Science.gov

Sample records for brucke uber den

  1. Detecting uber-operons in prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Che, Dongsheng; Li, Guojun; Mao, Fenglou; Wu, Hongwei; Xu, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We present a study on computational identification of uber-operons in a prokaryotic genome, each of which represents a group of operons that are evolutionarily or functionally associated through operons in other (reference) genomes. Uber-operons represent a rich set of footprints of operon evolution, whose full utilization could lead to new and more powerful tools for elucidation of biological pathways and networks than what operons have provided, and a better understanding of prokaryotic genome structures and evolution. Our prediction algorithm predicts uber-operons through identifying groups of functionally or transcriptionally related operons, whose gene sets are conserved across the target and multiple reference genomes. Using this algorithm, we have predicted uber-operons for each of a group of 91 genomes, using the other 90 genomes as references. In particular, we predicted 158 uber-operons in Escherichia coli K12 covering 1830 genes, and found that many of the uber-operons correspond to parts of known regulons or biological pathways or are involved in highly related biological processes based on their Gene Ontology (GO) assignments. For some of the predicted uber-operons that are not parts of known regulons or pathways, our analyses indicate that their genes are highly likely to work together in the same biological processes, suggesting the possibility of new regulons and pathways. We believe that our uber-operon prediction provides a highly useful capability and a rich information source for elucidation of complex biological processes, such as pathways in microbes. All the prediction results are available at our Uber-Operon Database: http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/uber, the first of its kind.

  2. Lightness and Hue Perception: The Bezold-Brucke Effect and Colour Basic Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillo, Julio; Aguado, Luis; Moreira, Humberto; Davies, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Using surface colours as stimuli, the present research was aimed at the two following goals: (1) To determine the chromatic angles related to categorical effects type B-B (Bezold-Brucke). (2) To determine the colourimetric characteristics compatible with each Spanish colour basic category. To get these goals the full set of tiles included in the…

  3. Mutations in FKBP10 Cause Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Bruck Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Brian P; Malfait, Fransiska; Bonafe, Luisa; Baldridge, Dustin; Homan, Erica; Symoens, Sofie; Willaert, Andy; Elcioglu, Nursel; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Gillerot, Yves; Napierala, Dobrawa; Krakow, Deborah; Beighton, Peter; Superti-Furga, Andrea; De Paepe, Anne; Lee, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder of connective tissue characterized by bone fragility and alteration in synthesis and posttranslational modification of type I collagen. Autosomal dominant OI is caused by mutations in the genes (COL1A1 or COL1A2) encoding the chains of type I collagen. Bruck syndrome is a recessive disorder featuring congenital contractures in addition to bone fragility; Bruck syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in PLOD2 encoding collagen lysyl hydroxylase, whereas Bruck syndrome type 1 has been mapped to chromosome 17, with evidence suggesting region 17p12, but the gene has remained elusive so far. Recently, the molecular spectrum of OI has been expanded with the description of the basis of a unique posttranslational modification of type I procollagen, that is, 3-prolyl-hydroxylation. Three proteins, cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), prolyl-3-hydroxylase-1 (P3H1, encoded by the LEPRE1 gene), and the prolyl cis-trans isomerase cyclophilin-B (PPIB), form a complex that is required for fibrillar collagen 3-prolyl-hydroxylation, and mutations in each gene have been shown to cause recessive forms of OI. Since then, an additional putative collagen chaperone complex, composed of FKBP10 (also known as FKBP65) and SERPINH1 (also known as HSP47), also has been shown to be mutated in recessive OI. Here we describe five families with OI-like bone fragility in association with congenital contractures who all had FKBP10 mutations. Therefore, we conclude that FKBP10 mutations are a cause of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta and Bruck syndrome, possibly Bruck syndrome Type 1 since the location on chromosome 17 has not been definitely localized. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20839288

  4. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays.

  5. Novel Mutations in FKBP10 and PLOD2 Cause Rare Bruck Syndrome in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peiran; Liu, Yi; Lv, Fang; Nie, Min; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ou; Xia, Weibo; Xing, Xiaoping; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Bruck syndrome (BS) is an extremely rare form of osteogenesis imperfecta characterized by congenital joint contracture, multiple fractures and short stature. We described the phenotypes of BS in two Chinese patients for the first time. The novel compound heterozygous mutations c.764_772dupACGTCCTCC (p.255_257dupHisValLeu) in exon 5 and c.1405G>T (p.Gly469X) in exon 9 of FKBP10 were identified in one proband. The novel compound heterozygous mutations c.1624delT (p.Tyr542Thrfs*18) in exon 14 and c.1880T>C (p.Val627Ala) in exon 17 of PLOD2 were identified in another probrand. Intravenous zoledronate was a potent agent for these patients, confirmed the efficacy of bisphosphonates on this disease. In conclusion, the novel causative mutations identified in the patients expand the genotypic spectrum of BS. PMID:25238597

  6. Telemedicine and the sharing economy: the "Uber" for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian J; Moore, Derek W; Schmidt, Chester W

    2016-12-01

    Telehealth platforms, which include both competitors and complements to traditional care delivery, will offer many benefits for both consumers and clinicians, and may promote increased specialization and competition in service delivery. Traditional medical services providers face a challenge similar to that faced by traditional taxicabs after Uber entered the marketplace: how to compete with a connection services platform that threatens to disrupt existing, regulated, and licensed service providers.

  7. Das Blüte-Bestäuber-Netz auf Brachflächen : biozönologische Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Brachen in einer intensiv genutzten Agrarlandschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Robert

    2002-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird die Bedeutung von Brachen für Artenvielfalt und Stabilität von Blüte-Bestäuber-Nahrungsnetzen in agrarisch genutzten Landschaften anhand ausgewählter blütenbesuchender Insektengruppen (Syrphidae, Lepidoptera) untersucht. Die Freilandarbeiten fanden von 1998-2000 im Raum der Feldberger Seenlandschaft, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, statt. Es werden die beiden Hauptnahrungsquellen Nektar und Pollen betrachtet, dabei fanden Untersuchungen zur Intensität der Blüte-Bestäuber-Interaktion auf Stilllegungsflächen, zum flächenbezogenen quantitativen Nektarangebot im Jahresverlauf, zur individuellen Pollennutzung bei Syrphiden und zur Breite und Überlappung der Nahrungsnischen bei den dominanten Arten Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens und Sphaerophoria scripta statt. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich eine hohe Bedeutung der Brachflächen für die Stabilität des Blüte-Bestäuber-Netzes, während die Diversität von anderen, eher landschaftsbezogenen Faktoren abhängig ist. This dissertation examines the importance of fallow land for the diversity and stability of pollination webs in agricultural landscapes as exemplified by selected groups of anthophilous insects (syrphidae and lepidoptera). The field studies were carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the Feldberg lakeland area in the north-east German State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Observations were made of nectar and pollen as the two main sources of food. Studies were conducted into the intensity of plant-pollinator interaction in set-aside areas, the site-specific quantity of nectar available during the vegetation period and the individual pollen intake of syrphid flies. Different methods were employed to establish the breadth of the trophic niches among the predominant species (Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens and Sphaerophoria scripta) and the extent to which they overlapped. The studies showed that, while fallow land is very

