Science.gov

Sample records for brucelosis leucosis bovina

  1. TRANSMISSION EXPERIMENTS WITH LEUCOSIS OF FOWLS

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, E. L.; Furth, J.

    1931-01-01

    It is shown, in a carefully controlled experiment, that fowl leucemia can be readily transmitted from chicken to chicken by injection. Of 25 fowls, 13 were injected intravenously with blood from a chicken (No. 575) with erythroleucosis and 12 with blood from a chicken (No. 689) with myeloid leucosis. The injected birds and an equal number of uninjected controls were kept in tiers of alternating cages under as nearly identical conditions as possible. The donors, the controls, and the injected birds were all of the same stock and of the same age. In the two series 13 or 52 per cent of the 25 fowls inoculated developed leucemia within 4 to 10 weeks after injection. The two types of leucemia, erythroleucosis and myeloid leucosis, developed in both groups irrespective of the type used for injection. Among the uninjected controls no cases of erythroleucosis or of myeloid leucosis were observed. Lymphoid leucosis occurred in one injected fowl but since it also occurred in one control it may be assumed that it was probably not caused by the injected material. PMID:19869839

  2. A new nanostructured Silicon biosensor for diagnostics of bovine leucosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchenko, A. I.; Melnichenko, M. M.; Starodub, N. F.; Shmyryeva, O. M.

    2010-08-01

    In this report we propose a new instrumental method for the biochemical diagnostics of the bovine leucosis through the registration of the formation of the specific immune complex (antigen-antibody) with the help of biosensor based on the nano-structured silicon. The principle of the measurements is based on the determination of the photosensitivity of the surface. In spite of the existed traditional methods of the biochemical diagnostics of the bovine leucosis the proposed approach may provide the express control of the milk quality as direct on the farm and during the process raw materials. The proposed variant of the biosensor based on the nano-structured silicon may be applied for the determination of the concentration of different substances which may form the specific complex in the result of the bioaffine reactions. A new immune technique based on the nanostructured silicon and intended for the quantitative determination of some toxic substances is offered. The sensitivity of such biosensor allows determining T-2 mycotoxin at the concentration of 10 ng/ml during several minutes.

  3. OBSERVATIONS WITH A NEW TRANSMISSIBLE STRAIN OF THE LEUCOSIS (LEUCEMIA) OF FOWLS

    PubMed Central

    Furth, J.

    1931-01-01

    Myeloid leucosis and erythroleucosis can be transmitted from one bird to others by emulsions of infiltrated organs, whole blood cells, and plasma. Inoculation is more often successful with blood cells or with whole blood than with plasma or with emulsions of organs infiltrated as the result of leucosis. Inoculation with material from a bird with myeloid or with erythroleucosis produces both myeloid and erythroleucosis, and in many instances mixed forms with characters of both. Evidence is wanting that lymphoid leucosis is caused by the agent that transmits myeloid and erythroleucosis. The occurrence of lymphoid leucosis among the birds inoculated with material from myeloid or erythroleucosis may be explained as spontaneous disease. Injury to cellular structure by treatment with distilled water or by repeated freezing and thawing does not destroy the agent that transmits the disease. Berkefeld filtrates have failed to transmit regularly myeloid or erythroleucosis. The evidence obtained shows, however, that the transmissible agent is filterable, although there are technical difficulties in its filtration. PMID:19869838

  4. OBSERVATIONS WITH A NEW TRANSMISSIBLE STRAIN OF THE LEUCOSIS (LEUCEMIA) OF FOWLS.

    PubMed

    Furth, J

    1931-01-31

    Myeloid leucosis and erythroleucosis can be transmitted from one bird to others by emulsions of infiltrated organs, whole blood cells, and plasma. Inoculation is more often successful with blood cells or with whole blood than with plasma or with emulsions of organs infiltrated as the result of leucosis. Inoculation with material from a bird with myeloid or with erythroleucosis produces both myeloid and erythroleucosis, and in many instances mixed forms with characters of both. Evidence is wanting that lymphoid leucosis is caused by the agent that transmits myeloid and erythroleucosis. The occurrence of lymphoid leucosis among the birds inoculated with material from myeloid or erythroleucosis may be explained as spontaneous disease. Injury to cellular structure by treatment with distilled water or by repeated freezing and thawing does not destroy the agent that transmits the disease. Berkefeld filtrates have failed to transmit regularly myeloid or erythroleucosis. The evidence obtained shows, however, that the transmissible agent is filterable, although there are technical difficulties in its filtration.

  5. STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF THE AGENT TRANSMITTING LEUCOSIS OF FOWLS

    PubMed Central

    Furth, J.

    1932-01-01

    The filterable agent transmitting leucosis resists drying, retaining its activity for at least 54 days. The conditions of successful desiccation have not been precisely ascertained. By the addition of glycerin the agent can be preserved for at least 104 days. It is not inactivated by freezing in liquid air. At 37.5°C. it loses its activity within 14 days, but retains some of its activity for at least 14 days when kept at 4°C. PMID:19870007

  6. Control and eradication programme of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) from selected dairy herds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Burgu, I; Alkan, F; Karaoglu, T; Bilge-Dagalp, S; Can-Sahna, K; Güngör, B; Demir, B

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples of 15,909 cattle from 31 dairy herds located in various regions of Turkey were tested for the presence of antibodies against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) using Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion technique (AGID). 48.3% (15/31) of the herds had seropositive animals and positivity rates were detected from 0.5-34.4% in these herds. In an EBL control/eradication programme all seropositive animals were culled in the infected herds. Thereafter, a total of 74,347 sera were tested for the presence of BLV specific antibodies. The serological results and detail of EBL control/eradication programme were shown in this paper.

  7. Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and Leucosis in Cattle: A Cost Description of Eradication Programmes in the Region of Lazio, Italy.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, A; Pelone, F; Battisti, S; Gamberale, F; Colafrancesco, R; Sala, M; La Torre, G; Della Marta, U; Scaramozzino, P

    2017-10-01

    The eradication of tuberculosis, brucellosis and leucosis in cattle has not yet been achieved in the entire Italian territory. The region of Lazio, Central Italy, represents an interesting case study to evaluate the evolution of costs for these eradication programmes, as in some provinces the eradication has been officially achieved, in some others the prevalence has been close to zero for years, and in still others disease outbreaks have been continuously reported. The objectives of this study were i) to describe the costs for the eradication programmes for tuberculosis, brucellosis and leucosis in cattle carried out in Lazio between 2007 and 2011, ii) to calculate the ratio between the financial contribution of the European Union (EU) for the eradication programmes and the estimated total costs and iii) to estimate the potential savings that can be made when a province gains the certification of freedom from disease. For the i) and ii) objectives, data were collected from official sources and a costing procedure was applied from the perspective of the Regional Health Service. For the iii) objective, a Bayesian AR(1) regression was used to evaluate the average percentage reduction in costs for a province that gained the certification. The total cost for the eradication programmes adjusted for inflation to 1 January 2016 was estimated at 18 919 797 euro (5th and 95th percentiles of the distribution: 18 325 050-19 552 080 euro). When a province gained the certification of freedom from disease, costs decreased on average by (median of the posterior distribution) 47.5%, 54.5% and 54.9% for the eradication programmes of tuberculosis, brucellosis and leucosis, respectively. Information on possible savings from the reduction of control costs can help policy makers operating under budget constraints to justify the use of additional resources for the final phase of eradication. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide inhibits subgroup J avian leucosis virus infection by directly blocking virus infection and improving immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Liu, Liping; Yang, Shifa; Hu, Liping; Zhao, Peng; Meng, Xiuyan; Shao, Mingxu; Wang, Chuanwen; Zhu, Lijun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yang; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2017-01-01

    Subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) generally causes neoplastic diseases, immunosuppression and subsequently increases susceptibility to secondary infection in birds. The spread of ALV-J mainly depends on congenital infection and horizontal contact. Although ALV-J infection causes enormous losses yearly in the poultry industry worldwide, effective measures to control ALV-J remain lacking. In this study, we demonstrated that Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a natural polysaccharide extracted from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen, can significantly inhibit ALV-J replication in vitro by blocking viral adsorption to host cells. Electron microscopy and blocking ELISA tests revealed that TPPPS possibly blocks viral adsorption to host cells by interacting with the glycoprotein 85 protein of ALV-J. Furthermore, we artificially established a congenitally ALV-J-infected chicken model to examine the anti-viral effects of TPPPS in vivo. TPPPS significantly inhibited viral shedding and viral loads in immune organs and largely eliminated the immunosuppression caused by congenital ALV-J infection. Additionally, pre-administration of TPPPS obviously reduced the size and delayed the occurrence of tumors induced by acute oncogenic ALV-J infection. This study revealed the prominent effects and feasible mechanisms of TPPPS in inhibiting ALV-J infection, thereby providing a novel prospect to control ALV-J spread. PMID:28287165

  9. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide inhibits subgroup J avian leucosis virus infection by directly blocking virus infection and improving immunity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Liu, Liping; Yang, Shifa; Hu, Liping; Zhao, Peng; Meng, Xiuyan; Shao, Mingxu; Wang, Chuanwen; Zhu, Lijun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yang; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2017-03-13

    Subgroup J avian leucosis virus (ALV-J) generally causes neoplastic diseases, immunosuppression and subsequently increases susceptibility to secondary infection in birds. The spread of ALV-J mainly depends on congenital infection and horizontal contact. Although ALV-J infection causes enormous losses yearly in the poultry industry worldwide, effective measures to control ALV-J remain lacking. In this study, we demonstrated that Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), a natural polysaccharide extracted from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen, can significantly inhibit ALV-J replication in vitro by blocking viral adsorption to host cells. Electron microscopy and blocking ELISA tests revealed that TPPPS possibly blocks viral adsorption to host cells by interacting with the glycoprotein 85 protein of ALV-J. Furthermore, we artificially established a congenitally ALV-J-infected chicken model to examine the anti-viral effects of TPPPS in vivo. TPPPS significantly inhibited viral shedding and viral loads in immune organs and largely eliminated the immunosuppression caused by congenital ALV-J infection. Additionally, pre-administration of TPPPS obviously reduced the size and delayed the occurrence of tumors induced by acute oncogenic ALV-J infection. This study revealed the prominent effects and feasible mechanisms of TPPPS in inhibiting ALV-J infection, thereby providing a novel prospect to control ALV-J spread.

  10. Seroprevalence of avian hepatitis E virus and avian leucosis virus subgroup J in chicken flocks with hepatitis syndrome, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yani; Du, Taofeng; Liu, Baoyuan; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Chen, Yiyang; Li, Huixia; Wang, Xinjie; Zhang, Gaiping; Zhou, En-Min; Zhao, Qin

    2016-11-22

    From 2014 to 2015 in China, many broiler breeder and layer hen flocks exhibited a decrease in egg production and some chickens developed hepatitis syndrome including hepatomegaly, hepatic necrosis and hemorrhage. Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) both cause decreasing in egg production, hepatomegaly and hepatic hemorrhage in broiler breeder and layer hens. In the study, the seroprevalence of avian HEV and ALV-J in these flocks emerging the disease from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces were investigated. A total of 1995 serum samples were collected from 14 flocks with hepatitis syndrome in Shandong and Shaanxi provinces, China. Antibodies against avian HEV and ALV-J in these serum samples were detected using iELISAs. The seroprevalence of anti-avian HEV antibodies (35.09%) was significantly higher than that of anti-ALV-J antibodies (2.16%) (p = 0.00). Moreover, the 43 serum samples positive for anti-ALV-J antibodies were all also positive for anti-avian HEV antibodies. In a comparison of both provinces, Shandong chickens exhibited a significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-avian HEV antibodies (42.16%) than Shaanxi chickens (26%) (p = 0.00). In addition, the detection of avian HEV RNA and ALV-J cDNA in the liver samples from the flocks of two provinces also showed the same results of the seroprevalence. In the present study, the results showed that avian HEV infection is widely prevalent and ALV-J infection is endemic in the flocks with hepatitis syndrome from Shandong and Shaanxi provinces of China. These results suggested that avian HEV infection may be the major cause of increased egg drop and hepatitis syndrome observed during the last 2 years in China. These results should be useful to guide development of prevention and control measures to control the diseases within chicken flocks in China.

