and the impact of commercial test-preparation services on test performance and reliability. Therefore, before noncognitive testing is adopted for screening applicants to medical school, open discussion among all stakeholders in the admissions process is critically important.

  13. Role Modeling in the First 2 Years of Medical School.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Sharon J

    2015-08-01

    Role modeling opportunities for osteopathic physician teachers during a student's first 2 years of medical school are emerging as more colleges of osteopathic medicine strive to connect basic science didactics with clinically based learning activities. Examples of positive modeling by physician teachers during the first years of medical school are illustrated by 10 vignettes that can be incorporated into faculty development programs to increase awareness of such opportunities. The physician teacher in each vignette interacts with the student demonstrating desired professional behaviors. These vignettes also illustrate the effect of a positive "hidden curriculum" on a student's professional development. By recognizing these valuable teachable moments, teachers can incorporate role modeling into their daily practice. PMID:26214824

  14. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. Objectives To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Results Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Conclusion Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended. PMID:25995778

  15. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat these…

  16. "Brown" Fades: The End of Court-Ordered School Desegregation and the Resegregation of American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Grewal, Elena; Kalogrides, Demetra; Greenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased…

  17. "Brown" Fades: The End of Court-Ordered School Desegregation and the Resegregation of American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Grewal, Elena Tej; Kalogrides, Demetra; Greenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased…

  18. Statistics teaching in medical school: Opinions of practising doctors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The General Medical Council expects UK medical graduates to gain some statistical knowledge during their undergraduate education; but provides no specific guidance as to amount, content or teaching method. Published work on statistics teaching for medical undergraduates has been dominated by medical statisticians, with little input from the doctors who will actually be using this knowledge and these skills after graduation. Furthermore, doctor's statistical training needs may have changed due to advances in information technology and the increasing importance of evidence-based medicine. Thus there exists a need to investigate the views of practising medical doctors as to the statistical training required for undergraduate medical students, based on their own use of these skills in daily practice. Methods A questionnaire was designed to investigate doctors' views about undergraduate training in statistics and the need for these skills in daily practice, with a view to informing future teaching. The questionnaire was emailed to all clinicians with a link to the University of East Anglia Medical School. Open ended questions were included to elicit doctors' opinions about both their own undergraduate training in statistics and recommendations for the training of current medical students. Content analysis was performed by two of the authors to systematically categorise and describe all the responses provided by participants. Results 130 doctors responded, including both hospital consultants and general practitioners. The findings indicated that most had not recognised the value of their undergraduate teaching in statistics and probability at the time, but had subsequently found the skills relevant to their career. Suggestions for improving undergraduate teaching in these areas included referring to actual research and ensuring relevance to, and integration with, clinical practice. Conclusions Grounding the teaching of statistics in the context of real

  19. Emotional intelligence assessment in a graduate entry medical school curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The management of emotions in the workplace is a skill related to the ability to demonstrate empathic behaviour towards patients; to manage emotional reactions in oneself and to lead others as part of a team. This ability has been defined as emotional intelligence (EI) and doctor’s EI may be related to communication skills and to patient satisfaction levels. This study reports on the use of two assessments of EI as part of a course on Personal and Professional Development (PPD) in a graduate medical school curriculum. Methods Fifty one graduate entry medical students completed an eight session course on PPD between December 2005 and January 2006. Students completed two measures of EI: self-report (EQ-i) and ability (MSCEIT V2.0) over a two year study period. The data gathered were used to explore the relationship between self-report and ability EI and between EI and student demographics, academic performance and change over time. Results Analysis of the EI data demonstrated that self-report EI did not change over time and was not related to ability EI. Females scored higher than males on a number of self-report and ability EI scores. Self-reported self-awareness was found to deteriorate in males and females over time. High self-reported EI was found to be associated with poor performance on clinical competency assessments but with good performance on a number of bio-medical knowledge based assessments. Conclusions This report concludes that assessments of EI can be incorporated into a medical school curriculum as part of a PPD programme and that the concept of EI may be associated with performance in medical school. PMID:23497237

  20. Is it possible to assess the "ethics" of medical school applicants?

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, M.; Kerridge, I.; Bore, M.; Munro, D.; Powis, D.

    2001-01-01

    Questions surrounding the assessment of medical school applicants' morality are difficult but they are nevertheless important for medical schools to consider. It is probably inappropriate to attempt to assess medical school applicants' ethical knowledge, moral reasoning, or beliefs about ethical issues as these all may be developed during the process of education. Attitudes towards ethical issues and ethical sensitivity, however, might be tested in the context of testing for personality attributes. Before any "ethics" testing is introduced as part of screening for admission to medical school it would require validation. We suggest a number of ways in which this might be achieved. Key Words: Ethics • medical school selection • personality PMID:11731605

  1. The Impact of Simulated Medical Consultations on the Empathy Levels of Students at One Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Schweller, Marcelo; Costa, Felipe Osorio; Antônio, Maria Ângela R.G.M.; Amaral, Eliana M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of simulated medical consultations using standardized patients (SPs) on the empathy levels of fourth- and sixth-year students at the Unicamp medical school in Brazil. Method Throughout 2011 and 2012, the authors conducted this study with two classes of fourth-year (n = 124) and two classes of sixth-year (n = 123) medical students. Students completed the medical student version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy before and after simulated medical consultations with SPs, followed by an in-depth debriefing dealing with the feelings of the patient about the disease, such as fear, guilt, anger, and abandonment; the feelings of the doctor towards the patient; and other topics as they arose. Results The simulation activity increased the empathy scores of the fourth-year students (from 115.8 to 121.1, P < .001, effect size = 0.61) and of the sixth-year students (from 117.1 to 123.5, P < .001, effect size = 0.64). Conclusions Although the study results were obtained via self-report—a limitation—they suggest that the effective simulation of medical consultations with SPs may improve medical students’ empathy levels. One unexpected result was that this activity, during the debriefing, became a forum for debating topics such as the doctor–patient relationship, the hidden curriculum, negative role models, and emotionally significant experiences of students in medical school. This kind of activity in itself may influence young doctors to become more empathetic and compassionate with their patients and foster a more meaningful way of practicing medicine. PMID:24556779

  2. The impact on students of adverse experiences during medical school.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Gill, Denzil J; Fitzjohn, Julie; Palmer, Claire L; Mulder, Roger T

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the consequences for, and coping method used by, medical students who experienced adverse experiences during their training. A nationwide questionnaire based census of all current medical students in New Zealand. The response rate was 83% (1384/1660). Two-thirds of students had at least one adverse experience, with humiliation being the most common and having the greatest adverse impact. Unwanted sexual advances, unfair treatment on the basis of gender or race had a lesser impact for most students. Most students took several hours or several days to get over an adverse episode and most commonly they then avoided that person or department. Around one half sought help. Only one-quarter felt it motivated their learning while one-sixth felt it made them consider leaving medical school. The most common perpetrators were senior doctors or nurses. Unwanted sexual advances were most common from other students or from patients. Humiliation is the experience that affected students the most and had a significant adverse effect on learning. There is a disturbing rate of unacceptable practice within medical schools, not all of which is from doctors. PMID:16707293

  3. Patrick Browne (ca. 1720-1790), Irish physician, historian and Caribbean botanist: a brief biography with an account of his lost medical dissertations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E C

    2000-01-01

    Patrick Browne (ca. 1720-1790), a native of County Mayo, Ireland, studied medicine in Paris, graduated from the University of Rheims in 1742, and briefly continued his studies at Leiden before practising as a doctor at St Thomas's Hospital, London. Subsequently, he lived for many years in the Caribbean, in Antigua, Jamaica, Saint Croix and Montserrat, but retired to County Mayo in 1771. Browne published The civil and natural history of Jamaica in 1756 a most significant work in terms of botanical nomenclature, which included new names for 104 genera, and he promised also a volume of medical essays, but this was never printed. Fragments of his essays on venereal disease and yaws have been traced among his correspondence with Carl Linnaeus.

  4. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    PubMed

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  5. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    PubMed

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  6. Pilot Investigation of the Katie Brown Educational Program: A School-Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Nieves, Amethys V.; Brown, Larry K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools in the United States are increasingly being urged to address the problem of adolescent dating violence (DV) with their students. Given the limited time available to implement prevention programming during the school day, brief programs are needed. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a widely disseminated,…

  7. The Consequences of School Desegregation in a Kansas Town 50 Years after "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jean A.; Niles, Rae; Carlson, Cameron; Kelley, William L.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the legacy of segregation and desegregation in the town of Parsons, Kansas. We argue that school desegregation, the goal of which was to increase access and equalize educational opportunities for African Americans, did not have that desired affect. Fifty years after the closing of the all-Black Douglass School, Parsons'…

  8. "Mendez v. Westminster School District": How It Affected "Brown v. Board of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Frederick P.

    2005-01-01

    Most Americans are keenly aware of the African American civil rights movement. However, few know about the comparable struggle of Mexican Americans to enjoin the practice of segregated public schools in the Southwest. This article analyzes "Mendez v. Westminster School District," a 1946 federal court case that ruled that separate but equal schools…

  9. Spirituality and health in the curricula of medical schools in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to recent surveys, 59% of British medical schools and 90% of US medical schools have courses or content on spirituality and health (S/H). There is little research, however, on the teaching of S/H in medical schools in other countries, such as those in Latin America, Asia, Australia and Africa. The present study seeks to investigate the current status of teaching on S/H in Brazilian medical schools. Methods All medical schools in Brazil (private and public) were selected for evaluation, were contacted by email and phone, and were administered a questionnaire. The questionnaire, sent by e-mail, asked medical school directors/deans about any S/H courses that were taught, details about those courses, S/H lectures or seminars, importance of teaching this subject for medical school directors, and medical schools characteristics. Results A total of 86 out of 180 (47.7%) medical schools responded. Results indicated that 10.4% of Brazilian Medical Schools have a dedicated S/H courses and 40.5% have courses or content on spirituality and health. Only two medical schools have S/H courses that involve hands-on training and three schools have S/H courses that teach how to conduct a spiritual history. The majority of medical directors (54%) believe that S/H is important to teach in their schools. Conclusion Few Brazilian medical schools have courses dealing specifically with S/H and less than half provide some form of teaching on the subject. Unfortunately, there is no standard curriculum on S/H. Nevertheless, the majority of medical directors believe this issue is an important subject that should be taught. PMID:22900476

  10. Peer-assisted learning in medical school: tutees’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Audrey; Burgess, Annette; Clarke, Antonia J; Mellis, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 66 of 101 (65%) Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40%) students as tutors. The tutees’ response rate was 53% (35/66). Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and gaining practical skills and advice through a small-group format. The community of practice framework was useful in identifying these areas of benefit, demonstrating that a peer tutoring program such as this can provide an enhanced learning

  11. A Master of Science course at the Cardiff School of Medical Photography.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R J; Evans, R W; Young, S

    1993-07-01

    Formal teaching and training in medical photography at Cardiff started in 1969 when a School of Medical Photography was established, as part of the Department of Medical Illustration, at the Cardiff Royal Infirmary. In the early 1970s the school was transferred with the Medical Illustration Department to the newly built University Hospital of Wales, and housed in planned accommodation at what is now the Institute of Health Care Studies. The school offered courses in medical photography at the level of the qualifying examinations of the Professional Institutes, to suitably qualified in-service students appointed to the Medical Illustration Department as Trainee Medical Photographers. In 1990, the University of Wales approved a Master of Science course in Medical Illustration (Photography and Video) offered by the school. The course is available both to in-service students of the school and to practising medical photographers as mature students on a distance learning programme. Details of the new course and its delivery are given.

  12. Policy statement--guidance for the administration of medication in school.

    PubMed

    2009-10-01

    Many children who take medications require them during the school day. This policy statement is designed to guide prescribing health care professionals, school physicians, and school health councils on the administration of medications to children at school. All districts and schools need to have policies and plans in place for safe, effective, and efficient administration of medications at school. Having full-time licensed registered nurses administering all routine and emergency medications in schools is the best situation. When a licensed registered nurse is not available, a licensed practical nurse may administer medications. When a nurse cannot administer medication in school, the American Academy of Pediatrics supports appropriate delegation of nursing services in the school setting. Delegation is a tool that may be used by the licensed registered school nurse to allow unlicensed assistive personnel to provide standardized, routine health services under the supervision of the nurse and on the basis of physician guidance and school nursing assessment of the unique needs of the individual child and the suitability of delegation of specific nursing tasks. Any delegation of nursing duties must be consistent with the requirements of state nurse practice acts, state regulations, and guidelines provided by professional nursing organizations. Long-term, emergency, and short-term medications; over-the-counter medications; alternative medications; and experimental drugs that are administered as part of a clinical trial are discussed in this statement. This statement has been endorsed by the American School Health Association.

  13. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health perspective"…

  14. Survey of Courses Offered in U.S. Medical Schools on Health Care Delivery and Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Warren G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Medical educators urge that medical students be familiar with medical care costs and the impact of these costs on the delivery of health care. A survey on whether medical schools offered courses that discussed health care delivery systems, government health care policy and legislation, and medical economics is discussed. (MLW)

  15. “Information Survival Skills”: a medical school elective

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Sarah Knox; Hendrix, Ingrid Claire

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors developed an elective course to assist students in (1) understanding the changing nature of scholarly communication and online publishing, (2) identifying resources and strategies for searching current best evidence, and (3) demonstrating effective communication of information. Setting: The course took place in a medical school in the Southwest. Participants: Second- and third-year medical students participated in the course. Intervention: A pass-fail, undergraduate-level elective was first offered October to December 2006. This 7.5 hour course, developed and co-taught by 2 health sciences library faculty, consisted of hands-on exercises, small group discussion, and didactic lecture. Conclusion: Presenting a medical school elective is one possible outlet for intensive bibliographic instruction. Illustrating the flow of information from creation to management and presentation affords students an opportunity to understand information in context. This elective has been consistently ranked very high in student evaluations and led to new and expanded teaching opportunities. PMID:23133330

  16. An international virtual medical school (IVIMEDS): the future for medical education?

    PubMed

    Harden, R M; Hart, I R

    2002-05-01

    The introduction of new learning technologies, the exponential growth of Internet usage and the advent of the World Wide Web have the potential of changing the face of higher education. There are also demands in medical education for greater globalization, for the development of a common core curriculum, for improving access to training, for more flexible and student-centred training programmes including programmes with multi-professional elements and for maintaining quality while increasing student numbers and working within financial constraints. An international virtual medical school (IVIMEDS) with a high-quality education programme embodying a hybrid model of a blended curriculum of innovative e-learning approaches and the best of traditional face-to-face teaching is one response to these challenges. Fifty leading international medical schools and institutions are participating in a feasibility study. This is exploring: innovative thinking and approaches to the new learning technologies including e-learning and virtual reality; new approaches to curriculum planning and mapping and advanced instructional design based on the use of 'reusable learning objects'; an international perspective on medical education which takes into account the trend to globalization; a flexible curriculum which meets the needs of different students and has the potential of increasing access to medicine. PMID:12098412

  17. African-American Heritage profile - Maikeyza Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Maikeyza Brown is a contract management specialist at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. A native of Washington, D.C., Brown overcame obstacles to receive honors in high school a...

  18. Monetizing College Reputation: The Case of Taiwan's Engineering and Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Hung-Lin

    2007-01-01

    This study uses the admission scores of Taiwan's Joint College Entrance Examination (JCEE) and occupational wage data to estimate the reputation values of engineering and medical schools in Taiwan. It is found that the reputation values of medical schools are more than twice those of engineering schools. It takes about 7 and 19 years of work for…

  19. Population-Based Medical Education: Linkages Between Schools of Medicine and Public Health Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Sharon K.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the educational linkages between medical schools and public health agencies (PHAs) through a survey of all 134 allopathic medical schools in the United States. Of the 108 schools that responded, 63% reported placing some or all students at PHAs. Barriers to PHA placement included lack of faculty interest and lack of designated PHA contact…

  20. An Audit of Medication Administration: A Glimpse into School Health Offices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canham, Daryl L.; Bauer, Laurie; Concepcion, Michelle; Luong, June; Peters, Jill; Wilde, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Many students require prescription and nonprescription medication to be administered during the school day for chronic and acute illnesses. School office staff members are typically delegated this task, yet these individuals are unlicensed assistive personnel without medical training. Five school nurses developed and participated in a medication…

  1. Survey of Clinical Pharmacology Programs in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Fisher, James W.

    1980-01-01

    A survey is reported that was undertaken by the Association for Medical School Pharmacology to assess the status of developing clinical pharmacology programs in medical schools in the United States and Canada and to determine why some schools have been unable to mount such programs. Survey questions are included. (Author/JMD)

  2. Graduates of foreign medical schools in American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Munoz, R A; Madigan, M

    1986-10-01

    Members of the American Psychiatric Association who graduated from foreign medical schools, currently 25 percent of APA membership, are increasingly integrating themselves into the mainstream of American psychiatry. Nevertheless, an APA survey of members who are foreign medical graduates (FMGs) conducted in 1984 indicates that FMGs continue to pass the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examination and to be awarded APA fellowships at a significantly lower rate than their U.S.-trained counterparts. Solutions to these disparities have been increasingly sought by the leaders of APA, especially those of the association's areas II, IV, and V, where FMGs are concentrated. The higher percentage of women among FMGs than among U.S.-trained psychiatrists and the increasing presence of Americans and Canadians among FMGs are likely to enhance pressure to solve the problems of FMGs.