  8. Loss of Type I Collagen Telopeptide Lysyl Hydroxylation Causes Musculoskeletal Abnormalities in a Zebrafish Model of Bruck Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gistelinck, Charlotte; Witten, Paul Eckhard; Huysseune, Ann; Symoens, Sofie; Malfait, Fransiska; Larionova, Daria; Simoens, Pascal; Dierick, Manuel; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; De Paepe, Anne; Kwon, Ronald Y; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David R; Willaert, Andy; Coucke, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Bruck syndrome (BS) is a disorder characterized by joint flexion contractures and skeletal dysplasia that shows strong clinical overlap with the brittle bone disease Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). BS is caused by bi-allelic mutations in either the FKBP10 or the PLOD2 gene. PLOD2 encodes the lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2) enzyme, which is responsible for the hydroxylation of lysine residues in fibrillar collagen telopeptides. This hydroxylation directs cross-linking of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix, which is necessary to provide stability and tensile integrity to the collagen fibrils. To further elucidate the function of LH2 in vertebrate skeletal development, we created a zebrafish model harboring a homozygous plod2 nonsense mutation resulting in reduced telopeptide hydroxylation and cross-linking of bone type I collagen. Adult plod2 mutants present with a shortened body axis and severe skeletal abnormalities with evidence of bone fragility and fractures. The vertebral column of plod2 mutants is short and scoliotic with compressed vertebrae that show excessive bone formation at the vertebral end plates, and increased tissue mineral density in the vertebral centra. The muscle fibers of mutant zebrafish have a reduced diameter near the horizontal myoseptum. The endomysium, a layer of connective tissue ensheathing the individual muscle fibers, is enlarged. Transmission electron microscopy of mutant vertebral bone shows type I collagen fibrils that are less organized with loss of the typical plywood-like structure. In conclusion, plod2 mutant zebrafish show molecular and tissue abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system that are concordant with clinical findings in BS patients. Therefore, the plod2 zebrafish mutant is a promising model for the elucidation of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms leading to BS and the development of novel therapeutic avenues in this syndrome. PMID:27541483

  9. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik (Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This report of the 1969 Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics contains summaries of papers and speeches on the following topics: (1) linguistics applied to literary texts, (2) computer analysis of texts, (3) research in the psychology of first language learning, (4) research in the psychology of second language learning, (5) speech…

  10. Karl ernst von Baer's 'Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere II' and its unpublished drawings.

    PubMed

    Tammiksaar, Erki; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    In 1828 Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) published his seminal Uber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. Beobachtung und Reflexion. In the preface he announced that a second volume with one copper plate would be finished 'in a few weeks'. However, it took nine years until the unfinished second volume was released, with four copperplates. In his 'Autobiography', von Baer did not clarify the reasons why he did not finish his research program of comparative embryology. The paper attempts to elucidate them, furnished by archival documents and von Baer's unpublished embryological drawings. Our sketch of a few figures will show that (1) von Baer searched for 'analogies' (homologies) as a unifying principle and (2) explained the mechanisms of embryogenesis by physiological reasoning (electromagnetism). The main objective is to show that technical problems in illustrating and conceptual difficulties impeded von Baer's ambitious research program.

  11. Two New Letters by Denning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2010-06-01

    Two letters written by W. F. Denning to R. P. Greg in March and April of 1879 that had been tucked into the folds of an 1876 edition of the British Association for the Advancement of Science Reports were recently found at the Carnegie Institution in Washington D.C. The letters are wonderfully preserved, and offer us a snap-shot of the work being performed by a young Denning at the time when his influence in the field of meteor studies was in its ascendency. The contents of these two letters is analyzed and placed within context to Denning's other publications and private life.

  12. Mutations in FKBP10, which result in Bruck syndrome and recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta, inhibit the hydroxylation of telopeptide lysines in bone collagen

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze, Ulrike; Cundy, Tim; Pyott, Shawna M.; Christiansen, Helena E.; Hegde, Madhuri R.; Bank, Ruud A.; Pals, Gerard; Ankala, Arunkanth; Conneely, Karen; Seaver, Laurie; Yandow, Suzanne M.; Raney, Ellen; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Stoler, Joan; Ben-Neriah, Ziva; Segel, Reeval; Lieberman, Sari; Siderius, Liesbeth; Al-Aqeel, Aida; Hannibal, Mark; Hudgins, Louanne; McPherson, Elizabeth; Clemens, Michele; Sussman, Michael D.; Steiner, Robert D.; Mahan, John; Smith, Rosemarie; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Wynn, Julia; Chong, Karen; Uster, Tami; Aftimos, Salim; Sutton, V. Reid; Davis, Elaine C.; Kim, Lammy S.; Weis, Mary Ann; Eyre, David; Byers, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Although biallelic mutations in non-collagen genes account for <10% of individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta, the characterization of these genes has identified new pathways and potential interventions that could benefit even those with mutations in type I collagen genes. We identified mutations in FKBP10, which encodes the 65 kDa prolyl cis–trans isomerase, FKBP65, in 38 members of 21 families with OI. These include 10 families from the Samoan Islands who share a founder mutation. Of the mutations, three are missense; the remainder either introduce premature termination codons or create frameshifts both of which result in mRNA instability. In four families missense mutations result in loss of most of the protein. The clinical effects of these mutations are short stature, a high incidence of joint contractures at birth and progressive scoliosis and fractures, but there is remarkable variability in phenotype even within families. The loss of the activity of FKBP65 has several effects: type I procollagen secretion is slightly delayed, the stabilization of the intact trimer is incomplete and there is diminished hydroxylation of the telopeptide lysyl residues involved in intermolecular cross-link formation in bone. The phenotype overlaps with that seen with mutations in PLOD2 (Bruck syndrome II), which encodes LH2, the enzyme that hydroxylates the telopeptide lysyl residues. These findings define a set of genes, FKBP10, PLOD2 and SERPINH1, that act during procollagen maturation to contribute to molecular stability and post-translational modification of type I procollagen, without which bone mass and quality are abnormal and fractures and contractures result. PMID:22949511

  13. Die Religiose Konstante. Uber den padagogischen Umgang mit naturwissenshcaftlichen Hypothesen (The Religious Constant--The Interpretation of Hypotheses of the Natural Sciences in Educational Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    Shows how evolution-theoretical behavioral research may serve to influence the theory production of pedagogics. Questions which truths and securities are required by educational practice and which consequences can be drawn for the level of theoretical cognition of the respective discipline. An analysis of the relation between religion in its…

  14. The DenA/DEN1 Interacting Phosphatase DipA Controls Septa Positioning and Phosphorylation-Dependent Stability of Cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 during Fungal Development

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Josua; Kolog Gulko, Miriam; Christmann, Martin; Valerius, Oliver; Stumpf, Sina Kristin; Stirz, Margarita; Braus, Gerhard H.