  11. [The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of technique of detection of C-reactive protein under diagnostic of infectious complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, S G; Tarasova, L N; Dokshina, I A; Cherepanova, V A

    2014-11-01

    The C-reactive protein is a generally recognized marker of inflammation and bacterial infection. However, issue of diagnostic effectiveness of this indicator is still open-ended in case of patients with oncologic hematological diseases. The level of C-reactive protein can increase under neoplastic processes. On the contrary, the inhibition of immune response observed under cytoplastic therapy can decrease synthesis of this protein. The study was organized to establish levels of C-reactive protein as markers of infection in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis under application of chemotherapy and to evaluate their diagnostic effectiveness. The sampling included 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis all patients had infectious complications at various stages of treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein in groups of patients with localized infections (mucositis, abscess, pneumonia, etc.) or fever of unknown genesis had no statistical differences but were reliably higher in patients without infectious complications. The concentrations of C-reactive protein in patients with syndrome of systemic inflammatory response and sepsis had no differences. At the same time, level of C-reactive protein under systemic infection (syndrome of systemic inflammatory response, sepsis) was reliably higher than in case of localized infection. The diagnostically reliable levels of C-reactive protein were established as follows: lower than 11 mg/l--infectious complications are lacking; higher than 11 mg/l--availability of infectious process; higher than 82 mg/l--generalization of infection. The given levels are characterized by high diagnostic sensitivity (92% and 97% correspondingly) and specificity (97% and 97%) when patients receive therapy without application of L-asparaginase. At the stages of introduction of this preparation effecting protein synthesizing function of liver sensitivity of proposed criteria are decreased (69% and 55% correspondingly). However; due

  12. Characterizing the histopathology of natural co-infection with Marek's disease virus and subgroup J avian leucosis virus in egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yawen; Huang, Qi; Yang, Chengcheng; Pan, Ling; Wang, Guijun; Qi, Kezong; Liu, Hongmei

    2017-09-25

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) and avian leucosis virus (ALV) are known to cause tumours in egg-laying hens. Here, we investigated the aetiology of tumours in a flock of egg-laying hens vaccinated against MDV. We carried out gross pathology and histopathological examinations of the diseased tissues, identified virus antigen and sequenced viral oncogenes to elucidate the cause of death in 21-22-week-old hens. At necropsy, diseased hens had distinctly swollen livers, spleens, and proventriculus, and white tumour nodules in the liver. The spleen and liver had been infiltrated by lymphoid tumour cells, while the proventriculus had been infiltrated by both lymphoid tumour cells and myeloblastic cells. Subtype J ALV (ALV-J) and MDV were widely distributed in the proventricular gland cells, and the lymphoid tumour cells in the liver and the spleen. In addition, positive ALV-J signals were also observed in parts of the reticular cells in the spleen. MDV and ALV-J antigens were observed in the same foci of the proventricular gland cells; however, the two antigens were not observed in the same foci from the spleen and liver. The amino acid sequence of the AN-1 (the representative liver tumour tissue that was positive for both ALV-J and MDV) Meq protein was highly similar to the very virulent MDV QD2014 from China. Compared to the ALV-J HPRS-103 reference strain, 10 amino acids (224-CTTEWNYYAY-233) were deleted from the gp85 protein of AN-1. We concluded that concurrent infection with MDV and ALV-J contributed to the tumorigenicity observed in the flock.

  13. Biochemical correlations among the thermophilic enteric yeasts Torulopsis bovina, Torulopsis pintolopesii, Saccharomyces telluris, and Candida slooffii.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K; Arthur, H; Blakey, M

    1980-01-01

    Spontaneous and drug-induced respiration-deficient mutants were isolated from the thermophilic enteric yeasts Torulopsis bovina and Saccharomyces telluris. The biochemical properties of these yeasts were compared with those of the two naturally occurring respiration-deficient thermophilic yeasts T. pintolopesii and Candida slooffii. Succinate dehydrogenase was not detected in mitochondrial fractions from C. slooffii, but was present in all other species. Cytochrome c oxidase, succinate oxidase, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase were not detected in C. slooffii, T. pintolopesii, and the respiration-deficient mutants. Low-temperature cytochrome spectra revealed the presence of cytochromes aa3, b, c1, and c in T. bovina and S. telluris; cytochromes b, c1, and c in C. slooffii and T. pintolopesii; and cytochromes c1 and c in the spontaneous respiration-deficient mutants. Palmitoleic and oleic acids were the major fatty acids in all the species. It was noteworthy that T. pintolopesii was rich in lauric and myristic acids. CsCl equilibrium centrifugation experiments showed the presence in all the yeasts of a light-buoyant-density (1.6785 to 1.6837-g/cm3) deoxyribonucleic acid band which was identified as mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid by its selective elimination on treatment of cells with ethidium bromide. The latter result indicated that the spontaneous respiration-deficient mutants were similar to cytoplasmic petite mutants of S. cerevisiae. Although classical assimilation and fermentation tests indicated that the spontaneous respiration-deficient mutants were strains of T. pintolopesii, it was concluded, on the basis of marked physiological and biochemical differences, that this was not the case. PMID:7193674

  14. Activity of ancient RTE retroposons during the evolution of cows, spiral-horned antelopes, and Nilgais (Bovinae).

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M A; Klassert, D; Bertelsen, M F; Hallström, B M; Janke, A

    2012-10-01

    In the genome of Artiodactyla (cow, sheep, pigs, camels, and whales), a major retroposon group originated from a presumable horizontal transfer of BovB, a retrotransposon-like element retroposon, between 52 and 70 million years ago. Since then, BovB retroposons have proliferated and today occupy a quarter of the cow's genome sequence. The BovB-related short interspersed elements (SINEs) were used for resolving the phylogeny of Bovinae (cows, spiral-horned antelopes, and nilgais) and their relatives. In silico screening of 55,000 intronic retroposon insertions in the cow genome and experimental validation of 126 introns resulted in 29 informative retroposon markers for resolving bovine evolutionary relationships. A transposition-in-transposition analysis identifies three different phases of SINE activity and show how BovB elements have expanded in the cattle genome.

  15. Multigene Phylogenetic Analysis of Pathogenic Candida Species in the Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris Complex and Description of Their Ascosporic States as Kazachstania bovina sp. nov., K. heterogenica sp. nov., K. pintolopesii sp. nov., and K. slooffiae sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Robnett, Christie J.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Brayton, Cory; Gorelick, Peter; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    A yeast causing widespread infection of laboratory mice was identified from 26S rRNA gene sequences as Candida pintolopesii. To determine the relationship of C. pintolopesii with other members of the Kazachstania (Arxiozyma) telluris species complex, nucleotide sequences from domains 1 and 2 of the 26S rRNA gene, the mitochondrial small-subunit rRNA gene, and the RNA polymerase II gene were phylogenetically analyzed. That analysis resolved the 48 strains examined into five closely related species: K. telluris, Candida bovina, C. pintolopesii, Candida slooffiae, and a previously unknown species. One or more strains of each of the last four species formed an ascosporic state much like that of K. telluris. To place these ascosporogenous strains taxonomically, it is proposed that they be assigned to the teleomorphic genus Kazachstania as K. bovina (type strain NRRL Y-7283, CBS 9732, from the nasal passage of a pigeon), K. heterogenica (type strain NRRL Y-27499, CBS 2675, from rodent feces), K. pintolopesii (type strain NRRL Y-27500, CBS 2985, from the peritoneal fluid of a dead guinea pig), and K. slooffiae (type strain NRRL YB-4349, CBS 9733, from the cecum of a horse). On the basis of multigene sequence analyses, K. heterogenica appears to be a hybrid of K. pintolopesii and a presently unknown species. With the exception of K. bovina, the phylogenetically defined species show a moderate degree of host specificity. PMID:15634957

  16. [Risk analysis of brucelosis in the state of Tlaxcala].

    PubMed

    García-Juárez, Guillermina; Ramírez-Bribiesca, J Efrén; Hernández-Vázquez, Maricela; Hernández-Calva, Luz Marina; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Orozco-Bolaños, Hermila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the risk of brucellosis in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A diagnosis of social type was conducted in the municipalities of Huamantla, Ixtenco and Teacalco, located in the eastern region of the state. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats and humans was determined. 46.9% of producers know the programs of vaccination against brucellosis; 19.7% apply the vaccine and 80.3% do not apply the vaccine. Huamantla had the highest seroprevalence of animal brucellosis in 66.8%; San Jose Teacalco distributes unpasteurized cheeses to a distance of 270 km, increasing the risk of infection with brucellosis. Ixtenco recorded the highest prevalence of brucellosis in humans, with 1.51%. The municipalities studied present risks of infection and spread of brucellosis.

  17. [Possibilities and results of "immunotherapy" in children with acute leucosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blau, H J; Schulz, M

    1980-01-01

    In the introduction we are giving an overview about the possibilities of treatment of acute leucemias in childhood with an adjuvant immunotherapeutic component. Our own ten-years-experiences from 25 a. 1.1. children with BCG-application are useful for testing this kind of adjuvant therapy under clinical conditions in future, too.

  18. Molecular-genetic analysis of field isolates of Avian Leucosis Viruses in the Russian Federation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial poultry farms in 14 regions of Russian Federation were monitored for avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection using virus isolation tests and serology. Results indicated the presence of two subgroups of ALV in farms located in 11 of 14 regions. Analysis of the genomes of 12 field isolates of...

  19. [Seroprevalence of brucelosis in the workers of a plant of treatment of sanitary wastes].

    PubMed

    López Hernández, Begoña; Almagro Nievas, Diego; Cabrera Castillo, María José

    2003-03-22

    The management of biosanitary (hospital) waste, while being a key issue in the prevention of public health risks, involves professional risks as well. The objective of this study was to analyze the risks of infection and their relation with the various works within a cluster of brucellosis detected in an infectious waste plant. Cross-descriptive study of the total of 24 employees at the waste plant. A survey was carried out taking into account personal as well as professional items and serological tests. Both bivariant (contingency charts and mean comparison) and multivariant (logistic regression) analyses were carried out. The seroprevalence of brucella infection was 45.93% (CI95%, 26.17-66.76). The estimated risk (OR) for processing workers was 33.72 (CI95%, 2.73-415.96). The permanence within the posts was not different among groups. Infection seroprevalence was higher than that found in endemic populations. The post of processing was found to hold a relation with the contact with Brucella sp.

  20. A new species of trichostrongyloid in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) (Artiodactyla: Bovinae) from Uganda

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Africanastrongylus giganticus n. sp. is described based on large ostertagiine nematodes occurring in the abomasum of African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, from Uganda; this represents the second species recognized in the genus. Specimens of A. giganticus are characterized by large size (15-19 mm in tot...

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bos gaurus gon-shan (Bovidae; Bovinae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao-Zhi; Zhang, Yu-Ling; Li, Wei-Guo; Shi, Ji-Peng; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Liang, Le

    2016-01-01

    In the present work we undertook the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a wild gon-shan chinese cattle Bos gaurus gon-shan. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,356 bp with the base composition of 33.4% for A, 27.2% for T, 26.0% for C, and 13.4% for G and an A-T (60.6%)-rich feature was detected. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and one non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of all genes was identical to the typical mitochondrial genomes of cattle.

  2. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently infected cell is the CD5+ B cell. The mechanism by which BLV causes uncontrolled CD5+ B cell proliferation is unknown. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR, which enabled us to demonstrate that the proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection, as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. The present study reports the distribution of BLV provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations isolated from BLV-infected cows at the subclinical stage of EBL as examined by cell sorting and BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. Results Phenotypic characterization of five BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle with a proviral load of > 100 copies per 1 × 105 cells identified a high percentage of CD5+ IgM+ cells (but not CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+T cells). These lymphocyte subpopulations were purified from three out of five cattle by cell sorting or using magnetic beads, and the BLV proviral load was estimated using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. The CD5+ IgM+ B cell population in all animals harbored a higher BLV proviral load than the other cell populations. The copy number of proviruses infecting CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells (per 1 ml of blood) was 1/34 to 1/4, 1/22 to 1/3, and 1/31 to 1/3, respectively, compared with that in CD5+ IgM+ B cells. Moreover, the BLV provirus remained integrated into the genomic DNA of CD5+ IgM+ B cells, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, even in BLV-infected cattle with a proviral load of <100 copies per 105 cells. Conclusions The results of the recent study showed that, although CD5+ IgM+ B cells were the main cell type targeted in BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells were infected to a greater extent than previously thought. PMID:23641811

  3. Estimation of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) proviral load harbored by lymphocyte subpopulations in BLV-infected cattle at the subclinical stage of enzootic bovine leucosis using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Omori, Takashi; Nunoya, Tetsuo; Davis, William C; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Aida, Yoko

    2013-05-04

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), which is the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. BLV infection may remain clinically silent at the aleukemic (AL) stage, cause persistent lymphocytosis (PL), or, more rarely, B cell lymphoma. BLV has been identified in B cells, CD2+ T cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γ/δ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes in infected cattle that do not have tumors, although the most consistently infected cell is the CD5+ B cell. The mechanism by which BLV causes uncontrolled CD5+ B cell proliferation is unknown. Recently, we developed a new quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR, which enabled us to demonstrate that the proviral load correlates not only with BLV infection, as assessed by syncytium formation, but also with BLV disease progression. The present study reports the distribution of BLV provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subpopulations isolated from BLV-infected cows at the subclinical stage of EBL as examined by cell sorting and BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. Phenotypic characterization of five BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle with a proviral load of > 100 copies per 1 × 105 cells identified a high percentage of CD5+ IgM+ cells (but not CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, or CD8+T cells). These lymphocyte subpopulations were purified from three out of five cattle by cell sorting or using magnetic beads, and the BLV proviral load was estimated using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR. The CD5+ IgM+ B cell population in all animals harbored a higher BLV proviral load than the other cell populations. The copy number of proviruses infecting CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells (per 1 ml of blood) was 1/34 to 1/4, 1/22 to 1/3, and 1/31 to 1/3, respectively, compared with that in CD5+ IgM+ B cells. Moreover, the BLV provirus remained integrated into the genomic DNA of CD5+ IgM+ B cells, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, even in BLV-infected cattle with a proviral load of <100 copies per 105 cells. The results of the recent study showed that, although CD5+ IgM+ B cells were the main cell type targeted in BLV-infected but clinically normal cattle, CD5- IgM+ B cells, CD4+ cells, and CD8+ T cells were infected to a greater extent than previously thought.