  3. Accreditation of medical schools: the question of purpose and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Azila, N M A; Tan, C P L

    2005-08-01

    Accreditation is a process by which official accrediting bodies evaluate institutions using a set of criteria and standards, following established procedures, to ensure a high quality of education needed to produce highly competent graduates. Additional objectives include (1) ensuring quality institutional functioning, (2) strengthening capabilities of educational institutions for service to the nation and (3) improving public confidence in medical schools. The accreditation process provides an opportunity for the institution to critically reflect upon all the aspects of its programme and the level of compliance or attainment of the requirements. The self-evaluation exercise, which identifies strengths and weaknesses, is perceived as formative. It is envisaged that eventually institutions will adopt a learning culture for curriculum development, implementation, monitoring and matching the outcomes. In conclusion, periodic accreditation activities can act as a "monitoring" system to ensure that the quality of medical education is maintained according to established standards. PMID:16315622

  4. Teaching of Biochemistry in Medical School: A Well-Trodden Pathway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…

  5. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  6. New Medical-School Programs Put Students on a Fast Track to the White Coat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    California's lieutenant governor has proposed a fast-track medical school that would shave three years off the training needed to become a physician. It is not the first time such an idea has been offered. The proposal, for a hoped-for medical school at the University of California at Merced, struck some medical educators as both unrealistic and…

  7. Going Through Medical School and Considering the Choice of Family Medicine: Prescription or Antidote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauksch, Hans O.; And Others

    A study of the choice of specialty by medical students suggests that Family Medicine depends on students whose choice predates medical school; the number of those interested diminishes significantly over the four years. Interviews suggest several characteristics of the medical school that mitigate against the choice of family medicine and steer…

  8. Prediction of Success in an Accelerated BS/MD Medical School Program Using Two Projective Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daubney, John H.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Two successive classes of accelerated medical students were administered a variety of tests to find predictors of medical school grades. Through a combination of the Hand Test and Rorschach, a single index of maladjustment, Daubney Index, was derived. This correlated -.55 with medical school grades for 23 students. (Author/SJL)

  9. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  10. Family Perceptions of Medication Administration at School: Errors, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…

  11. Experience with Information Technology at Harvard Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Piggins, Judith L.; Barnett, G. Octo; Foster, Ethan A.; Moore, Gordon T.; Kozaczka, Julie A.; Scott, Jon W.; Raila, Wayne F.; Zielstorff, Rita D.; Bensley, Christine A.; Eccles, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    Harvard Medical School has undertaken a series of curriculum reforms which include placing a major emphasis on the use of computer technology as an educational and information management resource. This paper presents a description of the strategy chosen to integrate computer technology into the HMS curriculum. The hardware and software used in the project are described, and the various tasks entailed in developing and supporting the computer capabilities are outlined. Finally, a few of the issues and tradeoffs which have emerged during our experience with this project over the past several years are discussed.

  12. Nutrition education in Japanese medical schools: a follow-up survey.

    PubMed

    Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.

  13. Teaching Medication Adherence in US Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Linda Garrelts; Hess, Karl; Farmer, Kevin C.; Yurkon, Afton M.; Ha, Carolyn C.; Schwartzman, Emmanuelle; Law, Anandi V.; Milani, Paul A.; Trotta, Katie; Labella, Sara R.; Designor, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine and describe the nature and extent of medication adherence education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy. Methods. A mixed-methods research study was conducted that included a national survey of pharmacy faculty members, a national survey of pharmacy students, and phone interviews of 3 faculty members and 6 preceptors. Results. The majority of faculty members and students agreed that background concepts in medication adherence are well covered in pharmacy curricula. Approximately 40% to 65% of the students sampled were not familiar with several adherence interventions. The 6 preceptors who were interviewed felt they were not well-informed on adherence interventions, unclear on what students knew about adherence, and challenged to provide adherence-related activities for students during practice experiences because of practice time constraints. Conclusions. Intermediate and advanced concepts in medication adherence, such as conducting interventions, are not adequately covered in pharmacy curriculums; therefore stakeholders in pharmacy education must develop national standards and tools to ensure consistent and adequate medication adherence education. PMID:22761520

  14. Neuroimmune Pharmacology as a Sub-discipline of Medical Neuroscience in the Medical School Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Freilich, Robert W.; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2011-01-01

    The emerging field of neuroimmune pharmacology (NIP) is the confluence of three distinct disciplines: neuroscience, immunology, and pharmacology (Gendelman and Ikezu 2008). NIP was born from the realization that inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) plays a crucial role in many neurological pathologies and as such offers a rich array of novel pharmacological targets as potential therapeutics. As this field is likely to have a major impact in medical science, educating future physicians on this area will help increase awareness and may potentially inspire them to pursue careers in the field of NIP. However, a key challenge for medical educators, is how best to incorporate new material on emerging fields, such as NIP, into the medical school curriculum, specifically in the context of a medical neuroscience course. We propose the addition of two 50-min lectures plus an additional optional 2-h lab module to the standard first year medical neuroscience class curriculum. Lecture 1 will focus on how the CNS and the immune system inter-communicate with one another with emphasis on neuroanatomical features and chemical signal transduction between the two systems. Lecture 2 provides an introduction to inflammation in the CNS and provides a series of clinical correlates to describe how CNS inflammation contributes to the disease process. The lab module provides detailed visual examples of how CNS inflammation influences disease processes and provides two examples of how application of an immunomodulatory pharmacological agent can modify disease processes. PMID:21103946

  15. Contemporary Civil Rights Challenges of "Brown vs. Board of Education": School Leaders Identify Current Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    School leaders from five states gathered recently to examine civil rights issues facing students today. The session was held by the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) South Central Collaborative for Equity, which is the federally-funded equity assistance center for Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. The…

  16. Perspective: follow the money: the implications of medical schools' funds flow models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey C; Andersson, George E; Cohen, Marcia; Cohen, Stephen M; Gibson, Scott; Hindery, Michael A; Hooven, Martha; Krakower, Jack; Browdy, David H

    2012-12-01

    Medical schools conduct research, provide clinical care, and educate future physicians and scientists. Each school has its own unique mix of revenue sources and expense sharing among the medical school, faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). Despite these differences, revenues from clinical care subsidize the money-losing research and education missions at every medical school.In this perspective, the authors discuss the flow of funds among a medical school, its faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). They summarize where medical school revenues come from, how revenues and expenses flow within a medical school and between a medical school and its partners, and why understanding this process is crucial to leading and managing such an enterprise. They conclude with recommendations for medical schools to consider in developing funds flow models that meet their individual needs and circumstances: (1) understand economic drivers, (2) reward desired behaviors, (3) enable every unit to generate a positive margin, (4) communicate budget priorities, financial performance, and the use of institutional resources, and (5) establish principles for sharing resources and allocating expenses among entities within the institution.Medical schools should develop funds flow models that are transparent, aligned with their strategic priorities, and reward the behaviors necessary to produce effective collaboration within and across mission areas.

  17. Perspective: follow the money: the implications of medical schools' funds flow models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey C; Andersson, George E; Cohen, Marcia; Cohen, Stephen M; Gibson, Scott; Hindery, Michael A; Hooven, Martha; Krakower, Jack; Browdy, David H

    2012-12-01

    Medical schools conduct research, provide clinical care, and educate future physicians and scientists. Each school has its own unique mix of revenue sources and expense sharing among the medical school, faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). Despite these differences, revenues from clinical care subsidize the money-losing research and education missions at every medical school.In this perspective, the authors discuss the flow of funds among a medical school, its faculty practice plan(s), parent university, and affiliated hospital(s). They summarize where medical school revenues come from, how revenues and expenses flow within a medical school and between a medical school and its partners, and why understanding this process is crucial to leading and managing such an enterprise. They conclude with recommendations for medical schools to consider in developing funds flow models that meet their individual needs and circumstances: (1) understand economic drivers, (2) reward desired behaviors, (3) enable every unit to generate a positive margin, (4) communicate budget priorities, financial performance, and the use of institutional resources, and (5) establish principles for sharing resources and allocating expenses among entities within the institution.Medical schools should develop funds flow models that are transparent, aligned with their strategic priorities, and reward the behaviors necessary to produce effective collaboration within and across mission areas. PMID:23095918

  18. Virtues Education in Medical School: The Foundation for Professional Formation

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M.; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Methods: Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues—courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice—are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. Results: As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own

  19. Pathology in the new pathway of medical education at Harvard Medical School.

    PubMed

    Colvin, R B; Wetzel, M S

    1989-10-01

    In 1985 Harvard Medical School initiated an experimental curriculum that incorporated many of the recommendations of the report on the General Professional Education of the Physician (GPEP). Key features are problem-based small group tutorials that emphasize active learning, with increased independent study time and a decreased number of lectures. Tutors serve as guides to their students and are not necessarily experts in the discipline of the cases studied. Learning skills are taught, including information acquisition and criticism and computer literacy. Knowledge is integrated from the beginning by interdisciplinary basic science courses, by earlier introduction of the clinical sciences, and by juxtaposition of the scientific and humanistic aspects of medicine. Preventive medicine, health maintenance, and ambulatory care are given more attention. The students are organized into societies that provide vertical integration and promote cooperation among students and closer contact with faculty. Pathology has proved to be a popular and key bridge in the new curriculum. The success of the early efforts at Harvard and several pioneering medical schools should encourage others to move toward more problem-solving, student-centered, integrative medical education.

  20. The business side of healthcare practice: retooling graduate medical students through medical school curriculum enhancements.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Mario A; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2012-01-01

    Practicing physicians often complain that medical schools failed to provide them with any substantive business training. And with the financial stress placed on today's medical practices, doctors feel unprepared for the rigors of managing a business and shortchanged when it comes to cashing-in on the fair value of their education. The University of South Florida piloted a three-credit course for nonbusiness-minded graduate students, aptly named "The Business Side of Medicine." The intent was to imprint aspiring, time-constrained graduate students, early in their biomedical education, with the need to develop a sound business acumen. Students, if made aware that the structure of healthcare practice is changing into a value-based and consumer-driven marketplace, will process in tandem with their graduate and medical schooling the notion that wellness and compensation are interdependent. The Business Side of Medicine addresses four core concepts that will logically germinate within the students' minds the desire to make practical, profitable career choices.

  1. Prejudice Reduction in Schools: Teaching Tolerance in Schools--Lessons Learned since Brown v. Board of Education about the Development and Reduction of Children's Prejudice. Social Policy Report. Volume 21, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Brown, Christia Spears; Juvonen, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    More than five decades after Brown v. Board of Education and four decades after the Civil Rights era, racial prejudice remains a national problem cutting across social class and culture. Although schools may seem ideal places to teach children about tolerance and harmony, there is little consensus on how to best reduce negative sentiments and…

  2. The medical school curriculum at University Malaysia Sabah.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, P; Osman, A

    2005-08-01

    The integrated curriculum at the newly established medical school at University Malaysia Sabah is examined from aspects of the objectives of the medical training in achieving development of the required skills and knowledge as well as personal and professional development. The teaching is spread over five years with an emphasis on basic medical sciences in the first two years although the students are exposed to clinical skills right from the onset. A gradual transition to emphasis on the acquisition of clinical skills occurs from the third year onwards. However, community medicine and professional development are incorporated into the programme from the first year and are carried over to the final year. Although there are examinations to be passed in all the courses taught every semester, with a Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 3.0 (65 percentile score) and the candidate has to pass all the examinations in that year to clear a particular year, two professional examinations are administered, one at the end of the Third Year (end of the Phase I of the Medical Programme) and another at the end of the Fifth or Final year (end of the Phase II of the Medical Programme). Programmes for Postings, Shadow House Officers (SHOP) and Population Health are also incorporated into the curriculum. Delivery of the courses involve Lectures, Self-Learning Packages (SLP), Small Group Discussions (SGD), Seminars, Debates, Dramas, Video clips, Special Study Modules (SSM), Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI), Problem-based Learning (PBL), Problem-solving Sessions (PSS) and Clinical Skills Learning (CSL). The examination involves elements of continuous assessment and final end of semester or end of phases I and II Professional Examinations. Practical may involve Objective Structured Practical Examinations (OSPE) and/or Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE). They may also involve viva voce and/or short and long case presentations and assessment of log book entries.

  3. [Physical anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Medical School].

    PubMed

    Kim, Ock-Joo

    2008-12-01

    Medical research during the Japanese Colonial Period became systematic and active after the Keijo Imperial University Medical School was established in 1926. Various kinds of research were conducted there including pharmacological, physiological, pathological and parasitological research. The Keijo Imperial University was give a mission to study about Korea. Urgent topics for medical research included control of infectious diseases, hygiene and environmental health that might have affected colonizing bodies of the Japanese as well as the colonized. The bodies of Koreans had been studied by Japanese even before the establishment of the University. The Keijo Imperial University research team, however, organized several field studies for physical anthropology and blood typing research at the national scale to get representative sampling of the people from its north to its south of the Korean peninsula. In the filed, they relied upon the local police and administrative power to gather reluctant women and men to measure them in a great detail. The physical anthropology and blood typing research by the Japanese researchers was related to their eagerness to place Korean people in the geography of the races in the world. Using racial index R.I.(= (A%+AB%)/(B%+AB%)), the Japanese researchers put Koreans as a race between the Mongolian and the Japanese. The preoccupation with constitution and race also pervasively affected the medical practice: race (Japanese, Korean, or Japanese living in Korea) must be written in every kind of medical chart as a default. After the breakout of Chinese-Japanese War in 1937, the Keijo Imperial University researchers extended its physical anthropology field study to Manchuria and China to get data on physics of the people in 1940. The Japanese government and research foundations financially well supported the Keijo Imperial University researchers and the field studies for physical anthropology in Korea, Manchuria and China. The physical

  4. After rejection in Canada, more Canadians pursuing career dreams at offshore medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Korcok, M

    1997-01-01

    Being denied admission to medical schools here isn't necessarily the end of the line for would-be Canadian doctors. The number of Canadians applying to medical schools in the Caribbean and Mexico is increasing, and graduates of some of them are winning respectable postgraduate training spots in the US, United Kingdom and even Canada. Milan Korcok looks at the calibre of these offshore medical schools and the impact they are having on training and accreditation in North America. PMID:9084396

  5. Curricular Reform of the 4th Year of Medical School: The Colleges Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Stuart J.; Wilkes, Michael S.; Usatine, Richard P.; Hoffman, Jerome R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the evolution of the fourth year of medical school in the United States, current strengths and weaknesses of the fourth year program, and a major curricular reform initiative at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. (SLD)

  6. Medical School Personal Statements: A Measure of Motivation or Proxy for Cultural Privilege?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Students from state schools are underrepresented in UK medical schools. Discussions often focus on deficient academic and motivational traits of state school students, rather than considering the effects of student support during the admissions process. This qualitative study explored student experiences of support from schools and families during…

  7. Insulin Administration in Catholic Schools: A New Look at Legal and Medical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…

  8. Medical Literature Evaluation Education at US Schools of Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. Methods. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Results. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Conclusion. There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques. PMID:26941431

  9. The Role of the Medical School Admission Process in the Production of Generalist Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Howard K.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the medical student characteristics associated with graduates' entering generalist careers, including initial specialty preference, geographic background, gender, age, ethnicity, economic/lifestyle factors, attitudes and personal values, service orientation, and premedical academic performance. Presents strategies medical schools can use…

  10. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    PubMed

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  11. [Medical degree earned with a thesis in medical schools of Lima, 2011: characteristics, motivations and perceptions].

    PubMed

    Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants’ motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived “greatest” and “least” difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate.

  12. Need for injury-prevention education in medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Isaac; Sayegh, Rockan; Lotfipour, Shahram; Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury.

  13. Teaching and learning of professionalism in medical schools.

    PubMed

    Sivalingam, N

    2004-11-01

    Concerns about professionalism in medicine have made necessary the explicit teaching and learning of ethics, professionalism and personal development. The noble profession of medicine, taken up as a "calling" by those who are expected to put the needs of the patient above their own, appears to have become a fees-for-service business model and trade. Parental expectations, the diminishing sense of responsibility in teachers, lack of role models, technological advancements, sub-specialisation and third-party involvement in the healthcare delivery system have been identified as reasons for these concerns. The General Medical Council in the United Kingdom, and other professional bodies in both Europe and the Americas, have emphasised the need to enhance the teaching and learning of professionalism in medical schools, particularly the development of good attitudes, appropriate and competent skills, and the inculcation of a value system that reflects the tenets of professionalism in medicine. The medical curriculum will need to be scrutinised so as to introduce the subject of professionalism at all levels of training and education. Barriers to learning professionalism have been identified and students need to be equipped to resolve conflicts and to put the needs of others above their own.

  14. Teaching acupuncture to medical students: the experience of Rio Preto Medical School (FAMERP), Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Bosco Guerreiro; Saidah, Rassen; Megid, Cecília Baccili Cury; Ramos, Neil Alvimar

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, and in particular acupuncture, has been practised and taught in recent years in many universities in the Western world. Here, we relate our experiences since 1997 in teaching acupuncture to medical students at Rio Preto Medical School (Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP)), Brazil. Classes are given in the third and fifth years. The main goals of understanding the mechanisms of action and being able to recognise patients who may benefit from treatment and referring them have been well achieved, scoring 3.6 and 4.1, respectively, on a scale of 1-5. Also using that scale, medical students believe that acupuncture is important in the curriculum (4.6), course time is not sufficient (2.7) and they would like more information (4.6). To overcome these concerns, many students join an undergraduate study group (Acupuncture League) where they have more time to learn. We also describe the presence of foreign medical students who, since 2000, have enrolled in a course of 150 h in an exchange programme.

  15. The Politics of Education in the Post-"Brown" Era: Race, Markets, and the Struggle for Equitable Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Janelle; Quinn, Rand

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this essay, we examine the racial politics of education in the six decades after "Brown". We consider the state of educational policy in an era in which market reform advocates often invoke the spirit of the "Brown" decision even as the Supreme Court has largely vacated the legal framework provided by…

  16. Medical school personal statements: a measure of motivation or proxy for cultural privilege?

    PubMed

    Wright, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Students from state schools are underrepresented in UK medical schools. Discussions often focus on deficient academic and motivational traits of state school students, rather than considering the effects of student support during the admissions process. This qualitative study explored student experiences of support from schools and families during the medical school admissions process with particular focus on the personal statement. Interviews were conducted with thirteen medical students at a British medical school who had each attended a different secondary school (classified as private or state funded). A thematic analysis was performed. Bourdieu's concepts of capital and field were used as a theoretical lens through which to view the results. Interviews revealed substantial differences in support provided by private and state funded schools. Private schools had much more experience in the field of medical school admissions and had a vested interest in providing students with support. State schools were lacking by comparison, offering limited support that was often reactive rather than proactive. Students from private schools were also more likely to have social contacts who were knowledgeable about medical school admissions and who could help them gain access to work experience opportunities that would be recognised as legitimate by selectors. While medical schools endeavour to make fair admissions policies, there is an unintended link between a student's access to capital and ability to demonstrate commitment and motivation on personal statements. This helps explain why academically capable but financially or socially challenged students are less likely to be recognised as having potential during the admissions process. Medical schools need to be challenged to review their admissions policies to ensure that the do not inadvertently favour cultural privilege rather than student potential. PMID:25201752

  17. Avoiding student infection during a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak: a single medical school experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM) were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology. PMID:27240893

  18. An audit of medication administration: a glimpse into school health offices.

    PubMed

    Canham, Daryl L; Bauer, Laurie; Concepcion, Michelle; Luong, June; Peters, Jill; Wilde, Claudia

    2007-02-01

    Many students require prescription and nonprescription medication to be administered during the school day for chronic and acute illnesses. School office staff members are typically delegated this task, yet these individuals are unlicensed assistive personnel without medical training. Five school nurses developed and participated in a medication audit providing a glimpse into the administration and management of medications in school health offices. The audit included 154 medications. Results of the audit showed a wide range of errors and discrepancies, including problems with transcription, physician orders or lack thereof, timing, documentation, and storage. Audit results highlight the importance of training in medication administration and management at schools. It also directs attention to view training not as a once-a-year event, but as a process. A process is needed to ensure and sustain the safe and accurate administration of medication. Towards this end, school nurses need to periodically evaluate school office staff, audit school medication records and documents, and conduct refresher classes throughout the school year.