    2016-01-01

    DenA/DEN1 and the COP9 signalosome (CSN) represent two deneddylases which remove the ubiquitin-like Nedd8 from modified target proteins and are required for distinct fungal developmental programmes. The cellular DenA/DEN1 population is divided into a nuclear and a cytoplasmatic subpopulation which is especially enriched at septa. DenA/DEN1 stability control mechanisms are different for the two cellular subpopulations and depend on different physical interacting proteins and the C-terminal DenA/DEN1 phosphorylation pattern. Nuclear DenA/DEN1 is destabilized during fungal development by five of the eight CSN subunits which target nuclear DenA/DEN1 for degradation. DenA/DEN1 becomes stabilized as a phosphoprotein at S243/S245 during vegetative growth, which is necessary to support further asexual development. After the initial phase of development, the newly identified cytoplasmatic DenA/DEN1 interacting phosphatase DipA and an additional developmental specific C-terminal phosphorylation site at serine S253 destabilize DenA/DEN1. Outside of the nucleus, DipA is co-transported with DenA/DEN1 in the cytoplasm between septa and nuclei. Deletion of dipA resulted in increased DenA/DEN1 stability in a strain which is unresponsive to illumination. The mutant strain is dysregulated in cytokinesis and impaired in asexual development. Our results suggest a dual phosphorylation-dependent DenA/DEN1 stability control with stabilizing and destabilizing modifications and physical interaction partner proteins which function as control points in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. PMID:27010942

  15. Dens in dente: A minimally invasive nonsurgical approach!

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vivek; Morawala, Abdul; Gupta, Abhilasha; Khandwawala, Naqiyaa

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a rare anomaly affecting human dentition. The condition results in invagination of an amelodental structure within the pulp. This case report discusses the current management protocol of dens invaginatus using a minimally invasive and nonsurgical treatment option. As with most conditions, early diagnosis and preventive measures help minimize complications in dens invaginatus cases. PMID:27656073

  16. Dragons' Den: promoting healthcare research and innovation.

    PubMed

    Mazhindu, Deborah; Gregory, Siobhan

    2015-07-01

    The changing health and social care landscape, and, in particular, the financial challenges affecting the NHS, can present difficulties for staff looking for funding to support innovation and new ways of working. One method of competitive tendering that is becoming more accepted as a way of allocating funds, encouraging staff engagement and developing innovation for research is a format based the BBC television series, Dragons' Den. This article describes how Hounslow and Richmond Community Healthcare NHS Trust, London, has developed a 'Dragons' Den initiative' of annual competitive research funding allocation to ensure that some of the most dynamic practice in the trust is captured.

  17. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, S.; Gardner, C.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) is circumpolar in the NOrthern Hemisphere, but known locations of maternal dens are concentrated in relatively few, widely scattered locations. Denning is either uncommon or unknown within gaps. To understand effects of industrial development and propose increases in hunting, the temporal and spatial distribution of denning in the Beaufort Sea must be known. We caputred and radiocollared polar bears between 1981 and 1991 and determined tht denning in the Beaufort Sea region was sufficient to account for the estimated population there. Of 90 dend, 48 were on drifting pack ice, 38 on land, and 4 on land-fast ice. The portions of dens on land was higher (P= 0.029) in later compared with earlier years of the study. Bears denning on pack ice drifting as far as 997 km (x=385km) while in dens. there was no difference in cun production by bears denning on land and pack ice (P =0.66). Mean entry and exit dates were 11 November and 5 April for land dens and 22 November and 26 March for pack-ice dens. Female polar bears captured in the Beaufort Sea appeared to be isolated from those caught eat of Cape Bathurst in Canada. Of 35 polar bears that denned along the mainland coast of Alaska and Canada 80% denned between 137 00'W snf 146 59'W. Bears followed to >1 den did not reuse sites and consecutive dens were 20-1,304 km apart. However radio-collared bears are largely faithful to substrate (pack-ice, land, and land-fast ice) and the general geographic area of previous dens. Bears denning on land may be vunerable to human activities such as hunting and industrial development. However, predictable denning chronology and alck of site fidelity indicate that many potential impacts on denning polar bears could be mitigated.

  18. A rare presentation of multiple dens invaginatus in maxillary dentition.

    PubMed

    Purani, Jigar M; Purani, Hiral J

    2014-08-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental disturbance of the tooth and usually occurs in the maxillary lateral incisor of permanent dentition. In this article, a rare case of dens invaginatus affecting multiple permanent maxillary teeth is described.

  19. Dens Evaginatus: A Problem-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, A.; Vikram, M.; Suwal, P.

    2015-01-01

    Dens evaginatus is an uncommon developmental anomaly of human dentition characterized by the presence of tubercle on the occlusal surface of mandibular premolars and lingual surface of anterior teeth. Due to occlusal trauma this tubercle tends to fracture thus exposing the pathway to the pulp chamber of teeth. This case report is about the presentation of dens evaginatus in mandibular premolars bilaterally; among them tooth 44 was associated with chronic apical periodontitis. Fractured tubercle of three premolars was sealed with composite resin. Root canal treatment was performed with tooth 44. Routine endodontic treatment did not result in remission of infection. Therefore, culture and sensitivity tests were performed to identify the cause and modify treatment plan accordingly. Triple antibiotic paste was used as an intracanal medicament to disinfect the root canal that resulted in remission of infection. PMID:26779353

  20. Dysplastic dens of the axis: case report.

    PubMed

    Payer, M; Bijlenga, P; Delavelle, J

    2003-09-01

    In a patient injured in a bicycle accident, radiological evaluation of the cervical spine revealed an oblique orientation of a dysplastic dens of the axis, which, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. There were no other bony or soft tissue anomalies and no associated instability. This case should draw attention to congenital anomalies of the cranio-cervical junction in trauma patients.

  1. Den use by arctic foxes in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Garrott, R.A.; Hanson, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Den use by arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) was examined near the Prudhoe Bay oil field and on a nearby undisturbed area on the Colville River Delta in northern Alaska. The density of dens at Prudhoe Bay (1 den/12 km/sup 2/) was approximately three times that on Colville Delta (1 den/34 km/sup 2/). Thirty-three percent of the Prudhoe Bay dens appeared to be of recent origin compared to 11% on the Colville Delta. Survival or production of juvenile foxes decreased on both study areas in 1977 when densities of lemmings (Dicrostonyx torquatus and Lemmus sibiricus) were low, but the decrease was less pronounced at Prudhoe Bay. Foxes that raised young at Prudhoe Bay in 1977 were those living near petroleum development facilities. The utilization of garbage by Prudhoe Bay foxes probably accounted for many of the observed differences between study sites. Common features of spring and summer den use by arctic foxes included a selection of historically preferred den sites, splitting litters into multiple dens, and the fidelity of some adult and juvenile foxes to dens in successive years. Winter use of dens was common at Prudhoe Bay. 24 references, 2 tables.

