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Sample records for brown-vialetto-van laere syndrome

  1. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Francis, D A; Ponsford, J R; Wiles, C M; Thomas, P K; Duchen, L W

    1993-02-01

    The clinical and pathological findings of a male with the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome are described. This rare and fatal affection of the nervous system involves mainly the brain stem with the prominent and early manifestation of sensorineural deafness. Increased awareness and documentation of this disorder has added information on the mode of inheritance.

  2. A Case of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome Due To a Novel Mutation in SLC52A3 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Thulasi, Venkatraman; Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Pletcher, Beth A.; Tong, Chun M.

    2017-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by motor, sensory, and cranial neuronopathies, associated with mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes that code for human riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively. The authors describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome and a novel homozygous mutation c.1156T>C in the SLC52A3 gene, who presented at the age of 2.5 years with progressive brain stem dysfunction including ptosis, facial weakness, hearing loss, dysphagia, anarthria with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, and ataxic gait. She subsequently developed respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and worsening dysphagia necessitating a gastrostomy. Following riboflavin supplementation, resolution of facial diplegia and ataxia, improvements in ptosis, and bulbar function including vocalization and respiration were noted. However, her sensorineural hearing loss remained unchanged. Similar to other cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, our patient responded favorably to early riboflavin supplementation with significant but not complete neurologic recovery. PMID:28856173

  3. Pontobulbar palsy and neurosensory deafness (Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome) with possible autosomal dominant inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, S A; Nevin, N C; Harding, A E

    1990-01-01

    A female with the Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is described. The patient's father, a paternal uncle, and possibly a paternal first cousin had neurosensory deafness and a paternal aunt had clinical symptoms indicative of the syndrome. This family raises the possibility that the disorder is genetically heterogeneous with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant forms. Alternatively, it could be caused by a mutant gene on the X chromosome. Images PMID:2325091

  4. A Case of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome Due To a Novel Mutation in SLC52A3 Gene: Clinical Course and Response to Riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Thulasi, Venkatraman; Veerapandiyan, Aravindhan; Pletcher, Beth A; Tong, Chun M; Ming, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by motor, sensory, and cranial neuronopathies, associated with mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes that code for human riboflavin transporters RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively. The authors describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome and a novel homozygous mutation c.1156T>C in the SLC52A3 gene, who presented at the age of 2.5 years with progressive brain stem dysfunction including ptosis, facial weakness, hearing loss, dysphagia, anarthria with bilateral vocal cord paralysis, and ataxic gait. She subsequently developed respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and worsening dysphagia necessitating a gastrostomy. Following riboflavin supplementation, resolution of facial diplegia and ataxia, improvements in ptosis, and bulbar function including vocalization and respiration were noted. However, her sensorineural hearing loss remained unchanged. Similar to other cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, our patient responded favorably to early riboflavin supplementation with significant but not complete neurologic recovery.

  5. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sathasivam, Sivakumar

    2008-01-01

    The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy associated with sensorineural deafness. Fifty-eight cases have been reported in just over 100 years. The female to male ratio is approximately 3:1. The age of onset of the initial symptom varies from infancy to the third decade. The syndrome most frequently presents with sensorineural deafness, which is usually progressive and severe. Lower cranial nerve involvement and lower and upper motor neuron limb signs are common neurological features. Other features include respiratory compromise (the most frequent non-neurological finding), limb weakness, slurring of speech, facial weakness, and neck and shoulder weakness. Optic atrophy, retinitis pigmentosa, macular hyperpigmentation, autonomic dysfunction, epilepsy may occur. The etiopathogenesis of the condition remains elusive. Approximately 50% of cases are familial, of which autosomal recessive is suggested. The remaining cases are sporadic. The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical presentation. Investigations (neurophysiological studies, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, muscle biopsy, cerebrospinal fluid examination) are done to exclude other causes or to confirm the clinical findings. The differential diagnoses include the Fazio-Londe syndrome, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Nathalie syndrome, Boltshauser syndrome and Madras motor neuron disease. Treatment with steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin may result in temporary stabilization of the syndrome. However, the mainstays of management are supportive and symptomatic treatment, in particular assisted ventilation and maintenance of nutrition via gastrostomy. The clinical course of BVVL is variable and includes gradual deterioration (almost half of cases), gradual deterioration with stable periods in between (a third of cases) and deterioration with abrupt periods of worsening (just under a fifth of cases). After the initial

  6. Remarkable motor recovery after riboflavin therapy in adult-onset Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bashford, James A; Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Shaw, Chris E

    2017-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome in this woman with rapidly progressive pontobulbar palsy led to empirical high-dose oral riboflavin (1200 mg/day) therapy. This resulted in a dramatic improvement in her motor function from being anarthric, dysphagic, tetraparetic and in ventilatory failure to living independently with mild dysarthria and distal limb weakness. DNA sequencing of the SLC52A3 gene found compound heterozygous C-terminus mutations, V413A1/D461Y, consistent with recent reports of mutations within the riboflavin transporter genes (SLC52A2 and SLC52A3) in this condition. Early diagnosis and empirical riboflavin therapy can lead to major motor recovery in this condition, that can be sustained with long-term maintenance therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Riboflavin transporter 3 involvement in infantile Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere disease: two novel mutations.

    PubMed

    Ciccolella, Marianna; Corti, Stefania; Catteruccia, Michela; Petrini, Stefania; Tozzi, Giulia; Rizza, Teresa; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Nizzardo, Monica; Bordoni, Andreina; Ronchi, Dario; D'Amico, Adele; Rizzo, Cristiano; Comi, Giacomo Pietro; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-02-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by progressive pontobulbar palsy and sensorineural deafness. Causative mutations in genes encoding human riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2) and 3 (hRFT3) have been identified in BVVL patients. We report the clinical and molecular features of a severe BVVL patient in whom screening of SLC52A3/hRFT2 was negative. Sequence analysis identified two novel compound heterozygous mutations in SLC52A2/hRFT3, namely c.155C>T and c.1255G>A, leading to the amino acid changes p.S52F and p.G419S, respectively. Functional studies show that these defects impair the gene expression of the corresponding transporter, resulting in a significant reduction of riboflavin transport. These findings support the pathogenetic role of SLC52A2/hRFT3 in BVVL with important clinical and therapeutic implications.

  8. Impaired riboflavin transport due to missense mutations in SLC52A2 causes Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haack, Tobias B; Makowski, Christine; Yao, Yoshiaki; Graf, Elisabeth; Hempel, Maja; Wieland, Thomas; Tauer, Ulrike; Ahting, Uwe; Mayr, Johannes A; Freisinger, Peter; Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Inui, Ken; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Prokisch, Holger

    2012-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVLS [MIM 211530]) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by infancy onset sensorineural deafness and ponto-bulbar palsy. Mutations in SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), coding for riboflavin transporter 2 (hRFT2), have been identified as the molecular genetic correlate in several individuals with BVVLS. Exome sequencing of just one single case revealed that compound heterozygosity for two pathogenic mutations in the SLC52A2 gene coding for riboflavin transporter 3 (hRFT3), another member of the riboflavin transporter family, is also associated with BVVLS. Overexpression studies confirmed that the gene products of both mutant alleles have reduced riboflavin transport activities. While mutations in SLC52A3 cause decreased plasma riboflavin levels, concordant with a role of SLC52A3 in riboflavin uptake from food, the SLC52A2-mutant individual had normal plasma riboflavin concentrations, a finding in line with a postulated function of SLC52A2 in riboflavin uptake from blood into target cells. Our results contribute to the understanding of human riboflavin metabolism and underscore its role in the pathogenesis of BVVLS, thereby providing a rational basis for a high-dose riboflavin treatment.

  9. Madras motor neuron disease (MMND) is distinct from the riboflavin transporter genetic defects that cause Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Pandraud, Amelie; Mok, Kin; Houlden, Henry

    2013-11-15

    Madras motor neuron disease (MMND), MMND variant (MMNDV) and Familial MMND (FMMND) have a unique geographic distribution predominantly reported from Southern India. The characteristic features are onset in young, weakness and wasting of limbs, multiple lower cranial nerve palsies and sensorineural hearing loss. There is a considerable overlap in the phenotype of MMND with Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) Boltshauser syndrome, Nathalie syndrome and Fazio-Londe syndrome. Recently a number of BVVL cases and families have been described with mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 (solute carrier family 52, riboflavin transporter, member 2 and 3 respectively). We describe six families and four sporadic MMND cases that have been clinically characterized in detail with history, examination, imaging and electrophysiological investigations. We sequenced the SLC52A1, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 in affected probands and sporadic individuals from the MMND series as well as the C9ORF72 expansion. No genetic defects were identified and the C9ORF72 repeats were all less than 10. These data suggest that MMND is a distinct clinical subgroup of childhood onset MND patients where the known genetic defects are so far negative. The clinico-genetic features of MMND in comparison with the BVVL group of childhood motor neuron diseases suggest that these diseases are likely to share a common defective biological pathway that may be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio Londe syndrome revisited: natural history, genetics, treatment and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Annet M; Stroek, Kevin; Abeling, Nico G; Waterham, Hans R; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2012-10-29

    The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare neurological disorder which may present at all ages with sensorineural deafness, bulbar palsy and respiratory compromise. Fazio-Londe syndrome is considered to be the same disease entity. Recently it was demonstrated that in some patients the disease is caused by mutations in the SLC52A3 gene which encodes the intestinal (hRFT2) riboflavin transporter. In these patients riboflavin deficiency is the cause of the BVVL/FL syndrome and supplementation of riboflavin proved a life saving treatment. Mutations in the SLC52A2 gene and the SLC52A1 (GPR172B) gene, coding for human riboflavin transporters hRFT3 and hRFT1 have been associated with the BVVL syndrome as well. We performed a review of the literature, with emphasis on the natural history and the effects of treatment in these patients. A total of 35 publications were traced reporting on the clinical presentation of 74 patients who presented before age 18. The most prevalent symptoms were bulbar palsy, hearing loss, facial weakness and respiratory compromise. Death was reported in 28 of the 61 untreated patients, with a very low survival in patients presenting before age 4. All 13 patients who were treated with riboflavin survived, with a strong clinical improvement after days to months of treatment in eight patients. Three patients demonstrated a stable clinical course and treatment was stopped early in two patients. Abnormalities in plasma flavin levels and/or plasma acylcarnitine profiles were observed in some but not in all patients, and also patients with normal plasma flavin levels and acylcarnitine profiles demonstrated a striking clinical improvement on riboflavin supplementation. It is now clear that proper diagnosis requires mutation analysis of all three transporter genes and treatment should be started immediately without first awaiting results of molecular analysis. Clinical improvement may be rapid or gradual over a period of more than 12 months.

  11. The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio Londe syndrome revisited: natural history, genetics, treatment and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare neurological disorder which may present at all ages with sensorineural deafness, bulbar palsy and respiratory compromise. Fazio-Londe syndrome is considered to be the same disease entity. Recently it was demonstrated that in some patients the disease is caused by mutations in the SLC52A3 gene which encodes the intestinal (hRFT2) riboflavin transporter. In these patients riboflavin deficiency is the cause of the BVVL/FL syndrome and supplementation of riboflavin proved a life saving treatment. Mutations in the SLC52A2 gene and the SLC52A1 (GPR172B) gene, coding for human riboflavin transporters hRFT3 and hRFT1 have been associated with the BVVL syndrome as well. We performed a review of the literature, with emphasis on the natural history and the effects of treatment in these patients. A total of 35 publications were traced reporting on the clinical presentation of 74 patients who presented before age 18. The most prevalent symptoms were bulbar palsy, hearing loss, facial weakness and respiratory compromise. Death was reported in 28 of the 61 untreated patients, with a very low survival in patients presenting before age 4. All 13 patients who were treated with riboflavin survived, with a strong clinical improvement after days to months of treatment in eight patients. Three patients demonstrated a stable clinical course and treatment was stopped early in two patients. Abnormalities in plasma flavin levels and/or plasma acylcarnitine profiles were observed in some but not in all patients, and also patients with normal plasma flavin levels and acylcarnitine profiles demonstrated a striking clinical improvement on riboflavin supplementation. It is now clear that proper diagnosis requires mutation analysis of all three transporter genes and treatment should be started immediately without first awaiting results of molecular analysis. Clinical improvement may be rapid or gradual over a period of more than 12 months. PMID

  12. SLC52A2 [p.P141T] and SLC52A3 [p.N21S] causing Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome in an Indian patient: First genetically proven case with mutations in two riboflavin transporters.

    PubMed

    Udhayabanu, Tamilarasan; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Teafatiller, Trevor; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Raghavan, Varun S; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Said, Hamid M; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2016-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome (BVVLS), a rare neurological disorder characterized by bulbar palsies and sensorineural deafness, is mainly associated with defective riboflavin transporters encoded by the SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes. Here we present a 16-year-old BVVLS patient belonging to a five generation consanguineous family from Indian ethnicity with two homozygous missense mutations viz., c.421C>A [p.P141T] in SLC52A2 and c.62A>G [p.N21S] in SLC52A3. Functional characterization based on 3 H-riboflavin uptake assay and live-cell confocal imaging revealed that the effect of mutation c.421C>A [p.P141T] identified in SLC52A2 had a slight reduction in riboflavin uptake; on the other hand, the c.62A>G [p.N21S] identified in SLC52A3 showed a drastic reduction in riboflavin uptake, which appeared to be due to impaired trafficking and membrane targeting of the hRFVT-3 protein. This is the first report presenting mutations in both riboflavin transporters hRFVT-2 and hRFVT-3 in the same BVVLS patient. Also, c.62A>G [p.N21S] in SLC52A3 appears to contribute more to the disease phenotype in this patient than c.421C>A [p.P141T] in SLC52A2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SLC52A2 [p.P141T] and SLC52A3 [p.N21S] causing Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome in an Indian patient: First genetically proven case with mutations in two riboflavin transporters

    PubMed Central

    Udhayabanu, Tamilarasan; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Teafatiller, Trevor; Gowda, Vykuntaraju K; Raghavan, Varun S; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Said, Hamid M; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2017-01-01

    Background Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome (BVVLS), a rare neurological disorder characterized by bulbar palsies and sensorineural deafness, is mainly associated with defective riboflavin transporters encoded by the SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes. Methods Here we present a 16-year-old BVVLS patient belonging to a five generation consanguineous family from Indian ethnicity with two homozygous missense mutations viz., c.421C>A [p.P141T] in SLC52A2 and c.62A>G [p.N21S] in SLC52A3. Results Functional characterization based on 3H-riboflavin uptake assay and live-cell confocal imaging revealed that the effect of mutation c.421C>A [p.P141T] identified in SLC52A2 had a slight reduction in riboflavin uptake; on the other hand, the c.62A>G [p.N21S] identified in SLC52A3 showed a drastic reduction in riboflavin uptake, which appeared to be due to impaired trafficking and membrane targeting of the hRFVT-3 protein. Conclusions This is the first report presenting mutations in both riboflavin transporters hRFVT-2 and hRFVT-3 in the same BVVLS patient. Also, c.62A>G [p.N21S] in SLC52A3 appears to contribute more to the disease phenotype in this patient than c.421C>A [p.P141T] in SLC52A2. PMID:27702554

  14. Exome sequencing reveals riboflavin transporter mutations as a cause of motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Janel O; Gibbs, J Raphael; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J Andoni; Hernandez, Dena G; Foley, A Reghan; Arepalli, Sampath; Pandraud, Amelie; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Clayton, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Muntoni, Francesco; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Houlden, Henry; Singleton, Andrew B

    2012-09-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome was first described in 1894 as a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive sensorineural deafness in combination with childhood amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutations in the gene, SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), one of three known riboflavin transporter genes, have recently been shown to underlie a number of severe cases of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome; however, cases and families with this disease exist that do not appear to be caused by SLC52A3 mutations. We used a combination of linkage and exome sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in an extended Lebanese Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere kindred, whose affected members were negative for SLC52A3 mutations. We identified a novel mutation in a second member of the riboflavin transporter gene family (gene symbol: SLC52A2) as the cause of disease in this family. The same mutation was identified in one additional subject, from 44 screened. Within this group of 44 patients, we also identified two additional cases with SLC52A3 mutations, but none with mutations in the remaining member of this gene family, SLC52A1. We believe this strongly supports the notion that defective riboflavin transport plays an important role in Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. Initial work has indicated that patients with SLC52A3 defects respond to riboflavin treatment clinically and biochemically. Clearly, this makes an excellent candidate therapy for the SLC52A2 mutation-positive patients identified here. Initial riboflavin treatment of one of these patients shows promising results.

  15. Recent advances in bulbar syndromes: genetic causes and disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Manole, Andreea; Fratta, Pietro; Houlden, Henry

    2014-10-01

    With advances in next-generation gene sequencing, progress in deep phenotyping and a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease, our knowledge of the progressive bulbar syndromes has significantly increased in recent years. This group of heterogeneous conditions, in which the primary disorder is focused around degeneration of the lower cranial nerves, can occur in children or adults and form a spectrum of severity, based around the common feature of bulbar dysfunction. Early genetic diagnosis may allow treatment in some bulbar syndromes. Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio-Londe syndromes are the most recent childhood forms of progressive bulbar palsy to be genetically defined. The clinical phenotype of this group of childhood disorders was first reported over 120 years ago. Recently, it was demonstrated that in a third of these patients Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere is caused by mutations in the SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 genes, both of which encode riboflavin transporters. Importantly, supplementation of riboflavin can lead to significant clinical improvement if started early in the disease process. Here, we outline the clinical features, management and an update on the disease mechanisms and genetic causes of the progressive bulbar syndromes.

  16. Clinical, pathological and functional characterization of riboflavin-responsive neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Manole, Andreea; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Hargreaves, Iain; Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Bello, Oscar D; Pope, Simon; Pandraud, Amelie; Horga, Alejandro; Scalco, Renata S; Li, Abi; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Lourenço, Charles M; Heales, Simon; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F; Toro, Camilo; Singleton, Andrew B; Jacques, Thomas S; Abramov, Andrey Y; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanna, Michael G; Reilly, Mary M; Revesz, Tamas; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel. Brain and spinal cord neuropathological examination of two cases with SLC52A3 mutations showed classical symmetrical brainstem lesions resembling pathology seen in mitochondrial disease, including severe neuronal loss in the lower cranial nerve nuclei, anterior horns and corresponding nerves, atrophy of the spinothalamic and spinocerebellar tracts and posterior column–medial lemniscus pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction has previously been implicated in an array of neurodegenerative disorders. Since riboflavin metabolites are critical components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, we hypothesized that reduced riboflavin transport would result in impaired mitochondrial activity, and confirmed this using in vitro and in vivo models. Electron transport chain complex I and complex II activity were decreased in SLC52A2 patient fibroblasts, while global knockdown of the single Drosophila melanogaster riboflavin transporter homologue revealed reduced levels of riboflavin, downstream metabolites, and electron transport chain complex I activity. This in turn led to abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory chain activity and morphology. Riboflavin transporter

  17. Clinical, pathological and functional characterization of riboflavin-responsive neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Manole, Andreea; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Hargreaves, Iain; Ludtmann, Marthe H R; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Bello, Oscar D; Pope, Simon; Pandraud, Amelie; Horga, Alejandro; Scalco, Renata S; Li, Abi; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Lourenço, Charles M; Heales, Simon; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F; Toro, Camilo; Singleton, Andrew B; Jacques, Thomas S; Abramov, Andrey Y; Muntoni, Francesco; Hanna, Michael G; Reilly, Mary M; Revesz, Tamas; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Jepson, James E C; Houlden, Henry

    2017-11-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel. Brain and spinal cord neuropathological examination of two cases with SLC52A3 mutations showed classical symmetrical brainstem lesions resembling pathology seen in mitochondrial disease, including severe neuronal loss in the lower cranial nerve nuclei, anterior horns and corresponding nerves, atrophy of the spinothalamic and spinocerebellar tracts and posterior column-medial lemniscus pathways. Mitochondrial dysfunction has previously been implicated in an array of neurodegenerative disorders. Since riboflavin metabolites are critical components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, we hypothesized that reduced riboflavin transport would result in impaired mitochondrial activity, and confirmed this using in vitro and in vivo models. Electron transport chain complex I and complex II activity were decreased in SLC52A2 patient fibroblasts, while global knockdown of the single Drosophila melanogaster riboflavin transporter homologue revealed reduced levels of riboflavin, downstream metabolites, and electron transport chain complex I activity. This in turn led to abnormal mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory chain activity and morphology. Riboflavin transporter knockdown in

  18. Clinical presentation and outcome of riboflavin transporter deficiency: mini review after five years of experience.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bregje; Bosch, Annet M

    2016-07-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is absorbed in the small intestine by the human riboflavin transporters RFVT1 and RFVT3. A third riboflavin transporter (RFVT2) is expressed in the brain. In 2010 it was demonstrated that mutations in the riboflavin transporter genes SLC52A2 (coding for RFVT2) and SLC52A3 (coding for RFVT3) cause a neurodegenerative disorder formerly known as Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome, now renamed to riboflavin transporter deficiency. Five years after the diagnosis of the first patient we performed a review of the literature to study the presentation, treatment and outcome of patients with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of a riboflavin transporter deficiency. A search was performed in Medline, Pubmed using the search terms 'Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome' and 'riboflavin transporter' and articles were screened for case reports of patients with a molecular diagnosis of a riboflavin transporter deficiency. Reports on a total of 70 patients with a molecular diagnosis of a RFVT2 or RTVT3 deficiency were retrieved. The riboflavin transporter deficiencies present with weakness, cranial nerve deficits including hearing loss, sensory symptoms including sensory ataxia, feeding difficulties and respiratory difficulties which are caused by a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy and cranial neuropathy. Biochemical abnormalities may be absent and the diagnosis can only be made or rejected by molecular analysis of all genes. Treatment with oral supplementation of riboflavin is lifesaving. Therefore, if a riboflavin transporter deficiency is suspected, treatment must be started immediately without first awaiting the results of molecular diagnostics.

  19. Remarkable motor recovery after riboflavin therapy in adult-onset Brown—Vialetto—Van Laere syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bashford, James A; Chowdhury, Fahmida A; Shaw, Chris E

    2017-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of Brown—Vialetto—Van Laere syndrome in this woman with rapidly progressive pontobulbar palsy led to empirical high-dose oral riboflavin (1200 mg/day) therapy. This resulted in a dramatic improvement in her motor function from being anarthric, dysphagic, tetraparetic and in ventilatory failure to living independently with mild dysarthria and distal limb weakness. DNA sequencing of the SLC52A3 gene found compound heterozygous C-terminus mutations, V413A1/D461Y, consistent with recent reports of mutations within the riboflavin transporter genes (SLC52A2 and SLC52A3) in this condition. Early diagnosis and empirical riboflavin therapy can lead to major motor recovery in this condition, that can be sustained with long-term maintenance therapy. PMID:27777325

  20. Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2

    PubMed Central

    Foley, A. Reghan; Menezes, Manoj P.; Pandraud, Amelie; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Al-Odaib, Ahmad; Abrams, Alexander J.; Sugano, Kumiko; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Manzur, Adnan Y.; Burns, Joshua; Hughes, Imelda; McCullagh, B. Gary; Jungbluth, Heinz; Lim, Ming J.; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J. Andoni; Shah, Ayaz H.; Antony, Jayne; Webster, Richard; Broomfield, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Mathew, Ann A.; O’Byrne, James J.; Forman, Eva; Scoto, Mariacristina; Prasad, Manish; O’Brien, Katherine; Olpin, Simon; Oppenheim, Marcus; Hargreaves, Iain; Land, John M.; Wang, Min X.; Carpenter, Kevin; Horvath, Rita; Straub, Volker; Lek, Monkol; Gold, Wendy; Farrell, Michael O.; Brandner, Sebastian; Phadke, Rahul; Matsubara, Kazuo; McGarvey, Michael L.; Scherer, Steven S.; Baxter, Peter S.; King, Mary D.; Clayton, Peter; Rahman, Shamima; Reilly, Mary M.; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Christodoulou, John; Züchner, Stephan; Muntoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can

  1. Treatable childhood neuronopathy caused by mutations in riboflavin transporter RFVT2.

    PubMed

    Foley, A Reghan; Menezes, Manoj P; Pandraud, Amelie; Gonzalez, Michael A; Al-Odaib, Ahmad; Abrams, Alexander J; Sugano, Kumiko; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Manzur, Adnan Y; Burns, Joshua; Hughes, Imelda; McCullagh, B Gary; Jungbluth, Heinz; Lim, Ming J; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J Andoni; Shah, Ayaz H; Antony, Jayne; Webster, Richard; Broomfield, Alexander; Ng, Joanne; Mathew, Ann A; O'Byrne, James J; Forman, Eva; Scoto, Mariacristina; Prasad, Manish; O'Brien, Katherine; Olpin, Simon; Oppenheim, Marcus; Hargreaves, Iain; Land, John M; Wang, Min X; Carpenter, Kevin; Horvath, Rita; Straub, Volker; Lek, Monkol; Gold, Wendy; Farrell, Michael O; Brandner, Sebastian; Phadke, Rahul; Matsubara, Kazuo; McGarvey, Michael L; Scherer, Steven S; Baxter, Peter S; King, Mary D; Clayton, Peter; Rahman, Shamima; Reilly, Mary M; Ouvrier, Robert A; Christodoulou, John; Züchner, Stephan; Muntoni, Francesco; Houlden, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Childhood onset motor neuron diseases or neuronopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. A particularly severe subgroup first described in 1894, and subsequently called Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, is characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensorineural hearing loss and respiratory insufficiency. There has been no treatment for this progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which leads to respiratory failure and usually death during childhood. We recently reported the identification of SLC52A2, encoding riboflavin transporter RFVT2, as a new causative gene for Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. We used both exome and Sanger sequencing to identify SLC52A2 mutations in patients presenting with cranial neuropathies and sensorimotor neuropathy with or without respiratory insufficiency. We undertook clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characterization of patients with mutations in SLC52A2, functionally analysed the most prevalent mutations and initiated a regimen of high-dose oral riboflavin. We identified 18 patients from 13 families with compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SLC52A2. Affected individuals share a core phenotype of rapidly progressive axonal sensorimotor neuropathy (manifesting with sensory ataxia, severe weakness of the upper limbs and axial muscles with distinctly preserved strength of the lower limbs), hearing loss, optic atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. We demonstrate that SLC52A2 mutations cause reduced riboflavin uptake and reduced riboflavin transporter protein expression, and we report the response to high-dose oral riboflavin therapy in patients with SLC52A2 mutations, including significant and sustained clinical and biochemical improvements in two patients and preliminary clinical response data in 13 patients with associated biochemical improvements in 10 patients. The clinical and biochemical responses of this SLC52A2-specific cohort suggest that riboflavin supplementation can

  2. Madras motor neuron disease (MMND) is distinct from the riboflavin transporter genetic defects that cause Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, Atchayaram; Pandraud, Amelie; Mok, Kin; Houlden, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Madras motor neuron disease (MMND), MMND variant (MMNDV) and Familial MMND (FMMND) have a unique geographic distribution predominantly reported from Southern India. The characteristic features are onset in young, weakness and wasting of limbs, multiple lower cranial nerve palsies and sensorineural hearing loss. There is a considerable overlap in the phenotype of MMND with Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome (BVVL) Boltshauser syndrome, Nathalie syndrome and Fazio–Londe syndrome. Recently a number of BVVL cases and families have been described with mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 (solute carrier family 52, riboflavin transporter, member 2 and 3 respectively). Methods and results We describe six families and four sporadic MMND cases that have been clinically characterized in detail with history, examination, imaging and electrophysiological investigations. We sequenced the SLC52A1, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3 in affected probands and sporadic individuals from the MMND series as well as the C9ORF72 expansion. No genetic defects were identified and the C9ORF72 repeats were all less than 10. Conclusions These data suggest that MMND is a distinct clinical subgroup of childhood onset MND patients where the known genetic defects are so far negative. The clinico-genetic features of MMND in comparison with the BVVL group of childhood motor neuron diseases suggest that these diseases are likely to share a common defective biological pathway that may be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24139842

  3. Mutations in riboflavin transporter present with severe sensory loss and deafness in childhood.

    PubMed

    Srour, Myriam; Putorti, Maria Lisa; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Bolduc, Véronique; Shevell, Michael Israel; Poulin, Chantal; O'ferrall, Erin; Buhas, Daniela; Majewski, Jacek; Brais, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    We have identified a large consanguineous Lebanese family with 5 individuals with severe childhood-onset recessive sensory loss associated with deafness and variable optic atrophy. Autozygosity mapping was performed in all affected individuals, followed by whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 2 individuals. WES identified a homozygous missense mutation (c.916G>A, p.G306R) in the cerebral riboflavin transporter SLC52A2, recently shown to cause Brown-Vialetto-Van-Laere syndrome (BVVLS), which is considered primarily a motor neuronopathy. Our patients have a phenotype distinct from BVVLS, characterized by severe progressive sensory loss mainly affecting vibration and proprioception that evolves to include sensorineural hearing loss in childhood, variable degrees of optic atrophy, and marked upper extremity weakness and atrophy. Treatment of 3 patients with 400 mg/day riboflavin over 3 months produced definite clinical improvement. Mutations in SLC52A2 result in a recognizable phenotype distinct from BVVLS. Early recognition of this disorder is critical, given its potential treatability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. SLC52A3, A Brown–Vialetto–van Laere syndrome candidate gene is essential for mouse development, but dispensable for motor neuron differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Intoh, Atsushi; Suzuki, Naoki; Koszka, Kathryn; Eggan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is essential for cellular reduction-oxidation reactions, but is not readily synthesized by mammalian cells. It has been proposed that riboflavin absorption occurs through solute carrier family 52 members (SLC52) A1, A2 and A3. These transporters are also candidate genes for the childhood onset-neural degenerative syndrome Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere (BVVL). Although riboflavin is an essential nutrient, why mutations in its transporters result in a neural cell-specific disorder remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Slc52a3 is the mouse ortholog of SLC52A3 and show that Slc52a3 deficiency results in early embryonic lethality. Loss of mutant embryos was associated with both defects in placental formation and increased rates of apoptosis in embryonic cells. In contrast, Slc52a3 −/− embryonic stem cell lines could be readily established and differentiated into motor neurons, suggesting that this transporter is dispensable for neural differentiation and short-term maintenance. Consistent with this finding, examination of Slc52a3 gene products in adult tissues revealed expression in the testis and intestine but little or none in the brain and spinal cord. Our results suggest that BVVL patients with SCL52A3 mutations may be good candidates for riboflavin replacement therapy and suggests that either the mutations these individuals carry are hypomorphic, or that in these cases alternative transporters act during human embryogenesis to allow full-term development. PMID:26976849

  5. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  6. Long-term results of silicone expander for moderate and severe Brown syndrome (Brown syndrome "plus").

    PubMed

    Stager, D R; Parks, M M; Stager, D R; Pesheva, M

    1999-12-01

    The treatment of Brown syndrome has been undergoing an evolution toward more effective procedures with fewer operative interventions. Dr Kenneth Wright has introduced a procedure of superior oblique muscle tenotomy with a silicone expander to reduce the incidence of overcorrection. There was a retrospective study of 20 eyes of 19 consecutive patients with moderate or severe Brown syndrome (Brown syndrome "plus"). Follow-up ranged from 12 to 72 months. The expander, which varies 6 to 10 mm in length, was placed in all patients in the tenotomized superior oblique muscle tendon 5 mm nasal to the nasal border of the superior rectus muscle using 7-0 or 8-0 Prolene suture without violating the inner layer of the intermuscular septum. The intermuscular septum was closed over the silicone expander. One hundred percent of patients had resolution of the down shoot in adduction and some or full ability to elevate the eye in adduction. Twenty percent of patients required reoperation (12.5% using 5-8 mm expanders) for overcorrection. Restriction of downgaze was not seen postoperatively. Patients often show an undercorrection 1 to 6 months postoperatively and improve or occasionally overcorrect at 1 to 2 years postoperatively. One patient with a 10-mm expander extruded the implant. Placement of a 5- to 8-mm silicone expander in the tenotomized superior oblique muscle tendon is an effective means of correcting Brown syndrome with a low rate of reoperation. Initial undercorrection should not discourage the surgeon because improvement may continue for up to 3 years. The goal of treatment should be to convert a moderate or severe Brown syndrome (Brown syndrome plus) to a mild Brown syndrome ("true" Brown syndrome). This technique reduces the need for either simultaneous or subsequent inferior oblique muscle weakening and represents an advance in the treatment of Brown syndrome.

  7. Pathophysiology of motor dysfunction in a childhood motor neuron disease caused by mutations in the riboflavin transporter.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Manoj P; Farrar, Michelle A; Webster, Richard; Antony, Jayne; O'Brien, Katherine; Ouvrier, Robert; Kiernan, Matthew C; Burns, Joshua; Vucic, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere (BVVL) syndrome is a progressive motor and sensory neuronopathy secondary to mutations in SLC52A2 encoding the riboflavin transporter type 2 (RFVT2). The phenotype is characterized by early childhood onset hearing loss and sensory ataxia followed by progressive upper limb weakness, optic atrophy, bulbar weakness and respiratory failure. To gain further insight into disease pathophysiology and response to riboflavin supplementation, the present study investigated whether axonal ion channel or membrane abnormalities were a feature of BVVL. Axonal excitability studies and clinical assessments were prospectively undertaken on six patients with BVVL secondary to riboflavin transporter deficiency type 2 (age range 10-21 years) at baseline and after 12 months of riboflavin (1000 mg daily) therapy. At baseline, depolarizing and hyperpolarizing threshold electrotonus was 'fanned out' and superexcitability was increased, while the resting current-threshold gradient and refractoriness were significantly reduced in BVVL patients when compared to controls. Mathematical modeling suggested that functional alterations of myelin underlay these findings with an increase in myelin permeability. Riboflavin therapy resulted in partial normalization of the axonal excitability findings, paralleled by maintenance of muscle strength. The present study established that abnormalities in myelin permeability at the paranode was a feature of BVVL and were partially normalized with riboflavin therapy. This study reveals a novel pathophysiological process for motor nerve dysfunction in BVVL. It also indicates that nerve excitability studies may be further developed in larger cohorts as a potential biomarker to identify treatment response for BVVL patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. RACT/BACT/LAER Clearninghouse (RBLC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    OAR's RACT, BACT, LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) data asset contains summary information on selected air permitting actions from EPA, state, and local permitting agencies across the U.S., as well as a number of international permit records supplied by air pollution control agencies in Mexico and Canada. The acronyms refer to program requirements of the New Source Review (NSR) program: RACT is Reasonably Available Control Technology and applies to existing sources in areas that are not meeting national ambient air quality standards (i.e., non-attainment areas); BACT is Best Available Control Technology and applies to major new or modified sources in clean areas (i.e., attainment areas). LAER, or Lowest Achievable Emission Rate, is required on major new or modified sources in non-attainment areas. As of 2012, RBLC includes approximately 6,500 entries. With the exception of LAER permit determinations, whose inclusion in RBLC is mandatory, participation is voluntary. Coverage is therefore not complete or necessarily representative.Required under Section 108 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, RBLC provides users 00e2?? typically permit writers, permit applicants or holders, and the public 00e2?? with references and personal contacts to support ongoing air pollution control activities. Information is detailed enough for users to know whether a permit is applicable to their needs. Users may then contact the appropriate agency to access the permit or discuss it wit

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in congenital Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to elucidate the etiology of Brown syndrome by evaluating the trochlea position, morphologic characteristics of the extraocular muscles including superior oblique muscle/tendon complex, and the presence of the cranial nerves (CN) III, IV, and VI using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in eight patients with unilateral congenital Brown syndrome and one patient with bilateral congenital Brown syndrome. Nine consecutive patients diagnosed with congenital Brown syndrome had a comprehensive ocular examination and MRI for the CN III, CN VI, and the extraocular muscles. Five of the nine patients underwent additional high resolution MRI for CN IV. The distance from the annulus of Zinn to the trochlea was measured. Normal sized CN III, IV, and VI, as well as all extraocular muscles, could be identified bilaterally in all patients with available MRI. The distance from the annulus of Zinn to the trochlea was the same in both eyes. The findings for our patients, particularly in those who underwent additional high resolution MRI, did not provide evidence of a lack of CN IV as a cause of Brown syndrome.

  10. Riboflavin Responsive Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Udhayabanu, Tamilarasan; Manole, Andreea; Rajeshwari, Mohan; Varalakshmi, Perumal; Houlden, Henry; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are the repository for various metabolites involved in diverse energy-generating processes, like the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides, which rely significantly on flavoenzymes, such as oxidases, reductases, and dehydrogenases. Flavoenzymes are functionally dependent on biologically active flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN), which are derived from the dietary component riboflavin, a water soluble vitamin. Riboflavin regulates the structure and function of flavoenzymes through its cofactors FMN and FAD and, thus, protects the cells from oxidative stress and apoptosis. Hence, it is not surprising that any disturbance in riboflavin metabolism and absorption of this vitamin may have consequences on cellular FAD and FMN levels, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction by reduced energy levels, leading to riboflavin associated disorders, like cataracts, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, etc. Furthermore, mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA encoding for flavoenzymes and flavin transporters significantly contribute to the development of various neurological disorders. Moreover, recent studies have evidenced that riboflavin supplementation remarkably improved the clinical symptoms, as well as the biochemical abnormalities, in patients with neuronopathies, like Brown-Vialetto-Van-Laere syndrome (BVVLS) and Fazio-Londe disease. This review presents an updated outlook on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders in which riboflavin deficiency leads to dysfunction in mitochondrial energy metabolism, and also highlights the significance of riboflavin supplementation in aforementioned disease conditions. Thus, the outcome of this critical assessment may exemplify a new avenue to enhance the understanding of possible mechanisms in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and may provide new rational approaches of disease

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... CREVELD SYNDROME Sources for This Page Baujat G, Le Merrer M. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2007 Jun ... CB, Kochilas L, Schimmenti LA, Moller JH. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and congenital heart defects: presentation of an additional 32 cases. Pediatr Cardiol. 2011 Oct;32( ...

  12. Concurrent Van der Woude syndrome and Turner syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Los, Evan; Baines, Hayley; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of Van der Woude syndrome are caused by a mutation to interferon regulatory factor 6 on chromosome 1. Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome in girls. We describe a unique case of the two syndromes occurring concurrently though apparently independently in a girl with Van der Woude syndrome diagnosed at birth and Turner syndrome at 14 years 9 months. Short stature was initially misattributed to Van der Woude syndrome and pituitary insufficiency associated with clefts before correctly diagnosing Turner syndrome. We discuss the prevalence of delayed diagnosis of Turner syndrome, the rarity of reports of concurrent autosomal chromosome mutation and sex chromosome deletion, as well as the need to consider the diagnosis of Turner syndrome in all girls with short stature regardless of prior medical history.

  13. Brown-Sequard Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis, or multiple sclerosis. × Definition Brown-Sequard syndrome (BSS) is a rare ... infectious or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis, or multiple sclerosis. View Full Definition Treatment Generally treatment for individuals ...

  14. Exome sequencing reveals riboflavin transporter mutations as a cause of motor neuron disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Janel O.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Megarbane, Andre; Urtizberea, J. Andoni; Hernandez, Dena G.; Foley, A. Reghan; Arepalli, Sampath; Pandraud, Amelie; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Clayton, Peter; Reilly, Mary M.; Muntoni, Francesco; Abramzon, Yevgeniya; Houlden, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome was first described in 1894 as a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive sensorineural deafness in combination with childhood amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mutations in the gene, SLC52A3 (formerly C20orf54), one of three known riboflavin transporter genes, have recently been shown to underlie a number of severe cases of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome; however, cases and families with this disease exist that do not appear to be caused by SLC52A3 mutations. We used a combination of linkage and exome sequencing to identify the disease causing mutation in an extended Lebanese Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere kindred, whose affected members were negative for SLC52A3 mutations. We identified a novel mutation in a second member of the riboflavin transporter gene family (gene symbol: SLC52A2) as the cause of disease in this family. The same mutation was identified in one additional subject, from 44 screened. Within this group of 44 patients, we also identified two additional cases with SLC52A3 mutations, but none with mutations in the remaining member of this gene family, SLC52A1. We believe this strongly supports the notion that defective riboflavin transport plays an important role in Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome. Initial work has indicated that patients with SLC52A3 defects respond to riboflavin treatment clinically and biochemically. Clearly, this makes an excellent candidate therapy for the SLC52A2 mutation-positive patients identified here. Initial riboflavin treatment of one of these patients shows promising results. PMID:22740598

  15. Genetics Home Reference: van der Woude syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency Van der Woude syndrome is believed to occur in 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 100,000 people, based on data from Europe and Asia. Van der Woude syndrome ...

  16. Update on clinical aspects and treatment of selected vitamin-responsive disorders II (riboflavin and CoQ 10).

    PubMed

    Horvath, Rita

    2012-07-01

    Riboflavin and ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q(10), CoQ(10)) deficiencies are heterogeneous groups of autosomal recessive conditions affecting both children and adults. Riboflavin (vitamin B(2))-derived cofactors are essential for the function of numerous dehydrogenases. Genetic defects of the riboflavin transport have been detected in Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere and Fazio-Londe syndromes (C20orf54), and haploinsufficiency of GPR172B has been proposed in one patient to cause persistent riboflavin deficiency. Mutations in the electron tranferring fravoprotein genes (ETFA/ETFB) and its dehydrogenase (ETFDH) are causative for multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Mutations in ACAD9, encoding the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 protein were recently reported in mitochondrial disease with respiratory chain complex I deficiency. All these conditions may respond to riboflavin therapy. CoQ(10) is a lipid-soluble component of the cell membranes, where it functions as a mobile electron and proton carrier, but also participates in other cellular processes as a potent antioxidant, and by influencing pyrimidine metabolism. The increasing number of molecular defects in enzymes of the CoQ(10) biosynthetic pathways (PDSS1, PDSS2, COQ2, COQ6, COQ9, CABC1/ADCK3) underlies the importance of these conditions. The clinical heterogeneity may reflect blocks at different levels in the complex biosynthetic pathway. Despite the identification of several primary CoQ(10) deficiency genes, the number of reported patients is still low, and no true genotype-phenotype correlations are known which makes the genetic diagnosis still difficult. Additionally to primary CoQ(10) deficiencies, where the mutation impairs a protein directly involved in CoQ(10) biosynthesis, we can differentiate secondary deficiencies. CoQ(10) supplementation may be beneficial in both primary and secondary deficiencies and therefore the early recognition of these diseases is of utmost importance.

  17. Brown-McLean Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Martinez, Jaime D.; Berrones, David; Juárez-Domínguez, Brenda Y.; Beltrán, Francisco; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented for routine ophthalmic examination after congenital cataract surgery performed at 2 months of age. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral Brown-McLean syndrome by slit lamp examination. No treatment was required because the patient was asymptomatic and had a clear central cornea. This is the first described case of Brown-McLean syndrome in a pediatric patient, representing the importance of clinical examination in the pediatric age group after cataract surgery because of the risk for patients of developing peripheral edema. PMID:26034485

  18. Brown-McLean Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Tourkmani, Abdo Karim; Martinez, Jaime D; Berrones, David; Juárez-Domínguez, Brenda Y; Beltrán, Francisco; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to report the case of a 12-year-old patient who presented for routine ophthalmic examination after congenital cataract surgery performed at 2 months of age. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral Brown-McLean syndrome by slit lamp examination. No treatment was required because the patient was asymptomatic and had a clear central cornea. This is the first described case of Brown-McLean syndrome in a pediatric patient, representing the importance of clinical examination in the pediatric age group after cataract surgery because of the risk for patients of developing peripheral edema.

  19. An unusual presentation of Brown-Sequard syndrome.

    PubMed

    Herr, R D; Barrett, J

    1987-11-01

    We report the case of a man with Brown-Sequard syndrome following a fall in which he sustained fractures of the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. Despite characteristic neurological findings, the diagnosis was delayed due to the absence of history of penetrating spinal trauma and incorrect attribution of unilateral-like weakness and numbness to lumbosacral trauma. A directed history and examination revealed that the patient was stabbed in the back with a penknife while leaving a bus and stepped down onto a paralyzed leg, which collapsed beneath him. The patient was given an antibiotic, underwent a negative peritoneal lavage, and had myelography and nerve conduction velocity confirmatory for Brown-Sequard syndrome. With rehabilitation he became ambulatory with a cane one month after the stabbing.

  20. Acquired simulated brown syndrome following surgical repair of medial orbital wall fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong-uk; Lim, Hyun Taek

    2005-03-01

    Simulated Brown syndrome is a term applied to a myriad of disorders that cause a Brown syndrome-like motility. We encountered a case of acquired simulated Brown syndrome in a 41-year-old man following surgical repair of fractures of both medial orbital walls. He suffered from diplopia in primary gaze, associated with hypotropia of the affected eye. We performed an ipsilateral recession of the left inferior rectus muscle as a single-stage intraoperative adjustment procedure under topical anesthesia, rather than the direct approach to the superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic in all diagnostic gaze positions.

  1. Genome-wide RNA-seq of iPSC-derived motor neurons indicates selective cytoskeletal perturbation in Brown–Vialetto disease that is partially rescued by riboflavin

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Federica; Ramirez, Agnese; Compagnucci, Claudia; Salani, Sabrina; Melzi, Valentina; Bordoni, Andreina; Fortunato, Francesco; Niceforo, Alessia; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bertini, Enrico; Nizzardo, Monica; Corti, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Riboflavin is essential in numerous cellular oxidation/reduction reactions but is not synthesized by mammalian cells. Riboflavin absorption occurs through the human riboflavin transporters RFVT1 and RFVT3 in the intestine and RFVT2 in the brain. Mutations in these genes are causative for the Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere (BVVL), childhood-onset syndrome characterized by a variety of cranial nerve palsies as well as by spinal cord motor neuron (MN) degeneration. Why mutations in RFVTs result in a neural cell–selective disorder is unclear. As a novel tool to gain insights into the pathomechanisms underlying the disease, we generated MNs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from BVVL patients as an in vitro disease model. BVVL-MNs explained a reduction in axon elongation, partially improved by riboflavin supplementation. RNA sequencing profiles and protein studies of the cytoskeletal structures showed a perturbation in the neurofilament composition in BVVL-MNs. Furthermore, exploring the autophagy–lysosome pathway, we observed a reduced autophagic/mitophagic flux in patient MNs. These features represent emerging pathogenetic mechanisms in BVVL-associated neurodegeneration, partially rescued by riboflavin supplementation. Our data showed that this therapeutic strategy could have some limits in rescuing all of the disease features, suggesting the need to develop complementary novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28382968

  2. Combined Brown syndrome and superior oblique palsy without a trochlear nerve: case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Ji-Soo; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2017-08-25

    Congenital Brown syndrome is characterized by limited elevation particularly during adduction. The pathogenesis of congenital Brown syndrome is still controversial. A 6-year-old boy had been tilting his head to the left since infancy. He showed right hypertropia (RHT) of 2 prism diopters (Δ) in the primary position. He showed RHT 6Δ in right gaze, RHT 2Δ in left gaze, RHT 12Δ in right head tilt, and orthotropia in left head tilt. The right eye showed limitation of elevation and depression on adduction, and the left eye showed overdepression on adduction. MR images showed an absent right trochlear nerve with a hypoplastic ipsilateral superior oblique muscle. Congenital Brown syndrome may be associated with an absent trochlear nerve and hypoplastic superior oblique muscle suggesting an etiologic mechanism of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder.