  19. International Medical School Faculty Development: The Results of a Needs Assessment Survey among Medical Educators in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Yan; Sippola, Emily; Feng, Xinglin; Dong, Zhe; Wang, Debing; Moyer, Cheryl A.; Stern, David T.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the need for faculty development among Chinese medical educators. Leaders at each medical school in China were asked to complete a 123-item survey to identify interest in various topics and barriers and perceived benefits of participating in faculty development programs. Interest levels were high for all topics. Experience with Hospital…

  20. Student-Perceived School Climate is Associated with ADHD Medication Treatment among Adolescents in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Susanna N.; Kramer, Dennis; Snyder, Angela B.; Sebian, Joyce; McGiboney, Garry; Handler, Arden

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the relationship between school climate and ADHD medication treatment among adolescents in Medicaid in Georgia (GA). Methods School climate and Medicaid claims data were aggregated for 159 GA counties. County-level school climate percentile and medicated ADHD prevalence were calculated. T-tests and regression evaluated the relationship between school climate, medicated ADHD, and demographics, weighted by county population. Poorer 2008 school climate (<25th percentile) was regressed on 2011 medicated ADHD prevalence, controlling for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of medicated ADHD was 7.8% among Medicaid-enrolled GA adolescents. The average county-level prevalence of medicated ADHD was 10.0% (SD=2.9%). Poorer school climate was associated with lower rates of medicated ADHD (p<0.0001) and with demographics accounted for 50% of the county variation in medicated ADHD. Conclusions School climate is associated with medicated ADHD among adolescents in Medicaid. Additional research may reveal whether high medicated ADHD may reflect a lack of access to non-pharmacological therapies. PMID:25710947

  1. [Proliferation of medical schools in latin America. Causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2002-08-01

    Significant changes in university education have occurred in Latin America, caused by the strategic importance that it has on economical and social development. The educational system expanded and science, technology and informatics, experienced an important development. The eighties were characterized by a reduction in government expenditures, a more efficient use of resources, an increase in the number and variety of universities and university students. The creation of new universities, mostly private, was favored by a highly unregulated market. In Latinamerica, more new universities were created during the eighties than in the previous one hundred years. Since 1981, the number of universities in Chile increased from 8 to 60, the type of institutions was diversified, the government financing of public universities decreased substantially and the regulatory role of the market was emphasized. These changes have been quantitatively understandable but qualitatively unsatisfactory. Since 1981, the number of university students between 19 and 24 years old has triplicated. The number of medical schools and the annual admission of students has duplicated. In most Latin American countries, there is an insufficient number of physicians (Chile has one physician per 783 inhabitants). Since the decade of the nineties, an effort has been made to regulate the market, to introduce new barriers for the acceptance of new educational institutions, to improve the transparency of the system and to preserve the quality of teaching. The quality control of medicine and health is one of the most serious problems in Latin American countries. This includes accreditation of medical schools, health centers and specialists. In Chile there have been some progress in these topics but quality control is still unsatisfactory.

  2. Polemic: five proposals for a medical school admission policy

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, C

    2006-01-01

    Five proposals for admitting better applicants into medical school are discussed in this article: (1) An A level in a humanity or social science would be required, to supplement—not replace—the stringent science requirement. This would ensure that successful candidates would be better “primed” for the medical curriculum. (2) Extra points in the applicant's initial screening would be awarded for an A level in English literature. (3) There would be a minimum age of 23 for applicants, although a prior degree would not be required. This is to ensure that the applicants are mature enough to know themselves and the world better, to make a more informed and motivated choice of career, and to get more out of the humanities components of the curriculum. (4) A year's full‐time experience in a healthcare or charity environment would be desirable. (5) Applicants would be given two lists of interview discussion topics to prepare: works of literature and topics in healthcare politics. PMID:16877632

  3. [Development of a moral consciousness in medical schools].

    PubMed

    Vykydal, M; Kolarík, J; Horcicka, V; Weinbergová, O

    1989-01-01

    In the conditions of developed socialism, changes in social consciousness are also reflected in one of its forms - the morals. The problems of moral education as an inseparable part of communist education is coming to the foreground. It plays its role in all the stages of the education system, having its unsubstitutable place also in the conditions of universities and technical colleges, the faculties of medicine not excluding. It is its task to form the personality of the student and graduate, to make them, among others, acquire the moral codex of a builder of communism (habits of moral behaviour in professional activities - medical ethics). Such crucial situations must be found that are of cardinal importance for the formation of the medical student's moral profile (transition from the secondary school to university, entering the clinic, meeting the patient, running health institutions, positive and negative influences in the health service). The student must live the moral situation, obtain the experience from moral acting on his own self and be an active participant in the events creating his moral qualities, primarily in collective conditions. We stress the necessity of engagement - mobilisation of students to all-round social activities, connection of the theoretical findings of marxist ethics with their particular problems and actual activities. A special accent is laid on the method of personal example, the moral example of the university teacher himself, in the first place his authority based on all the progressive components of his personality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Preventing and managing unprofessionalism in medical school faculties.

    PubMed

    Binder, Renee; Friedli, Amy; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Professionalism is a required competency for medical students, residents, practicing physicians, and academic faculty. Faculty members must adhere to codes of conduct or risk discipline. The authors describe issues of unprofessionalism that culminate in allegations of faculty misconduct or filing of grievances in academic medicine and outline strategies for early intervention and prevention. The authors, vice and associate deans and executive director of the office of faculty affairs at a large U.S. medical school, have handled many allegations of unprofessional conduct over the past decade. They present case examples based on behaviors such as lack of respect, inappropriate language and behavior, failure to cooperate with members of the health care team, and sexual harassment/discrimination. They discuss factors complicating evaluation of these behaviors, including variable definitions of respect, different cultural norms, and false allegations. The authors make recommendations for prevention and intervention, including early identification, performance management, education about sexual harassment, and referrals to professional coaches, anger management classes, and faculty-staff assistance programs.

  5. A unique solution to solve the pending medical school tuition crisis.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Louis; Wolfe, Honor

    2010-07-01

    The increasing cost of undergraduate medical education and the decreasing availability of financial aid have resulted in the accumulation of a large debt for medical students that requires a reasonable solution. After reviewing suggested solutions to alleviate medical student debt, we have developed a unique proposal. The Strategic Alternative for Funding Education (SAFE) has the practicing physician pay for his or her medical school education after completion of residency/fellowship over a 10-year time interval when income will likely be rising. The amount paid yearly is calculated as a percent of the physician's professional income. A strategic alternative for funding education has the potential to alleviate the pending crisis in medical student debt, allows medical schools to compete for students based on the educational experience offered, and allows a student of any socioeconomic status to attend medical school and choose a medical specialty based solely on ability and desire.

  6. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  7. A Medical School for the Mountains: Training Doctors for Rural Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    2001-01-01

    The Pikeville College School of Osteopathic Medicine (Kentucky) trains primary care physicians for practice in rural Appalachian communities. Describes the medical school's creation, funding, and mission; scholarships and provision of textbooks and supplies to students; rural residency requirements; and new approaches to medical education and to…

  8. SIDS Education in Nursing and Medical Schools in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Helen; McClain, Mary; Vance, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 214 nursing and 63 medical schools indicated that 92% of nursing and 79% of medical programs taught about sudden infant death syndrome. Prevention was addressed by less than half. Nursing schools were more likely to address bereavement and family support. Reliance on textbooks raised concerns about the currency of the content. (SK)

  9. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  10. A Pilot Matching Program for Applicants to Five California Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Jochen; Pops, Martin A.

    1991-01-01

    The 1989 California Medical School Matching Program pilot study illustrated that the technical aspects of a matching program for medical school applicants can be successful, paralleling the current admission process to a reasonable degree. The process is designed to solve the problem of multiple acceptance within an applicant pool. (Author/MSE)

  11. "A Convenient Dispensary": Elementary Education and the Influence of the School Medical Service 1907-39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, David

    1998-01-01

    Examines the first 30 years of school medical services in one English local education authority against the background of social and educational legislation, the first world war, political and economic uncertainties of the interwar decades, and changing public opinion. Details the rise in importance of school medical officers in this period. (DSK)

  12. The Medical School Admissions Process: A Review of the Literature 1955-1976. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei; And Others

    This document reviews the research on the medical school admissions process that has been completed during the past twenty years. The process is put into perspective by a historical overview chapter that traces trends in medical school admissions and highlights, where possible, relationships between the admissions process and institutional and…

  13. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  14. Medication management in primary and secondary schools: evaluation of mental health related in-service education in local schools.

    PubMed

    Reutzel, Thomas J; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Nian Liu; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh

    2008-08-01

    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat these disorders. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of these educational programs presented to school nurses, teachers, school administrators, and other personnel. The study compared participant responses before and after attending a medication in-service session on a psychological disorder and its related medications. Results indicated that in-service education on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression improved the knowledge and confidence levels of school personnel regarding medications and symptoms. Feedback indicated school personnel wanted longer educational sessions and more information on these disorders and treatments. School nurses working with health professionals can improve education for staff, families, and students about mental health disorders and their treatment. PMID:18757357

  15. The Medical Profession and School Design in England, 1902-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Roy A.

    1973-01-01

    The medical profession was enormously influential in initiating a virtual revolution in English school design during the years before the First World War, working for the demise of the central-hall school and for the popularization of more spacious schools. (Author)

  16. The Academic Backbone: longitudinal continuities in educational achievement from secondary school and medical school to MRCP(UK) and the specialist register in UK medical students and doctors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Methods Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Results Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on

  17. Fifth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research: The "Brown" Legacy and the O'Connor Challenge--Transforming Schools in the Images of Children's Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    The gap between Blacks and Whites in educational outcomes has narrowed dramatically over the past 60 years, but progress stopped around 1990. The author reviews research suggesting that increasing the quantity and quality of schooling can play a powerful role in overcoming racial inequality. To achieve that goal, he reasons, our knowledge of best…

  18. The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine summer medical program for high school students.

    PubMed

    Larson, Jerome; Atkins, R Matthew; Tucker, Phebe; Monson, Angela; Corpening, Brian; Baker, Sherri

    2011-06-01

    To enhance diversity of applicants to University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, a Summer Medical Program for High School Students was started in 2009. This comprehensive pipeline program included sessions on applying to medical school, interaction with a panel of minority physicians and health care professionals role models, clinically oriented didactics taught by physician faculty, shadowing experiences in clinics and hospitals, and presentation of student research reports. Students' assessments in 2009 showed increased understanding of the medical school application process, the medical curriculum and the medical field, and an increase in students'likeliness to choose a medical career. Importance of long-term mentoring and follow-up with students to sustain their medical interests is discussed.

  19. The Impact of VA and Navy Hospital Collaboration on Medical School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atre-Vaidya, Nutan; Ross, Arthur, III; Sandu, Ioana C.; Hassan, Tariq

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of medical education in the United States and is often the preferred training site for medical students and residents. However, changing priorities of patients and the marketplace are forcing medical schools and the VA to consider new ways of practicing medicine…

  20. Social Accountability of Medical Schools: Do Accreditation Standards Help Promote the Concept?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan

    2014-01-01

    The social accountability of medical schools is an emerging concept in medical education. This issue calls for the consideration of societal needs in all aspects of medical programmes, including the values of relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Most importantly, these needs must be defined collaboratively with people themselves.…

  1. What makes a top research medical school? A call for a new model to evaluate academic physicians and medical school performance.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality.

  2. What makes a top research medical school? A call for a new model to evaluate academic physicians and medical school performance.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Matthew J; Lunn, Mitchell R; Peng, Lily

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication of the Flexner Report in 1910, the medical education enterprise has undergone many changes to ensure that medical schools meet a minimum standard for the curricula and clinical training they offer students. Although the efforts of the licensing and accrediting bodies have raised the quality of medical education, the educational processes that produce the physicians who provide the best patient care and conduct the best biomedical research have not been identified. Comparative analyses are powerful tools to understand the differences between institutions, but they are challenging to carry out. As a result, the analysis performed by U.S. News & World Report (USN&WR) has become the default tool to compare U.S. medical schools. Medical educators must explore more rigorous and equitable approaches to analyze and understand the performance of medical schools. In particular, a better understanding and more thorough evaluation of the most successful institutions in producing academic physicians with biomedical research careers are needed. In this Perspective, the authors present a new model to evaluate medical schools' production of academic physicians who advance medicine through basic, clinical, translational, and implementation science research. This model is based on relevant and accessible objective criteria that should replace the subjective criteria used in the current USN&WR rankings system. By fostering a national discussion about the most meaningful criteria that should be measured and reported, the authors hope to increase transparency of assessment standards and ultimately improve educational quality. PMID:25607941

  3. Enhancing Collaboration between School Nurses and School Psychologists When Providing a Continuum of Care for Children with Medical Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández Finch, Maria E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Mcintosh, Constance E.; Thomas, Cynthia; Maughan, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Students who are medically involved often require sustained related services, regular care coordination, and case management to ensure that they are receiving a free and appropriate public education. Exploring the collaboration efforts of school psychologists and school nurses for meeting the educational and related services needs of these…

  4. Measuring social responsiveness of medical schools: a case study from New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A

    1999-08-01

    Medical schools can assess their social responsiveness by gauging the degrees to which the health needs of the populations and communities they serve frame their missions and endeavors in education, service, and research. Beyond considering these traditional academic missions, medical schools can also assess how well they apply their expertise to needed reform of the health care delivery system and to the formation of health policies aimed at improving community health status. This article summarizes the means by which a medical school's social responsiveness can be judged in each of the above areas, and it presents examples of successes and failures in such responsiveness by the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. It concludes with lessons learned that can guide future innovations in social responsiveness of medical schools. PMID:10495746

  5. Disaster preparedness: what training do our interns receive during medical school?

    PubMed

    Jasper, Edward; Berg, Katherine; Reid, Matthew; Gomella, Patrick; Weber, Danielle; Schaeffer, Arielle; Crawford, Albert; Mealey, Kathleen; Berg, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Disaster preparedness training is a critical component of medical student education. Despite recent natural and man-made disasters, there is no national consensus on a disaster preparedness curriculum. The authors designed a survey to assess prior disaster preparedness training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2010, the authors surveyed incoming interns (n = 130) regarding the number of hours of training in disaster preparedness received during medical school, including formal didactic sessions and simulation, and their level of self-perceived proficiency in disaster management. Survey respondents represented 42 medical schools located in 20 states. Results demonstrated that 47% of interns received formal training in disaster preparedness in medical school; 64% of these training programs included some type of simulation. There is a need to improve the level of disaster preparedness training in medical school. A national curriculum should be developed with aspects that promote knowledge retention.

  6. Subject cataloging practices in North American medical school libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, R B; Michael, H N

    1976-01-01

    A survey of North American medical school libraries was made to determine current trends in subject cataloging practices. First, responses from 114 of these libraries are recorded and analyzed in the following areas: subject heading authority lists employed; use of the divided versus the dictionary catalog; and the form in which local subject authority files are kept. Then, focusing on 78 libraries that use MeSH in combination with a divided catalog, a further analysis of responses is made concerning issues relating to subject cataloging practices: updating the subject catalog to conform to annual MeSH changes; use of guide cards in the catalog; use of MeSH subheadings; filing conventions; and related issues. An attempt is made to analyze the extent to which these libraries vary from NLM practices. Suggestions are offered for formulating subject cataloging practices for an individual library. Finally, while it is concluded that MeSH and the Current Catalog are useful tools, a more detailed explication of the use of MeSH and NLM cataloging practices would be beneficial. PMID:989741

  7. Assessing the written communication skills of medical school graduates.

    PubMed

    Boulet, John R; Rebbecchi, Thomas A; Denton, Elizabeth C; McKinley, Danette W; Whelan, Gerald P

    2004-01-01

    The ECFMG Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools (IMGs) are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The patient note (PN) exercise, conducted after a 15-minute interview with a standardized patient (SP), is specifically used to assess a candidate's ability to summarize and synthesize the data collected. On a yearly basis, approximately 75,000 patient notes are reviewed and scored by physician raters. Recent changes to the PN scoring rubric, combined with enhancements to quality assurance procedures, mandate that additional evidence be provided to support the intended use of PN scores. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the psychometric adequacy of PN scores. Generalizability analyses suggest that while variability in PN ratings can be attributed to the choice of rater, candidate scores are reproducible over the 10-encounter CSA. The relationship of PN scores with other related ability measures and select candidate characteristics provides additional evidence to support the validity of the written exercise.

  8. From enrichment to equity: comments on diversifying the K-12 medical school pipeline.

    PubMed Central

    Murray-García, Jann L.; García, Jorge A.