  2. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  3. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  4. Control of multicellular development by the physically interacting deneddylases DEN1/DenA and COP9 signalosome.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Martin; Schmaler, Tilo; Gordon, Colin; Huang, Xiaohua; Bayram, Ozgür; Schinke, Josua; Stumpf, Sina; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Braus, Gerhard H

    2013-01-01

    Deneddylases remove the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from modified proteins. An increased deneddylase activity has been associated with various human cancers. In contrast, we show here that a mutant strain of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans deficient in two deneddylases is viable but can only grow as a filament and is highly impaired for multicellular development. The DEN1/DenA and the COP9 signalosome (CSN) deneddylases physically interact in A. nidulans as well as in human cells, and CSN targets DEN1/DenA for protein degradation. Fungal development responds to light and requires both deneddylases for an appropriate light reaction. In contrast to CSN, which is necessary for sexual development, DEN1/DenA is required for asexual development. The CSN-DEN1/DenA interaction that affects DEN1/DenA protein levels presumably balances cellular deneddylase activity. A deneddylase disequilibrium impairs multicellular development and suggests that control of deneddylase activity is important for multicellular development.

  5. An update of dens invaginatus in the diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingjing; Wang, Xinhuan; Fang, Yanjun; Von den Hoff, Johannes W; Meng, Liuyan

    2017-03-17

    Dens invaginatus is a malformation with varying anatomical features, posing challenges to treatment. Early and accurate diagnosis plays a significant role in selecting the appropriate treatment. The diagnosis of teeth with a complex root canal system including dens invaginatus has made progress with the application of three-dimensional imaging techniques in endodontics. Advanced treatment options provide hope for teeth that could not be saved before. This review discusses diagnostic methods and treatment options for teeth with dens invaginatus, and provides guidelines for the management of dens invaginatus cases in clinic. Current as well as traditional diagnostic techniques are summarised. Treatment options including state-of-the-art alternatives are presented for coronal dens invaginatus and radicular dens invaginatus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Denning behaviour of non-gravid wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Phillips, M.K.; Smith, D.W.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wild wolves (Canis lupus) that had produced pups in earlier years but were not currently pregnant, and ovariectomized captive wolves, dug dens during and after the whelping season even though they produced no pups. These observations suggest that den digging is not a function of pregnancy or of ovarian estrogen or progesterone. We hypothesize that increasing prolactin in spring elicits or mediates den-digging behavior.

  7. How Healthcare Can Refocus on Its Super-Customers (Patients, n =1) and Customers (Doctors and Nurses) by Leveraging Lessons from Amazon, Uber, and Watson.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Evelyne; Özdemir, Vural; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    Healthcare is transforming with data-intensive omics technologies and Big Data. The "revolution" has already happened in technology, but the bottlenecks have shifted to the social domain: Who can be empowered by Big Data? Who are the users and customers? In this review and innovation field analysis, we introduce the idea of a "super-customer" versus "customer" and relate both to 21st century healthcare. A "super-customer" in healthcare is the patient, sample size of n = 1, while "customers" are the providers of healthcare (e.g., doctors and nurses). The super-customers have been patients, enabled by unprecedented social practices, such as the ability to track one's physical activities, personal genomics, patient advocacy for greater autonomy, and self-governance, to name but a few. In contrast, the originally intended customers-providers, doctors, and nurses-have relatively lagged behind. With patients as super-customers, there are valuable lessons to be learned from industry examples, such as Amazon and Uber. To offer superior quality service, healthcare organizations have to refocus on the needs, pains, and aspirations of their super-customers by enabling the customers. We propose a strategic solution to this end: the PPT-DAM (People-Process-Technology empowered by Data, Analytics, and Metrics) approach. When applied together with the classic Experiment-Execute-Evaluate iterative methodology, we suggest PPT-DAM is an extremely powerful approach to deliver quality health services to super-customers and customers. As an example, we describe the PPT-DAM implementation by the Benchmarking Improvement Program at the Seattle Children's Hospital. Finally, we forecast that cognitive systems in general and IBM Watson in particular, if properly implemented, can bring transformative and sustainable capabilities in healthcare far beyond the current ones.

  8. Evaluation Studies of the DEN-2/S-1 Vaccine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Urbana, IL 61801). This drug was found to have antiviral activity against herpes s.mplex viruses (types I and II), vaccinia, influenza PR8...painfluenza 3, coxsackie A-21 and equine rhinovirus (Dr. Rinehart, personal communication). We have found that Didemnin A reduces plaque formation by DEN-i, DEN...3 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (see figures I and 2). Fifty percent inu- bition of plaque formation by these viruses was observed at drug

  9. Dental abscess in a tooth with intact dens evaginatus.

    PubMed

    Cho, S Y

    2006-03-01

    This article reports a case of dental abscess in a mandibular premolar with intact dens evaginatus. Dentists are advised to critically evaluate those teeth with dens evaginatus, both clinically and radiographically, before attempting prophylactic treatments. This is particularly important medicolegally in case the tooth develops symptoms shortly after the prophylactic treatment. Dentists practising in Western countries should also be aware of this dental anomaly because of the increasing global migration of people from Asia.

  10. Patterns of den occupation by the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2006-01-01

    Spotted hyaenas utilize isolated natal dens (NDs) and communal dens (CDs) for rearing their cubs. Here we describe patterns of natal and CD occupation by hyaenas belonging to one well-studied clan in the Maasai Mara National Reserve during a 10-year period. Locations of 98 den sites that were used as natal or CDs by hyaenas in the study clan were digitized in a Geographic Information System, and the duration of use of each den site, frequency of re-use, and distances involved in den moves were quantified. Hyaenas moved their CD monthly on average. Most CD sites were occupied only once during the study, but several sites were used repeatedly. On rare occasions, the movement of hyaenas to a new den site could be attributed to a disturbance event at the CD, but factors regularly prompting hyaenas to move to new CD sites were unclear. High-ranking female hyaenas were more likely to rear their cubs from birth in a CD than low-ranking females. Low-ranking females almost always utilized isolated NDs for the first few weeks of a litter's development, and low-ranking females transferred their cubs over longer distances than did high-ranking females. ?? 2006 East African Wild Life Society.

  11. Den use by arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in a subarctic region of western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and use of arctic fox dens located in coastal tundra communities of the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta were determined in studies from 1985 to 1990. Dens were denser and less complex than those described in studies conducted above the Arctic Circle. Eighty-three dens of varying complexity were found in the 52-km2 study area. Nineteen dens were used by arctic foxes for whelping or rearing pups. Three females relocated litters to multiple dens; a maximum of four dens were used concurrently by pups from one litter. Although red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were common in the region, their use of dens in the study area was minimal. Differences in vegetation at den sites and nearby unoccupied sites were minimal. Furthermore, den sites could not be distinguished from non-den sites during aerial surveys.