  3. Brown-Séquard syndrome without vascular injury associated with Horner's syndrome after a stab injury to the neck

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret; Zumsteg, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Case Description This case reviews the acute care and rehabilitation course of a 44-year-old right-handed woman after an assault with a pocketknife. She suffered multiple stab wounds including penetrating injury to the left side of her neck. Physical examination revealed left hemiplegia (motor score = 57), impaired pinprick sensation on the right caudal to the C5 dermatome, impaired joint position sense on the left, and left ptosis and miosis. Initially she was unable to stand without maximum assistance. MR imaging revealed transection of the left hemicord at the C5 level without cord hemorrhage. CTA of the neck was negative for vascular injury. She completed 18 days of acute inpatient rehabilitation. She used forearm crutches for ambulation at time of discharge. Prior to discharge the patient provided written permission for a case report. Discussion Stab wounds are the most common cause of traumatic Brown-Séquard syndrome. Horner's syndrome is common in spinal cord lesions occurring in the cervical or thoracic region, however the combination of Horner's and Brown-Séquard syndromes is less commonly reported. In this case report, we review recommendations regarding initial imaging following cervical stab wounds, discuss anatomy and associated neurological findings in Brown-Séquard and Horner's syndromes, and review the expected temporal course of motor recovery. Conclusions Facilitating motor recovery and optimizing function after Brown-Séquard spinal cord injury are important roles for the rehabilitation team. Imaging is necessary to rule out cord hemorrhage or vascular injury and to clinically correlate cord damage with physical examination findings and expected functional impairments. Documenting associated anisocoria and explaining this finding to the patient is an important element of spinal cord injury education. Commonly, patients with Brown-Séquard injuries demonstrate remarkable motor recovery and regain voluntary motor strength and functional

  4. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome in adulthood: extending the clinical spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Andreu, Joaquín; Ray, Victor Glenn; Arribas, José María; Sánchez, Sergio Juan

    2015-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive malformation disorder. Cardiac defects are observed in about 50% of EvC cases. Surgical data is lacking on the prognosis and life expectancy of EvC patients. Herein, we report the case of a 38-year-old man with EvC syndrome who underwent two surgical corrections for cardiac anomalies. This report supplements the available information on the clinical course of EvC syndrome in older patients. PMID:26106249

  5. Results of the superior oblique tendon elongation procedure for severe Brown's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of the silicone tendon expander for the treatment of Brown's syndrome. METHODS: This paper consists of 2 parts: a chart review of patients who have under gone the silicone tendon elongation procedure for Brown's syndrome and a survey of the surgical experience of the members of the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Charts of 15 consecutive Brown's syndrome patients who underwent the superior oblique tendon expander were reviewed by the author from 1987 to 1997. An additional patient referred to the author for management of complications of the silicone tendon expander procedure after surgery elsewhere for Brown's syndrome is reported. The second aspect of the study is a fax survey sent to all 450 members of the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus listed in the 1997-1998 directory. Pediatric ophthalmologists were asked to answer questions regarding their experience using the silicone tendon expander for Brown's syndrome. RESULTS: Of 15 patients operated on by the author, preoperative limitation of elevation in adduction measured -4 in 14 patients and -3 in 1 patient preoperatively. Postoperatively, 14 of the 15 patients showed improved motility, with essentially normal versions in 10 patients (no more than +/- 1 oblique dysfunction); 3 patients were undercorrected (2 mild and 1 severely); and 2 had a consecutive superior oblique paresis (1 mild and 1 requiring an inferior oblique weakening procedure). The 1 patient with a severe undercorrection that did not improve after the silicone tendon elongation procedure showed continued restriction by intraoperative forced ductions after superior oblique tenotomy. Superior oblique tendon was not the cause of Brown's syndrome in this patient. The average final result graded on a scale of 1 to 10 (10 being best) was 8.3. Thirteen of 15 patients (87%) achieved a final result score of 7 or better with a single surgery, and an additional

  6. Middle ear abnormalities in Van Maldergem syndrome.

    PubMed

    Verheij, Emmy; Thomeer, Henricus G X M; Pameijer, Frank A; Topsakal, Vedat

    2017-01-01

    Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) is a very rare syndrome that was first described in 1992. The main features of this syndrome comprise intellectual disability, blepharo-naso-facial malformation, and hand anomalies. Almost all nine described patients have been shown to be affected by conductive hearing impairment attributed to microtia, and atresia of the outer ear canal. Here, we present a VMS patient with congenital malformations of the middle ear as the main reason for severe conductive bilateral hearing impairment. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe middle ear abnormalities in VMS. These malformations were seen on high resolution Computed Tomography scanning and during an exploratory tympanotomy. Due to the severity of the middle ear abnormalities and the risk for facial nerve damage, the patient was not offered an ossicular chain reconstruction but a bone conduction device after this exploratory tympanotomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Brown-Séquard syndrome after a gun shot wound to the cervical spine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Leven, Dante; Sadr, Ali; Aibinder, William R

    2013-12-01

    Brown-Séquard syndrome is characterized by a hemisection of the spinal cord most commonly after spinal trauma or neoplastic disease. The injury causes ipsilateral hemiplegia and proprioceptive sensory disturbances with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation. Patients with Brown-Séquard syndrome have the best prognosis of all spinal cord injury patterns. At this time, the ideal management for Brown-Séquard syndrome after penetrating trauma has yet to be defined. To report a case of a gun shot wound to the upper cervical spine that resulted in Brown-Séquard syndrome and was treated effectively with early cervical spine decompression and fusion. Observational case report. A 28-year-old woman presented after sustaining a low-velocity gun shot wound in to the upper cervical spine in a civilian assault. On initial presentation, she had 0/5 motor scores in the left upper and lower extremities and normal motor scores on the right. Sensory examination was limited as she was intubated and sedated on admission due to airway compromise. A computed tomography scan revealed a bullet lodged in the vertebral body of C3 with boney fragments and soft tissue encroaching on the spinal cord. Subsequently, she underwent C3 corpectomy, bulletectomy, and anterior cervical decompression with fusion. Intraoperatively, no dural disruption or cerebral spinal fluid leak was noted, and her posterior longitudinal ligament was intact. One month postoperatively, her left lower extremity motor score was 5/5 with movement of her left thumb and all fingers. Strength in her biceps, triceps, and wrist extensors and flexors was 3/5. Her functional capacity and strength gradually improved. Reinke et al. support surgical intervention for patients with incomplete paraplegia after the patient is medically stabilized, although their case report discussed lower thoracic injury, which carries a more favorable prognosis. All other prior case reports and prospective studies that reported

  8. Diagnosis of Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome: Approach to the Marden-Walker-like spectrum of disorders.

    PubMed

    Niederhoffer, Karen Y; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Eydoux, Patrice; Mawson, John; Nishimura, Gen; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A; Patel, Millan S

    2016-09-01

    Marden-Walker syndrome is challenging to diagnose, as there is significant overlap with other multi-system congenital contracture syndromes including Beals congenital contractural arachnodactyly, D4ST1-Deficient Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (adducted thumb-clubfoot syndrome), Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, Cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome, and Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome. We discuss this differential diagnosis in the context of a boy from a consanguineous union with Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome, a diagnosis initially confused by the atypical presence of intellectual disability. SNP microarray and whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (p.L870V) in SCARF2 and predicted damaging mutations in several genes, most notably DGCR2 (p.P75L) and NCAM2 (p.S147G), both possible candidates for this child's intellectual disability. We review distinguishing features for each Marden-Walker-like syndrome and propose a clinical algorithm for diagnosis among this spectrum of disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genes for spinocerebellar ataxia with blindness and deafness (SCABD/SCAR3, MIM# 271250 and SCABD2).

    PubMed

    Guissart, Claire; Drouot, Nathalie; Oncel, Ibrahim; Leheup, Bruno; Gershoni-Barush, Ruth; Muller, Jean; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Larrieu, Lise; Anheim, Mathieu; Arslan, Elif Acar; Claustres, Mireille; Tranchant, Christine; Topaloglu, Haluk; Koenig, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Ataxia is a symptom that is often associated with syndromic inherited diseases. We previously reported the linkage of a novel syndrome, ataxia with blindness and deafness (SCAR3/SCABD, OMIM# 271250), to chromosome 6p21-p23 by linkage mapping of an Arab Israeli consanguineous family. We have now identified by whole-exome sequencing a homozygous missense mutation in the Arab Israeli family in the SLC52A2 gene located in 8qter, therefore excluding linkage of this family to 6p. We confirmed the involvement of SLC52A2 by the identification of a second mutation in an independent family with an identical syndromic presentation, which we suggest to name SCABD2. SCABD2 is therefore allelic to Brown-Vialleto-Van Laere syndrome type 2 defined by prominent motoneuronopathy and deafness, and also caused by SLC52A2 mutations. In the course of this project, we identified a clinically similar family with a homozygous missense mutation in PEX6, which is located in 6p21. Therefore, despite false linkage in the initial family, SCABD1/SCAR3 is located in 6p21 and is caused by PEX6 mutations. Both SLC52A2 and PEX6 should be included in screening panels for the diagnosis of syndromic inherited ataxias, particularly as patients with mutations in SLC52A2 can be ameliorated by riboflavin supplementation.

  10. Molecular evolution and antigenic variation of European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana M; Capucci, Lorenzo; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Brocchi, Emiliana; Barbieri, Ilaria; Quéméner, Agnès; Le Pendu, Jacques; Geoghegan, Jemma L; Holmes, Edward C; Esteves, Pedro J; Abrantes, Joana

    2014-11-01

    European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) is the aetiological agent of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS), a disease affecting Lepus europaeus and Lepus timidus first diagnosed in Sweden in 1980. To characterize EBHSV evolution we studied hare samples collected in Sweden between 1982 and 2008. Our molecular clock dating is compatible with EBHSV emergence in the 1970s. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages: Group A persisted until 1989 when it apparently suffered extinction; Group B emerged in the mid-1980s and contains the most recent strains. Antigenic differences exist between groups, with loss of reactivity of some MAbs over time, which are associated with amino acid substitutions in recognized epitopes. A role for immune selection is also supported by the presence of positively selected codons in exposed regions of the capsid. Hence, EBHSV evolution is characterized by replacement of Group A by Group B viruses, suggesting that the latter possess a selective advantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and strabismus: a unique cause of secondary Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Kevin M; Raymond, William R; Boden, John H

    2017-08-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus can be associated with a variety of ocular and visual sequelae, including isolated or even multiple cranial neuropathies, potentially affecting the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves. We report a case of a secondary Brown syndrome following resolution of a unilateral isolated trochlear nerve palsy associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus in an immunocompetent 57-year-old man. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Van der Woude syndrome: Management in the mixed dentition.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sonahita; Dinesh, M R; Dharma, R M; Amarnath, B C

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with Van der Woude syndrome treated with orthodontic and orthopedic intervention in the mixed dentition stage. The patient had a bilateral cleft of the lip and alveolus accompanied by lip pits on the lower lip. Intra-orally, there was bilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite with a collapsed maxilla. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the second phase of treatment involved secondary alveolar bone grafting followed by retention with functional regulator-3. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation.

  13. Van der Woude syndrome: Management in the mixed dentition

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sonahita; Dinesh, M. R.; Dharma, R. M.; Amarnath, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a patient with Van der Woude syndrome treated with orthodontic and orthopedic intervention in the mixed dentition stage. The patient had a bilateral cleft of the lip and alveolus accompanied by lip pits on the lower lip. Intra-orally, there was bilateral anterior and posterior cross-bite with a collapsed maxilla. The maxillary transverse deficiency was managed with orthopedic expansion and the second phase of treatment involved secondary alveolar bone grafting followed by retention with functional regulator-3. The mild maxillary retrognathia and deficient lip support was managed with dental compensation. PMID:23853466

  14. Do individuals with fragile X syndrome show developmental stuttering or not? Comment on "Speech fluency in fragile X syndrome" by van Borsel, Dor and Rondal.

    PubMed

    Howell, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Van Borsel, Dor, and Rondal (2007) examined the speech of seven boys and two young male adults with fragile X syndrome and considered whether their speech was comparable to that reported in the developmental stuttering literature. They listed five criteria which led them to conclude that the speech patterns of speakers with fragile X syndrome differed from those observed in developmental stuttering. The differences noted were: 1) distribution of type of dysfluency; 2) the class of word on which dysfluency occurred; 3) whether word length affected dysfluency; 4) number of times words and phrases were repeated; and 5) whether there were influences of material type on fluency (spontaneous speech, repeated material etc.). They concluded that the speech of speakers with fragile X syndrome differed from developmental stuttering. The comparisons that van Borsel et al. (2007) made between participant groups were not for speakers of comparable ages. Comparisons with groups of corresponding ages support the opposite conclusion, namely the young speakers with fragile X syndrome show patterns similar to developmental stuttering.

  15. Glucagon-like peptide-1 regulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis via the gut-brain axis in rats.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Jean-Philippe; Santos da Conceição, Ellen Paula; Sanchez-Watts, Graciela; Arnold, Myrtha; Pettersen, Klaus G; Mohammed, Mazher; Modica, Salvatore; Lossel, Pius; Morrison, Shaun F; Madden, Christopher J; Watts, Alan G; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lee, Shin J

    2018-05-30

    Endogenous intestinal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) controls satiation and glucose metabolism via vagal afferent neurons (VAN). Recently, VAN have received increasing attention for their role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. It is however unclear whether VAN GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling affects BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure (EE), and whether this VAN mechanism contributes to energy balance. First, we tested the effect of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 (Ex4, 0.3 μg/kg IP) on EE and BAT thermogenesis, and whether these effects require VAN GLP-1R signaling, using a rat model with a selective Glp1r knockdown (kd) in VAN. Second, we examined the role of VAN GLP-1R in energy balance during chronic high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in VAN Glp1r kd rats. Lastly, we used viral transsynaptic tracers to identify the possible neuronal substrates of such a gut-BAT interaction. VAN Glp1r kd attenuated the acute suppressive effects of Ex4 on EE and BAT thermogenesis. Consistent with this finding, the VAN Glp1r kd increased EE and BAT activity, diminished body weight gain, and improved insulin sensitivity compared to HFD-fed controls. Anterograde transsynaptic viral tracing of VAN infected major hypothalamic and hindbrain areas involved in BAT sympathetic regulation. Moreover, retrograde tracing from BAT combined with laser capture microdissection revealed that a population of VAN expressing Glp1r is synaptically connected to the BAT. Our findings reveal a novel role of VAN GLP-1R signaling in the regulation of EE and BAT thermogenesis, and imply that through this gut-brain-BAT connection intestinal GLP-1 plays a role in HFD-induced metabolic syndrome.

  16. Report of a new syndrome: focus on differential diagnosis and review of Ellis-van Creveld, Curry-Hall, acrofacial dysostosis, and orofacial digital syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Setty, Suhas; Sivakumar, A; Pai, Keerthilatha M

    2007-05-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) and Curry-Hall (CH) syndromes are rare syndromes that occur due to mutations of genes mapped to the chromosome 4p16 region. Hence, they both have few features that are common. The dental literature describing the oral manifestations and etiology of both syndromes is scarce. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl who appeared with features that are common to both syndromes, as well as with other features such as reduced cranial base flexure and toes of equal length with skeletal changes that have not been mentioned or described in earlier reports. The patient possibly represents a new syndromic entity that has not been reported until now. Further, we present a review of various other similar syndromes, such as various types of orofacial digital (OFD) syndrome and acrofacial dysostosis.

  17. Phenotypic Variation in Patients with Homozygous c.1678G>T Mutation in EVC Gene: Report of Two Mexican Families with Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Ramirez, Marisol; Campos-Acevedo, Luis Daniel; Lugo-Trampe, Jose; Martínez-Garza, Laura E.; Martinez-Glez, Víctor; Valencia-Benitez, María; Lapunzina, Pablo; Ruiz-Peréz, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    Case series Patient: — Final Diagnosis: Ellis van Creveld syndrome Symptoms: Conical teeth • polydactyly • short stature Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is an autosomal recessive chondro-ectodermal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature, limb shortening, narrow chest, postaxial polydactyly and dysplastic nails and teeth. In addition, 60% of cases present congenital heart defects. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is predominantly caused by mutations in the EVC or EVC2 (4p16) genes, with only a few cases caused by mutations in WDR35. Case Report: Here, we report on two Mexican families with patients diagnosed with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Family 1 includes four patients: three females of 15, 18, and 23 years of age and a 7-year old male. Family 2 has only one affected newborn male. All patients exhibited multiple features including hypodontia, dysplastic teeth, extra frenula, mild short stature, distal limb shortening, postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet, nail dystrophy, and knee joint abnormalities. Only two patients had an atrial septal defect. In all cases, molecular analysis by Sanger sequencing identified the same homozygous mutation in exon 12 of EVC, c.1678G>T, which leads to a premature stop codon. Conclusions: The mutation c.1678G>T has been previously reported in another Mexican patient and it appears to be a recurrent mutation in Mexico which could represent a founder mutation. The large number of patients in this case allows the clinical variability and spectrum of manifestations present in individuals with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome even if they carry the same homozygous mutation in a same family. PMID:29229899

  18. Short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, sparse hair, and vertebral anomalies: a variant of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Fryns, J P; Moerman, P

    1993-01-01

    A male newborn with acromesomelic short limbed dwarfism, genital hypoplasia, and vertebral anomalies is reported. As the child had an important number of clinical and radiological symptoms seen in patients with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, we raise the question of whether he may represent a variant example of this syndrome despite the absence of cardinal symptoms such as postaxial polydactyly and ectodermal changes (nail hypoplasia). Images PMID:8487282

  19. Thermal and Sedimentation Stress Are Unlikely Causes of Brown Spot Syndrome in the Coral Reef Sponge, Ianthella basta

    PubMed Central

    Luter, Heidi M.; Whalan, Steve; Webster, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Marine diseases are being increasingly linked to anthropogenic factors including global and local stressors. On the Great Barrier Reef, up to 66% of the Ianthella basta population was recently found to be afflicted by a syndrome characterized by brown spot lesions and necrotic tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the role of environmental stressors in this syndrome. Specifically, the effects of elevated temperature and sedimentation on sponge health and symbiont stability in I. basta were examined. Neither elevated temperature nor increased sedimentation were responsible for the brown spot lesions, but sponges exposed to 32°C developed substantial discoloration and deterioration of their tissues, resulting in death after eight days and a higher microbial diversity in those samples. No shifts in the microbial community of I. basta were observed across a latitudinal gradient or with increased sedimentation, with three previously described symbionts dominating the community of all sponges (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaea). Conclusions/Significance Results from this study highlight the stable microbial community of I. basta and indicate that thermal and sedimentation stress are not responsible for the brown spot lesions currently affecting this abundant and ecologically important sponge species. PMID:22745827

  20. Thermal and sedimentation stress are unlikely causes of brown spot syndrome in the coral reef sponge, Ianthella basta.

    PubMed

    Luter, Heidi M; Whalan, Steve; Webster, Nicole S

    2012-01-01

    Marine diseases are being increasingly linked to anthropogenic factors including global and local stressors. On the Great Barrier Reef, up to 66% of the Ianthella basta population was recently found to be afflicted by a syndrome characterized by brown spot lesions and necrotic tissue. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the role of environmental stressors in this syndrome. Specifically, the effects of elevated temperature and sedimentation on sponge health and symbiont stability in I. basta were examined. Neither elevated temperature nor increased sedimentation were responsible for the brown spot lesions, but sponges exposed to 32°C developed substantial discoloration and deterioration of their tissues, resulting in death after eight days and a higher microbial diversity in those samples. No shifts in the microbial community of I. basta were observed across a latitudinal gradient or with increased sedimentation, with three previously described symbionts dominating the community of all sponges (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Thaumarchaea). Results from this study highlight the stable microbial community of I. basta and indicate that thermal and sedimentation stress are not responsible for the brown spot lesions currently affecting this abundant and ecologically important sponge species.

  1. Van Wyk Grumbach Syndrome: A Rare Consequence of Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pavan; Tiwari, Kritika; Kulkarni, Abhishek; Parikh, Ketan; Khubchandani, Raju

    2018-05-19

    Long standing hypothyroidism presenting as an ovarian mass has been well described in literature as the Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome (hypothyroidism, isosexual precocious puberty and ovarian mass). Here, authors report this entity in a 11 y 7 mo old girl child who was referred to a surgeon in view of intestinal obstruction along with a multiloculated ovarian cyst. On evaluation, she was found to have raised serum creatinine, short stature, delayed bone age and pituitary enlargement. She was diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and was started on replacement therapy with thyroxine, after which the ovarian cysts regressed. This entity should be kept in mind in cases of ovarian cysts, especially those with isosexual precocity, to prevent unnecessary evaluation and surgical misadventures.

  2. Successful peripheral nerve field stimulation for thoracic radiculitis following Brown-Sequard syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, Mehul J; Desai, Mehul; Jacob, Lisa; Leiphart, James

    2011-01-01

      The objective of this study is to present a novel approach to the treatment of thoracic radiculitis following Brown-Sequard syndrome with peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS). Furthermore, we endeavor to discuss the role of PNFS in the management of refractory neuropathic pain conditions including post-traumatic and post-surgical neuropathy particularly with regards to the post-surgical spine.   Presented is a 57-year-old man with history of thoracic microdiscectomy resulting in Brown-Sequard syndrome presented with chronic post-operative thoracic radicular pain radiating to the abdomen, refractory to conservative management. The patient underwent three intercostal nerve blocks from T7 to T9 with transient symptomatic relief. The patient's options were limited to chemomodulation, neuromodulation, or selective intercostal nerve surgical neurectomy. He subsequently underwent a PNFS trial and reported >75% pain reduction. Permanent percutaneous PNFS electrodes were implanted subcutaneously over the right T7 and T9 intercostal nerves and replicated the trial results.   Neuromodulation produced pain relief with >90% improvement in pain compared with baseline both during the trial and following permanent implantation of the PNFS system.   Chronic radicular pain may be difficult to manage in the post-surgical patient and often requires the use of multiple therapeutic modalities. In this case, we successfully utilized PNFS as it demonstrated greater technical feasibility when compared with dorsal column stimulation and repeat surgery; therefore, it may be considered for the management of post-surgical neuropathy. Further controlled studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of PNFS as a treatment option. © 2011 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. Sex and hibernaculum temperature predict survivorship in white-nose syndrome affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Grieneisen, Laura E; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2015-02-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has devastated North American bat populations since its discovery in 2006. The little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus, has been especially affected. The goal of this 2-year captive study was to determine the impact of hibernacula temperature and sex on WNS survivorship in little brown myotis that displayed visible fungal infection when collected from affected hibernacula. In study 1, we found that WNS-affected male bats had increased survival over females and that bats housed at a colder temperature survived longer than those housed at warmer temperatures. In study 2, we found that WNS-affected bats housed at a colder temperature fared worse than unaffected bats. Our results demonstrate that WNS mortality varies among individuals, and that colder hibernacula are more favourable for survival. They also suggest that female bats may be more negatively affected by WNS than male bats, which has important implications for the long-term survival of the little brown myotis in eastern North America.

  4. Brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoxue; Hu, Tao; Zhao, Han; Huang, Yuanyuan; Ye, Rongcai; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Zhou, Huiqiao; Dong, Meng; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Haibin; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries, is a complex endocrinopathy. Because the cause of PCOS at the molecular level is largely unknown, there is no cure or specific treatment for PCOS. Here, we show that transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) reversed anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. BAT transplantation into a PCOS rat significantly stabilized menstrual irregularity and improved systemic insulin sensitivity up to a normal level, which was not shown in a sham-operated or muscle-transplanted PCOS rat. Moreover, BAT transplantation, not sham operation or muscle transplantation, surprisingly improved fertility in PCOS rats. Interestingly, BAT transplantation activated endogenous BAT and thereby increased the circulating level of adiponectin, which plays a prominent role in whole-body energy metabolism and ovarian physiology. Consistent with BAT transplantation, administration of adiponectin protein dramatically rescued DHEA-induced PCOS phenotypes. These results highlight that endogenous BAT activity is closely related to the development of PCOS phenotypes and that BAT activation might be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS. PMID:26903641

  5. Mid infrared observations of Van Maanen 2: no substellar companion.

    SciTech Connect

    Farihi, J; Becklin, E; Macintosh, B

    2004-11-03

    The results of a comprehensive infrared imaging search for the putative 0.06 M{sub {circle_dot}} astrometric companion to the 4.4 pc white dwarf van Mannen 2 are reported. Adaptive optics images acquired at 3.8 {micro}m reveal a diffraction limited core of 0.09 inch and no direct evidence of a secondary. Models predict that at 5 Gyr, a 50 M{sub J} brown dwarf would be only 1 magnitude fainter than van Maanen 2 at this wavelength and the astrometric analysis suggested a separation of 0.2 inch. In the case of a chance alignment along the line of sight, a 0.4 mag excessmore » should be measured. An independent photometric observation at the same wavelength reveals no excess. In addition, there exist published ISO observations of van Maanen 2 at 6.8 {micro}m and 15.0 {micro}m which are consistent with photospheric flux of a 6750 K white dwarf. If recent brown dwarf models are correct, there is no substellar companion with T{sub eff} {approx}> 500 K.« less

  6. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    PubMed

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae.

  7. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    PubMed Central

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  8. Brown-Séquard syndrome: a rare manifestation of decompression sickness.

    PubMed

    Tseng, W-S; Huang, N-C; Huang, W-S; Lee, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Neurological decompression sickness (DCS) is a rare condition that commonly leads to spinal cord injury. We report the case of a 30-year-old man who developed left-sided weakness and numbness after diving to a maximum depth of 15 m with a total dive time of 205min (10 repetitive dives). To the best of our knowledge, only six cases diagnosed as Brown-Séquard syndrome caused by DCS have been reported in the literature. Divers should be aware of the risk factors of DCS before diving and clinicians should make the diagnosis of spinal cord DCS based primarily on clinical symptoms, not on magnetic resonance imaging findings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Association of Van Wyk Grumbach and Debre Semelaigne Syndromes with Severe Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Oden Akman, Alkim; Tayfun, Meltem; Demirel, Fatma; Ucakturk, Seyit Ahmed; Gungor, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome (VWGS) and Kocher-Debre Semelaigne syndrome (KDSS) are rare forms of pseudo-precocious puberty and myopathy in patients with longstanding untreated hypothyroidism. We present the case of an adolescent girl who developed pseudo-precocious puberty and myopathy caused by long-term untreated hypothyroidism. A 17-year-old female patient was referred to our outpatient clinic due to menstrual irregularities. She had muscle pain and multiple cystic ovaries in addition to clinical signs of severe congenital hypothyroidism. High levels of creatinine and creatinine kinase and accompanying muscle hypertrophy were present. After the initiation of L-thyroxine therapy, the symptoms were alleviated in a short time. Congenital and acquired hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pseudo-precocious puberty and myopathy that presents with muscle pain, muscle hypertrophy, and elevated creatinine kinase levels. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome Show Developmental Stuttering or Not? Comment on "Speech Fluency in Fragile X Syndrome" by Van Borsel, Dor and Rondal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Van Borsel, Dor, and Rondal (2007) examined the speech of seven boys and two young male adults with fragile X syndrome and considered whether their speech was comparable to that reported in the developmental stuttering literature. They listed five criteria which led them to conclude that the speech patterns of speakers with fragile X syndrome…

  11. Brown-Sequard syndrome associated with unusual spinal cord injury by a screwdriver stab wound

    PubMed Central

    Beer-Furlan, André Luiz; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Tavares, Wagner Malagó; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Stab wounds resulting in spinal cord injuries are very rare. In direct central back stabbings, the layers of muscles and the spinal column tends to deflect blades, rarely causing injuries to the spinal cord. We report an unusual case of traumatic spinal cord injury by a screwdriver stab, presented as Brown-Séquard syndrome and discuss possible pitfalls on the surgical treatment. Case report: A 34 year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a group assault with a single screwdriver stab wound on the back. Neurological examination revealed an incomplete Brown-Sequard syndrome, with grade IV motor deficit on the left leg and contralateral hemihypoalgesia below T9 level. Radiological evaluation showed a retained 9 cm screwdriver that entered and trespassed the spinal canal at T6 level, reaching the posterior mediastinum with close relation to the thoracic aorta. Vascular injury could not be excluded. The joint decision between the neurosurgery and the vascular surgery teams was the surgical removal of the screwdriver under direct visualization. A left mini-thoracotomy was performed. Simultaneously, a careful dissection was done and screwdriver was firmly pulled back on the opposite path of entry under direct visualization of the aorta. The neurological deficit was maintained immediately after the surgical procedure. Follow-up visit after 1 year showed minor motor deficit and good healing. Conclusions: It is important to consider all aspects of secondary injury on the surgical planning of penetrating spinal cord injury. The secondary injury can be minimized with multidisciplinary planning of the surgical procedure. PMID:24482724

  12. Wnt inhibition enhances browning of mouse primary white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kinyui Alice; Ng, Pei Yi; Kabiri, Zahra; Virshup, David; Sun, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome requires novel approaches to tackle. White adipose tissue, traditionally seen as a passive energy-storage organ, can be induced to take on certain characteristics of brown fat in a process called browning. The "browned" white adipose tissue, or beige fat, is a potential anti-obesity target. Various signaling pathways can enhance browning. Wnt is a key regulator of adipocyte biology, but its role in browning has not been explored. In this study, we found that in primary mouse adipocytes derived from the inguinal depot, Wnt inhibition by both chemical and genetic methods significantly enhanced browning. The effect of Wnt inhibition on browning most likely targets the beige precursor cells in selected adipose depots.

  13. Multidisciplinary management of a patient with van der Woude syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tehranchi, Azita; Behnia, Hossein; Nadjmi, Nasser; Yassaee, Vahid Reza; Ravesh, Zeinab; Mina, Morteza

    2017-01-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is the most frequent form of syndromic cleft lip and palate (SCLP) accounting for 2% of all patients with CLP. We describe the orthodontic treatment of a girl diagnosed with VWS referred by her family dentist for her cosmetic concerns. Comprehensive orthodontic treatment, secondary bone graft, distraction osteogenesis (for a deficient maxilla), secondary palatoplasty and excision of lower lip pits, as well as orthodontic and prosthetic procedures may provide a satisfactory outcome. Genetic testing showed a known putative splice site mutation (c.174+1G/A) as the prime cause of VWS in our patient and her family. SCLP has significant effects on facial aesthetics and the psychosocial status. Parents should be assessed and counseled appropriately. This condition is treatable in the absence of life threatening systemic anomalies. An interdisciplinary team approach is advocated. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Exome sequencing results in successful riboflavin treatment of a rapidly progressive neurological condition

    PubMed Central

    Petrovski, Slavé; Shashi, Vandana; Petrou, Steven; Schoch, Kelly; McSweeney, Keisha Melodi; Dhindsa, Ryan S.; Krueger, Brian; Crimian, Rebecca; Case, Laura E.; Khalid, Roha; El-Dairi, Maysantoine A.; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically targeted therapies for rare Mendelian conditions are improving patient outcomes. Here, we present the case of a 20-mo-old female suffering from a rapidly progressing neurological disorder. Although diagnosed initially with a possible autoimmune condition, analysis of the child's exome resulted in a diagnosis of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere syndrome 2 (BVVLS2). This new diagnosis led to a change in the therapy plan from steroids and precautionary chemotherapy to high-dose riboflavin. Improvements were reported quickly, including in motor strength after 1 mo. In this case, the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment would have been unlikely in the absence of exome sequencing and careful interpretation. This experience adds to a growing list of examples that emphasize the importance of early genome-wide diagnostics. PMID:27148561

  15. Brown skin disease: A syndrome of dysecdysis in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur).

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Graham; Pienkowski, Maria; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher; Delnatte, Pauline; Russell, Deanna; Berkvens, Charlene; Barker, Ian; Smith, Dale

    2014-01-01

    The endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been held and bred in zoos for release into protected areas in Puerto Rico since 1982. In 2004, several cases of a novel syndrome of skin changes in toads were noticed at the Toronto Zoo. A total of 21 toads were found to have similar lesions and the condition has been seen in several other groups of toads in subsequent years. Affected toads show an uncharacteristic sheen of dark-brown leathery skin, followed by recurring dysecdysis, reduced appetite, weight loss, and death from secondary causes. Histologically the condition is characterized by epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, ulceration, and the presence of superficial mats of bacterial and fungal agents. No etiology has been identified and to date toads have not permanently responded to treatment with various pharmaceutical and nutritional therapies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... high-risk group, or who have a family history of EVC syndrome. Alternative Names ... In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: bare lymphocyte syndrome type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6. Citation on PubMed Gobin SJ, Peijnenburg A, van Eggermond M, van Zutphen M, van den Berg R, van den Elsen PJ. The RFX complex is crucial ... D, Szöllosi J, Jenei A. Bare lymphocyte syndrome: an opportunity to discover our immune system. Immunol Lett. ...

  18. Inorganic Nitrate Promotes the Browning of White Adipose Tissue through the Nitrate-Nitrite-Nitric Oxide Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Griffin, Julian L

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end-product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach we mechanistically define that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown-adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid β-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious co-morbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Since resulting beige/brite cells exhibit anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25249574

  19. Combined Tongue-Palate Fusion With Alveolar Bands in a Patient With Pierre Robin Sequence and Van der Woude Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Alexa; Zarate, Yuri A; Hartzell, Larry D

    2018-01-01

    This report describes the presentation of a newborn male with circumferential tongue-palate fusion associated with cleft palate and alveolar bands. After intraoral adhesions lysis, the patient was diagnosed with Pierre Robin sequence. A family history of cleft lip and palate was noted, and interferon regulatory factor 6 ( IRF6) sequencing revealed a heterozygous variant, confirming the diagnosis of van der Woude syndrome. The disruption of IRF6 resulted in abnormal orofacial development including micrognathia and intraoral adhesions as well as tongue-palate fusion, then resulting in glossoptosis with airway obstruction and cleft palate.

  20. Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome in Grey Alpine Cattle: Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Characterization.

    PubMed

    Muscatello, L V; Benazzi, C; Dittmer, K E; Thompson, K G; Murgiano, L; Drögemüller, C; Avallone, G; Gentile, A; Edwards, J F; Piffer, C; Bolcato, M; Brunetti, B

    2015-09-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is a human autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in either the EVC or EVC2 gene, and presents with short limbs, polydactyly, and ectodermal and heart defects. The aim of this study was to understand the pathologic basis by which deletions in the EVC2 gene lead to chondrodysplastic dwarfism and to describe the morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular hallmarks of EvC syndrome in cattle. Five Grey Alpine calves, with a known mutation in the EVC2 gene, were autopsied. Immunohistochemistry was performed on bone using antibodies to collagen II, collagen X, sonic hedgehog, fibroblast growth factor 2, and Ki67. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze EVC1 and EVC2 gene expression. Autopsy revealed long bones that were severely reduced in length, as well as genital and heart defects. Collagen II was detected in control calves in the resting, proliferative, and hypertrophic zones and in the primary and secondary spongiosa, with a loss of labeling in the resting zone of 2 dwarfs. Collagen X was expressed in hypertrophic zone in the controls but was absent in the EvC cases. In affected calves and controls, sonic hedgehog labeled hypertrophic chondrocytes and primary and secondary spongiosa similarly. FGF2 was expressed in chondrocytes of all growth plate zones in the control calves but was lost in most EvC cases. The Ki67 index was lower in cases compared with controls. EVC and EVC2 transcripts were detected. Our data suggest that EvC syndrome of Grey Alpine cattle is a disorder of chondrocyte differentiation, with accelerated differentiation and premature hypertrophy of chondrocytes, and could be a spontaneous model for the equivalent human disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Taming the Flames: Targeting White Adipose Tissue Browning in Hypermetabolic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-12-01

    In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the savior of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burn and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than beneficial. In fact, in the context of hypermetabolic states, the browning of WAT has presented with substantial clinical adverse outcomes related to cachexia, hepatic steatosis, and muscle catabolism. Therefore, the previous thought construct of understanding browning as an all-beneficial physiologic event has now been met with skepticism. In this review, we focus on current knowledge of browning of WAT and its adverse metabolic alterations during hypermetabolic states. We also discuss the regulators and signaling pathways involved in the browning process and their potential for being targeted by new or existing drugs to inhibit or alleviate browning, potentially leading to decreased hypermetabolism and improved clinical outcomes. Lastly, the imminent clinical applications of pharmacological agents are explored in the perspective of attenuating WAT browning and its associated adverse side effects reported in burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. [Abnormal head turn in a patient with Brown's syndrome].

    PubMed

    van Waveren, M; Krzizok, T; Besch, D

    2008-08-01

    We report on an eight-year-old boy, who was presented in our clinic because of head turn. The cause of the tortecollis (ocular or general) in this case was and still cannot be explained. Only by applying extensive prism adaptation tests it was possible to prove the ocular character of the head turn. An eight-year-old boy with Brown's syndrome was referred to us because of a head tilt to the left side. Six months previously surgery on the M. obl. superior of the right eye was performed in another clinic. No improvement of the head tilt could be observed after the operation. In addition, an exotropia became decompensated. Under a 3-day occlusion of one eye, no change of the head turn and the squint could be measured. No other cause of the head turn could be found by an orthopaedist and a paediatrist. Under a prism of 20 cm/m basis in and 10 cm/m basis against the positive vertical deviation, the head tilt decreased, so that we decided to do a second surgery. The head tilting had not resumed at one year after the surgery. Although the initial diagnostic findings ruled out an ocular cause, it was possible to lessen the head tilting with the aid of the prism adaptation test. This case study emphasises the usefulness of a prism adaptation test of several days duration in order to validate an ocular cause of head turn and to determine an adequate indication for surgery.

  3. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome: prenatal diagnosis, molecular analysis and genetic counseling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Su, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Chin-Yuan; Chern, Schu-Rern; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Wu, Pei-Chen; Chen, Po-Tsang; Wang, Wayseen

    2010-12-01

    To present the perinatal findings and molecular genetic analysis of two siblings with Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome. A 33-year-old woman, gravida 3, para 1, was referred for genetic counseling at 18 gestational weeks because of recurrent fetal skeletal dysplasia. Two years previously, she had delivered a 1,316-g dead male baby at 28 gestational weeks with a karyotype of 46,XY, postaxial polydactyly of the hands, thoracic narrowness, endocardial cushion defects, transposition of the great arteries, shortening of the long bones, malposition of the toes, and hypoplastic nails. During this pregnancy, prenatal ultrasound at 18 gestational weeks revealed shortening of the long bones (equivalent to 15 weeks), postaxial polydactyly of both hands, thoracic narrowness, and endocardial cushion defects. The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a 236-g female fetus was delivered with a karyotype of 46,XX, postaxial polydactyly of the hands, thoracic dysplasia, endocardial cushion defects, shortening of the long bones, and malposition of the toes and hypoplastic nails. The phenotype of each of the two siblings was consistent with EVC syndrome. Molecular analysis of the EVC and EVC2 genes revealed heterozygous mutations in the EVC2 gene. A heterozygous deletion mutation of a 26-bp deletion of c.871-2_894del26 encompassing the junction between intron 7 and exon 8 of the EVC2 gene was found in the mother and two siblings, and a heterozygous nonsense mutation of c.1195C >T, p.R399X in exon 10 of the EVC2 gene was found in the father and two siblings. Prenatal sonographic identification of endocardial cushion defects in association with shortening of the long bones should alert clinicians to the possibility of EvC syndrome and prompt a careful search of hexadactyly of the hands. Molecular analysis of the EVC and EVC2 genes is helpful in genetic counseling in cases with prenatally detected postaxial polydactyly, thoracic narrowness, short limbs and endocardial cushion defects

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines include brown skin spots called lentigines that are similar to freckles, heart ... may have thousands of small dark brown skin spots by the time they reach puberty. Unlike freckles, ...

  5. Learning Styles versus the Rip Van Winkle Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsak, Lana

    1990-01-01

    Rip Van Winkle would not recognize Corsicana (Texas) High School since its curriculum coordinator began implementing learning styles techniques in various pilot programs. Lecturing to rows of bored students has been replaced by students' active involvement in group activities, listening centers, and tactile/kinesthetic exercises on the floor or at…

  6. Reduced adiposity by compensatory WAT browning upon iBAT removal in mice.

    PubMed

    Piao, Zhengyu; Zhai, Baiqiang; Jiang, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Meng; Yan, Changguo; Lin, Jun; Jin, Wanzhu

    2018-06-27

    The strong effects of classic brown adipose tissue (BAT) and recruited beige adipocytes in treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome have been attracting increasing research interest. Cold treatment is an effective, convenient approach to stimulate BAT activity and induce white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here, we utilized prolonged cold exposure (from 2 h to 2 weeks in a 4° cold chamber) to elucidate dynamic changes in BAT and in WAT browning during acute and chronic cold exposure in mice. BAT mass decreased quickly, with reduced lipid droplet sizes within 8 h of cold exposure owing to the utilization of BAT pre-storage triglycerides, and subsequently increased during prolonged cold exposure. These dynamic morphological changes in BAT were confirmed by gene expression changes in ADRB3 and PGC1α, while UCP1 and ELOVL3 expression was continuously up-regulated throughout the entire cold exposure period. Additionally, cold treatment increased BAT secretion of FGF21, which has been reported to activate beige adipocyte formation. Thus, to illustrate potential crosstalk between secreted BAT proteins (so-called BATokines) and beige adipogenesis during cold stress, we performed an interscapular BAT (iBAT) removal experiment in mice. Surprisingly, loss of classic iBAT enhanced WAT browning due to compensatorily increased sympathetic WAT input. Unexpectedly, we observed significantly reduced adiposity in the iBAT removal group compared with the control group. These results further suggest that WAT browning plays an important role in whole-body energy metabolism during cold acclimation, even without iBAT. Furthermore, our data imply that enhanced WAT browning may be an efficient therapeutic tool to combat obesity and related syndromes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breuning MH, Niedrist D, Hennekam RC, Schinzel A, Peters DJ. Genetic heterogeneity in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: delineation ... JT, van Ommen GJ, Breuning MH, Hennekam RC, Peters DJ. Genetic heterogeneity in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: mutations ...

  8. Estimating the short-term recovery potential of little brown bats in the eastern United States in the face of White-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Tinsley, Karl

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) was first detected in North American bats in New York in 2006. Since that time WNS has spread throughout the northeastern United States, southeastern Canada, and southwest across Pennsylvania and as far west as Missouri. Suspect WNS cases have been identified in Minnesota and Iowa, and the causative agent of WNS (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) has recently been detected in Mississippi. The impact of WNS is devastating for little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), causing up to 100% mortality in some overwintering populations, and previous research has forecast the extirpation of the species due to the disease. Recent evidence indicates that remnant populations may persist in areas where WNS is endemic. We developed a spatially explicit model of little brown bat population dynamics to investigate the potential for populations to recover under alternative scenarios. We used these models to investigate how starting population sizes, potential changes in the number of bats overwintering successfully in hibernacula, and potential changes in demographic rates of the population post WNS may influence the ability of the bats to recover to former levels of abundance. We found that populations of the little brown bat and other species that are highly susceptible to WNS are unlikely to return to pre-WNS levels in the near future under any of the scenarios we examined.

  9. Fine mapping for Weaver Syndrome in the Brown Swiss breed with the identification of possible casual mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8, and CTTNBP2 and Developement of a diagnostic SNP haplotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age,...

  10. A New Role for Browning as a Redox and Stress Adaptive Mechanism?

    PubMed

    Jeanson, Yannick; Carrière, Audrey; Casteilla, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and metabolic disorders is focusing the attention of the scientific community on white adipose tissue (WAT) and its biology. This tissue is characterized not only by its capability to change in size and shape but also by its heterogeneity and versatility. WAT can be converted into brown fat-like tissue according to different physiological and pathophysiological situations. The expression of uncoupling protein-1 in brown-like adipocytes changes their function from energy storage to energy dissipation. This plasticity, named browning, was recently rediscovered and convergent recent accounts, including in humans, have revived the idea of using these oxidative cells to fight against metabolic diseases. Furthermore, recent reports suggest that, beside the increased energy dissipation and thermogenesis that may have adverse effects in situations such as cancer-associated cachexia and massive burns, browning could be also considered as an adaptive stress response to high redox pressure and to major stress that could help to maintain tissue homeostasis and integrity. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning brown adipocytes and the browning process and also to explore unexpected putative role(s) for these cells. While it is important to find new browning inducers to limit energy stores and metabolic diseases, it also appears crucial to develop new browning inhibitors to limit adverse energy dissipation in wasting-associated syndromes.

  11. Early mortality syndrome in Great Lakes salmonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome (EMS) is the termused to describe an embryonic mortality affectingthe offspring of salmonines (coho salmonOnco-rhynchus kisutch, Chinook salmonOncorhynchustshawytscha, steelhead [anadromous rainbow troutOncorhynchus mykiss], brown troutSalmo trutta,and lake trout,Salvelinus namaycush) in LakesMichigan and Ontario and, to a lesser extent, LakesHuron and Erie (Marcquenski and Brown 1997).Clinical signs of EMS include loss of equilibrium,a spiral swimming pattern, lethargy, hyperexcit-ability, hemorrhage, and death between hatch andfirst feeding. Early mortality syndrome was ob-served as far back as the 1960s in Great Lakessalmonines (Marcquenski and Brown 1997; Fitz-simons et al. 1999) and is of concern because mor-tality has been high in recent years (Wolgamoodet al. 2005; all 2005 citations are this issue). Stocksof Atlantic salmonSalmo salarfrom the FingerLakes and the Baltic Sea also exhibit a similarearly life stage mortality, called Cayuga syndrome(Fisher et al. 1995) and M74 (Bo ̈ rjeson and Norr-gren 1997), respectively. Low egg thiamine levelsand enhanced survival following thiamine treat-ments are common characteristics of EMS, CayugaSyndrome, and M74 (Fitzsimons et al. 1999). Be-cause the deficiency does not appear to be the re-sult of inadequate dietary thiamine (Fitzsimons and Brown 1998), investigators have hypothesizedthat the presence of some thiaminolytic factors inthe diet may reduce the bioavailability of thiamine,either by destroying it or converting it to an in-active analog or thiamine antagonist (Fisher et al.1996; Fitzsimons et al. 1999).

  12. Genes for spinocerebellar ataxia with blindness and deafness (SCABD/SCAR3, MIM# 271250 and SCABD2)

    PubMed Central

    Guissart, Claire; Drouot, Nathalie; Oncel, Ibrahim; Leheup, Bruno; Gershoni-Barush, Ruth; Muller, Jean; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Larrieu, Lise; Anheim, Mathieu; Arslan, Elif Acar; Claustres, Mireille; Tranchant, Christine; Topaloglu, Haluk; Koenig, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia is a symptom that is often associated with syndromic inherited diseases. We previously reported the linkage of a novel syndrome, ataxia with blindness and deafness (SCAR3/SCABD, OMIM# 271250), to chromosome 6p21–p23 by linkage mapping of an Arab Israeli consanguineous family. We have now identified by whole-exome sequencing a homozygous missense mutation in the Arab Israeli family in the SLC52A2 gene located in 8qter, therefore excluding linkage of this family to 6p. We confirmed the involvement of SLC52A2 by the identification of a second mutation in an independent family with an identical syndromic presentation, which we suggest to name SCABD2. SCABD2 is therefore allelic to Brown–Vialleto–Van Laere syndrome type 2 defined by prominent motoneuronopathy and deafness, and also caused by SLC52A2 mutations. In the course of this project, we identified a clinically similar family with a homozygous missense mutation in PEX6, which is located in 6p21. Therefore, despite false linkage in the initial family, SCABD1/SCAR3 is located in 6p21 and is caused by PEX6 mutations. Both SLC52A2 and PEX6 should be included in screening panels for the diagnosis of syndromic inherited ataxias, particularly as patients with mutations in SLC52A2 can be ameliorated by riboflavin supplementation. PMID:26669662

  13. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice treatment high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Hui-Li; Hao, Chi-Long; Chen, Fu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yun; Chen, Jia-Hao; Shen, Kuo-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate using pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) to treat metabolic syndrome, we fed one group of mice standard-regular-diet (SRD) for 20 weeks and another group of mice high-fat-diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. We subdivided them into HFD group and HFD + PGBR group whose dietary carbohydrate was replaced with PGBR for 4 weeks. The HFD group gained more weight, had higher blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and lipids, liver levels of TG, feces TG and bile acid, lower adipose levels of adipocytokine, lower skeletal muscle IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3 K, Akt/PKB, GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GCK and PPAR-γ; higher liver SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α, and higher adipose SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, and lower adipose PPAR-α and adiponectin. The HFD + PGBR group had clearly improved blood pressure, biochemical parameters and above proteins expressions. PGBR successful treatment of metabolic syndrome was achieved through improvements in glucose and lipid synthesis and metabolism.

  14. Identification of IRF6 gene variants in three families with Van der Woude syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ene-Choo; Lim, Eileen Chew-Ping; Yap, Shiao-Hui; Lee, Seng-Teik; Cheng, Joanne; Por, Yong-Chen; Yeow, Vincent

    2008-06-01

    Van der Woude syndrome is the most common cause of syndromic orofacial clefting. It is characterised by the presence of lip pits, cleft lip and/or cleft palate. It is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, with high penetrance and variable expressivity. Several mutations in the interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) gene have been found in VWS families, suggesting that this gene is the primary locus. We screened for mutations in this gene in three families in our population. There was a recurrent nonsense mutation within exon 9 of the gene for a Malay family consisting of five affected members with different presentations. We also found a co-segregating rare polymorphism which would result in a non-synonymous change 23 bases downstream of the nonsense mutation. This polymorphism was present in <1% of the Malay subjects screened, but was not found among the Chinese and Indians in our population. For another family, a 396C-->T mutation (R45W in the DNA-binding domain) was found in the proband, although the possibility of a genetic defect elsewhere could not be excluded because his mother and twin sister (both unaffected) also had this variant. In the third case with complete absence of family history, a de novo deletion spanning the whole IRF6 gene was detected in the child with VWS. This case of haploinsufficiency caused disruption of orofacial development but not other organ systems as the child has no other medical or developmental abnormalities despite the deletion of at least five other genes.

  15. Revisiting the JDL Model for Information Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    High-Level Information Fusion Management and Systems Design, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2012. [10] E. Blasch, D. A. Lambert, P. Valin , M. M. Kokar...Fusion – Fusion2012 Panel Discussion,” Int. Conf. on Info Fusion, 2012. [29] E. P. Blasch, P. Valin , A-L. Jousselme, et al., “Top Ten Trends in High...P. Valin , E. Bosse, M. Nilsson, J. Van Laere, et al., “Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational

  16. The tumor secretory factor ZAG promotes white adipose tissue browning and energy wasting.

    PubMed

    Elattar, Sawsan; Dimri, Manali; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2018-03-23

    Cachexia is a complex tissue-wasting syndrome characterized by inflammation, hypermetabolism, increased energy expenditure, and anorexia. Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) is one of the significant factors that contribute to energy wasting in cachexia. By utilizing a cell implantation model, we demonstrate here that the lipid mobilizing factor zinc-α 2 -glycoprotein (ZAG) induces WAT browning in mice. Increased circulating levels of ZAG not only induced lipolysis in adipose tissues but also caused robust browning in WAT. Stimulating WAT progenitors with ZAG recombinant protein or expression of ZAG in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) strongly enhanced brown-like differentiation. At the molecular level, ZAG stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and early B cell factor 2 expression and promoted their recruitment to the PR/SET domain 16 (Prdm16) promoter, leading to enhanced expression of Prdm16, which determines brown cell fate. In brown adipose tissue, ZAG stimulated the expression of PPARγ and PPARγ coactivator 1α and promoted recruitment of PPARγ to the uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) promoter, leading to increased expression of Ucp1. Overall, our results reveal a novel function of ZAG in WAT browning and highlight the targeting of ZAG as a potential therapeutic application in humans with cachexia.-Elattar, S., Dimri, M., Satyanarayana, A. The tumor secretory factor ZAG promotes white adipose tissue browning and energy wasting.

  17. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bedeschi, M F; Colombo, L; Mari, F; Hofmann, K; Rauch, A; Gentilin, B; Renieri, A; Clerici, D

    2010-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation.