    2002-01-01

    Educating a physician workforce that reflects the increasing racial and ethnic diversity of our nation is an ongoing challenge of urgent concern. Many medical school kindergarten through 1 2th grade (K-12) pipeline programs focus on "enriching" underrepresented minority (URM) students using strategies to change or "improve" individual students. This discussion raises concerns over longstanding racial and ethnic inequities in America's public schools that, in part, result in the predictable and systematic underachievement of URM students. These insidious processes can disqualify URM students from successful participation in the medical school pipeline at its earliest stages. The paper also discusses the cultural challenges URM students often face in aspiring to exceptional academic achievement within America's schools. Finally, this paper highlights the need for illustrative examples of medical school-public school partnerships that pursue an agenda of equity to balance the current downstream focus on the enrichment of individual students. PMID:12152930

  9. Project School Care: integrating children assisted by medical technology into educational settings.

    PubMed

    Palfrey, J S; Haynie, M; Porter, S; Bierle, T; Cooperman, P; Lowcock, J

    1992-02-01

    The increasing number of children assisted by medical technology in the U.S. has led to a need for systematic planning for the children's care in community settings such as schools. Project School Care in Massachusetts provides consultation to school systems as schools respond to the challenge of integrating children assisted by medical technology into educational settings. The model of practice described includes the step-wise planning process and the ensuing training, enrollment, and monitoring procedures. Implications are explored with particular emphasis on upgrading of skills at all medical and educational levels. More input from school health personnel in administrative decision-making around enrollment of children with special health care needs is recommended. For these children, a health care plan should be incorporated into their Individualized Education Plans and into their school records.

  10. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  11. Essentials of an Acceptable School for Medical Record Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.

    The Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association in collaboration with the American Association of Medical Record Librarians establishes standards for medical record technician education, surveys and approves educational programs, and publishes lists of approved programs. The standards presented are intended as a guide for…

  12. Developing the Medical Liaison Role in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Ouimet, Tia

    2011-01-01

    There is a reciprocal relationship between medical and educational systems; nearly all medical issues for children have educational ramifications and educational settings are ideal for implementing preventative and ameliorative medical strategies. Systemic models of collaboration between medical and educational systems are necessary but not…

  13. The role of the medical school admission process in the production of generalist physicians.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, H K

    1999-01-01

    Medical education research has identified a number of medical student characteristics that are related to graduates' entering generalist careers. These include initial specialty preference, geographic background, gender, age, ethnicity, economic and lifestyle factors, attitudes and personal values, service orientation, and premedical academic performance. Identifying and giving weight to these factors in the medical school admission process is likely to increase the number of graduates who choose generalist specialties. This paper discusses these medical student characteristics and presents strategies that medical schools could use in the selection process to enhance the matriculation of students who are most likely to become generalists. In this way, medical schools will be able to recruit and select students who are most likely to become excellent physicians, and also produce a more appropriate balance of all specialists to meet the needs of the population. PMID:9934307

  14. Health law and mental health law courses in US medical schools.

    PubMed

    Felthous, A R; Miller, R D

    1987-01-01

    Results of a recent survey of all 127 medical schools in the United States indicate that about two fifths of medical schools offer a separate course that focuses on topics in medicine and law and a number of medical schools integrate health law topics into other courses. Presumably reflecting concern over temporary medical malpractice litigation, most health law courses include informed consent, medical malpractice, privileged/confidential information, and patients' rights. In contrast, schools that offer a course on psychiatry and law are clearly in a minority. It is elective at all but two of the 13 schools with such a course. Although the hours allotted and the format of these courses vary greatly, courses typically cover most of the topics listed on the questionnaire. Most of the courses are led or co-led by a member of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Information from two additional surveys suggests two related factors that may influence a medical school to present a separate course on health law. Medical licensing boards were surveyed to determine which states require physicians to be examined on health law. In two states that require physicians to pass a separate medical jurisprudence examination for licensure, all four-year medical schools offer a course on health law for medical students. Medical malpractice companies providing coverage in all 50 states and the District of Columbia were surveyed to determine which states have the highest claim rates. The claim rate per 1,000 physicians insured per year was significantly greater in states with health law courses than was the rate in states without such courses. PMID:3427235

  15. Role of students’ context in predicting academic performance at a medical school: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Tamara; Pope, Daniel; Singleton, A; Stanistreet, D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines associations between medical students’ background characteristics (postcode-based measures of disadvantage, high school attended, sociodemographic characteristics), and academic achievement at a Russell Group University. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Applicants accepted at the University of Liverpool medical school between 2004 and 2006, finalising their studies between 2010 and 2011. Participants 571 students (with an English home postcode) registered on the full-time Medicine and Surgery programme, who successfully completed their medical degree. Main outcome measures Final average at year 4 of the medical programme (represented as a percentage). Results Entry grades were positively associated with final attainment (p<0.001). Students from high-performing schools entered university with higher qualifications than students from low-performing schools (p<0.001), though these differences did not persist at university. Comprehensive school students entered university with higher grades than independent school students (p<0.01), and attained higher averages at university, though differences were not significant after controlling for multiple effects. Associations between school type and achievement differed between sexes. Females attained higher averages than males at university. Significant academic differences were observed between ethnic groups at entry level and university. Neither of the postcode-based measures of disadvantage predicted significant differences in attainment at school or university. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that educational attainment at school is a good, albeit imperfect, predictor of academic attainment at medical school. Most attainment differences observed between students either decreased or disappeared during university. Unlike previous studies, independent school students did not enter university with the highest grades, but achieved the lowest attainment at university

  16. Academic Success for Students of Color . . . At What Cost? The Importance of School Context at Birch High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Terah T. Venzant; Tabron, Lolita A.

    2013-01-01

    Kiara, an African American rising freshman, has aspirations to become a medical doctor. She enrolls at Birch High School because of the reputation of the principal, Mr. Brown, whose vision for academic excellence permeates every corner of the school. Kiara graduates from high school with top honors, but realizes her success may have come at a…

  17. Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard's departure from the Medical College of Virginia: incompatible science or incompatible social views in pre-Civil War southern United States.

    PubMed

    Watson, Joseph C; Ho, Stephen V

    2011-01-01

    Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard was one of the most colorful characters in modern physiology. His scientific methods of self-experimentation and animal vivisection led to many great observations, including the eponymous syndrome of hemisection of the spinal cord. Despite his renown, he stayed but one year in his first major academic post. Details of his sojourn at the Medical College of Virginia (now part of Virginia Commonwealth University) in Richmond were divined from perusal of archival material, letters, and from the available literature. His notoriety in the field of physiology landed him a post at the Medical College of Virginia in 1854 as the chair of physiology. During a brief time here, he was able to publish his landmark monograph of 1855 on the pathways of the spinal cord "Experimental and Clinical Researches on the Physiology and Pathology of the Spinal Cord." He had a near-death experience while experimenting on himself to determine the function of the skin. It was rumored that his English was poor, his lectures unintelligible, and his scientific methods disturbing to the neighbors and that for those reasons he was asked to vacate his post. Personal communications and other accounts indicate a different view: his mixed-blood heritage and his views on slavery were unpopular in the pre-Civil War southern United States. These disparate viewpoints lend an insight into the life and career of this pioneer in modern medicine and experimental design and to the clash of science and social views.

  18. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  19. Behavioral science teaching in U.S. medical schools: a 1980 national survey.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, B; Torem, M

    1982-10-01

    The teaching of behavioral science in medical school has become increasingly complex in the attempt to integrate biological, social, and psychological knowledge. The authors sent a survey questionnaire to determine actual and preferred organizational structures to 130 medical schools; 90 responded. The most frequent structure--46 schools (51%)--was unidepartmental. Thirty-four schools (38%) were multidepartmental, and 10 (11%) had a matrix organization. Schools with a unidepartmental structure reported a higher degree of satisfaction and more organizational advantages. Multidepartmental and matrix models offered some educational advantages at the cost of administrative efficiency. During the 1980s, funding for unidepartmental schools may prove more cost effective than funding for schools with different organizational structures.

  20. Do Medical School Mission Statements Align with the Nation's Health Care Needs?

    PubMed Central

    Valsangkar, Bina; Chen, Candice; Wohltjen, Hannah; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2014-01-01

    Problem To quantify the relative prevalence of traditional (education, research, service) and emerging (prevention, diversity, primary care, distribution, cost control) themes in medical school mission statements. Approach In 2011, the authors obtained and analyzed the mission statements from 136 MD-granting and 34 DO-granting medical schools. They read each for the presence of traditional and emerging themes then compared the mission statements by category of school (MD-granting vs. DO-granting, level of National Institutes of Health funding, public vs. private, date of initial accreditation [before or during/after 2000], and community-based vs. non-community-based). Outcomes Traditional themes were common in medical school mission statements--education (170, 100%), research (146, 86%), and service (150, 88%). Emerging themes were less common--distribution (41, 24%), primary care (32, 19%), diversity (27, 16%), prevention (9, 5%), and cost control (2, 1%). DO-granting and community-based medical school mission statements cited the traditional theme of service and the emerging themes of primary care and distribution more frequently than those of MD-granting and non-community-based schools. Next Steps The traditional themes of education, research, and service dominate medical school mission statements. DO-granting and community-based medical schools, however, more often have incorporated the emerging themes of primary care and distribution. While including emerging themes in a mission statement does not guarantee tangible results, omitting them suggests that the school has not embraced these issues. Without the engagement of established medical schools, the national health care problems represented by these emerging themes will not receive the attention they need. PMID:24871240

  1. Too Few, Too Weak: Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Medical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Mintzes, Barbara; Jutel, Annemarie; Holloway, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI) policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. Methods A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. Results COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9) and for gifts and scholarships (0.8). Discussion This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate. PMID:23861928

  2. Visiting medical student elective and clerkship programs: a survey of US and Puerto Rico allopathic medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background No published reports of studies have provided aggregate data on visiting medical student (VMS) programs at allopathic medical schools. Methods During 2006, a paper survey was mailed to all 129 allopathic medical schools in the United States and Puerto Rico using a list obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges. Contents of the survey items were based on existing literature and expert opinion and addressed various topics related to VMS programs, including organizational aspects, program objectives, and practical issues. Responses to the survey items were yes-or-no, multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and free-text responses. Data related to the survey responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results Representatives of 76 schools (59%) responded to the survey. Of these, 73 (96%) reported their schools had VMS programs. The most common reason for having a VMS program was "recruitment for residency programs" (90%). "Desire to do a residency at our institution" was ranked as the leading reason visiting medical students choose to do electives or clerkships. In descending order, the most popular rotations were in internal medicine, orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and pediatrics. All VMS programs allowed fourth-year medical students, and approximately half (58%) allowed international medical students. The most common eligibility requirements were documentation of immunizations (92%), previous clinical experience (85%), and successful completion of United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 (51%). Of the programs that required clinical experience, 82% required 33 weeks or more. Most institutions (96%) gave priority for electives and clerkships to their own students over visiting students, and a majority (78%) reported that visiting students were evaluated no differently than their own students. During academic year 2006-2007, the number of new resident physicians who were former visiting medical students ranged

  3. Contemporary issues in medicine--medical informatics and population health: report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges established the Medical School Objectives Project (MSOP) to set forth program-level learning objectives that medical school deans and faculties can use as guides in reviewing their medical student education programs (initial phase), and to suggest strategies that they might employ in implementing agreed-upon changes in those programs (implementation phase). The publication of MSOP Report I in 1998 concluded the initial phase of the project by presenting 30 program-level learning objectives that represent a consensus within the medical education community on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that students should possess before graduation from medical school. Report II, published here, is the work of two expert panels that focus on the two interrelated topics of medical informatics and population health for which Report I developed learning objectives. The Medical Informatics Panel identified five roles played by physicians--lifelong learner, clinician, educator-communicator, researcher, and manager--in which medical informatics plays a vital part, and defined one or more informatics learning objectives important for each role (e.g., the successful medical school graduate, in his or her role as a clinician, should be able to retrieve patient-specific information from a clinical information system). The panel then identified ways that schools might implement educational programs to address the various informatics learning objectives and to eventually embed informatics experiences throughout the curriculum rather than relying on an informatics course to achieve some or all of the objectives. The Population Health Perspective Panel developed a consensus definition of "population health perspective" (PHP); chose four types of populations to discuss (e.g., the geographic community); reviewed pressures for and against the implementation of a PHP in the curriculum (e.g., the cross-disciplinary nature of the topic is a barrier

  4. Impact of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on School Performance: What are the Effects of Medication?

    PubMed

    Baweja, Raman; Mattison, Richard E; Waxmonsky, James G

    2015-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects an estimated 5-7 % of schoolchildren worldwide. School functioning and academic achievement are frequently impaired by ADHD and represent one of the main reasons children start ADHD medication. Multiple potential causal pathways exist between ADHD and impaired school performance. In this review, we decompose school performance into three components and assess the impact of ADHD and its treatments on academic performance (assessed by grade point average [GPA], time on-task, percentage of work completed as well as percent completed correctly), academic skills (as measured by achievement tests and cognitive measures), and academic enablers (such as study skills, motivation, engagement, classroom behavior and interpersonal skills). Most studies examined only the short-term effects of medication on school performance. In these, ADHD medications have been observed to improve some aspects of school performance, with the largest impact on measures of academic performance such as seatwork productivity and on-task performance. In a subset of children, these benefits may translate into detectable improvements in GPA and achievement testing. However, limited data exists to support whether these changes are sustained over years. Optimizing medication effects requires periodic reassessment of school performance, necessitating a collaborative effort involving patients, parents, school staff and prescribers. Even with systematic reassessment, behavioral-based treatments and additional school-based services may be needed to maximize academic performance for the many youth with ADHD and prominent impairments in school performance. PMID:26259966

  5. Rediscovering Ethnic Identity Development in Public Schools 50 Years after the "Brown" Decision: The Case of Malcolm Moor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Andre J.

    2004-01-01

    Since the "Brown" decision of 1954, American society has moved from a position of seeing no redeeming value in black culture to acknowledging that African Americans have rich cultures worth celebrating. This article reports the case of Malcolm Moor, an African American teacher who believes it is his responsibility and obligation to nurture…

  6. Quality of Preparation of the Practice of Medicine in Certain Foreign-Chartered Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Medical Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The adoption of improved evaluation methods is advocated to ensure that graduates from schools not accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education have knowledge and skills that approach equivalency to those of U.S. domestic graduates. (MLW)

  7. Five things they don’t teach you in medical school

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Chad G.; Grondin, Sean C.; Dixon, Elijah; Lillemoe, Keith D.; Bhandari, Mohit; Parry, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Summary You graduate from medical school with dreams of beginning your residency, during which you will study and train within the specialty you love more than any other. While you may be book-smart at this point in your career, medical school does not teach you everything you need to know. During residency you will learn the didactic and technical requirements for your future staff job, but medical school won’t explicitly address many of the crucial “dos and don’ts” of a successful 2- to 5-year postgraduate training voyage. Here we discuss a few of the important things about residency that you’ll need to know that they don’t teach you in medical school. PMID:27668328

  8. The Family and Medical Leave Act and the Public School Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marczely, Bernadette

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act as it affects public school teachers. Discusses basic provisions, covered employers and eligible employees, employee rights under the law, employee responsibilities, and the potential effect on the teaching workforce. (SR)

  9. Physics in Medical Diagnosis--An Optional Unit for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronen, Micky; Ganiel, Uri

    1984-01-01

    Describes the general features of a new, optional learning unit that was developed and implemented in Israel high schools. The unit, which focuses on physics in medical diagnosis, deals with real practical problems and does not replace traditional physics. (JN)

  10. Resident Perceptions of Anatomy Education: A Survey of Medical School Alumni from Two Different Anatomy Curricula and Multiple Medical Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael A.; Gest, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents…

  11. Medical Students' Education in the Ambulatory Care Setting: Background Paper 1 of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Carl E.; Kallenberg, Gene A.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on strategies being developed by medical schools to carry out education in the ambulatory care setting, based on studies of 38 institutions. Highlights three main strategies: longitudinal preceptorships; multi-specialty clerkships; and community-oriented and population-based activities that provide relevant educational experiences for…

  12. Clinical revenues used to support the academic mission of medical schools, 1992-93.

    PubMed

    Jones, R F; Sanderson, S C

    1996-03-01

    This is the report of a study undertaken by the Association of America n Medical Colleges to estimate the total amount of clinical revenues that are used to support the academic mission of U.S. medical schools. The study was prompted by an awareness that recent market-driven changes in health care organization and financing threaten the structure of medical school financing that has evolved over the last half-century. A total of 60 medical schools (48%) participated in the study. The results, projected for all 126 U.S. medical schools, indicate that faculty practice plans in 1992-93 provided an estimated $2.4 billion in support for medical school academic programs. (1992-93 was the latest year for which complete financial data were available.) This amount represents 28 cents of every faculty-practice-plan dollar collected that year. The primary way in which faculty practice plans support academic programs is by underwriting clinical faculty time spent in academic activities, but direct transfers of funds, from the practice plan to the school and departments, also play a major role. The major beneficiary of faculty-practice-plan support is research, defined broadly to include a range of scholarly activities, at an estimated level of $816 million for all U.S. schools. This is followed by undergraduate medical education, at $702 million, graduate medical education, at $594 million, and other, largely undifferentiated academic support at $244 million. In addition to faculty practice plan revenues, teaching by volunteer faculty contributed another $545 million in imputed-dollar support of academic programs, bringing the total level of support to nearly $3 billion. Volunteer faculty teaching was divided nearly evenly between undergraduate and graduate medical education. Hospitals may also provide clinical revenues in support of the academic mission by applying hospital funds to academic programs and by absorbing academic-program expenses that are not otherwise reimbursed

  13. Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project.

  14. Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project. PMID:24905376

  15. Measuring social responsiveness of medical schools: a case study from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sirisup, N

    1999-08-01

    Thailand has 13 medical schools, one of which is private. Graduates of the 12 government medical schools must provide service in rural areas for three years after graduation. The Chulalongkorn University Faculty of Medicine (Chulalongkorn Medical School) pursues social responsibility in various ways. For example, it has multiple tracks for student admission, includes a curricular track designed to produce doctors for rural areas, has revised curriculum to make it more relevant to social needs, chooses clinical teaching sites with such needs in mind, and works closely with relevant institutions in the government and elsewhere. Until recently, Thai medical schools evaluated their social responsiveness informally. This evaluation has become much more systematic, however, since 1996, when the Ministry of University Affairs issued policies and guidelines for quality assurance in higher education. As a member of the International Working Party for Measuring the Social Accountability of Medical Schools, Chulalongkorn Medical School recently used the social accountability grid to help assess its performance. It found its social responsiveness to be outstanding in the educational domain, fair in the research domain, and good in the service domain. PMID:10495747

  16. Teaching end-of-life issues in US medical schools: 1975 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, George E

    2006-01-01

    This study examined medical school offerings on end-of-life issues between 1975 and 2005. Seven national surveys of US medical schools were conducted in 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005 (response rates in percentages of 95, 96, 90, 90, 93, 92, and 81, respectively). Results revealed that between 1975 and 2005, the overall offerings in death and dying increased so that 100% of US medical schools, beginning in 2000, offered something on death and dying. A multidisciplinary-team approach continued over the 30-year period. Palliative care is offered in 94% of US medical schools, to some extent, and about a fourth of the schools offer students an opportunity to have a continuing relationship for several weeks with a terminally ill patient. Numerous end-of-life topics are currently covered in the curriculum. This increased attention to end-of-life issues in medical schools should enhance each medical student's relationship with terminally ill patients and their families.