  12. Denning chronology and design of effective bear management units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, R.M.; Costello, C.M.; Jones, D.E.; Inman, K.H.; Thompson, B.C.; Quigley, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    Reports on the effectiveness of using late fall hunting seasons to reduce the proportion of female black bears (Ursus americanus) in the harvest are limited, and the geographic scale over which the technique functions as intended has not been examined. During 1992-2000, we radio-equipped black bears in New Mexico, USA, obtained estimates of 175 den entry and 137 den emergence dates, and used New Mexico Department of Game and Fish harvest data (1985-2000) to test for differences in proportion of females in the harvest relative to denning chronology. Bears in northern New Mexico entered dens earlier and emerged later than bears in southern New Mexico (P ??? 0.001). In northern New Mexico bears displayed the typical pattern of earlier entry and later emergence by reproductive females, proportion of females in the harvest varied over time as expected, and late fall seasons were effective (P ??? 0.10). In contrast, denning chronology did not differ by sex in southern New Mexico, proportion of females in the harvest did not change over time, and late fall seasons were not effective (P ??? 0.18). Manipulation of hunting season dates to influence female mortality can be an effective tool, however our study provides an example of an area where denning chronology did not differ by sex and late seasons were not effective. We also observed regional differences in timing of entrance and emergence, which suggest that scale of application may be key. In management jurisdictions that encompass ecologically distinct areas, cover a wide range of latitudes, or are mountainous, successful use of the technique may depend on knowledge of denning chronology at multiple locations and appropriate designation of hunting unit boundaries, season dates, and data analysis units.

  13. Remote identification of polar bear maternal den habitat in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, Ken J.

    2001-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth in dens of ice and snow to protect their altricial young. During the snow-free season, we visited 25 den sites located previously by radiotelemetry and characterized the den site physiognomy. Seven dens occurred in habitats with minimal relief. Eighteen dens (72%) were in coastal and river banks. These "banks" were identifiable on aerial photographs. We then searched high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 3000) for habitats similar to those of the 18 dens. On aerial photos, we mapped 1782 km of bank habitats suitable for denning. Bank habitats comprised 0.18% of our study area between the Colville River and the Tamayariak River in northern Alaska. The final map, which correctly identified 88% of bank denning habitat in this region, will help minimize the potential for disruptions of maternal dens by winter petroleum exploration activities.

  14. Detecting denning polar bears with Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; York, G.; McDonald, T.L.; Nielson, R.; Simac, K.

    2004-01-01

    Polar bears give birth in snow dens in midwinter and remain in dens until early spring. The survival and development of cubs is dependent on a stable environment within the maternal den. To mitigate potential disruption of polar bear denning by existing and proposed petroleum activities, we used forward-looking infrared (FLIR) viewing to try to detect heat rising from dens.We flew transects over dens of radio-collared females with FLIR imager-equipped aircraft, recorded weather conditions at each observation, and noted whether the den was detected.We surveyed 23 dens on 67 occasions (1 to 7 times each). Nine dens were always detected, and 10 dens visited more than once were detected on some flights but not on others. Four dens were never detected (17 percent), but three of those were visited only under marginal conditions. The odds of detecting a den were 4.8 times greater when airborne moisture (snow, blowing snow, fog, etc.) was absent than when it was present, and they increased 3-fold for every 1?C increase in temperature-dew point spread. The estimated probability of detecting dens in sunlight was 0. Data suggested that FLIR surveys conducted during optimal conditions for detection can produce detection rates approaching 90 percent and thus can be an important management and mitigation tool. polar bear, infrared imagery, maternal denning, human impacts, management

  15. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  16. Habitat characteristics of polar bear terrestrial maternal den sites in northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, G.M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Fischbach, Anthony S.

    2003-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth to and nurture their young in dens of ice and snow. During 1999-2001, we measured the structure of 22 dens on the coastal plain of northern Alaska after polar bear families had evacuated their dens in the spring. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, we revisited the sites of 42 maternal and autumn exploratory dens and recorded characteristics of the under-snow habitat. The structure of polar bear snow dens was highly variable. Most were simple chambers with a single entrance/egress tunnel. Others had multiple chambers and additional tunnels. Thickness of snow above and below dens was highly variable, but most dens were overlain by less than 1 m of snow. Dens were located on, or associated with, pronounced landscape features (primarily coastal and river banks, but also a lake shore and an abandoned oil field gravel pad) that are readily distinguished from the surrounding terrain in summer and catch snow in early winter. Although easily identified, den landforms in northern Alaska were more subtle than den habitats in many other parts of the Arctic. The structure of polar bear dens in Alaska was strikingly similar to that of dens elsewhere and has remained largely unchanged in northern Alaska for more than 25 years. Knowledge of den structure and site characteristics will allow resource managers to identify habitats with the greatest probability of holding dens. This information may assist resource managers in preventing negative impacts of mineral exploration and extraction on polar bears.

  17. Denning habits of free-ranging dogs reveal preference for human proximity

    PubMed Central

    Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Paul, Manabi; Sau, Shubhra; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Dens are crucial in the early development of many mammals, making den site selection an important component of parental care in such species. Resource availability and shelter from predators primarily govern den selection. Species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes typically den away from human disturbance, often shifting dens to avoid humans during the early life of their young. Domesticated dogs have evolved in human proximity over centuries, being bred and reared in human homes for generations. While pets rely on their owners for shelter and care, free-ranging dogs roam uncared, and typically whelp in dens. We conducted a study on 148 free-ranging dog dens in India to understand their denning habits. Distance from resources influenced den choice, but anthropogenic disturbance did not. Dens were found in areas of high human activity, and begging from humans was preferred over scavenging. A study on 15 pregnant females revealed that females actively searched for denning sites, rejecting several intermediate ones before selecting the final den. We propose that the obvious preference of dogs for denning close to humans is a behavioural adaptation that helps them to survive in the urban landscape, in spite of the high human induced mortality during the early life of pups. PMID:27535214

  18. Endodontic management of dens invaginatus Type IIIb: Case series

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Jorge N. R.; da Costa, Rui Pereira; Anderson, Craig; Quaresma, Sérgio André; Corte-Real, Luís S. M.; Monroe, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus may be seen as a developmental malformation. It is characterized by an invagination of the enamel and dentin, creating a lumen inside the affected tooth, which may extend as deep as the apical foramen. Oehlers Type IIIb is considered the most challenging clinical conditions. The purpose of this study is to discuss the nonsurgical endodontic management of vital and necrotic dens invaginatus Type IIIb cases. Due to the complex anatomical consideration of dens invaginatus Type IIIb, endodontic treatment is extremely technique sensitive. A conservative approach was used in a vital case to treat the invaginated lumen only, to preserve the vitality of the pulp, and a more invasive approach was used in a necrotic case to debride the lumen and necrotic pulp for proper disinfection of the root canal system. Although different, all the approaches were successful. The clinical signs and symptoms were resolved. The vital case remains vital after 19 months, and the recall radiographs were able to show satisfactory periapical healing both in vital and necrotic cases. Due to the highly complex anatomy of dens invaginatus Type IIIb, the decision of preserving the pulp vitality may not be related only to pulpal diagnosis but also to the technical requirements of the treatment. Although very technically sensitive, it may be possible to treat the invaginated lumen exclusively, while preserving the vitality of the pulp. Necrotic cases may require a more aggressive approach to achieve a favorable prognosis. PMID:28042276