  4. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow.

  5. [Combination chemotherapy of experimental leukemia].

    PubMed

    Emanuel', N M; Konovalova, N P; D'iachkovskaia, R F

    1977-01-01

    In the present work an attempt was made to gain greater therapeutic effect of diazane coupled with adriamycin and sarcolysin. Leucemias L-1210 and La served as a model. In leucosis La diazane was injected once in 5 days. Either an additional injection of adriamycin two days prior to diazane injection or sarcolysin injected simultaneously with diazane enabled the authors to obtain a distinct synergestic effect. In leucemia L-1210 a simultaneous administration of diazane and sarcolysin also contributes to considerably longer survival of leucemic animals. Such combinations are likely to be promising in their clinical use.

  6. Clinical and subclinical bovine leukemia virus infection in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Girja S; Simulundu, Edgar; Mwiinga, Danstan; Samui, Kenny L; Mweene, Aaron S; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mangani, Alfred; Mwenda, Racheal; Ndebe, Joseph; Konnai, Satoru; Takada, Ayato

    2017-04-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) and is responsible for substantial economic losses in cattle globally. However, information in Africa on the disease is limited. Here, based on clinical, hematological, pathological and molecular analyses, two clinical cases of EBL were confirmed in a dairy cattle herd in Zambia. In contrast, proviral DNA was detected by PCR in five apparently healthy cows from the same herd, suggesting subclinical BLV infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene showed that the identified BLV clustered with Eurasian genotype 4 strains. This is the first report of confirmed EBL in Zambia.

  7. [Epidemic outbreak of 81 cases of brucellosis following the consumption of fresh cheese without pasteurization].

    PubMed

    Castell Monsalve, J; Rullán, J V; Peiró Callizo, E F; Nieto-Sandoval Alcolea, A

    1996-01-01

    In spite of the great effort that has been made in recent years in Castilla-La Mancha to control brucelosis, a lack of awareness on the part of producers and consumers leads to major epidemic outbreak, such as the one described below. A description of the outbreak is described and a study is conducted of cases and controls to determine the factors which are responsible for the epidemic. Unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratios (O.R.) are obtained together with their confidence intervals, for the main epidemiological factors studied. A total of 81 cases of brucelosis were recorded in a period of 25 weeks. All the cases occurred in the same borough or were in some way linked to it. In the case and controls study no differences were found with regard to age, sex, contact with livestock or the consumption of pasteurised milk or cheese. A strong link was established between the illness and the consumption of home-made cottage cheese prepared by a small-scale producer in the borough, (O.R. = 311.9; C.I. = 95% = 41.48-12735)., whose livestock turned out to be infected with Brucella Mellitensis. This outbreak showed that in Spain, there is a risk of contracting brucelosis by consuming non-pasteurised dairy products, particularly cheese, when these are not subjected to the normal sanitary and health controls. The benefits of epidemiological research in the search for cases and determining the factors responsible for the outbreak are also demonstrated. An intensification of controls, the cleansing of the herds and flocks and health education in general, are suitable instruments for controlling this zoonosis in Spain.

  8. The "Linh Duong" Pseudonovibos spiralis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) is a new buffalo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. V.; Kulikov, E. E.; Petrov, N. B.; Ivanova, N. V.; Lomov, A. A.; Kholodova, M. V.; Poltaraus, A. B.

    2001-03-01

    The controversial phylogenetic position of the recently described South-East Asian endemic bovid, Pseudonovibos spiralis, was evaluated on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of originally obtained nearly complete 12S mitochondrial rDNA sequences for this species and Bubalus bubalis and 26 sequences of Bovidae from the Genbank using Cervus elaphus (Cervidae) as outgroup. In most of the phylogenetic analyses performed using PAUP 4.0 (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining), Bovidae consisted of two major clades: Bovinae including the tribes Bovini, Tragelaphini and Boselaphini, and Antilopinae+Caprinae, incorporating all other bovids. In most trees P. spiralis fell within the buffalos (subtribe Bovina) between Bubalus and Syncerus. Therefore, our phylogenetic analyses of bovid mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences suggest the close relationship of this enigmatic species with the buffalos and its placement within the subtribe Bovina.

  9. [Typing of cattle leukemia virus circulating in the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Limanskiĭ, A P; Geue, L; Limanskaia, O Iu; Beier, D

    2004-01-01

    Bovine leucosis virus (BLV), circulating in the Ukrainian territory, was characterized through the definition of its subspecies affiliation. The pro-viral BLV DNA was isolated from peripheral-blood lymphocytes of naturally-HIV-infected black-variegate animals taken from leucosis-affected farms in the Kharkov Region. The env-gene fragment of pro-viral DNA was amplified, sequenced and analyzed after the amplicon had been treated by three restriction enzymes, i.e. BamH I, Bcl I and Pvu II. According to the analysis of restriction-fragments' length polymorphism, the Ukrainian BLV isolate can be classified as belonging to the Australian subspecies, i.e. to one of the 3 known subspecies. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the env-gene fragment of BLV isolates from the EMBL database showed that evolutionally the Ukrainian isolate is distantly located from the isolates' clusters of the Belgian, Japanese and Australian subspecie and has the biggest quantity (4) of non-coinciding nucleotides for the analyzed highly conservative locus of the BLV env-gene with a length of 444 pair of nucleotides.

  10. Detection and differentiation of the six Brucella species by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Sifuentes-Rincón, A. M.; Revol, A.; Barrera-Saldaña, H. A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucelosis is a severe acute febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Its current diagnosis is based on clinical observations that may be complemented by serology and microbiological culture tests; however, the former is limited in sensitivity and specificity, the latter is time consuming. To improve brucelosis diagnosis we developed a test which is specific and sensitive and is capable of differentiating the six species of Brucella. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four primers were designed from B. abortus sequences at the well-conserved Omp2 locus that are able to amplify the DNAs of all six species of Brucella. RESULTS: Our test detected all six species of Brucella. Their differentiation resulted directly from differences in the amplification patterns or was achieved indirectly using a RFLP present in one of the PCR products. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test were then determined; it was applied successfully in confirming the diagnosis of a patient whose clinical history and serology indicated infection with Brucella. CONCLUSIONS: The results make possible the use of a PCR test for Brucella detection and differentiation without relying on the measurement of the antibodies or microorganism culture. Our first results showed that the PCR test can confirm the presence of Brucella in blood samples of infected patients. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:9407549

  11. Detection and differentiation of the six Brucella species by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sifuentes-Rincón, A M; Revol, A; Barrera-Saldaña, H A

    1997-11-01

    Brucelosis is a severe acute febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Its current diagnosis is based on clinical observations that may be complemented by serology and microbiological culture tests; however, the former is limited in sensitivity and specificity, the latter is time consuming. To improve brucelosis diagnosis we developed a test which is specific and sensitive and is capable of differentiating the six species of Brucella. Four primers were designed from B. abortus sequences at the well-conserved Omp2 locus that are able to amplify the DNAs of all six species of Brucella. Our test detected all six species of Brucella. Their differentiation resulted directly from differences in the amplification patterns or was achieved indirectly using a RFLP present in one of the PCR products. The sensitivity and specificity of the new test were then determined; it was applied successfully in confirming the diagnosis of a patient whose clinical history and serology indicated infection with Brucella. The results make possible the use of a PCR test for Brucella detection and differentiation without relying on the measurement of the antibodies or microorganism culture. Our first results showed that the PCR test can confirm the presence of Brucella in blood samples of infected patients.

  12. Thermal adaptation in yeast: obligate psychrophiles are obligate aerobes, and obligate thermophiles are facultative anaerobes.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, K; Arthur, H; Morton, H

    1978-01-01

    The obligate psychrophilic yeasts Torulopsis psychrophila, T. austromarina, Leucosporidium frigidum, L. gelidum, and L. nivalis were obligate aerobes and were unable to grow anaerobically. In contrast, the obligate thermophilic yeasts T. bovina, T. pintolopesii, Candida slooffii, and Saccharomyces telluris were facultative anaerobes. PMID:568620

  13. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Davidson, R M

    2002-01-01

    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose.

  14. A NEW STRAIN OF TRANSMISSIBLE LEUCEMIA IN FOWLS (STRAIN H).

    PubMed

    Ellermann, V

    1921-03-31

    1. A new strain of fowl leucosis has been transmitted through twelve generations of fowls. 2. An increase in virulence was observed during its passage. This was shown in a shortening of the interval between inoculation and death. The increase in virulence does not affect the number of successful inoculations, which remains approximately constant in from 20 to 40 per cent of the birds employed. 3. As with former strains, the disease manifests itself in various forms; i.e., myeloid and intravascular lymphoid types. A single lymphatic case was observed. 4. In several intravascular cases a diminution in the hemolytic power of the serum was established. This phenomenon was absent in a number of myeloid cases. 5. Active immunization cannot be produced by means of the subcutaneous injection of virulent material. 6. The finding of previous experiments that the virus is filterable has been confirmed. 7. The inoculation of human leucemic material into fowls gave negative results.

  15. [Properties of blood serum from reindeer and results of using it in virology and biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Gunenkov, V V; Sukharev, O I; Sirota, V F

    2003-01-01

    The blood serum of the reindeer does not virtually contain any antibodies to respiratory and intestinal viruses widely spread among the cattle. The reindeer blood serum is comparable with the bovine serum by the contents of chlorides, hemoglobin, total protein and protein fractions; however, it is different from the latter by a 2.5-fold higher content of glucose and by a higher osmotic pressure. The serum stimulates the mitotic cell activity and cell monolayer production; it also contributes to accumulating the cytopathogenic viruses in cell culture. 5- and 10%-serum, when added to a nutrient medium, ensures the reproduction of bovine leucosis virus and the accumulation of the antigen of this virus in a continuous cell culture that is chronically infected with the virus. Finally, the reindeer serum stabilizes the viability of ovocytes and stimulates the bovine embryo development at transplantation.

  16. Experimental demonstration and theoretical explanation of the efficiency of the nano-structured silicon as the transducer for optical immune biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Slyshyk, Nelya F.; Shavanova, Kateryna E.; Karpyuk, Andrij; Mel'nichenko, Mykola M.; Zherdev, Anatolij V.; Dzantiev, Boris B.

    2014-10-01

    It is presented the experimental results about the investigations of the efficiency of the structured nano-pourous silicon (sNPS) application as transducer in the immune biosensors designed for the control of retroviral bovine leucosis (RBL) and the determination of the level such mycotoxins as T2 and patulin among environmental objects. Today, there is an arsenal of the traditional immunological methods that allow for the biochemical diagnostics of the above diseases and control of toxins but they are deeply routine and can not provide the requirements of practice for express analysis, its low cost and simplicity. Early to provide practical demands we developed immune biosensors based on SPR, TIRE and thermistors. To find more simple variant of the assay we studied the efficiency sNPS as trasducer in immune biosensor. The registration of the specific signals was made by measuremets of level of chemiluminescence (ChL) or photocurrent. The sensitivity of biosensor for both variants of the specific signal registration at the determination of T2 and patulin was about 10-20 ng/ml. Sensitivity analysis of RBL by this immune biosensors exceeds traditionally used approaches including the ELISA-method too. The optimal serum dilution of blood at the screening leukemia should be no less than 1:100, or even 1:500. The immune biosensor may be applied too for express screening leucosis through analysis of milk. In this case the optimal serum dilution of milk should be about 1:20. The total time of analysis including all steps (immobilization of specific Ab or antigens on the transducer surface and measurements) was about 40 min and it may be a sharp decline if the above mentione sensitive elements will be immobilized preliminary measurements. It is concluded that the proposed type of transducer for immune biosensor is effective for analysis of mycotoxins in screening regime.

  17. Serotypes in Saccharomyces telluris: Their relation to source of isolation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasenclever, H.F.; Kocan, R.M.