  17. The relationship between academic performance and severity of depressed mood during medical school.

    PubMed

    Clark, D C; Daugherty, S R; Zeldow, P B; Gotterer, G S; Hedeker, D

    1988-01-01

    We employ a structural equation model to examine the relationship between academic performance and depressed mood over 4 years for a single medical school class. Academic performance measures included undergraduate gradepoint average, first- and second-year medical school gradepoint average, full Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) and total National Boards Part I (NB) scores. Severity of depressed mood was assessed by administering the Beck Depression Inventory two times per year during the first 2 years, and once per year during the last 2 years. Overall there is little reason to think that depressive mood states compromise academic performance during the first 2 years of medical school for the class as a whole. Medical school grades had no direct impact on depressed mood, and mood had no direct impact on grades. There was a non-significant tendency for mood in the months preceding National Boards Part I to influence Board scores, which in turn influenced mood. Students with higher college gradepoint averages consistently reported fewer depressive symptoms throughout medical school. The latter result directs attention to a subgroup of medical students less susceptible to depression, or less prone to admit distress or symptoms. The non-susceptible and/or minimizing qualities of this subgroup merit further investigation.

  18. Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" to the German language.

    PubMed

    Kötter, Thomas; Voltmer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Medizinstudierende sind spezifischen Stressoren ausgesetzt. Als Folge der Stressbelastung kommt es bei Medizinstudierenden im Vergleich zu gleichaltrigen Berufstätigen häufiger zu Ängsten, Depressionen und Burn-out. Vitaliano et al. haben bereits 1984 ein 13 Items umfassendes Instrument zur Messung der spezifischen Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden, das „Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS), vorgestellt. Es wurde seitdem im englischsprachigen Bereich breit eingesetzt und validiert. Bislang liegt jedoch keine deutschsprachige Version des Instrumentes vor. Ziel des Projektes war die Übersetzung des PMSS in die deutsche Sprache, um es im Rahmen von Studien im deutschsprachigen Raum einzusetzen.Methodik: Die englischsprachigen Items des PMSS wurden von drei Untersuchern in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt. Die Versionen wurden synoptisch gegenübergestellt und auf dieser Basis wurde für jedes Item eine deutschsprachige Version formuliert. Diese Versionen wurden von Muttersprachlerinnen in die englische Sprache zurückübersetzt. Auf der Basis dieser Rückübersetzungen, eines kognitiven Debriefings an 19 deutschen Medizinstudierenden und einer testtheoretischen Evaluation an 169 deutschen Medizinstudierenden wurden dann die endgültigen deutschsprachigen Formulierungen festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Das PMSS konnte ohne größere Schwierigkeiten in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt werden. Sowohl zwischen den Übersetzungen in die deutsche Sprache als auch zwischen beiden Rückübersetzungen waren die Übereinstimmungen groß. Bei Diskrepanzen erfolgte die Einigung schnell und unkompliziert. Der Einsatz der deutschsprachigen Version erbrachte einen guten Wert für die Reliabilität (Cronbachs Alpha 0,81).Schlussfolgerung: Es steht nun auch für deutschsprachigen Raum ein spezifisches Instrument zur Messung der Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung.

  19. Prudentia: A Medical School's Solution to Curriculum Mapping and Curriculum Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steketee, Carole

    2015-01-01

    During early accreditation visits by the Australian Medical Council (AMC), staff in the School of Medicine (SoM) were asked to demonstrate how and when AMC student outcome statements were being integrated into the MBBS course. As a result, the School Executive committed to developing a curriculum mapping system (CMS) that could systematically…

  20. Genre Analysis of Personal Statements: Analysis of Moves in Application Essays to Medical and Dental Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    Despite the important role the personal statement plays in the graduate school application processes, little research has been done on its functional features and little instruction has been given about it in academic writing courses. The author conducted a multi-level discourse analysis on a corpus of 30 medical/dental school application letters,…

  1. Web-based Library Instruction for a Changing Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplowitz, Joan R.; Yamamoto, David O.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how librarians at the UCLA (University of California Los Angeles) biomedical library adopted to changes in the medical school's curriculum, developed new ways to support the school's instructional goals, and provided information literacy instruction. Discusses librarian-faculty collaboration to meet the changing needs of students and…

  2. Development of Staffing Patterns in Six New Medical Schools Established 1952-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Resources Analysis Branch.

    This summary report of staffing patterns in 6 medical schools established between 1952 and 1960 is the first phase of a proposed study of biomedical staffing requirements in institutions of higher education, 1965-1975. The 6 schools are: the University of Miami, Albert Einstein College of medicine at Yeshiva University, the University of Florida,…

  3. Downsizing of Basic Science Departments in U.S. Medical Schools: Perceptions of Their Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, H. George

    1997-01-01

    The National Caucus of Biomedical Science Chairs administered a 35-item questionnaire concerning department downsizing to medical school basic science department heads (n=400). Results indicate significant loss of faculty positions in one-third of the schools, with a 10% overall reduction from 1985-95. Department restructuring, with merging of…

  4. Medication-Related Practice Roles: An Ethical and Legal Primer for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Given the prevalence of school-age children and adolescents who are prescribed with and are taking psychotropic medications, a critical issue that school psychologists may likely encounter in contemporary practice is providing both quality and continuity of care to these students in the context of relevant legal and ethical parameters. With a…

  5. Medical Diagnostic Consultation concerning Mental Retardation: An Analogue Study of School Psychologists' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer; Balles, John; Gorin, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Recent research of relevance to school psychologists suggests that the cause, or etiology, of mental retardation can be established by medical diagnosticians in approximately one-half of cases. In the current study, 109 practicing school psychologists considered a hypothetical case of an elementary student with mental retardation and indicated…

  6. Status of Faculty Affairs and Faculty Development Offices in U.S. Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morahan, Page S.; Gold, Jennifer S.; Bickel, Janet

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed faculty affairs personnel at U.S. medical schools. Found that schools support over four times as many offices of faculty affairs as faculty development. Core functions of faculty affairs offices include administrative support for appointments, promotions, and tenure committees; faculty information and policies; faculty governance…

  7. Admissions processes for five year medical courses at English schools: review

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan; Stevens, Andrew; Parsons, Amanda; Lilford, Richard; Spurgeon, Peter; Thomas, Hywel

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the current methods used by English medical schools to identify prospective medical students for admission to the five year degree course. Design Review study including documentary analysis and interviews with admissions tutors. Setting All schools (n = 22) participating in the national expansion of medical schools programme in England. Results Though there is some commonality across schools with regard to the criteria used to select future students (academic ability coupled with a “well rounded” personality demonstrated by motivation for medicine, extracurricular interests, and experience of team working and leadership skills) the processes used vary substantially. Some schools do not interview; some shortlist for interview only on predicted academic performance while those that shortlist on a wider range of non-academic criteria use various techniques and tools to do so. Some schools use information presented in the candidate's personal statement and referee's report while others ignore this because of concerns over bias. A few schools seek additional information from supplementary questionnaires filled in by the candidates. Once students are shortlisted, interviews vary in terms of length, panel composition, structure, content, and scoring methods. Conclusion The stated criteria for admission to medical school show commonality. Universities differ greatly, however, in how they apply these criteria and in the methods used to select students. Different approaches to admissions should be developed and tested. PMID:16543300

  8. A School Administrator's Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosland, Carl C.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, yet practical, reference for information and guidance to comply with the requirements of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. It provides school administrators with the latest information to ensure that school policies and practices are up-to-date and it helps to manage leave and avoid costly legal violations.…

  9. Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Teaching in U.S. Medical and Osteopathic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Alex; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a national survey show that required teaching activities during all four years of medical school averaged 25.7 hours, with a range from 0 to 126. Schools differed widely in the number and type of electives offered in drug abuse and alcoholism, as well as in the number of clinical assignments available. (Author/LBH)

  10. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  11. Committee to Assess the Teaching of Pathology in New Medical School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    This is the report of a committee appointed by the American Association of Chairmen of Medical School Departments of Pathology (AACMSDP), Inc. to assess the role and major objectives of pathology departments in the education of medical students. The report includes a summary of the overall project and findings, abstracts of the meeting and…

  12. The Cooperative Sharing of Audiovisual Materials in Medical Schools; a Network Approach. Case Study 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Medical Audiovisual Center of the National Library of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.

    The evolution of medical schools from their post-Renaissance Italian prototypes to present modern facilities has been marked by a variety of philosophies, methodologies, and pedagogical styles. Pressures to improve medical curriculum led to the educational media movement of the 1950's. By 1970, the Association of Professors of Gynecology and…

  13. Association between Lifestyle and School Attendance in Japanese Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle factors are thought to be associated with students' academic performance. Whether lifestyle factors were associated with medical students' school attendance was determined. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: The study group consisted of 157 healthy second-year medical students attending Osaka City University Graduate…

  14. Implementing a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum in an Argentinean Medical School: Implications for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrera, Larisa Ivon; Tellez, Tomas Eduardo; D'Ottavio, Alberto Enrique

    2003-01-01

    Describes the difficulties Argentina's medical schools are likely to face in implementing a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. Outlines the basic requirements for successful implementation of PBL curricula and describes the contradiction in Argentina between a health care system that forces specialization and the efforts of medical schools…

  15. Students and Psychotropic Medication: The School's Role. A Resources Aid Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    School professionals encountering students on medication are confronted with a variety of procedures and issues related to medication administration, monitoring, and effects. This resource aid is designed to provide a brief overview guide to this topic and some procedural tools. Section 1 provides an overview perspective, guidelines, and tools…

  16. Formal Body Bequest Program in Nigerian Medical Schools: When Do We Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, Oluwole Busayo

    2011-01-01

    Human body dissection is a prerequisite for the training of health professionals and the conduct of medical research. However, most Nigerian medical schools experience difficulty obtaining an adequate and regular supply of human tissue. Presently, the major source of anatomical material comes from unclaimed bodies collected from hospital…

  17. Positive Impact of Integrating Histology and Physiology Teaching at a Medical School in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Renslow; Wan, Yu; Dong, Hongmei; Cooper, Brian; Morgan, Ivy; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lin; Xu, David

    2014-01-01

    To modernize its stagnant, traditional curriculum and pedagogy, the Medical School of Wuhan University in China adopted (with modifications) the University of Chicago's medical curriculum model. The reform effort in basic sciences was integrating histology and physiology into one course, increasing the two subjects' connection to…

  18. Attitudes of Medical School Faculty toward Gifts from the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James W., III; Mainous, Arch G., III

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 248 University of Kentucky medical school faculty investigated attitudes toward American Medical Association policy concerning gifts from the pharmaceutical industry. Faculty generally agreed with the guidelines but felt gifts did not influence prescribing behaviors. PhD faculty favored more prescriptive policy than did MD faculty.…

  19. Survey of House Staff Benefits at Forty-Four Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutzwiller, Roberta; Shawhan, Gerald L.

    As an aid in evaluating the present and future benefits given house staff personnel (residents, interns, and clinical fellows) at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, the Department of Institutional Studies sent out questionnaires concerning benefits extended to house staff personnel to the 46 medical schools using university owned or…

  20. Inspiring Careers in STEM and Healthcare Fields through Medical Simulation Embedded in High School Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school…

  1. Examination of Job Satisfaction of the Medical Vocational High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayraktar, Hatice Vatansever; Güney, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the job satisfaction level of Medical Vocational High School teachers and whether it differs according to different variables. The research was organized in accordance with the screening model. The population of the research was composed of vocational course teachers who worked in Medical Vocational High…

  2. Leaders Accuse Medical Schools of Failing Society by Maintaining Status Quo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evangelauf, Jean

    1986-01-01

    Medical education leaders find medical schools have failed to adapt programs to changing health care needs and are keeping enrollments high despite projected physician surpluses, favoring clinical work over teaching, overextending research efforts, and neglecting ambulatory care, cost containment, elderly care, and socieconomic factors of illness.…

  3. The Integration of Children Dependent on Medical Technology into Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Jill A.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in medicine have increased the survival rates of children with complex medical conditions, including those who are dependent on technology such as ventilators and tracheostomies. The process of integrating children dependent on medical technology into public schools requires the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team to ensure that…

  4. Substance Use by Fourth-Year Students at 13 U.S. Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, Scott; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study investigated drug use by fourth-year medical students in 13 schools and compared drug use patterns with those of an age- and sex-matched cohort. Medical students reported less use of marijuana, cocaine, cigarettes, LSD, barbiturates, and amphetamines, similar use of opiates, and slightly more use of tranquilizers and alcohol. (MSE)

  5. Trends Plus: U.S. Medical School Applicants, Matriculants, Graduates 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report provides statistical data and charts concerning trends in undergraduate medical education over the past decade. It presents trends in grade point averages (GPAs); in Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores for premedical school applicants and matriculants; and provides information on applicant and matriculant characteristics,…

  6. Medication Adherence among Adolescents in a School-Based Health Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Cynthia J.; Charlebois, Nicole M.; Holl, Jane L.

    2006-01-01

    School-based health centers are an integral part of the health care delivery system for low-income children. Medication adherence for these patients may be challenging because the student is often responsible for bringing home the prescription and receiving the instructions. This study assesses medication fill, initiation, and adherence rates…

  7. Career Choices of the 1976 Graduates of U.S. Medical Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    The interactions and influences of various sociodemographic, experiential, and other factors on the career decisions of medical students are described. Special emphasis is on students' characteristics and career preferences at application, their medical schools, their first graduate year programs, and the hospitals of their first graduate year…

  8. Datagram: Applications Versus Acceptances to 1976-77 First-Year Medical School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1977-01-01

    As part of a forthcoming national study of the medical school admissions process, data on the number of applications for admission and acceptances were obtained from the AAMC Medical Student Information System. The data showed an average 8.83 applications per person, the reduction of which might save anxiety, time, effort, and money. (Author/LBH)

  9. 1978 U.C. Medical School Graduates: Practice Setting Preferences, Other Career Plans, and Personal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuca, Janet Melei

    1980-01-01

    The medical practice setting preferences, in terms of demography, of 1978 U.S. medical school graduates are reported along with their career plans and other individual characteristics. Characteristics of graduates preferring inner city, small city and town/rural settings are highlighted. (JMD)

  10. Managing Use of Over-the-Counter Medications in the School Setting: Keeping Kids in School and Ready to Learn.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Anne C

    2016-07-01

    The use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in our unique school setting has proven to be a cost-effective and valuable tool in keeping students in the classroom and prepared to learn. Disruptions in educational time due to minor complaints become frustrating for students and teachers. Utilizing the assessment skills of the school nurse and treatment options available through the use of OTC medications decreases those disruptions and protects the educational time. The opportunity to increase student understanding and health literacy regarding the correct use of OTC medications is a valuable way to protect the health of students. Lessons learned in the residential setting may have application to other school settings.

  11. Managing Use of Over-the-Counter Medications in the School Setting: Keeping Kids in School and Ready to Learn.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Anne C

    2016-07-01

    The use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in our unique school setting has proven to be a cost-effective and valuable tool in keeping students in the classroom and prepared to learn. Disruptions in educational time due to minor complaints become frustrating for students and teachers. Utilizing the assessment skills of the school nurse and treatment options available through the use of OTC medications decreases those disruptions and protects the educational time. The opportunity to increase student understanding and health literacy regarding the correct use of OTC medications is a valuable way to protect the health of students. Lessons learned in the residential setting may have application to other school settings. PMID:26980851

  12. History of Medicine student selected components at UK medical schools: a questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Neil H; Brown, Andrew K

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the current status of History of Medicine student selected components (SSC) at UK medical schools. This includes the frequency, methods of delivery, assessment, and evaluation of such courses. Design An 18-item questionnaire was created, piloted, and then sent electronically in January 2010 to participants pertaining to their History of Medicine SSC provision as of 1 January 2010. Initial non-responders were re-sent the questionnaire in February 2010. Setting All UK medical schools. Participants The History of Medicine SSC lead or overall SSC lead at each UK medical school were contacted to ascertain their History of Medicine SSC provision. Main outcome measures Percentages of History of Medicine SSCs for each objective characteristic were obtained as well as general descriptive data. Results Fifteen of the 32 medical schools in the UK offer a History of Medicine SSC. Eleven medical schools (offering a total of 12 SSCs) completed the questionnaire (response rate 73.3%). Eight different teaching methods are used within the SSCs. Medical professionals most frequently deliver the teaching, which most frequently covers the 20th and 21st centuries. Four assessment methods are used among the SSCs, the most common being a group presentation. Questionnaires are the most frequent method of evaluation. There are several factors limiting the provision of some current SSCs, most commonly a lack of staff, teaching facilities, and available time within the curriculum. Conclusion History of Medicine is being delivered more frequently in UK medical schools than when previously researched 40 years ago. However, the subject is still offered in a minority of the medical schools. This study offers useful information to consider for the development of current and potential new History of Medicine SSCs. PMID:22046496

  13. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  14. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    PubMed

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors.