  18. Fine Mapping for Weaver Syndrome in Brown Swiss Cattle and the Identification of 41 Concordant Mutations across NRCAM, PNPLA8 and CTTNBP2

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Matthew; Kim, Euisoo; Bickhart, Derek; Null, Daniel; Cooper, Tabatha; Cole, John; Wiggans, George; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Colli, Licia; Santus, Enrico; Liu, George E.; Schroeder, Steve; Matukumalli, Lakshmi; Van Tassell, Curt; Sonstegard, Tad

    2013-01-01

    Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) is a recessive neurological disease that has been observed in the Brown Swiss cattle breed since the 1970’s in North America and Europe. Bilateral hind leg weakness and ataxia appear in afflicted animals at 6 to 18 months of age, and slowly progresses to total loss of hind limb control by 3 to 4 years of age. While Weaver has previously been mapped to Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 4∶46–56 Mb and a diagnostic test based on the 6 microsatellite (MS) markers is commercially available, neither the causative gene nor mutation has been identified; therefore misdiagnosis can occur due to recombination between the diagnostic MS markers and the causative mutation. Analysis of 34,980 BTA 4 SNPs genotypes derived from the Illumina BovineHD assay for 20 Brown Swiss Weaver carriers and 49 homozygous normal bulls refined the Weaver locus to 48–53 Mb. Genotyping of 153 SNPs, identified from whole genome sequencing of 10 normal and 10 carrier animals, across a validation set of 841 animals resulted in the identification of 41 diagnostic SNPs that were concordant with the disease. Except for one intergenic SNP all are associated with genes expressed in nervous tissues: 37 distal to NRCAM, one non-synonymous (serine to asparagine) in PNPLA8, one synonymous and one non-synonymous (lysine to glutamic acid) in CTTNBP2. Haplotype and imputation analyses of 7,458 Brown Swiss animals with Illumina BovineSNP50 data and the 41 diagnostic SNPs resulted in the identification of only one haplotype concordant with the Weaver phenotype. Use of this haplotype and the diagnostic SNPs more accurately identifies Weaver carriers in both Brown Swiss purebred and influenced herds. PMID:23527149

  19. Diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates with VanA, VanB, and VanD phenotypes and susceptibility to vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Cha, J O; Yoo, J I; Kim, H K; Kim, H S; Yoo, J S; Lee, Y S; Jung, Y H

    2013-10-01

    To investigate diversity in the vanA cluster in Enterococcus faecium isolates from nontertiary hospitals. We identified 43 vanA-positive Ent. faecium isolates, including two vancomycin-susceptible isolates, from hospitals between 2003 and 2006. Of these isolates, >85% were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. The vanA cluster was classified into six types using overlapping PCR, but the prototype transposon Tn1546 was not found. Most vanA-positive vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) carried IS1216V and belonged to Type III (58·1%) or Type II (20·9%). vanY, vanZ and IS1216V were observed in the left and right ends of Type III with long-range PCR. IS1216V was also observed within vanS and vanX in the two vancomycin-susceptible isolates and in two vancomycin-resistant isolates. No VRE isolates with VanB and VanD phenotypes contained point mutations in vanS, unlike in previous reports. Sequence types (STs) of all isolates belonged to clonal complex 17, and ST78 was predominant. Insertion sequences, especially IS1216V, cause structural variation in the vanA cluster. We report the first observation of vanY and vanZ at the left end of Tn1546 in clinical isolates. This is the first report of the frequency of vancomycin resistance and diversity of Tn1546 in vanA-positive Ent. faecium isolates from nontertiary hospitals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Paraspinal muscle impingement causing acute Brown-Sequard syndrome after posterior cervical decompression.

    PubMed

    Jost, Patrick W; Marawar, Satyajit; O'Leary, Patrick F

    2010-04-01

    A case report. To present a previously unreported cause of neurologic compromise after cervical spine surgery. Several different causes of postoperative neurologic deficit have been reported in the literature. The authors present a case of acute postoperative paralysis after posterior cervical decompression by a mechanism that has not yet been reported in the literature. A 54-year-old muscular, short-statured man underwent posterior cervical laminectomy from C3-C5 without instrumentation and left C5 foraminotomy. Within hours of leaving the operating room, he began to develop postoperative neurologic deficits in his extremities, which progressed to a classic Brown-Sequard syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed regional kyphosis and large swollen paraspinal muscles impinging on the spinal cord without epidural hematoma. Emergent operative re-exploration confirmed these findings; large, swollen paraspinal muscles, a functioning drain, and no hematoma were found. The patient was treated with immediate corticosteroids at the time of initial diagnosis, and emergent re-exploration and debulking of the paraspinal muscles. The patient had complete recovery of neurologic function to his preoperative baseline after the second procedure but required a third procedure in which anterior discectomy and fusion at C4-C5 was performed, which led to improvement of his preoperative symptoms. When performing posterior cervical decompression, surgeons must be aware of the potential for loss of normal lordosis and anterior displacement of paraspinal muscles against the spinal cord, especially in muscular patients.

  1. Brown adipose tissue activation by rutin ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome in rat.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Ye, Rongcai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Dong, Meng; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lim, Wonchung; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy that is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary. However, there is a lack of effective treatment for PCOS at present because the pathologic cause of PCOS has not been elucidated. Although it has been known that brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates PCOS by activating endogenous BAT, BAT transplantation is not applicable in clinic. Therefore, BAT activation with natural compound could be an effective treatment strategy for PCOS patients. Here, we found that 3 weeks of rutin (a novel compound for BAT activation) treatment increased BAT activation, thereby it improved thermogenesis and systemic insulin sensitivity in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. In addition, the expression levels of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes such as P450C17, aromatase, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and STAR were up-regulated in rutin-treated PCOS rat. Furthermore, acyclicity and the serum level of luteinizing hormone were normalized, and a large number of mature ovulated follicle with a reduction of cystic formation were observed in PCOS rat after rutin treatment. Finally, rutin treatment surprisingly improved fertility and birth defect in PCOS rat. Collectively, our results indicate that rutin treatment significantly improves systemic insulin resistance and ovarian malfunction in PCOS, and our findings in this study provide a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS by activating BAT with rutin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Marjo K; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka; Drögemüller, Cord; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions.

  3. Craniofacial morphology in children with van der Woude syndrome and isolated cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Heliövaara, Arja; Karhulahti, Rekina; Rautio, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    To compare cephalometrically 6-year-old children with van der Woude syndrome and cleft palate (VWS) to children with isolated cleft palate alone (CP). A retrospective case-control study. Forty-four children with VWS were compared to 73 children with CP using lateral cephalograms. The mean age of the children with VWS was 6.6 years (range = 5.9-8.2) and that of the children with CP, 6.2 years (range = 5.7-6.7). Palatal closure had been done at a mean age of 1.4 years (range = 0.8-2.2), mostly with the Veau-Wardill-Killner or the Cronin pushback surgical techniques. The data was collected over a 30-year period. Linear and angular measurements were obtained from lateral cephalograms. A Student's t-test was used in the statistical analysis. The craniofacial morphology in children with VWS and CP was similar, but those with VWS had slightly smaller diameters of the lower pharyngeal airway. The maxilla and mandible were well related to each other, although a little retrusive in relation to the cranial base. The soft tissue profile reflected the skeletal relationships, no significant protrusion of the lower lip was noted. Six-year-old children with VWS and CP have similar craniofacial morphology.

  4. Presence of the vancomycin resistance gene cluster vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT in Enterococcus casseliflavus.

    PubMed

    Hölzel, Christina; Bauer, Johann; Stegherr, Eva-Maria; Schwaiger, Karin

    2014-04-01

    The three chromosomally located clustered genes vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT confer intrinsic resistance to vancomycin and are used for species identification of Enterococcus gallinarum. In this study, 28 strains belonging to the E. gallinarum/casseliflavus group isolated from cloacal swabs from laying hens were screened for the presence of vanC1. As confirmed by species-specific multiplex PCR, 11 vanC1-positive strains were identified as E. gallinarum. Surprisingly, one yellow pigmented strain, verified as E. casseliflavus by species-specific multiplex PCR, was also vanC1 positive; vanXYc and vanT were additionally detectable in this strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT in E. casseliflavus. The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was 4 mg/L. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed that none of the clustered genes was expressed in this strain. Even if the genes seem not to be active, there is a certain risk that they will be transferred to other bacteria where they might be functionally expressed. Therefore, it may be advisable to expand the search for vanC1, vanXYc, and vanT from E. gallinarum to other (enterococcal) species. This study confirms that enterococci live up to their name as being reservoir bacteria and should therefore always be closely monitored.

  5. Differential expression profiles of microRNA in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) associated with white nose syndrome affected and unaffected individuals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, D.D.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Hitt, N.P.; King, T.L.

    2013-01-01

    First documented in New York State in 2006, white nose syndrome (WNS) quickly became the leading cause of mortality in hibernating bat species in the United States. WNS is caused by a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. Clinical signs of this pathogen are expressed as a dusty white fungus predominately around the nose and on the wings of affected bats. Relatively new biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) are being targeted as markers to predict the syndrome prior to the clinical manifestation. The primary objective of this study was to identify miRNAs that could serve as biomarkers and proxies of little brown bat health. Bats were collected from hibernacula that had tested positive and negative for WNS. Genetic sequencing was completed using the Ion Torrent platform. A number of miRNAs were identified from the liver as putative biomarkers of WNS. However, given the small sample size for each treatment, this data set has only coarsely identified miRNAs indicative of WNS, and further validation is required.

  6. Sustained therapeutic response to riboflavin in a child with a progressive neurological condition, diagnosed by whole-exome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shashi, Vandana; Petrovski, Slavé; Schoch, Kelly; Crimian, Rebecca; Case, Laura E.; Khalid, Roha; El-Dairi, Maysantoine A.; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising outcomes of whole-exome sequencing (WES) is the alteration of medical management following an accurate diagnosis in patients with previously unresolved disorders. Although case reports of targeted therapies resulting from WES have been published, there are few reports with long-term follow-up that confirm a sustained therapeutic response. Following a diagnosis by WES of Brown–Vialetto–Van Laere Syndrome 2 (BVVLS2), high-dose riboflavin therapy was instituted in a 20-mo-old child. An immediate clinical response with stabilization of signs and symptoms was noted over the first 2–4 wk. Subsequent clinical follow-up over the following 8 mo demonstrates not just stabilization, but continuing and sustained improvements in all manifestations of this usually fatal condition, which generally includes worsening motor weakness, sensory ataxia, hearing, and vision impairments. This case emphasizes that early application of WES can transform patient care, enabling therapy that in addition to being lifesaving can sometimes reverse the disabling disease processes in a progressive condition. PMID:27148562

  7. Clozapine modifies the differentiation program of human adipocytes inducing browning.

    PubMed

    Kristóf, E; Doan-Xuan, Q-M; Sárvári, A K; Klusóczki, Á; Fischer-Posovszky, P; Wabitsch, M; Bacso, Z; Bai, P; Balajthy, Z; Fésüs, L

    2016-11-29

    Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells. Furthermore, clozapine significantly upregulated ELOVL3, CIDEA, CYC1, PGC1A and TBX1 genes but not ZIC1 suggesting induction of the beige-like and not the classical brown phenotype. When we tested whether browning induced by clozapine can be explained by its known pharmacological effect of antagonizing serotonin (5HT) receptors, it was found that browning cells expressed 5HT receptors 2A, 1D, 7 and the upregulation of browning markers was diminished in the presence of exogenous 5HT. Undifferentiated progenitors or completely differentiated beige or white adipocytes did not respond to clozapine administration. The clozapine-induced beige cells displayed increased basal and oligomycin-inhibited (proton leak) oxygen consumption, but these cells showed a lower response to cAMP stimulus as compared with control beige adipocytes indicating that they are less capable to respond to natural thermogenic anti-obesity cues. Our data altogether suggest that novel pharmacological stimulation of these masked beige adipocytes can be a future therapeutic target for the treatment of SGA-induced weight gain.

  8. Clozapine modifies the differentiation program of human adipocytes inducing browning

    PubMed Central

    Kristóf, E; Doan-Xuan, Q-M; Sárvári, A K; Klusóczki, Á; Fischer-Posovszky, P; Wabitsch, M; Bacso, Z; Bai, P; Balajthy, Z; Fésüs, L

    2016-01-01

    Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells. Furthermore, clozapine significantly upregulated ELOVL3, CIDEA, CYC1, PGC1A and TBX1 genes but not ZIC1 suggesting induction of the beige-like and not the classical brown phenotype. When we tested whether browning induced by clozapine can be explained by its known pharmacological effect of antagonizing serotonin (5HT) receptors, it was found that browning cells expressed 5HT receptors 2A, 1D, 7 and the upregulation of browning markers was diminished in the presence of exogenous 5HT. Undifferentiated progenitors or completely differentiated beige or white adipocytes did not respond to clozapine administration. The clozapine-induced beige cells displayed increased basal and oligomycin-inhibited (proton leak) oxygen consumption, but these cells showed a lower response to cAMP stimulus as compared with control beige adipocytes indicating that they are less capable to respond to natural thermogenic anti-obesity cues. Our data altogether suggest that novel pharmacological stimulation of these masked beige adipocytes can be a future therapeutic target for the treatment of SGA-induced weight gain. PMID:27898069

  9. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Marjo K.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions. PMID:27187611

  10. Brown recluse spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin-shaped marking on its head. It is ... brown recluse wanders indoors they will go to dark closets, shoes, or attics. The brown recluse is ...

  11. Mutations in SCARF2 Are Responsible for Van Den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Natascia; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Teebi, Ahmad; Ha, Kevin C.H.; Lalonde, Emilie; Ali, Rehab; Almureikhi, Mariam; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M.; Liu, Junhui; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an extremely rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, which include blepharophimosis, malar and/or maxillary hypoplasia, a narrow and beaked nose, and an everted lower lip. Other features are arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal development and intelligence. We present molecular data on four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous Qatari families belonging to the same highly inbred Bedouin tribe. The patients were genotyped with SNP microarrays, and a 2.4 Mb homozygous region was found on chromosome 22q11 in an area overlapping the DiGeorge critical region. This region contained 44 genes, including SCARF2, a gene that is expressed during development in a number of mouse tissues relevant to the symptoms described above. Sanger sequencing identified a missense change, c.773G>A (p.C258Y), in exon 4 in the two closely related patients and a 2 bp deletion in exon 8, c.1328_1329delTG (p.V443DfsX83), in two unrelated individuals. In parallel with the candidate gene approach, complete exome sequencing was used to confirm that SCARF2 was the gene responsible for VDEGS. SCARF2 contains putative epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, along with a number of positively charged residues in its intracellular domain, indicating that it may be involved in intracellular signaling. However, the function of SCARF2 has not been characterized, and this study reports that phenotypic effects can be associated with defects in the scavenger receptor F family of genes. PMID:20887961

  12. Report of Two Siblings with Overlapping Features of Ellis-van Creveld and Weyers Acrodental Dysostosis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi C.; Singh, Harkanwal P.; Kumar, Prince; Verma, Chanchal

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogenous group of disorders combining abnormalities in the skull and other skeletal bones. Weyers acrofacial dysostosis also known as Weyers acrodental dysostosis was first described in 1952, by Weyers, as a postaxial polydactyly, which had features distinct from, yet some in common with the Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome (EvC). Both the syndromes have been mapped to the same chromosome, 4p16. The cases reported here highlight the overlapping features of both syndromes, which are dissimilar in mode of inheritance and phenotypic severity, emphasizing the need for genetic analysis, to categorize these conditions. PMID:22616035

  13. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These... standards, the colors are expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), reddish brown (R), and dark brown... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These... standards, the colors are expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), reddish brown (R), and dark brown... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These... standards, the colors are expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), reddish brown (R), and dark brown... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These... standards, the colors are expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), reddish brown (R), and dark brown... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture...

  17. Association study between Van der Woude Syndrome causative gene GRHL3 and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yirui; Sun, Yimin; Huang, Yongqing; Pan, Yongchu; Jia, Zhonglin; Ma, Lijuan; Ma, Lan; Lan, Feifei; Zhou, Yuxi; Shi, Jiayu; Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hongbing; Jiang, Min; Yin, Aihua; Cheng, Jing; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yinxue; Shi, Bing

    2016-08-15

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common birth defects worldwide and is characterized by abnormalities of the orofacial structure. Syndromic CL/P is mainly caused by Mendelian disorders such as Van der Woude Syndrome (VWS). However, >70% of CL/P cases are nonsyndromic, characterized by isolated orofacial cleft without any known syndrome. The etiology of nonsyndromic CL/P (NSCL/P) remains elusive, but it has been suggested that causative genes of syndromic CL/P might also contribute to NSCL/P. As such, the VWS causative gene IRF6 has been extensively studied in NSCL/P. Recently, GRHL3 was identified as another VWS causative gene. Thus, it may be a novel candidate gene for NSCL/P. In the present study, we genotyped 10 tag SNPs covering GRHL3 and performed association analysis with NSCL/P in 504 cases and 455 healthy controls. Our preliminary results identified rs10903078, rs4638975, and a haplotype rs10903078-rs6659209 of GRHL3 that exceeded the significance threshold (p<0.05), though none survived Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. As the first study between GRHL3 and NSCL/P, the contribution of this gene to NSCL/P etiology should be interpreted with caution based on existing evidence. Further, the robustness of association between GRHL3 and NSCL/P should be further validated in expanded cohorts. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Raspberry promotes brown and beige adipocyte development in mice fed high-fat diet through activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tiande; Wang, Bo; Yang, Qiyuan; de Avila, Jeanene M; Zhu, Mei-Jun; You, Jinming; Chen, Daiwen; Du, Min

    2018-05-01

    Development of brown and beige/brite adipocytes increases thermogenesis and helps to reduce obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our previous study suggests that dietary raspberry can ameliorate metabolic syndromes in diet-induced obese mice. Here, we further evaluated the effects of raspberry on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis and determined whether these effects were mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Mice deficient in the catalytic subunit of AMPKα1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with 5% raspberry (RAS) for 10 weeks. The thermogenic program and related regulatory factors in adipose tissue were assessed. RAS improved the insulin sensitivity and reduced fat mass in WT mice but not in AMPKα1 -/- mice. In the absence of AMPKα1, RAS failed to increase oxygen consumption and heat production. Consistent with this, the thermogenic gene expression in brown adipose tissue and brown-like adipocyte formation in subcutaneous adipose tissue were not induced by RAS in AMPKα1 -/- mice. In conclusion, AMPKα1 is indispensable for the effects of RAS on brown and beige/brite adipocyte development, and prevention of obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  20. Mutations in SCARF2 are responsible for Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anastasio, Natascia; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Teebi, Ahmad; Ha, Kevin C H; Lalonde, Emilie; Ali, Rehab; Almureikhi, Mariam; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Liu, Junhui; Rosenblatt, David S; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2010-10-08

    Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an extremely rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, which include blepharophimosis, malar and/or maxillary hypoplasia, a narrow and beaked nose, and an everted lower lip. Other features are arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal development and intelligence. We present molecular data on four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous Qatari families belonging to the same highly inbred Bedouin tribe. The patients were genotyped with SNP microarrays, and a 2.4 Mb homozygous region was found on chromosome 22q11 in an area overlapping the DiGeorge critical region. This region contained 44 genes, including SCARF2, a gene that is expressed during development in a number of mouse tissues relevant to the symptoms described above. Sanger sequencing identified a missense change, c.773G>A (p.C258Y), in exon 4 in the two closely related patients and a 2 bp deletion in exon 8, c.1328_1329delTG (p.V443DfsX83), in two unrelated individuals. In parallel with the candidate gene approach, complete exome sequencing was used to confirm that SCARF2 was the gene responsible for VDEGS. SCARF2 contains putative epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, along with a number of positively charged residues in its intracellular domain, indicating that it may be involved in intracellular signaling. However, the function of SCARF2 has not been characterized, and this study reports that phenotypic effects can be associated with defects in the scavenger receptor F family of genes. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to... expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), and dark brown (D). ...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to... expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), and dark brown (D). ...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to... expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), and dark brown (D). ...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to... expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), and dark brown (D). ...

  5. The dark side of browning.

    PubMed

    Tamucci, Kirstin A; Namwanje, Maria; Fan, Lihong; Qiang, Li

    2018-02-01

    The induction of brown-like adipocyte development in white adipose tissue (WAT) confers numerous metabolic benefits by decreasing adiposity and increasing energy expenditure. Therefore, WAT browning has gained considerable attention for its potential to reverse obesity and its associated co-morbidities. However, this perspective has been tainted by recent studies identifying the detrimental effects of inducing WAT browning. This review aims to highlight the adverse outcomes of both overactive and underactive browning activity, the harmful side effects of browning agents, as well as the molecular brake-switch system that has been proposed to regulate this process. Developing novel strategies that both sustain the metabolic improvements of WAT browning and attenuate the related adverse side effects is therefore essential for unlocking the therapeutic potential of browning agents in the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  6. Hydrodynamics of the VanA-type VanS histidine kinase: an extended solution conformation and first evidence for interactions with vancomycin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Jones, Mary K.; Channell, Guy; Kelsall, Claire J.; Hughes, Charlotte S.; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Patching, Simon G.; Dinu, Vlad; Gillis, Richard B.; Adams, Gary G.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    VanA-type resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical enterococci is regulated by the VanSARA two-component signal transduction system. The nature of the molecular ligand that is recognised by the VanSA sensory component has not hitherto been identified. Here we employ purified, intact and active VanSA membrane protein (henceforth referred to as VanS) in analytical ultracentrifugation experiments to study VanS oligomeric state and conformation in the absence and presence of vancomycin. A combination of sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge (SEDFIT, SEDFIT-MSTAR and MULTISIG analysis) showed that VanS in the absence of the ligand is almost entirely monomeric (molar mass M = 45.7 kDa) in dilute aqueous solution with a trace amount of high molar mass material (M ~ 200 kDa). The sedimentation coefficient s suggests the monomer adopts an extended conformation in aqueous solution with an equivalent aspect ratio of ~(12 ± 2). In the presence of vancomycin over a 33% increase in the sedimentation coefficient is observed with the appearance of additional higher s components, demonstrating an interaction, an observation consistent with our circular dichroism measurements. The two possible causes of this increase in s – either a ligand induced dimerization and/or compaction of the monomer are considered. PMID:28397853

  7. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  8. Brown Dwarf Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-17

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer will uncover many failed stars, or brown dwarfs, in infrared light. This diagram shows a brown dwarf in relation to Earth, Jupiter, a low-mass star and the sun.

  9. VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Croxatto, Antony; Chalker, Victoria J.; Lauritz, Johan; Jass, Jana; Hardman, Andrea; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Milton, Debra L.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum ΔvanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to loss of expression of the metalloprotease EmpA, but no changes in either AHL production or virulence. Additional genes positively regulated by VanT were identified from a plasmid-based gene library fused to a promoterless lacZ. Three lacZ fusions (serA::lacZ, hpdA-hgdA::lacZ, and sat-vps73::lacZ) were identified which exhibited decreased expression in the ΔvanT strain. SerA is similar to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases and catalyzes the first step in the serine-glycine biosynthesis pathway. HgdA has identity with homogentisate dioxygenases, and HpdA is homologous to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenases (HPPDs) involved in pigment production. V. anguillarum strains require an active VanT to produce high levels of an l-tyrosine-induced brown color via HPPD, suggesting that VanT controls pigment production. Vps73 and Sat are related to Vibrio cholerae proteins encoded within a DNA locus required for biofilm formation. A V. anguillarum ΔvanT mutant and a mutant carrying a polar mutation in the sat-vps73 DNA locus were shown to produce defective biofilms. Hence, a new member of the V. harveyi LuxR transcriptional activator family has been characterized in V. anguillarum that positively regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production. PMID:11872713

  10. VanT, a homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production in Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Croxatto, Antony; Chalker, Victoria J; Lauritz, Johan; Jass, Jana; Hardman, Andrea; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Milton, Debra L

    2002-03-01

    Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum Delta vanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to loss of expression of the metalloprotease EmpA, but no changes in either AHL production or virulence. Additional genes positively regulated by VanT were identified from a plasmid-based gene library fused to a promoterless lacZ. Three lacZ fusions (serA::lacZ, hpdA-hgdA::lacZ, and sat-vps73::lacZ) were identified which exhibited decreased expression in the Delta vanT strain. SerA is similar to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases and catalyzes the first step in the serine-glycine biosynthesis pathway. HgdA has identity with homogentisate dioxygenases, and HpdA is homologous to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenases (HPPDs) involved in pigment production. V. anguillarum strains require an active VanT to produce high levels of an L-tyrosine-induced brown color via HPPD, suggesting that VanT controls pigment production. Vps73 and Sat are related to Vibrio cholerae proteins encoded within a DNA locus required for biofilm formation. A V. anguillarum Delta vanT mutant and a mutant carrying a polar mutation in the sat-vps73 DNA locus were shown to produce defective biofilms. Hence, a new member of the V. harveyi LuxR transcriptional activator family has been characterized in V. anguillarum that positively regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production.

  11. Prosthetic Rehabilitation Following Socket Reconstruction with Blair-Brown Graft and Conformer Therapy for Management of Severe Post-Enucleation Socket Syndrome--A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Singh, Saumyendra V; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar Singh, Arun

    2015-06-01

    One of the most common tumors of the eye diagnosed in childhood is retinoblastoma, which mandates enucleation with adjunctive chemotherapy and radiotherapy to save the patient's life. The most common late enucleation complication is post-enucleation socket syndrome (PESS), which poses a management dilemma for the prosthodontist and surgeon, along with being a major esthetic concern for the patient. The reconstruction of such sockets is complex. The purpose of this clinical report is to describe the rehabilitation of such a pediatric patient with severe PESS. The patient was successfully rehabilitated by presurgical conformer therapy, socket reconstruction surgery with non-meshed intermediate split thickness skin graft (STSG)/Blair-Brown graft, and postsurgical conformer stent. This was followed by fabrication of a custom ocular prosthesis, to achieve favorable functional, physical, and psychological effects. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Co-colonization of vanA and vanB Enterococcus faecium of clonal complex 17 in a patient with bacteremia due to vanA E. faecium.

    PubMed

    Seol, Chang Ahn; Park, Jeong Su; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na

    2014-06-01

    A 53-year-old Vietnamese man with liver cirrhosis was transferred from a Vietnamese hospital to our tertiary care hospital in Korea in order to undergo a liver transplantation. Bacteremia due to vanA Enterococcus faecium was diagnosed, and stool surveillance cultures for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were positive for both vanA and vanB E. faecium. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the 2 vanA VRE isolates from the blood and stool were clonal, but the vanB VRE was unrelated to the vanA VRE. vanA and vanB VRE were ST64 and ST18, single-allele variations of clonal complex 17, respectively. This is the first case report of vanA VRE bacteremia in a Vietnamese patient and demonstrates the reemergence of vanB VRE since a single outbreak occurred 15years ago in Korea. The reemergence of vanB VRE emphasizes the importance of VRE genotyping to prevent the spread of new VRE strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Foxc2 coordinates inflammation and browning of white adipose by leptin-STAT3-PRDM16 signal in mice.

    PubMed

    Gan, L; Liu, Z; Feng, F; Wu, T; Luo, D; Hu, C; Sun, C

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between forkhead box C2 protein (Foxc2) and leptin under adipose inflammatory response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory model was conducted. Data from wild-type and ob/ob mice were used to compare the alternative role of leptin on Foxc2-mediated inflammation and browning. Transcriptional regulation and protein-protein interaction were analyzed by bioinformatics and proved by chromatin immunoprecipitation and co-immunoprecipitation experiment. Foxc2 and leptin correlated with inflammation and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in LPS-treated mice. Moreover, Foxc2-mediated inhibition of inflammation involved downstream activation of leptin signal and promoted WAT browning. We then determined CREB, the potential transcriptional factor of leptin, was required for Foxc2-mediated inflammation in the regulation of WAT browning. Foxc2 alleviated adipocyte inflammation by reducing leptin-mediated Janus-activated kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Importantly, STAT3 physically interacted with PRDM16 and formed a complex to promote WAT browning. Exogenous Foxc2 overexpression also ameliorated inflammation and promoted adipose browning in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Our results indicated that Foxc2 inhibited inflammation and promoted browning of WAT through positive regulation of leptin signal and the STAT3-PRDM16 complex. These findings identify a new potential means to prevent and treat obese caused metabolic syndrome of mammals.

  14. Spillover Events of Infection of Brown Hares (Lepus europaeus) with Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Type 2 Virus (RHDV2) Caused Sporadic Cases of an European Brown Hare Syndrome-Like Disease in Italy and Spain.

    PubMed

    Velarde, R; Cavadini, P; Neimanis, A; Cabezón, O; Chiari, M; Gaffuri, A; Lavín, S; Grilli, G; Gavier-Widén, D; Lavazza, A; Capucci, L

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80-90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV-related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit populations. RHDV2 also was identified in Cape hare (Lepus capensis subsp. mediterraneus) and in Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus). Here, we describe two distinct incidents of RHDV2 infection in EBH that occurred in Italy (2012) and Spain (2014). The two RHDV2 strains caused macroscopic and microscopic lesions similar to European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) in hares, and they were genetically related to other RHDV2 strains in Europe. EBHs are common in Europe, often sharing habitat with rabbits. They likely have been exposed to high levels of RHDV2 during outbreaks in rabbits in recent years, yet only two incidents of RHDV2 in EBHs have been found in Italy and Spain, suggesting that EBHs are not a primary host. Instead, they may act as spillover hosts in situations when infection pressure is high and barriers between rabbits and hares are limited, resulting in occasional infections causing EBHS-like lesions. The serological survey of stocked hare sera taken from Italian and Spanish hare populations provided an understanding of naturally occurring RHDV2 infection in the field confirming its sporadic occurrence in EBH. Our findings increase the knowledge on distribution, host range and epidemiology of RHDV2. © 2016 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Clonal analyses and gene profiling identify genetic biomarkers of the thermogenic potential of human brown and white preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Ruidan; Lynes, Matthew D; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Shamsi, Farnaz; Schulz, Tim J; Zhang, Hongbin; Huang, Tian Lian; Townsend, Kristy L; Li, Yiming; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Weiner, Lauren S; White, Andrew P; Lynes, Maureen S; Rubin, Lee L; Goodyear, Laurie J; Cypess, Aaron M; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Targeting brown adipose tissue (BAT) content or activity has therapeutic potential for treating obesity and the metabolic syndrome by increasing energy expenditure. However, both inter- and intra-individual differences contribute to heterogeneity in human BAT and potentially to differential thermogenic capacity in human populations. Here we generated clones of brown and white preadipocytes from human neck fat and characterized their adipogenic and thermogenic differentiation. We combined an uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) reporter system and expression profiling to define novel sets of gene signatures in human preadipocytes that could predict the thermogenic potential of the cells once they were maturated. Knocking out the positive UCP1 regulators, PREX1 and EDNRB, in brown preadipocytes using CRISPR-Cas9 markedly abolished the high level of UCP1 in brown adipocytes differentiated from the preadipocytes. Finally, we were able to prospectively isolate adipose progenitors with great thermogenic potential using the cell surface marker CD29. These data provide new insights into the cellular heterogeneity in human fat and offer potential biomarkers for identifying thermogenically competent preadipocytes.

  16. Brown Dwarf Microlensing (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    This illustration depicts a newly discovered brown dwarf, an object that weighs in somewhere between our solar system's most massive planet (Jupiter) and the least-massive-known star. This brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, interests astronomers because it may fall in the "desert" of brown dwarfs. Scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This brown dwarf was discovered when it and its star passed between Earth and a much more distant star in our galaxy. This created a microlensing event, where the gravity of the system amplified the light of the background star over the course of several weeks. This microlensing was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and was the first to be seen by two space-based telescopes: NASA's Spitzer and Swift missions. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21076

  17. Brown adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kristy; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is currently a global pandemic, and is associated with increased mortality and co-morbidities including many metabolic diseases. Obesity is characterized by an increase in adipose mass due to increased energy intake, decreased energy expenditure, or both. While white adipose tissue is specialized for energy storage, brown adipose tissue has a high concentration of mitochondria and uniquely expresses uncoupling protein 1, enabling it to be specialized for energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Although brown fat was once considered only necessary in babies, recent morphological and imaging studies have provided evidence that, contrary to prior belief, this tissue is present and active in adult humans. In recent years, the topic of brown adipose tissue has been reinvigorated with many new studies regarding brown adipose tissue differentiation, function and therapeutic promise. This review summarizes the recent advances, discusses the emerging questions and offers perspective on the potential therapeutic applications targeting this tissue. PMID:23700507

  18. Benchmarking Brown Dwarf Models With a Non-irradiated Transiting Brown Dwarf in Praesepe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Thomas; Marley, Mark; Line, Michael; Gizis, John

    2018-05-01

    We wish to use 9.4 hours of Spitzer time to observe two eclipses, one each at 3.6um and 4.5um, of the transiting brown dwarf AD 3116b. AD 3116b is a 54.2+/-4.3 MJ, 1.08+/-0.07 RJ object on a 1.98 day orbit about a 3200K M-dwarf. Uniquely, AD 3116 and its host star are both members of Praesepe, a 690+/-60 Myr old open cluster. AD 3116b is thus one of two transiting brown dwarfs for which we have a robust isochronal age that is not dependent upon brown dwarf evolutionary models, and the youngest brown dwarf for which this is the case. Importantly, the flux AD 3116b receives from its host star is only 0.7% of its predicted internal luminosity (Saumon & Marley 2008). This makes AD 3116b the first known transiting brown dwarf that simultaneously has a well-defined age, and that receives a negligible amount of external irradiation, and a unique laboratory to test radius and luminosity predictions from brown dwarf evolutionary models. Our goal is to measure the emission from the brown dwarf. AD 3116b should have large, 25 mmag, eclipse depths in the Spitzer bandpasses, and we expect to measure them with a precision of +/-0.50 mmag at 3.6um and +/-0.54 mmag at 4.5um. This will allow us to make measure AD 3116b?s internal effective temperature to +/-40K. We will also use the upcoming Gaia DR2 parallaxes to measure AD 3116b's absolute IRAC magnitudes and color, and hence determine the cloud properties of the atmosphere. As the only known brown dwarf with an independently measured mass, radius, and age, Spitzer measurements of AD 3116b's luminosity and clouds will provide a critical benchmark for brown dwarf observation and theory.

  19. Visceral brown fat necrosis in postperinatal mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, T J; Variend, S

    1987-01-01

    Fat necrosis was present in 22 of 400 cases of consecutive postperinatal mortalities investigated to assess the presence and pattern of deep fat necrosis. In just over 50% of the cases of fat necrosis the cause of death was categorised as sudden infant death syndrome, which also showed more severe degrees of necrosis. The mechanism of necrosis may be vascular hypoperfusion, possibly related to shock, and brown adipose tissue, on account of its high metabolic activity and rich capillary plexus, may be particularly vulnerable to infarction. The occurrence of fat necrosis in association with other causes of death did not provide any definite clue as to the nature of the alleged shock. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3654989

  20. Syndromes with supernumerary teeth.

    PubMed

    Lubinsky, Mark; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

    2016-10-01

    While most supernumerary teeth are idiopathic, they can be associated with a number of Mendelian syndromes. However, this can also be a coincidental finding, since supernumerary teeth occur in 6% or more of the normal population. To better define this relationship, we analyzed the evidence for specific associations. We excluded conditions with a single affected patient reported, supernumerary teeth adjacent to clefts or other forms of alveolar disruption (as secondary rather than primary findings), and natal teeth, which can involve premature eruption of a normal tooth. Since, the cause of supernumerary teeth shows considerable heterogeneity, certain findings are less likely to be coincidental, such as five or more supernumerary teeth in a single patient, or locations outside of the premaxilla. We found only eight genetic syndromes with strong evidence for an association: cleidocranial dysplasia; familial adenomatous polyposis; trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I; Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome; Nance-Horan syndrome; Opitz BBB/G syndrome; oculofaciocardiodental syndrome; and autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. There is also suggestive evidence of an association with two uncommon disorders, Kreiborg-Pakistani syndrome (craniosynostosis and dental anomalies), and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosisnigricans. An association of a Mendelian disorder with a low frequency manifestation of supernumerary teeth is difficult to exclude without large numbers, but several commonly cited syndromes lacked evidence for clear association, including Hallermann-Streiff syndrome, Fabry disease, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Apert and Crouzon syndromes, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome, and Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Brown adipose tissue growth and development: significance and nutritional regulation.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Michael Carey; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a profound resurgence in brown adipose tissue (BAT) research. The need for such a dramatic increase stems from the ever-growing trend toward global obesity. Indeed, it is currently estimated that rates of obesity in developed countries such as the United States exceed 35% of the population (1). The higher incidence of obesity is associated with increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome including diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease, among others (1, 2). BAT holds great promise in combating obesity given its unprecedented metabolic capacity. Leading the way has been recent studies, which conclusively demonstrate significant quantities of functional BAT in adult humans (3-7). These findings have been complimented by elegant studies elucidating the developmental origin of the brown adipocyte and the transcriptional regulation involved in its differentiation. This review will attempt to meld the wealth of new information regarding BAT development with established literature to provide an up to date synopsis of what is known and thus a framework for future research directions.

  2. Amino acid substitutions in the VanS sensor of the VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains result in high-level vancomycin resistance and low-level teicoplanin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Y; Tanimoto, K; Ozawa, Y; Murata, T; Ike, Y

    2000-04-15

    The vancomycin-resistant enterococci GV1, GV2 and GV3, which were isolated from droppings from broiler farms in Japan have been characterized as VanA-type VRE, which express high-level vancomycin resistance (256 or 512 microg ml(-1), MIC) and low-level teicoplanin resistance (1 or 2 microg ml(-1), MIC). The vancomycin resistances were encoded on plasmids. The vancomycin resistance conjugative plasmid pMG2 was isolated from the GV2 strain. The VanA determinant of pMG2 showed the same genetic organization as that of the VanA genes encoded on the representative transposon Tn1546, which comprises vanRSHAXYZ. The nucleotide sequences of all the genes, except the gene related to the vanS gene on Tn1546, were completely identical to the genes encoded on Tn1546. Three amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of the deduced VanS were detected in the nucleotide sequence of vanS encoded on pMG2. There were also three amino acid substitutions in the vanS gene of the GV1 and GV3 strains in the same positions as in the vanS gene of pMG2. Vancomycin induced the increased teicoplanin resistance in these strains.

  3. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in these...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from very...

  9. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Şereflican, Betül; Tuman, Bengü; Şereflican, Murat; Halıcıoğlu, Sıddıka; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Bayrak, Seval

    2017-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by numerous basal cell carcinoma of the skin, jaw cysts, and skeletal anomalies such as frontal bossing, vertebral anomalies, palmoplantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. There is a tendency to tumors including medullablastoma, fibroma, rabdomyoma, leiomyosarcoma etc.. The diagnosis is based on major and minor clinical and radiologic criteria. Early diagnosis and treatment are of utmost importance in reducing the severity of long-term sequelae of this syndrome. In this article, we present a 15-year-old boy who was admitted to our clinic with brown-black papules and plaques on his scalp and was thought to have Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. He had a history of medulloblastoma that was treated with surgical resection followed by cranial radiotherapy and unilateral retinoblastoma. We present this case, because association of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and retinoblastoma has not been described previously in the literature and we aimed to draw attention to radiation-induced basal cell carcinomas. PMID:29062253

  10. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Şereflican, Betül; Tuman, Bengü; Şereflican, Murat; Halıcıoğlu, Sıddıka; Özyalvaçlı, Gülzade; Bayrak, Seval

    2017-09-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. It is characterized by numerous basal cell carcinoma of the skin, jaw cysts, and skeletal anomalies such as frontal bossing, vertebral anomalies, palmoplantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. There is a tendency to tumors including medullablastoma, fibroma, rabdomyoma, leiomyosarcoma etc.. The diagnosis is based on major and minor clinical and radiologic criteria. Early diagnosis and treatment are of utmost importance in reducing the severity of long-term sequelae of this syndrome. In this article, we present a 15-year-old boy who was admitted to our clinic with brown-black papules and plaques on his scalp and was thought to have Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. He had a history of medulloblastoma that was treated with surgical resection followed by cranial radiotherapy and unilateral retinoblastoma. We present this case, because association of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and retinoblastoma has not been described previously in the literature and we aimed to draw attention to radiation-induced basal cell carcinomas.

  11. Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Valent, Mick; Kashmer, Jackie; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S; Lollar, Amanda; Berndt, Douglas; Wheeler, Emily; White, C LeAnn; Ballmann, Anne E

    2011-07-01

    Geomyces destructans produces the white fungal growth on the muzzle and the tacky white discoloration on wings and ears that characterize white-nose syndrome (WNS) in cave-hibernating bats. To test the hypothesis that postemergent WNS-infected bats recover from infection with G. destructans, 30 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in May 2009 from a WNS-affected hibernation site in New Jersey. All bats were confirmed to be infected with G. destructans using a noninvasive fungal tape method to identify the conidia of G. destructans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bats were then held in captivity and given supportive care for 70 days. Of the 26 bats that survived and were humanely killed after 70 days, 25 showed significant improvement in the external appearance of wing membranes, had no microscopic evidence of infection by G. destructans, and had wing tissue samples that were negative for G. destructans by PCR. A subset of the bats was treated topically at the beginning of the rehabilitation study with a dilute vinegar solution, but treatment with vinegar provided no added advantage to recovery. Provision of supportive care to homeothermic bats was sufficient for full recovery from WNS. One bat at day 70 still had both gross pathology and microscopic evidence of WNS in wing membranes and was PCR-positive for G. destructans. Dense aggregates of neutrophils surrounded the hyphae that remained in the wing membrane of this bat.

  12. Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Valent, Mick; Kashmer, Jackie; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David S.; Lollar, Amanda; Berndt, Douglas; Wheeler, Emily; White, C. LeAnn; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Geomyces destructans produces the white fungal growth on the muzzle and the tacky white discoloration on wings and ears that characterize white-nose syndrome (WNS) in cave-hibernating bats. To test the hypothesis that postemergent WNS-infected bats recover from infection with G. destructans, 30 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in May 2009 from a WNS-affected hibernation site in New Jersey. All bats were confirmed to be infected with G. destructans using a noninvasive fungal tape method to identify the conidia of G. destructans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bats were then held in captivity and given supportive care for 70 days. Of the 26 bats that survived and were humanely killed after 70 days, 25 showed significant improvement in the external appearance of wing membranes, had no microscopic evidence of infection by G. destructans, and had wing tissue samples that were negative for G. destructans by PCR. A subset of the bats was treated topically at the beginning of the rehabilitation study with a dilute vinegar solution, but treatment with vinegar provided no added advantage to recovery. Provision of supportive care to homeothermic bats was sufficient for full recovery from WNS. One bat at day 70 still had both gross pathology and microscopic evidence of WNS in wing membranes and was PCR-positive for G. destructans. Dense aggregates of neutrophils surrounded the hyphae that remained in the wing membrane of this bat.

  13. The Challenge of Teaching "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Cally L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issues on whether Brown really desegregate school. Study shows that many cases of large number of segregated schools still exist today. This was the complexity of addressing this issue that makes teaching Brown a challenge. The 1954 Supreme Court decision--Brown v. Board of Education was the basis of their study for the…

  14. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  15. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international traffic; repair components. (a)(1) Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, caul...

  16. Indomethacin Enhances Brown Fat Activity.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lei; Kearns, Jamie; Scott, Sheyenne; Wu, Dayong; Kodani, Sean D; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Sun, Xiaocun; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Shu

    2018-06-01

    Indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to induce white adipocyte differentiation; however, its roles in brown adipocyte differentiation and activation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and obesity are unknown. To address this issue, we treated mouse brown preadipocytes with different doses of indomethacin, and delivered indomethacin to interscapular BAT (iBAT) of obese mice using implanted osmotic pumps. Indomethacin dose dependently increased brown preadipocyte differentiation and upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ coactivator 1-alpha. The mechanistic study showed that indomethacin significantly activated the reporter driven by the PPAR response element, indicating that indomethacin may work as a PPAR γ agonist in this cell line. Consistently, indomethacin significantly decreased iBAT mass and fasting blood glucose levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Histologic analysis showed that brown adipocytes of indomethacin-treated mice contained smaller lipid droplets compared with control mice, suggesting that indomethacin alleviated the whitening of BAT induced by the high-fat diet. Moreover, indomethacin significantly increased UCP1 mRNA expression in iBAT. Taken together, this study indicates that indomethacin can promote mouse brown adipocyte differentiation, and might increase brown fat and glucose oxidation capacity in DIO mice. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. 50 Years after Brown v. the Board of Education: An Interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriuolo, Nancy E.

    2004-01-01

    This spring marks the 50th anniversary (May 17, 1954-2004) of the Supreme Courts' decision to outlaw segregation by ruling unanimously in favor of the plaintiffs in Brown v. the Board of Education. Of course, segregation never really ended, as will be explained in this interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson, daughter of Oliver Brown, the 10th of…

  18. Defending commercial surrogate motherhood against Van Niekerk and Van Zyl.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, H V

    1997-01-01

    The arguments of Van Niekerk and Van Zyl that, on the grounds that it involves an inappropriate commodification and alienation of women's labour, commercial surrogate motherhood (CSM) is morally suspect are discussed and considered to be defective. In addition, doubt is cast on the notion that CSM should be illegal. PMID:9451602

  19. Natural food science based novel approach toward prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: recent studies on brown rice and γ-oryzanol.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are dramatically increasing, and there is a strong need for more effective and safer therapies. However, some of drugs show limited efficacy and considerable adverse effects. Furthermore, artificial energy-dense foods and non-caloric foods may promote overeating and weight gain. In this context, a natural food-based approach may represent a valuable means of tackling the obesity-diabetes syndrome. Although recent studies have shown that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and prevents obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that one of the major components of brown rice, γ-oryzanol (Orz), plays an important role in the metabolically beneficial effects of brown rice. Orz acts as a chemical chaperone and decreases high fat diet (HFD)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus, thereby leading to a significant shift in preference from fatty to healthy foods. Orz also decreases HFD-induced ER stress in pancreatic β-cells and improves β-cell function. Notably, Orz directly acts on pancreatic islets and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This evidence highlights food preference as a promising therapeutic target in obesity-diabetes syndrome and suggests that brown rice and Orz may have potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  1. Space Van system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  2. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to...

  3. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors: new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Goralczyk, Anna; van Vijven, Marc; Koch, Mathilde; Badowski, Cedric; Yassin, M Shabeer; Toh, Sue-Anne; Shabbir, Asim; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Raghunath, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal cell sensors responding to diverse stimuli and widely implicated in the developmental programs of numerous tissues. The evidence for an involvement of TRP family members in adipogenesis, however, is scant. We present the first comprehensive expression profile of all known 27 human TRP genes in mesenchymal progenitors cells during white or brown adipogenesis. Using positive trilineage differentiation as an exclusion criterion, TRP polycystic (P)3, and TPR melastatin (M)8 were found to be uniquely adipospecific. Knockdown of TRPP3 repressed the expression of the brown fat signature genes uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α as well as attenuated forskolin-stimulated uncoupled respiration. However, indices of generalized adipogenesis, such as lipid droplet morphology and fatty acid binding protein (FAPB)-4 expression, were not affected, indicating a principal mitochondrial role of TRPP3. Conversely, activating TRPM8 with menthol up-regulated UCP-1 expression and augmented uncoupled respiration predominantly in white adipocytes (browning), whereas streptomycin antagonized TRPM8-mediated calcium entry, downregulated UCP-1 expression, and mitigated uncoupled respiration; menthol was less capable of augmenting uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in brown adipocytes. TRPP3 and TRPM8 hence appear to be involved in the priming of mitochondria to perform uncoupled respiration downstream of adenylate cyclase. Our results also underscore the developmental caveats of using antibiotics in adipogenic studies.-Goralczyk, A., van Vijven, M., Koch, M., Badowski, C., Yassin, M. S., Toh, S.-A., Shabbir, A., Franco-Obregón, A., Raghunath, M. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors: new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin. © FASEB.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia bicyclis...

  5. Control of brown and beige fat development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenshan; Seale, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Brown and beige adipocytes expend chemical energy to produce heat and are therefore important in regulating body temperature and body weight. Brown adipocytes develop in discrete and relatively homogenous depots of brown adipose tissue, whereas beige adipocytes are induced to develop in white adipose tissue in response to certain stimuli — notably, exposure to cold. Fate-mapping analyses have identified progenitor populations that give rise to brown and beige fat cells and revealed unanticipated cell-lineage relationships between vascular smooth muscle and beige adipocytes, and between brown fat and skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, non-adipocyte cells in adipose tissue, including neurons, blood vessel-associated cells and immune cells play crucial roles in regulating the differentiation and function of brown and beige fat. PMID:27552974

  6. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus...

  11. The Unevenly Distributed Nearest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bihain, Gabriel; Scholz, Ralf-Dieter

    2016-08-01

    To address the questions of how many brown dwarfs there are in the Milky Way, how do these objects relate to star formation, and whether the brown dwarf formation rate was different in the past, the star-to-brown dwarf number ratio can be considered. While main sequence stars are well known components of the solar neighborhood, lower mass, substellar objects increasingly add to the census of the nearest objects. The sky projection of the known objects at <6.5 pc shows that stars present a uniform distribution and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with about four times more brown dwarfs behind than ahead of the Sun relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. Assuming that substellar objects distribute uniformly, their observed configuration has a probability of 0.1 %. The helio- and geocentricity of the configuration suggests that it probably results from an observational bias, which if compensated for by future discoveries, would bring the star-to-brown dwarf ratio in agreement with the average ratio found in star forming regions.

  12. Trans-anethole ameliorates obesity via induction of browning in white adipocytes and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nam Hyeon; Mukherjee, Sulagna; Min, Taesun; Kang, Sun Chul; Yun, Jong Won

    2018-05-24

    To treat obesity, suppression of white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) are considered as potential therapeutic targets. Recent advances have been made in the induction of brown fat-like adipocytes (beige) in WAT, which represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity. Use of natural compounds for browning of white adipocytes can be considered as a safe and novel strategy against obesity. Here, we report that trans-anethole (TA), a flavoring substance present in the essential oils of various plants, alleviated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice models via elevation of the expression of beige-specific genes such as Ppargc1α, Prdm16, Ucp1, Cd137, Cited1, Tbx1, and Trem26. TA also regulated lipid metabolism in white adipocytes via reduction of adipogenesis and lipogenesis as well as elevation of lipolysis and fat oxidation. Moreover, TA exhibited thermogenic activity by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis in white adipocytes and activating brown adipocytes. In addition, molecular docking analysis enabled us to successfully predict core proteins for fat browning such as β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and sirtuin1 (SIRT1) based on their low binding energy interactions with TA for promotion of regulatory mechanisms. Indeed, agonistic and antagonistic studies demonstrated that TA induced browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through activation of β3-AR as well as the AMPK-mediated SIRT1 pathway regulating PPARα and PGC-1α. In conclusion, TA possesses potential therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity by playing multiple modulatory roles in the induction of white fat browning, activation of brown adipocytes, and promotion of lipid catabolism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4. Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. PMID:27913573

  14. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; López, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroxyne (T 4 )-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T 3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T 4 Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. © 2017 The authors.