    1973-01-01

    Three serotypes have been characterized with three reference strains of Saccharomyces telluris and designated as A, B, and C. One reference strain of Torpulopsis bovina, the imperfect form of S. telluris, belonged to serotype B. Strains of S. telluris isolated from four columbid species were serotyped. All 98 strains of this yeast isolated from Columba livia belonged to serotype B. Three other columbid species, C. leucocephala, C. fasciata, and Zenaidura macroura harbored strains of serotype C only. Serotype A was not isolated from any of the avian species.

  18. Selective cell targeting and lineage tracing of human induced pluripotent stem cells using recombinant avian retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Laura; Seemann, Petra; Kurtz, Andreas; Hecht, Jochen; Contzen, Jörg; Gossen, Manfred; Stachelscheid, Harald

    2015-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) differentiate into multiple cell types. Selective cell targeting is often needed for analyzing gene function by overexpressing proteins in a distinct population of hiPSC-derived cell types and for monitoring cell fate in response to stimuli. However, to date, this has not been possible, as commonly used viruses enter the hiPSC via ubiquitously expressed receptors. Here, we report for the first time the application of a heterologous avian receptor, the tumor virus receptor A (TVA), to selectively transduce TVA(+) cells in a mixed cell population. Expression of the TVA surface receptor via genetic engineering renders cells susceptible for infection by avian leucosis virus (ALV). We generated hiPSC lines with this stably integrated, ectopic TVA receptor gene that expressed the receptor while retaining pluripotency. The undifferentiated hiPSC(TVA+) as well as their differentiating progeny could be infected by recombinant ALV (so-called RCAS virus) with high efficiency. Due to incomplete receptor blocking, even sequential infection of differentiating or undifferentiated TVA(+) cells was possible. In conclusion, the TVA/RCAS system provides an efficient and gentle gene transfer system for hiPSC and extends our possibilities for selective cell targeting and lineage tracing studies.

  19. Antibodies to some pathogenic agents in free-living wild species in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, C; Anderson, E C; Jago, M; Mlengeya, T; Hipji, K

    1990-12-01

    A total of 535 sera from eight species of wildlife were collected from different game areas in Tanzania between 1987 and 1989. These sera were tested for antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease, bovine herpes virus types 1 and 2, lumpy skin disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, Akabane, bovine ephemeral fever, bluetongue, enzootic bovine leucosis, African horse sickness and African swine fever viruses and Brucella abortus based on the expected species susceptibility. Sera from buffalo Syncerus caffer, wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and topi Damaliscus korrigum contained antibodies against the majority of the pathogens tested. Antibodies to fewer pathogens were detected in sera from the other species. No antibodies to lumpy skin disease virus were detected in any of the sera examined. African horse sickness antibodies were detected in sera from Zebra and African swine fever antibodies were detected in wart hog. The occurrence of antibodies to these agents suggests that wild species act as reservoirs of infection for some of these pathogens. However, until the susceptibility of individual species is proven by isolation of the aetiological agents their role must remain speculative.

  20. First Molecular Characterization of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infections in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Kelly, Patrick John; Bai, Jianfa; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leucosis. To investigate the presence and genetic variability of BLV in the Caribbean for the first time, we preformed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR for the pol of BLV on DNA from whole blood of cattle from Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis and St. Kitts. Standard PCRs with primers for the env were used for phylogenetic analysis of BLV in positive animals. We found FRET-PCR positive cattle (12.6%, 41/325) on Dominica (5.2%; 4/77) and St. Kitts (19.2%; 37/193) but not on Montserrat (0%, 0/12) or Nevis (0%, 0/43). Positive animals were cows on farms where animals were raised intensively. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method on partial and full-length env sequences obtained for strains from Dominica (n = 2) and St. Kitts (n = 5) and those available in GenBank (n = 90) (genotypes 1-10) revealed the Caribbean strains belonged to genotype 1 (98-100% sequence homology). Ours is the first molecular characterization of BLV infections in the Caribbean and the first description of genotype 1 in the region.

  1. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inefficient viral replication of bovine leukemia virus induced by spontaneous deletion mutation in the G4 gene.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hironobu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Nikaido, Sae; Sato, Reiichiro; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsukamoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, which is highly prevalent in several regions of the world and significantly impacts the livestock industry. In BLV infection, the proviral load in the blood reflects disease progression. Although the BLV genome is highly conserved among retroviruses, genetic variation has been reported. However, the relationship between proviral load and genetic variation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the changes in proviral load in BLV-infected cattle in Japan and then identified and analysed a BLV strain pvAF967 that had a static proviral load. First, examining the proviral load in the aleukaemic cattle in 2014 and 2015, cow AF967 showed a static proviral load, while the other cows showed significant increases in proviral load. Sequencing the provirus in cow AF967 showed a deletion of 12 nt located in the G4 gene. An in vitro assay system using BLV molecular clone was set up to evaluate viral replication and production. In this in vitro assay, the deletion mutation in the G4 gene resulted in a significant decrease in viral replication and production. In addition, we showed that the deletion mutation did not affect the viral transcriptional activity of Tax protein, which is also important for virus replication. The emergence of strain pvAF967 that showed a static proviral load, combined with other retrovirus evolutionary traits, suggests that some BLV strains may have evolved to be symbiotic with cattle.

  3. [Influence of B locus on avian viral induced tumours].

    PubMed

    Cauchy, L; Dambrine, G; Coudert, F

    1982-01-01

    Since early in the century Avian Cancers were described as induced by viruses which later were known of DNA and RNA types. The susceptibility of birds was found different according to the genetic lines of the chickens and specially to the B locus blood group. Since the B locus of birds was strongly associated with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) it was of interest to review the last reports on the influence of the B locus on viral induced tumours. In Marek's Disease due to a DNA virus (Herpes type) the B21 allele expresses the greater resistance compared with other B alleles although non-B factors could be involved as demonstrated with the lymphocyte factor Ly-4. The possible mechanisms of the influence of B locus on the resistance against Marek's Disease are discussed. The tumours induced by RNA viruses (Avian Leucosis Sarcomas) develop or regress following genetic characters closely related to MHC. Differences of resistance exist between B alleles. Complementary genes should be present to fully express the resistance. The relationship between MHC-B locus and resistance to tumors stimulates the actual assays. Since a number of parameters remain still unknown further researches should be done in order to evidence the involved mechanisms of the resistance.

  4. Simultaneous detection of eight immunosuppressive chicken viruses using a GeXP analyser-based multiplex PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tingting; Xie, Zhixun; Xie, Liji; Deng, Xianwen; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Huang, Li; Huang, Jiaoling

    2015-12-30

    Immunosuppressive viruses are frequently found as co-infections in the chicken industry, potentially causing serious economic losses. Because traditional molecular biology methods have limited detection ability, a rapid, high-throughput method for the differential diagnosis of these viruses is needed. The objective of this study is to develop a GenomeLab Gene Expression Profiler Analyser-based multiplex PCR method (GeXP-multiplex PCR) for simultaneous detection of eight immunosuppressive chicken viruses. Using chimeric primers, eight such viruses, including Marek's disease virus (MDV), three subgroups of avian leucosis virus (ALV-A/B/J), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) and avian reovirus (ARV), were amplified and identified by their respective amplicon sizes. The specificity and sensitivity of the optimised GeXP-multiplex PCR assay were evaluated, and the data demonstrated that this technique could selectively amplify these eight viruses at a sensitivity of 100 copies/20 μl when all eight viruses were present. Among 300 examined clinical specimens, 190 were found to be positive for immunosuppressive viruses according to this novel assay. The GeXP-multiplex PCR assay is a high-throughput, sensitive and specific method for the detection of eight immunosuppressive viruses and can be used for differential diagnosis and molecular epidemiological surveys.

  5. Bovine leukaemia virus DNA in fresh milk and raw beef for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Olaya-Galán, N N; Corredor-Figueroa, A P; Guzmán-Garzón, T C; Ríos-Hernandez, K S; Salas-Cárdenas, S P; Patarroyo, M A; Gutierrez, M F

    2017-09-28

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis, which has been reported worldwide. BLV has been found recently in human tissue and it could have a significant impact on human health. A possible hypothesis regarding viral entry to humans is through the consumption of infected foodstuffs. This study was aimed at detecting the presence of BLV DNA in raw beef and fresh milk for human consumption. Nested PCR directed at the BLV gag gene (272 bp) was used as a diagnostic test. PCR products were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Forty-nine per cent of the samples proved positive for the presence of proviral DNA. This is the first study highlighting the presence of the BLV gag gene in meat products for human consumption and confirms the presence of the viral DNA in raw milk, as in previous reports. The presence of viral DNA in food products could suggest that viral particles may also be found. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of infected viral particles, even though the present findings could represent a first approach to BLV transmission to humans through foodstuff consumption.

  6. Serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Kai; Hamblin, Christopher; Jung, Sandra; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Mwanzia, Jacob; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Anderson, John; Armstrong, Robert M; Anajariyah, Saud

    2005-01-01

    A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine herpesvirus 9, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The high seroprevalence to BTV and EHDV in the UAE and SA indicates that Arabian oryx are likely to be susceptible to infection by these viruses and therefore could act as a source of virus to vectors during the infective stage of infection. Moreover, antibodies were detected against RPV and BRSV in sera from SA and against BAV-3 in sera from the UAE. No antibodies were found against bovine herpesvirus-1, caprine herpesvirus-1, enzootic bovine leucosis virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. On the basis of these results, caution should be applied when considering translocation of Arabian oryx, and only those proven to be free of infectious agents that might present a risk to other species should be moved.

  7. ALA-containing transparent applicators on the basis of biodegradable polymers for photodynamic therapy of superficial malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Shental, Victor V.; Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Davydov, Anatoly B.; Khromov, Gennady L.; Kuzmin, Sergei G.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Tkach, Iosif I.; Vorozhtsov, Georgy N.

    2002-06-01

    The efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is essentially determined by an optimal choice of sensitization means, among which the application method is one of the most perspective due to high permeability of a skin for 5-ALA. The aim of present work is optimization of sensitization process with ALA. We have used the possibility of 5-ALA transparency in applicator (outside of tissue) while protoporphyrin-IX, formed in sensitized tissue, has sufficient absorption for providing PDT. We have developed 5-ALA containing applicator on the basis of transparent biodegradable polymers, which serve as a programmed source of 5-ALA in the zone of their contact with pathological tissue. The investigations carried out on mice with the solid form of leucosis p-388, have shown that developed applicator provides effective sensitization of pathological tissue, supporting high concentration of photosensitizer in tissue during the whole time of application (up to week). The experiments in vivo have demonstrated high efficiency of PDT. The preliminary clinical researches allow to draw a conclusion about its perspectivity for photodynamic treatment of skin malignancies.

  8. First Molecular Characterization of Bovine Leukemia Virus Infections in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Kelly, Patrick John; Bai, Jianfa; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a retrovirus that causes enzootic bovine leucosis. To investigate the presence and genetic variability of BLV in the Caribbean for the first time, we preformed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-PCR for the pol of BLV on DNA from whole blood of cattle from Dominica, Montserrat, Nevis and St. Kitts. Standard PCRs with primers for the env were used for phylogenetic analysis of BLV in positive animals. We found FRET-PCR positive cattle (12.6%, 41/325) on Dominica (5.2%; 4/77) and St. Kitts (19.2%; 37/193) but not on Montserrat (0%, 0/12) or Nevis (0%, 0/43). Positive animals were cows on farms where animals were raised intensively. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method on partial and full-length env sequences obtained for strains from Dominica (n = 2) and St. Kitts (n = 5) and those available in GenBank (n = 90) (genotypes 1–10) revealed the Caribbean strains belonged to genotype 1 (98–100% sequence homology). Ours is the first molecular characterization of BLV infections in the Caribbean and the first description of genotype 1 in the region. PMID:27977761

  9. Retroviruses integrate into a shared, non-palindromic DNA motif.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Paul D W; Huvet, Maxime; Melamed, Anat; Maertens, Goedele N; Bangham, Charles R M

    2016-11-14

    Many DNA-binding factors, such as transcription factors, form oligomeric complexes with structural symmetry that bind to palindromic DNA sequences(1). Palindromic consensus nucleotide sequences are also found at the genomic integration sites of retroviruses(2-6) and other transposable elements(7-9), and it has been suggested that this palindromic consensus arises as a consequence of the structural symmetry in the integrase complex(2,3). However, we show here that the palindromic consensus sequence is not present in individual integration sites of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but arises in the population average as a consequence of the existence of a non-palindromic nucleotide motif that occurs in approximately equal proportions on the plus strand and the minus strand of the host genome. We develop a generally applicable algorithm to sort the individual integration site sequences into plus-strand and minus-strand subpopulations, and use this to identify the integration site nucleotide motifs of five retroviruses of different genera: HTLV-1, HIV-1, murine leukaemia virus (MLV), avian sarcoma leucosis virus (ASLV) and prototype foamy virus (PFV). The results reveal a non-palindromic motif that is shared between these retroviruses.