  15. Sir Harry Sinderson Pasha and Iraq's first medical school.

    PubMed

    Al-Fattal, Sa'ad

    2013-08-01

    During the early twentieth century, the medical status of Mesopotamia, later Iraq, was very bad due to the lack of sanitation and recurrent epidemics and it was rife with endemic diseases including bilharziasis, tuberculosis and malaria. Medical care was poor, with few hospitals and doctors. The condition improved slowly with the return of a few Iraqi doctors who trained outside Iraq, in Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, and with the arrival of British Medical personnel, during and after the First World War, principally Sir Harry Sinderson who was one of the most influential figures in recent Iraqi medical and political history. He had the distinctive role of being one of the founders and the Dean of the first Iraqi medical college. During his service until his retirement in 1946 he achieved, with tireless effort, exceptionally high standards and brought fame and prestige to the new medical college in record time. He attained his goal of training at least 500 local doctors. PMID:24585764

  16. John Warren (1753-1815): American surgeon, patriot and Harvard Medical School founder.

    PubMed

    Craig, Stephen C

    2010-08-01

    Dr John Warren was educated in the medical apprenticeship tradition of mid-18th century Boston, Massachusetts. As a surgeon in the American Continental Army he honed not only his surgical but also his teaching skills by providing continuing medical education to his colleagues in Boston's military hospital. Warren became a driving force in post-war Boston medicine. His organizational talents, zeal for science and vision for Massachusetts medicine led to the creation of Harvard Medical School.

  17. [The First World War and medical school of Petrograd].

    PubMed

    Rostovtsev, E A; Sidorchuk, I V

    2014-09-01

    The article is devoted to the history of higher medical education of the Petrograd just before and during the First World War. The topical issue is the lack of information concerning this period of the history of Russian medicine and medical education, and the history of development of domestic medicine during the First World War, the centenary of which is celebrated this year. On the basis of a wide range of published and archival sources the authors show the basic vectors of development of medical education and exploring the role of St. Petersburg as one of the leading academic medical centres in the country.

  18. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  19. Medical Student Attitudes to the Autopsy and Its Utility in Medical Education: A Brief Qualitative Study at One UK Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamber, Andrew R.; Quince, Thelma A.; Barclay, Stephen I. G.; Clark, John D. A.; Siklos, Paul W. L.; Wood, Diana F.

    2014-01-01

    Attending postmortems enables students to learn anatomy and pathology within a clinical context, provides insights into effects of treatment and introduces the reality that patients die. Rates of clinical autopsies have declined and medical schools have cut obligatory autopsy sessions from their curricula making it difficult to assess medical…

  20. Prepared for practice? Law teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.

    PubMed

    Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy

    2010-11-01

    A revised core curriculum for medical ethics and law in UK medical schools has been published. The General Medical Council requires medical graduates to understand law and ethics and behave in accordance with ethical and legal principles. A parallel policy agenda emphasises accountability, the development of professionalism and patient safety. Given the renewed focus on teaching and learning law alongside medical ethics and the development of professional identity, this survey aimed to identify how medical schools are responding to the preparation of medical students for practice in the future. Questions were asked about the location, content and methods of teaching and assessment of law in undergraduate medical education. Examples of course documentation were requested to illustrate the approaches being taken. A 76% response rate was achieved. Most responding schools integrate law teaching with medical ethics, emphasising both the acquisition of knowledge and its application in a clinical context. Teaching, learning and assessment of law in clinical attachments is much less formalised than that in non-clinical education. Coverage of recommended topic areas varies, raising questions about the degree to which students can embed their knowledge and skills in actual practice. More positively, teaching does not rely on single individuals and clear descriptions were offered for problem-based and small group case-based learning. Further research is required to explore whether there are optimum ways of ensuring that legal knowledge, and skills in its use, form part of the development of professionalism among doctors in training.

  1. Functional and Dysfunctional Characteristics of the Prevailing Model of Clinical Evaluation Systems in North American Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, D. Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Drawing from survey data (n=138 medical schools in the United States and Canada), a study analyzed medical schools' systems for evaluating student progress in clinical experiences. The 4-stage model used by most schools, common and unique characteristics, and 17 symptoms of system errors, signaling a need for system review, are outlined.…

  2. Lack of Emphasis on Nutrition in Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Suanne

    The need and concern for the apparent lack of nutrition education provided in training programs for physicians was the impetus for begining a 10-session nutrition lecture series program. The program was developed and implemented in a large teaching medical center hospital and given to 16 third-year medical students. The program's purpose was to…

  3. Creating a virtual pharmacology curriculum in a problem-based learning environment: one medical school's experience.

    PubMed

    Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Vrana, Kent E

    2013-02-01

    Integrating pharmacology education into a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum has proven challenging for many medical schools, including the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine (Penn State COM). In response to pharmacology content gaps in its PBL-intensive curriculum, Penn State COM in 2003 hired a director of medical pharmacology instruction to oversee efforts to improve the structure of pharmacology education in the absence of a stand-alone course. In this article, the authors describe the ongoing development of the virtual pharmacology curriculum, which weaves pharmacology instruction through the entire medical school curriculum with particular emphasis on the organ-based second year. Pharmacology is taught in a spiraling manner designed to add to and build upon students' knowledge and competency. Key aspects of the virtual curriculum (as of 2011) include clearly stated and behaviorally oriented pharmacology learning objectives, pharmacology study guides that correspond to each PBL case, pharmacology review sessions that feature discussions of United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE)-type questions, and pharmacology questions for each PBL case on course examinations to increase student accountability. The authors report a trend toward improved USMLE Step 1 scores since these initiatives were introduced. Furthermore, graduates' ratings of their pharmacology education have improved on the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire. The authors suggest that the initiatives they describe for enhancing pharmacology medical education are relevant to other medical schools that are also seeking ways to better integrate pharmacology into PBL-based curricula.

  4. An empirical investigation of the differences between male and female medical school physicians.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sagar S; Deshpande, Satish P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate gender-related differences among medical school faculty in a variety of areas such as information technology, medical malpractice, compensation, patient care, and carrier satisfaction. The Center for Studying Health System Change's 2008 Health Tracking Physician survey data consisting of 326 medical school faculty belonging to the American Medical Association were used in this study. t Tests indicate that female physicians practicing in medical schools were younger, had less experience, reported lower compensation, and were more likely to be primary care physicians. Male medical school physicians were significantly more concerned about being involved in a malpractice lawsuit. They reported a significantly higher percentage on income based on productivity-related factors. Male physicians also reported getting a significantly higher level of goods and services from drug companies. They also provided more hours of medical service for no or reduced fee in the previous month and higher levels of career satisfaction. Implications of this research are discussed.

  5. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Desegregation Consent Decree (1980-2006): Establishing Its Relationship with the "Brown v. Board" Case of 1954 and the Implications of Its Implementation on Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shawn L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an historical analysis of the Chicago Public School Desegregation Consent Decree, while illustrating its relationship with the "Brown v. Board" of 1954. It provides an analysis of the mission and objectives of all three versions of the Consent Decree which include: The Original Consent Decree 1980, The Modified Consent Decree…

  6. The 2008 Brown Center Report on American Education: How Well Are American Students Learning? With Sections on International Assessments, the Misplaced Math Student, and Urban Schools. Volume II, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The watchword of this year's Brown Center Report is caution--caution in linking state tests to international assessments--"benchmarking" is the term--caution in proceeding with a policy of "algebra for all eighth graders," caution in gleaning policy lessons from the recent progress made by urban schools. State and local budget woes will restrain…

  7. The school entry medical examination. What do teachers think of it?

    PubMed

    Jones, C; Gordon, N

    1992-01-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 76 schools in the Macclesfield district. Seventy-four of these were returned by head teachers and/or reception teachers. Replies concerned the school entry medical examination, information on individual children, general health information and access to professionals. Additional comments on any aspects of the service were also solicited. The results have been analysed. The majority of teachers considered that the school entry medical examination is of value, but the quality of information reaching teachers is viewed more critically. Meetings were the most favoured means of communication, but there are obvious defects in the system. Some teachers did not even know of access channels. If improvements do not occur some of the value of the examination will be lost. Suggestions for better communications are made. With local management of schools, teacher opinion must be considered if a better school health service is to be provided for the children of the district.

  8. Medical and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Opioids among High School Seniors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids among high school seniors in the United States, and to assess substance use behaviors based on medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Design Nationally representative samples of high school seniors (modal age 18) were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires. Setting Data were collected in public and private high schools. Participants The sample consisted of 7,374 students from three independent cohorts (2007-09). Main Outcome Measures Self-reports of medical and nonmedical use of prescription opioids and other substance use. Results An estimated 17.6% of high school seniors reported lifetime medical use of prescription opioids, while 12.9% reported nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Gender differences in the medical and nonmedical use were minimal, while racial/ethnic differences were extensive. Over 37% of nonmedical users reported intranasal administration of prescription opioids. An estimated 80% of nonmedical users with an earlier history of medical use had obtained prescription opioids from a prescription they had previously. The odds of substance use behaviors were greater among individuals who reported any history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids relative to those who reported medical use only. Conclusions Nearly one in every four high school seniors in the United States has ever had some exposure to prescription opioids either medically or nonmedically. The quantity of prescription opioids and number of refills prescribed to adolescents should be carefully considered and closely monitored to reduce subsequent nonmedical use of leftover medication. PMID:22566521

  9. Availability of Asthma Quick Relief Medication in Five Alabama School Systems

    PubMed Central

    Stroupe, Nancy; McClure, Leslie A.; Wheeler, Lani; Gerald, Lynn B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This paper documents individual asthma action plan presence and quick relief medication (albuterol) availability for elementary students enrolled in five Alabama school systems. Patients and Methods Data were obtained during baseline data collection (fall 2005) of a school-based supervised asthma medication trial. All students attended 1 of 36 participating elementary schools across five school systems in Jefferson County, Alabama. In addition, they had to have physician-diagnosed asthma requiring daily controller medication. Each school system had its own superintendent and elected school board. Asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability was confirmed by study personnel. Asthma action plans had to contain daily and acute asthma management instructions. Predictors of asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability were also investigated. Associations between albuterol availability and self-reported characteristics including health care utilization prior to study enrollment and outcomes during the study baseline period were also investigated. Results Enrolled students had a mean (SD) age of 11.0 (2.1) years, 91% were African American, and 79% had moderate persistent asthma. No student had a complete asthma action plan on file and only 14% had albuterol physically available at school. Albuterol availability was not predicted by gender, race, insurance status, second-hand smoke exposure, need for pre-exercise albuterol, asthma severity, or self-reported health care utilization prior to study enrollment. Albuterol availability did not predict school absences, red/yellow peak flow recordings, or medication adherence during the study's baseline period. Conclusion Despite policies permitting students to possess albuterol, few elementary students across five independent school systems in Alabama actually had it readily available at school. PMID:22454787

  10. Availability of Asthma Quick Relief Medication in Five Alabama School Systems.

    PubMed

    Gerald, Joe K; Stroupe, Nancy; McClure, Leslie A; Wheeler, Lani; Gerald, Lynn B

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper documents individual asthma action plan presence and quick relief medication (albuterol) availability for elementary students enrolled in five Alabama school systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained during baseline data collection (fall 2005) of a school-based supervised asthma medication trial. All students attended 1 of 36 participating elementary schools across five school systems in Jefferson County, Alabama. In addition, they had to have physician-diagnosed asthma requiring daily controller medication. Each school system had its own superintendent and elected school board. Asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability was confirmed by study personnel. Asthma action plans had to contain daily and acute asthma management instructions. Predictors of asthma action plan presence and albuterol availability were also investigated. Associations between albuterol availability and self-reported characteristics including health care utilization prior to study enrollment and outcomes during the study baseline period were also investigated. RESULTS: Enrolled students had a mean (SD) age of 11.0 (2.1) years, 91% were African American, and 79% had moderate persistent asthma. No student had a complete asthma action plan on file and only 14% had albuterol physically available at school. Albuterol availability was not predicted by gender, race, insurance status, second-hand smoke exposure, need for pre-exercise albuterol, asthma severity, or self-reported health care utilization prior to study enrollment. Albuterol availability did not predict school absences, red/yellow peak flow recordings, or medication adherence during the study's baseline period. CONCLUSION: Despite policies permitting students to possess albuterol, few elementary students across five independent school systems in Alabama actually had it readily available at school.

  11. Veterinary medical school libraries in the United States and Canada 1977/78.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K S; Coffee, E G

    1982-01-01

    Data on seven aspects of veterinary medical school libraries are presented and discussed: demographic data on the schools of veterinary medicine the libraries support, number of bound volumes held and number of serial titles received, audiovisual materials, staffing levels and salaries, materials budgets, physical size, and access to computerized bibliographic data bases. The great variability, especially in collection size, is stressed and attributed to such factors as size and programs of the veterinary school, age of the school and library, geographic location, accessibility of other libraries, administrative structure, and exchange programs. PMID:7059713

  12. Offshore Medical Schools Are Buying Clinical Clerkships in U.S. Hospitals: The Problem and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C; Goldberg, Robert B

    2016-05-01

    U.S. medical education faces a threat from for-profit Caribbean medical schools which purchase clinical rotation slots for their students at U.S. hospitals. These offshore schools are monetizing a system that was previously characterized as a duty-the duty of the current generation of physicians to educate their successors. Offshore schools purchase clinical rotation slots using funds largely derived from federally subsidized student loans. This leads to pressure on U.S. schools to pay for clinical clerkships and is forcing some of them to find new clinical training sites.For-profit Caribbean schools largely escape the type of scrutiny that U.S. schools face from U.S. national accreditation organizations. They also enroll large classes of students with lower undergraduate GPAs and Medical College Admission Test scores than those of students at U.S. medical schools; their students take and pass Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination at a substantially lower rate than that of U.S. medical students; and their students match for residencies at a fraction of the rate of U.S. medical school graduates.Among the potential solutions proposed by the authors are passing laws to hold for-profit Caribbean schools to standards for board passage rates, placing restrictions on federal student loans, monitoring attrition rates, and denying offshore schools access to U.S. clinical training sites unless they meet accreditation standards equivalent to those of U.S. medical schools.

  13. The introduction of a medical informatics course into a medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Fulfilling the need for a course in medical informatics to be taught to medical students requires an effort on the part of the teaching faculty and administration. Creators of the curriculum must take into account contemporary pedagogical trends and the direction of medical education. Producing a course of study requires a firm conviction that practicing medicine in the 21st century demands currency, accuracy, and literacy with the available information sources. PMID:21271454

  14. Teaching communication at the medical school in Ljubljana.

    PubMed

    Petek Šter, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Early clinical exposure helps medical students to develop appropriate attitudes towards their learning and future medical practice and give them an opportunity for improving communication skills. New curriculum at the Medical faculty of Ljubljana introduced early clinical exposure (ECE) for the first year medical students through the subject Communication. We present the aims and the content of the curriculum Communication and present our experience, students feedback, dilemmas and ideas for the future development of the curriculum. Decision for the introduction of this subject is based on the result of survey about the key competences of doctors, review of the literature and empirical recognition of the fact that previous programme lacked the necessary knowledge and experience for good interpersonal communication. The main goals of our teaching are in improving communication skills and understanding and assuming that good doctor-patients relationship is crucial for the successful treatment. The curriculum consists of theoretical part (lectures from medical psychology) and practical part (communication in a small group using prepared vignettes, interview with nursing home residents and observation of general practitioners work during their 1-day practice attachment). Students evaluated the curriculum as very valuable at the beginning of their learning. The practical part of the programme, in which they had contact with patients and experienced the role of a physician, better, was highly appreciated. ECE help medical students improve their communication skills, they interact with more confidence in interaction with patients and develop appropriate personal attitudes for their future professional carrier.

  15. See one, do one, teach one--exploring the core teaching beliefs of medical school faculty.

    PubMed

    Williams, Reed G; Klamen, Debra L

    2006-08-01

    This paper explores the core teaching beliefs of medical school faculty and establishes whether these beliefs differ among basic science, clinical, and instruction specialist faculty. One hundred and twenty-five medical school teachers who were members of professional organizations dedicated to the improvement of medical school teaching completed a Q-sort of 56 statements reflecting their core teaching beliefs. The statements described beliefs about motivation, knowledge and skill acquisition, retention, feedback, transfer, teacher characteristics, and teaching strategies. Q-sorts were completed by 37 basic scientists (30% of respondents), 59 clinicians (47%) and 29 instruction specialists (23%) working in medical schools. Fifty-two participants were classroom teachers (42%), 66 were classroom and clinical teachers (53%), and seven reported that they do not teach (6%). The Q-sort results indicate how medical school faculty members differ in their core beliefs about teaching and learning. Thirty-two respondents (26%) focused on the student as a person first. Eight (6%) were content oriented. Thirty-four (27%) were performance oriented; their focus was on having students learn and apply knowledge and skills to accomplish clinical tasks. Fifty-one respondents (41%) were found to have a blend of these viewpoints. Respondents' type of training or type of teaching did not provide a reliable indication of core teaching beliefs classification.

  16. Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

    2014-07-01

    Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schools where, on average, 23.68 h of required nutrition education was provided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe.

  17. Nutrition education in European medical schools: results of an international survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, M; van Buul, V J; Wilms, E; Nellessen, N; Brouns, F J P H

    2014-07-01

    Consumers and patients are unsure of whom to trust for nutritional advice. Although medical doctors are seen as experts in nutrition and their advice is regularly followed, data are lacking on the amount of nutrition education in European medical school curricula. In line with US research, we distributed a survey on required and/or optional nutrition contact hours to medical education directors of all accredited medical schools (N=217) in Western European Union countries (N=14). In total, respondents from 32 medical schools (14.7%) from 10 countries indicated that nutrition education, in some form, was required in 68.8% of schools where, on average, 23.68 h of required nutrition education was provided. The results from this small-scale survey are comparable to a 2010 US study; conversely, European educators were satisfied with the amount of nutrition education. We substantiate the increasing concern over the inadequate amounts of nutrition education provided to medical students in Europe. PMID:24781690

  18. [Medical pedagogy and special didactics in graduate courses at the medical school of the University of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Marcondes, E; Vanzolini, M E; Basile, M A; Fujimura, I; Pasqualucci, C A

    1992-01-01

    Graduate courses of medical pedagogy and special didactics at S. Paulo University Medical School are analysed. The authors present objectives, subject matters and methodologies of both courses, as well as their evaluation by the graduate students. After an initial rejection, the evaluation became very positive (67% in medical pedagogy and 82% in special didactics). Some future perspectives are discussed.