  15. Mentale Inzetbaarheid van Teams: Ontwikkeling van een Moden van Teamfunctioneren als Module voor SCOPE (Mental Readiness of Teams - Development of a Team Model as Module for SCOPE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    inzetbaarheid van teams: ontwikkeling van een model van teamfunctioneren als module voor SCOPE Datumn april 2007 Auteur (s) R. de B~ruin C’. Vervvijs A.J...Datum april 2007 Programmaleider Projectleider Auteur (s) dr. W.A. Lotens, TNO Defensie en A.]. van Vijet, TNO Defensie en R. de Bruin Veiligheid...Deelnemers verwachten wel, in lijn met de theorie , dat een lage cohesie samenhangt met een lage effectiviteit. Een hoge cohesie, daarentegen, zou

  16. Mobile Telemetry Van Remote Control Upgrade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Advantages of Remote Control System Upgrade • Summary Overview • Remote control of Telemetry Mobile Ground Support ( TMGS ) Van proposed to allow...NWC) personnel provided valuable data for full-function remote control of telemetry tracking vans Background • TMGS Vans support Flight Test...control capability from main TM site at Building 5790 currently allows support via TMGS Van at nearby C- 15 Site, Plant 42 in Palmdale, and as far

  17. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  18. Members of the Genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus Harbor Genes Homologous to Enterococcal Glycopeptide Resistance Genes vanA and vanB

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, L.; Christensen, H.; Hasman, H.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2004-01-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative d-Ala:d-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons. PMID:15561881

  19. Members of the genera Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus harbor genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, L; Christensen, H; Hasman, H; Dalsgaard, A

    2004-12-01

    Genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptide resistance genes vanA and vanB were found in glycopeptide-resistant Paenibacillus and Rhodococcus strains from soil. The putative D-Ala:D-Lac ligase genes in Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B were closely related to vanA (92 and 87%) and flanked by genes homologous to vanH and vanX in vanA operons.

  20. Review of Van earthquakes form an orthopaedic perspective: a multicentre retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Guner, Savas; Guner, Sukriye Ilkay; Isik, Yasemin; Gormeli, Gokay; Kalender, Ali Murat; Turktas, Ugur; Gokalp, Mehmet Ata; Gozen, Abdurrahim; Isik, Mustafa; Ozkan, Sezai; Turkozu, Tulin; Karadas, Sevdegul; Ceylan, Mehmet Fethi; Ediz, Levent; Bulut, Mehmet; Gunes, Yusuf; Gormeli, Ayse; Erturk, Cemil; Eseoglu, Metehan; Dursun, Recep

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive analysis, of victims of Turkey's October 23, 2011 and November 21, 2011 Van earthquakes. The goal of this study is investigated the injury profile of the both earthquakes in relation to musculoskeletal trauma. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 3,965 patients admitted to in seven hospitals. A large share of these injuries were soft tissue injuries, followed by fractures, crush injuries, crush syndromes, nerve injuries, vascular injuries, compartment syndrome and joint dislocations. A total of 73 crush injuries were diagnosed and 31 of them were developed compartment syndrome. The patients with closed undisplaced fractures were treated with casting braces. For closed unstable fractures with good skin and soft-tissue conditions, open reduction and internal fixation was performed. All patients with open fracture had an external fixator applied after adequate debridement. Thirty one of 40 patients with compartment syndrome were treated by fasciotomy. For twelve of them, amputation was necessary. The most common procedure performed was debridement, followed by open reduction and internal fixation and closed reduction-casting, respectively. The results of this study may provide the basis for future development of strategy to optimise attempts at rescue and plan treatment of survivors with musculoskeletal injuries after earthquakes.

  1. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for inspection by Customs officials upon reasonable notice. (3) If the container does not exit the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of...

  2. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for inspection by Customs officials upon reasonable notice. (3) If the container does not exit the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of...

  3. 19 CFR 10.41a - Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of international...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for inspection by Customs officials upon reasonable notice. (3) If the container does not exit the U.S... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids... Traffic § 10.41a Lift vans, cargo vans, shipping tanks, skids, pallets, and similar instruments of...

  4. A unique Austin Chalk reservoir, Van field, Van Zandt County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, J.T.

    1990-09-01

    Significant shallow oil production from the Austin Chalk was established in the Van field, Van Zandt County, in East Texas in the late 1980s. The Van field structure is a complexly faulted domal anticline created by salt intrusion. The Woodbine sands, which underlie the Austin Chalk, have been and continue to be the predominant reservoir rocks in the field. Evidence indicates that faults provided vertical conduits for migration of Woodbine oil into the Austin Chalk where it was trapped along the structural crest. The most prolific Austin Chalk production is on the upthrown side of the main field fault, asmore » is the Woodbine. The Austin Chalk is a soft, white to light gray limestone composed mostly of coccoliths with some pelecypods. Unlike the Austin Chalk in the Giddings and Pearsall fields, the chalk at Van was not as deeply buried and therefore did not become brittle and susceptible to tensional or cryptic fracturing. The shallow burial in the Van field was also important in that it allowed the chalk to retain primary microporosity. The production comes entirely from this primary porosity. In addition to the structural position and underlying oil source from the Woodbine, the depositional environment and associated lithofacies are also keys to the reservoir quality in the Van field as demonstrated by cores from the upthrown and downthrown (less productive) sides of the main field fault. It appears that at the time of Austin Chalk deposition, the main field fault was active and caused the upthrown side to be a structural high and a more agreeable environment for benthonic organisms such as pelecypods and worms. The resulting bioturbation enhanced the reservoir's permeability enough to allow migration and entrapment of the oil. Future success in exploration for analogous Austin Chalk reservoirs will require the combination of a favorable environment of deposition, a nearby Woodbine oil source, and a faulted trap that will provide the conduit for migration.« less

  5. Candidate gene association studies in syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate

    SciTech Connect

    Daack-Hirsch, S.; Basart, A.; Frischmeyer, P.

    1994-09-01

    Using ongoing case ascertainment through a birth defects registry, we have collected 219 nuclear families with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate and 111 families with a collection of syndromic forms. Syndromic cases include 24 with recognized forms and 72 with unrecognized syndromes. Candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide searches for evidence of microdeletions and isodisomy are currently being carried out. Candidate gene association studies, to date, have made use of PCR-based polymorphisms for TGFA, MSX1, CLPG13 (a CA repeat associated with a human homologue of a locus that results in craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in the mouse) and an STRP foundmore » in a Van der Woude syndrome microdeletion. Control tetranucleotide repeats, which insure that population-based differences are not responsible for any observed associations, are also tested. Studies of the syndromic cases have included the same list of candidate genes searching for evidence of microdeletions and a genome-wide search using tri- and tetranucleotide polymorphic markers to search for isodisomy or structural rearrangements. Significant associations have previously been identified for TGFA, and, in this report, identified for MSX1 and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (p = 0.04, uncorrected). Preliminary results of the genome-wide scan for isodisomy has returned no true positives and there has been no evidence for microdeletion cases.« less

  6. [Posterior ankle impingement syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Ivan; Janjić, Tamara; Dimnjaković, Damjan; Križan, Sanja; Smoljanović, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by posterior ankle pain which occurs in maximal forced plantar flexion of the foot. PAIS can be the result of an acute injury of the ankle, which is more often in general population, or it can be the result of the overuse syndrome, which is more often in athletes and ballet dancers. The etiology of PAIS may involve bony structures or soft tissue structures, or, more often, the combination of both. The diagnosis of PAIS is based on patient's clinical history and physical examination with the hyperplantarflexion test as a very important part of it. Physical examination should be completed with imaging techniques, which most often include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) to confirm the diagnosis of PAIS. Conservative treatment is recommended as the primary treatment strategy. In those cases where 3 to 6 months of conservative treatment fails, open or, more often, arthroscopic/endoscopic surgery may be recommended. Nowadays, a 2-portal endoscopic approach introduced by van Dijk et al. in 2000 is the method of choice for the treatment of posterior ankle impingement syndrome.

  7. White Adipose Tissue Browning: A Double-edged Sword.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2016-08-01

    The study of white adipose tissue (WAT) 'browning' has become a 'hot topic' in various acute and chronic metabolic conditions, based on the idea that WAT browning might be able to facilitate weight loss and improve metabolic health. However, this view cannot be translated into all areas of medicine. Recent studies identified effects of browning associated with adverse outcomes, and as more studies are being conducted, a very different picture has emerged about WAT browning and its detrimental effect in acute and chronic hypermetabolic conditions. Therefore, the notion that browning is supposedly beneficial may be inadequate. In this review we analyze how and why browning in chronic hypermetabolic associated diseases can be detrimental and lead to adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of browning in foodstuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Addition of water-soluble sulfur-containing compounds, thio compounds or potential thio compounds, to a mixture of carbohydrates, and either proteins, peptides, or amino acids can retard or completely eliminate the browning process. Determining factor is dependent upon the concentration of the anti-browning agent in the aqueous media.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject to...

  11. Influence of selected factors on browning of Camembert cheese.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Alexandra; Dillinger, Klaus; Eliskases-Lechner, Frieda; Loureiro, Virgílio; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Rohm, Harald

    2002-05-01

    Experimental Camembert cheeses were made to investigate the effects on browning of the following factors: inoculation with Yarrowia lipolytica, the use of Penicillium candidum strains with different proteolytic activity, the addition of tyrosine, and the addition of Mn2+ thus leading to 16 different variants of cheese. Two physical colour parameters were used to describe browning, depending on the location in the cheeses: a whiteness index for the outside browning (mould mycelium), and a brownness index for the inside browning (surface of the cheese body). Mn2+ promoted a significant increase of browning at both locations, whereas Yar. lipolytica had the opposite effect. Outside browning was significantly more intense when using the Pen. candidum strain with higher proteolytic activity. A significant interaction was found between Yar. lipolytica and Pen. candidum. The yeast had no effect in combination with a low proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum, but significantly reduced proteolysis and browning in combination with a high proteolytic strain of Pen. candidum. We further confirmed that both strains of Pen. candidum were able to produce brown pigments from tyrosine and thus both are presumably responsible for the browning activity in this type of cheese.

  12. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  13. Stirling Powered Van Progam overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The Stirling Powered Van Program (SPVP) is a multiyear, multiphase program to evaluate the automotive Stirling engine (ASE) in Air Force vans under realistic conditions. The objective of the SPVP is to transfer to manufacturer and end user(s) (i.e., on the path to commercialization) the second-generation Mod 2 ASE upon completion of the Automotive Stirling Engine Program in 1987. In order to meet this objective, the SPVP must establish Stirling performance, integrity, reliability, durability and maintainability. The ASE program background leading to the van program is reviewed and plans for evaluating the kinematic Stirling engine in Air Force vans examined. Also discussed are the NASA technology transfers to industry that have been accomplished and those which are currently being developed.

  14. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  15. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  16. Recurrent short rib polydactyly syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eleftheriades, M; Iavazzo, C; Manolakos, E; Hassiakos, D; Botsis, D; Petersen, M; Konstantinidou, A

    2013-01-01

    We present three consecutive cases of skeletal dysplasias of a non-consanguineous couple with five pregnancies. The diagnosis of short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS) was feasible by ultrasound during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. SRPS represents a heterogeneous group of lethal skeletal dysplasias. It is characterised by short limb dwarfism complicated by thoracic hypoplasia, polydactyly and different anomalies of major organs such as congenital heart defects and renal dysplasia. Four major types of the SRPS have been described: type I (Saldino-Noonan); type II (Majewski); type III (Verma-Naumoff) and type IV (Beemar-Langer). However, there is phenotypic overlapping between four types and with those of non-lethal skeletal dysplasias (i.e. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and Jeune syndrome). Our cases show the importance of the nuchal translucency (NT) scan that offers the opportunity to examine fetal anatomy in the 1st trimester and diagnose rare skeletal abnormalities early in pregnancy.

  17. Butterfly inclusions in Van Schrieck masterpieces. Techniques and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, S.; Boulenguez, J.; Menu, M.; Mottin, B.

    2008-07-01

    Dutch painter Otto Marseus Van Schrieck (1619 1678) is famous for his invention of “sottobosco”. These specific still-life paintings are characterized by the presence of various living organisms (mainly insects and plants) directly on the canvas. We will focus our attention on the painting kept in the museum of Grenoble, France, where a real butterfly is pasted on the canvas. The actual butterfly is a common Nymphalidae, Inachis io, presented in a static position on the dorsal side, without any perspective, compared to the neighboring butterflies. The colors of this butterfly are mainly due to pigments, melanin (black to brown) and ommochromes (yellow, orange, red) often in granules configuration that introduce scattering of light superimposed to the classical selective absorption, except in the ocelli of the hind wings where the blue coloration is due to interferential effects. The nearly perfect refraction index equality between the varnish and the chitin, the main constituent of the butterfly wings, deeply affects its colors. This leads the artist to a final intervention in some parts of the wings, revealed by microscope observation.

  18. vanC Cluster of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Cesar A.; Courvalin, Patrice; Reynolds, Peter E.

    2000-01-01

    Glycopeptide-resistant enterococci of the VanC type synthesize UDP-muramyl-pentapeptide[d-Ser] for cell wall assembly and prevent synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala. The vanC cluster of Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 consists of five genes: vanC-1, vanXYC, vanT, vanRC, and vanSC. Three genes are sufficient for resistance: vanC-1 encodes a ligase that synthesizes the dipeptide d-Ala-d-Ser for addition to UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide, vanXYC encodes a d,d-dipeptidase–carboxypeptidase that hydrolyzes d-Ala-d-Ala and removes d-Ala from UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide[d-Ala], and vanT encodes a membrane-bound serine racemase that provides d-Ser for the synthetic pathway. The three genes are clustered: the start codons of vanXYC and vanT overlap the termination codons of vanC-1 and vanXYC, respectively. Two genes which encode proteins with homology to the VanS-VanR two-component regulatory system were present downstream from the resistance genes. The predicted amino acid sequence of VanRC exhibited 50% identity to VanR and 33% identity to VanRB. VanSC had 40% identity to VanS over a region of 308 amino acids and 24% identity to VanSB over a region of 285 amino acids. All residues with important functions in response regulators and histidine kinases were conserved in VanRC and VanSC, respectively. Induction experiments based on the determination of d,d-carboxypeptidase activity in cytoplasmic extracts confirmed that the genes were expressed constitutively. Using a promoter-probing vector, regions upstream from the resistance and regulatory genes were identified that have promoter activity. PMID:10817725

  19. Hunting for brown dwarf binaries with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, B. J. S.; Homeier, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Smart, R. L.; Henning, T.; Allard, F.

    2015-05-01

    The refinement of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Peculiar brown dwarf spectra or discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral type classification of brown dwarfs may indicate unresolved brown dwarf binary systems. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs of potential binary candidates using X-Shooter at the VLT. We aimed to select brown dwarf binary candidates. We also tested whether BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce the physics in the atmospheres of these objects. To find different spectral type spectral binaries, we used spectral indices and we compared the selected candidates to single spectra and composition of two single spectra from libraries, to try to reproduce our X-Shooter spectra. We also created artificial binaries within the same spectral class, and we tried to find them using the same method as for brown dwarf binaries with different spectral types. We compared our spectra to the BT-Settl models 2014. We selected six possible candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. All candidates, except one, are better reproduced by a combination of two single brown dwarf spectra than by a single spectrum. The one-sided F-test discarded this object as a binary candidate. We found that we are not able to find the artificial binaries with components of the same spectral type using the same method used for L plus T brown dwarfs. Best matches to models gave a range of effective temperatures between 950 K and 1900 K, a range of gravities between 4.0 and 5.5. Some best matches corresponded to supersolar metallicity.

  20. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  1. Brown Dwarf Companion Frequencies and Dynamical Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzik, Michael F.; Durisen, Richard H.

    2003-06-01

    Numerical simulations are used to explore how gravitational interactions within young multiple star systems may determine the binary properties of brown dwarfs. We compare different scenarios for cluster formation and decay and find that brown dwarf binaries, although possible, generally have a low frequency. We also discuss the frequencies of brown dwarf companions to normal stars expected from these models.

  2. Disseminated candidiasis in addicts who use brown heroin: report of 83 cases and review.

    PubMed

    Bisbe, J; Miro, J M; Latorre, X; Moreno, A; Mallolas, J; Gatell, J M; de la Bellacasa, J P; Soriano, E

    1992-12-01

    From November 1983 to April 1990, disseminated candidiasis was diagnosed in 83 heroin addicts at our institution. All patients had consumed brown heroin diluted in fresh lemon juice. Sixty-two (75%) had skin lesions, 41 (49%) had ocular lesions, and 35 (42%) had one or several costochondral tumors. Candida albicans was grown in culture or histopathologically identified in 34 cases (41%). The patients who had only cutaneous lesions were treated with ketoconazole, and they were all cured. The patients with ocular involvement received systemic amphotericin B with or without oral flucytosine; 29 of these patients developed varying degrees of vision loss. The method of treatment of costochondral tumors was not uniform; in 14 cases the lesions were resected. The one patient who died developed endocarditis involving the aortic valve. Cases of pleuropulmonary involvement, spondylitis, and large-joint arthritis have also been described among the 300 cases reported in the reviewed literature. This is a new syndrome of candidal infection in drug addicts who use brown heroin; ocular lesions are the most harmful manifestation, and loss of vision is the major sequela.

  3. Characterisation of the selective binding of antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin by the VanS receptor regulating type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci.

    PubMed

    Hughes, C S; Longo, E; Phillips-Jones, M K; Hussain, R

    2017-08-01

    A-type resistance towards "last-line" glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin in the leading hospital acquired infectious agent, the enterococci, is the most common in the UK. Resistance is regulated by the VanR A S A two-component system, comprising the histidine sensor kinase VanS A and the partner response regulator VanR A . The nature of the activating ligand for VanS A has not been identified, therefore this work sought to identify and characterise ligand(s) for VanS A . In vitro approaches were used to screen the structural and activity effects of a range of potential ligands with purified VanS A protein. Of the screened ligands (glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, and peptidoglycan components N-acetylmuramic acid, D-Ala-D-Ala and Ala-D-y-Glu-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala) only glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin were found to bind VanS A with different affinities (vancomycin 70μM; teicoplanin 30 and 170μM), and were proposed to bind via exposed aromatic residues tryptophan and tyrosine. Furthermore, binding of the antibiotics induced quicker, longer-lived phosphorylation states for VanS A , proposing them as activators of type A vancomycin resistance in the enterococci. Copyright © 2017 Diamond Light Source Ltd. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Softwaremodule voor het Simuleren van de Gevolgen van Raketonderschepping (The Dutch Program for the Simulation of Missile Intercept Effects)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    effects (Softwaremodule voor het simuleren van de gevolgen van raketonderschepping) 11 . AUTHOR(S) Dr E. Abadjieva, MSc R.P. Sterkenburg, MSc F. Bouquet...Softwaremnodule voor het simuleren van de gevolgen van raketonderschepping D)attini Juli 2007 Auteur(s) dr. F. Abadjicva ir. R.P Sterkenburg ir. F. Bouquet ir...P.W. D)ouip Rubricering rapport O)ngerubri ceerd Vastgesteld door Maj R. 11 . Jongkinid Vastgesteld d.d. 12 juni 2007 (Deze nitining mizil-4 sict

  5. Searching for chemical signatures of brown dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Villaver, E.

    2017-06-01

    Context. Recent studies have shown that close-in brown dwarfs in the mass range 35-55 MJup are almost depleted as companions to stars, suggesting that objects with masses above and below this gap might have different formation mechanisms. Aims: We aim to test whether stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs and stars with low-mass brown dwarfs show any chemical peculiarity that could be related to different formation processes. Methods: Our methodology is based on the analysis of high-resolution échelle spectra (R 57 000) from 2-3 m class telescopes. We determine the fundamental stellar parameters, as well as individual abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn for a large sample of stars known to have a substellar companion in the brown dwarf regime. The sample is divided into stars hosting massive and low-mass brown dwarfs. Following previous works, a threshold of 42.5 MJup was considered. The metallicity and abundance trends of the two subsamples are compared and set in the context of current models of planetary and brown dwarf formation. Results: Our results confirm that stars with brown dwarf companions do not follow the well-established gas-giant planet metallicity correlation seen in main-sequence planet hosts. Stars harbouring massive brown dwarfs show similar metallicity and abundance distribution as stars without known planets or with low-mass planets. We find a tendency of stars harbouring less-massive brown dwarfs of having slightly higher metallicity, [XFe/Fe] values, and abundances of Sc II, Mn I, and Ni I than the stars having the massive brown dwarfs. The data suggest, as previously reported, that massive and low-mass brown dwarfs might present differences in period and eccentricity. Conclusions: We find evidence of a non-metallicity dependent mechanism for the formation of massive brown dwarfs. Our results agree with a scenario in which massive brown dwarfs are formed as stars. At high metallicities, the core

  6. Tony L. Brown and Joshua A. Brown d/b/a Riverview Cattle - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Tony L. Brown and Joshua A. Brown d/b/a Riverview Cattle, located in Emmet County, Iowa, for alleged violations at their concentrated animal feeding operation located at 18

  7. L-rhamnose induces browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and activates HIB1B brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minji; Mukherjee, Sulagna; Kang, Nam Hyeon; Barkat, Jameel Lone; Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2018-06-01

    Induction of the brown adipocyte-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) is considered as a novel strategy to fight obesity due to the ability of brown adipocytes to increase energy expenditure. Here, we report that L-rhamnose induced browning by elevating expression levels of beige-specific marker genes, including Cd137, Cited1, Tbx1, Prdm16, Tmem26, and Ucp1, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, L-rhamnose markedly elevated expression levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis both in 3T3-L1 white and HIB1B brown adipocytes. L-rhamnose treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also significantly elevated protein levels of p-HSL, p-AMPK, ACOX, and CPT1 as well as reduced levels of ACC, FAS, C/EBPα, and PPARγ, suggesting its possible role in enhancement of lipolysis and lipid catabolism as well as reduced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, respectively. The quick technique of efficient molecular docking provided insight into the strong binding of L-rhamnose to the fat-digesting glycine residue of β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR), indicating strong involvement of L-rhamnose in fat metabolism. Further examination of the molecular mechanism of L-rhamnose revealed that it induced browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via coordination of multiple signaling pathways through β 3 -AR, SIRT1, PKA, and p-38. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that L-rhamnose plays multiple modulatory roles in the induction of white fat browning, activation of brown adipocytes, as well as promotion of lipid metabolism, thereby demonstrating its therapeutic potential for treatment of obesity. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(6):563-573, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Beslisbevoegdheden en Verantwoordelijkheden van de Uitgestegen Soldaat. Deel A: Verplaatsen van Beslisbevoegdheden (Authority and Responsibility of the Dismounted Soldier. Part A. Empowering the Dismounted Soldier)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    en verantwoordelijkheden van de uitgestegen soldaat Deel A: verplaatsen van beslisbevoegdheden Datumn april 2007 Auteur (s) R. de Bruin ITE. van Bernmel...Admiraal, Bureau SMP Auteur (s) R. de Bruin Program maleider Projectleider I.E. van Bemnmel dr. W.A. Lotens, A.J. van Vliet, A.J. van Vijet TNO Defensie en...Leadership Theory en wordt relevant geacht voor de ontvangers van aanvullende beslisbevoegdheden. 2.1.3 Het oogmerk van de hogere commandant Een ander

  9. Browning control of fresh-cut lettuce by phytoncide treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hee; Kim, Han-Bit; Chung, Hun-Sik; Moon, Kwang-Deog

    2014-09-15

    Phytoncide essential oil derived from pine leaves was applied for the control of enzymatic browning of fresh-cut lettuce. Changes in the browning characteristics of cut lettuce treated with phytoncide in an water or ethanol solution (1%, v/v) at 10°C were investigated for 12days at 4°C. Other samples dipped in distilled water or 95% ethanol were used as the controls. The samples treated with phytoncide in an ethanol solution showed significantly higher L* values and lower a* values, ΔE values, browning index, phenolic compounds, and enzyme activities (PPO, POD, PAL) related to browning. The samples dipped in distilled water showed the opposite tendency. On the basis of changes in the browning characteristics, anti-browning effects of each treatment, phytoncide in an ethanol solution was the most effective treatment applied. These results suggest that phytoncide treatment could be used as an effective method for controlling enzymatic browning in fresh-cut lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The phosphotransferase VanU represses expression of four qrr genes antagonizing VanO-mediated quorum-sensing regulation in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Barbara; Lindell, Kristoffer; El Qaidi, Samir; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum utilizes quorum sensing to regulate stress responses required for survival in the aquatic environment. Like other Vibrio species, V. anguillarum contains the gene qrr1, which encodes the ancestral quorum regulatory RNA Qrr1, and phosphorelay quorum-sensing systems that modulate the expression of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize mRNA encoding the transcriptional regulator VanT. In this study, three additional Qrr sRNAs were identified. All four sRNAs were positively regulated by σ54 and the σ54-dependent response regulator VanO, and showed a redundant activity. The Qrr sRNAs, together with the RNA chaperone Hfq, destabilized vanT mRNA and modulated expression of VanT-regulated genes. Unexpectedly, expression of all four qrr genes peaked at high cell density, and exogenously added N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules induced expression of the qrr genes at low cell density. The phosphotransferase VanU, which phosphorylates and activates VanO, repressed expression of the Qrr sRNAs and stabilized vanT mRNA. A model is presented proposing that VanU acts as a branch point, aiding cross-regulation between two independent phosphorelay systems that activate or repress expression of the Qrr sRNAs, giving flexibility and precision in modulating VanT expression and inducing a quorum-sensing response to stresses found in a constantly changing aquatic environment. PMID:21948044

  11. The phosphotransferase VanU represses expression of four qrr genes antagonizing VanO-mediated quorum-sensing regulation in Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Weber, Barbara; Lindell, Kristoffer; El Qaidi, Samir; Hjerde, Erik; Willassen, Nils-Peder; Milton, Debra L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio anguillarum utilizes quorum sensing to regulate stress responses required for survival in the aquatic environment. Like other Vibrio species, V. anguillarum contains the gene qrr1, which encodes the ancestral quorum regulatory RNA Qrr1, and phosphorelay quorum-sensing systems that modulate the expression of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize mRNA encoding the transcriptional regulator VanT. In this study, three additional Qrr sRNAs were identified. All four sRNAs were positively regulated by σ(54) and the σ(54)-dependent response regulator VanO, and showed a redundant activity. The Qrr sRNAs, together with the RNA chaperone Hfq, destabilized vanT mRNA and modulated expression of VanT-regulated genes. Unexpectedly, expression of all four qrr genes peaked at high cell density, and exogenously added N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules induced expression of the qrr genes at low cell density. The phosphotransferase VanU, which phosphorylates and activates VanO, repressed expression of the Qrr sRNAs and stabilized vanT mRNA. A model is presented proposing that VanU acts as a branch point, aiding cross-regulation between two independent phosphorelay systems that activate or repress expression of the Qrr sRNAs, giving flexibility and precision in modulating VanT expression and inducing a quorum-sensing response to stresses found in a constantly changing aquatic environment.

  12. X-Rays Found From a Lightweight Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have detected X-rays from a low mass brown dwarf in a multiple star system, which is as young as 12 million years old. This discovery is an important piece in an increasingly complex picture of how brown dwarfs - and perhaps the very massive planets around other stars - evolve. Chandra's observations of the brown dwarf, known as TWA 5B, clearly resolve it from a pair of Sun-like stars known as TWA 5A. The system is about 180 light years from the Sun and a member of a group of about a dozen young stars in the southern constellation Hydra. The brown dwarf orbits the binary stars at a distance about 2.75 times that of Pluto's orbit around the Sun. This is first time that a brown dwarf this close to its parent star(s) has been resolved in X-rays. "Our Chandra data show that the X-rays originate from the brown dwarf's coronal plasma which is some 3 million degrees Celsius," said Yohko Tsuboi of Chuo University in Tokyo and lead author of the April 10th issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing these results. "The brown dwarf is sufficiently far from the primary stars that the reflection of X-rays is unimportant, so the X-rays must come the brown dwarf itself." TWA 5B is estimated to be only between 15 and 40 times the mass of Jupiter, making it one of the least massive brown dwarfs known. Its mass is rather near the currently accepted boundary (about 12 Jupiter masses) between planets and brown dwarfs. Therefore, these results may also have implications for very massive planets, including those that have been discovered as extrasolar planets in recent years. Brown Dwarf size comparison schematic Brown Dwarf size comparison schematic "This brown dwarf is as bright as the Sun today in X-ray light, while it is fifty times less massive than the Sun," said Tsuboi. "This observation, thus, raises the possibility that even massive planets might emit X-rays by themselves during their youth!" This research on TWA 5

  13. African American Principals and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" decision is significant with respect to African Americans in the principalship for several reasons. First, teachers, principals, and parents were the most important influences in the education of Black children in the pre-"Brown" era of schooling. Thus, discussions about the "Brown" decision and the education…

  14. CDR Brown on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-20

    S103-E-5007 (20 December 1999) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, mission commander, retrieves supplies from a mid deck stowage locker onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. He and six other astronauts will spend a great deal of time later in the week performing a variety of service tasks on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As commander of the mission, Brown will remain inside Discovery while several of the other crew members will perform service tasks on HST. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 16:12:27 GMT, Dec. 20, 1999.

  15. Cause and control of Radix Ophiopogonis browning during storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Qi, Jin; Han, Dong-Qi; Xu, Tian; Liu, Ji-Hua; Qin, Min-Jian; Zhu, Dan-Ni; Bo-Yang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    In the storage of Radix Ophiopogonis, browning often happens to cause potential risk with regard to safety. Previously few reports investigate the browning of Radix Ophiopogonis. In this research, the causes and mechanisms of the browning of Radix Ophiopogonis were preliminarily elucidated. Content determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry, enzyme activity determination by colorimetry, and morphological observation by electron microscopy were performed in the present study. Uniform design and three-dimensional response surfaces were applied to investigate the relationship between browning and storage factors. The cortex cell wall of browned Radix Ophiopogonis was ruptured. Compared with the normal Radix Ophiopogonis, cellulase and polyphenol oxidase enzymes were activated, the levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), total sugars, and reducing sugars were increased, while the levels of polysaccharides and methylophiopogonanone A were decreased in browned Radix Ophiopogonis. The relationship between the storage factors and degree of browning (Y) could be described by following correlation equation: Y = - 0.625 4 + 0.020 84 × X3 + 0.001 514 × X1 × X2 - 0.000 964 4 × X2 × X3. Accompanied with browning under storage conditions, the chemical composition of Radix Ophiopogonis was altered. Following the activation of cellulase, the rupture of the cortex cell wall and the outflow of cell substances flowed out, which caused the Radix Ophiopogonis tissue to become soft and sticky. The main causes of the browning were the production of 5-HMF, the activation of polyphenol oxidase, Maillard reactions and enzymatic browning. Browning could be effectively prevented when the air relative humidity (HR), temperature, and moisture content were under 25% RH, 12 °C and 18%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trustworthy-Looking Face Meets Brown Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kleisner, Karel; Priplatova, Lenka; Frost, Peter; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes. PMID:23326406

  17. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC - Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the current effective synthetic minor NSR permit for the Van Hook Crude Terminal, LLC, Van Hook Crude Terminal/Rail Loading Facility, located on the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation in Mountrail County, ND.

  18. UCP1 in adipose tissues: two steps to full browning.

    PubMed

    Kalinovich, Anastasia V; de Jong, Jasper M A; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2017-03-01

    The possibility that brown adipose tissue thermogenesis can be recruited in order to combat the development of obesity has led to a high interest in the identification of "browning agents", i.e. agents that increase the amount and activity of UCP1 in brown and brite/beige adipose tissues. However, functional analysis of the browning process yields confusingly different results when the analysis is performed in one of two alternative steps. Thus, in one of the steps, using cold acclimation as a potent model browning agent, we find that if the browning process is followed in mice initially housed at 21 °C (the most common procedure), there is only weak molecular evidence for increases in UCP1 gene expression or UCP1 protein abundance in classical brown adipose tissue; however, in brite/beige adipose depots, there are large increases, apparently associating functional browning with events only in the brite/beige tissues. Contrastingly, in another step, if the process is followed starting with mice initially housed at 30 °C (thermoneutrality for mice, thus similar to normal human conditions), large increases in UCP1 gene expression and UCP1 protein abundance are observed in the classical brown adipose tissue depots; there is then practically no observable UCP1 gene expression in brite/beige tissues. This apparent conundrum can be resolved when it is realized that the classical brown adipose tissue at 21 °C is already essentially fully differentiated and thus expands extensively through proliferation upon further browning induction, rather than by further enhancing cellular differentiation. When the limiting factor for thermogenesis, i.e. the total amount of UCP1 protein per depot, is analyzed, classical brown adipose tissue is by far the predominant site for the browning process, irrespective of which of the two steps is analyzed. There are to date no published data demonstrating that alternative browning agents would selectively promote brite/beige tissues

  19. Brown Dwarf Weather (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    This artist's concept animation shows a brown dwarf with bands of clouds, thought to resemble those seen on Neptune and the other outer planets in the solar system. By using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, astronomers have found that the varying glow of brown dwarfs over time can be explained by bands of patchy clouds rotating at different speeds. Videos are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21752

  20. Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome detected by aggressive generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica.

    PubMed

    Guerrouani, Alae; Rzin, Abdelkader; El Khatib, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Severe hyperparathyroidism can affect bone metabolism and be in the origine of multiple brown tumours (generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica). When associated with fibro-ossifying tumours of the jaw, it realizes a rare genetic syndrome referred as Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour HPT-JT. We report the case of a patient we treated for HPT-JT, and literature review.

  1. Relationship between the enzymatic browning and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity of cut lettuce, and the prevention of browning by inhibitors of polyphenol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hisaminato, H; Murata, M; Homma, S

    2001-05-01

    Cut lettuce stored at 4 degrees C gradually turned brown on the cut section after several days of storage. Three factors for enzymatic browning, the polyphenol content, polyphenol oxidase activity, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, were examined during the cold storage of cut lettuce. A relationship between the browning and PAL activity was apparent. We tried to prevent this browning by using the two enzyme inhibitors, 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of the phenylpropanoid pathway, and glyphosate, an inhibitor of the shikimate pathway. AIP and glyphosate significantly inhibited the browning of cut lettuce. The polyphenol content and PAL activity were both reduced by the treatment with AIP. These results show that regulating the biosynthesis of polyphenols is essential to prevent the browning of cut lettuce.

  2. Glycopeptide Resistance vanA Operons in Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 μg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of ≥32 μg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanAPT operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanAPA in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanAPA by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-Ala-d-Lac, as demonstrated by d,d-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:16189102

  3. Glycopeptide resistance vanA operons in Paenibacillus strains isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Guardabassi, Luca; Perichon, Bruno; van Heijenoort, Jean; Blanot, Didier; Courvalin, Patrice

    2005-10-01

    The sequence and gene organization of the van operons in vancomycin (MIC of >256 microg/ml)- and teicoplanin (MIC of > or =32 microg/ml)-resistant Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 and Paenibacillus apiarius PA-B2B isolated from soil were determined. Both operons had regulatory (vanR and vanS), resistance (vanH, vanA, and vanX), and accessory (vanY, vanZ, and vanW) genes homologous to the corresponding genes in enterococcal vanA and vanB operons. The vanA(PT) operon in P. thiaminolyticus PT-2B1 had the same gene organization as that of vanA operons whereas vanA(PA) in P. apiarius PA-B2B resembled vanB operons due to the presence of vanW upstream from the vanHAX cluster but was closer to vanA operons in sequence. Reference P. apiarius strains NRRL B-4299 and NRRL B-4188 were found to harbor operons indistinguishable from vanA(PA) by PCR mapping, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and partial sequencing, suggesting that this operon was species specific. As in enterococci, resistance was inducible by glycopeptides and associated with the synthesis of pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-Ala-D-Lac, as demonstrated by D,D-dipeptidase activities, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The precursors differed from those in enterococci by the presence of diaminopimelic acid instead of lysine in the peptide chain. Altogether, the results are compatible with the notion that van operons in soil Paenibacillus strains and in enterococci have evolved from a common ancestor.

  4. VLA Detects Unexplained Radio Emission From Three Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered three brown dwarfs -- enigmatic objects that are neither stars nor planets -- emitting radio waves that scientists cannot explain. The three newly-discovered radio-emitting brown dwarfs were found as part of a systematic study of nearby brown dwarfs using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. The VLA The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for VLA gallery) Until 2001, scientists believed that brown dwarfs, which are intermediate in mass between stars and planets, could not emit detectable amounts of radio waves. That year, summer students at the VLA made the first discovery of radio emission from a brown dwarf. Subsequently, as many as a half- dozen more radio-emitting brown dwarfs were discovered. "It clearly had become time to make a systematic study and try to find out just what percentage of brown dwarfs are emitting radio waves," said Rachel Osten, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia. Osten was assisted in the project in the summer of 2004 by Lynnae Quick, a student at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University; Tim Bastian, also an astronomer at NRAO; and Suzanne Hawley, an astronomer at the University of Washington. The research team presented their results to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA. The three new detections of radio-emitting brown dwarfs are just the first results from the systematic study, which aims to observe all the known brown dwarfs within about 45 light-years of Earth. "We want to be able to say definitively just how common radio emission is among brown dwarfs," Osten explained. The study involves observing 65 individual brown dwarfs, so these new detections represent just the beginning of the results expected from the study. Brown dwarfs are too big to be planets but too small to be true stars, as they have too little mass to trigger hydrogen fusion reactions

  5. Legal Aspects of the Brown Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Robert L.

    In Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court outlawed segregation in the nation's public schools. This decision has not eliminated racial segregation, but it fundamentally altered the psychological pattern of race relations in the United States. Brown concerned a form of racial discrimination that has virtually vanished from…

  6. Dyslexics at Brown. A Student Perspective. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Carol; And Others

    An account of what it means to be a dyslexic student in higher education, put together by a group of Brown students who are dyslexic, is presented in an attempt to make the Brown community aware of dyslexia, its symptoms, and some study strategies for coping with it. Some of the resources that Brown offers its student body are listed. Nine…

  7. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  8. Rhabdomyolysis in a Young Girl with Van Wyk-Grumbach Syndrome due to Severe Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Alberto; Penta, Laura; Cofini, Marta; Lanciotti, Lucia; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-09

    delayed diagnosis and treatment. In this girl, a never-described association of Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome and acute rhabdomyolysis in a young girl with previously unrecognized HT is described. The importance of recognizing the signs and symptoms of rare complications of HT in order to begin appropriate therapy is stressed.

  9. Jao Van De Lagemaat | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Jao Van De Lagemaat Photo of Jao Vandelagemaat. Jao Van De Lagemaat Center Director: Chemistry and Lagemaat is currently the Center Director of the Chemistry and Nanoscience Center at NREL. He received his university. Education Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, University of Utrecht Featured Publications View all NREL

  10. Honokiol exerts dual effects on browning and apoptosis of adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lone, Jameel; Yun, Jong Won

    2017-12-01

    Induction of brown adipocyte-like phenotype (browning) in white adipocytes and promotion of apoptosis by dietary and pharmacological compounds is considered a novel strategy against obesity. Here, we show that honokiol exerts dual modulatory effects on adipocytes via induction of browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and apoptosis as well as activation of HIB1B brown adipocytes combined with inhibition of apoptosis. Honokiol-induced browning and apoptosis were investigated by determining expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Apoptotic data were validated by immunofluorescence and ROS levels were measured by FACS analysis. Honokiol treatment induced browning by elevating expression levels of brown adipocyte-specific genes such as Cidea, Cox8, Fgf21, Pgc-1α, and Ucp1. Honokiol promoted apoptosis of 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and inhibited apoptosis of HIB1B brown adipocytes via opposite regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Honokiol also significantly increased protein expression levels of ACOX1, CPT1, p-HSL, and p-PLIN and reduced ROS levels, suggesting its possible role in fat oxidation and lipid catabolism. Honokiol-induced browning could be mediated by activation of ERK, as inhibition of ERK by FR180204 abolished expression of PGC-1α and UCP1. Our findings suggest that honokiol exhibits a modulatory role in adipocytes via induction of browning and apoptosis in white adipocytes, promotion of catabolic lipid metabolism, as well as activation and inhibition of apoptosis in HIB1B brown adipocytes, thereby exhibiting therapeutic potential against obesity. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  12. [Griscelli syndrome in a Mexican girl].

    PubMed

    Ayala de la Cruz, María del Carmen; Ramírez Campos, Jorge; Govea Sifuentes, Jesús; González Cabello, Diana; Calderón Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Moreno, Laura; Vargas Almanza, Griselda Nelly

    2002-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome is an infrequent disease first described in 1978. It is inherited in autosomal recessive form, and is distinguished by partial albinism, pigmentation dilution, cellular immunodeficiency, neurological involvement and uncontrolled phases of macrophage and lymphocyte activation. We report the case of a female child who started with ataxic gait when she was 23 months old. At physical examination a phenotype with brown skin and silvery gray hair, eyebrows and eyelashes was observed. Neurological evolution was with remissions and exacerbations, with cerebellar and, finally, bulbar compromise.

  13. Glutathione suppresses the enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in grape juice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-10-01

    Browning tends to occur in grape juice during processing and storage and decreases the commercial value of it. Thus, browning inhibition is an important objective for manufacturers. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on grape juice. Grape juice browning treated with glutathione was monitored during processing and accelerated browning. 0.04% of glutathione inhibited 99.4% of the polyphenoloxidase activity in the grape juice. Consequently, during processing at room temperature and accelerated browning at 80 °C, the browning in the grape juice treated with glutathione was significantly lower than that in the control (p<0.05). The results indicate that glutathione is a promising browning inhibitor used in grape juice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  15. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  16. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  17. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  18. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  19. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos...

  20. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  1. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  2. Brown Dwarf Microlensing Diagram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    For the first time, two space-based telescopes have teamed up with ground-based observatories to observe a microlensing event, a magnification of the light of a distant star due to the gravitational effects of an unseen object in the foreground. In this case, the cause of the microlensing event was a brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, orbiting a star. In terms of mass, brown dwarfs fall somewhere between the size of the largest planets and the smallest stars. Curiously, scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This newly discovered brown dwarf may fall in that distance range. This microlensing event was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and subsequently seen by NASA's Spitzer and Swift space telescopes. As the diagram shows, Spitzer and Swift offer additional vantage points for viewing this chance alignment. While Swift orbits close to Earth, and saw (blue diamonds) essentially the same change in light that the ground-based telescopes measured (grey markers), Spitzer's location much farther away from Earth gave it a very different perspective on the event (red circles). In particular, Spitzer's vantage point resulted in a time lag in the microlensing event it observed, compared to what was seen by Swift and the ground-based telescope. This offset allowed astronomers to determine the distance to OGLE-2015-BLG-1319 as well as its mass: around 30-65 times that of Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21077

  3. Race to the Top: Transiting Brown Dwarfs and Hot Jupiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Thomas G.

    2015-12-01

    There are currently twelve known transiting brown dwarfs, nine of which orbit single main-sequence stars. These systems give us one of the only ways in which we may directly measure the masses and radii brown dwarfs, which in turn provides strong constraints on theoretical models of brown dwarf interiors and atmospheres. In addition, the transiting brown dwarfs allow us to forge a link between our understanding of transiting hot Jupiters, and our understanding of the field brown dwarf population. Comparing the two gives us a unique avenue to explore the role and interaction of surface gravity and stellar irradiation in the atmospheres of sub-stellar objects. It also allows us to leverage the detailed spectroscopic information we have for field brown dwarfs to interpret the broadband colors of hot Jupiters. This provides us with insight into the L/T transition in brown dwarfs, and the atmospheric chemistry changes that occur in hot Jupiter atmospheres as they cool. I will discuss recent observational results, with a particular focus on the transiting brown dwarf KELT-1b, and suggest how more of these important systems may be discovered in the future.

  4. Brown Dwarf Weather (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-06

    This artist's concept shows what the weather might look like on cool star-like bodies known as brown dwarfs. These giant balls of gas start out life like stars, but lack the mass to sustain nuclear fusion at their cores, and instead, fade and cool with time. Observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope suggest that most brown dwarfs are roiling with one or more planet-size storms akin to Jupiter's "Great Red Spot." https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21475

  5. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears.

    PubMed

    Shields, G F; Adams, D; Garner, G; Labelle, M; Pietsch, J; Ramsay, M; Schwartz, C; Titus, K; Williamson, S

    2000-05-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald W.; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  7. Production and characterization of the healthy brown rice milk with sodium alginate addition from brown algae Sargassum binderi as emulsifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifah, R. N.; Warganegara, F. M.

    2018-03-01

    Brown rice milk, a plant milk, is potential to cure beriberi disease. Alginate was used as an emulsifier and increased the nutrition of brown rice milk. Alginate from Sargassum binderi was extracted by nonacidic treatment. The yield of alginate was 6.25 %. The moisture and water content of alginate were 18.27 % and 12.2 %, respectively. The density and viscosity of 0.1 % alginates in aqueous solution were 1.007 g·mL-1 and 7.651 × 10-3 kg·m-1s-1, respectively. The characteristics peaks of alginate appeared at 3,477; 1,633 and 1,419 cm-1, corresponding to hydroxyl (OH), carbonyl (C=O) and carboxyl (COOH), respectively. The best composition of alginate addition in brown rice milk was 0.2 %. The viscosity of the 0.2 % alginate in brown rice milk was 1.206 × 10-2 kg·m-1s-1 and showed a texture of small particle with closer spaces between the particles. The addition of alginate in brown rice milk also inhibited the process of sedimentation of milk which showed in the first order. The nutrition composition of the best brown rice milk was 40.21 mg·mL-1 carbohydrate; 1.3 mg·mL-1 protein; 0.158 mg·mL-1 fat and 13.1 mg·mL-1 total dietary fiber.

  8. Browning phenomenon of medieval stained glass windows.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Jessica; Rossano, Stéphanie; Loisel, Claudine; Trcera, Nicolas; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Bousta, Faisl; Pallot-Frossard, Isabelle

    2015-04-07

    In this work, three pieces of historical on-site glass windows dated from the 13th to 16th century and one archeological sample (8th century) showing Mn-rich brown spots at their surface or subsurface have been characterized by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The oxidation state of Mn as well as the Mn environment in the alteration phase have been characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn K-edge. Results show that the oxidation state of Mn and therefore the nature of the alteration phase varies according to the sample considered and is correlated with the extent of the brown alteration. The larger the brown areas the more oxidized the Mn. However, by contrast with literature, the samples presenting the more extended brown areas are not similar to pyrolusite and contain Mn mainly under a (+III) oxidation state.

  9. The detectability of brown dwarfs - Predictions and uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, L. A.; Rappaport, S.; Joss, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the likelihood for the detection of isolated brown dwarfs in ground-based observations as well as in future spaced-based astronomy missions, and in order to evaluate the significance of any detections that might be made, we must first know the expected surface density of brown dwarfs on the celestial sphere as a function of limiting magnitude, wavelength band, and Galactic latitude. It is the purpose of this paper to provide theoretical estimates of this surface density, as well as the range of uncertainty in these estimates resulting from various theoretical uncertainties. We first present theoretical cooling curves for low-mass stars that we have computed with the latest version of our stellar evolution code. We use our evolutionary results to compute theoretical brown-dwarf luminosity functions for a wide range of assumed initial mass functions and stellar birth rate functions. The luminosity functions, in turn, are utilized to compute theoretical surface density functions for brown dwarfs on the celestial sphere. We find, in particular, that for reasonable theoretical assumptions, the currently available upper bounds on the brown-dwarf surface density are consistent with the possibility that brown dwarfs contribute a substantial fraction of the mass of the Galactic disk.

  10. Brown-Spot Needle Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    W.R. Phelps; A.G. Kais; T.H. Nicholls

    1978-01-01

    Brown-spot needle blight, caused by Scirrhia acicola (Dearn.) Siggers, delays growth and causes mortality of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Brown spot reduces total annual growth of southern pines by more than 16 million cubic feet (0.453 million cubic meters) of timber. Damage is most severe on longleaf seedlings in the grass stage; i.e., those that have not...

  11. Visualizing the 17th century underpainting in Portrait of an Old Man by Rembrandt van Rijn using synchrotron-based scanning macro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Siddons, D. Peter; Janssens, Koen; Dik, Joris; Woll, Arthur; Kirkham, Robin; van de Wetering, Ernst

    2013-04-01

    In 17th century Old Master Paintings, the underpainting generally refers to the first sketch of a composition. The underpainting is applied to a prepared ground using a monochrome, brown oil paint to roughly indicate light, shade and contours. So far, methods to visualize the underpainting—other than in localized cross-sections—have been very limited. Neither infrared reflectography nor neutron induced autoradiography have proven to be practical, adequate visualization tools. Thus, although of fundamental interest in the understanding of a painting's genesis, the underpainting has virtually escaped all imaging efforts. In this contribution we will show that 17th century underpainting may consist of a highly heterogeneous mixture of pigments, including copper pigments. We suggest that this brown pigment mixture is actually the recycled left-over of a palette scraping. With copper as the heaviest exclusive elemental component, we will hence show in a case study on a Portrait of an Old Man attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn how scanning macro-XRF can be used to efficiently visualize the underpainting below the surface painting and how this information can contribute to the discussion of the painting's authenticity.