  10. [Biochemistry for the benefit of humanity (practical achievements of my scientific work)].

    PubMed

    Huliĭ, M F

    2005-01-01

    Science unites theory and practice, but theory is always in advance. Even our works (mentioned above) which are also important for practice and were awarded the State prizes could not be made without preliminary theoretical investigations. It should be said that our works with elaborated methods of therapy and drugs to treat chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, leucosis are rather of theoretical than of practical importance. Some our works which proved that carbon dioxide is the basis of life are also of especially great theoretical value. The paper deals with the investigations devoted to the problems of biochemistry in cattle breeding (the raising of fat content in milk; elaboration of the efficient method of fodder ensilage; raising of milk yield using the drug "Karboxilin"; development of the methods of isolation of crystalline glucose-oxidase and catalase used for clarifying blood) as well as to the problems of biochemistry in medicine (creation of the drug "Microcid", antileucosis drug "Corectin", drugs "Medichronal" and "Medicit" for treating alcoholism and drug addiction, drug "Namacit" for hindering the organism aging). Great attention is given to the problem of relations between the theoretical conception concerning the importance of CO2 in vital activity of human and animal organism and production of new drugs.

  11. [Detection of Brucella with an automatic hemoculture system: Bact/Alert].

    PubMed

    Casas, J; Partal, Y; Llosá, J; Leiva, J; Navarro, J M; de la Rosa, M

    1994-12-01

    The ability of in vitro and in vivo detection of Brucella spp. with the Bact/Alert system was studied. Three strains of Brucella melitensis and two of Brucella abortus were used. Different dilutions of the five strains were performed in trypticase soy broth (TSB), achieving concentrations of 1 cfu/ml, 5 cfu/ml, 10 cfu/ml and 100 cfu/ml. Ten ml of each dilution and strain were inoculated into 5 aerobic bottles Bact/Alert and 5 biphasic Hemóline bottles. Furthermore, over a 9 month period, 8,216 bottles of Bact/Alert bottles from hospitalized patients and from the emergency department were processed in the authors' laboratory. The mean detection time for Brucella growth was from 2 to 3 days with the Bact/Alert system, and 14 days in the biphasic bottles. Former bottles processed in the authors' laboratory, 11 aerobic bottles belonged to 5 patients in whom brucelosis was confirmed by bloodculture. The Bact/Alert system detected Brucella melitensis in only on bottle at 2.9 days of incubation. In 7 bottles Bact/Alert detected B. melitensis by a blind pass of these bottles at 10 to 20 days of incubation. These results suggest that the Bact/Alert system does not totally solve the diagnosis of brucellosis. Blind passes of the bloodcultures are required.

  12. Genome data on the extinct Bison schoetensacki establish it as a sister species of the extant European bison (Bison bonasus).

    PubMed

    Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Guérin, Claude; Lambourdière, Josie; Maksud, Frédéric; Philippe, Michel; Plaire, Delphine; Stafford, Thomas; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2017-02-10

    The European bison (Bison bonasus), now found in Europe and the Caucasus, has been proposed to originate either from the extinct steppe/extant American bison lineage or from the extinct Bison schoetensacki lineage. Bison schoetensacki remains are documented in Eurasian Middle Pleistocene sites, but their presence in Upper Pleistocene sites has been questioned. Despite extensive genetic studies carried out on the steppe and European bison, no remains from the fossil record morphologically identified as Bison schoetensacki has been analyzed up to now. In this paper, we analyzed a 36,000-year-old Bison schoetensaki bone sample from the Siréjol cave (France) and a cave hyena coprolite (fossilized feces) found in a nearby cave and containing large amounts of Bovinae DNA. We show that the Bovinae mitochondrial DNA sequences from both samples, including a complete mitochondrial genome sequence, belong to a clade recently reported in the literature. This clade only includes ancient bison specimens without taxonomic identification and displays a sister relationship with the extant European bison. The genetic proximity of Bison schoetensacki with specimens from this clade is corroborated by the analysis of nuclear DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms. This work provides genetic evidence supporting the continuing presence of Bison schoetensacki up to the Upper Pleistocene. Bison schoetensacki turns out to be a sister species of Bison bonasus, excluding the steppe bison Bison priscus as a direct ancestor of the European bison.

  13. Origins and function of 3-ribosylurate in bovid erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Davids, V; Blackhurst, D M; Katz, A A; Harley, E H

    2012-06-01

    3-Ribosylurate is a dominant feature on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles of acid extracts of erythrocytes from cows and buffalo, but is HPLC-undetectable in acid extracts of erythrocytes from all other species examined to date. Various aspects of this unique low molecular weight substance remain unexplored since it was first identified. In this study, the mutation(s) responsible for the appearance of ribosylurate in these cells is shown to be specific to members of both tribes of the Bovinae subfamily (Bovidae family), being detectable in the erythrocytes of both the cow and the buffalo (Bovini tribe) as well as in the kudu (Strepsicerotini tribe), but not in representative species from the other subfamilies of the Bovidae family. More specifically, expression of the mutation(s) seems to be restricted to the erythrocyte lineage of these species, ribosylurate being undetectable in cow white blood cells and primary cultures of fibroblasts. Novel evidence is presented that ribosylurate has antioxidant activity. Accumulation of high levels specifically within the haemoglobin-rich milieu of circulating erythrocytes may serve to protect perfused tissues by removing pathophysiological levels of hydrogen peroxide from plasma. Maintenance of ribosylurate levels may be important in conditions associated with oxidative stress in Bovinae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Malignant Catarrhal Fever: An Emerging Disease in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, S; Last, R; Espie, I; van Vuuren, M

    2015-06-01

    Within the tribe Bovini in the subfamily Bovinae, the water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis), American bison (Bison bison), European bison (Bubalus bonasus) and yak (Bos grunniens) are recognized as species highly susceptible to malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). In contrast, the lack of reports describing clinical MCF in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) whether free ranging or captive has led to a perception that African buffaloes are resistant to MCF. During the last decade, several cases of MCF in African buffaloes were confirmed in South Africa and experience with seven of these cases is described in this report. Detection of viral nucleic acid in blood or tissues was successful in six African buffaloes that suffered from clinical signs compatible with MCF. Four were positive for infection with ovine herpesvirus type 2 (the causative virus of sheep-associated MCF), and two were positive for alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 (causative virus of wildebeest-associated MCF). Histopathological examination of tissue samples from all the animals yielded typical lesions that were consistent with those described for MCF in domestic cattle. Developments in the management of African buffaloes translocated from their traditional habitats have likely contributed to the identification of another susceptible host in the subfamily Bovinae.

  15. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF) for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS) for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS) with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL) due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs. PMID:21843367

  16. L233P mutation of the Tax protein strongly correlated with leukemogenicity of bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Emi; Matsumura, Keiko; Soma, Norihiko; Hirasawa, Shintaro; Wakimoto, Mayuko; Arakaki, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Takashi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-27

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) Tax protein is believed to play a crucial role in leukemogenesis by the virus. BLV usually causes asymptomatic infections in cattle, but only one-third develop persistent lymphocytosis that rarely progress after a long incubation period to lymphoid tumors, namely enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL). In the present study, we demonstrated that the BLV tax genes could be divided into two alleles and developed multiplex PCR detecting an L233P mutation of the Tax protein. Then, in order to define the relationship between the Tax protein and leukemogenicity, we examined 360 tumor samples randomly collected from dairy or breeding cattle in Japan, of which Tax proteins were categorized, for age at the time of diagnosis of EBL. The ages of 288 animals (80.0%) associated with L233-Tax and those of 70 animals (19.4%) with P233-Tax individually followed log-normal distributions. Only the two earliest cases (0.6%) with L233-Tax disobeyed the log-normal distribution. These findings suggest that the animals affected by EBL were infected with the virus at a particular point in life, probably less than a few months after birth. Median age of those with P233-Tax was 22 months older than that with L233-Tax and geometric means exhibited a significant difference (P<0.01). It is also quite unlikely that viruses carrying the particular Tax protein infect older cattle. Here, we conclude that BLV could be divided into two categories on the basis of amino acid at position 233 of the Tax protein, which strongly correlated with leukemogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of a novel overlapping sequential E epitope (E') on the bovine leukaemia virus SU glycoprotein and analysis of immunological data.

    PubMed

    Forti, Katia; Rizzo, Giorgia; Cagiola, Monica; Ferrante, Giovanna; Marini, Carla; Feliziani, Francesco; Pezzotti, Giovanni; De Giuseppe, Antonio

    2014-08-06

    Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic C-type retrovirus, is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. Binding of BLV to its cellular receptor is mediated by the surface envelope glycoprotein subunit (SU). Previous studies have identified eight different epitopes (A through H) on the BLV SU. In this study, a new sequential epitope was identified using the monoclonal antibody 2G7 (MAb 2G7) on the C-terminal region of the BLV SU. To localise and refine the map of this epitope, a series of deleted forms in the C and N-terminal ends of the glycoprotein were made and synthesised in baculovirus and Escherichia coli expression systems. The synthetic proteins were analysed both in Western blot and MAb-capture ELISA assays. MAb 2G7 recognised a stretch of 11 amino acids, named epitope E', corresponding to residues 189-SDWVPSVRSWA-199 (comprising the 33 amino acids signal peptide) overlapping with the E epitope of the SU. The data obtained by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) revealed that the E' epitope was hidden on whole BLV particles and that the variation in reactivity between epitope E' and MAb 2G7 depends on the glycosylation state of SU. Similarly, the analysis of immunological data evidenced that the failure of interaction between the MAb anti-DD' and its epitope was also due to a steric hindrance of the glycosylation. Finally, the ELISA assay analysis performed with the deleted and mutated forms of rSU evidenced that the conformational epitopes F, G and H lied into in the 34-173 amino-acids residues of N-terminal region of SU. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Absence of Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in buffaloes from Amazon and southeast region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Resende, Cláudia F; Oliveira, Carlos M C; Barbosa, José D; Fonseca, Antônio A; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-07-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis is an infectious disease caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and is well described in bovines. The majority of infected animals are asymptomatic, one to five percent develop lymphoma and from 30 to 50% present a persistent lymphocytosis. The virus occurs naturally in cattle and experimentally in buffaloes, capybaras and rabbits. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes has been attributed to BLV infection by some authors in India and Venezuela, but not confirmed by other studies and little information on natural BLV infection in buffaloes is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of BLV in a sub-sample of buffalo from Amazon and southeast regions in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen serum samples were negative using commercial AGID and ELISA (ELISA-gp51) which detect anti-BLV glycoprotein gp51 antibodies. The same samples were also evaluated for antibodies to whole virus through a commercial ELISA (ELISA-BLV) in which 77 (24.44%) were found seropositive and two (0.63%) inconclusive. On the other hand, all animals were negative by PCR to BLV targeted to the env and tax genes. These results suggest that ELISA-BLV produces false positive results in buffalo serum (p<0.001). In addition, one buffalo lymphoma sample was negative in both PCR assays used in this study. BLV was not detected in buffaloes from the Amazon basin and the southeast region of Brazil. Serological tests, like ELISA-BLV, usually used for cattle may produce false-positive results for BLV in buffaloes and direct detection tests such as PCR should be chosen in these surveys. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffalo was not associated with BLV infection in the one case analyzed in this work and the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease should be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

    PubMed

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 induces innate immune responses in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Cao, Weisheng; Tan, Yan; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause lifelong infection and can escape from the host immune defenses in chickens. Since macrophages act as the important defense line against invading pathogens in host innate immunity, we investigated the function and innate immune responses of chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after ALV-J infection in this study. Our results indicated that ALV-J was stably maintained in MDM cells but that the viral growth rate was significantly lower than that in DF-1 cells. We also found that ALV-J infection significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production, but had no effect on MDM phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, infection with ALV-J rapidly promoted the expression levels of Myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx) (3 h, 6 h), ISG12 (6 h), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (3 h, 12 h) at an early infection stage, whereas it sharply decreased the expression of Mx (24 h, 36 h), ISG12 (36 h), and made little change on IL-1β (24 h, 36 h) production at a late infection stage in MDM cells. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon-β (IFN-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) had sharply increased in infected MDM cells from 3 to 36 h post infection (hpi) of ALV-J. And, the protein level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was dramatically decreased at 36 hpi in MDM cells infected with ALV-J. These results demonstrate that ALV-J can induce host innate immune responses and we hypothesize that macrophages play an important role in host innate immune attack and ALV-J immune escape.