  19. The Physician Assistant Program: Training for a Medical Career without Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benathen, Isaiah A.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed is a pre-physician assistant program by giving: definition of the career, a historical basis, medical practice settings, education, advantages, and an evaluation of the student population. Included is a table which shows the distribution of acceptances into the physician assistant programs for the medical and clinical phases of training.…

  20. Medical Students and Abortion: Reconciling Personal Beliefs and Professional Roles at One Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dans, Peter E.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of first- and fourth-year Johns Hopkins University (Maryland) medical students found little change in attitudes about abortion over four years. Attitudes correlated most strongly with personal beliefs about when a fetus is considered human life and somewhat with student gender. Results are used in a medical ethics course to illuminate…

  1. 34 CFR 600.55 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign graduate medical school is eligible to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credentials required of faculty members teaching the same or similar courses at medical schools in the United... Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) (including the ECFMG English test) in the...

  2. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations

  3. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. PMID:25850124

  4. Recording and podcasting of lectures for students of medical school.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Pierre; Cuggia, Marc; Le Beux, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) becomes an important way for the knowledge transmission, especially in the field of medicine. Podcasting (mobile broadcast content) has recently emerged as an efficient tool for distributing information towards professionals, especially for e-learning contents.The goal of this work is to implement software and hardware tools for collecting medical lectures at its source by direct recording (halls and classrooms) and provide the automatic delivery of these resources for students on different type of devices (computer, smartphone or videogames console). We describe the overall architecture and the methods used by medical students to master this technology in their daily activities. We highlight the benefits and the limits of the Podcast technologies for medical education. PMID:21893751

  5. The power of partnerships: the Liverpool school of butterfly and medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Zallen, Doris T

    2014-12-01

    From the 1950s to the 1970s, a group of physician-researchers forming the 'Liverpool school' made groundbreaking contributions in such diverse areas as the genetics of Lepidoptera and human medical genetics. The success of this group can be attributed to the several different, but interconnected, research partnerships that Liverpool physician Cyril Clarke established with Philip Sheppard, Victor McKusick at Johns Hopkins University, the Nuffield Foundation, and his wife FCo. Despite its notable successes, among them the discovery of the method to prevent Rhesus haemolytic disease of the newborn, the Liverpool School began to lose prominence in the mid-1970s, just as the field of medical genetics that it had helped pioneer began to grow. This paper explores the role of partnerships in making possible the Liverpool school's scientific and medical achievements, and also in contributing to its decline.

  6. Things you don’t learn in medical school: Caduceus

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, M; Johnny, J. Carlton

    2015-01-01

    It is a known fact that every symbol has a unique meaning. In that case what does this unique symbol, Caduceus, which is used, in various forms and modifications, by many medical organizations mean? Is it just a custom or does it have a deeper meaning? The story of this medical symbol started way back in 1400 BC, travelled through time, has undergone many changes, misconceptions and has finally reached the present state. Here we have tried to give you a glimpse of how it has evolved over time, what it actually means, what have we interpreted and what can we learn from it. PMID:26015747

  7. The Vestiges of Brown: An Analysis of the Placements of African American Principals in Florida Public Schools (2010-2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesmith, Leo, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and describe the relationship between a school's percentage of African American students enrolled and the placement of an African American principal for all of Florida's K-12 traditional public schools during the academic year 2010-2011. This study also sought to determine if this relationship was moderated…

  8. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  9. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural southern Black…

  10. A model for selecting assessment methods for evaluating medical students in African medical schools.

    PubMed

    Walubo, Andrew; Burch, Vanessa; Parmar, Paresh; Raidoo, Deshandra; Cassimjee, Mariam; Onia, Rudy; Ofei, Francis

    2003-09-01

    Introduction of more effective and standardized assessment methods for testing students' performance in Africa's medical institutions has been hampered by severe financial and personnel shortages. Nevertheless, some African institutions have recognized the problem and are now revising their medical curricula, and, therefore, their assessment methods. These institutions, and those yet to come, need guidance on selecting assessment methods so as to adopt models that can be sustained locally. The authors provide a model for selecting assessment methods for testing medical students' performance in African medical institutions. The model systematically evaluates factors that influence implementation of an assessment method. Six commonly used methods (the essay examinations, short-answer questions, multiple-choice questions, patient-based clinical examination, problem-based oral examination [POE], and objective structured clinical examination) are evaluated by scoring and weighting against performance, cost, suitability, and safety factors. In the model, the highest score identifies the most appropriate method. Selection of an assessment method is illustrated using two institutional models, one depicting an ideal situation in which the objective structured clinical examination was preferred, and a second depicting the typical African scenario in which the essay and short-answer-question examinations were best. The POE method received the highest score and could be recommended as the most appropriate for Africa's medical institutions, but POE assessments require changing the medical curricula to a problem-based learning approach. The authors' model is easy to understand and promotes change in the medical curriculum and method of student assessment.

  11. "Yeshivawatch"--Year Four [and] Unionization of Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    New decisions of the National Labor Relations Board and/or its Regional Directors concerning claims like the "NLRB v. Yeshiva" case are briefly described. The cases of the following schools that have filed Yeshiva-related claims are outlined: Florida Memorial College, College of Osteopathic Medicine and Surgery (COMS), Stevens Institute of…

  12. Death and Dying Education in a Medical School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Steven C.

    1979-01-01

    A student-initiated course on death and dying, offered at the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, features a small group format, multidisciplinary representation, and student leadership. Course objectives, course content, teaching methods, course design, and student and faculty assessment of the course are discussed. (JMD)

  13. Biometrics in the Medical School Curriculum: Making the Necessary Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James R.

    1980-01-01

    Because a student is more likely to learn and retain course content perceived as relevant, an attempt was made to change medical students' perceptions of a biometrics course by introducing statistical methods as a means of solving problems in the interpretation of clinical lab data. Retrospective analysis of student course evaluations indicates a…

  14. Do Clinical Breast Examination Skills Improve During Medical School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Karen C.; Dunlop, Dorothy; Dolan, Nancy C.

    1998-01-01

    A study assessed the effect of training stage, gender, and specialty interest on 493 Northwestern University (Illinois) medical students' breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and clinical breast examination skills. Results suggest knowledge and attitudes are not related to clinical breast examination proficiency, which is a practiced tactile skill.…

  15. Essentials of Nutrition Education in Medical Schools: A National Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    The American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project assembled a 10-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The resulting 92 topics are divided into 5 major categories: (1) biochemistry/physiology/pathophysiology; (2) nutrition…

  16. Choice and Social Class of Medical School Students in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sianou-Kyrgiou, Eleni; Tsiplakides, Iakovos

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature focuses on choice of studies in the context of policies on widening participation in higher education and graduates' difficulties in the labour market. Drawing on research findings showing a relationship between social class and choice of studies, we conducted a qualitative study on first-year medical students in a…

  17. Student Attitudes toward Cadaveric Dissection at a UK Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quince, Thelma A.; Barclay, Stephen I. G.; Spear, Michelle; Parker, Richard A.; Wood, Diana F.

    2011-01-01

    A more humanistic approach toward dissection has emerged. However, student attitudes toward this approach are unknown and the influences on such attitudes are little understood. One hundred and fifty-six first-year medical students participated in a study examining firstly, attitudes toward the process of dissection and the personhood of the…

  18. Nutrition Education in U.S. Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    This book examines the practice of nutrition instruction as part of medical education, reports on a study of its practice, describes nutrition education in the past, argues for greater attention to the topic and describes current practice. Chapter 1 (an executive summary) highlights the major findings and recommendations resulting from the study…

  19. Should the MCAT exam be used for medical school admissions in Canada?

    PubMed

    Eskander, Antoine; Shandling, Maureen; Hanson, Mark D

    2013-05-01

    In light of the structural and content changes to the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) to be implemented in 2015 and the recent diversity- and social-accountability-based recommendations of the Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC) project, the authors review and reexamine the use of the MCAT exam in Canadian medical school admissions decisions.This Perspective article uses a point-counterpoint format to discuss three main advantages and disadvantages of using the MCAT exam in the medical school admissions process, from a Canadian perspective. The authors examine three questions regarding the FMEC recommendations and the revised MCAT exam: (1) Is the MCAT exam equal and useful in Canadian admissions? (2) Does the MCAT exam affect matriculant diversity? and (3) Is the MCAT exam a strong predictor of future performance? They present the most recent arguments and evidence for and against use of the MCAT exam, with the purpose of summarizing these different perspectives for readers.

  20. Medical school libraries in the United States and Canada built between 1961 and 1971.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, W K; Beatty, V L

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four medical school libraries in the United States and Canada built between 1961 and 1971 were surveyed by means of questionnaires and visits. Results indicated that half of these libraries will have reached maximum functional capacity approximately six years after they moved into their new quarters. Space for technical processing is generally much less than required. Special features and examples of effective planning are described, and problems in arrangement, traffic patterns for people and materials, and the lack of logical expansion space are discussed. Comparisons are made with a similar survey of twenty medical school libraries made in 1961. Images PMID:1191825

  1. Doing without: serving allied health programs at universities without medical schools.

    PubMed

    Devin, Robin B

    2009-01-01

    This article compares libraries in the United States that serve allied health programs at universities without medical schools. Although these university libraries all serve a similar array of health sciences programs, the organization of their library services differ dramatically. There is also little similarity in their collections, particularly in their choice of indexing and abstracting databases. Yet librarians serving as liaisons to allied health programs at universities without medical schools face comparable challenges in meeting the needs of their users. All reported concerns about gaps in their collections and felt hard pressed to provide optimal library service.

  2. [The venture financing of scientifically-innovative projects: teaching experience in medical high school].

    PubMed

    Grachev, S V; Gorodnova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The authors presented an original material, devoted to first experience of teaching of theoretical bases of venture financing of scientifically-innovative projects in medical high school. The results and conclusions were based on data of the questionnaire performed by the authors. More than 90% of young scientist physicians recognized actuality of this problem for realization of their research work results into practice. Thus, experience of teaching of theoretical bases of venture financing of scientifically-innovative projects in medical high school proves reasonability of further development and inclusion the module "The venture financing of scientifically-innovative projects in biomedicine" in the training plan.

  3. The first anatomy professors in the medical school of the University of Athens.

    PubMed

    Piagkou, Maria; Androutsos, Georgios; Demesticha, Theano; Lappas, Dimitrios; Karamanou, Marianna; Piagkos, Giannoulis; Skandalakis, Panayiotis; Piagkos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review is to add new elements to the international literature in relation to the birth and progress of the science of anatomy in modern Greece. Step by step, it outlines the efforts of prominent Greek anatomists to establish the course of the basic science of anatomy in the newly founded Medical School, the laborious effort to collect cadaveric material to compile museum anatomical collections and to gradually build the foundations of modern anatomy science at the Medical School of the Athenian University.

  4. Medical school libraries in the United States and Canada built between 1961 and 1971.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, W K; Beatty, V L

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four medical school libraries in the United States and Canada build between 1961 and 1971 were surveyed by means of questionnaires and visits. Results indicated that half of these libraries will have reached maximum functional capacity approximately six years after they were moved into their new quarters. Space for technical processing is generally much less than is required. Special features and examples of effective planning are described, and problems in arrangement, traffic patterns for people and materials, and the lack of logical expansion space are discussed. Comparisons are made with a similar survey of twenty medical school libraries made in 1961. Images PMID:125125

  5. How to Learn Effectively in Medical School: Test Yourself, Learn Actively, and Repeat in Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Students in medical school often feel overwhelmed by the excessive amount of factual knowledge they are obliged to learn. Although a large body of research on effective learning methods is published, scientifically based learning strategies are not a standard part of the curriculum in medical school. Students are largely unaware of how to learn successfully and improve memory. This review outlines three fundamental methods that benefit learning: the testing effect, active recall, and spaced repetition. The review summarizes practical learning strategies to learn effectively and optimize long-term retention of factual knowledge. PMID:24910566

  6. The "schola medica salernitana": the forerunner of the modern university medical schools.

    PubMed

    de Divitiis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; de Divitiis, Oreste

    2004-10-01

    The schola medica salernitana is considered the oldest medical school of modern civilization. Salerno's long medical tradition began during the Greco-Roman period in a Greek colony named Elea, where Parmenides decided to found a medical school. The fame of the school became more and more important during the 10th century, and it was best known in the 11th century. In the middle of 12th century, the school was at its apogee, and Salerno provided a notable contribution to the formulation of a medical curriculum for medieval universities. The most famous work of the Salernitan School was the Regimen Sanitatis Saleritanum, a Latin poem of rational, dietetic, and hygienic precepts, many of them still valid today. The school also produced a physician's reference book, with advice on how to treat a patient, a sort of code of conduct to help the physician to respect the patient and his or her relatives. The first science-based surgery appeared on the scene of the discredited medieval practice in Salerno, thanks to Roger of Salerno and his fellows. He wrote a book on surgery, called Rogerina or Post Mundi Fabricam, in which surgery from head to toe is described, with surprising originality. The important contribution to the School of Salerno made by women as female practitioners is outlined, and among them, Trotula de Ruggiero was the most renowned. The period when the School of Salerno, universally recognized as the forerunner of the modern universities, became a government academy was when Frederick II reigned over the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

  7. Near-peer mentorship for undergraduate training in Ugandan medical schools: views of undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Rukundo, Godfrey Zari; Burani, Aluonzi; Kasozi, Jannat; Kirimuhuzya, Claude; Odongo, Charles; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Byona, Wycliff; Kiguli, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Masters Students are major stakeholders in undergraduate medical education but their contribution has not been documented in Uganda. The aim of the study was to explore and document views and experiences of undergraduate students regarding the role of masters students as educators in four Ugandan medical schools. Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using qualitative data collection methods. Eight Focus Group Discussions were conducted among eighty one selected preclinical and clinical students in the consortium of four Ugandan medical schools: Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Gulu University and Kampala International University, Western Campus. Data analysis was done using thematic analysis. Participants’ privacy and confidentiality were respected and participant identifiers were not included in data analysis. Results Undergraduate students from all the medical schools viewed the involvement of master's students as very important. Frequent contact between masters and undergraduate students was reported as an important factor in undergraduate students’ motivation and learning. Despite the useful contribution, master’ students face numerous challenges like heavy workload and conflicting priorities. Conclusion According to undergraduate students in Ugandan medical schools, involvement of master's students in the teaching and learning of undergraduate students is both useful and challenging to masters and undergraduate students. Masters students provide peer mentorship to the undergraduate students. The senior educators are still needed to do their work and also to support the master's students in their teaching role. PMID:27347289

  8. Green eggs and ham: Strategies to address the growing phenomenon of selling a medical school's name.

    PubMed

    Falit, Benjamin P; Halperin, Edward C; Loeffler, Jay S

    2014-12-01

    In 2008, the authors published a review that highlighted an emerging trend for medical schools to change their names to those of wealthy donors. Since 2008, the names of ten benefactors have been added to the medical schools receiving their gifts. Twenty-three of the 141 U.S. medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education are currently named after donors. Large donations have the potential to positively affect all stakeholders by improving the resources that are available for research, teaching, and clinical care, but the rapid increase in the naming of medical schools after wealthy benefactors raises important concerns for those same stakeholders. In this perspective, the authors explore such concerns and identify mitigating strategies that institutions facing these issues in the future can use to ensure that the benefit associated with a gift outweighs any adverse impact. The authors argue for a strong presumption of impropriety when a donor possesses a conflict of interest with the potential to affect clinicians' judgment. They go on to assess how donors' control of funds may have an impact on institutional mission and research agenda, and analyze the right of an organization to remove a benefactor's name for alleged wrongdoing. The perspective considers how renaming may negatively affect brand recognition and the associated impact on students, residents, faculty, and alumni. Finally, it concludes with an analysis of taxpayer-funded organizations and the concern that educational renaming will lead to a slippery slope in which other public goods are effectively purchased by wealthy donors.

  9. Medical students' views on thoracic surgery residency programs in a Japanese medical school.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Kiyofumi; Naraoka, Shu-ichi; Miyajima, Masahiro; Uzuka, Takeshi; Saito, Tatsuya; Abe, Tomio

    2003-09-01

    There has been a decline in the number of medical students applying for thoracic surgery training programs. We obtained knowledge of medical students' views on thoracic surgery residency programs. After completion of thoracic surgery clerkship, 17 students were asked to fill out questionnaires on first-year thoracic surgery residency programs. The majority of students considered thoracic surgery to be held in high regard by the general public, and felt that the salary was sufficient. However, only one student chose a thoracic surgery training program. The main reason for not applying for thoracic surgery residency was lifestyle issues. The factors in determining career choice included quality of education and work hours. Medical students are likely to select specialties other than thoracic surgery. Since the main factor influencing medical students' career is the quality of education in a residency program, efforts should be made to improve the quality of education.

  10. Suicidality among medical students – A practical guide for staff members in medical schools

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thea; Plener, Paul; Kliemann, Andrea; Fegert, Jörg M.; Allroggen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Although suicidality in medical students is important, few studies dealt with this issue regarding German universities. Our aims were to describe the epidemiology as well as factors leading to suicidality in medical students. Furthermore we wanted to raise awareness for this topic among university employees and show options for handling suicidal crises in students. This manuscript especially aims to address university employees working in direct contact with students (such as student counselors or teachers). PMID:24282451

  11. The impact of preparatory activities on medical school selection outcomes: a cross-sectional survey of applicants to the university of Adelaide medical school in 2007

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection into medical school is highly competitive with more applicants than places. Little is known about the preparation that applicants undertake for this high stakes process. The study aims to determine what preparatory activities applicants undertake and what difficulties they encounter for each stage of the application process to medical school and in particular what impact these have on the outcome. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1097 applicants who applied for a place in the University of Adelaide Medical School in 2007 and participated in the UMAT (Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test) and oral assessment components of the selection process. The main outcome measures were an offer of an interview and offer of a place in the medical school and were analysed using logistic regression. Results The odds of a successful outcome increased with each additional preparatory activity undertaken for the UMAT (odds ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.33; P < 0.001) and the oral assessment (1.36, 1.19 to 1.55; P < 0.001) stage of selection. The UMAT preparatory activities associated with the offer of an interview were attendance of a training course by a private organisation (1.75, 1.35 to 2.27: P < 0.001), use of online services of a private organisation (1.58, 1.23 to 2.04; P < 0.001), and familiarising oneself with the process (1.52, 1.15 to 2.00; p = 0.021). The oral assessment activities associated with an offer of a place included refining and learning a personal resume (9.73, 2.97 to 31.88; P < 0.001) and learning about the course structure (2.05, 1.29 to 3.26; P = 0.022). For the UMAT, applicants who found difficulties with learning for this type of test (0.47, 0.35 to 0.63: P < 0.001), with the timing of UMAT in terms of school exams (0.48, 0.5 to 0.66; P < 0.001) and with the inability to convey personal skills with the UMAT (0.67, 0.52 to 0.86; P = 0.026) were

  12. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education.