  12. Brown Dwarfs: A New Class of Stellar Lighthouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Brown dwarfs, thought just a few years ago to be incapable of emitting any significant amounts of radio waves, have been discovered putting out extremely bright "lighthouse beams" of radio waves, much like pulsars. A team of astronomers made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope. Artist's Conception of Brown Dwarf Artist's conception of "mini-aurorae" at poles of brown dwarf, producing beams of strong radio emission. CREDIT: Hallinan et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information "These beams rotate with the brown dwarf, and we see them when the beam passes over the Earth. This is the same way we see pulses from pulsars," said Gregg Hallinan of the National University of Ireland Galway. "We now think brown dwarfs may be a missing link between pulsars and planets in our own Solar System, which also emit, but more weakly," he added. Brown dwarfs are enigmatic objects that are too small to be stars but too large to be planets. They are sometimes called "failed stars" because they have too little mass to trigger hydrogen fusion reactions at their cores, the source of the energy output in larger stars. With roughly 15 to 80 times the mass of Jupiter, the largest planet in our Solar System, brown dwarfs were long thought to exist. However, it was not until 1995 that astronomers were able to actually find one. A few dozen now are known. In 2001, a group of summer students at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory used the VLA to observe a brown dwarf, even though they had been told by seasoned astronomers that brown dwarfs are not observable at radio wavelengths. Their discovery of a strong flare of radio emission from the object surprised astronomers and the students' scientific paper on the discovery was published in the prestigous scientific journal Nature. Hallinan and his team observed a set of brown dwarfs with the VLA last year, and found that three of the objects emit extremely

  13. Collecting Brown Dwarfs in the Night Sky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-09

    The green dot in the middle of this image might look like an emerald amidst glittering diamonds, but is a dim star belonging to a class called brown dwarfs; it is the first ultra-cool brown dwarf discovered by NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer.

  14. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Obituary: James Alfred Van Allen, 1914-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, George H.; McIlwain, Carl Edwin

    2006-12-01

    James Alfred Van Allen, world-renowned space scientist, died 9 August 2006 at the age of ninety-one. He succumbed to heart failure after a ten-week period of declining health. Van Allen served for his entire sixty-seven-year professional career as an amazingly productive researcher, space science spokesman, inspired teacher, and valued colleague. The realization by him and his associates that charged particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field began a whole new field of research, magnetospheric physics. Following that initial discovery, he and his associates quickly extended their observations, first to the inner planets, and then to the rest of the planets and beyond. During his tenure at Iowa, he and his group flew instruments on more than sixty successful Earth satellites and planetary spacecraft, including the first missions to the planets Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Van Allen's lifetime publication list numbers more than 275, of which many are widely-cited, seminal papers. He was the sole author of more than 125 of those papers. Beyond the research laboratory, Van Allen worked energetically throughout his career in establishing space research as a new branch of human inquiry. He was among the most sought-after as a committee member and adviser, working at the highest levels of government, including the White House and Congress, and at all levels of the national and international research establishments. Many presentations in the non-scientific arena helped to bring the exciting discoveries and challenges of space research to the attention of the general public. James Van Allen (Van to his many friends and colleagues) was born on 7 September 1914 on a small farm near Mount Pleasant, Iowa, the second of four sons of Alfred Morris Van Allen and Alma Olney Van Allen. After high school in Mount Pleasant, he entered Iowa Wesleyan College, majoring in physics and graduating summa cum laude. While there, he was introduced to geophysics

  16. Loss of ADAMTS5 enhances brown adipose tissue mass and promotes browning of white adipose tissue via CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Bauters, Dries; Cobbaut, Mathias; Geys, Lotte; Van Lint, Johan; Hemmeryckx, Bianca; Lijnen, H Roger

    2017-07-01

    A potential strategy to treat obesity - and the associated metabolic consequences - is to increase energy expenditure. This could be achieved by stimulating thermogenesis through activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or the induction of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Over the last years, it has become clear that several metalloproteinases play an important role in adipocyte biology. Here, we investigated the potential role of ADAMTS5. Mice deficient in ADAMTS5 ( Adamts5 -/- ) and wild-type ( Adamts5 +/+ ) littermates were kept on a standard of Western-type diet for 15 weeks. Energy expenditure and heat production was followed by indirect calorimetry. To activate thermogenesis, mice were treated with the β3-adrenergic receptor (β 3 -AR) agonist CL-316,243 or alternatively, exposed to cold for 2 weeks. Compared to Adamts5 +/+ mice, Adamts5 -/- mice have significantly more interscapular BAT and marked browning of their subcutaneous (SC) WAT. Thermogenic pathway analysis indicated, in the absence of ADAMTS5, enhanced β 3 -AR signaling via activation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Additional β 3 -AR stimulation with CL-316,243 promoted browning of WAT in Adamts5 +/+ mice but had no additive effect in Adamts5 -/- mice. However, cold exposure induced more pronounced browning of WAT in Adamts5 -/- mice. These data indicate that ADAMTS5 plays a functional role in development of BAT and browning of WAT. Hence, selective targeting of ADAMTS5 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment/prevention of obesity and metabolic diseases.

  17. Phytochemical Profile of Brown Rice and Its Nutrigenomic Implications.

    PubMed

    Ravichanthiran, Keneswary; Ma, Zheng Feei; Zhang, Hongxia; Cao, Yang; Wang, Chee Woon; Muhammad, Shahzad; Aglago, Elom K; Zhang, Yihe; Jin, Yifan; Pan, Binyu

    2018-05-23

    Whole grain foods have been promoted to be included as one of the important components of a healthy diet because of the relationship between the regular consumption of whole-grain foods and reduced risk of chronic diseases. Rice is a staple food, which has been widely consumed for centuries by many Asian countries. Studies have suggested that brown rice is associated with a wide spectrum of nutrigenomic implications such as anti-diabetic, anti-cholesterol, cardioprotective and antioxidant. This is because of the presence of various phytochemicals that are mainly located in bran layers of brown rice. Therefore, this paper is a review of publications that focuses on the bioactive compounds and nutrigenomic implications of brown rice. Although current evidence supports the fact that the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for health, these studies are heterogeneous in terms of their brown rice samples used and population groups, which cause the evaluation to be difficult. Future clinical studies should focus on the screening of individual bioactive compounds in brown rice with reference to their nutrigenomic implications.

  18. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Donald R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  19. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  20. Browning of white adipose tissue: lessons from experimental models.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-18

    Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis. Recent papers pointed that browning can occur in the WAT of humans, with beneficial metabolic effects. This fact indicates that these cells can be targeted to treat a range of diseases, with both pharmacological and nutritional activators. Pharmacological approaches to induce browning include the use of PPAR-α agonist, adrenergic receptor stimulation, thyroid hormone administration, irisin and FGF21 induction. Most of them act through the induction of PPAR-γ coactivator (PGC) 1-α and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis and UCP1 induction. About the nutritional inducers, several compounds have been described with multiple mechanisms of action. Some of these activators include specific amino acids restriction, capsaicin, bile acids, Resveratrol, and retinoic acid. Besides that, some classes of lipids, as well as many plant extracts, have also been implicated in the browning of WAT. In conclusion, the discovery of browning in human WAT opens the possibility to target the adipose tissue to fight a range of diseases. Studies have arisen showing promising results and bringing new opportunities in thermogenesis and obesity control.

  1. Exposure of Brown Recluse and Brown Widow Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae, Theridiidae) to a Commercial Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Hoddle, Mark S; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Thoms, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control. We demonstrated that a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with an accumulated dosage of 162 oz-h per 1,000 ft(3) at 21°C over 25 h (≈1.7 × the drywood termite dosage) directed at termites was sufficient to kill adult brown recluse and brown widow spiders. The effectiveness of commercial fumigation practices to control spiders, and particularly their egg sacs, warrants further study. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  2. Mink predation on brown trout in a Black Hills stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jacob L.; Wilhite, Jerry W.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000’s, declines in the brown trout (Salmo trutta) fishery in Rapid Creek, South Dakota, caused concern for anglers and fisheries managers. We conducted a radio telemetry study in 2010 and 2011 to identify predation mortality associated with mink, using hatchery-reared (2010) or wild (2011) brown trout. Estimated predation rates by mink (Mustela vison) on radio-tagged brown trout were 30% for hatchery fish and 32% for wild fish. Size frequency analysis revealed that the size distribution of brown trout lost to predation was similar to that of other, radio-tagged brown trout. In both years, a higher proportion of predation mortality (83–92%) occurred during spring, consistent with seasonal fish consumption by mink. Predation by mink appeared to be a significant source of brown trout mortality in our study.

  3. Consequences of the Introduction of Insensitive Munitions on Safety, Collateral Damage and Operations (consequenties van de invoering van mkm-munitie op veiligheid, gevolgschade en (internationaal) opereren

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    van de werkzaamheden In dit rapport worden de gevolgen van initiatie van munitie door een ongewilde externe stimulus beschouwd aan de hand van reele...operationele scenario’s. Dit wordt vergeleken met de gevolgen in dezelfde scenario’s, waarin gebruik is gemaakt van Minder Kwetsbare Munitie (MKM). Naast...de historie van MKM wordt uitgelegd wat Inleiding of terroristische activiteiten, maar ook door MKM is. Vervolgens worden de gevolgen Munitie en de

  4. On Browne's Solution for Oblique Procrustes Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Elliot M.

    1974-01-01

    A form of Browne's (1967) solution of finding a least squares fit to a specified factor structure is given which does not involve solution of an eigenvalue problem. It suggests the possible existence of a singularity, and a simple modification of Browne's computational procedure is proposed. (Author/RC)

  5. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 890.3675 - Denis Brown splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Denis Brown splint. 890.3675 Section 890.3675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3675 Denis Brown splint. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3675 - Denis Brown splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Denis Brown splint. 890.3675 Section 890.3675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3675 Denis Brown splint. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3675 - Denis Brown splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Denis Brown splint. 890.3675 Section 890.3675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3675 Denis Brown splint. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3675 - Denis Brown splint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Denis Brown splint. 890.3675 Section 890.3675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3675 Denis Brown splint. (a...

  10. STS-107 Crew Interviews: David Brown MS1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 1 David Brown is seen during this preflight interview where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career. Brown outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the conducting of on-board science experiments. Brown discusses the following instruments and experiments in detail: ARMS (Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System), MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), Combustion Module 2, and FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enables Science Technology and Research). He also describes the new primary payload carrier, the SPACEHAB research double module which doubles the amount of space available for research. Brown shares his thoughts about the importance of international cooperation in mission planning and the need for scientific research in space.

  11. Chlorhexidine Induces VanA-Type Vancomycin Resistance Genes in Enterococci

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Ziegler, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is a bisbiguanide antiseptic used for infection control. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREfm) is among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections. VREfm may be exposed to chlorhexidine at supra- and subinhibitory concentrations as a result of chlorhexidine bathing and chlorhexidine-impregnated central venous catheter use. We used RNA sequencing to investigate how VREfm responds to chlorhexidine gluconate exposure. Among the 35 genes upregulated ≥10-fold after 15 min of exposure to the MIC of chlorhexidine gluconate were those encoding VanA-type vancomycin resistance (vanHAX) and those associated with reduced daptomycin susceptibility (liaXYZ). We confirmed that vanA upregulation was not strain or species specific by querying other VanA-type VRE. VanB-type genes were not induced. The vanH promoter was found to be responsive to subinhibitory chlorhexidine gluconate in VREfm, as was production of the VanX protein. Using vanH reporter experiments with Bacillus subtilis and deletion analysis in VREfm, we found that this phenomenon is VanR dependent. Deletion of vanR did not result in increased chlorhexidine susceptibility, demonstrating that vanHAX induction is not protective against chlorhexidine. As expected, VanA-type VRE is more susceptible to ceftriaxone in the presence of sub-MIC chlorhexidine. Unexpectedly, VREfm is also more susceptible to vancomycin in the presence of subinhibitory chlorhexidine, suggesting that chlorhexidine-induced gene expression changes lead to additional alterations in cell wall synthesis. We conclude that chlorhexidine induces expression of VanA-type vancomycin resistance genes and genes associated with daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Overall, our results indicate that the impacts of subinhibitory chlorhexidine exposure on hospital-associated pathogens should be further investigated in laboratory studies. PMID:26810654

  12. Platform construction of molecular breeding for utilization of brown macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Brown macroalgae are characterized by a large size and high productivity without requiring arable land, fresh water, and fertilizer. Furthermore, since brown macroalgae contain little or no lignin, simple biorefinery processing can efficiently produce sugars from this material. Therefore, brown macroalgae have attracted attention as an alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. However, the utilization of biotechnologies previously developed for terrestrial biomass processing results in difficulties in the bioconversion of brown macroalgae. Recently, several studies have developed biotechnologies for using major carbohydrates of brown macroalgae, such as laminarin, mannitol, and alginate. This review focuses on these fermentation biotechnologies using natural or engineered microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of an unexploited brown trout population in Spruce Creek, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the annual variations in the density of an unexploited population of lotic brown trout Salmo trutta that has been censused annually for 19 years and to explore the importance of density-independent and density-dependent processes in regulating population size. Brown trout density and indices of stream discharge and water temperature were related to annual variations in natural mortality, recruitment, and growth. Annual mortality of age-1 and older (age-1+) brown trout ranged from 0.30 to 0.75 and was best explained by discharge during spring and by brown trout density. Recruitment to age 1 varied fivefold. Density of age-1 brown trout was inversely related to spawner density and positively related to discharge during the fall spawning period. The median length of age-1 brown trout was positively related to discharge during summer and fall. Relative weight was inversely related to the density of age-2+ brown trout. The interactive effects of discharge and brown trout density accounted for most of the annual variation in mortality, recruitment, and growth during the first year of life. Annual trends in the abundance of age-1+ brown trout were largely dictated by natural mortality. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  14. Emergence of vanA Enterococcus faecium in Denmark, 2005-15.

    PubMed

    Hammerum, Anette M; Baig, Sharmin; Kamel, Yasmin; Roer, Louise; Pinholt, Mette; Gumpert, Heidi; Holzknecht, Barbara; Røder, Bent; Justesen, Ulrik S; Samulioniené, Jurgita; Kjærsgaard, Mona; Østergaard, Claus; Holm, Anette; Dzajic, Esad; Søndergaard, Turid Snekloth; Gaini, Shahin; Edquist, Petra; Alm, Erik; Lilje, Berit; Westh, Henrik; Stegger, Marc; Hasman, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    To describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in Denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical E. faecium isolates from 2015. During 2005-14, all clinical VRE isolates were tested for the presence of vanA/B/C genes by PCR. In 2015, all clinical VRE isolates were whole-genome sequenced. From the WGS data, the presence of van genes and MLST STs were extracted in silico . Core-genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis was performed for the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates. During 2005-15, 1043 vanA E. faecium , 25 vanB E. faecium , 4 vanA E. faecalis and 28 vanB E. faecalis were detected. The number of VRE was <50 isolates/year until 2012 to > 200 isolates/year in 2013-15. In 2015, 368 vanA E. faecium and 1 vanB E. faecium were detected along with 1 vanA E. faecalis and 1 vanB E. faecalis . cgMLST subdivided the 368 vanA E. faecium isolates into 33 cluster types (CTs), whereas the vanB E. faecium isolate belonged to a different CT. ST203-CT859 was most prevalent (51%), followed by ST80-CT14 (22%), ST117-CT24 (6%), ST80-CT866 (4%) and ST80-CT860 (2%). Comparison with the cgMLST.org database, previous studies and personal communications with neighbouring countries revealed that the novel cluster ST203-CT859 emerged in December 2014 and spread to the south of Sweden and the Faroe Islands during 2015. VRE increased in Denmark during 2005-15 due to the emergence of several vanA E. faecium clones. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Spatial differences between stars and brown dwarfs: a dynamical origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.; Andersen, Morten

    2014-06-01

    We use N-body simulations to compare the evolution of spatial distributions of stars and brown dwarfs in young star-forming regions. We use three different diagnostics: the ratio of stars to brown dwarfs as a function of distance from the region's centre, {R}_SSR, the local surface density of stars compared to brown dwarfs, ΣLDR, and we compare the global spatial distributions using the ΛMSR method. From a suite of 20 initially statistically identical simulations, 6/20 attain {R}_SSR ≪ 1 and ΣLDR ≪ 1 and ΛMSR ≪ 1, indicating that dynamical interactions could be responsible for observed differences in the spatial distributions of stars and brown dwarfs in star-forming regions. However, many simulations also display apparently contradictory results - for example, in some cases the brown dwarfs have much lower local densities than stars (ΣLDR ≪ 1), but their global spatial distributions are indistinguishable (ΛMSR = 1) and the relative proportion of stars and brown dwarfs remains constant across the region ({R}_SSR = 1). Our results suggest that extreme caution should be exercised when interpreting any observed difference in the spatial distribution of stars and brown dwarfs, and that a much larger observational sample of regions/clusters (with complete mass functions) is necessary to investigate whether or not brown dwarfs form through similar mechanisms to stars.

  16. Anthraquinones isolated from the browned Chinese chestnut kernels (Castanea mollissima blume)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. L.; Qi, J. H.; Qin, L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.

    2016-08-01

    Anthraquinones (AQS) represent a group of secondary metallic products in plants. AQS are often naturally occurring in plants and microorganisms. In a previous study, we found that AQS were produced by enzymatic browning reaction in Chinese chestnut kernels. To find out whether non-enzymatic browning reaction in the kernels could produce AQS too, AQS were extracted from three groups of chestnut kernels: fresh kernels, non-enzymatic browned kernels, and browned kernels, and the contents of AQS were determined. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were used to identify two compounds of AQS, rehein(1) and emodin(2). AQS were barely exists in the fresh kernels, while both browned kernel groups sample contained a high amount of AQS. Thus, we comfirmed that AQS could be produced during both enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning process. Rhein and emodin were the main components of AQS in the browned kernels.

  17. A Conversation with William Van Til.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Reports an interview with William Van Til, Coffman Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Education at Indiana State University (Terre Haute). Van Til reviews his career as a social studies teacher and his writings on curriculum and social foundations. Presents his opinions on progressive education, famous educators, educational history and reform,…

  18. Additional Value from Road Mapping in Defense Policy Making (meerwaarde van roadmapping bij beleidsontwikkeling van de koninklijke landmacht)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    van zogonaamde strategische reserves tot bijvaarbeeld lakaal boschikbare gevechtscapacitoit. 9 11 Joint. Do Nederlandse krijgsmacht ontwikkelt zich tot...8 2 W erkwijze van de KL tot nu toe ............................................................................... 9 2.1 O...ntwikkeling visiedocurnent ....................................................................................... 9 2.2 Opzet beleid- en deelstudies

  19. BRIC - Brown with canisters on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-02

    STS095-E-5166 (2 Nov. 1998) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown Jr. (left), STS-95 commander, and U.S. Sen. John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist, are seen on the middeck of the Space Shuttle Discovery during Flight Day three activity. Brown has retrieved an experiment from a stowage locker and Glenn works out on the ergometer device. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 05:55:42 GMT, Nov. 2.

  20. Brown adipose tissue activation as measured by infrared thermography by mild anticipatory psychological stress in lean healthy females.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lindsay J; Law, James M; Symonds, Michael E; Budge, Helen

    2016-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does psychological stress, which is known to promote cortisol secretion, simultaneously activate brown adipose tissue function in healthy adult females? What is the main finding and its importance? One explanation for the pronounced differences in brown adipose tissue function between individuals lies in their responsiveness to psychological stress and, as such, should be taken into account when examining its in vivo stimulation. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and is a potential therapeutic target. Brown adipose tissue can have a significant impact on energy balance and glucose homeostasis through the action of uncoupling protein 1, dissipating chemical energy as heat following neuroendocrine stimulation. We hypothesized that psychological stress, which is known to promote cortisol secretion, would simultaneously activate BAT at thermoneutrality. Brown adipose tissue activity was measured using infrared thermography to determine changes in the temperature of the skin overlying supraclavicular BAT (TSCR ). A mild psychological stress was induced in five healthy, lean, female, Caucasian volunteers using a short mental arithmetic (MA) test. The TSCR was compared with a repeated assessment, in which the MA test was replaced with a period of relaxation. Although MA did not elicit an acute stress response, anticipation of MA testing led to an increase in salivary cortisol, indicative of an anticipatory stress response, that was associated with a trend towards higher absolute and relative TSCR . A positive correlation between TSCR and cortisol was found during the anticipatory phase, a relationship that was enhanced by increased cortisol linked to MA. Our findings suggest that subtle changes in the level of psychological stress can stimulate BAT, findings that may account for the high variability and inconsistency in reported BAT

  1. HARPERS FERRY, A PLAY ABOUT JOHN BROWN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STAVIS, BARRIE

    THIS PLAY IS A DRAMATIC RENDERING OF JOHN BROWN'S ATTACK ON THE ARMORY AT HARPERS FERRY AND HIS SUBSEQUENT TRIAL FOR TREASON. ALTHOUGH IT ADHERES TO THE FACTS OF HISTORY, THEY ARE NOT TREATED REALISTICALLY. "HARPERS FERRY" PORTRAYS BROWN AS POSSESSING A PURE IDEALISM UNTAINTED IN THE SLIGHTEST DEGREE BY MATERIALISM OR SELF-SEEKING, WHICH…

  2. Chondrule-like objects and brown glasses in howardites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Fredriksson, Kurt; Rajan, Sundar; Noonan, Albert

    1990-01-01

    Chondrulelike objects and brown glasses were analyzed in the howardites, Bununu, Malvern, Monticello, Pavlovka, and Yamato 7308. The objects are very similar to chondrules in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Like the brown glasses, the chondrulelike objects could have been produced by impact melting that left some crystalline nuclei, followed by a slower cooling rate than for the glasses. Alternatively, these objects are chondrules implanted from chondrite impactors. They are, however, without rims or any adhering matrix. The brown glasses appear to represent melting of average regolithic surface material, except for Monticello and Y7308, both of which have some siliceous glasses. The siliceous glasses could not have been produced by vapor fractionation but by melting of differentiated lithologies such as fayalitic granites. Impact mechanics indicates that howardites with abundant brown glasses came from an asteroid larger than Vesta (greater than 400 km radius), upon which impacts occurred at relative velocities of up to 5 km/s. Howardites with little or no brown glasses came from a smaller parent body. It is concluded that at least two parent bodies are likely sources for the basaltic achondrites.

  3. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  4. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  5. A novel brown adipocyte-enriched long non-coding RNA that is required for brown adipocyte differentiation and sufficient to drive thermogenic gene program in white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Yue, Feng; Jia, Zhihao; Gao, Yun; Jin, Wen; Hu, Keping; Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Dahai; Yang, Gongshe; Kuang, Shihuan

    2018-04-01

    The thermogenic activities of brown and beige adipocytes can be exploited to reduce energy surplus and counteract obesity. Recent RNA sequencing studies have uncovered a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) uniquely expressed in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT), but whether and how these lncRNAs function in adipogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a novel brown adipocyte-enriched LncRNA (AK079912), and its nuclear localization, function and regulation. The expression of AK079912 increases during brown preadipocyte differentiation and in response to cold-stimulated browning of white adipocytes. Knockdown of AK079912 inhibits brown preadipocyte differentiation, manifested by reductions in lipid accumulation and down-regulation of adipogenic and BAT-specific genes. Conversely, ectopic expression of AK079912 in white preadipocytes up-regulates the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis. Mechanistically, inhibition of AK079912 reduces mitochondrial copy number and protein levels of mitochondria electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, whereas AK079912 overexpression increases the levels of ETC proteins. Lastly, reporter and pharmacological assays identify Pparγ as an upstream regulator of AK079912. These results provide new insights into the function of non-coding RNAs in brown adipogenesis and regulating browning of white adipocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship in between Chemical Oxidation and Browning of Flavanols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X.; Zhang, Y. L.; Wang, F.; Pang, M. X.; Qi, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    Catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. At present, influencing factors of phenol chemical oxidation is little research. In order to study non-enzymatic browning factors, this research utilized catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid to establish simulation systems. The browning degree and products of flavanols were investigated by transmittance and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The main results and conclusions were follows. The brown generation is increased after phenols of chemical oxidation at 50°C and at pH 3.7 phosphate buffered saline, the sequence of influencing factor of browning is pH > kind of phenol > temperature. Oxidation of compounds of catechin and epicatechin results in formation of their Methylene quinone or o -Quinones. In addition, oxidation products of catechin, epicatechin and chlorogenic acid were mixture of different molecular sizes. The research has showed that brown generation correlated well with chemical oxidation of phenols and chemical oxidation reaction generated larger molecular weight polymers.

  7. Examining Cloud, Metallicity, and Gravity signatures in Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Eileen; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Gagné, Jonathan; Artigau, Étienne; BDNYC

    2018-01-01

    The nearby solar neighborhood is littered with low mass, low temperature objects called brown dwarfs. This population of ultracool objects do not have enough mass to sustain stable hydrogen burning so they never enter the main sequence and simply cool through time. Brown dwarfs span effective temperatures in the range 250 to 3000K. They also have age dependent observable properties. Young brown dwarfs appear to have redder near infrared colors than field age sources, while old objects tend to have bluer colors. Over the past several years, the research group entitled “Brown Dwarfs in New York City” (BDNYC) has been collecting optical, near and mid-infrared spectra, as well as photometry for sources that have well defined distances. In this poster, I will compare the distance calibrated spectral energy distributions of a sample of old, young, and field age brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. In so doing, I will discern observables linked to gravity, atmosphere, metallicity and age effects.

  8. Effect of Product Dimensions and Surface Browning Method on Salmonella Contamination in Frozen, Surface-Browned, Breaded Chicken Products Treated with Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Moschonas, Galatios; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Stopforth, Jarret D; Woerner, Dale R; Belk, Keith E; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2015-12-01

    Not-ready-to-eat breaded chicken products formulated with antimicrobial ingredients were tested for the effect of sample dimensions, surface browning method and final internal sample temperature on inoculated Salmonella populations. Fresh chicken breast meat portions (5 × 5 × 5 cm), inoculated with Salmonella (7-strain mixture; 5 log CFU/g), were mixed with (5% v/w total moisture enhancement) (i) distilled water (control), (ii) caprylic acid (CAA; 0.0625%) and carvacrol (CAR; 0.075%), (iii) CAA (0.25%) and ε-polylysine (POL; 0.5%), (iv) CAR (0.15%) and POL (0.5%), or (v) CAA (0.0625%), CAR (0.075%) and POL (0.5%). Sodium chloride (1.2%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.3%) were added to all treatments. The mixtures were then ground and formed into 9 × 5 × 3 cm (150 g) or 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm (50 g) portions. The products were breaded, browned in (i) an oven (208 °C, 15 min) or (ii) deep fryer (190 °C, 15 s), packaged, and stored at -20 °C (8 d). Overall, maximum internal temperatures of 62.4 ± 4.0 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 46.0 ± 3.0 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) were reached in oven-browned samples, and 35.0 ± 1.1 °C (9 × 2.5 × 2 cm) and 31.7 ± 2.6 °C (9 × 5 × 3 cm) in fryer-browned samples. Irrespective of formulation treatment, total (after frozen storage) reductions of Salmonella were greater (P < 0.05) for 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm oven-browned samples (3.8 to at least 4.6 log CFU/g) than for 9 × 5 × 3 cm oven-browned samples (0.7 to 2.5 log CFU/g). Product dimensions did not (P ≥ 0.05) affect Salmonella reductions (0.6 to 2.8 log CFU/g) in fryer-browned samples. All antimicrobial treatments reduced Salmonella to undetectable levels (<0.3 log CFU/g) in oven-browned 9 × 2.5 × 2 cm samples. Overall, the data may be useful for the selection of antimicrobials, product dimensions, and surface browning methods for reducing Salmonella contamination. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Novel browning agents, mechanisms and therapeutic potentials of brown adipose tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-shivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT). Through ubiquitous expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane, BAT displays uncoupling of fuel combustion and ATP production...

  10. Ouabain-sensitive component of brown fat thermogenesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    The study discussed was undertaken to quantify the amount of energy utilized by the ouabain-sensitive Na(+)-K(+) membrane pump during the norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue. The data obtained indicate that the observed inhibition of the catecholamine-induced increase in brown fat thermogenesis by ouabain does not reflect an inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis.

  11. Transient aerodynamic characteristics of vans during the accelerated overtaking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li-ning; Wang, Xing-shen; Du, Guang-sheng; Liu, Zheng-gang; Lei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the influence of the accelerated overtaking process on the vehicles' transient aerodynamic characteristics, through 3-D numerical simulations with dynamic meshes and sliding interface technique. Numerical accuracy is verified by experimental results. The aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles in the uniform overtaking process and the accelerated overtaking process are compared. It is shown that the speed variation of the overtaking van would influence the aerodynamic characteristics of the two vans, with greater influence on the overtaken van than on the overtaking van. The simulations of three different accelerated overtaking processes show that the greater the acceleration of the overtaking van, the larger the aerodynamic coefficients of the overtaken van. When the acceleration of the overtaking van increases by 1 m/s2, the maximum drag force, side force and yawing moment coefficients of the overtaken van all increase by more than 6%, to seriously affect the power performance and the stability of the vehicles. The analysis of the pressure fields under different accelerated conditions reveals the cause of variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles.

  12. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties,more » and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.« less

  13. D-Galacturonic acid as a highly reactive compound in nonenzymatic browning. 1. Formation of browning active degradation products.

    PubMed

    Bornik, Maria-Anna; Kroh, Lothar W

    2013-04-10

    Thermal treatment of an aqueous solution of D-galacturonic acid at pH 3, 5, and 8 led to rapid browning of the solution and to the formation of carbocyclic compounds such as reductic acid (2,3-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one), DHCP (4,5-dihydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one), and furan-2-carbaldehyde, as degradation products in weak acidic solution. Studies on their formation revealed 2-ketoglutaraldehyde as their common key intermediate. Norfuraneol (4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(2H)-furanone) is a typical alkaline degradation product and formed after isomerization. Further model studies revealed reductic acid as an important and more browning active compound than furan-2-carbaldehyde, which led to a red color of the model solution. This red-brown color is also characteristic of thermally treated uronic acid solutions.

  14. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Probing deep within a neighborhood stellar nursery, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered a swarm of newborn brown dwarfs. The orbiting observatory's near-infrared camera revealed about 50 of these objects throughout the Orion Nebula's Trapezium cluster [image at right], about 1,500 light-years from Earth. Appearing like glistening precious stones surrounding a setting of sparkling diamonds, more than 300 fledgling stars and brown dwarfs surround the brightest, most massive stars [center of picture] in Hubble's view of the Trapezium cluster's central region. All of the celestial objects in the Trapezium were born together in this hotbed of star formation. The cluster is named for the trapezoidal alignment of those central massive stars. Brown dwarfs are gaseous objects with masses so low that their cores never become hot enough to fuse hydrogen, the thermonuclear fuel stars like the Sun need to shine steadily. Instead, these gaseous objects fade and cool as they grow older. Brown dwarfs around the age of the Sun (5 billion years old) are very cool and dim, and therefore are difficult for telescopes to find. The brown dwarfs discovered in the Trapezium, however, are youngsters (1 million years old). So they're still hot and bright, and easier to see. This finding, along with observations from ground-based telescopes, is further evidence that brown dwarfs, once considered exotic objects, are nearly as abundant as stars. The image and results appear in the Sept. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The brown dwarfs are too dim to be seen in a visible-light image taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 [picture at left]. This view also doesn't show the assemblage of infant stars seen in the near-infrared image. That's because the young stars are embedded in dense clouds of dust and gas. The Hubble telescope's near-infrared camera, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, penetrated those clouds to capture a view of those

  15. The Dramatic Methods of Hans van Dam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Water, Manon

    1994-01-01

    Interprets for the American reader the untranslated dramatic methods of Hans van Dam, a leading drama theorist in the Netherlands. Discusses the functions of drama as a method, closed dramatic methods, open dramatic methods, and applying van Dam's methods. (SR)

  16. Parallax measurements of six brown dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Reffert, S.; Henning, T.

    Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs, and help us to constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models and reveal unresolved binaries. We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of six cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. The brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T7.5. The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega2000 camera at the 3.5 m telescope at CAHA during a time period of 27 months. We obtained absolute parallaxes for our 6 brown dwarfs with a precision between 3 and 6 mas. We compared our results with the study by \\cite{Dupuy} and with the evolutionary models of \\cite{Allard}. For four of the six targets we found a good agreement in luminosity among objects of similar spectral types. The object 2MASS J11061197+2754225 is more than 1 mag overluminous in all bands pointing to binarity or higher order multiplicity. Based on observations taken with Omega-2000 at the 3.5 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  17. MyomiR-133 regulates brown fat differentiation through Prdm16.

    PubMed

    Trajkovski, Mirko; Ahmed, Kashan; Esau, Christine C; Stoffel, Markus

    2012-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) uses the chemical energy of lipids and glucose to produce heat, a function that can be induced by cold exposure or diet. A key regulator of BAT is the gene encoding PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), whose expression can drive differentiation of myogenic and white fat precursors to brown adipocytes. Here we show that after cold exposure, the muscle-enriched miRNA-133 is markedly downregulated in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT) as a result of decreased expression of its transcriptional regulator Mef2. miR-133 directly targets and negatively regulates PRDM16, and inhibition of miR-133 or Mef2 promotes differentiation of precursors from BAT and SAT to mature brown adipocytes, thereby leading to increased mitochondrial activity. Forced expression of miR-133 in brown adipogenic conditions prevents the differentiation to brown adipocytes in both BAT and SAT precursors. Our results point to Mef2 and miR-133 as central upstream regulators of Prdm16 and hence of brown adipogenesis in response to cold exposure in BAT and SAT.

  18. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  19. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of 'Huangguan' Pear.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of 'Huangguan' pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect 'Huangguan' pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70-1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of 'Huangguan' pear.

  20. How Long? Cosby, Brown and Racial Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Bill Cosby ruffled feathers, raised eyebrows and said a mouthful when, at a Howard University black-tie celebration of the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, he launched into a rift about "the lower economic people" not holding up their end of the bargain in the wake of Brown. "We can't blame White people," Cosby said, for an array…

  1. Interspecific interactions between brown trout and slimy sculpin in stream enclosures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruetz, C. R.; Hurford, A.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a 30-d manipulative experiment in Valley Creek, Minnesota, to examine interspecific interactions between juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta and adult slimy sculpin Cottus cognatus. We measured the instantaneous growth of each species in the presence and absence of the other in 1-m2 enclosures. We tested single-species (three slimy sculpins/m2 or three brown trout/m2) and combined-species (three sculpins/m2 and three trout/m2) combinations in each of six riffles. We placed a clay tile in each enclosure to evaluate the effects of fish combinations on benthic macroinvertebrates. Growth of brown trout was unaffected by the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.647, power [to detect 50% increase in growth] = 0.92), whereas slimy sculpin growth was less in the presence of brown trout (P = 0.038). Densities of total benthic macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae, Trichoptera, and Physa did not differ among fish combinations (P > 0.3). However, densities of Gammarus pseudolimnaeus were significantly less in the presence of brown trout irrespective of the presence of slimy sculpins (P = 0.024), which could be a causal factor underlying the interaction between brown trout and slimy sculpins. We found asymmetrical competition between brown trout and slimy sculpins in stream enclosures, with brown trout being the superior competitor. Nevertheless, the size of enclosures may have biased our results, making it more likely to detect an effect of brown trout on slimy sculpins than vice versa.

  2. A Brown Dwarf Joins the Jet-Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Jets of matter have been discovered around a very low mass 'failed star', mimicking a process seen in young stars. This suggests that these 'brown dwarfs' form in a similar manner to normal stars but also that outflows are driven out by objects as massive as hundreds of millions of solar masses down to Jupiter-sized objects. The brown dwarf with the name 2MASS1207-3932 is full of surprises [1]. Its companion, a 5 Jupiter-mass giant, was the first confirmed exoplanet for which astronomers could obtain an image (see ESO 23/04 and 12/05), thereby opening a new field of research - the direct detection of alien worlds. It was then later found (see ESO 19/06) that the brown dwarf has a disc surrounding it, not unlike very young stars. ESO PR Photo 24/07 ESO PR Photo 24/07 Jets from a Brown Dwarf (Artist's Impression) Now, astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have found that the young brown dwarf is also spewing jets, a behaviour again quite similar to young stars. The mass of the brown dwarf is only 24 Jupiter-masses. Hence, it is by far the smallest object known to drive an outflow. "This leads us to the tantalizing prospect that young giant planets could also be associated with outflows," says Emma Whelan, the lead-author of the paper reporting the results. The outflows were discovered using an amazing technique known as spectro-astrometry, based on high resolution spectra taken with UVES on the VLT. Such a technique was required due to the difficulty of the task. While in normal young stars - known as T-Tauri stars for the prototype of their class - the jets are large and bright enough to be seen directly, this is not the case around brown dwarfs: the length scale of the jets, recovered with spectro-astrometry is only about 0.1 arcsecond long, that is, the size of a two Euro coin seen from 40 km away. The jets stretch about 1 billion kilometres and the material is rushing away from the brown dwarf with a speed of a few kilometres per second. The

  3. After Brown U.'s Report on Slavery, Silence (So Far)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article, discusses Brown University's slavery report, a 106-page narrative examination of the early connections between Brown University and slavery, that has been greeted--so far--with silence. The report, done at the behest of Ruth J. Simmons, Brown's president and herself a descendant of slaves, is an unsparing look at a shameful side of…

  4. Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marianne S; Field, Kenneth A; Behr, Melissa J; Turner, Gregory G; Furze, Morgan E; Stern, Daniel W F; Allegra, Paul R; Bouboulis, Sarah A; Musante, Chelsey D; Vodzak, Megan E; Biron, Matthew E; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Howell, Daryl; Kath, Joseph A; Kurta, Allen; Nordquist, Gerda; Johnson, Joseph S; Lilley, Thomas M; Barrett, Benjamin W; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2018-01-01

    The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS in the wild and suggests that survival is related to different host physiological responses. We observed another fungal infection, associated with neutrophilic inflammation, that was equally present in all bats. This suggests that both species are capable of generating a response to cold tolerant fungi and that Pd may have evolved mechanisms for evading host responses that are effective in at least some bat species. These host-pathogen interactions are likely mediated not just by host physiological responses, but also by host behavior. Pd-exposed big brown bats, the less affected species, spent more time in torpor than did control animals, while little brown myotis did not exhibit this change. This differential thermoregulatory response to Pd infection by big brown bat hosts may allow for a more effective (or less pathological) immune response to tissue invasion.

  5. Large Brown Oval

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This large brown oval, photographed on Mar. 2, 1979 by NASA Voyager 1. Features of this sort are not rare on Jupiter and have an average lifetime of one to two years. Above the feature is the pale orange North Temperate Belt. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00015

  6. Brown on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-30

    STS095-E-5054 (30 Oct. 1998) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, STS-95 commander, has a handful of vials as he checks a notebook during Flight Day two activity onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera at 10:42:49 GMT, Oct. 30.

  7. The membrane may be an important factor in browning of fresh-cut pear.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenghong; Zhang, Yuxing; Ge, Huibo

    2017-09-01

    Surface browning is an important cause of deterioration of fresh-cut fruit during postharvest handling. In this paper, four pear cultivars with different extents of natural browning were selected to analyse the factors involved in browning. The main results are as follows: the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity of 'Mantianhong' and 'Yali' pears was higher accompanied by a stronger degree of browning, while the LOX activity in 'Xueqing' and 'Xinli 7' pears was lower, with less browning. A higher unsaturated fatty acid ratio of pear resulted in reduced browning. The cell membranes disappeared 30min after being cut in 'Mantianhong' pear, which browns easily; however, the cell membranes were still intact 30min after being cut in 'Xueqing' pear, which does not brown easily. Therefore, it can be assumed that the stability of the cell membrane plays an important role in inhibiting browning of fresh-cut pears. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of van Helmontian chymistry.

    PubMed

    Clucas, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    A striking omission in the scholarship on the reception of the chymical philosophy of Jan Baptista van Helmont in England in the seventeenth century is the work of the mid-seventeenth-century natural philosopher Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle. In her Philosophical Letters (1664), Cavendish offers an extended critique of Van Helmont's work (whose Ortus Medicince had recently been translated into English by John Sadler). In this paper, I compare Cavendish's criticisms with those of Robert Boyle in his Sceptical Chymist (1661). Both Boyle and Cavendish attacked Van Helmont for the obscurity of his chymical vocabulary and concepts, and attacked his seminalism. Although their critiques had much in common, they diverged in their attitudes to Van Helmont's experiments. As an opponent of the experimental philosophy, Cavendish had little interest in the quality of Van Helmont's experimental claims, whereas Boyle was critical of their unreplicability. I also try to show that the two writers had very different polemical agendas, with Boyle defending his vision of chymistry based on a corpuscularian natural philosophy, and Cavendish being as much concerned with establishing her religious orthodoxy as with defending the truth claims of her own materialist vitalism. For Cavendish, Van Helmont was an example of the dangers of mingling theology and natural philosophy.

  9. Monoterpene phenolic compound thymol promotes browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Heon; Kim, Sang Woo; Yu, Rina; Yun, Jong Won

    2017-10-01

    Appearance of brown-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue depots (browning) is associated with improved metabolic phenotypes, and thus a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes are being studied. The aim of this study was to assess the browning effect of thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenolic compound, in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes. Thymol-induced fat browning was investigated by determining expression levels of brown fat-specific genes and proteins by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Moreover, the molecular mechanism underlying the fat-browning effect of thymol was investigated by determining expression levels of key players responsible for browning in the presence of kinase inhibitors. Thymol promoted mitochondrial biogenesis and enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific markers as well as increased protein levels of PPARγ, PPARδ, pAMPK, pACC, HSL, PLIN, CPT1, ACO, PGC-1α, and UCP1, suggesting its possible role in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, fat oxidation, and thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers by thymol was tightly coordinated with activation of β3-AR as well as AMPK, PKA, and p38 MAPK. Our findings suggest that 3T3-L1 is a potential cell model for screening browning agents. Thymol plays multiple modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as enhancing lipid metabolism. Thus, thymol may be explored as a potentially promising food additive for prevention of obesity.

  10. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    PubMed

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  11. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  12. Van Go: A Labor of Love

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Like a tapestry woven with one outstanding thread from beginning to end, the author's forty-year tenure as an art educator has its golden thread in her Van Go art outreach project. Quite literally, she takes students in a "van" and they "go," mostly on dirt roads, taking art to rural schools in Idaho, some of which have no more…

  13. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  14. Prostaglandin E2 signals white-to-brown adipogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    García-Alonso, Verónica; Clària, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The formation of new adipocytes from precursor cells is a crucial aspect of normal adipose tissue function. During the adipogenic process, adipocytes differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells give rise to two main types of fat: white adipose tissue (WAT) characterized by the presence of adipocytes containing large unilocular lipid droplets, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) composed by multilocular brown adipocytes packed with mitochondria. WAT is not only important for energy storage but also as an endocrine organ regulating whole body homeostasis by secreting adipokines and other mediators, which directly impact metabolic functions in obesity. By contrast, BAT is specialized in dissipating energy in form of heat and has salutary effects in combating obesity and associated disorders. Unfortunately, WAT is the predominant fat type, whereas BAT is scarce and located in discrete pockets in adult humans. Luckily, another type of brown adipocytes, called beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes, with similar functions to those of “classical” brown adipocytes has recently been identified in WAT. In this review, a close look is given into the role of bioactive lipid mediators in the regulation of adipogenesis, with a special emphasis on the role of the microsomal prostaglandin E (PGE) synthase-1, a terminal enzyme in PGE2 biosynthesis, as a key regulator of white-to-brown adipogenesis in WAT. PMID:26317053

  15. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M.

    2017-09-01

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, and optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like Hα, in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral Hα emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.

  16. maxwell brown | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Research Interests Optimization and modeling techniques Economic impacts of energy sector transformation . Transportation Research Record. Caron, J, S Cohen, J Reilly, M Brown. 2018. Exploring the Impacts of a National : Economic and GHG Impacts of a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Transportation Research Record: Journal of

  17. Kate Brown | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    -7721 Research Interests Kate Brown received her Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2008. While at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, her research has focused on the synthesis and ] hydrogenase complexes and implications for photochemical H2 generation," Journal of the American Chemical

  18. On a question of Brown, Douglas, and Fillmore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaewoong; Lee, Woo Young

    2007-12-01

    In this note we answer an old question of Brown, Douglas, and Fillmore [L. Brown, R.G. Douglas, P. Fillmore, Unitary equivalence modulo the compact operators and extensions of C*-algebras, in: Proc. Conf. Operator Theory, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 345, Springer, Berlin, 1973, pp. 58-128].

  19. Physiological regulation and metabolic role of browning in white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Aleksandra; Otasevic, Vesna; Stancic, Ana; Buzadzic, Biljana; Korac, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2017-09-01

    Great progress has been made in our understanding of the browning process in white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents. The recognition that i) adult humans have physiologically inducible brown adipose tissue (BAT) that may facilitate resistance to obesity and ii) that adult human BAT molecularly and functionally resembles beige adipose tissue in rodents, reignited optimism that obesity and obesity-related diabetes type 2 can be battled by controlling the browning of WAT. In this review the main cellular mechanisms and molecular mediators of browning of WAT in different physiological states are summarized. The relevance of browning of WAT in metabolic health is considered primarily through a modulation of biological role of fat tissue in overall metabolic homeostasis.

  20. Proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocytes from interstitial cells during cold acclimation

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowiecki, L.J.; Geloeen, A.; Collet, A.J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanisms of brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation during cold acclimation (and/or adaptation to hyperphagia) have been studied by quantitative photonic radioautography. (/sup 3/H)thymidine was injected to warm-acclimated (25/sup 0/C) rats and to animals exposed to 5/sup 0/C for 2 days. Samples of interscapular brown adipose tissue were collected for quantitative analysis of mitotic frequencies at various periods of time (4 h-15 days) after the injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, the rats being maintained at the temperatures to which they were initially exposed. It was found that cold exposure for 2 days markedly enhanced mitotic activity in endothelial cells, interstitial cells,more » and brown preadipocytes rather than in fully differentiated brown adipocytes. The total tissue labeling index (percent of labeled nuclei) increased approx.70 times over control values. The authors now report that cellular labeling progressively increased in mature brown adipocytes during cold acclimation, whereas it correspondingly decreased in interstitial cells and brown preadipocytes. This indicates that the sequence of events for cellular differentiation is interstitial cells ..-->.. brown preadipocytes ..-->.. mature brown adipocytes. Remarkable, labeling frequency did not change in endothelial cells during cold acclimation demonstrating that these cells cannot be considered as progenitors of brown adipocytes. It is suggested that brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation from interstitial cells represent the fundamental phenomena explaining the enhanced capacity of cold-acclimated and/or hyperphagic rats to respond calorigenically to catecholamines.« less

  1. UPS Hybrid Electric Delivery Van Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    conventional diesel vans. Publications The following documents provide detailed information about the study the conventional vans during the on-road portion of the study. The two vehicle groups switched route assignments during the study period to provide a balanced review of the vans on the same routes. During

  2. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Elin; Ekström, Linda; Björck, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product) were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids) and breath hydrogen (H2) excretion. An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (-15%, p<0.01)- and insulin (-16%, p<0.05) responses, increased satiety hormones (PYY 51%, p<0.001), suppressed hunger hormones (ghrelin -14%, p<0.05), and hunger sensations (-15%, p = 0.05), increased GLP-2 concentrations (8.4%, p<0.05) and suppressed inflammatory markers (IL-6 -35%, and IL-18 -8.3%, p<0.05) at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Breath H2 (141%, p<0.01), propionate (16%, p<0.05), and isobutyrate (18%, P<0.001) were significantly increased after brown beans compared to after WWB, indicating a higher colonic fermentative activity after brown beans. An evening meal with brown beans beneficially affected important measures of cardiometabolic risk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11-14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown beans may provide a preventive tool in relation to

  3. Effects of a Brown Beans Evening Meal on Metabolic Risk Markers and Appetite Regulating Hormones at a Subsequent Standardized Breakfast: A Randomized Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Elin; Ekström, Linda; Björck, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. Methods Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product) were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids) and breath hydrogen (H2) excretion. Results An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (−15%, p<0.01)- and insulin (−16%, p<0.05) responses, increased satiety hormones (PYY 51%, p<0.001), suppressed hunger hormones (ghrelin −14%, p<0.05), and hunger sensations (−15%, p = 0.05), increased GLP-2 concentrations (8.4%, p<0.05) and suppressed inflammatory markers (IL-6 −35%, and IL-18 −8.3%, p<0.05) at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Breath H2 (141%, p<0.01), propionate (16%, p<0.05), and isobutyrate (18%, P<0.001) were significantly increased after brown beans compared to after WWB, indicating a higher colonic fermentative activity after brown beans. Conclusions An evening meal with brown beans beneficially affected important measures of cardiometabolic risk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11–14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown

  4. Obituary: Beth Brown (1969-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bregman, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The astronomical community lost one of its most buoyant and caring individuals when Beth Brown died, unexpectedly, at the age of 39 from a pulmonary embolism. Beth Brown was born in Roanoke, Virginia where she developed a deep interest in astronomy, science, and science fiction (Star Trek). After graduating as the valedictorian of William Fleming High School's Class of 1987, she attended Howard University, where she graduated summa cum laude in 1991 with a bachelor's degree in astrophysics. Following a year in the graduate physics program at Howard, she entered the graduate program in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Michigan, the first African-American woman in the program. She received her PhD in 1998, working with X-ray observations of elliptical galaxies from the Röntgen Satellite (ROSAT; Joel Bregman was her advisor). She compiled and analyzed the first large complete sample of such galaxies with ROSAT and her papers in this area made an impact in the field. Following her PhD, Beth Brown held a National Academy of Science & National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Fellowship at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Subsequently, she became a civil servant at the National Space Science Data Center at GSFC, where she was involved in data archival activities as well as education and outreach, a continuing passion in her life. In 2006, Brown became an Astrophysics Fellow at GSFC, during which time she worked as a visiting Assistant Professor at Howard University, where she taught and worked with students and faculty to improve the teaching observatory. At the time of her death, she was eagerly looking forward to a new position at GSFC as the Assistant Director for Science Communications and Higher Education. Beth Brown was a joyous individual who loved to work with people, especially in educating them about our remarkable field. Her warmth and openness was a great aid in making accessible explanations of otherwise daunting astrophysical

  5. Optical visualisation of thermogenesis in stimulated single-cell brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kriszt, Rókus; Arai, Satoshi; Itoh, Hideki; Lee, Michelle H; Goralczyk, Anna G; Ang, Xiu Min; Cypess, Aaron M; White, Andrew P; Shamsi, Farnaz; Xue, Ruidan; Lee, Jung Yeol; Lee, Sung-Chan; Hou, Yanyan; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Sudhaharan, Thankiah; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Lane, E Birgitte; Chang, Young-Tae; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Suzuki, Madoka; Raghunath, Michael

    2017-05-03

    The identification of brown adipose deposits in adults has led to significant interest in targeting this metabolically active tissue for treatment of obesity and diabetes. Improved methods for the direct measurement of heat production as the signature function of brown adipocytes (BAs), particularly at the single cell level, would be of substantial benefit to these ongoing efforts. Here, we report the first application of a small molecule-type thermosensitive fluorescent dye, ERthermAC, to monitor thermogenesis in BAs derived from murine brown fat precursors and in human brown fat cells differentiated from human neck brown preadipocytes. ERthermAC accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum of BAs and displayed a marked change in fluorescence intensity in response to adrenergic stimulation of cells, which corresponded to temperature change. ERthermAC fluorescence intensity profiles were congruent with mitochondrial depolarisation events visualised by the JC-1 probe. Moreover, the averaged fluorescence intensity changes across a population of cells correlated well with dynamic changes such as thermal power, oxygen consumption, and extracellular acidification rates. These findings suggest ERthermAC as a promising new tool for studying thermogenic function in brown adipocytes of both murine and human origins.