  19. Den-site characteristics of black bears in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    We compared historic (1985-1992) and contemporary (2003-2006) black bear (Ursus americanus) den locations in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA, for habitat and physiographic attributes of den sites and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which factors were most influential in predicting den-site locations. We observed variability in the relationship between den locations and distance to trails and elevation over rime. Locations of historic den sites were most associated with slope, elevation, and covertype, whereas contemporary sites were associated with slope, distance to roads, aspect, and canopy height. Although relationships to covariates differed between historic and contemporary periods, preferred den-site characteristics consistently included steep slopes and factors associated with greater snow depth. Distribution of den locations shifted toward areas closer to human developments, indicating little negative influence of this factor on den-site selection by black bears in RMNP.

  20. "Uberizing" home care in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wojtak, Anne; Stark, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This article looks at home care in Ontario and its role as a foundation for a sustainable healthcare system in the future. Beginning with the history and evolution of the service delivery model, it examines current challenges and opportunities to unleash the potential of home care within a more integrated model for patient-centred care for the future. An in-depth look at how to better coordinate, integrate, and fund care for patients is highlighted.

  1. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  2. Networking as a Seismograph for Social Development. A Contribution to the Function Expansion of Networks Using the Example of Health Promotion of the Socially Disadvantaged (Netzwerkbildung als Seismograph gesellschaftlicher Entwicklungen: Ein Beitrag zur Funktionserweiterung von Netzwerken am Beispiel der Gesundheitsfoerderung von sozial Benachteiligten)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    vollzieht sich in den letzten Jahren Ober eine Vielzahl von Netzwerken, uber die sich unterschiedlichste Akteure miteinander verknQ~pft haben. In...indirekt, politische 2 Akteure zu adressieren und bisherige Handlungsdefizite der Gesundheitsf6rderung bei sozial Benachteiligten auch uber neue...klassischen Sinne der Korporatismusanalyse impliziert, sondern gar eine Form der Einwandvorwegnahme darsteilt. Auf der Grundlage der durch die bislang uber

  3. Selection of den sites by black bears in the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.; Brown, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated selection of den sites by American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, western North Carolina, by comparing characteristics of dens at 53 den sites with availability of habitat characteristics in annual home ranges of bears and in the study area. We also tested whether den-site selection differed by sex, age, and reproductive status of bears. In addition, we evaluated whether the den component of an existing habitat model for black bears predicted where bears would select den sites. We found bears selected den sites far from gravel roads, on steep slopes, and at high elevations relative to what was available in both annual home ranges and in the study area. Den-site selection did not differ by sex or age, but it differed by reproductive status. Adult females with cubs preferred to den in areas that were relatively far from gravel roads, but adult females without cubs did not. The habitat model overestimated the value of areas near gravel roads, underestimated the value of moderately steep areas, and did not include elevation as a predictor variable. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating den selection in terms of both use and availability of den characteristics. ?? 2007 American Society of Mammalogists.

  4. A female black bear denning habitat model using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, J.D.; Hayes, S.G.; Pledger, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic and a raster geographic information system (GIS) to model potential black bear (Ursus americanus) denning habitat in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. The Mahalanobis distance statistic was used to represent the standard squared distance between sample variates in the GIS database (forest cover type, elevation, slope, aspect, distance to streams, distance to roads, and forest cover richness) and variates at known bear dens. Two models were developed: a generalized model for all den locations and another specific to dens in rock cavities. Differences between habitat at den sites and habitat across the study area were represented in 2 new GIS themes as Mahalanobis distance values. Cells similar to the mean vector derived from the known dens had low Mahalanobis distance values, and dissimilar cells had high values. The reliability of the predictive model was tested by overlaying den locations collected subsequent to original model development on the resultant den habitat themes. Although the generalized model demonstrated poor reliability, the model specific to rock dens had good reliability. Bears were more likely to choose rock den locations with low Mahalanobis distance values and less likely to choose those with high values. The model can be used to plan the timing and extent of management actions (e.g., road building, prescribed fire, timber harvest) most appropriate for those sites with high or low denning potential. 

  5. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) diurnal den use within an intensively managed forest in central West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    Intensive forest management may influence the availability of suitable den sites for large den-seeking species, such as Procyon lotor (Raccoon). As part of a Raccoon ecology study on an industrial forest in the Allegheny Mountains of central West Virginia, we radio-tracked 32 Raccoons to 175 diurnal den sites to determine relative use of dens that included cavity trees, rock dens, log piles, slash piles, and exposed limbs. Patterns of den use significantly differed between sexes and among seasons. Overall, we recorded 58 cavity dens in 12 tree species with 7 maternal dens found in 5 tree species. Raccoons selected larger-diameter den trees than available cavity trees and non-cavity trees. Because the abundance of suitable tree cavities is known to influence Raccoon densities and recruitment at fine spatial scales and female Raccoons in this study used tree cavities as maternal den sites, the continued harvest of large-diameter trees (i.e., those capable of developing den cavities) without replacement may impact Raccoon recruitment within intensively managed forests throughout the central Appalachians.

  6. Landward and eastward shift of Alaskan polar bear denning associated with recent sea ice changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischbach, A.S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the northern Alaska region den in coastal areas and on offshore drifting ice. We evaluated changes in the distribution of polar bear maternal dens between 1985 and 2005, using satellite telemetry. We determined the distribution of maternal dens occupied by 89 satellite collared female polar bears between 137°W and 167°W longitude. The proportion of dens on pack ice declined from 62% in 1985–1994 to 37% in 1998–2004 (P = 0.044) and among pack ice dens fewer occurred in the western Beaufort Sea after 1998. We evaluated whether hunting, attraction to bowhead whale remains, or changes in sea ice could explain changes in den distribution. We concluded that denning distribution changed in response to reductions in stable old ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the melt season. In consort, these changes have likely reduced the availability and quality of pack ice denning habitat. Further declines in sea ice availability are predicted. Therefore, we expect the proportion of polar bears denning in coastal areas will continue to increase, until such time as the autumn ice retreats far enough from shore that it precludes offshore pregnant females from reaching the Alaska coast in advance of denning.

  7. Structure and Functional Studies of DEN-2 Virus Genome.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Structure and Functional Studies on Dengue -2 Progress Report Virus Genome 1 Mar 82 - I Sep 82 6. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 8. CONTRACT OR...Identify by block number) Complementdry DNA synthesis of Dengue -2 RNA by avian reverse transcriptase in vitro. The size of the DNA copy of Dengue RNA is in...Unannounced 0 Justification ............ By........... Di.A b-Aio: i Availability Codes S Avail and (or 2 Abstract 1. Dengue -2 RNA (DEN-2 RNA) was extracted

  8. Nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, G.; Detroux, T.; Viguié, R.; Kerschen, G.

    2015-02-01

    This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog's equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments.