  1. Complex of the new generation of the instrumental analytical approaches to prevent dangerous bioterrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Shavanova, Kateryna; Karpiuk, Andrii

    2014-10-01

    The real manifestations of biowarfare were only during local military conflicts. In previous times the danger with this factor forms through activation of terrorist organizations. To prevent non-desirable consequences and to preserve the lives and health of people it is necessary to provide constant control by the application of complex of the new generation of the instrumental devices based on the principles of biosensorics which allow rapid revealing step by step: total toxicity of environmental objects, presence of appropriate groups and specific chemical substances among them. It is demonstrated simple and rapid estimation of the total toxicity through the control of the intensity of chlorophyll fluorescence (IChF) by the direct or remote ways by the device "Floratest" (Ukraine). There is possible on the basis of IChF curve of growing plants from some territory during appropriate period to reveal appearance of toxic substances in this area. Their presence in more local cases may be done by using bioluminescent bacteria (pure Ukrainian strains) or/and controlling short term Daphnia living medium by developed portable chemiluminometer. For the revealing of some groups of toxic elements it is recommended the cerium oxide ISFETs based enzymatic biosensors. The last and devices based on SPR ("Plasmotest", Ukraine), porous silicon (with the registration of biospecific interaction macromolecules by luminescence or electro conductivity) and some nano-metal oxides were realized in immune biosensors at the determination of content of number of mycotoxins, some microorganisms (Salmonella spp.) and diagnostics of viral disease (retroviral leucosis). We present the main characteristics of the above mentioned devices and give confirmation that all the analysis meets practice demands. Overall time of analysis is in range 10 min and it is very simple and may be realized in field conditions.

  2. Gallus gallus aggrecan gene-based phylogenetic analysis of selected avian taxonomic groups.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward J; Shi, Li; Tu, Zhijian

    2005-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences remain the most widely used for phylogenetic analysis in birds. A major limitation of mtDNA sequences, however, is that mitochondria genes are inherited as a single linkage group. Here we describe the use of a 540-bp DNA sequence corresponding to the G3 domain of Gallus gallus nuclear aggrecan gene (AGCI) for phylogenetic analysis of the main groups of Galliformes including Phasianidae, Numididae, and Odontophoridae. We also included species from Cracidae and Megapodiidae which are considered by some as Craciformes and others, including here as Galliformes. The uncorrected sequence divergence of the G3 fragments ranges from 1% among the grouses to 36% between some of the distant groups within Galliformes. These sequences contain 39-48% AT nucleotides and the ratios of transition versus transversion are above 1.5 in majority of the comparisons. Using G3 sequences from an Anseriform, Oxyura jamaicensis, as out-groups, phylogenetic trees were obtained using maximum parsimony and distance algorithms and bootstrap analyses. These trees were consistent with those described using Avian sarcoma and leucosis virus gag genes and those from amino acid sequences of hemoglobin and lysozyme c. Our data also support relationships among Galliformes which were defined using mtDNA sequences. In addition to the general support of the five main families of Galliformes, our data are also consistent with previous work that showed Francolinus africanus and Gallus gallus are in the same clade and that Tetraoninae is a well-supported monophyletic subfamily within Phasianidae. The results presented here suggest that the AGC1 sequences meet the criterion of novel nuclear DNA sequences that can be used to help resolve the relationships among Galliformes.

  3. Multicentric lymphoma in buffaloes in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Cairo H S; Barbosa, José D; Damasceno, Karine A; Cassali, Geovanni D; Oliveira, Carlos Mc; Leite, Rômulo C; Reis, Jenner K P

    2016-10-20

    The presence of lymphoma in buffaloes was first reported in India in the 1960s. The disease is similar to Enzootic Bovine Leucosis (EBL) caused by Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in cattle; however, according to our results and those of other studies, the etiology of these lymphomas in buffalo do not appear to be associated with BLV. The objectives of this study are to describe four cases of the disease in buffaloes belonging to the same herd in the Amazon region of Brazil and to perform a clinical-anatomopathological, immunohistochemical, and etiological study of the lymphomas. Over a period of ten years, four buffaloes were observed presenting progressive weight loss, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, and nodules in the subcutaneous tissue. Upon necropsy, whitish-colored tumor masses were observed in the form of nodules in the subcutaneous tissue, along with miliary nodules on the serosal surfaces of abdominal and thoracic organs and tumors in lymph nodes and other organs. Neoplastic lymphocyte proliferation was observed through histopathology. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the neoplasias were formed by proliferation of predominantly B lymphocytes. The presence of BLV genome was not detected in the lymphomas when using the real-time PCR technique, nor was it detected through immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against two viral proteins. Bovine herpesvirus 6 was not detected in the tumors. However, Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was detected in samples of lymphoma and in the lymph nodes and kidneys of one of the animals. The occurrence of lymphoma in buffaloes is reported for the first time in Brazil and is characterized by B-cell multicentric lymphoma. The etiology of the disease does not appear to be associated with BLV; however, the detection of BIV in samples of lymphoma from one sick animal deserves further study, considering the oncogenic potential of this virus.

  4. ALV-J strain SCAU-HN06 induces innate immune responses in chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Dai, Manman; Cao, Weisheng; Tan, Yan; Li, Zhenhui; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leucosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause lifelong infection and can escape from the host immune defenses in chickens. Since macrophages act as the important defense line against invading pathogens in host innate immunity, we investigated the function and innate immune responses of chicken primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) after ALV-J infection in this study. Our results indicated that ALV-J was stably maintained in MDM cells but that the viral growth rate was significantly lower than that in DF-1 cells. We also found that ALV-J infection significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production, but had no effect on MDM phagocytic capacity. Interestingly, infection with ALV-J rapidly promoted the expression levels of Myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx) (3 h, 6 h), ISG12 (6 h), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (3 h, 12 h) at an early infection stage, whereas it sharply decreased the expression of Mx (24 h, 36 h), ISG12 (36 h), and made little change on IL-1β (24 h, 36 h) production at a late infection stage in MDM cells. Moreover, the protein levels of interferon-β (IFN-β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) had sharply increased in infected MDM cells from 3 to 36 h post infection (hpi) of ALV-J. And, the protein level of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was dramatically decreased at 36 hpi in MDM cells infected with ALV-J. These results demonstrate that ALV-J can induce host innate immune responses and we hypothesize that macrophages play an important role in host innate immune attack and ALV-J immune escape. PMID:27486255

  5. A study on reproductive performance and related factors of zebu cows in pastoral herds in a semi-arid area of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kanuya, N L; Matiko, M K; Kessy, B M; Mgongo, F O; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2006-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out from September 2001 to June 2004 in three adjacent villages in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The objectives of this study were to measure the intervals between calving and either resumption of cyclical activity or confirmation of pregnancy, to estimate calving intervals, and to investigate the effect of factors assumed to be related to postpartum reproductive performance. A total of 275 lactation periods from 177 Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu cows managed in a traditional pastoral system in 46 households were initially included. Animals were initially screened for brucelosis and thereafter examined by palpation per rectum at 2-week intervals. Body condition score (scale 1 to 5) was assessed and girth measurement (cm) taken. Occurrence of other reproductive events such as calving, abortion, death of calf, culling and reason for culling were recorded. In a subset of 98 lactation periods from 91 cows milk samples for progesterone (P4) determination were collected twice per week from day 7 after calving to the time of confirmed pregnancy or until milk production ceased before pregnancy. The data were analysed both univariately and in multivariable Cox proportional hazard (frailty) models. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) calving interval was 500+/-13.6 days. Positive reactors in the brucellosis test were 15.6% of the tested animals. Milk P4 analysis showed the rate of abortion/late embryo loss to be 14.3%. Calf mortality rates varied between 14.6 and 17.4%. A positive relationship was found between the outcome variables likelihood of cyclical activity and likelihood of pregnancy in the Cox model, and the explanatory variables: parity and body condition score (BCS) at calving. A negative relationship was found between the outcome variables, and the explanatory variables: maximum BCS loss and calf survival/mortality. Calving in the rainy season was associated with an increased likelihood of pregnancy.

  6. The Dutch Brucella abortus monitoring programme for cattle: the impact of false-positive serological reactions and comparison of serological tests.

    PubMed

    Emmerzaal, A; de Wit, J J; Dijkstra, Th; Bakker, D; van Zijderveld, F G

    2002-02-01

    The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the programme to monitor the official Brucella-free status of bovine herds was primarily based on periodical testing of dairy herds with the milk ring test (MRT) and serological testing of all animals older than 1 year of age from non-dairy herds, using the micro-agglutination test (MAT) as screening test. In addition, serum samples of cattle that aborted were tested with the MAT. The high number of false positive reactions in both tests and the serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for confirmation seemed to result in unnecessary blockade of herds, subsequent testing and slaughter of animals. For this reason, a validation study was performed in which three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the CFT and the SAT were compared using a panel of sera from brucellosis-free cattle, sera from experimentally infected cattle, and sera from cattle experimentally infected with bacteria which are known to induce cross-reactive antibodies (Pasteurella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia). Moreover, four ELISAs and the MRT were compared using a panel of 1000 bulk milk samples from Brucella-free herds and 12 milk samples from Brucella abortus- infected cattle. It is concluded that the ELISA obtained from ID-Lelystad is the most suitable test to monitor the brucelosis free status of herds because it gives rise to fewer false-positive reactions than the SAT.

  7. A long life among ruminants: giraffids and other special cases.

    PubMed

    Müller, D W H; Zerbe, P; Codron, D; Clauss, M; Hatt, J-M

    2011-11-01

    In order to investigate differences in the relative maximum longevity and other life history parameter between ruminant species, we collated data on mean body mass, maximum longevity, gestation period and newborn mass in wild ruminant and camelid species. Among ruminants, giraffids (giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and okapi Okapia johnstoni) have particularly high longevities, long gestation periods, and low intrauterine growth rates. A particularly high absolute and relative longevity is also achieved by the anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), a member of the bovinae (cattle-type ruminants) and an insular dwarf (inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi). The fact that some (but not all) other small ruminants also achieve surprisingly high longevities leads to the hypothesis that extreme relative longevities in this group are an indication for secondary body size reduction.

  8. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways are required for recombinant Brucella abortus BCSP31-induced cytokine production, functional upregulation of mouse macrophages, and the Th1 immune response in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Xue; Gao, Xiang; Cai, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes brucelosis in ruminants and humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Brucella abortus and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we focused on recombinant Brucella cell-surface protein 31 (rBCSP31) to determine its effects on mouse macrophages. Our results demonstrated that rBCSP31 induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 production, which depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in macrophages. In addition, continuous exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rBCSP31 significantly enhanced IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC-II and the ability to present rBCSP31 peptide to CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we found that rBCSP31 could interact with both TLR2 and TLR4. The rBCSP31-induced cytokine production by macrophages from TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice was lower than that from C57BL/6 macrophages, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs was attenuated in macrophages from TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice. In addition, CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6 mice immunized with rBCSP31 produced higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 compared with CD4+ T cells from TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice. Macrophages from immunized C57BL/6 mice produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than those from TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice. Furthermore, immunization with rBCSP31 provided better protection in C57BL/6 mice than in TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice after B. abortus 2308 challenge. These results indicate that rBCSP31 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces cytokine production, upregulates macrophage function and induces the Th1 immune response. PMID:24769793

  9. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways are required for recombinant Brucella abortus BCSP31-induced cytokine production, functional upregulation of mouse macrophages, and the Th1 immune response in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Xue; Gao, Xiang; Cai, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Brucella abortus is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes brucelosis in ruminants and humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Brucella abortus and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we focused on recombinant Brucella cell-surface protein 31 (rBCSP31) to determine its effects on mouse macrophages. Our results demonstrated that rBCSP31 induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 production, which depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in macrophages. In addition, continuous exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rBCSP31 significantly enhanced IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC-II and the ability to present rBCSP31 peptide to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we found that rBCSP31 could interact with both TLR2 and TLR4. The rBCSP31-induced cytokine production by macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice was lower than that from C57BL/6 macrophages, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs was attenuated in macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. In addition, CD4(+) T cells from C57BL/6 mice immunized with rBCSP31 produced higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 compared with CD4(+) T cells from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Macrophages from immunized C57BL/6 mice produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than those from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Furthermore, immunization with rBCSP31 provided better protection in C57BL/6 mice than in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice after B. abortus 2308 challenge. These results indicate that rBCSP31 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces cytokine production, upregulates macrophage function and induces the Th1 immune response.