  6. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. Development of artificial bait for brown treesnake suppression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) was accidentally introduced to Guam in the late 1940s or early 1950s, probably from the Solomon Islands. A native of Australia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands, the brown treesnake (BTS) continues to threaten the economy and ecology of Guam and is c...

  9. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  10. Heath Van Essen

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Heath Van Essen, Respondent, an individual who owns or operates an animal feeding operation (“Facility”) that is located in Section 27 of Township 98 North, Range 47 West,

  11. Top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing affected by brown carbon in the upper troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Forrister, Haviland; Liu, Jiumeng; Dibb, Jack; Anderson, Bruce; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Perring, Anne E.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Wang, Yuhang; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J.

    2017-07-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols affect the global radiative balance by absorbing and scattering radiation, which leads to warming or cooling of the atmosphere, respectively. Black carbon is the main light-absorbing component. A portion of the organic aerosol known as brown carbon also absorbs light. The climate sensitivity to absorbing aerosols rapidly increases with altitude, but brown carbon measurements are limited in the upper troposphere. Here we present aircraft observations of vertical aerosol distributions over the continental United States in May and June 2012 to show that light-absorbing brown carbon is prevalent in the troposphere, and absorbs more short-wavelength radiation than black carbon at altitudes between 5 and 12 km. We find that brown carbon is transported to these altitudes by deep convection, and that in-cloud heterogeneous processing may produce brown carbon. Radiative transfer calculations suggest that brown carbon accounts for about 24% of combined black and brown carbon warming effect at the tropopause. Roughly two-thirds of the estimated brown carbon forcing occurs above 5 km, although most brown carbon is found below 5 km. The highest radiative absorption occurred during an event that ingested a wildfire plume. We conclude that high-altitude brown carbon from biomass burning is an unappreciated component of climate forcing.

  12. Alternatively Activated Macrophages Drive Browning of White Adipose Tissue in Burns.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Auger, Christopher; Stanojcic, Mile; Patsouris, David; Parousis, Alexandra; Epelman, Slava; Jeschke, Marc G

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to uncover the mediators and mechanistic events that facilitate the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) in response to burns. In hypermetabolic patients (eg, burns, cancer), the browning of WAT has presented substantial clinical challenges related to cachexia, atherosclerosis, and poor clinical outcomes. Browning of the adipose tissue has recently been found to induce and sustain hypermetabolism. Although browning appears central in trauma-, burn-, or cancer-induced hypermetabolic catabolism, the mediators are essentially unknown. WAT and blood samples were collected from patients admitted to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Hospital. Wild type, CCR2 KO, and interleukin (IL)-6 KO male mice were purchased from Jax laboratories and subjected to a 30% total body surface area burn injury. WAT and serum collected were analyzed for browning markers, macrophages, and metabolic state via histology, gene expression, and mitochondrial respiration. In the present study, we show that burn-induced browning is associated with an increased macrophage infiltration, with a greater type 2 macrophage profile in the fat of burn patients. Similar to our clinical findings in burn patients, both an increase in macrophage recruitment and a type 2 macrophage profile were also observed in post burn mice. Genetic loss of the chemokine CCR2 responsible for macrophage migration to the adipose impairs burn-induced browning. Mechanistically, we show that macrophages recruited to burn-stressed subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production mediated by IL-6, factors required for browning of sWAT. Together, our findings uncover macrophages as the key instigators and missing link in trauma-induced browning.

  13. GLP-1 agonism stimulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning through hypothalamic AMPK.

    PubMed

    Beiroa, Daniel; Imbernon, Monica; Gallego, Rosalía; Senra, Ana; Herranz, Daniel; Villarroya, Francesc; Serrano, Manuel; Fernø, Johan; Salvador, Javier; Escalada, Javier; Dieguez, Carlos; Lopez, Miguel; Frühbeck, Gema; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2014-10-01

    GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is widely located throughout the brain, but the precise molecular mechanisms mediating the actions of GLP-1 and its long-acting analogs on adipose tissue as well as the brain areas responsible for these interactions remain largely unknown. We found that central injection of a clinically used GLP-1R agonist, liraglutide, in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and adipocyte browning independent of nutrient intake. The mechanism controlling these actions is located in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMH), and the activation of AMPK in this area is sufficient to blunt both central liraglutide-induced thermogenesis and adipocyte browning. The decreased body weight caused by the central injection of liraglutide in other hypothalamic sites was sufficiently explained by the suppression of food intake. In a longitudinal study involving obese type 2 diabetic patients treated for 1 year with GLP-1R agonists, both exenatide and liraglutide increased energy expenditure. Although the results do not exclude the possibility that extrahypothalamic areas are also modulating the effects of GLP-1R agonists, the data indicate that long-acting GLP-1R agonists influence body weight by regulating either food intake or energy expenditure through various hypothalamic sites and that these mechanisms might be clinically relevant. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  14. 77 FR 14583 - Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Alternative Fuel Vans AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. DOT. ACTION: Notice to Manufacturers of Alternative Fuel Vans. SUMMARY: Projects funded under the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) must... (FAA) is considering issuing waivers to foreign manufacturers of alternative fuel vans. This notice...

  15. Brown enters transfer tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-01

    STS095-E-5160 (1 Nov. 1998) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown Jr., STS-95 commander, floats through airlock hatchway during Flight Day three activity. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 01:39:20 GMT, Nov. 1.

  16. A Panchromatic View of Brown Dwarf Aurorae

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg; Kao, Melodie M.

    Stellar coronal activity has been shown to persist into the low-mass star regime, down to late M-dwarf spectral types. However, there is now an accumulation of evidence suggesting that at the end of the main sequence, there is a transition in the nature of the magnetic activity from chromospheric and coronal to planet-like and auroral, from local impulsive heating via flares and MHD wave dissipation to energy dissipation from strong large-scale magnetospheric current systems. We examine this transition and the prevalence of auroral activity in brown dwarfs through a compilation of multiwavelength surveys of magnetic activity, including radio, X-ray, andmore » optical. We compile the results of those surveys and place their conclusions in the context of auroral emission as a consequence of large-scale magnetospheric current systems that accelerate energetic electron beams and drive the particles to impact the cool atmospheric gas. We explore the different manifestations of auroral phenomena, like H α , in brown dwarf atmospheres and define their distinguishing characteristics. We conclude that large-amplitude photometric variability in the near-infrared is most likely a consequence of clouds in brown dwarf atmospheres, but that auroral activity may be responsible for long-lived stable surface features. We report a connection between auroral H α emission and quiescent radio emission in electron cyclotron maser instability pulsing brown dwarfs, suggesting a potential underlying physical connection between quiescent and auroral emissions. We also discuss the electrodynamic engines powering brown dwarf aurorae and the possible role of satellites around these systems both to power the aurorae and seed the magnetosphere with plasma.« less

  17. Deletion in the EVC2 gene causes chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Tyrolean Grey cattle.

    PubMed

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Benazzi, Cinzia; Bolcato, Marilena; Brunetti, Barbara; Muscatello, Luisa Vera; Dittmer, Keren; Piffer, Christian; Gentile, Arcangelo; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013 seven Italian Tyrolean Grey calves were born with abnormally short limbs. Detailed clinical and pathological examination revealed similarities to chondrodysplastic dwarfism. Pedigree analysis showed a common founder, assuming autosomal monogenic recessive transmission of the defective allele. A positional cloning approach combining genome wide association and homozygosity mapping identified a single 1.6 Mb genomic region on BTA 6 that was associated with the disease. Whole genome re-sequencing of an affected calf revealed a single candidate causal mutation in the Ellis van Creveld syndrome 2 (EVC2) gene. This gene is known to be associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese Brown cattle, and dwarfism, abnormal nails and teeth, and dysostosis in humans with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a 2 bp deletion in exon 19 (c.2993_2994ACdel) that led to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of bovine EVC2, and was concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier animals. This loss of function mutation confirms the important role of EVC2 in bone development. Genetic testing can now be used to eliminate this form of chondrodysplastic dwarfism from Tyrolean Grey cattle.

  18. Deletion in the EVC2 Gene Causes Chondrodysplastic Dwarfism in Tyrolean Grey Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Murgiano, Leonardo; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Benazzi, Cinzia; Bolcato, Marilena; Brunetti, Barbara; Muscatello, Luisa Vera; Dittmer, Keren; Piffer, Christian; Gentile, Arcangelo; Drögemüller, Cord

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2013 seven Italian Tyrolean Grey calves were born with abnormally short limbs. Detailed clinical and pathological examination revealed similarities to chondrodysplastic dwarfism. Pedigree analysis showed a common founder, assuming autosomal monogenic recessive transmission of the defective allele. A positional cloning approach combining genome wide association and homozygosity mapping identified a single 1.6 Mb genomic region on BTA 6 that was associated with the disease. Whole genome re-sequencing of an affected calf revealed a single candidate causal mutation in the Ellis van Creveld syndrome 2 (EVC2) gene. This gene is known to be associated with chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese Brown cattle, and dwarfism, abnormal nails and teeth, and dysostosis in humans with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a 2 bp deletion in exon 19 (c.2993_2994ACdel) that led to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of bovine EVC2, and was concordant with the recessive pattern of inheritance in affected and carrier animals. This loss of function mutation confirms the important role of EVC2 in bone development. Genetic testing can now be used to eliminate this form of chondrodysplastic dwarfism from Tyrolean Grey cattle. PMID:24733244

  19. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling reveals novel insights into Luffa cylindrica browning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xia; Tan, Taiming; Xu, Changcheng; Huang, Shuping; Tan, Jie; Zhang, Min; Wang, Chunli; Xie, Conghua

    2015-08-07

    Luffa cylindrica (sponge gourd) is one of the most popular vegetables in China. Production and consumption of L. cylindrica are limited due to postharvest browning; however, little is known about the genetic regulation of the browning process. In the present study, transcriptome profiles of L. cylindrica cultivars, YLB05 (browning resistant) and XTR05 (browning sensitive), were analyzed using next-generation sequencing to clarify the genes and mechanisms associated with browning. A total of 9.1 Gb of valid data including 116,703 unigenes (>200 bp) were obtained and 39,473 sequences were annotated by alignment against five public databases. Of these, there were 27,407 genes assigned to 747 Gene Ontology functional categories; and 12,350 genes were annotated with 25 Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) categories with 343 KOG functional terms. Additionally, by searching against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, 8689 unigenes were mapped to 189 pathways. Furthermore, there were 24,556 sequences found to be differentially regulated, including 4344 annotated unigenes. Several genes potentially associated with phenolic oxidation, carbohydrate and hormone metabolism were found differentially regulated between the cultivars of different browning sensitivities. Our results suggest that elements involved in enzymatic processes and other pathways might be responsible for L. cylindrica browning. The present study provides a comprehensive transcriptome sequence resource, which will facilitate further studies on gene discovery and exploiting the fruit browning mechanism of L. cylindrica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondrial haplotype variation and phylogeography of Iberian brown trout populations.

    PubMed

    MacHordom, A; Suárez, J; Almodóvar, A; Bautista, J M

    2000-09-01

    The biogeographical distribution of brown trout mitochondrial DNA haplotypes throughout the Iberian Peninsula was established by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment polymorphism analysis. The study of 507 specimens from 58 localities representing eight widely separated Atlantic-slope (north and west Iberian coasts) and six Mediterranean drainage systems served to identify five main groups of mitochondrial haplotypes: (i) haplotypes corresponding to non-native, hatchery-reared brown trout that were widely distributed but also found in wild populations of northern Spain (Cantabrian slope); (ii) a widespread Atlantic haplotype group; (iii) a haplotype restricted to the Duero Basin; (iv) a haplotype shown by southern Iberian populations; and (v) a Mediterranean haplotype. The Iberian distribution of these haplotypes reflects both the current fishery management policy of introducing non-native brown trout, and Messinian palaeobiogeography. Our findings complement and extend previous allozyme studies on Iberian brown trout and improve present knowledge of glacial refugia and postglacial movement of brown trout lineages.

  1. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  2. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Thomas Charles Van Flandern, an expert in celestial mechanics and cosmology, died January 9, 2009 in Seattle, Washington, of colon cancer. He was 68. Van Flandern was an astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory from 1963 to 1983. He developed software to predict and analyze lunar occultations to improve lunar orbital and fundamental star catalog data. In later years he championed increasingly controversial theories. But his 1978 prediction that some asteroids have natural satellites, which was almost universally rejected, was verified when the Galileo spacecraft photographed Dactyl, a satellite of (243) Ida, during its flyby in 1993. Besides astronomy and computers, he had strong interests in biochemistry and nutrition, and he ran a business selling personal computers in the 1980s. Tom Van Flandern was born June 26, 1940 in Cleveland, Ohio, the first child of Robert F. Van Flandern and Anna Mary Haley. His father, a police officer, left the family when Tom Van Flandern was 5. His mother died when he was 16; he and his siblings then lived with their grandmother, Margery Jobe, until he went to college. Tom Van Flandern became interested in astronomy as a child. He used his first telescope, purchased with newspaper delivery earnings, to observe lunar occultations, and then learned how to predict them, sparking a life-long passion for dynamical astronomy. While attending St. Ignatius High School, Van Flandern and fellow student Thomas Petrie organized the Cleveland Moonwatch team to observe the first artificial satellites, the only team without an adult organizer. In 1958, Tom Van Flandern entered Xavier University where he led the Cincinnati Moonwatch team. He learned computer programming at a summer job with General Electric and wrote software to calculate "look angles" from orbital elements. The Cincinnati team became a top producer of observations using these predictions. Tom obtained a B.S. in mathematics from Xavier in 1962. He spent the next year at

  3. Comparative antioxidant activity of edible Japanese brown seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Airanthi, M K Widjaja-Adhi; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Japanese edible brown seaweeds, Eisenia bicyclis (Arame), Kjellmaniella crassifolia (Gagome), Alaria crassifolia (Chigaiso), Sargassum horneri (Akamoku), and Cystoseira hakodatensis (Uganomoku) were assayed for total phenolic content (TPC), fucoxanthin content, radical scavenging activities (DPPH, peroxyl radical, ABTS, and nitric oxide), and antioxidant activity in a liposome system. Among the solvents used for extraction, methanol was the most effective to extract total phenolics (TPC) from brown seaweeds. Among 5 kinds of brown seaweeds analyzed, methanol extract from C. hakodatensis was the best source for antioxidants. The high antioxidant activity of the extract was based not only on the high content of phenolics, but on the presence of fucoxanthin. No significant correlation (P > 0.05) was observed between TPC per gram extract with DPPH radical scavenging activity of the methanol extracts. These observed discrepancy would be due to structural variations in the phenolic compounds, and different levels of fucoxanthin in the extracts. The present study also demonstrated the synergy in the antioxidant activity of the combination of brown seaweed phenolics and fucoxanthin.

  4. Application of Exogenous Ethylene Inhibits Postharvest Peel Browning of ‘Huangguan’ Pear

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yurong; Yang, Mengnan; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Wang, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Peel browning disorder has an enormous impact on the exterior quality of ‘Huangguan’ pear whereas the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Although different methods have been applied for inhibiting the peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear, there are numerous issues associated with these approaches, such as time cost, efficacy, safety and stability. In this study, to develop a rapid, efficient and safe way to protect ‘Huangguan’ pear from skin browning, the effect of exogenous ethylene on peel browning of pear fruits stored at 0°C was evaluated. Results showed that ethylene treatments at 0.70–1.28 μL/L significantly decreased the browning rate and browning index from 73.80% and 0.30 to 6.80% and 0.02 after 20 days storage at 0°C, respectively, whereas ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L completely inhibited the occurrence of browning. In addition, ethylene treatments at 5 μL/L decreased the electrolyte leakage and respiration rate, delayed the loss of total phenolic compounds. Furthermore, ethylene (5 μL/L) treatment significantly enhanced the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increased the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibition rate, but inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). Our data revealed that ethylene prevented the peel browning through improving antioxidant enzymes (CAT, APX and SOD) activities and reducing PPO activity, electrolyte leakage rate and respiration rate. This study demonstrates that exogenous ethylene application may provide a safe and effective alternative method for controlling browning, and contributes to the understanding of peel browning of ‘Huangguan’ pear. PMID:28149298

  5. Direct Evidence of Brown Adipocytes in Different Fat Depots in Children

    PubMed Central

    Rockstroh, Denise; Landgraf, Kathrin; Wagner, Isabel Viola; Gesing, Julia; Tauscher, Roy; Lakowa, Nicole; Kiess, Wieland; Bühligen, Ulf; Wojan, Magdalena; Till, Holger; Blüher, Matthias; Körner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT) samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years) and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold), PRDM16 (2.8fold), PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots. PMID:25706927

  6. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage.

    PubMed

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Buts, Kim; Hatoum, Darwish; Ho, Quang Tri; Johnston, Jason W; Watkins, Christopher B; Schaffer, Robert J; Gapper, Nigel E; Giovannoni, Jim J; Rudell, David R; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolai, Bart M

    2014-11-28

    Postharvest ripening of apple (Malus x domestica) can be slowed down by low temperatures, and a combination of low O2 and high CO2 levels. While this maintains the quality of most fruit, occasionally storage disorders such as flesh browning can occur. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with a flesh browning disorder related to controlled atmosphere storage using RNA-sequencing techniques. Samples from a browning-susceptible cultivar ('Braeburn') were stored for four months under controlled atmosphere. Based on a visual browning index, the inner and outer cortex of the stored apples was classified as healthy or affected tissue. Over 600 million short single-end reads were mapped onto the Malus consensus coding sequence set, and differences in the expression profiles between healthy and affected tissues were assessed to identify candidate genes associated with internal browning in a tissue-specific manner. Genes involved in lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and cell wall modifications were highly modified in the affected inner cortex, while energy-related and stress-related genes were mostly altered in the outer cortex. The expression levels of several of them were confirmed using qRT-PCR. Additionally, a set of novel browning-specific differentially expressed genes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, was validated in apples stored for various periods at different controlled atmosphere conditions, giving rise to potential biomarkers associated with high risk of browning development. The gene expression data presented in this study will help elucidate the molecular mechanism of browning development in apples at controlled atmosphere storage. A conceptual model, including energy-related (linked to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain) and lipid-related genes (related to membrane alterations, and fatty acid oxidation), for browning development in apple is

  7. Brown adipose tissue macrophages control tissue innervation and homeostatic energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Nina; Haimon, Zhana; Sar Shalom, Hadas; Kuperman, Yael; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brandis, Alexander; David, Eyal; Segal-Hayoun, Yifat; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Yaron, Avraham; Jung, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Tissue macrophages provide immune defense and contribute to establishment and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we used constitutive and inducible mutagenesis to delete the nuclear transcription regulator methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2) in defined tissue macrophages. Animals lacking the Rett syndrome-associated gene in macrophages did not show signs of neurodevelopmental disorder, but displayed spontaneous obesity, which could be linked to impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Specifically, mutagenesis of a BAT-resident CX3CR1+ macrophage subpopulation compromised homeostatic, though not acute cold-induced thermogenesis. Mechanistically, BAT malfunction of pre-obese mice harboring mutant macrophages was associated with decreased sympathetic innervation and local norepinephrine titers, resulting in reduced adipocyte expression of thermogenic factors. Mutant macrophages over-expressed PlexinA4, which might contribute to the phenotype by repulsion of Sema6A-expressing sympathetic axons. Collectively, we report a previously unappreciated homeostatic role of macrophages in the control of tissue innervation, disruption of which in BAT results in metabolic imbalance. PMID:28459435

  8. Inhibition of enzymatic browning of chlorogenic acid by sulfur-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Verloop, Annewieke J W; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2012-04-04

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO(3)) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectral analysis), oxygen consumption, and reaction product formation (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS) were monitored in time. It was found that the compounds showing antibrowning activity either prevented browning by forming colorless addition products with o-quinones of 5-CQA (NaHSO(3), cysteine, and glutathione) or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (NaHSO(3) and dithiothreitol). NaHSO(3) was different from the other sulfur-containing compounds investigated, because it showed a dual inhibitory effect on browning. Initial browning was prevented by trapping the o-quinones formed in colorless addition products (sulfochlorogenic acid), while at the same time, tyrosinase activity was inhibited in a time-dependent way, as shown by pre-incubation experiments of tyrosinase with NaHSO(3). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that sulfochlorogenic and cysteinylchlorogenic acids were not inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

  9. Black and brown pigment gallstones differ in microstructure and microcomposition.

    PubMed

    Malet, P F; Takabayashi, A; Trotman, B W; Soloway, R D; Weston, N E

    1984-01-01

    The two subtypes of pigment gallstones, black and brown stones, differ in chemical composition and pathogenesis. We examined a black bilirubinate stone and a black phosphate stone (which represented opposite ends of the compositional spectrum of black noncarbonate stones), a black carbonate stone, and a brown pigment stone using scanning electron microscopy and microchemical techniques to determine if stone microstructure and microcomposition reflected different patterns of formation. The cross-sectional surfaces of the black bilirubinate and black phosphate stones were smooth and homogenous. Electron probe microanalysis demonstrated high concentrations of sulfur and copper in the center of the black bilirubinate stone; sulfur was in a low valence state consistent with disulfide linkages in proteins. The brown stone was rough-surfaced with lamellated bands on cross-section. The lighter-colored bands in this stone contained virtually all of the detected calcium palmitate, while the darker sections contained much more calcium bilirubinate. Plasma oxygen etching demonstrated a network of protein interdigitating with calcium bilirubinate salts in the black bilirubinate and black phosphate stones but not in the black carbonate or brown stones. Argon ion etching demonstrated that calcium bilirubinate was in a closely packed rod-shaped arrangement in all three black stones but not in the brown stone. We conclude that the marked differences in structure and composition between the black noncarbonate and brown pigment gallstones support the hypothesis that the two major pigment gallstone types form by different mechanisms. In addition, the layered structures of the black carbonate and brown stones suggest that stone growth is affected by cyclic changes in biliary composition.

  10. New Brown Dwarf Discs in Upper Scorpius Observed with WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, P.; Scholz, A.; Ray, T. P.; Natta, A.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a census of the disc population for UKIDSS selected brown dwarfs in the 5-10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. For 116 objects originally identified in UKIDSS, the majority of them not studied in previous publications, we obtain photometry from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer data base. The resulting colour magnitude and colour colour plots clearly show two separate populations of objects, interpreted as brown dwarfs with discs (class II) and without discs (class III). We identify 27 class II brown dwarfs, 14 of them not previously known. This disc fraction (27 out of 116, or 23%) among brown dwarfs was found to be similar to results for K/M stars in Upper Scorpius, suggesting that the lifetimes of discs are independent of the mass of the central object for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. 5 out of 27 discs (19 per cent) lack excess at 3.4 and 4.6 microns and are potential transition discs (i.e. are in transition from class II to class III). The transition disc fraction is comparable to low-mass stars.We estimate that the time-scale for a typical transition from class II to class III is less than 0.4 Myr for brown dwarfs. These results suggest that the evolution of brown dwarf discs mirrors the behaviour of discs around low-mass stars, with disc lifetimes of the order of 5 10 Myr and a disc clearing time-scale significantly shorter than 1 Myr.

  11. Arnoldus Van Rhijn on aphasia: a forgotten thesis.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia formed a central topic in the discussion on localization of function in the nineteenth century, in particular in France, Germany and Great Brittain. Little is known on contributions from the Netherlands. This paper aims to discuss the contents of Arnoldus Van Rhijn's dissertation on aphasia, written in 1868 and one of the very few Dutch contributions to aphasiology in the nineteenth century. Added to this paper is a translation of the "Physiological Part" of Van Rhijn's dissertation. Van Rhijn discussed three cases with acquired aphasia. He rejected Broca's notion of a cortical center for the articulation of speech and instead regarded the cortex as the site where the will exerted its influence. He argued that there is a certain form of specialization: the will to say something is localized at a different place than the will to write. According to Van Rhijn, the highest motor centers are localized in the subcortical gray areas. Van Rhijn concluded that aphasia may result from lesions to the cortical centers involved in speaking, or from a disconnection of the cortical and subcortical centers. Very little work was done on aphasia in the 19th century in the Netherlands. Van Rhijn's thesis, from an aphasiological point of view of limited value, does show that the notions of "centers", "connections", and "disorders due to disconnections" were generally known before Wernicke, also in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  12. Anatomic Severity, Midfacial Growth, and Speech Outcomes in Van der Woude/Popliteal Pterygium Syndromes Compared to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip/Palate.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Jeffrey B; Brustowicz, Katherine A; Marrinan, Eileen M; Mulliken, John B; Padwa, Bonnie L

    2015-11-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics and surgical and speech outcomes for patients with Van der Woude/popliteal pterygium syndromes (VWS/PPS) and to compare them with a historic cohort of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip/cleft palate (CL/P). Retrospective chart review. Tertiary care center. All patients with VWS/PPS seen at Boston Children's Hospital from 1979 to 2012: 28 patients with VWS (n = 21)/PPS (n = 7) whose mean age was 17.3 ± 10.4 years, including 18 females (64%) and 10 males (36%); 18 patients (64%) had a family history of VWS/PPS. Cleft type, operative procedures, speech, and midfacial growth. Data were compared with historic cohorts of patients with nonsyndromic CL/P treated at one tertiary care center. There were 24 patients (86%) with CP±L, Veau types I (n = 4, 17%), II (n = 4, 17%), III (n = 5, 21%), and IV (n = 11, 46%). Nine patients (38%) had palatal fistula after palatoplasty. Fourteen of 23 (61%) patients with CL/P age 5 years or older had midfacial retrusion, and 10 (43%) required a pharyngeal flap for velopharyngeal insufficiency. Fisher's exact test demonstrated higher frequencies of Veau type IV CP±L (P = .0016), bilateral CL±P (P = .0001), and complete CL±P (P < .0001) in VWS/PPS compared with nonsyndromic patients. Incidences of midfacial retrusion (P = .0001), palatal fistula (P < .0001), and need for pharyngeal flap (P = .0014) were significantly greater in patients with VWS/PPS. Patients with VWS/PPS have more severe forms of labiopalatal clefting and higher incidences of midfacial retrusion, palatal fistula, and velopharyngeal insufficiency following primary repair as compared with nonsyndromic CL/P.

  13. [Research progress and direction of atmospheric brown carbon].

    PubMed

    Yan, Cai-Qing; Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Organic aerosol is one of the most important components of atmospheric aerosols. In recent years, organic aerosol has been found and proved to be light absorbing in UV-Visible region. Light absorbing organic carbon (also named as brown carbon) has been one of the forefronts in the field of atmospheric research. Its light absorption contributions to radiative forcing, regional air quality, and global climate change have drawn much attention. Regional air pollution is complex in China. Frequent visibility decline and severe regional haze episodes occurred since January 2013. Previous studies showed high amount of estimated columnar light-absorbing organic carbon in China, and according to current research findings, major sources of fine particulate matter in China (e. g. biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion) were also recognized as the main sources for brown carbon. Considering the high abundance of brown carbon in atmosphere, there is a great need to reconsider and reevaluate contributions of organic aerosol to light absorption, especially its role in haze formation and radiative forcing. However, up to now, basic researches on light absorbing organic carbon are still limited in China. This study aimed to elucidate the need for basic research on brown carbon, summarize previous studies and research progress from different aspects such as sources, composition, measurement, mass concentration distribution, optical property, radiative forcing of brown carbon, point out the existing problems and deficiencies, and put forward suggestions for future study.

  14. Powerful Auroras Found at Brown Dwarf

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    This artist's concept shows an auroral display on a brown dwarf. If you could see an aurora on a brown dwarf, it would be a million times brighter than an aurora on Earth. Credits: Chuck Carter and Gregg Hallinan/Caltech --- Mysterious objects called brown dwarfs are sometimes called "failed stars." They are too small to fuse hydrogen in their cores, the way most stars do, but also too large to be classified as planets. But a new study in the journal Nature suggests they succeed in creating powerful auroral displays, similar to the kind seen around the magnetic poles on Earth. "This is a whole new manifestation of magnetic activity for that kind of object," said Leon Harding, a technologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and co-author on the study. On Earth, auroras are created when charged particles from the solar wind enter our planet's magnetosphere, a region where Earth's magnetic field accelerates and sends them toward the poles. There, they collide with atoms of gas in the atmosphere, resulting in a brilliant display of colors in the sky. Read more: www.nasa.gov/jpl/powerful-auroras-found-at-brown-dwarf NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Thyroid hormone status defines brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipose tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Juliane; Kranz, Mathias; Klöting, Nora; Kunath, Anne; Steinhoff, Karen; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Zeisig, Vilia; Hankir, Mohammed; Gebhardt, Claudia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Heiker, John T; Kralisch, Susan; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Sabri, Osama; Hesse, Swen; Brust, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Krause, Kerstin

    2016-12-12

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of thyroid hormone dysfunction on brown adipose tissue activity and white adipose tissue browning in mice. Twenty randomized female C57BL/6NTac mice per treatment group housed at room temperature were rendered hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. In-vivo small animal 18 F-FDG PET/MRI was performed to determine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on BAT mass and BAT activity. Ex-vivo 14 C-acetate loading assay and assessment of thermogenic gene and protein expression permitted analysis of oxidative and thermogenic capacities of WAT and BAT of eu-, hyper and hypothyroid mice. 18 F-FDG PET/MRI revealed a lack of brown adipose tissue activity in hypothyroid mice, whereas hyperthyroid mice displayed increased BAT mass alongside enhanced 18 F-FDG uptake. In white adipose tissue of both, hyper- and hypothyroid mice, we found a significant induction of thermogenic genes together with multilocular adipocytes expressing UCP1. Taken together, these results suggest that both the hyperthyroid and hypothyroid state stimulate WAT thermogenesis most likely as a consequence of enhanced adrenergic signaling or compensation for impaired BAT function, respectively.

  16. The Scientific Attack on Brown v. Board of Education, 1954-1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Psychologists' work was cited in the Supreme Court case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). One criticism of the citation was that psychology could be used to overturn the Brown decision and return the country to segregation. A historical examination of such an attempt to overturn Brown in the early 1960s on the basis of new psychological…

  17. Black, White, and Brown: The Transformation of Public Education in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles Vert; Willie, Sarah Susannah

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects upon changes in U.S. education since the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 decision in Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The authors reject both the naively hopeful and the bitterly cynical interpretations of the efficacy of Brown in favor of a more moderate assessment: Brown has had many positive effects, they…

  18. Moment tensor inversion of recent local moderate sized Van Earthquakes: seismicity and active tectonics of the Van region : Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalafat, D.; Suvarikli, M.; Ogutcu, Z.; Kekovali, K.; Ocal, M. F.; Gunes, Y.; Pinar, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study area of the present research, the Van Region is located at the norththern end of the collision zone between the Anatolia and Arabian plates. Therefore, the southeast border of the Anatolian plate collides with the Arabian plate along the Bitlis Suture Zone. This zone is formed by collision of Arabian and in large scale Eurasian plates at mid-Miocen age. This type of thrust generation as a result of compressional regime extends east-west. The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along Southern Turkey (e.g. Lice, 1971; Varto, 1966; Caldiran, 1976). On the 23th of October 2011, an earthquake shook the Van Lake, Eastern Turkey, following a seismic sequence of more than three months in an unprecedented episode for this region characterized by null or low seismicity. The October 23, 2011 Van-Ercis Earthquake (Mw=7.1) was the most devastating resulting in loss of life and destruction. In order to study the aftershocks' activity of this main event, we installed and kept a seismic network of 10 broad-band (BB) stations in the area for an interval of nearly fifteen months. We characterized the seismogenic structure of the zone by calculating a minimum 1-D local velocity model and obtaining precise hypocentre locations. We also calculated fault plane solutions for more than 200 moderate sized earthquakes based on first motion polarities and commonly Moment Tensor Inversion Methods. The seismogenic zone would be localized at aproximately 10 km depth. Generally, the distribution of the important moderate earthquakes and the aftershock distribution shows that the E-W and NE-SW oriented fault segments cause the earthquake activities. Aftershock events are located along the eastern border of Lake Van and mainly between 5 and 10 km depth and disposed in two alignments: a ~E-W-trending alignment that matches with the trace of the Van Trust fault Zone and a NE-trending which could correspond to an structure not previously seen. Selected focal mechanisms show a

  19. Brown at RMS controls on the aft flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-24

    STS095-366-031 (29 Oct-7 Nov 1998) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, Jr., mission commander, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Discovery. Brown was joined by four other NASA astronauts and two payload specialists for the nine-day mission.

  20. [Implementation of vanA and vanB genes by PCR technique research interest in system (Xpert vanA/vanB CepheidR) closed in a laboratory of microbiology in managing an outbreak to Enterococcus faecium resistant glycopeptide (EfRG)].

    PubMed

    Dekeyser, S; Beclin, E; Descamps, D

    2011-04-01

    The closed system PCR for the rapid detection of vanA and vanB genes (Xpert vanA/vanB Cepheid(®)) was evaluated in our laboratory, to improve the rapidity of the response and thus the management of patients and isolation measures during two GRE outbreaks. From March to December2009, 565 samples were analysed by PCR associated to bacterial culture initially for all samples for 2months (n = 75), and thereafter for PCR-positive samples only. In this study, sensitivity and negative predictive values of the PCR were 100%. Specificity was evaluated in the presence and absence of outbreak: 69.3 and 76.8% respectively. The variability of false positive rates between units were lower in nonepidemic than during epidemic phase. The global false positive rate was 23.9%. This easy-to-use technology provides rapid results… four samples are tested in 1h versus 72h for culture. Despite its reagent cost, it represents an important hospital diagnostic tool: improvement of the management of cohorting areas and patient transfer between units, adaptation of isolation measures and treatments. However, culture remains necessary to confirm any positive result obtained by PCR and for epidemiological surveillance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The onset of planet formation in brown dwarf disks.

    PubMed

    Apai, Dániel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Bouwman, Jeroen; Natta, Antonella; Henning, Thomas; Dullemond, Cornelis P

    2005-11-04

    The onset of planet formation in protoplanetary disks is marked by the growth and crystallization of sub-micrometer-sized dust grains accompanied by dust settling toward the disk mid-plane. Here, we present infrared spectra of disks around brown dwarfs and brown dwarf candidates. We show that all three processes occur in such cool disks in a way similar or identical to that in disks around low- and intermediate-mass stars. These results indicate that the onset of planet formation extends to disks around brown dwarfs, suggesting that planet formation is a robust process occurring in most young circumstellar disks.

  2. Lettucenin sesquiterpenes contribute significantly to the browning of lettuce.

    PubMed

    Mai, Franziska; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-05-21

    Wound-induced changes in the composition of secondary plant compounds cause the browning of processed lettuce. Cut tissues near the lettuce butt end clearly exhibit increased formation of yellow-brown pigments. This browning reaction is typically been attributed to the oxidation of polyphenols by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO). However, in our previous study on Iceberg lettuce, we showed that, besides the enzymatic polyphenol browning, other reactions must be involved in the formation of colored structures. With the present study for the first time, we isolated yellow sesquiterpenes by multilayer countercurrent chromatography (MLCCC), followed by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Further analyses by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques identified lettucenin A and three novel derivatives. We call these compounds lettucenins A1, B, and B1. Color-dilution analyses revealed these lettucenins as key chromophores in the browning of Iceberg lettuce. A time formation curve showed the accumulation of lettucenins A and B within 40 h after cutting. Thereafter, these structures were degraded to unknown colored compounds. Lettucenin A was verified in five varieties of Lactuca. In contrast to that, lettucenin A was present only at trace levels in five varieties of Cichorium. Therefore, lettucenin A might be used as a chemosystematic marker of the genus Lactuca.

  3. Arctic Browning: vegetation damage and implications for carbon balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treharne, Rachael; Bjerke, Jarle; Emberson, Lisa; Tømmervik, Hans; Phoenix, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    'Arctic browning' is the loss of biomass and canopy in Arctic ecosystems. This process is often driven by climatic and biological extreme events - notably extreme winter warm periods, winter frost-drought and severe outbreaks of defoliating insects. Evidence suggests that browning is becoming increasingly frequent and severe at the pan-arctic scale, a view supported by observations from more intensely observed regions, with major and unprecedented vegetation damage reported at landscape (>1000km2) and regional (Nordic Arctic Region) scales in recent years. Critically, the damage caused by these extreme events is in direct opposition to 'Arctic greening', the well-established increase in productivity and shrub abundance observed at high latitudes in response to long-term warming. This opposition creates uncertainty as to future anticipated vegetation change in the Arctic, with implications for Arctic carbon balance. As high latitude ecosystems store around twice as much carbon as the atmosphere, and vegetation impacts are key to determining rates of loss or gain of ecosystem carbon stocks, Arctic browning has the potential to influence the role of these ecosystems in global climate. There is therefore a clear need for a quantitative understanding of the impacts of browning events on key ecosystem carbon fluxes. To address this, field sites were chosen in central and northern Norway and in Svalbard, in areas known to have been affected by either climatic extremes or insect outbreak and subsequent browning in the past four years. Sites were chosen along a latitudinal gradient to capture both conditions already causing vegetation browning throughout the Norwegian Arctic, and conditions currently common at lower latitudes which are likely to become more damaging further North as climate change progresses. At each site the response of Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange to light was measured using a LiCor LI6400 Portable Photosynthesis system and a custom vegetation chamber with

  4. Proteomic identification of fat-browning markers in cultured white adipocytes treated with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Jae Heon; Mukherjee, Rajib; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that curcumin induces browning of primary white adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes. In this study, we attempted to identify target proteins responsible for this fat-browning effect by analyzing proteomic changes in cultured white adipocytes in response to curcumin treatment. To elucidate the role of curcumin in fat-browning, we conducted comparative proteomic analysis of primary adipocytes between control and curcumin-treated cells using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF-MS. We also investigated fatty acid metabolic targets, mitochondrial biogenesis, and fat-browning-associated proteins using combined proteomic and network analyses. Proteomic analysis revealed that 58 protein spots from a total of 325 matched spots showed differential expression between control and curcumin-treated adipocytes. Using network analysis, most of the identified proteins were proven to be involved in various metabolic and cellular processes based on the PANTHER classification system. One of the most striking findings is that hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was highly correlated with main browning markers based on the STRING database. HSL and two browning markers (UCP1, PGC-1α) were co-immunoprecipitated with these markers, suggesting that HSL possibly plays a role in fat-browning of white adipocytes. Our results suggest that curcumin increased HSL levels and other browning-specific markers, suggesting its possible role in augmentation of lipolysis and suppression of lipogenesis by trans-differentiation from white adipocytes into brown adipocytes (beige).

  5. Capsaicin in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders. These responses of capsaicin are mediated through activation of TRPV1, which can then modulate processes such as browning of adipocytes, and activation of metabolic modulators including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Modulation of these pathways by capsaicin can increase fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity, decrease body fat, and improve heart and liver function. Identifying suitable ways of administering capsaicin at an effective dose would warrant its clinical use through the activation of TRPV1. This review highlights the mechanistic options to improve metabolic syndrome with capsaicin. PMID:29772784

  6. Capsaicin in Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Bliss, Edward; Brown, Lindsay

    2018-05-17

    Capsaicin, the major active constituent of chilli, is an agonist on transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is present on many metabolically active tissues, making it a potentially relevant target for metabolic interventions. Insulin resistance and obesity, being the major components of metabolic syndrome, increase the risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In vitro and pre-clinical studies have established the effectiveness of low-dose dietary capsaicin in attenuating metabolic disorders. These responses of capsaicin are mediated through activation of TRPV1, which can then modulate processes such as browning of adipocytes, and activation of metabolic modulators including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Modulation of these pathways by capsaicin can increase fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity, decrease body fat, and improve heart and liver function. Identifying suitable ways of administering capsaicin at an effective dose would warrant its clinical use through the activation of TRPV1. This review highlights the mechanistic options to improve metabolic syndrome with capsaicin.

  7. Linkage and association mapping reveals the genetic basis of brown fibre (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Wen, Tianwang; Wu, Mi; Shen, Chao; Gao, Bin; Zhu, De; Zhang, Xianlong; You, Chunyuan; Lin, Zhongxu

    2018-02-24

    Brown fibre cotton is an environmental-friendly resource that plays a key role in the textile industry. However, the fibre quality and yield of natural brown cotton are poor, and fundamental research on brown cotton is relatively scarce. To understand the genetic basis of brown fibre cotton, we constructed linkage and association populations to systematically examine brown fibre accessions. We fine-mapped the brown fibre region, Lc 1 , and dissected it into 2 loci, qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. The qBF-A07-1 locus mediates the initiation of brown fibre production, whereas the shade of the brown fibre is affected by the interaction between qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2. Gh_A07G2341 and Gh_A07G0100 were identified as candidate genes for qBF-A07-1 and qBF-A07-2, respectively. Haploid analysis of the signals significantly associated with these two loci showed that most tetraploid modern brown cotton accessions exhibit the introgression signature of Gossypium barbadense. We identified 10 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fibre yield and 19 QTLs for fibre quality through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and found that qBF-A07-2 negatively affects fibre yield and quality through an epistatic interaction with qBF-A07-1. This study sheds light on the genetics of fibre colour and lint-related traits in brown fibre cotton, which will guide the elite cultivars breeding of brown fibre cotton. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effective field theories for van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Shtabovenko, Vladyslav; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Van der Waals interactions between two neutral but polarizable systems at a separation R much larger than the typical size of the systems are at the core of a broad sweep of contemporary problems in settings ranging from atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics to strong interactions and gravity. In this paper, we reexamine the dispersive van der Waals interactions between two hydrogen atoms. The novelty of the analysis resides in the usage of nonrelativistic effective field theories of quantum electrodynamics. In this framework, the van der Waals potential acquires the meaning of a matching coefficient in an effective field theory, dubbed van der Waals effective field theory, suited to describe the low-energy dynamics of an atom pair. It may be computed systematically as a series in R times some typical atomic scale and in the fine-structure constant α . The van der Waals potential gets short-range contributions and radiative corrections, which we compute in dimensional regularization and renormalize here for the first time. Results are given in d space-time dimensions. One can distinguish among different regimes depending on the relative size between 1 /R and the typical atomic bound-state energy, which is of order m α2. Each regime is characterized by a specific hierarchy of scales and a corresponding tower of effective field theories. The short-distance regime is characterized by 1 /R ≫m α2 and the leading-order van der Waals potential is the London potential. We also compute next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections. In the long-distance regime we have 1 /R ≪m α2. In this regime, the van der Waals potential contains contact terms, which are parametrically larger than the Casimir-Polder potential that describes the potential at large distances. In the effective field theory, the Casimir-Polder potential counts as a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order effect. In the intermediate-distance regime, 1 /R ˜m α2, a significantly more complex

  9. Activation of TRPV2 negatively regulates the differentiation of mouse brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wuping; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) acts as a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel that has been reported to be sensitive to temperature, mechanical force, and some chemicals. We recently showed that TRPV2 is critical for maintenance of the thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue in mice. However, the involvement of TRPV2 in the differentiation of brown adipocytes remains unexplored. We found that the expression of TRPV2 was dramatically increased during the differentiation of brown adipocytes. Non-selective TRPV2 agonists (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and lysophosphatidylcholine) inhibited the differentiation of brown adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner during the early stage of differentiation of brown adipocytes. The inhibition was rescued by a TRPV2-selective antagonist, SKF96365 (SKF). Mechanical force, which activates TRPV2, also inhibited the differentiation of brown adipocytes in a strength-dependent manner, and the effect was reversed by SKF. In addition, the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by either TRPV2 ligand or mechanical stimulation was significantly smaller in the cells from TRPV2KO mice. Moreover, calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and FK506, partially reversed TRPV2 activation-induced inhibition of brown adipocyte differentiation. Thus, we conclude that TRPV2 might be involved in the modulation of brown adipocyte differentiation partially via a calcineurin pathway.

  10. Brown's Legacy: The Promises and Pitfalls of Judicial Relief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Deborah Jones

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) is one of the greatest achievements of the American judicial system. It decisively declared racial segregation in the schools unconstitutional, inaugurating the modern civil rights era. In addition to advancing equality, "Brown" initiated a new type of judicial decision making. After…

  11. Effective production of fermentable sugars from brown macroalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Damao; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-11-01

    Brown macroalgae are renewable and sustainable biomass resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals, owing to their high levels of carbohydrates and low levels of lignin. To increase the biological usage of brown macroalgae, it is necessary to depolymerize the polysaccharides that generate macroalgal monomeric sugars or sugar derivatives and to convert them into fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this review, we discuss the chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the major carbohydrates found in brown macroalgae and the use of the resulting constituents in the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as high-value health-benefiting functional oligosaccharides and sugars. We also discuss recently reported experimental results, novel enzymes, and technological breakthroughs that are related to polysaccharide depolymerization, fermentable sugar production, and the biological conversion of non-favorable sugars for fermentation using industrial microorganisms. This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the efficient utilization of brown macroalgae as renewable resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

  12. Browning of human adipocytes requires KLF11 and reprogramming of PPARγ superenhancers.

    PubMed

    Loft, Anne; Forss, Isabel; Siersbæk, Majken Storm; Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Larsen, Ann-Sofie Bøgh; Madsen, Jesper Grud Skat; Pisani, Didier F; Nielsen, Ronni; Aagaard, Mads Malik; Mathison, Angela; Neville, Matt J; Urrutia, Raul; Karpe, Fredrik; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists such as rosiglitazone induces browning of rodent and human adipocytes; however, the transcriptional mechanisms governing this phenotypic switch in adipocytes are largely unknown. Here we show that rosiglitazone-induced browning of human adipocytes activates a comprehensive gene program that leads to increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Once induced, this gene program and oxidative capacity are maintained independently of rosiglitazone, suggesting that additional browning factors are activated. Browning triggers reprogramming of PPARγ binding, leading to the formation of PPARγ "superenhancers" that are selective for brown-in-white (brite) adipocytes. These are highly associated with key brite-selective genes. Based on such an association, we identified an evolutionarily conserved metabolic regulator, Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11), as a novel browning transcription factor in human adipocytes that is required for rosiglitazone-induced browning, including the increase in mitochondrial oxidative capacity. KLF11 is directly induced by PPARγ and appears to cooperate with PPARγ in a feed-forward manner to activate and maintain the brite-selective gene program. © 2015 Loft et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, S.E.; Poloski, J.P.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis techniques, i.e., event tree and fault tree analysis, were utilized to provide a risk assessment of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1. Browns Ferry 1 is a General Electric boiling water reactor of the BWR 4 product line with a Mark 1 (drywell and torus) containment. Within the guidelines of the IREP Procedure and Schedule Guide, dominant accident sequences that contribute to public health and safety risks were identified and grouped according to release categories.

  15. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  16. Arthur van Gehuchten takes neurology to the movies.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Geneviève

    2002-11-26

    To present the cinematographic production of Arthur Van Gehuchten (1861-1914) and to put this collection into its medical and sociocultural context. The arrival of Edison's Kinetoscope (1891) and Lumière's Cinématographe (1895) provoked the immediate interest of neurologists who foresaw the potential of motion pictures for illustration, research, and teaching. Arthur Van Gehuchten, professor of anatomy and neurology at the Catholic University of Louvain, was trained as a microscopist and a cytologist. From neuroanatomy, he progressively broadened his interest to neurology. Van Gehuchten was an avant-garde teacher, eager to adopt new visual aids. In 1895, he attended the first cinematographic screenings. Medical cinematography was soon brought into disrepute in European academic circles, when films made by the French surgeon Doyen were copied and shown on fairgrounds. Nevertheless, in 1905, Van Gehuchten began to film neurologic patients. He used this technique extensively to demonstrate clinical signs, to illustrate neurologic diseases, and to document functional evolution following surgery. For decades, these films were screened for medical students by Van Gehuchten's successors to the chair of neurology. The original nitrate films (more than 2 hours) have been recently rediscovered. They have been restored by the Royal Belgian Film Archive, where they are the oldest Belgian films. At the beginning of the 20th century, Van Gehuchten built up a collection of moving pictures for teaching purposes. This was one of the first such undertakings. This unique set of films has miraculously survived, and serves as an important archive of nervous diseases and their manifestations prior to the advent of modern therapies.

  17. Browning of White Fat: Novel Insight Into Factors, Mechanisms, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jeremic, Nevena; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2017-01-01

    What is more interesting about brown adipose tissue (BAT) is its ability to provide thermogenesis, protection against obesity by clearing triglycerides, releasing batokines, and mitigating insulin resistance. White adipose tissue (WAT) on the other hand stores excess energy and secretes some endocrine factors like leptin for regulating satiety. For the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the browning of fat keeping in view its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders and protection in the form of perivascular fat. Obesity is one such metabolic disorder that leads to significant morbidity and mortality from obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease risk. Browning of white fat paves the way to restrict obesity and obesity related disorders. Although exercise has been the most common factor for fat browning; however, there are other factors that involve: (1) beta aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA); (2) gamma amino butyric acid (GABA); (3) PPARɣ agonists; (4) JAK inhibition; and (5) IRISIN. In this review, we propose two novel factors musclin and TFAM for fat browning. Musclin a myokine released from muscles during exercise activates PPARɣ which induces browning of WAT that has beneficial metabolic and cardiac effects. TFAM is a transcription factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. Since BAT is rich in mitochondria, higher expression of TFAM in WAT or TFAM treatment in WAT cells can induce browning of WAT. We propose that fat browning can be used as a therapeutic tool for metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 61-68, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Widespread introgression of mountain hare genes into Fennoscandian brown hare populations.