    PubMed

    Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted.

  13. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education.

    PubMed

    Berk, Louis J; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A; Gordon, James A; Faux, Russell; Oriol, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K-12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. PMID:25179609

  14. Determining the Criteria and Their Weights for Medical Schools' Ranking: A National Consensus.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mohammadi, Aeen; Kohan, Noushin; Gharib, Mitra; Zolfaghari, Mitra

    2016-06-01

    Delphi as a consensus development technique enables anonymous, systematic refinement of expert opinion with the aim of arriving at a combined or consensual position. In this study, we determined the criteria and their weights for Iranian Medical Schools' ranking through a Delphi process. An expert committee devised 13 proposed criteria with 32 indicators with their weights, which were arranged hierarchically in the form of a tree diagram. We used the Delphi technique to reach a consensus on these criteria and weights among the deans of 38 public Iranian medical schools. For this purpose, we devised and sent a questionnaire to schools and asked them to suggest or correct the criteria and their weights. We repeated this process in two rounds till all the schools reached an acceptable consensus on them. All schools reached a consensus on the set of 13 criteria and 30 indicators and their weights in three main contexts of education, research and facilities, and equipment which were used for Medical Schools' ranking. Using Delphi technique for devising the criteria and their weights in evaluation processes such as ranking makes their results more acceptable among universities. PMID:27306348

  15. Implementation of a longitudinal mentored scholarly project: an approach at two medical schools.

    PubMed

    Boninger, Michael; Troen, Philip; Green, Emily; Borkan, Jeffrey; Lance-Jones, Cynthia; Humphrey, Allen; Gruppuso, Philip; Kant, Peter; McGee, James; Willochell, Michael; Schor, Nina; Kanter, Steven L; Levine, Arthur S

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of medical schools have implemented or are considering implementing scholarly activity programs as part of their undergraduate medical curricula. The goal of these programs is to foster students' analytical skills, enhance their self-directed learning and their oral and written communication skills, and ultimately to train better physicians. In this article, the authors describe the approach to implementing scholarly activities at a school that requires this activity and at a school where it is elective. Both programs have dealt with significant challenges including orienting students to a complex activity that is fundamentally different than traditional medical school courses and clerkships, helping both students and their mentors understand how to "stay on track" and complete work, especially during the third and fourth years, and educating students and mentors about the responsible conduct of research, especially involving human participants. Both schools have found the implementation process to be evolutionary, requiring experience before faculty could significantly improve processes. A required scholarly activity has highlighted the need for information technology (IT) support, including Web-based document storage and student updates, as well as automatic e-mails alerting supervisory individuals to student activity. Directors of the elective program have found difficulty with both ensuring uniform outcomes across different areas of study and leadership changes in a process that has been largely student-driven. Both programs have found that teamwork, regular meetings, and close communication have helped with implementation. Schools considering the establishment of a scholarly activity should consider these factors when designing programs.

  16. Inspiring careers in STEM and healthcare fields through medical simulation embedded in high school science education

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Louis J.; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L.; Goyal, Riya; Joyal, Julie A.; Gordon, James A.; Faux, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The most effective ways to promote learning and inspire careers related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) remain elusive. To address this gap, we reviewed the literature and designed and implemented a high-fidelity, medical simulation-based Harvard Medical School MEDscience course, which was integrated into high school science classes through collaboration between medical school and K–12 faculty. The design was based largely on the literature on concepts and mechanisms of self-efficacy. A structured telephone survey was conducted with 30 program alumni from the inaugural school who were no longer in high school. Near-term effects, enduring effects, contextual considerations, and diffusion and dissemination were queried. Students reported high incoming attitudes toward STEM education and careers, and these attitudes showed before versus after gains (P < .05). Students in this modest sample overwhelmingly attributed elevated and enduring levels of impact on their interest and confidence in pursuing a science or healthcare-related career to the program. Additionally, 63% subsequently took additional science or health courses, 73% participated in a job or educational experience that was science related during high school, and 97% went on to college. Four of every five program graduates cited a health-related college major, and 83% offered their strongest recommendation of the program to others. Further study and evaluation of simulation-based experiences that capitalize on informal, naturalistic learning and promote self-efficacy are warranted. PMID:25179609

  17. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mainul; Zulkifli, Zainal; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Salam, Abdus; Bhagat, Vidya; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Rahman, Nor Iza A

    2016-01-01

    Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty

  18. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mainul; Zulkifli, Zainal; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Salam, Abdus; Bhagat, Vidya; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Rahman, Nor Iza A

    2016-01-01

    Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today's definition of medical professionalism is evolving - from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient-physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty members

  19. Desegregating Teachers: Contesting the Meaning of Equality of Educational Opportunity in the South Post "Brown". History of Schools and Schooling. Volume 57

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the battle to desegregate public school teachers in the South. It also considers the implications of linking racially balanced school faculties to equal educational opportunities for African American students. This book demonstrates that the legal struggle to desegregate teachers and other school personnel is critical to…

  20. [Actual state and problems in neurology training in medical schools].

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, Takayuki; Inuzuka, Takashi; Yoshii, Fumihito; Aoki, Masashi; Amano, Takahiro; Toyoshima, Itaru; Fukutake, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the need for pre- and post-graduate education for neurologists, the subcommittee of the Japanese Society of Neurology for education performed a questionnaire-based survey in 80 medical universities throughout Japan. The response rate to the questionnaire was 82.5%. Textbooks for lectures for medical students were used in only 22.7% of those universities. If the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) made a standard text, 77.8% of universities would like to use it. Most of the training programs for residents were compatible with the minimum requirements of the JSN. Just 66.7% of those training programs were completed in their own institute, and 77.3% of universities required help from the JSN. PMID:24807280

  1. Nutrition education in medical school: a time of opportunity1234

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior–related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge. PMID:24646826

  2. Clinical research in medical schools: seizing the opportunity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E; Griner, P F; Weissman, J

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) face challenges to the achievement of their potential in clinical research. These challenges include reduced support of research from clinical revenue, cultural impediments to clinical research within the traditional value system of research-intensive AMCs, and potential problems of patient access to clinical research in intensive managed care environments. This article considers options to strengthen clinical research that have been developed at some medical centers. While much attention is being directed to the expansion of clinical trials in many AMCs, this effort needs to be linked to a cohesive strategy for clinical research being conducted in an academic environment. The article also addresses the subject of training and career development. It concludes with the opinion that the "crisis" in clinical research in academic medical centers provides the opportunity to define, more explicitly, the nature and scope of the investment in clinical research, and to define strategies that will bring added value to knowledge generated from basic research and to the teaching and patient care missions of these centers.

  3. Brown's Legacy: The Promises and Pitfalls of Judicial Relief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Deborah Jones

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) is one of the greatest achievements of the American judicial system. It decisively declared racial segregation in the schools unconstitutional, inaugurating the modern civil rights era. In addition to advancing equality, "Brown" initiated a new type of judicial decision making. After "Brown," courts…

  4. Genetics in medical school curriculum: A look at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Deanne M.; Fong, Chin-To

    2008-01-01

    Genetics is assuming an increasingly important role in medicine. As a result, the teaching of genetics should also be increased proportionally to ensure that future physicians will be able to take advantage of the new genetic technology, and to understand the associated ethical, legal and social issues. At the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, we have been able to incorporate genetic education into a four-year medical curriculum in a fully integrated fashion. This model may serve as a template for other medical curriculum still in development. PMID:18196607

  5. Present status of ethics committees of the medical schools in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takao

    1991-12-01

    Present features and functions of ethics committees in 80 Japanese medical schools were surveyed through inquiries to those institutes by the author. Seventy nine schools have already started their own committees in each campus by the end of 1990, and the remaining one is preparing for its start in near future. The major role of the ethics committee may be said to roughly correspond to that of the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) in the USA, although a role of the hospital ethics committee has been played in addition to its proper functions in many schools. Among many problems two major drawbacks seem necessary to be removed urgently. The first one is an inappropriate composition of the committee in the majority of schools. More members from the outside of the campus, younger generations, and female reviewers should be added to the committee. The second point is the essentially closed review systems in most schools. The process of the review has not been effectively opened to the public yet, even in case in which no privacy of the patients or volunteers appears in the discussion. Several schools are preparing for opening now and the situation will be improved gradually. It was fortunate that the ethics committees in Japanese medical schools were founded by wills and efforts of members of each campus without having any suggestions, recommendations, or orders from the national government or other officials.

  6. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed, in many…

  7. Restricted career paths for overseas students graduating from Australian medical schools: legal and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Katie J; Studdert, David M

    2010-05-01

    A sharp increase in the number of students graduating from Australian medical schools over the next few years looks set to outpace available intern positions. Graduating overseas students will be the first to miss out. While this treatment of overseas students is unlikely to be found unlawful, questions of fairness remain. From a policy standpoint, the bottleneck in intern places could be quite damaging as: it encourages Australian-trained medical graduates with high-quality training and culturally-relevant skills to leave; and it extinguishes a valuable opportunity to steer some of these graduates into geographical areas with the greatest medical workforce needs.

  8. Restricted career paths for overseas students graduating from Australian medical schools: legal and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Katie J; Studdert, David M

    2010-05-01

    A sharp increase in the number of students graduating from Australian medical schools over the next few years looks set to outpace available intern positions. Graduating overseas students will be the first to miss out. While this treatment of overseas students is unlikely to be found unlawful, questions of fairness remain. From a policy standpoint, the bottleneck in intern places could be quite damaging as: it encourages Australian-trained medical graduates with high-quality training and culturally-relevant skills to leave; and it extinguishes a valuable opportunity to steer some of these graduates into geographical areas with the greatest medical workforce needs. PMID:20438428

  9. [The movement to establish a Christian medical school proposed by medical missionary "John C. Berry"].

    PubMed

    Fuseda, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    John C. Berry (1847-1936) came to Japan in 1872, worked as a medical missionary for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM . He attempted to influence Japanese medical education toward a more Christian-influenced approach. In early Meiji, the Japanese government adopted the German language and principles for its national medical program. This promoted a tendency towards the adoption of German concepts in Japanese medical education. The director of of Doshisha, Niijima, was concerned about such a tendency, which he considered rather science-oriented or skeptical and atheistic, according to his writings. The tradition of corruption among Japanese doctors also deeply disappointed him. Niijima sought the type of medical institution in which the students would learn Western medicine based on a moral base of Christianity, presumably in Kyoto, to take advantage of the foundation of Doshisha, which had already been built. Missionaries in Japan, especially Berry, supported Niijima's intentions. During his visit to the U.S. he promoted a mission statement in support of Niijima's idea in order to raise funds among Christian communities. This project produced a resolution among the Christian community in Philadelphia to establish an interdenominational foundation for establishing such a medical institution and it encouraged other cities to follow. However, the American Board of Missionaries in Japan disagreed with the idea of its being interdenominational, and then, along with other struggles such as the lack of funding in light of the economic slowdown, and the widespread social rejection of Christianity in Japan, the project fell apart and was suspended.

  10. [The movement to establish a Christian medical school proposed by medical missionary "John C. Berry"].

    PubMed

    Fuseda, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    John C. Berry (1847-1936) came to Japan in 1872, worked as a medical missionary for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM . He attempted to influence Japanese medical education toward a more Christian-influenced approach. In early Meiji, the Japanese government adopted the German language and principles for its national medical program. This promoted a tendency towards the adoption of German concepts in Japanese medical education. The director of of Doshisha, Niijima, was concerned about such a tendency, which he considered rather science-oriented or skeptical and atheistic, according to his writings. The tradition of corruption among Japanese doctors also deeply disappointed him. Niijima sought the type of medical institution in which the students would learn Western medicine based on a moral base of Christianity, presumably in Kyoto, to take advantage of the foundation of Doshisha, which had already been built. Missionaries in Japan, especially Berry, supported Niijima's intentions. During his visit to the U.S. he promoted a mission statement in support of Niijima's idea in order to raise funds among Christian communities. This project produced a resolution among the Christian community in Philadelphia to establish an interdenominational foundation for establishing such a medical institution and it encouraged other cities to follow. However, the American Board of Missionaries in Japan disagreed with the idea of its being interdenominational, and then, along with other struggles such as the lack of funding in light of the economic slowdown, and the widespread social rejection of Christianity in Japan, the project fell apart and was suspended. PMID:25854104

  11. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  12. [THE PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL SELF-APPRAISAL OF GRADUATES OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN].

    PubMed

    Semenova, Yu M; Bitrebaeva, D M; Baildinova, K J; Lepesova, S J; Dauletiarova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The human resources play a decisive role in support of effective functioning of any health care system. The study was carried out to analyze characteristics offormation ofprofessional self-appraisal of graduates of comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan choosing medical specialties. The study was organized in city of Pavlodar and the Pavlodarskaia oblast of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The sample included 447 schoolchildren of 9-10 classes, 25 workers of 3 urban and 1 rural schools, 12 lecturers of medical university. The questionnaire survey was applied. The statistical processing of data was implemented using SPSS v.20 software. It is established that medicine became a popular profession because it was chosen by 22% of schoolchildren. Out of them, only 37.4% belonged among personality type "human-human" corresponding to medical specialties. The childhood dream became main cause of choosing medicine among 55.6% of schoolchildren. The second place took perspective of employment and third place--insistent advice of parents (13.1% and 7.1% correspondingly). Only 31.3% of schoolchildren were aware of specificity of medical specialties and 52.5% had independent experience of initial medical care provision. The additional training is considered by 72.7% of schoolchildren as necessary for entering medical university. The workers of schools and medical university 65.5% and 66.7% limit themselves by once-only activities. The vocational guidance activities implemented in comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan can be significantly ameliorated. The possibility of implementing personality type test is to be considered. The application of innovative methods of vocational guidance is to be considered too.

  13. [THE PROFESSIONAL MEDICAL SELF-APPRAISAL OF GRADUATES OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN].

    PubMed

    Semenova, Yu M; Bitrebaeva, D M; Baildinova, K J; Lepesova, S J; Dauletiarova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The human resources play a decisive role in support of effective functioning of any health care system. The study was carried out to analyze characteristics offormation ofprofessional self-appraisal of graduates of comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan choosing medical specialties. The study was organized in city of Pavlodar and the Pavlodarskaia oblast of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The sample included 447 schoolchildren of 9-10 classes, 25 workers of 3 urban and 1 rural schools, 12 lecturers of medical university. The questionnaire survey was applied. The statistical processing of data was implemented using SPSS v.20 software. It is established that medicine became a popular profession because it was chosen by 22% of schoolchildren. Out of them, only 37.4% belonged among personality type "human-human" corresponding to medical specialties. The childhood dream became main cause of choosing medicine among 55.6% of schoolchildren. The second place took perspective of employment and third place--insistent advice of parents (13.1% and 7.1% correspondingly). Only 31.3% of schoolchildren were aware of specificity of medical specialties and 52.5% had independent experience of initial medical care provision. The additional training is considered by 72.7% of schoolchildren as necessary for entering medical university. The workers of schools and medical university 65.5% and 66.7% limit themselves by once-only activities. The vocational guidance activities implemented in comprehensive schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan can be significantly ameliorated. The possibility of implementing personality type test is to be considered. The application of innovative methods of vocational guidance is to be considered too. PMID:27116840

  14. Introducing managed care to the medical school curriculum: effect on student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Field, T S; Baldor, R A; Casey, L M; Chuman, A; Lasser, D; Ehrlich, A; Gurwitz, J H

    1998-07-01

    In order to assess the effect of clinical training and didactic instruction on medical student attitudes toward managed care, we conducted a survey of all medical students at the midpoint of their third year clerkships at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. The students were exposed to clinical training in managed care settings and a 2-day required course on the principles underlying managed care. The main outcome measures were student attitudes toward the concepts of managed care, managed care organizations, and future careers in managed care. Students also assessed the attitudes of medical faculty toward managed care. Attitudes of students with previous clinical training in managed care settings did not differ from those of students without such exposure toward the concepts underlying managed care or managed care organizations and were less positive about careers in managed care. Student responses before and after the 2-day course on managed care demonstrated that attitudes moved in a significantly positive direction. Seventy-one percent of students reported that the opinions they had heard from medical faculty about managed care were negative. Preparing medical students to practice medicine effectively in managed care settings will require focused attention on managed care issues in the medical school curriculum and the combined efforts of academic health centers and managed care organizations.

  15. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  16. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  17. Continuing Medical Education in Vietnam: New Legislation and New Roles for Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Velden, Ton; Van, Hung Nguyen; Quoc, Huy Nguyen Vu; Van, Huu Ngo; Baron, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Driven by health care reform and the advent of the private sector in the late 1980s, and by commitments made to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Vietnam is faced with a need to increase the regulation and training of its health care professionals. Previously, a diploma from an accredited health professional school was sufficient…

  18. Academic and Professional Career Outcomes of Medical School Graduates Who Failed USMLE Step 1 on the First Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougle, Leon; Mavis, Brian E.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Roberts, Nicole K.; Ephgrave, Kimberly; Hageman, Heather L.; Lypson, Monica L.; Thomas, Lauree; Andriole, Dorothy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the academic and professional outcomes of medical school graduates who failed the United States Licensing Examination Step 1 on the first attempt. This retrospective cohort study was based on pooled data from 2,003 graduates of six Midwestern medical schools in the classes of 1997-2002. Demographic, academic, and…

  19. End-of-Life and Palliative Care Issues in Medical and Nursing Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, George E.

    2007-01-01

    Medical and nursing schools in the United States have traditionally had a limited emphasis on end-of-life care. The present study is a comparison of these 2 professional programs' current offerings on death education. Data were gathered via a mailed survey from the 122 medical schools in 2005 and the 580 baccalaureate nursing programs in 2006.…

  20. Survey of the Prevalence of Burnout, Stress, Depression, and the Use of Supports by Medical Students at One School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Elaine; Eddins-Folensbee, Florence; Coverdale, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors determined the prevalence of stress, depression, and burnout in medical students and the resources used by students in one school to alleviate psychological distress. Methods: A survey was administered to 526 students in the first 3 years of medical school (336 responders; response rate: 70%) at one institution, using a…