  9. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  10. Post-den emergence behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, Steven T.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Schliebe, S.

    2007-01-01

    We observed polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den sites on Alaska’s North Slope in March 2002 and 2003 in an effort to describe bears’ post-den emergence behavior. During 40 sessions spanning 459 h, we observed 8 adults and 14 dependent cubs outside dens for 37.5 h (8.2% of total observation time). There was no significant difference between den emergence dates in 2002 (mean = 15 Mar ± 4.1 d) and 2003 (mean = 21 Mar ± 2.1 d). Following initial den breakout, polar bears remained at their den sites for 1.5 to 14 days (mean = 8.1 ± 5.1 d). The average length of stay in dens between emergent periods was significantly shorter in 2002 (1.79 h) than in 2003 (4.82 h). While outside, adult bears were inactive 49.5% of the time, whereas cubs were inactive 13.4% of the time. We found no significant relationships between den emergence activity and weather. Adult polar bears at den sites subjected to industrial activity exhibited significantly fewer bouts of vigilance than denned bears in undisturbed areas (t = -5.5164, df = 4, p= 0.00). However, the duration of vigilance behaviors at sites near industrial activity was not significantly shorter than at the other sites studied (t = -1.8902, df = 4, p = 0.07). Results for these bears were within the range of findings in other studies of denned polar bears.

  11. Kin selection in den sharing develops under limited availability of tree hollows for a forest marsupial

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Sam C.; Lindenmayer, David B.; McBurney, Lachlan; Blair, David; Knight, Emma J.; Blyton, Michaela D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Animal social behaviour is not static with regard to environmental change. Flexibility in cooperative resource use may be an important response to resource decline, mediating the impacts of resource availability on fitness and demography. In forest ecosystems, hollow trees are key den resources for many species, but are declining worldwide owing to forestry. Altered patterns of den sharing may mediate the effects of the decline of this resource. We studied den-sharing interactions among hollow-dependent Australian mountain brushtail possums to investigate how spatial variation in hollow tree availability affects resource sharing and kin selection. Under reduced den availability, individuals used fewer dens and shared them less often. This suggests increased territoriality in the presence of resource competition. Further, there was a switch from kin avoidance to kin preference with decreasing hollow tree availability. This was driven primarily by a change in den sharing among siblings. The inclusive fitness benefits of den sharing with kin are likely to increase under resource-limiting conditions, but are potentially outweighed by the benefits of associating with non-relatives (avoidance of inbreeding or pathogen transmission) where dens are abundant. We discuss how predictions from social evolutionary theory can contribute to understanding animal responses to landscape change. PMID:21288953

  12. Polar bear maternal den habitat in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ambrosius, Ken J.

    2006-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow. Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers. Therefore, as part of a study of denning habitats along the entire Arctic coast of Alaska, we examined high-resolution aerial photographs (n = 1655) of the 7994 km2 coastal plain included in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) and mapped 3621 km of bank habitat suitable for denning by polar bears. Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0.29% (23.2 km2) of the coastal plain between the Canning River and the Canadian border. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified 91.5% of bank denning habitats on the ANWR coastal plain. Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens.

  13. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  14. The Dens: A Review of its Diverse Nomenclature and a Recommended Simplified Terminology.

    PubMed

    Johal, Jaspreet; Fisahn, Christian; Burgess, Brittni; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-01-17

    Pathology of the dens, such as fractures, demands precise terminology so that communication between physicians are succinct, diagnoses are accurate, and treatment strategies exact. This review aims to summarize the various terms used to describe the parts of the dens and recommend the ideal terminology. Using standard search engines, English language publications were searched for the many terms used to describe parts of the dens. A multitude of terms was identified with many demonstrating overlaps. Terms identified included apex, tip, apicodental, subdental, dentocentral and odontocentral junctions, peg, waist, base, neck, shaft, shoulder, and stem. Exact terminology is necessary when diagnosing or treating patients with pathology of or near the dens. The authors suggest simplified terminology for describing the parts of the dens that can be used in the future in order to be unequivocal and to avoid confusion when classifying and communicating fractures through its parts.

  15. The Dens: A Review of its Diverse Nomenclature and a Recommended Simplified Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Johal, Jaspreet; Burgess, Brittni; Loukas, Marios; Chapman, Jens; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Pathology of the dens, such as fractures, demands precise terminology so that communication between physicians are succinct, diagnoses are accurate, and treatment strategies exact. This review aims to summarize the various terms used to describe the parts of the dens and recommend the ideal terminology. Using standard search engines, English language publications were searched for the many terms used to describe parts of the dens. A multitude of terms was identified with many demonstrating overlaps. Terms identified included apex, tip, apicodental, subdental, dentocentral and odontocentral junctions, peg, waist, base, neck, shaft, shoulder, and stem. Exact terminology is necessary when diagnosing or treating patients with pathology of or near the dens. The authors suggest simplified terminology for describing the parts of the dens that can be used in the future in order to be unequivocal and to avoid confusion when classifying and communicating fractures through its parts. PMID:28229029

  16. Habitat, soils, and den use of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.A.; Standley, W.G.; Berry, W.H.

    1992-09-01

    Den use patterns, den characteristics, and effects of military training on dens were studied for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California.Ninety-four radiocollared kit foxes used 1059 dens and 334 buildings as shelter from December 1988, through September 1991. There were 1001 (95%) earthen dens, 57 (5%) culverts, and one den in a hollow log. Denentrance dimensions were measured for single entrance dens; the average height was 20 cm, and the average width was 21 cm. Most dens had two to five den entrances, and only 36% of dens found showed sign of fox activity. Dens were found at elevations between 161 and 351 m. The average slope of dens found on hillsides was 19 degrees, and most dens faced the western quadrant. Dens were found over much of the post exceptthe steep southwest portion. More kit fox dens were located in grassland and low to medium density oak woodlands than expected, and fewer dens were located in developed areas and medium to high density oak woodlands than expected. Denning range size was calculated for 16 foxes that were radiocollared at least one year and that were found using only earthen and culvert dens. The average denning range size was 171.0 [plus minus] 24.0 ha. There was no significant difference in male and female average denning range sizes. When buildings used as shelter were included in denning range sizes, there was no significant difference in average denning range size between developed and undeveloped areas. Foxes used 26 of 36 available soil series, and dens were not distributed proportionally among the 36 soil series. Kit fox dens were typically found in well drained soils. Few den entrances were destroyed by military training exercises.

  17. Habitat, soils, and den use of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, E.A.; Standley, W.G.; Berry, W.H.