    PubMed

    Levänen, Riikka; Thulin, Carl-Gustaf; Spong, Göran; Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O

    2018-01-01

    In Fennoscandia, mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and brown hare (Lepus europaeus) hybridize and produce fertile offspring, resulting in gene flow across the species barrier. Analyses of maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) show that introgression occur frequently, but unavailability of appropriate nuclear DNA markers has made it difficult to evaluate the scale- and significance for the species. The extent of introgression has become important as the brown hare is continuously expanding its range northward, at the apparent expense of the mountain hare, raising concerns about possible competition. We report here, based on analysis of 6833 SNP markers, that the introgression is highly asymmetrical in the direction of gene flow from mountain hare to brown hare, and that the levels of nuclear gene introgression are independent of mtDNA introgression. While it is possible that brown hares obtain locally adapted alleles from the resident mountain hares, the low levels of mountain hare alleles among allopatric brown hares suggest that hybridization is driven by stochastic processes. Interspecific geneflow with the brown hare is unlikely to have major impacts on mountain hare in Fennoscandia, but direct competition may.

  19. Lack of TRPV2 impairs thermogenesis in mouse brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wuping; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zhou, Yiming; Kim, Minji; Takayama, Yasunori; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Kawada, Teruo; Iwata, Yuko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a major site for mammalian non-shivering thermogenesis, could be a target for prevention and treatment of human obesity. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cation channel, plays vital roles in the regulation of various cellular functions. Here, we show that TRPV2 is expressed in brown adipocytes and that mRNA levels of thermogenic genes are reduced in both cultured brown adipocytes and BAT from TRPV2 knockout (TRPV2KO) mice. The induction of thermogenic genes in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation is also decreased in TRPV2KO brown adipocytes and suppressed by reduced intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in wild-type brown adipocytes. In addition, TRPV2KO mice have more white adipose tissue and larger brown adipocytes and show cold intolerance, and lower BAT temperature increases in response to β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Furthermore, TRPV2KO mice have increased body weight and fat upon high-fat-diet treatment. Based on these findings, we conclude that TRPV2 has a role in BAT thermogenesis and could be a target for human obesity therapy. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Nodal Statistics for the Van Vleck Polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Alain

    The Van Vleck polynomials naturally arise from the generalized Lamé equation as the polynomials of degree for which Eq. (1) has a polynomial solution of some degree k. In this paper, we compute the limiting distribution, as well as the limiting mean level spacings distribution of the zeros of any Van Vleck polynomial as N --> ∞.

  1. Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant radiological impact assessment report, January-June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Potential doses to maximum individuals and the population around Browns Ferry are calcuated for each quarter. Measured plant releases for the reporting period are used to estimate these doses. Dispersion of radioactive effluents in the environment is estimated in accordance with the guidance provided and measuring during the period. Using dose calculation methodologies which are described in detail in the Browns Ferry Offsite Dose Calculation Manual, the doses are calculated and used to determine compliance with the dose limits contained in Browns Ferry's Operating License. In this report, the doses resulting from releases are described and compared to quarterly andmore » annual limits established for Browns Ferry.« less

  2. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  3. Vehicle test report: Jet Industries Electra Van 600

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Wirth, V. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Electra Van 600, an electric vehicle, was tested. Tests were performed to characterize parameters of the Electra Van 600 and to provide baseline data to be used for comparison of improved batteries and to which will be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests concentrated on the electrical drive subsystem, the batteries, controller, and motor; coastdowns to characterize the road load and range evaluation for cyclic and constant speed conditions; and qualitative performance was evaluated. It is found that the Electra Van 600 range performance is approximately equal to the majority of the vehicles tested previously.

  4. Parallax measurements of cool brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Reffert, S.; Henning, T.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Accurate parallax measurements allow us to determine physical properties of brown dwarfs and help us constrain evolutionary and atmospheric models, break age-mass degeneracy, and reveal unresolved binaries. Aims: We measured absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of six cool brown dwarfs using background galaxies to establish an absolute reference frame. We derive the absolute J-band magnitude. The six T brown dwarfs in our sample have spectral types between T2.5 and T8 and magnitudes between 13.9 and 18.0 in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) with photometric distances below 25 pc. Methods: The observations were taken in the J-band with the Omega-2000 camera on the 3.5 m telescope at Calar Alto during a time period of 27 months between March 2011 and June 2013. The number of epochs varied between 11 and 12 depending on the object. The reduction of the astrometric measurements was carried out with respect to the field stars. The relative parallax and proper motions were transformed into absolute measurements using the background galaxies in our fields. Results: We obtained absolute parallaxes for our six brown dwarfs with a precision between 3 and 6 mas. We compared our results in a color-magnitude diagram with other brown dwarfs with determined parallax and with the BT-Settl 2012 atmospheric models. For four of the six targets, we found a good agreement in luminosity with objects of similar spectral types. We obtained an improved accuracy in the parallaxes and proper motions in comparison to previous works. The object 2MASS J11061197+2754225 is more than 1 mag overluminous in all bands, which point to binarity or high order multiplicity. Based on observations taken with Omega-2000 at the 3.5 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Parallaxes for the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent; Kraus, Adam; Liu, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Understanding extremely cool atmospheres is a major goal of both brown dwarf and exoplanet studies. The WISE all-sky survey has uncovered the coolest brown dwarfs to date including the first unambiguous Y dwarfs. These discoveries are spectroscopically estimated to have temperatures of ~300-500 K and masses of ~5-20 Mjup, overlapping discoveries from radial velocity exoplanet surveys. However, direct distances are needed to determine model-independent temperatures and to test the observed properties against theoretical models in this new physical frontier. From our Cycle 8 program, we have successfully measured the first robust parallaxes for these extremely low-luminosity objects using Spitzer [3.6]-band astrometry, made possible with our improved distortion solution for IRAC. Our results, comprising less than half the currently known late-T/Y census, have uncovered a number of puzzles. Perhaps the most intriguing is the possibility that the observed near-IR spectral types and spectral energy distributions do not follow a simple correspondence with temperature, in contrast to all other (hotter) substellar and stellar objects. We propose here to obtain definitive parallaxes and temperatures to the ~2 dozen known coldest brown dwarfs. For our Cycle 8 sample, these new data will double the time baseline, leading to major improvements over our preliminary results. We will also double the total sample with parallaxes for more recent discoveries. Altogether, our work will establish the temperature scale as a function of spectral type, delineate the cooling (and intrinsic scatter) through the T/Y transition, and enable strong test of theoretical models for these coldest brown dwarfs, which are ~100x fainter than previously known objects at near-IR wavelengths.

  6. Bovine Progressive Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy (Weaver Syndrome) in Brown Swiss Cattle in Canada: A Literature Review and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Baird, John D.; Sarmiento, Ulla M.; Basrur, Parvathi K.

    1988-01-01

    A 15-month-old purebred Brown Swiss heifer was presented because of posterior paresis and ataxia. Histopathological examination of the brain and spinal cord showed evidence of a mild diffuse degenerative myeloencephalopathy. The most severe degenerative lesions were located in the white matter of the thoracic spinal cord. We believe this to be the first documented case of bovine progressive degenerative myeloencephalopathy (“weaver syndrome”) in Canada. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2., Figure 3., Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423028

  7. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, MS Brown juggles food containers on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    At open middeck stowage locker MF14G single tray assembly, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown removes food containers during meal preparation activities. Fellow crewmember MS James C. Adamson looks on as food and beverage containers, cans, and bags freefloat in front of Brown and above the open locker. At Brown's left along the port side wall are the side hatch, galley, and control panel ML86B. Brown is wearing a t-shirt and light blue constant wear garment with notepad strapped above his knee.

  8. The brown adipocyte differentiation pathway in birds: An evolutionary road not taken

    PubMed Central

    Mezentseva, Nadejda V; Kumaratilake, Jaliya S; Newman, Stuart A

    2008-01-01

    Background Thermogenic brown adipose tissue has never been described in birds or other non-mammalian vertebrates. Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene UCP1, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. Results We have identified in vitro inductive conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte-like cells (ABALCs) with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we show here, lizard species lack the gene for UCP1, although it is present in amphibian and fish species. While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical to brown fat differentiation in mammals: both the common adipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and a coactivator of that factor specific to brown fat differentiation in mammals, PGC1α, are elevated in expression, as are mitochondrial volume and DNA. Furthermore, ABALCs induction resulted in strong transcription from a transfected mouse UCP1 promoter. Conclusion These findings strongly suggest that the brown fat differentiation pathway evolved in a common ancestor of birds and mammals and its thermogenicity was lost in the avian lineage, with the degradation of UCP1, after it separated from the mammalian lineage. Since this event occurred no later than the saurian ancestor of birds and lizards, an implication of this is that dinosaurs had neither UCP1 nor canonically thermogenic brown fat. PMID:18426587

  9. 37 NEW T-TYPE BROWN DWARFS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE BROWN DWARFS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Loic; Artigau, Etienne; Delorme, Philippe

    2011-06-15

    The Canada-France Brown Dwarfs Survey is an i'- and z'-band survey realized with MegaCam at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope that covers a surface area of 780 deg{sup 2}. Image analysis is now completed while J-band follow-up campaigns are {approx}90% done. The survey identified about 70 T dwarf candidates, of which 43 now have near-infrared spectra obtained with NIRI and GNIRS at Gemini and ISAAC at the Very Large Telescope. Six of these were previously published and we present here the 37 new discoveries, all T dwarfs. They range from T0 to T8.5 with four being of type T7 or later. Bothmore » newly identified T8 dwarfs are possibly high log (g) massive brown dwarfs of thin disk age. One T4.5 dwarf shows signs of sub-metallicity. We present proper motions and near-infrared photometry, and discuss about the most peculiar/interesting objects in some details.« less

  10. Role of Reactive Carbonyl Species in non-enzymatic browning of apple juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Paravisini, Laurianne; Peterson, Devin G

    2018-04-15

    Non-enzymatic browning during storage of fruit juice causes the development of brown color and off-flavors that ultimately lead to a decrease in consumer acceptability. This study investigates the role of Reactive Carbonyl Species (RCS) from the Maillard reaction on browning formation in apple juice during storage. Over a 10-week period under accelerated conditions (35 °C), a significant increase in brown color development was observed and positively correlated to the RCS concentrations. Supplementation experiments established causality between specific RCS and browning and allowed for the identification of glyoxal and methylglyoxal as key browning intermediates in apple juice. Finally, phloretin, a ubiquitous apple dihydrochalcone, was reported as an efficient browning suppressor by significantly reducing the RCS levels and inhibiting the color formation during storage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  12. Rater Biases in Genetically Informative Research Designs: Comment on Bartels, Boomsma, Hudziak, van Beijsterveldt, and van den Oord (2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, William T.

    2007-01-01

    Rater biases are of interest to behavior genetic researchers, who often use ratings data as a basis for studying heritability. Inclusion of multiple raters for each sibling pair (M. Bartels, D. I. Boomsma, J. J. Hudziak, T. C. E. M. van Beijsterveldt, & E. J. C. G. van den Oord, 2007) is a promising strategy for controlling bias variance and may…

  13. Integrated Circuitry: Catharine Brown across Gender, Race, and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joshua B.

    2006-01-01

    This article talks about a Cherokee woman named Catharine Brown who was converted to Christianity by missionaries, as well as historical and theoretical contexts regarding the Cherokee. The author presents views from critics, such as Theda Perdue, Carolyn Ross Johnston, and Arnold Krupat, on Catharine Brown's experiences across spheres such as…

  14. Brown CA et al 2016 Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains the research described in the following publication:Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Attainment of Water Temperature Criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 169:136-146, doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.11.006.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Brown , C., D. Sharp, and T. MochonCollura. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Attainment of Water Temperature Criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). ESTUARINE, COASTAL AND SHELF SCIENCE. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 169: 136-146, (2016).

  15. NTT Observations Indicate that Brown Dwarfs Form Like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    Dusty Disks Detected around Very Young Substellar Objects in the Orion Nebula Summary An international team of astronomers [2] is announcing today the discovery of dusty disks surrounding numerous very faint objects that are believed to be recently formed Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula [3]. This finding is based on detailed observations with SOFI, a specialised infrared-sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope at the La Silla Observatory. It is of special interest because it sheds light on the origin and nature of substellar objects, known as "Brown Dwarfs" . In particular, these results suggest that Brown Dwarfs share a common origin with stars and that Brown Dwarfs are more similar in nature to stars than to planets and, like stars, have the potential to form with accompanying systems of planets. Moreover, the presence of dusty protoplanetary disks around the faintest objects in the Orion Nebula cluster confirms both the membership of these faint stars in the cluster and their nature as bona-fide substellar objects, making this the largest population of Brown Dwarf objects yet known . These important results are being reported today to the American Astronomical Society Meeting in Pasadena (California, USA). PR Photo 22a/01 : Infrared picture of the Orion Nebula (NTT + SOFI). PR Photo 22b/01 : "Finding Chart" for Very Young Brown Dwarfs in the Orion Nebula. PR Photo 22c/01 : Animated GIF presentation of PR Photos 22a+b/01. Faint substellar objects in the Milky Way Over the past 5 years, several groups of astronomers have identified a type of very faint, substellar objects within our Milky Way galaxy. These gaseous objects have very low masses and will never shine like normal stars because they cannot achieve central temperatures high enough for sustained thermal nuclear reactions to occur in their cores. Such objects weigh less than about 7% of our Sun and have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs" , "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets

  16. Genomic, cDNA and embryonic expression analysis of zebrafish IRF6, the gene mutated in the human oral clefting disorders Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ben, Jin; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Chong, Samuel S

    2005-06-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) and popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS) are autosomal dominant clefting disorders recently discovered to be caused by mutations in the IRF6 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 6) gene. The IRF gene family consists of nine members encoding transcription factors that share a highly conserved helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and a less conserved protein-binding domain. Most IRFs regulate the expression of interferon-alpha and -beta after viral infection, but the function of IRF6 remains unknown. We have isolated a full-length zebrafish irf6 cDNA, which encodes a 492 amino acid protein that contains a Smad-IRF interaction motif and a DNA-binding domain. The zebrafish irf6 gene consists of eight exons and maps to linkage group 22 closest to marker unp1375. By in situ hybridization analysis of embryo whole-mounts and cryosections, we demonstrate that irf6 is first expressed as a maternal transcript. During gastrulation, irf6 expression was concentrated in the forerunner cells. From the bud stage to the 3-somite stage, irf6 expression was observed in the Kupffer's vesicle. No expression could be detected at the 6-somite and 10-somite stages. At the 14-somite stage, expression was detected in the otic placode. At the 17-somite stage, strong expression was also observed in the cloaca. During the pharyngula, hatch and larva periods up to 5 days post-fertilization, irf6 was expressed in the pharyngeal arches, olfactory and otic placodes, and in the epithelial cells of endoderm derived tissues. The latter tissues include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, endodermal lining of swim bladder, liver, exocrine pancreas, and associated ducts. Overall, the zebrafish expression data are consistent with the observations of lip pits in VWS patients, as well as more recent reports of alae nasi, otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss documented in some patients.

  17. RpoS induces expression of the Vibrio anguillarum quorum-sensing regulator VanT.

    PubMed

    Weber, Barbara; Croxatto, Antony; Chen, Chang; Milton, Debra L

    2008-03-01

    In vibrios, regulation of the Vibrio harveyi-like LuxR transcriptional activators occurs post-transcriptionally via small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that destabilize the luxR mRNA at a low cell population, eliminating expression of LuxR. Expression of the sRNAs is modulated by the vibrio quorum-sensing phosphorelay systems. However, vanT mRNA, which encodes a LuxR homologue in Vibrio anguillarum, is abundant at low and high cell density, indicating that VanT expression may be regulated via additional mechanisms. In this study, Western analyses showed that VanT was expressed throughout growth with a peak of expression during late exponential growth. VanO induced partial destabilization of vanT mRNA via activation of at least one Qrr sRNA. Interestingly, the sigma factor RpoS significantly stabilized vanT mRNA and induced VanT expression during late exponential growth. This induction was in part due to RpoS repressing expression of Hfq, an RNA chaperone. RpoS is not part of the quorum-sensing regulatory cascade since RpoS did not regulate expression or activity of VanO, and RpoS was not regulated by VanO or VanT. VanT and RpoS were needed for survival following UV irradiation and for pigment and metalloprotease production, suggesting that RpoS works with the quorum-sensing systems to modulate expression of VanT, which regulates survival and stress responses.

  18. Boron uptake, localization, and speciation in marine brown algae.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric P; Wu, Youxian; Carrano, Carl J

    2016-02-01

    In contrast to the generally boron-poor terrestrial environment, the concentration of boron in the marine environment is relatively high (0.4 mM) and while there has been extensive interest in its use as a surrogate of pH in paleoclimate studies in the context of climate change-related questions, the relatively depth independent, and the generally non-nutrient-like concentration profile of this element have led to boron being neglected as a potentially biologically relevant element in the ocean. Among the marine plant-like organisms the brown algae (Phaeophyta) are one of only five lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes to have evolved complex multicellularity. Many of unusual and often unique features of brown algae are attributable to this singular evolutionary history. These adaptations are a reflection of the marine coastal environment which brown algae dominate in terms of biomass. Consequently, brown algae are of fundamental importance to oceanic ecology, geochemistry, and coastal industry. Our results indicate that boron is taken up by a facilitated diffusion mechanism against a considerable concentration gradient. Furthermore, in both Ectocarpus and Macrocystis some boron is most likely bound to cell wall constituent alginate and the photoassimilate mannitol located in sieve cells. Herein, we describe boron uptake, speciation, localization and possible biological function in two species of brown algae, Macrocystis pyrifera and Ectocarpus siliculosus.

  19. Antibodies to Pseudogymnoascus destructans are not sufficient for protection against white-nose syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Lilley, Thomas M; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C; McMichael, James W; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Seery, Christopher W; Lumadue, Shayne S; Altmann, Alexander J; Toro, Michael O; Field, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that affects bats during hibernation. Although millions of bats have died from WNS in North America, mass mortality has not been observed among European bats infected by the fungus, leading to the suggestion that bats in Europe are immune. We tested the hypothesis that an antibody-mediated immune response can provide protection against WNS by quantifying antibodies reactive to Pd in blood samples from seven species of free-ranging bats in North America and two free-ranging species in Europe. We also quantified antibodies in blood samples from little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) that were part of a captive colony that we injected with live Pd spores mixed with adjuvant, as well as individuals surviving a captive Pd infection trial. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Pd, as well as antibody titers, was greater among little brown myotis than among four other species of cave-hibernating bats in North America, including species with markedly lower WNS mortality rates. Among little brown myotis, the greatest titers occurred in populations occupying regions with longer histories of WNS, where bats lacked secondary symptoms of WNS. We detected antibodies cross-reactive with Pd among little brown myotis naïve to the fungus. We observed high titers among captive little brown myotis injected with Pd. We did not detect antibodies against Pd in Pd-infected European bats during winter, and titers during the active season were lower than among little brown myotis. These results show that antibody-mediated immunity cannot explain survival of European bats infected with Pd and that little brown myotis respond differently to Pd than species with higher WNS survival rates. Although it appears that some species of bats in North America may be developing resistance to WNS, an antibody-mediated immune response does not provide an explanation for these remnant populations. PMID:26078857

  20. Antibodies to Pseudogymnoascus destructans are not sufficient for protection against white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Lilley, Thomas M; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C; McMichael, James W; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Seery, Christopher W; Lumadue, Shayne S; Altmann, Alexander J; Toro, Michael O; Field, Kenneth A

    2015-06-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that affects bats during hibernation. Although millions of bats have died from WNS in North America, mass mortality has not been observed among European bats infected by the fungus, leading to the suggestion that bats in Europe are immune. We tested the hypothesis that an antibody-mediated immune response can provide protection against WNS by quantifying antibodies reactive to Pd in blood samples from seven species of free-ranging bats in North America and two free-ranging species in Europe. We also quantified antibodies in blood samples from little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) that were part of a captive colony that we injected with live Pd spores mixed with adjuvant, as well as individuals surviving a captive Pd infection trial. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Pd, as well as antibody titers, was greater among little brown myotis than among four other species of cave-hibernating bats in North America, including species with markedly lower WNS mortality rates. Among little brown myotis, the greatest titers occurred in populations occupying regions with longer histories of WNS, where bats lacked secondary symptoms of WNS. We detected antibodies cross-reactive with Pd among little brown myotis naïve to the fungus. We observed high titers among captive little brown myotis injected with Pd. We did not detect antibodies against Pd in Pd-infected European bats during winter, and titers during the active season were lower than among little brown myotis. These results show that antibody-mediated immunity cannot explain survival of European bats infected with Pd and that little brown myotis respond differently to Pd than species with higher WNS survival rates. Although it appears that some species of bats in North America may be developing resistance to WNS, an antibody-mediated immune response does not provide an explanation for these remnant populations.

  1. Current status of brown bears in the Manasalu Conservation Area, Nepal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aryal, Achyut; Sathyakumar, S.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    Although brown bears (Ursus arctos) are rare in the Himalayan region, populations have been documented in alpine habitats of Pakistan and India. Brown bears were once known to exist in both Nepal and Bhutan, but current information on their numbers and distributions was lacking. We document the presence of brown bears in the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA) in Nepal using field surveys and interviews with local people. We were able to confirm the existence of a remnant population based on finding bear scat and locations where bears excavated for Himalayan marmots (Marmota himalayana). Based on interviews with local people, it appeared that the presence of brown bears in the area is relatively recent and likely a result of immigration of bears from the Tibetan Autonomous Region. Interviews with local herders also indicated that livestock losses from brown bear predation amounted to approximately 318,000 Nepali rupees (US $4,240) from February 2006 through July 2008.

  2. Chandra Captures Flare From Brown Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    The first flare ever seen from a brown dwarf, or failed star, was detected by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bright X-ray flare has implications for understanding the explosive activity and origin of magnetic fields of extremely low mass stars. Chandra detected no X-rays at all from LP 944-20 for the first nine hours of a twelve hour observation, then the source flared dramatically before it faded away over the next two hours. "We were shocked," said Dr. Robert Rutledge of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, the lead author on the discovery paper to appear in the July 20 issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. "We didn't expect to see flaring from such a lightweight object. This is really the 'mouse that roared.'" Chandra LP 944-20 X-ray Image Press Image and Caption The energy emitted in the brown dwarf flare was comparable to a small solar flare, and was a billion times greater than observed X-ray flares from Jupiter. The flaring energy is believed to come from a twisted magnetic field. "This is the strongest evidence yet that brown dwarfs and possibly young giant planets have magnetic fields, and that a large amount of energy can be released in a flare," said Dr. Eduardo Martin, also of Caltech and a member of the team. Professor Gibor Basri of the University of California, Berkeley, the principal investigator for this observation, speculated that the flare "could have its origin in the turbulent magnetized hot material beneath the surface of the brown dwarf. A sub-surface flare could heat the atmosphere, allowing currents to flow and give rise to the X-ray flare -- like a stroke of lightning." LP 944-20 is about 500 million years old and has a mass that is about 60 times that of Jupiter, or 6 percent that of the Sun. Its diameter is about one-tenth that of the Sun and it has a rotation period of less than five hours. Located in the constellation Fornax in the southern skies, LP 944-20 is one of the best studied brown dwarfs because it is

  3. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was…

  4. Thirty Years After Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.

    Although many school districts and classrooms have desegregated since the 1954 Brown decision, desegregation is neither complete nor uniform. Moreover, racial isolation is growing in some regions and cities, and new forms of separation are arising within desegregated schools. New desegregation strategies and policies are needed, but these will be…

  5. Systemic control of brown fat thermogenesis: integration of peripheral and central signals.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Tim J; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is of great scientific interest as a potential target to treat obesity. The development of novel strategies to quantify brown fat thermogenesis in adult humans now enables minimally invasive assessment of novel pharmacotherapeutics. Input from the central nervous system via sympathetic efferents is widely regarded as the key controller of BAT-mediated thermogenesis in response to changes in body temperature or nutrient availability. More recently, however, it has become clear that locally secreted signals and endocrine factors originating from multiple organs can control the recruitment of brown adipocytes and, more importantly, induce thermogenesis in brown fat. Thus, they provide an attractive strategy to fine-tune brown fat thermogenesis independent of classical temperature sensing. Here, we summarize recent findings on bone morphogenetic protein signaling as an example of secreted factors in the regulation of brown adipocyte formation and systemic control of energy metabolism. We further highlight endocrine communication routes between the different types of brown adipocytes and other organs that contribute to regulation of thermogenesis. Thus, emerging evidence suggests that the classical mechanisms of central temperature sensing and sympathetic nervous system-driven thermogenesis are complemented by local and endocrine signals to determine systemic energy homeostasis. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. The Burden of Brown. Thirty Years of School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Raymond

    The Supreme Court's decision in Brown vs. Board of Education is one of the most important events in the recent history of the United States. Although "Brown" prohibited the use of racial discrimination to separate the races in the Topeka (Kansas) schools, similar cases from Delaware, South Carolina, and Virginia were consolidated on…

  7. The Road to Brown, Its Leaders, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the historic 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision in "Brown v. Board of Education" provides an opportunity to trace the origin of "Brown" and the long journey by African Americans to achieve quality elementary and secondary education in this country. This journey began with passage of the Fourteenth…

  8. Improvement Effect of Dewaxed Brown Rice on Constipation in Antibiotic-treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    INAGAWA, HIROYUKI; SAIKA, TOSHIYUKI; NISHIYAMA, NAOKI; NISIZAWA, TAKASHI; KOHCHI, CHIE; UENOBE, MAYA; SOMA, GEN-ICHIRO

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: A decrease in gastrointestinal motility causing weakened lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling along with a decline in the number of enteric bacteria is known to be a cause of constipation due to the administration of antibiotics. A new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed, resulting in quick-cooking and tasty product, contains 100-times more LPS than polished white rice. In this study, the improvement effect on constipation due to intake of dewaxed brown rice was examined. Materials and Methods: Dewaxed brown rice was prepared at Toyo Rice from brown rice. Mice were given powdered feed to which powdered rice containing 0-50% of dewaxed brown rice was added. Antibiotics were administered for 10 or 27 days in drinking water containing vancomycin, metronidazole and neomycin. LPS, used as a control, was freely provided in drinking water. The defecation frequency, stool weight per hour and body weight were determined on the last day. Results: Although the 10-day administration of antibiotics reduced the stool weight per hour to half, the dewaxed brown rice and LPS groups showed a trend towards improvement at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. The body weight significantly decreased after the 27-day administration of antibiotics but was improved in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. Though the defecation frequency and wet and dry stool weights per hour were reduced by as much as 50% in the group receiving antibiotics, a significant improvement in constipation was observed in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group. Conclusion: As the improvement effect of dewaxed brown rice on body weight loss and constipation caused by the long-term administration of antibiotics has been confirmed in animal experimentation, the introduction of dewaxed brown rice as a staple food to patients under long-term antibiotic treatment may improve constipation. PMID

  9. Improvement Effect of Dewaxed Brown Rice on Constipation in Antibiotic-treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Saika, Toshiyuki; Nishiyama, Naoki; Nisizawa, Takashi; Kohchi, Chie; Uenobe, Maya; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A decrease in gastrointestinal motility causing weakened lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling along with a decline in the number of enteric bacteria is known to be a cause of constipation due to the administration of antibiotics. A new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed, resulting in quick-cooking and tasty product, contains 100-times more LPS than polished white rice. In this study, the improvement effect on constipation due to intake of dewaxed brown rice was examined. Dewaxed brown rice was prepared at Toyo Rice from brown rice. Mice were given powdered feed to which powdered rice containing 0-50% of dewaxed brown rice was added. Antibiotics were administered for 10 or 27 days in drinking water containing vancomycin, metronidazole and neomycin. LPS, used as a control, was freely provided in drinking water. The defecation frequency, stool weight per hour and body weight were determined on the last day. Although the 10-day administration of antibiotics reduced the stool weight per hour to half, the dewaxed brown rice and LPS groups showed a trend towards improvement at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. The body weight significantly decreased after the 27-day administration of antibiotics but was improved in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. Though the defecation frequency and wet and dry stool weights per hour were reduced by as much as 50% in the group receiving antibiotics, a significant improvement in constipation was observed in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group. As the improvement effect of dewaxed brown rice on body weight loss and constipation caused by the long-term administration of antibiotics has been confirmed in animal experimentation, the introduction of dewaxed brown rice as a staple food to patients under long-term antibiotic treatment may improve constipation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr

  10. van Manen's method and reduction in a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Kristiina

    2015-03-01

    To describe van Manen's method and concept of reduction in a study that used a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Nurse researchers have used van Manen's method in different ways. Participants' lifeworlds are described in depth, but descriptions of reduction have been brief. The literature and knowledge review and manual search of research articles. Databases Web Science, PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO, without applying a time period, to identify uses of van Manen's method. This paper shows how van Manen's method has been used in nursing research and gives some examples of van Manen's reduction. Reduction enables us to conduct in-depth phenomenological hermeneutic research and understand people's lifeworlds. As there are many variations in adapting reduction, it is complex and confusing. This paper contributes to the discussion of phenomenology, hermeneutic study and reduction. It opens up reduction as a method for researchers to exploit.

  11. Intravitreally Injected Anti-VEGF Antibody Reduces Brown Fat in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Park, Sung Wook; Cho, Chang Sik; Powner, Michael B; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Fruttiger, Marcus; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are the mainstay treatment for various angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. Currently, bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF antibody, is trailed in retinopathy of prematurity, a vasoproliferative retinal disorder in premature infants. However, the risks of systemic complications after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody in infants are not well understood. In this study, we show that intravitreally injected anti-VEGF antibody is transported into the systemic circulation into the periphery where it reduces brown fat in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. A considerable amount of anti-VEGF antibody was detected in serum after intravitreal injection. Furthermore, in interscapular brown adipose tissue, we found lipid droplet accumulation, decreased VEGF levels, loss of vascular network, and decreased expression of mitochondria-related genes, Ppargc1a and Ucp1, all of which are characteristics of "whitening" of brown fat. With increasing age and body weight, brown fat restored its morphology and vascularity. Our results show that there is a transient, but significant impact of intravitreally administered anti-VEGF antibody on brown adipose tissue in neonatal mice. We suggest that more attention should be focused on the metabolic and developmental significance of brown adipose tissue in bevacizumab treated retinopathy of prematurity infants.

  12. Intravitreally Injected Anti-VEGF Antibody Reduces Brown Fat in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powner, Michael B.; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Fruttiger, Marcus; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2015-01-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are the mainstay treatment for various angiogenesis-related retinal diseases. Currently, bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-VEGF antibody, is trailed in retinopathy of prematurity, a vasoproliferative retinal disorder in premature infants. However, the risks of systemic complications after intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF antibody in infants are not well understood. In this study, we show that intravitreally injected anti-VEGF antibody is transported into the systemic circulation into the periphery where it reduces brown fat in neonatal C57BL/6 mice. A considerable amount of anti-VEGF antibody was detected in serum after intravitreal injection. Furthermore, in interscapular brown adipose tissue, we found lipid droplet accumulation, decreased VEGF levels, loss of vascular network, and decreased expression of mitochondria-related genes, Ppargc1a and Ucp1, all of which are characteristics of “whitening” of brown fat. With increasing age and body weight, brown fat restored its morphology and vascularity. Our results show that there is a transient, but significant impact of intravitreally administered anti-VEGF antibody on brown adipose tissue in neonatal mice. We suggest that more attention should be focused on the metabolic and developmental significance of brown adipose tissue in bevacizumab treated retinopathy of prematurity infants. PMID:26226015

  13. Genome-wide transcriptome and expression profile analysis of Phalaenopsis during explant browning.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanjun; Zeng, Biyu; Huang, Junmei; Huang, Wen; Liu, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Explant browning presents a major problem for in vitro culture, and can lead to the death of the explant and failure of regeneration. Considerable work has examined the physiological mechanisms underlying Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning, but the molecular mechanisms of browning remain elusive. In this study, we used whole genome RNA sequencing to examine Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning at genome-wide level. We first used Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence the transcriptome of Phalaenopsis and then performed de novo transcriptome assembly. We assembled 79,434,350 clean reads into 31,708 isogenes and generated 26,565 annotated unigenes. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript. Using the transcriptome data as a reference, we next analyzed the differential gene expression of explants cultured for 0, 3, and 6 d, respectively. We then identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after Phalaenopsis explant browning. We also performed GO, KEGG functional enrichment and Pfam analysis of all DEGs. Finally, we selected 11 genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis to confirm the expression profile analysis. Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of transcriptome and expression profiles during Phalaenopsis explant browning. Our results suggest that Phalaenopsis explant browning may be due in part to gene expression changes that affect the secondary metabolism, such as: phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis. Genes involved in photosynthesis and ATPase activity have been found to be changed at transcription level; these changes may perturb energy metabolism and thus lead to the decay of plant cells and tissues. This study provides comprehensive gene expression data for Phalaenopsis browning. Our data constitute an important resource for further functional studies to prevent explant browning.

  14. Genome-Wide Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis of Phalaenopsis during Explant Browning

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chuanjun; Zeng, Biyu; Huang, Junmei; Huang, Wen; Liu, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Background Explant browning presents a major problem for in vitro culture, and can lead to the death of the explant and failure of regeneration. Considerable work has examined the physiological mechanisms underlying Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning, but the molecular mechanisms of browning remain elusive. In this study, we used whole genome RNA sequencing to examine Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning at genome-wide level. Methodology/Principal Findings We first used Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence the transcriptome of Phalaenopsis and then performed de novo transcriptome assembly. We assembled 79,434,350 clean reads into 31,708 isogenes and generated 26,565 annotated unigenes. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript. Using the transcriptome data as a reference, we next analyzed the differential gene expression of explants cultured for 0, 3, and 6 d, respectively. We then identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after Phalaenopsis explant browning. We also performed GO, KEGG functional enrichment and Pfam analysis of all DEGs. Finally, we selected 11 genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis to confirm the expression profile analysis. Conclusions/Significance Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of transcriptome and expression profiles during Phalaenopsis explant browning. Our results suggest that Phalaenopsis explant browning may be due in part to gene expression changes that affect the secondary metabolism, such as: phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis. Genes involved in photosynthesis and ATPase activity have been found to be changed at transcription level; these changes may perturb energy metabolism and thus lead to the decay of plant cells and tissues. This study provides comprehensive gene expression data for Phalaenopsis browning. Our data constitute an important resource for further

  15. Genomic and expression analysis of the vanG-like gene cluster of Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Johann; Courtin, Pascal; El Meouche, Imane; Catel-Ferreira, Manuella; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Lemée, Ludovic; Pons, Jean-Louis

    2013-07-01

    Primary antibiotic treatment of Clostridium difficile intestinal diseases requires metronidazole or vancomycin therapy. A cluster of genes homologous to enterococcal glycopeptides resistance vanG genes was found in the genome of C. difficile 630, although this strain remains sensitive to vancomycin. This vanG-like gene cluster was found to consist of five ORFs: the regulatory region consisting of vanR and vanS and the effector region consisting of vanG, vanXY and vanT. We found that 57 out of 83 C. difficile strains, representative of the main lineages of the species, harbour this vanG-like cluster. The cluster is expressed as an operon and, when present, is found at the same genomic location in all strains. The vanG, vanXY and vanT homologues in C. difficile 630 are co-transcribed and expressed to a low level throughout the growth phases in the absence of vancomycin. Conversely, the expression of these genes is strongly induced in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin, indicating that the vanG-like operon is functional at the transcriptional level in C. difficile. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC-HPLC) and MS analysis of cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors of C. difficile 630 grown without vancomycin revealed the exclusive presence of a UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide with an alanine at the C terminus. UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide [d-Ala] was also the only peptidoglycan precursor detected in C. difficile grown in the presence of vancomycin, corroborating the lack of vancomycin resistance. Peptidoglycan structures of a vanG-like mutant strain and of a strain lacking the vanG-like cluster did not differ from the C. difficile 630 strain, indicating that the vanG-like cluster also has no impact on cell-wall composition.

  16. Progress toward automatic classification of human brown adipose tissue using biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Aliya; Towse, Theodore F.; Walker, Ronald C.; Avison, Malcom J.; Welch, E. B.

    2015-03-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a small but significant tissue, which may play an important role in obesity and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Interest in studying BAT in adult humans is increasing, but in order to quantify BAT volume in a single measurement or to detect changes in BAT over the time course of a longitudinal experiment, BAT needs to first be reliably differentiated from surrounding tissue. Although the uptake of the radiotracer 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in adipose tissue on positron emission tomography (PET) scans following cold exposure is accepted as an indication of BAT, it is not a definitive indicator, and to date there exists no standardized method for segmenting BAT. Consequently, there is a strong need for robust automatic classification of BAT based on properties measured with biomedical imaging. In this study we begin the process of developing an automated segmentation method based on properties obtained from fat-water MRI and PET-CT scans acquired on ten healthy adult subjects.

  17. Van der waals forces on thin liquid films in capillary tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Herdt, G.C.; Swanson, L.W.

    1993-10-01

    A theory of the van der Waals attraction between a thin liquid films and a capillary tube is presented assuming the presence of a vapor-liquid interface. The model is based on the surface mode analysis method of van Kampen et al. Values for the van der Waals interaction energy per unit area were calculated for liquid films of pentane on a gold substrate assuming a thin liquid film. Results indicate that the effect of capillary curvature on the van der Waals interaction increases as the ratio of the liquid film thickness to the capillary radius is increased. This trend ismore » consistent with predictions based on the Hamaker theory. Deviations from results based on the Hamaker theory are easily explained in terms of retardation of the van der Waals interaction. Because the effect of capillary curvature increases in the regime where retardation effects become important, curvature effects constitute a small correction to the van der Waals forces in a capillary tube.« less

  18. Kinetics of browning and correlations between browning degree and pyrazine compounds in l-ascorbic acid/acidic amino acid model systems.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ai-Nong; Zhou, Yong-Yan; Yang, Yi-Ni

    2017-04-15

    The kinetics of browning and the correlation between browning products (BPs) and pyrazine compounds were investigated by heating equimolar l-ascorbic acid (ASA)/acidic amino acids under weak alkaline conditions at 120-150°C for 10-120min. The formations of BPs and pyrazine compounds from the reaction were monitored by UV-vis and SPME-GC-FID, respectively. The formation of BPs in both ASA/l-glutamic acid and ASA/l-aspartic acid model reaction systems followed zero order reaction kinetics with activation energies (E a ) of 90.13 and 93.38kJ/mol, respectively. ASA/l-aspartic acid browned at a slightly higher rate than ASA/l-glutamic acid. The total concentration of pyrazine compounds was highly and positively correlated with that of BPs. Based on the observed kinetic data, the formation mechanisms of BPs and pyrazine compounds were proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Swertiajaponin as an anti-browning and antioxidant flavonoid.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kyoung Mi; Lee, Bonggi; Cho, Won-Kyung; Lee, Bong-Seon; Kim, Choon Young; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2018-06-30

    Enzymatic browning is a major issue that needs to be solved in the food industry. Although swertiajaponin is a flavonoid rich in the whole herb of Swertia japonica that has been clinically used, its biological functions and applicat​ion in the foods have not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that swertiajaponin efficiently blocked enzymatic browning in potatoes possibly by direct binding to and inactivating polyphenol oxidase. Furthermore, swertiajaponin showed potent antioxidant activity proven by markedly suppressed reactive oxygen species. Swertiajaponin significantly increased antioxidant properties of potato extract when it is added since it additively elevated total flavonoid content. Considering numerous beneficial effects of antioxidants, swertiajaponin may be used as a functional food additive to suppress enzymatic browning and elevate the antioxidant capacity of foods including beverages and soups by fortification of flavonoids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  1. Waardering en Analyse van Simulatieresultaten (Valuation and Analysis of Simulation Results)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    is uit de tabel van de Students T-verdeling te halen . Deze wordt aangeduid met t,(v), waarin a de overschrijdingskans en v bet aantal vrijheidsgraden...2 vrijheidsgraden. Uit de tabol van de Student’s t-verdeling zija nu de kritieke waardon R, on R2 to halen zodanig dat P(t >R2 ) = i Wordt or eon...analyse van simnulatieresultaten - TDCnaK RAPPORTE1CENTRALE Frederikkazerne, Geb. 140 AD-A25 470van den Burchlaan 31AD-A25 470Telefoon: 070-3166394

  2. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site transportation analysis report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-10-01

    The Volpe Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is providing transportation support to Martin Van Buren National Historic Site's (NHS) first General Management Plan (GMP), which will be complete in 2010 or 2011. Currently, Martin Van Buren NHS...

  3. Students Use VLA to Make Startling Brown-Dwarf Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    A group of summer students making a long-shot astronomical gamble with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) have found the first radio emission ever detected from a brown dwarf, an enigmatic object that is neither a star nor a planet, but something in between. Their surprising discovery is forcing experts to re-think their theories about how brown dwarfs work. The Very Large Array "Many astronomers are surprised at this discovery, because they didn't expect such strong radio emission from this object," said Shri Kulkarni, a Caltech professor who was on the team that first discovered a brown dwarf in 1995, and advisor to one of the students. "What is so cool is that this is research that probably nobody else would have tried to do because of its low chance of success. That made it ideal for summer students -- we had almost nothing to lose," said Kate Becker, a student at Oberlin College in Ohio. "The radio emission these students discovered coming from this brown dwarf is 10,000 times stronger than anyone expected," said Dale Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. "This student project is going to open up a whole new area of research for the VLA," Frail added. The students, in addition to Becker, are: Edo Berger from Caltech; Steven Ball from New Mexico Tech in Socorro, NM; Melanie Clarke from Carleton College in Northfield, MN; Therese Fukuda from the University of Denver; Ian Hoffman from the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque; Richard Mellon from The Pennsylvania State University; Emmanuel Momjian from the University of Kentucky; Nathanial Murphy from Amherst College in Amherst, MA; Stacey Teng from the University of Maryland; Timothy Woodruff from Southwestern University in Georgetown, TX; Ashley Zauderer from Agnes Scott College in Decatur, GA; and Robert Zavala from New Mexico State University in Las Cruces, NM. Frail also is an author of the research paper, published in the March

  4. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  5. Functional and anatomical characteristics of the nerve-brown adipose interaction in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaim, K. E.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on 12 male rats to study the coupling of signals from the sympathetic nervous system to the brown adipose tissue. Analysis of electron photomicrographs revealed considerable morphological heterogeneity among the nerves entering and leaving the interscapular fat pad. In response to electrical simulation of the nerves, the temperature of the brown fat increased following a rapid but transient temperature drop. Such changes were observed only on the ipsilateral side, indicating that the innervation to the interscapular brown fat of the rat is functionally bilateral rather than diffuse. The finding that brown fat is capable of responding in a graded fashion correlates well with observations suggesting that clusters of brown adipocytes may be electrically coupled.

  6. Four Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus Star-Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, E. L.; Dougados, C.; Magnier, E.; Ménard, F.; Magazzù, A.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Delfosse, X.

    2001-11-01

    We have identified four brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. They were first selected from R and I CCD photometry of 2.29 deg2 obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Subsequently, they were recovered in the Two Micron All Sky Survey second incremental data release point source catalog. Low-resolution optical spectra obtained at the William Herschel Telescope allow us to derive spectral types in the range M7-M9. One of the brown dwarfs has very strong Hα emission (EW=-340 Å). It also displays Brγ emission in an infrared spectrum obtained with the Infrared Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope, suggesting that it is accreting matter from a disk. The K I resonance doublet and the Na I subordinate doublet at 818.3 and 819.5 nm in these Taurus objects are weaker than in field dwarfs of similar spectral type, consistent with low surface gravities as expected for young brown dwarfs. Two of the objects are cooler and fainter than GG Tau Bb, the lowest mass known member of the Taurus association. We estimate masses of only 0.03 Msolar for them. The spatial distribution of brown dwarfs in Taurus hints at a possible anticorrelation between the density of stars and the density of brown dwarfs. Based on data collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  7. A. E. van Vogt: In Search of Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, H. L.

    A general semantics perspective of science fiction writer A. E. van Vogt is presented in this paper. The first major section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of van Vogt and traces the influence of A. Korzybski's work on general semantics, "Science and Sanity," on his writing, while the second major section provides an…

  8. PD-L1 is an activation-independent marker of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Jessica R; Dougan, Michael; Rashidian, Mohammad; Knoll, Marko; Keliher, Edmund J; Garrett, Sarah; Garforth, Scott; Blomberg, Olga S; Espinosa, Camilo; Bhan, Atul; Almo, Steven C; Weissleder, Ralph; Lodish, Harvey; Dougan, Stephanie K; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2017-09-21

    Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is expressed on a number of immune and cancer cells, where it can downregulate antitumor immune responses. Its expression has been linked to metabolic changes in these cells. Here we develop a radiolabeled camelid single-domain antibody (anti-PD-L1 VHH) to track PD-L1 expression by immuno-positron emission tomography (PET). PET-CT imaging shows a robust and specific PD-L1 signal in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We confirm expression of PD-L1 on brown adipocytes and demonstrate that signal intensity does not change in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic activation. This is the first robust method of visualizing murine brown fat independent of its activation state.Current approaches to visualise brown adipose tissue (BAT) rely primarily on markers that reflect its metabolic activity. Here, the authors show that PD-L1 is expressed on brown adipocytes, does not change upon BAT activation, and that BAT volume in mice can be measured by PET-CT with a radiolabeled anti-PD-L1 antibody.

  9. Van Driest transformation and compressible wall-bounded flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The transformation validity question utilizing resulting data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supersonic, isothermal cold wall channel flow was investigated. The DNS results stood for a wide scope of parameter and were suitable for the purpose of examining the generality of Van Driest transformation. The Van Driest law of the wall can be obtained from the inner-layer similarity arguments. It was demonstrated that the Van Driest transformation cannot be incorporated to collapse the sublayer and log-layer velocity profiles simultaneously. Velocity and temperature predictions according to the preceding composite mixing-length model were presented. Despite satisfactory congruity with the DNS data, the model must be perceived as an engineering guide and not as a rigorous analysis.

  10. Central Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Browns White Fat via Sympathetic Action in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Douris, Nicholas; Stevanovic, Darko M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Cisu, Theodore I; Chee, Melissa J; Nguyen, Ngoc L; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S; Bartness, Timothy J; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  11. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As inmore » the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.« less

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan

    Science.gov Websites

    FloristA> Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Natural Gas Delivery Vans Support McShan Florist Watch how a Dallas, Texas, florist reduces emissions and saves money fueling delivery vans with compressed natural gas. For information about this project

  13. Van de Hulst Essay: Light Scattering, Aerosols, Clouds, Climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr

    2017-12-06

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific study, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst assay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. Finally, after that, I present brieflymore » a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.« less

  14. Van de Hulst Essay: Light Scattering, Aerosols, Clouds, Climate, Hendrik van de Hulst, and I

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr

    It is not often that I have the opportunity to write something that is not a scientific study, and I am thankful for this opportunity to express my thoughts with regard to pursuits that are greater than those of science. In this van de Hulst assay, to honor Hendrik van de Hulst, I briefly summarize a few points from Hendrik's life that I find especially interesting, including his interests in spiritual (or religious) aspects of life, and his decision to avoid involvement in nucleation problems, a critical and basic uncertainty of current climate models. Finally, after that, I present brieflymore » a few episodes from my own experiences as an apprentice of science and life.« less

  15. Multiple Voices in Charles Van Riper's Desensitization Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Charles Van Riper (1905-94) author, researcher and practitioner, was one of the major contributors to the field of stuttering in the 20th century. His series of Action Therapy videotapes provide a useful model of how therapy was implemented by a master clinician. Aims: Van Riper's session with a client is analysed to reveal how voices…

  16. Finely dispersed brown carbon in a smoggy atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorchakov, G. I.; Vasiliev, A. V.; Verichev, K. S.; Semoutnikova, E. G.; Karpov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that the absorption capacity of smoke aerosol during mass forest and forest-peat fires is determined to a considerable degree by light absorbing organic compounds or brown carbon. According to the data from the AERONET global network of stations [1], the absorption spectra of smoke aerosol vary significantly if airborne particulate matter is contained in brown carbon. It is established that in several cases, the absorption spectra of smoke aerosol are approximated with satisfactory accuracy by exponents. It is shown that the finely dispersed (submicron) fraction of the smoke aerosol makes a major contribution to its optical characteristics in the 0.44-1.02 μm spectral region. Strong variation in the single scattering albedo is discovered in the presence of brown carbon in the smoke aerosol. It is shown that the optical characteristics of coarsely dispersed and finely dispersed fractions of smoke aerosol differ considerably.

  17. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both

  18. Characterizing germinated brown rice milk beverage processes using green technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice feeds approximately half the world’s population. However, due to milling losses, white rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals. Brown rice is nutritionally superior yet oils and rancidity can be problematic regarding storage and organoleptics. Germinating brown rice is known to increase ...