  10. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave

    PubMed Central

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave. PMID:26083419

  11. Investigation of transferability of BovineSNP50 BeadChip from cattle to water buffalo for genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun Jing; Song, Li Jun; Wu, Fang Jie; Liang, Xian Wei; Yang, Bing Zhuang; Wathes, D Claire; Pollott, Geoff E; Cheng, Zhangrui; Shi, De Shun; Liu, Qing You; Yang, Li Guo; Zhang, Shu Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cattle and water buffalo belong to the same subfamily Bovinae and share chromosome banding and gene order homology. In this study, we used genome-wide Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to analyze 91 DNA samples from three breeds of water buffalo (Nili-Ravi, Murrah and their crossbred with local GuangXi buffalos in China), to demonstrate the genetic divergence between cattle and water buffalo through a large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) transferability study at the whole genome level, and performed association analysis of functional traits in water buffalo as well. A total of 40,766 (75.5 %) bovine SNPs were found in the water buffalo genome, but 49,936 (92.5 %) were with only one allele, and finally 935 were identified to be polymorphic and useful for association analysis in water buffalo. Therefore, the genome sequences of water buffalo and cattle shared a high level of homology but the polymorphic status of the bovine SNPs varied between these two species. The different patterns of mutations between species may associate with their phenotypic divergence due to genome evolution. Among 935 bovine SNPs, we identified a total of 9 and 7 SNPs significantly associated to fertility and milk production traits in water buffalo, respectively. However, more works in larger sample size are needed in future to verify these candidate SNPs for water buffalo.

  12. Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 and Galectin-9 genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Duran, P L H; Padiernos, R B C; Abella, E A; Konnai, S; Mingala, C N

    2015-12-01

    Molecular characterization of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) genes of swamp- and riverine-type water buffaloes was conducted to compare these genes with other species; determine the unique characteristic specific in water buffalo; and provide baseline information for the assessment of disease progression in buffalo species. TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes were amplified, purified, sequenced and characterized. The sequence result of TIM-3 in both types of water buffaloes contained 843 nucleotides encoding to 280 amino acids while GAL-9 of swamp-type and riverine-type water buffaloes contained 1023 and 972 nucleotides encoding to 340 and 323 amino acids, respectively. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino sequence of TIM-3 in water buffalo were 83-98% and 94-97% identical with other artiodactyl species, respectively. On the other hand, GAL-9 nucleotide and amino acid sequence in water buffalo were 85-98% and 76-96% identical with other artiodactyl species. The tyrosine-kinase phosphorylation motif and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the tribe Bovinae. It is imperative to have further studies in the assessment of the role of these genes in disease progression in water buffalo during chronic infection. The study is the first report that describes the genetic characteristic of TIM-3 and GAL-9 genes in water buffalo. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in workers of bovine tuberculosis sanitation farms in Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca].

    PubMed

    Leal-Bohórquez, Andrés F; Castro-Osorio, Claudia M; Wintaco-Martínez, Luz M; Villalobos, Rafael; Puerto-Castro, Gloria M

    2016-01-01

    To perform classic and molecular epidemiological surveillance of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in bovine supply chains at farms with PPD positive bovines in the departments of Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca during a one-year period. Livestock farms with PPD positive bovines or buffalos were visited in the study departments according to information obtained in the "Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis bovina" (National program on bovine Tuberculosis) released by ICA (Colombian Agriculture and Livestock Institute). Data on socio-demographic information and tuberculosis risk factors associated to the occupation were collected through a survey applied to all workers at the visited farms. Sputum samples were obtained after informed consent. The sputa underwent microbiological and molecular testing to identify members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Thirty-three livestock farms were visited and information of 164 workers from the bovine supply chain was collected. Staying in a PPD positive farm for more than a year, ignorance about the disease and the presence of possible vectors, like dogs and cats, were identified as possible risk factors for developing tuberculosis. No cases of tuberculosis caused by M. bovis or M. tuberculosis in workers of the visited farms were found. No cases of the disease caused by this zoonotic agent were documented in the departments of Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca.

  14. Isotopic evidence for diet and subsistence pattern of the Saint-Césaire I Neanderthal: review and use of a multi-source mixing model.

    PubMed

    Bocherens, Hervé; Drucker, Dorothée G; Billiou, Daniel; Patou-Mathis, Marylène; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2005-07-01

    The carbon and nitrogen isotopic abundances of the collagen extracted from the Saint-Césaire I Neanderthal have been used to infer the dietary behaviour of this specimen. A review of previously published Neanderthal collagen isotopic signatures with the addition of 3 new collagen isotopic signatures from specimens from Les Pradelles allows us to compare the dietary habits of 5 Neanderthal specimens from OIS 3 and one specimen from OIS 5c. This comparison points to a trophic position as top predator in an open environment, with little variation through time and space. In addition, a comparison of the Saint-Césaire I Neanderthal with contemporaneous hyaenas has been performed using a multi-source mixing model, modified from Phillips and Gregg (2003, Oecologia 127, 171). It appears that the isotopic differences between the Neanderthal specimen and hyaenas can be accounted for by much lower amounts of reindeer and much higher amounts of woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth in the dietary input of the Neanderthal specimen than in that of hyaenas, with relatively similar contributions of bovinae, large deer and horse for both predators, a conclusion consistent with the zooarchaeological data. The high proportion of very large herbivores, such as woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth, in Neanderthal's diet compare to that of the scavenging hyaenas suggests that Neanderthals could not acquire these prey through scavenging. They probably had to hunt for proboscideans and rhinoceros. Such a prey selection could result from a long lasting dietary tradition in Europe.

  15. A possible case of caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever in a domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal herpesvirus infection, affecting various wild and domestic ruminants all over the world. Water buffaloes were reported to be particularly susceptible for the ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) causing the sheep-associated form of MCF (SA-MCF). This report describes the first case of possibly caprine-associated malignant catarrhal fever symptoms in a domestic water buffalo in Switzerland. Case presentation The buffalo cow presented with persistent fever, dyspnoea, nasal bleeding and haematuria. Despite symptomatic therapy, the buffalo died and was submitted to post mortem examination. Major findings were an abomasal ulceration, a mild haemorrhagic cystitis and multifocal haemorrhages on the epicardium and on serosal and mucosal surfaces. Eyes and oral cavity were not affected. Histopathology revealed a mild to moderate lymphohistiocytic vasculitis limited to the brain and the urinary bladder. Although these findings are typical for MCF, OvHV-2 DNA was not detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes or in paraffin-embedded brain, using an OvHV-2 specific real time PCR. With the aid of a panherpesvirus PCR, a caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2) sequence could be amplified from both samples. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of malignant catarrhal fever in the subfamily Bovinae, where the presence of CpHV-2 could be demonstrated. The etiological context has yet to be evaluated. PMID:22132808

  16. Structural properties of Pb{sub 3}Mn{sub 7}O{sub 15} determined from high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Julia C.E.; Sheptyakov, D.V.; Schefer, J.; Keller, L.; Boehm, M.; Gozzo, F.; Volkov, N.V.; Sablina, K.A.; Petrakovskii, G.A.; Grimmer, H.; Conder, K.; Loeffler, J.F.

    2009-05-15

    We report on the crystallographic structure of the layered compound Pb{sub 3}Mn{sub 7}O{sub 15}. Previous analysis based on laboratory X-ray data at room temperature gave contradictory results in terms of the description of the unit cell. Motivated by recent magnetic bulk measurements of this system [N.V. Volkov, K.A. Sablina, O.A. Bayukov, E.V. Eremin, G.A. Petrakovskii, D.A. Velikanov, A.D. Balaev, A.F. Bovina, P. Boni, E. Clementyev, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20 (2008) 055217], we re-investigated the chemical structure with high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction at temperatures between 15 and 295 K. Our results show that the crystal structure of stoichiometric Pb{sub 3}Mn{sub 7}O{sub 15} has a pronounced 2-dimensional character and can be described in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. - The crystal structure of Pb{sub 3}Mn{sub 7}O{sub 15} has been reinvestigated by synchrotron powder diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma and shows no structural transition between 15 and 295 K.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of Th1 and Th2 cytokines of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Konnai, S; Okagawa, T; Githaka, N W; Kariuki, E; Gakuya, F; Kanduma, E; Shirai, T; Ikebuchi, R; Ikenaka, Y; Ishizuka, M; Murata, S; Ohashi, K

    2012-04-01

    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) has been implicated as the reservoir of several bovine infectious agents. However, there is insufficient information on the protective immune responses in the African buffalo, particularly in infected animals. In this study, we analysed Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. The cloned cDNA of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ contained an open reading frame of 468, 501, 408 and 540 nucleotides, encoding polypeptides of 155, 166, 135 and 179 amino acids, respectively. Nucleotide sequence homology of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 was more than 98% between the African buffalo and cattle, which resulted in identical polypeptides. Meanwhile, IL-10 gene of African buffalo and cattle had 95% homology in nucleotide sequence, corresponding to thirteen amino acid residues substitution. Cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites were conserved within the family Bovinae. Phylogenetic analyses including cytokines of the African buffalo placed them within a cluster comprised mainly of species belonging to the order Artiodactyla, including cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and artiodactyl wildlife. A deeper understanding of the structure of these cytokines will shed light on their protective role in the disease-resistant African buffalo in comparison with other closely related species.

  18. [Bulimia].

    PubMed

    Ziolko, H U; Schrader, H C

    1985-07-01

    In a literary synopsis we inform about eating addiction or binges already known in antiquity and differentiated as bulimos (fames bovina) respectively as kynorexia (fames canina), partially in a still true description. The syndrome, occurring increasingly since one decade, consists of periodically pathological and excessive devouring of food, mostly consecutive restrictive diet and/or vomiting, use of laxatives, depressivity, experience of shame and guilt s.o. At a prevalency of 5% of the (psychiatric) patients mainly women (95%) are concerned, showing a postpubertary begin of disease. In spite of certain connexions to the anorexia nervosa we have to define the bulimia as its counterpart. The different etiological conceptions suppose an epilepsy-like disorder, an attachment to the (endogenic) depression or the presumption of neuro-endocrine events. Largely it is applied to intra- and interpsychical neurotic conflictuality, though actually behavioristical aspects seem to be preferred. The therapeutic intentions comprise anticonvulsives and antidepressives in view of medicamentous treatment; the psychical treatment comprises psychoanalysis, outpatient and inpatient clinical psychotherapy and all actually usual methods up to self-help groups.

  19. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    PubMed

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave.

  1. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Iso-Touru, Terhi; Kantanen, Juha; Li, Meng-Hua; Gizejewski, Zygmunt; Vilkki, Johanna

    2009-07-22

    Prolactin receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  2. Milk composition of free-ranging red hartebeest, giraffe, Southern reedbuck and warthog and a phylogenetic comparison of the milk of African Artiodactyla.

    PubMed

    Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Madende, M; Deacon, F; Nel, P J

    2017-02-01

    The composition of major nutrients and fatty acids of the milk of three species, red hartebeest, Southern reedbuck and warthog, and milk fatty acids of giraffe, that have not been published before, are reported, and together with the same parameters of 11 species previously published, were incorporated in a phylogenetic comparison. Unique properties of milk composition have been observed. Southern reedbuck milk seems to have a complex casein composition, similar to that of sheep. Milk composition varies between species. Although some differences may be ascribed to biological condition, such as stage of lactation, or ecological factors, such as availability of certain nutrients, the contribution by evolutionary history is not well documented and the emphasis is usually on the composition of the macro nutrients. Phylogenetic comparisons often lack representatives of multiple species of taxonomic groups and sub-groups. To date phylogenetic comparisons of milk composition have been carried out by using data from different publications. The problem with this approach is that the ecological factors cannot be completely ruled out. A statistical phylogenetic comparison by PCA between 15 species representing 7 different suborders, families or subfamilies of African Artiodactyla was carried out. The phylogenetic properties showed that the milk composition of the Bovinae, represented here by the subfamilies Bovini and Tragelaphini, differs from the other taxonomic groups, in that the Alcelaphinae had a high milk fat content of the medium chain length fatty acids C8-C12 (>17% of total fatty acids) and the Hippotraginae high amounts of oligosaccharides (>0.4%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Detecting Loci under Recent Positive Selection in Dairy and Beef Cattle by Combining Different Genome-Wide Scan Methods

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Pérez O’Brien, Ana Maria; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Van Tassell, Curtis Paul; do Carmo, Adriana Santana; Mészáros, Gábor; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José Fernando

    2013-01-01

    As the methodologies available for the detection of positive selection from genomic data vary in terms of assumptions and execution, weak correlations are expected among them. However, if there is any given signal that is consistently supported across different methodologies, it is strong evidence that the locus has been under past selection. In this paper, a straightforward frequentist approach based on the Stouffer Method to combine P-values across different tests for evidence of recent positive selection in common variations, as well as strategies for extracting biological information from the detected signals, were described and applied to high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data generated from dairy and beef cattle (taurine and indicine). The ancestral Bovinae allele state of over 440,000 SNP is also reported. Using this combination of methods, highly significant (P<3.17×10−7) population-specific sweeps pointing out to candidate genes and pathways that may be involved in beef and dairy production were identified. The most significant signal was found in the Cornichon homolog 3 gene (CNIH3) in Brown Swiss (P = 3.82×10−12), and may be involved in the regulation of pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Other putative pathways under selection are the glucolysis/gluconeogenesis, transcription machinery and chemokine/cytokine activity in Angus; calpain-calpastatin system and ribosome biogenesis in Brown Swiss; and gangliosides deposition in milk fat globules in Gyr. The composite method, combined with the strategies applied to retrieve functional information, may be a useful tool for surveying genome-wide selective sweeps and providing insights in to the source of selection. PMID:23696874

  4. Detecting loci under recent positive selection in dairy and beef cattle by combining different genome-wide scan methods.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Pérez O'Brien, Ana Maria; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Van Tassell, Curtis Paul; do Carmo, Adriana Santana; Mészáros, Gábor; Sölkner, Johann; Garcia, José Fernando

    2013-01-01

    As the methodologies available for the detection of positive selection from genomic data vary in terms of assumptions and execution, weak correlations are expected among them. However, if there is any given signal that is consistently supported across different methodologies, it is strong evidence that the locus has been under past selection. In this paper, a straightforward frequentist approach based on the Stouffer Method to combine P-values across different tests for evidence of recent positive selection in common variations, as well as strategies for extracting biological information from the detected signals, were described and applied to high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data generated from dairy and beef cattle (taurine and indicine). The ancestral Bovinae allele state of over 440,000 SNP is also reported. Using this combination of methods, highly significant (P<3.17×10(-7)) population-specific sweeps pointing out to candidate genes and pathways that may be involved in beef and dairy production were identified. The most significant signal was found in the Cornichon homolog 3 gene (CNIH3) in Brown Swiss (P = 3.82×10(-12)), and may be involved in the regulation of pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Other putative pathways under selection are the glucolysis/gluconeogenesis, transcription machinery and chemokine/cytokine activity in Angus; calpain-calpastatin system and ribosome biogenesis in Brown Swiss; and gangliosides deposition in milk fat globules in Gyr. The composite method, combined with the strategies applied to retrieve functional information, may be a useful tool for surveying genome-wide selective sweeps and providing insights in to the source of selection.