  19. Militaire Toepassingen Van Adaptieve Optiek (Military Applications of Adaptive Optics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    dat op dit moment met de beschikbare theorie mogelijk is. Een ander interessant aspect is de mate waarin de turbulentie effecten het jam patroon...systemen In WEAG studie JP8. 11 is aangetoond dat in theorie adaptieve technieken een verbetering van de prestaties van een DIRCM systeem kunnen...Molenaar; Theorie van de laserscintillometer; TNO repot PHL 1978-16 (1978). TNO-rapport I TNO-DV 2006 A336 35/35 6 Ondertekening Den Haag, september 2006

  20. Searching for brown dwarfs from submotions of binaries with speckle observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hsieh-Hai

    1994-01-01

    The search for brown dwarfs in binary systems is of great scientific interest and is a quest that pushes observing accuracy to its limit. The study of brown dwarfs is related to the search for dark matter, the initial mass function for stars of all masses, and theories of stellar formation. On the other hand, searching for brown dwarfs is a challenge because of their faintness and very low mass. Although many techniques have been used to detect brown dwarfs, a direct measurement of mass is the only criterion for distinguishing a brown dwarf from a star, and binary observation is still the best way for determining the accurate masses of celestial objects through Kepler's third law. Since 1976, CHARA has accumulated thousands of binary star speckle observations with high precision that can be used to find masses of possible unseen companions in binary systems through astrometrically measured submotions. A modified discrete Fourier transform was used to detect periodicity in data sets having uneven temporal distributions. This dissertation, an extension of work initiated by Dr. Ali Al-Shukri in 1991, uses the CHARA speckle measurements to evaluate their limiting accuracy and then to search for unseen companions from submotions of binary orbital motions. The successful detection of the previously known 1.83-year period sub-motion of the astrometric system ADS 8119 Aa demonstrates that this analysis can be used to find other systems in future investigations, even though no convincing evidence was found for the existence of a brown dwarf. Four possible companions were found to the binaries ADS 8197, ADS 9392, ADS 9494, and ADS 14073 with periods of 3.3, 2.6, 0.3, and 3.78 years and minimum masses in the ranges of 0.015-0.019, 0.11-0.65, 0.04-0.19, and 0.14-0.16 solar masses, respectively. The overall null result for detecting brown dwarfs may be partially explained as a real lack of massive brown dwarfs as members of multiple systems.

  1. SERUM ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE LEVEL IN THE PATIENTS OF OPIOID (BROWN SUGAR) DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilesh; Dave, Kirti

    1992-01-01

    The authors compared the serum acetylcholinesterase level in the patients of brown sugar dependence and the normal volunteers. Significantly lower level of serum acetylcholinesterase was found in patients of brown sugar dependence. PMID:21776148

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9

  3. Van Gogh from Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Van Gogh from Space - July 13th, 2005 Description: In the style of Van Gogh's painting "Starry Night," massive congregations of greenish phytoplankton swirl in the dark water around Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea. Phytoplankton are microscopic marine plants that form the first link in nearly all ocean food chains. Population explosions, or blooms, of phytoplankton, like the one shown here, occur when deep currents bring nutrients up to sunlit surface waters, fueling the growth and reproduction of these tiny plants. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  4. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    willow leaf blotch miner in boreal Alaska are likely to have resulted in decreased NDVI (Parent and Verbyla 2010). The NDVI browning trend has expanded in area in boreal North America (Beck and Goetz 2011). If the trend towards a warmer and drier climate continues, these areas may represent a future tipping point where drought-induced mortality across a boreal region may occur. Such events have already occurred in the western United States (van Mantgem et al 2009) and the aspen parklands of the southern Canadian boreal forest (Michaelian et al 2010). References Alcaraz-Segura D, Chuvieco E, Epstein H E, Kasischke E S and Trishchenko A 2010 Debating the greening vs. browning of the North American boreal forest: differences between satellite datasets Glob. Change Biol. 16 760-70 Anderson L, Abbott M B, Finney B P and Burns S J 2007 Late Holocene moisture balance variability in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada Quatern. Sci. Rev. 26 130-41 Barber V A, Juday G P and Finney B P 2000 Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress Nature 405 668-73 Barber V A, Juday G P, Finney B P and Wilmking M 2004 Reconstruction of summer temperatures in interior Alaska from tree-ring proxies: evidence for changing synoptic climate regimes Clim. Change 63 91-120 Beck P S A and Goetz S J 2011 Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences Environ. Res. Lett. 6 045501 Beck P S A, Juday G P, Alix C, Barber V A, Winslow S E, Sousa E E, Heiser P, Herriges J D and Goetz S J 2011 Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift Ecol. Lett. 14 373-9 Berg E E, Henry J D, Fastie C L, De Volder A D and Matsuoka S M 2006 Spruce beetle outbreaks on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon Territory: relationship to summer temperatures and regional differences in disturbance regimes

  5. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells.

  6. Pre-germinated brown rice could enhance maternal mental health and immunity during lactation.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shigeko; Hayashi, Takashi; Hayashi, Keiko; Murai, Fumie; Hori, Miyo; Kimoto, Koichi; Murakami, Kazuo

    2007-10-01

    Rice is a dietary staple worldwide, especially pre-germinated brown rice has recently been widely served in Japan because of its abundant nutrition. Relationship between lactation and pre-germinated brown rice has attracted interest in terms of mental health and immunity. To demonstrate that Japanese foods are beneficial for psychosomatic health, the effects of pre-germinated brown rice on the mental status and immunological features during lactation were investigated. Forty-one breast-feeding mothers were recruited, and randomly divided into two groups. One group took pre-germinated brown rice and the other white rice (control) as their staple diet for 2 weeks. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) and salivary amylase activity as psychological indices and secretory IgA (s-IgA) and lactoferrin (LTF) in breast milk as immunological indices were determined before and after dietary intervention, and changes were investigated. In the psychological assessment, the scores of depression, anger-hostility, and fatigue were decreased on POMS analysis in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group, resulting in a significant decrease in total mood disturbance (TMD). The salivary amylase activity measurement suggested that resistance to stress was increased in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group. On the immunological assessment, the s-IgA level was significantly increased in the pre-germinated brown rice diet group. We have shown that pre-germinated brown rice may have beneficial effects on psychosomatic health.

  7. Multilevel population genetic analysis of vanA and vanB Enterococcus faecium causing nosocomial outbreaks in 27 countries (1986-2012).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana R; Tedim, Ana P; Francia, Maria V; Jensen, Lars B; Novais, Carla; Peixe, Luísa; Sánchez-Valenzuela, Antonio; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin; Werner, Guido; Sadowy, Ewa; Hammerum, Anette M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2016-12-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) have been increasingly reported since the 1980s. Despite the high number of published studies about VRE epidemiology, the dynamics and evolvability of these microorganisms are still not fully understood. A multilevel population genetic analysis of VREfm outbreak strains since 1986, representing the first comprehensive characterization of plasmid content in E. faecium, was performed to provide a detailed view of potential transmissible units. From a comprehensive MeSH search, we identified VREfm strains causing hospital outbreaks (1986-2012). In total, 53 VanA and 18 VanB isolates (27 countries, 5 continents) were analysed and 82 vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium (VSEfm) were included for comparison. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE and MLST (goeBURST/Bayesian Analysis of Population Structure, BAPS). Characterization of van transposons (PCR mapping, RFLP, sequencing), plasmids (transfer, ClaI-RFLP, PCR typing of relaxases, replication-initiation proteins and toxin-antitoxin systems, hybridization, sequencing), bacteriocins and virulence determinants (PCR, hybridization, sequencing) was performed. VREfm were mainly associated with major human lineages ST17, ST18 and ST78. VREfm and VSEfm harboured plasmids of different families [RCR, small theta plasmids, RepA_N (pRUM/pLG1) and Inc18] able to yield mosaic elements. Tn1546-vanA was mainly located on pRUM/Axe-Txe (USA) and Inc18-pIP186 (Europe) plasmids. The VanB2 type (Tn5382/Tn1549) was predominant among VanB strains (chromosome and plasmids). Both strains and plasmids contributed to the spread and persistence of vancomycin resistance among E. faecium. Horizontal gene transfer events among genetic elements from different clonal lineages (same or different species) result in chimeras with different stability and host range, complicating the surveillance of epidemic plasmids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  8. A Representational Approach to Knowledge and Multiple Skill Levels for Broad Classes of Computer Generated Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    that I’ll turn my attention to that computer game we’ve talked so much about... Dave Van Veldhuizen and Scott Brown (soon-to-be Drs. Van Veldhuizen and...Industry Training Systems Conference. 1988. 37. Van Veldhuizen , D. A. and L. J Hutson. "A Design Methodology for Domain Inde- pendent Computer...proposed by Van Veld- huizen and Hutson (37), extends the general architecture to support both a domain- independent approach to implementing CGFs and

  9. Phylogeography of brown bears (Ursus arctos) of Alaska and paraphyly within the Ursidae.

    PubMed

    Talbot, S L; Shields, G F

    1996-06-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b, tRNA(prolime), and tRNA(threonine) genes were described for 166 brown bears (Ursus arctos) from 10 geographic regions of Alaska to describe natural genetic variation, construct a molecular phylogeny, and evaluate classical taxonomies. DNA sequences of brown bears were compared to homologous sequences of the polar bear (maritimus) and of the sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), which was used as an outgroup. Parsimony and neighbor-joining methods each produced essentially identical phylogenetic trees that suggest two distinct clades of mtDNA for brown bears in Alaska: one composed only of bears that now reside on some of the islands of southeastern Alaska and the other which includes bears from all other regions of Alaska. The very close relationship of the polar bear to brown bears of the islands of southeastern Alaska as previously reported by us and the paraphyletic association of polar bears to brown bears reported by others have been reaffirmed with this much larger data set. A weak correlation is suggested between types of mtDNA and habitat preference by brown bears in Alaska. Our mtDNA data support some, but not all, of the currently designated subspecies of brown bears whose descriptions have been based essentially on morphology.

  10. Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Xie, Chao; Wang, Hai; Foss, Robin M; Clare, Morgan; George, Eva Vertes; Li, Shiwu; Katz, Adam; Cheng, Henrique; Ding, Yousong; Tang, Dongqi; Reeves, Westley H; Yang, Li-Jun

    2016-08-01

    To better understand the role of irisin in humans, we examined the effects of irisin in human primary adipocytes and fresh human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). Human primary adipocytes derived from 28 female donors' fresh scWAT were used to examine the effects of irisin on browning and mitochondrial respiration, and preadipocytes were used to examine the effects of irisin on adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Cultured fragments of scWAT and perirenal brown fat were used for investigating signal transduction pathways that mediate irisin's browning effect by Western blotting to detect phosphorylated forms of p38, ERK, and STAT3 as well as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Individual responses to irisin in scWAT were correlated with basal expression levels of brown/beige genes. Irisin upregulated the expression of browning-associated genes and UCP1 protein in both cultured primary mature adipocytes and fresh adipose tissues. It also significantly increased thermogenesis at 5 nmol/l by elevating cellular energy metabolism (OCR and ECAR). Treating human scWAT with irisin increased UCP1 expression by activating the ERK and p38 MAPK signaling. Blocking either pathway with specific inhibitors abolished irisin-induced UCP1 upregulation. However, our results showed that UCP1 in human perirenal adipose tissue was insensitive to irisin. Basal levels of brown/beige and FNDC5 genes correlated positively with the browning response of scWAT to irisin. In addition, irisin significantly inhibited adipogenic differentiation but promoted osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that irisin promotes "browning" of mature white adipocytes by increasing cellular thermogenesis, whereas it inhibits adipogenesis and promotes osteogenesis during lineage-specific differentiation. Our findings provide a rationale for further exploring the therapeutic use of irisin in obesity and exercise-associated bone formation.

  11. Educational Trends and U.S. Commitments Since the Brown Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth

    The Supreme Court's landmark Brown decision changed the total pattern of race relations in the United States and helped to solidify the foundations of American democracy for the benefit of all Americans. Ironically, although the specific issue which resulted in the Brown decision was concerned with the constitutionality of racially segregated…

  12. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. PMID:25490862

  13. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Proposal of Sphingomonas suberifaciens (van Bruggen, Jochimsen and Brown 1990) comb. nov., sphingomonas natatoria (Sly 1985) comb. nov., Sphingomonas ursincola (Yurkov et al. 1997) comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Sphingomonas.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, E; Kosako, Y; Naka, T; Suzuki, S; Yano, I

    1999-01-01

    Based on the results of a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the presence of sphingoglycolipid in cellular lipids of the type strains, transfer of "Rhizomonas" suberifaciens, Blastomonas natatoria and Erythromonas ursincola to the genus Sphingomonas as Sphingomonas suberifaciens (van Bruggen et al 1990) comb. nov., Sphingomonas natatoria (Sly 1985) comb. nov., and Sphingomonas ursincola (Yurkov et al 1997) comb. nov. are herein proposed together with the emendation of genus Sphingomonas. The type strain of S. suberifaciens is van Bruggen Cal=ATCC 49382=NCPPB 3629=IFO 15211=JCM 8521, that of S. natatoria is ATCC 35951 =DSM 3183=NCIMB 12085=JCM10396, and that of S. ursincola is DSM 9006= KR-99.

  15. Highly Viscous States Affect the Browning of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Initially transparent organic particulate matter (PM) can become shades of light-absorbing brown via atmospheric particle-phase chemical reactions. The production of nitrogen-containing compounds is one important pathway for browning. Semisolid or solid physical states of organic PM might, however, have sufficiently slow diffusion of reactant molecules to inhibit browning reactions. Herein, organic PM of secondary organic material (SOM) derived from toluene, a common SOM precursor in anthropogenically affected environments, was exposed to ammonia at different values of relative humidity (RH). The production of light-absorbing organonitrogen imines from ammonia exposure, detected by mass spectrometry and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, was kinetically inhibited for RH < 20% for exposure times of 6 min to 24 h. By comparison, from 20% to 60% RH organonitrogen production took place, implying ammonia uptake and reaction. Correspondingly, the absorption index k across 280 to 320 nm increased from 0.012 to 0.02, indicative of PM browning. The k value across 380 to 420 nm increased from 0.001 to 0.004. The observed RH-dependent behavior of ammonia uptake and browning was well captured by a model that considered the diffusivities of both the large organic molecules that made up the PM and the small reactant molecules taken up from the gas phase into the PM. Within the model, large-molecule diffusivity was calculated based on observed SOM viscosity and evaporation. Small-molecule diffusivity was represented by the water diffusivity measured by a quartz-crystal microbalance. The model showed that the browning reaction rates at RH < 60% could be controlled by the low diffusivity of the large organic molecules from the interior region of the particle to the reactive surface region. The results of this study have implications for accurate modeling of atmospheric brown carbon production and associated influences on energy balance. PMID:29532020

  16. Highly Viscous States Affect the Browning of Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Bateman, Adam P; Zhang, Yue; Gong, Zhaoheng; Bertram, Allan K; Martin, Scot T

    2018-02-28

    Initially transparent organic particulate matter (PM) can become shades of light-absorbing brown via atmospheric particle-phase chemical reactions. The production of nitrogen-containing compounds is one important pathway for browning. Semisolid or solid physical states of organic PM might, however, have sufficiently slow diffusion of reactant molecules to inhibit browning reactions. Herein, organic PM of secondary organic material (SOM) derived from toluene, a common SOM precursor in anthropogenically affected environments, was exposed to ammonia at different values of relative humidity (RH). The production of light-absorbing organonitrogen imines from ammonia exposure, detected by mass spectrometry and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, was kinetically inhibited for RH < 20% for exposure times of 6 min to 24 h. By comparison, from 20% to 60% RH organonitrogen production took place, implying ammonia uptake and reaction. Correspondingly, the absorption index k across 280 to 320 nm increased from 0.012 to 0.02, indicative of PM browning. The k value across 380 to 420 nm increased from 0.001 to 0.004. The observed RH-dependent behavior of ammonia uptake and browning was well captured by a model that considered the diffusivities of both the large organic molecules that made up the PM and the small reactant molecules taken up from the gas phase into the PM. Within the model, large-molecule diffusivity was calculated based on observed SOM viscosity and evaporation. Small-molecule diffusivity was represented by the water diffusivity measured by a quartz-crystal microbalance. The model showed that the browning reaction rates at RH < 60% could be controlled by the low diffusivity of the large organic molecules from the interior region of the particle to the reactive surface region. The results of this study have implications for accurate modeling of atmospheric brown carbon production and associated influences on energy balance.

  17. Similarity of mouse perivascular and brown adipose tissues and their resistance to diet-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbons, Timothy P.; Kogan, Sophia; Aouadi, Myriam; Hendricks, Greg M.; Straubhaar, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    Thoracic perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is a unique adipose depot that likely influences vascular function and susceptibility to pathogenesis in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Surprisingly, PVAT has been reported to share characteristics of both brown and white adipose, but a detailed direct comparison to interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) has not been performed. Here we show by full genome DNA microarray analysis that global gene expression profiles of PVAT are virtually identical to BAT, with equally high expression of Ucp-1, Cidea, and other genes known to be uniquely or very highly expressed in BAT. PVAT and BAT also displayed nearly identical phenotypes upon immunohistochemical analysis, and electron microscopy confirmed that PVAT contained multilocular lipid droplets and abundant mitochondria. Compared with white adipose tissue (WAT), PVAT and BAT from C57BL6/J mice fed a high-fat diet for 13 wk had markedly lower expression of immune cell-enriched mRNAs, suggesting resistance to obesity-induced inflammation. Indeed, staining of BAT and PVAT for macrophage markers (F4/80 and CD68) in obese mice showed virtually no macrophage infiltration, and FACS analysis of BAT confirmed the presence of very few CD11b+/CD11c+ macrophages in BAT (1.0%) compared with WAT (31%). In summary, murine PVAT from the thoracic aorta is virtually identical to interscapular BAT, is resistant to diet-induced macrophage infiltration, and thus may play an important role in protecting the vascular bed from inflammatory stress. PMID:21765057

  18. Brown rice compared to white rice slows gastric emptying in humans.

    PubMed

    Pletsch, Elizabeth A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of whole vs. refined grain foods is recommended by nutrition or dietary guideline authorities of many countries, yet specific aspects of whole grains leading to health benefits are not well understood. Gastric emptying rate is an important consideration, as it is tied to nutrient delivery rate and influences glycemic response. Our objective was to explore two aspects of cooked rice related to gastric emptying, (1) whole grain brown vs. white rice and (2) potential effect of elevated levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) from high-amylose rice. Ten healthy adult participants were recruited for a crossover design study involving acute feeding and testing of 6 rice samples (50 g available carbohydrate). Gastric emptying rate was measured using a 13 C-labeled octanoic acid breath test. A rice variety (Cocodrie) with high-amylose content was temperature-cycled to increase SDS and RS fractions. In vitro starch digestibility results showed incremental increase in RS in Cocodrie after two temperature cycles. For low-amylose varieties, SDS was higher in the brown rice form. In human subjects, low-amylose and high-amylose brown rice delayed gastric emptying compared to white rices regardless of amylose content or temperature-cycling (p < 0.05). Whole grain brown rice had slower gastric emptying rate, which appears to be related to the physical presence of the bran layer. Extended gastric emptying of brown rice explains in part comparably low glycemic response observed for brown rice.

  19. Cold Brown Dwarfs with WISE: Y Dwarfs and the Field Mass Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-01-01

    Why study Brown Dwarf stars? They re the lowest mass byproducts of star formation.. They provide time capsules across the age of the Galaxy.. They show what low-T(sub eff) atmospheres look like.. They may be some of our closest neighbors in space..WISE is a 40cm Earth-orbiting telescope. There are 211 stars and only 33 brown dwarfs in this volume.. This means that stars outnumber brown dwarfs by a factor of 6:1 currently.. The number of brown dwarfs will continue to increase if:: (a) more nearby Y dwarf candidates are confirmed, or (b) our distances to known Y s are overestimated, or (c) there are colder BDs invisible to WISE..

  20. MATE (Mentale Aspecten van Team Effectiviteit) (MATE (Mental Aspects of Team Effectiveness))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    0 Auteur (s) drs. J.P. van Meer drs. MI. 1 ’ IIart0 drs. 1. van der 16. Rubricering rapport Ongerubriceerd Vastgesteld door Ikol drs. L.A. de Vos...team Auteur (s) Teamntraining drs. J.P. van Meer drs. M.H.E. I Hart Programmanummer Projectnummer drs. 1. van der Beijl V406 015.34095 Rubricering...Murphy & Cleveland (1995) geven inzicht in de tearngedragingen die meetbaar zijn en de theorie over Shared Mental Models (Espevik et al, 2006) laat zien

  1. Imprints of dynamical interactions on brown dwarf pairing statistics and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzik, M. F.; Durisen, R. H.

    2003-03-01

    We present statistically robust predictions of brown dwarf properties arising from dynamical interactions during their early evolution in small clusters. Our conclusions are based on numerical calculations of the internal cluster dynamics as well as on Monte-Carlo models. Accounting for recent observational constraints on the sub-stellar mass function and initial properties in fragmenting star forming clumps, we derive multiplicity fractions, mass ratios, separation distributions, and velocity dispersions. We compare them with observations of brown dwarfs in the field and in young clusters. Observed brown dwarf companion fractions around 15 +/- 7% for very low-mass stars as reported recently by Close et al. (\\cite{CSFB03}) are consistent with certain dynamical decay models. A significantly smaller mean separation distribution for brown dwarf binaries than for binaries of late-type stars can be explained by similar specific energy at the time of cluster formation for all cluster masses. Due to their higher velocity dispersions, brown-dwarfs and low-mass single stars will undergo time-dependent spatial segregation from higher-mass stars and multiple systems. This will cause mass functions and binary statistics in star forming regions to vary with the age of the region and the volume sampled.

  2. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  3. Receptor binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor are expressed by brown adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bacay, A.C.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    To explore the possibility that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is involved in thermoregulation we used quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate receptor binding assays to identify ANF bindings sites in neonatal rat and sheep brown adipose tissue, respectively. Using quantitative receptor autoradiography were were able to localize high levels of specific binding sites for {sup 125}I-rat ANF in neonatal rat brown adipose tissue. Homogenate binding assays on sheep brown fat demonstrated that the radioligand was binding to the membrane fraction and that the specific binding was not due to a lipophilic interaction between {sup 125}I-rat ANF and brown fat. Specific bindingmore » of {sup 125}I-rat ANF to the membranes of brown fat cells was inhibited by unlabeled rat ANF with a Ki of 8.0 x 10(-9) M, but not by unrelated peptides. These studies demonstrate that brown fat cells express high levels of ANF receptor binding sites in neonatal rat and sheep and suggest that ANF may play a role in thermoregulation.« less

  4. De Ontwikkeling van een PBPK Model voor VX; Stand van Zaken V013-813 en 207C (The Development of a PBPK Model for VX: Status Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    ing. H.C. Trap, dr. ir. M.J. van der werd zes maal gesproken over de Schans, ing. L.F. Chau, B.). Lander, invulling en de voortgang van het I.A. Cordia ...dr. ir. M.J. van der Schans, ing. L.F. Chau, J.P. Oostdijk, B.J. Lander, l.A. Cordia 25 TNO Defensie en Veiligheid, vestiging Rijswijk, Marketing en

  5. Bartsocas-Papas syndrome with variable expressivity in an Egyptian family.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M S; Kamel, A K; Effat, L K; El-Ruby, M O

    2012-01-01

    Bartsocas-Papas syndrome (BPS) is an autosomal recessively inherited sublethal popliteal pterygium condition characterized by intrauterine or neonatal death, severe popliteal webbing, oligosyndactyly, ankyloblepharon, orofacial clefts, intraoral filiform bands and genital anomalies. Internal organ involvement has seldom been identified. We report on a 3 years old female patient of healthy first cousin parents with BPS. She presented with orofacial clefting, severe popliteal webs, club feet, oligosyndactyly of the toes, hypogenitalism and normal hands and internal organs. Ankyloblepharon and filiform bands between the alveolar ridges were evident at birth. Pedigree analysis revealed a more severely affected female sib, who died a few minutes after birth with additional manifestations including near complete lip fusion without oral cleft, complete syndactyly in both hands and an omphalocele. Linkage was excluded to the IRF6 gene; a candidate gene implicated in the Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes, with overlapping features with BPS. To our knowledge, this is the 5th surviving patient with this syndrome in the literature. In this report, we also discuss the proposed pathogenetic mechanisms for BPS and compare our patients with similarly described cases as well as overlapping spectrum of other popliteal pterygium syndromes. Our findings provide further evidence of intrafamilial clinical heterogeneity in families with BPS.

  6. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  7. LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics To Explain the Signal Metabolites Inducing Browning in Fresh-Cut Lettuce.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos J; García-Villalba, Rocío; Gil, María I; Tomas-Barberan, Francisco A

    2017-06-07

    Enzymatic browning is one of the main causes of quality loss in lettuce as a prepared and ready-to-eat cut salad. An untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS was performed to explain the wound response of lettuce after cutting and to identify the metabolites responsible of browning. Two cultivars of Romaine lettuce with different browning susceptibilities were studied at short time intervals after cutting. From the total 5975 entities obtained from the raw data after alignment, filtration reduced the number of features to 2959, and the statistical analysis found that only 1132 entities were significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly showed that these samples grouped according to cultivar and time after cutting. From those, only 15 metabolites belonging to lysophospholipids, oxylipin/jasmonate metabolites, and phenolic compounds were able to explain the browning process. These selected metabolites showed different trends after cutting; some decreased rapidly, others increased but decreased thereafter, whereas others increased during the whole period of storage. In general, the fast-browning cultivar showed a faster wound response and a higher raw intensity of some key metabolites than the slow-browning one. Just after cutting, the fast-browning cultivar contained 11 of the 15 browning-associated metabolites, whereas the slow-browning cultivar only had 5 of them. These metabolites could be used as biomarkers in breeding programs for the selection of lettuce cultivars with lower browning potential for fresh-cut applications.

  8. Electrons in the Inner Van Allen Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Geoff

    A recent study shows that the inner Van Allen belt has less radiation than previously believed. Observations from NASA’s Van Allen probes show the fastest, most energetic electrons in the inner radiation belt are actually much rarer and harder to find than scientists expected. This is good news for spacecraft that are orbiting in the region and can be damaged by high levels of radiation. The results will also help scientists better understand—and detect—effects from high-altitude nuclear explosions.

  9. Brown versus Board at 62: Marching Back into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Henderson, Cheryl; Brown, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    Sixty-two years after the "Brown" decision, American schools are collapsing under the weight of an antiquated system of school finance, pockets of poverty, and a "Black and Browning" urban core. This article focuses on the "march backwards" to the de facto re-segregation of our nation's public schools. In 2016, the…

  10. Body temperatures of hibernating little brown bats reveal pronounced behavioural activity during deep torpor and suggest a fever response during white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Heather W; McGuire, Liam P; Willis, Craig K R

    2018-03-01

    Hibernating animals use torpor [reduced body temperature (T b ) and metabolic rate] to reduce energy expenditure during winter. Periodic arousals to normal T b are energetically expensive, so hibernators trade off arousal benefits against energetic costs. This is especially important for bats with white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing increased arousal frequency. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) with WNS show upregulation of endogenous pyrogens and sickness behaviour. Therefore, we hypothesized that WNS should cause a fever response characterized by elevated T b . Hibernators could also accrue some benefits of arousals with minimal T b increase, thus avoiding full arousal costs. We compared skin temperature (T sk ) of captive Myotis lucifugus inoculated with the WNS-causing fungus to T sk of sham-inoculated controls. Infected bats re-warmed to higher T sk during arousals which is consistent with a fever response. Torpid T sk did not differ. During what we term "cold arousals", bats exhibited movement following T sk increases of only 2.2 ± 0.3 °C, compared to >20 °C increases during normal arousals. Cold arousals occurred in both infected and control bats, suggesting they are not a pathophysiological consequence of WNS. Fever responses are energetically costly and could exacerbate energy limitation and premature fat depletion for bats with WNS. Cold arousals could represent an energy-saving mechanism for both healthy and WNS-affected bats when complete arousals are unnecessary or too costly. A few cold arousals were observed mid-hibernation, typically in response to disturbances. Cold arousals may, therefore, represent a voluntary restriction of arousal temperature instead of loss of thermoregulatory control.

  11. Characterization and Comparative Expression Profiling of Browning Response in Medinilla formosana after Cutting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Yiting; Li, Kunfeng; Song, Xijiao; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Plant browning is a recalcitrant problem for in vitro culture and often leads to poor growth of explants and even failure of tissue culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying browning-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Medinilla is considered one of the most difficult genera for tissue culture owning to its severe browning. In the present study, intact aseptic plantlets of Medinilla formosana Hayata previously obtained by ovary culture, were used to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanism of the browning response. Successive morphological and anatomical observations after cutting showed that the browning of M. formosana was not lethal but adaptive. De novo transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Illumina high-throughput sequencing were then used to explore molecular regulation after cutting. About 7.5 million tags of de novo transcriptome were obtained and 58,073 unigenes were assembled and annotated. A total of 6,431 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at three stages after cutting were identified, and the expression patterns of these browning-related genes were clustered and analyzed. A number of putative DEGs involved in signal transduction and secondary metabolism were particularly studied and the potential roles of these cutting-responsive mRNAs in plant defense to diverse abiotic stresses are discussed. The DGE profiling data were also validated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the molecular mechanisms of browning processes during in vitro tissue culture, and lay a foundation for future studies to inhibit and eliminate browning damage.

  12. Characterization and Comparative Expression Profiling of Browning Response in Medinilla formosana after Cutting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Yiting; Li, Kunfeng; Song, Xijiao; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Plant browning is a recalcitrant problem for in vitro culture and often leads to poor growth of explants and even failure of tissue culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying browning-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Medinilla is considered one of the most difficult genera for tissue culture owning to its severe browning. In the present study, intact aseptic plantlets of Medinilla formosana Hayata previously obtained by ovary culture, were used to explore the characteristics and molecular mechanism of the browning response. Successive morphological and anatomical observations after cutting showed that the browning of M. formosana was not lethal but adaptive. De novo transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Illumina high-throughput sequencing were then used to explore molecular regulation after cutting. About 7.5 million tags of de novo transcriptome were obtained and 58,073 unigenes were assembled and annotated. A total of 6,431 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at three stages after cutting were identified, and the expression patterns of these browning-related genes were clustered and analyzed. A number of putative DEGs involved in signal transduction and secondary metabolism were particularly studied and the potential roles of these cutting-responsive mRNAs in plant defense to diverse abiotic stresses are discussed. The DGE profiling data were also validated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the molecular mechanisms of browning processes during in vitro tissue culture, and lay a foundation for future studies to inhibit and eliminate browning damage. PMID:28066460

  13. Familial Melanoma Associated with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and Atypical Mole Syndrome: Total-body Digital Photography, Dermoscopy and Confocal Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Ririe, Marnie; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep

    2017-06-09

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the p53 gene. Melanoma is considered to be a rare, controversial component of LFS. The aim of this study is to describe the utility of systematic screening for melanoma in patients with LFS and atypical mole syndrome. Two 28-year-old identical twin sisters with LFS and atypical moles were monitored by physical examination, total-body digital photography and dermoscopy be-tween 2006 and 2014. A total of 117, predominantly dark-brown, reticular naevi were identified on case 1 and 105 on case 2. Excisions were performed during the evaluation period of 1 in-situ melanoma and 3 basal cell carcinomas in case 1, and 1 in-situ melanoma and 1 early invasive melanoma in case 2. The remaining melanocytic lesions in both patients were stable during follow-up. The 3 melanomas were new atypical lesions detected with total-body photography and dermoscopy. In conclusion, monitoring LFS patients with total-body photography and dermoscopy may be useful to detect early melanoma.

  14. Energy Sources for Soldier Modernisation Programme Systems (Overzicht van Ontwikkelingen op het Gebied van Draagbare Energieopslag en Energieopwekking)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    9 . http://home.earthlink.net/-fradella/homepage.htm 10. http ://web.mit.edu/aeroastro/www/labs/GTL/research/micro/micro.html 11 . http://www.ecr.co.il...Meijer 7 LAS/DB&P/BO/OB&T taxv. aooi Jansen 8 LAS/DB&PIBO/OB 9 LAS/DB&P/BO/CIV 10 OGMAN/Externe plannen Infanterie 11 DM/C31 12 DM/COM 13 KPU-bedrijf 14...detailed specifications mentioned before. TNO-rapport TNO-MEP - R 99/490 9 van 51 Samenvatting In dit rapport wordt een eerste globale selectie gemaakt: van

  15. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although apple (Malus x domestica) is of economic importance, little information is available about the transriptomic profiling of postharvest disorders, particularly internal browning. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with development of flesh browning durin...

  16. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEAD FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The single cell gel electrophoresis ("Comet") assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected...

  17. DNA DAMAGE AND EXTERNAL LESIONS IN BROWN BULLHEADS FROM CONTAMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comet assay was used to compare levels of DNA damage in brown bullheads (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected from three known contaminated locations, the Cuyahoga River, Ashtabula River, and Ashumet Pond (Cape Cod), with brown bullheads collected from three paired reference sites, ...

  18. Molecular analysis of proanthocyanidins related to pigmentation in brown cotton fibre (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongjie; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Shaofang; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Yongchuang; Xue, Fei; Sun, Yuqiang; Wang, Yongmei; Sun, Jie

    2014-11-01

    The structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses. Proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were found to contain mainly procyanidin (PC) and prodelphidin (PD) units with 2, 3-cis form (epigallocatechin and epicatechin). However, part of the proanthocyanidins in the white cotton fibres were modified by acylation and were constitutively different from the proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres. The relative amount of PD was similar to that of PC in white cotton fibres, while proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres consisted mainly of PD units with a relative ratio of 9:1. In brown cotton fibres, the proanthocyanidin monomeric composition was consistent with the expression profiles of proanthocyanidin synthase genes, suggesting that anthocyanidin reductase represented the major flow of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, the structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocanidins in brown and white cotton fibres suggested that quinones, the oxidation products of proanthocyanidins, were the direct contributors to colour development in brown cotton fibre. This was demonstrated by vanillin-HCl staining and Borntrager's test. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins is a crucial pigmentation process in brown cotton fibre, and that quinones may represent the main pigments contributing to formation of the the brown colour. This study revealed the molecular basis of pigmentation in brown cotton fibres, and provided important insights for genetic manipulation of pigment production in cotton fibres. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The research contributions of Dr. Paul Van Deusen

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Francis A. Roesch; John Paul McTague; Jeffrey H. Gove; Gregory A. Reams; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Paul Van Deusen’s recent passing concluded a rich 30+-year research career dedicated to development and implementation of quantitative methods for forestry and natural resources. Since the early part of his career as a biometrician with the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station in the 1980s-1990s and continuing with his later employment at NCASI, Dr. Van...

  20. Mapping Van

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) - developed system for satellite mapping has been commercialized for the first time. Global Visions, Inc. maps an area while driving along a road in a sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. Data is fed into a computerized geographic information system (GIS). The resulting amps can be used for tax assessment purposes, emergency dispatch vehicles and fleet delivery companies as well as other applications.

  1. Novel type of VanB2 teicoplanin-resistant hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Santona, Antonella; Paglietti, Bianca; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Bohol, Marie Fe F; Senok, Abiola; Deligios, Massimo; Rubino, Salvatore; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2014-08-01

    Seven high-risk clones of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) belonging to clonal complex 17 were identified using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) among clinical isolates from Saudi Arabia. Among these isolates, a new hospital-associated sequence type (ST795), VanB(2)-type teicoplanin-resistant strain was detected. Its unusual phenotype resulted from a new combination of mutations in the ddl, vanS and vanW genes, which confirmed the trend of evolution in VanB-type resistance. Furthermore, characteristics of adaptation and persistence in the hospital environment of ST795 were emphasised by the presence of genes and clusters recognised to be specific for hospital-associated VREF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance in persisting bat populations after white-nose syndrome invasion.

    PubMed

    Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Parise, Katy L; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-01-19

    Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded. Fitted models indicate that this is most consistent with a reduction in the growth rate of the pathogen when fungal loads become high. The data are inconsistent with the evolution of tolerance or an overall reduced pathogen growth rate that might be caused by environmental factors. The existence of resistance in some persisting populations of little brown bats offers a glimmer of hope that a precipitously declining species will persist in the face of this deadly pathogen.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. FIRE Spectroscopy Of The Ultracool Brown Dwarf, UGPS 0722-05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochanski, John J.; Burgasser, A. J.; Simcoe, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    We present FIRE spectroscopic observations of the ultracool (T ˜ 520 K) brown dwarf, UGPS 0722-05, obtained during instrument commissioning on the 6.5m Baade Magellan Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. At a distance of 4.1 pc, this cool brown dwarf is well-suited for detailed followup, and represents a keystone at the transition between the lowest-mass brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Our spectrum of UGPS 0722-05 covers the 0.8-2.5 micron bandpasses at a resolution of R ˜ 6,000, and is measured to high signal-to-noise, peaking at 80 near 1.27 microns. We derive radial and rotational velocities for the isolated brown dwarf, and examine its space motion and Galactic orbit. The spectrum of UGPS 0722-05 is also compared to theoretical spectral models to constrain its atmospheric parameters. Finally, we comment on the presence of unidentified absorption features reported in the discovery spectrum of Lucas et al. (2010). We thank Mauricio Martinez and the entire Magellan staff for assistance during FIRE commissioning and observations. JJB acknowledges the support of Kevin Luhman.

  4. Consortial brown tide - picocyanobacteria blooms in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nathan S; Litaker, R Wayne; Kenworthy, W Judson; Vandersea, Mark W; Sunda, William G; Reid, James P; Slone, Daniel H; Butler, Susan

    2018-03-01

    A brown tide bloom of Aureoumbra lagunensis developed in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba during a period of drought in 2013 that followed heavy winds and rainfall from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012. Based on satellite images and water turbidity measurements, the bloom appeared to initiate in January 2013. The causative species (A. lagunensis) was confirmed by microscopic observation, and pigment and genetic analyses of bloom samples collected on May 28 of that year. During that time, A. lagunensis reached concentrations of 900,000 cells ml -1 (28 ppm by biovolume) in the middle portion of the Bay. Samples could not be collected from the northern (Cuban) half of the Bay because of political considerations. Subsequent sampling of the southern half of the Bay in November 2013, April 2014, and October 2014 showed persistent lower concentrations of A. lagunensis, with dominance shifting to the cyanobacterium Synechococcus (up to 33 ppm in April), an algal group that comprised a minor bloom component on May 28. Thus, unlike the brown tide bloom in Laguna Madre, which lasted 8 years, the bloom in Guantánamo Bay was short-lived, much like recent blooms in the Indian River, Florida. Although hypersaline conditions have been linked to brown tide development in the lagoons of Texas and Florida, observed euhaline conditions in Guantánamo Bay (salinity 35-36) indicate that strong hypersalinity is not a requirement for A. lagunensis bloom formation. Microzooplankton biomass dominated by ciliates was high during the observed peak of the brown tide, and ciliate abundance was high compared to other systems not impacted by brown tide. Preferential grazing by zooplankton on non-brown tide species, as shown in A. lagunensis blooms in Texas and Florida, may have been a factor in the development of the Cuban brown tide bloom. However, subsequent selection of microzooplankton capable of utilizing A. lagunensis as a primary food source may have contributed to the short-lived duration

  5. Insights in the Fruit Flesh Browning Mechanisms in Solanum melongena Genetic Lines with Opposite Postcut Behavior.

    PubMed

    Docimo, T; Francese, G; De Palma, M; Mennella, D; Toppino, L; Lo Scalzo, R; Mennella, G; Tucci, M

    2016-06-08

    Color, taste, flavor, nutritional value, and shelf life are important factors determining quality and healthiness of food and vegetables. These factors are strongly affected by browning processes, occurring after fruit or vegetable cutting. Characterization of ten eggplant genotypes for chlorogenic acid (CGA) content, total phenols (TP), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity, and browning tendency corroborated a lack of significant correlations between biochemical factors and fruit flesh browning. Further in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses of two divergent eggplant genetic lines, AM199 (high browning) and AM086 (low browning), within 30 min from cutting, highlighted differences in the physiological mechanisms underlying the browning process. qRT-PCR analysis revealed distinct activation mechanisms of CGA biosynthetic and PPO genes in the two genetic lines. Metabolic data on CGA, sugars, and ascorbic acid contents confirmed that their different browning tendency matched with different metabolic responses to cutting. Our findings suggest that the complex mechanism of flesh browning in the two eggplant genetic lines might be mediated by multiple specific factors.

  6. Reproductive maturation and senescence in the female brown bear

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Keating, Kim A.; Reynolds III, Harry V.; Barnes, Victor G.; Sellers, Richard A.; Swenson, J.E.; Miller, Sterling D.; McLellan, B.N.; Keay, Jeffrey A.; McCann, Robert; Gibeau, Michael; Wakkinen, Wayne F.; Mace, Richard D.; Kasworm, Wayne; Smith, Rodger; Herrero, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Changes in age-specific reproductive rates can have important implications for managing populations, but the number of female brown (grizzly) bears (Ursus arctos) observed in any one study is usually inadequate to quantify such patterns, especially for older females and in hunted areas. We examined patterns of reproductive maturation and senescence in female brown bears by combining data from 20 study areas from Sweden, Alaska, Canada, and the continental United States. We assessed reproductive performance based on 4,726 radiocollared years for free-ranging female brown bears (age 3); 482 of these were for bears 20 years of age. We modeled age-specific probability of litter production using extreme value distributions to describe probabilities for young- and old-age classes, and a power distribution function to describe probabilities for prime-aged animals. We then fit 4 models to pooled observations from our 20 study areas. We used Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to select the best model. Inflection points suggest that major shifts in litter production occur at 4–5 and 28–29 years of age. The estimated model asymptote (0.332, 95% CI ¼ 0.319–0.344) was consistent with the expected reproductive cycle of a cub litter every 3 years (0.333). We discuss assumptions and biases in data collection relative to the shape of the model curve. Our results conform to senescence theory and suggest that female age structure in contemporary brown bear populations is considerably younger than would be expected in the absence of modern man. This implies that selective pressures today differ from those that influenced brown bear evolution.

  7. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-10-01

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. Such interactions are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. This review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. The outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  8. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  9. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  10. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  11. Estimates of brown bear abundance on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.G.; Smith, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    During 1987-94 we used capture-mark-resight (CMR) methodology and rates of observation (bears/hour and bears/100 km2) of unmarked brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) during intensive aerial surveys (IAS) to estimate abundance of brown bears on Kodiak Island and to establish a baseline for monitoring population trends. CMR estimates were obtained on 3 study areas; density ranged from 216-234 bears/1,000 km2 for independent animals and 292-342 bears/1,000 km2 including dependent offspring. Rates of observation during IAS ranged from 1.4-5.4 independent bears/hour and 2.9-18.0 independent bears/100 km2. Density estimates for independent bears on each IAS area were obtained by dividing mean number of bears observed during replicate surveys by estimated sightability (based on CMR-derived sightability in areas with similar habitat. Brown bear abundance on 21 geographic units of Kodiak Island and 3 nearby islands was estimated by extrapolation from CMR and IAS data using comparisons of habitat characteristics and sport harvest information. Population estimates for independent and total bears were 1,800 and 2,600. The CMR and IAS procedures offer alternative means, depending on management objective and available resources, of measuring population trend of brown bears on Kodiak Island.

  12. Zones, spots, and planetary-scale waves beating in brown dwarf atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Apai, D; Karalidi, T; Marley, M S; Yang, H; Flateau, D; Metchev, S; Cowan, N B; Buenzli, E; Burgasser, A J; Radigan, J; Artigau, E; Lowrance, P

    2017-08-18

    Brown dwarfs are massive analogs of extrasolar giant planets and may host types of atmospheric circulation not seen in the solar system. We analyzed a long-term Spitzer Space Telescope infrared monitoring campaign of brown dwarfs to constrain cloud cover variations over a total of 192 rotations. The infrared brightness evolution is dominated by beat patterns caused by planetary-scale wave pairs and by a small number of bright spots. The beating waves have similar amplitudes but slightly different apparent periods because of differing velocities or directions. The power spectrum of intermediate-temperature brown dwarfs resembles that of Neptune, indicating the presence of zonal temperature and wind speed variations. Our findings explain three previously puzzling behaviors seen in brown dwarf brightness variations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Enzymatic oxalic acid regulation correlated with wood degradation in four brown-rot fungi

    Treesearch

    Anne Christine Steenkjær Hastrup; Frederick Green III; Patricia K. Lebow; Bo Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Oxalic acid is a key component in the initiation of brown-rot decay and it has been suggested that it plays multiple roles during the degradation process. Oxalic acid is accumulated to varying degrees among brown-rot fungi; however, details on active regulation are scarce. The accumulation of oxalic acid was measured in this study from wood degraded by the four brown-...

  14. Role of ascorbic acid in the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase and the prevention of browning in different browning-sensitive Lactuca sativa var. capitata (L.) and Eruca sativa (Mill.) stored as fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and, to a minor extent, peroxidase (POD) represent the key enzymes involved in enzymatic browning, a negative process induced by cutting fresh-cut produce such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and rocket salad (Eruca sativa). Although ascorbic acid is frequently utilised as an anti-browning agent, its mechanism in the prevention of the browning phenomenon is not clearly understood. The activity of PPO and POD and their isoforms in lettuce (a high-browning and low-ascorbic acid species) and rocket salad (a low-browning and high-ascorbic species) was characterised. The kinetic parameters of PPO and in vitro ascorbic acid-PPO inhibition were also investigated. In rocket salad, PPO activity was much lower than that in lettuce and cutting induced an increase in PPO activity only in lettuce. Exogenous ascorbic acid (5 mmol L(-1)) reduced PPO activity by about 90% in lettuce. POD did not appear to be closely related to browning in lettuce. PPO is the main enzyme involved in the browning phenomenon; POD appears to play a minor role. The concentration of endogenous ascorbic acid in rocket salad was related to its low-browning sensitivity after cutting. In lettuce, the addition of ascorbic acid directly inhibited PPO activity. The results suggest that the high ascorbic acid content found in rocket salad plays an effective role in reducing PPO activity. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Seasonal movement of brown trout in a southern Appalachian river

    Treesearch

    Kyle H. Burrell; J. Jeffery Isely; David B. Bunnell; David H. Van Lear; C. Andrew Dolloff

    2000-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to evaluate the seasonal movement, activity level, and home range size of adult brown trout Salmo trutta in the Chattooga River watershed, one of the southernmost coldwater stream systems in the United States. In all, 27 adult brown trout (262-452 mm total length) were successfully monitored from 16 November 1995 to 15...

  16. Arctic Tundra Greening and Browning at Circumpolar and Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Bhatt, U. S.; Walker, D. A.; Raynolds, M. K.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing data have historically been used to assess the dynamics of arctic tundra vegetation. Until recently the scientific literature has largely described the "greening" of the Arctic; from a remote sensing perspective, an increase in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or a similar satellite-based vegetation index. Vegetation increases have been heterogeneous throughout the Arctic, and were reported to be up to 25% in certain areas over a 30-year timespan. However, more recently, arctic tundra vegetation dynamics have gotten more complex, with observations of more widespread tundra "browning" being reported. We used a combination of remote sensing data, including the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modeling System (GIMMS), as well as higher spatial resolution Landsat data, to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns of arctic tundra vegetation dynamics (greening and browning) at circumpolar and regional scales over the past 3-4 decades. At the circumpolar scale, we focus on the spatial heterogeneity (by tundra subzone and continent) of tundra browning over the past 5-15 years, followed by a more recent recovery (greening since 2015). Landsat time series allow us to evaluate the landscape-scale heterogeneity of tundra greening and browning for northern Alaska and the Yamal Peninsula in northwestern Siberia, Russia. Multi-dataset analyses reveal that tundra greening and browning (i.e. increases or decreases in the NDVI respectively) are generated by different sets of processes. Tundra greening is largely a result of either climate warming, lengthening of the growing season, or responses to disturbances, such as fires, landslides, and freeze-thaw processes. Browning on the other hand tends to be more event-driven, such as the shorter-term decline in vegetation due to fire, insect defoliation, consumption by larger herbivores, or extreme weather events (e.g. winter warming or early summer frost damage). Browning can also be caused by local or

  17. Structural and Functional Adaptation of Vancomycin Resistance VanT Serine Racemases

    PubMed Central

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; Egorova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the d-alanyl–d-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with d-alanyl–d-lactate or d-alanyl–d-serine (d-Ala-d-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of d-Ala-d-Ser-terminating precursors by converting l-Ser to d-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in l-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanTG from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518 was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanTG and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn696 which are responsible for the l-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanTG against l-Ser versus l-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for l-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of d-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:26265719

  18. Structural and functional adaptation of vancomycin resistance VanT serine racemases

    DOE PAGES

    Meziane-Cherif, Djalal; Stogios, Peter J.; Evdokimova, Elena; ...

    2015-08-11

    Vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive bacteria results from the replacement of the D-alanyl–D-alanine target of peptidoglycan precursors with D-alanyl–D-lactate or D-alanyl–D-serine (D-Ala-D-Ser), to which vancomycin has low binding affinity. VanT is one of the proteins required for the production of D-Ala-D-Ser-terminating precursors by converting L-Ser to D-Ser. VanT is composed of two domains, an N-terminal membrane-bound domain, likely involved in L-Ser uptake, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic catalytic domain which is related to bacterial alanine racemases. To gain insight into the molecular function of VanT, the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of VanT G from VanG-type resistant Enterococcus faecalis BM4518more » was determined. The structure showed significant similarity to type III pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent alanine racemases, which are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis. Comparative structural analysis between VanT G and alanine racemases as well as site-directed mutagenesis identified three specific active site positions centered around Asn 696 which are responsible for theL-amino acid specificity. This analysis also suggested that VanT racemases evolved from regular alanine racemases by acquiring additional selectivity toward serine while preserving that for alanine. The 4-fold-lower relative catalytic efficiency of VanT G against L-Ser versus L-Ala implied that this enzyme relies on its membrane-bound domain for L-Ser transport to increase the overall rate of D-Ser production. These findings illustrate how vancomycin pressure selected for molecular adaptation of a housekeeping enzyme to a bifunctional enzyme to allow for peptidoglycan remodeling, a strategy increasingly observed in antibiotic-resistant bacteria.« less

  19. Controlled cellular energy conversion in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Plant, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue serves as a model system for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) since a) it has as a primary physiological function the conversion of chemical energy to heat; and b) preliminary data from other tissues involved in NST (e.g., muscle) indicate that parallel mechanisms may be involved. Now that biochemical pathways have been proposed for brown fat thermogenesis, cellular models consistent with a thermodynamic representation can be formulated. Stated concisely, the thermogenic mechanism in a brown fat cell can be considered as an energy converter involving a sequence of cellular events controlled by signals over the autonomic nervous system. A thermodynamic description for NST is developed in terms of a nonisothermal system under steady-state conditions using network thermodynamics. Pathways simulated include mitochondrial ATP synthesis, a Na+/K+ membrane pump, and ionic diffusion through the adipocyte membrane.

  20. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-02

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.