  5. Comparative chromosome painting of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) karyotypes with human and dromedary camel probes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pronghorn (Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) and saola (Bovidae, 2n = 50) are members of Pecora, a highly diversified group of even-toed hoofed mammals. Karyotypes of these species were not involved in chromosome painting studies despite their intriguing phylogenetic positions in Pecora. Results To trace the chromosome evolution during very fast radiation of main families from the common Pecoran ancestor, high-resolution comparative chromosome maps of pronghorn and saola with human (HSA) and dromedary camel (CDR) painting probes were established. The human and dromedary camel painting probes revealed 50 and 64 conserved segments respectively in the pronghorn genome, while 51 and 63 conserved segments respectively in the saola genome. Integrative analysis with published comparative maps showed that inversions in chromosomes homologous to CDR19/35/19 (HSA 10/20/10), CDR12/34/12 (HSA12/22/12/22), CDR10/33/10 (HSA 11) are present in representatives of all five living Pecoran families. The pronghorn karyotype could have formed from a putative 2n = 58 Pecoran ancestral karyotype by one fission and one fusion and that the saola karyotype differs from the presumed 2n = 60 bovid ancestral karyotype (2n = 60) by five fusions. Conclusion The establishment of high-resolution comparative maps for pronghorn and saola has shed some new insights into the putative ancestral karyotype, chromosomal evolution and phylogenic relationships in Pecora. No cytogenetic signature rearrangements were found that could unite the Antilocapridae with Giraffidae or with any other Pecoran families. Our data on the saola support a separate position of Pseudorigyna subtribe rather than its affinity to either Bovina or Bubalina, but the saola phylogenetic position within Bovidae remains unresolved. PMID:24923361

  6. Phylogeny for species of Haemonchus (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea): considerations of their evolutionary history and global biogeography among Camelidae and Pecora (Artiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Eric R; Lichtenfels, J Ralph; Gibbons, Lynda

    2004-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 25 morphological characters among the 12 species of Haemonchus resulted in 1 most parsimonious tree (60 steps; consistency index = 0.67, retention index = 0.80). Monophyly for Haemonchus was diagnosed by 3 unequivocal synapomorphies, including the asymmetric origin of the dorsal ray, relative size of the ventral rays, and the presence of a barb on each spicule tip. Species of Haemonchus have complex histories with respect to host and geographic associations: (1) origins in Africa with basal diversification in antelopes (H. krugeri, H. lawrencei, H. dinniki, H. horaki), (2) independent events of colonization for those species in Caprini and Bovinae (H. contortus, H. placei, H. bedfordi, H. similis), (3) colonization and development of core host associations within Camelidae (H. longistipes) and among Antilopinae, Tragelaphini, and Giraffidae (H. mitchelli, H. okapiae, H. vegliai), and (4) geographically widespread species that are represented only by those that have been translocated with domestic stock. The North American fauna is characterized by 3 introduced and exotic species, H. placei, H. contortus, H. similis, which emphasizes the importance of continued documentation of faunal diversity in the context of predictive foundations derived from phylogenetic studies. Satellite associations for species of Haemonchus, particularly among Cervidae and Camelidae in the Neotropics and Cervidae, Antilocapridae, and possibly wild Caprinae in the Nearctic, have been a consequence of introductions and exchange of parasites at historical interfaces for managed and natural ecosystems. Such distributions are emblematic of the overriding significance of anthropogenic factors as determinants of the global distributions for pathogenic parasites in domestic and wild ruminants.

  7. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  8. Model determination in a case of heterogeneity of variance using sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Moreno, C; Garcia-Cortes, L A; Altarriba, J

    1997-01-12

    A sampling determination procedure has been described in a case of heterogeneity of variance. The procedure makes use of the predictive distributions of each data given the rest of the data and the structure of the assumed model. The computation of these predictive distributions is carried out using a Gibbs Sampling procedure. The final criterion to compare between models is the Mean Square Error between the expectation of predictive distributions and real data. The procedure has been applied to a data set of weight at 210 days in the Spanish Pirenaica beef cattle breed. Three proposed models have been compared: (a) Single Trait Animal Model; (b) Heterogeneous Variance Animal Model; and (c) Multiple Trait Animal Model. After applying the procedure, the most adjusted model was the Heterogeneous Variance Animal Model. This result is probably due to a compromise between the complexity of the model and the amount of available information. The estimated heritabilities under the preferred model have been 0.489 ± 0.076 for males and 0.331 ± 0.082 for females. RESUMEN: Contraste de modelos en un caso de heterogeneidad de varianzas usando métodos de muestreo Se ha descrito un método de contraste de modelos mediante técnicas de muestreo en un caso de heterogeneidad de varianza entre sexos. El procedimiento utiliza las distribucviones predictivas de cada dato, dado el resto de datos y la estructura del modelo. El criterio para coparar modelos es el error cuadrático medio entre la esperanza de las distribuciones predictivas y los datos reales. El procedimiento se ha aplicado en datos de peso a los 210 días en la raza bovina Pirenaica. Se han propuesto tres posibles modelos: (a) Modelo Animal Unicaracter; (b) Modelo Animal con Varianzas Heterogéneas; (c) Modelo Animal Multicaracter. El modelo mejor ajustado fue el Modelo Animal con Varianzas Heterogéneas. Este resultado es probablemente debido a un compromiso entre la complejidad del modelo y la cantidad de datos

  9. Sequence of specific mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment from Egyptian buffalo is used as a pattern for discrimination between river buffaloes, cattle, sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Hassan A I

    2011-08-01

    Characterization of molecular markers and the development of better assays for precise and rapid detection of domestic species are always in demand. This is particularly due to recent food scares and the crisis of biodiversity resulting from the huge ongoing illegal traffic of endangered species. The aim of this study was to develop a new and easy method for domestic species identification (river buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) based on the analysis of a specific mitochondrial nucleotide sequence. For this reason, a specific fragment of Egyptian buffalo mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene (422 bp) was amplified by PCR using two universal primers. The sequence of this specific fragment is completely conserved between all tested Egyptian buffaloes and other river buffaloes in different places in the world. Also, the lengths of the homologous fragments were less by one nucleotide (421 bp) in case of goats and two nucleotides (420 bp) in case of both cattle and sheep. The detection of specific variable sites between investigated species within this fragment was sufficient to identify the biological origin of the samples. This was achieved by alignment between the unknown homologous sequence and the reference sequences deposited in GenBank database (accession numbers, FJ748599-FJ748607). Considering multiple alignment results between 16S rRNA homologous sequences obtained from GenBank database with the reference sequence, it was shown that definite nucleotides are specific for each of the four studied species of the family Bovidae. In addition, other nucleotides are detected which can allow discrimination between two groups of animals belonging to two subfamilies of family Bovidae, Group one (closely related species like cattle and buffalo, Subfamily Bovinae) and Group two (closely related species like sheep and goat, Subfamily Caprinae). This 16S DNA barcode character-based approach could be used to complement cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) in DNA barcoding. Also, it is a

  10. Genome-Wide Survey and Analysis of Microsatellite Sequences in Bovid Species

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Du, Lian-Ming; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Ting-Zhang; Yue, Bi-Song; Quan, Qiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the most popular source of genetic markers, which are ubiquitously distributed in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. This is the first study examining and comparing SSRs in completely sequenced genomes of the Bovidae. We analyzed and compared the number of SSRs, relative abundance, relative density, guanine-cytosine (GC) content and proportion of SSRs in six taxonomically different bovid species: Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Bos mutus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Pantholops hodgsonii. Our analysis revealed that, based on our search criteria, the total number of perfect SSRs found ranged from 663,079 to 806,907 and covered from 0.44% to 0.48% of the bovid genomes. Relative abundance and density of SSRs in these Bovinae genomes were non-significantly correlated with genome size (Pearson, r < 0.420, p > 0.05). Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di- > tri- > penta- > tetra- > hexanucleotide SSRs. Generally, the number of SSRs, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the motif repeat length increased in each species of Bovidae. The most GC-content was in trinucleotide SSRs and the least was in the mononucleotide SSRs in the six bovid genomes. The GC-contents of tri- and pentanucleotide SSRs showed a great deal of similarity among different chromosomes of B. taurus, O. aries, and C. hircus. SSR number of all chromosomes in the B. taurus, O.aries, and C. hircus is closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r > 0.980, p < 0.01) and significantly negatively correlated with GC-content (Pearson, r < -0.638, p < 0.01). Relative abundance and density of SSRs in all chromosomes of the three species were significantly negatively correlated with GC-content (Pearson, r < -0.333, P < 0.05) but not significantly correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r < -0.185, P > 0.05). Relative abundances of the same

  11. BoLA class I polymorphism and in vitro immune response to M. bovis antigens.

    PubMed

    Longeri, M; Polli, M; Ponti, W; Zanotti, M

    1993-01-12

    bovinen und Geflügel PPDs. 2. Phagozyten Aktivität gegen M. bovis. 3. Zeil-Oberflächen, Expression der Klasse II Moleküle. 4. Anteile der Lymphozyten Populationen und Subpopulationen. Im in vitro Lymphozyten-Stimulationstest waren alle Tiere und Klassen responder. Tiere mit A10 BoLA I zeigten höhere c.p.m. und Indexwerte als die anderen; diese Werte waren in signifikant positiver Beziehung mit der PPD von M. bovis und auch mit M. avium (P < .01). BoLA Typ A14 zeigte leicht signifikant positive Korrelation mit wirksamerer Phagozyten Aktivität. BoLA Klasse I Typ scheint nicht den Prozentsatz der positiven Zellen der Klasse II und der Leukozyten der PBM signifikant zu beeinflussen. RESUMEN: Polimorfismo de BoLA clase I y immunidad a los antigenos del M. bovis Se escojeron 47 novillos dentro de un grupo de 119 animales que segun analisis previamente hecha tenian BoLA de clase I. Estos 47 novillos fueron escojidos de manera que tuvieran 9 distintos tipos de MHC (A6, A6.9, A10, A11, A14, A15, A30, W16, M103), la misma edad, las mismas condiciones de cria. Estos animales fueron inoculados subcutaneo con M. bovis matados en una suspension oleosa y la misma inoculacion fue repetida una secunda vez despues de dos dias. Por cada animal se tomaron muestras de sangre antes y 21 dias despues de la inoculacion de arriba. Las muestras de sangre fueron pruebaoas con: 1. Stimulacion Lymhocitaria con PPD bovina y avicola. 2. Actividad phagocitaria a M. bovis. 3. Expresion sobre la superficie celular de moleculas de clase II. 4. Porcentaje de poblaciones y de subpob-laciones de leucocitos. Todos los animales y todos los tipos de MHC dieron respuestas positivas en las pruebas de Stimulacion Lymphocitaria. Los animales que tenian la BoLA A10 presentaron valores de c.p.m. y indices mas altos de los demas animales. Estos valores se encontraron significativamente y positivamente relacionados sea a la PPD bovina que a la PPD avicola. Por medio de la analisis de varianzas se encontro que el