    1992-09-01

    Den use patterns, den characteristics, and effects of military training on dens were studied for San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California.Ninety-four radiocollared kit foxes used 1059 dens and 334 buildings as shelter from December 1988, through September 1991. There were 1001 (95%) earthen dens, 57 (5%) culverts, and one den in a hollow log. Denentrance dimensions were measured for single entrance dens; the average height was 20 cm, and the average width was 21 cm. Most dens had two to five den entrances, and only 36% of dens found showed sign of fox activity. Dens were found at elevations between 161 and 351 m. The average slope of dens found on hillsides was 19 degrees, and most dens faced the western quadrant. Dens were found over much of the post exceptthe steep southwest portion. More kit fox dens were located in grassland and low to medium density oak woodlands than expected, and fewer dens were located in developed areas and medium to high density oak woodlands than expected. Denning range size was calculated for 16 foxes that were radiocollared at least one year and that were found using only earthen and culvert dens. The average denning range size was 171.0 {plus_minus} 24.0 ha. There was no significant difference in male and female average denning range sizes. When buildings used as shelter were included in denning range sizes, there was no significant difference in average denning range size between developed and undeveloped areas. Foxes used 26 of 36 available soil series, and dens were not distributed proportionally among the 36 soil series. Kit fox dens were typically found in well drained soils. Few den entrances were destroyed by military training exercises.

  18. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus in Fujian, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Heng-Duan; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem. The DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue 2 virus were originally isolated from the serum of a patient with dengue fever in Fujian Province, China, in 1999. Our data provide the first assessment of the vector competence of Aedes mosquitoes with respect to the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus. There were significant differences in the replication rates of these two viral strains in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (P<0.05); replication of the DEN2-FJ10 strain was greater in Ae. aegypti than in Ae. albopictus 5 days post infection whereas replication of the DEN2-FJ11 was greater in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti 7 days post infection. The replicative ability of the DEN2-FJ11 strain was greater than that of the DEN2-FJ10 strain in infected Ae. albopictus. In infected Ae. aegypti, rapid proliferation of the DEN2-FJ10 strain occurred earlier than in the DEN2-FJ11 strain. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti with respect to either viral strain. Although the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains differ in their virulence to neonatal rats, there was no significant difference in the ability of either Ae. albopictus or Ae. aegypti to transmit the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ10 strains of the dengue 2 virus (P>0.05). In summary, our results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes are moderately competent vectors of the DEN2-FJ10 and DEN2-FJ11 strains of the dengue virus and provide the first evidence of the effect of these two viral strains on the vector competence of mosquitoes in China.

  19. Hibernacula and summer den sites of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in the New Jersey pine barrens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Zappalorti, R.T.; Gochfeld, M.; Boarman, W.I.; Caffrey, M.; Doig, V.; Garber, S.D.; Lauro, B.; Mikovsky, M.; Safina, C.; Saliva, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    We examined eight summer dens (used only in summer) and seven hibernacula (occupied both in winter and summer) of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, comparing above ground characteristics of hibernacula and summer dens with characteristics at nearby random points. Temperatures at the soil surface and at 10 cm depth were significantly warmer, and there was less leaf cover around the random points compared to the entrances of the hibernacula and summer dens. Hibernacula had significantly more vegetation cover within 5 m, more leaf cover over the burrow entrance, and were closer to trees than were summer dens. Most hibernacula and summer dens were beside old fallen logs (73%), the entrance tunnels following decaying roots into the soil. Excavation of the hibernacula and summer dens indicated that most hibernacula appeared to be dug by the snakes and had an average of eight side chambers and 642 cm of tunnels, compared to less than one side chamber and 122 cm of tunnels for summer dens. Except for hatchlings, most snakes in hibernacula were located in individual chambers off the main tunnel; all snakes were at depths of 50-111 cm (X̄ = 79 cm). Pine snakes may select optimum hibernation sites which reduce winter mortality.

  20. Den Entry Behavior in Scandinavian Brown Bears: Implications for Preventing Human Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sahlén, Veronica; Friebe, Andrea; Sæbø, Solve; Swenson, Jon E; Støen, Ole-Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Encounters between Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) and humans that result in human injuries and fatalities typically coincide with den entry in October and November, and commonly occur near a den. Our aim was to determine when bears arrive at their dens, identify potential predictors of this event, document behavior and activity associated with this period, and attempt to explain the increased risk of bear-caused human injuries in this period. We analyzed global positioning system (GPS) location and activity data from brown bears in south-central Sweden, using generalized linear mixed models, statistical process control, and activity analyses. Bears arrived at their den sites between 6 October and 1 December. Timing varied by reproductive category, bear age, and year. Half of all bears significantly reduced their activity before arriving at the den area: on average 2,169 m away from the den and 1.8 days before arrival. The other half reduced their activity after arriving at the den area. The latter bears took longer time to reach hibernation activity levels, but we did not find a difference in the start date of hibernation between the 2 groups. Bears also appeared to be sensitive to disturbance in this period, with higher den abandonment rates than later in winter, particularly for males and for bears that had not visited their den sites previously. Den entry occurred from October to December, with high variability and poor predictability of its timing. Therefore, restricting hunting or other recreation activities to reduce risk of injury by bears and disturbing bears probably would be both impractical and ineffective. Our findings can be used to educate hunters about bear behavior at this time of year. Many people associate dens with an increased risk of a bear responding aggressively to disturbance to defend its den, but our results indicate that other behavioral, and possibly physiological, changes in this period also may be involved. © 2014 The

  1. Inducing G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis through Generation Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Mediated Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Cells by Dentatin (DEN) and Dentatin Incorporated in Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (DEN-HPβCD)

    PubMed Central

    Ashwaq, Al-Abboodi Shakir; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; Rasedee, Abdullah; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2016-01-01

    Dentatin (DEN), purified from the roots of Clausena excavata Burm f., has poor aqueous solubility that reduces its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of DEN-HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) complex as an anticancer agent in HT29 cancer cell line and compare with a crystal DEN in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The exposure of the cancer cells to DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex leads to cell growth inhibition as determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. To analyze the mechanism, in which DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex causes the death in human colon HT29 cancer cells, was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA)-based assays for caspase-3, 8, 9, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The findings showed that an anti-proliferative effect of DEN or DEN-HPβCD complex were via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and eventually induced apoptosis through both mitochondrial and extrinsic pathways. The down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) which leaded to apoptosis upon treatment, was investigated by Western-blotting. Hence, complexation between DEN and HPβCD did not diminish or eliminate the effective properties of DEN as anticancer agent. Therefore, it would be possible to resolve the conventional and current issues associated with the development and commercialization of antineoplastic agents in the future. PMID:27763535

  2. Gelingende Integration? Anmerkungen zur Studie von D. Katzenbach u.a. uber den Hamburger Schulversuch "Integrative Grundschule" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590 (Successful Integration? Remarks on the Study by D. Katzenbach et al. on the Hamburg School Experiment "Integrative Elementary School" in ZfPad. 45 (1999), S. 567-590).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, Peter Martin

    1999-01-01

    Critiques two normative premises that guide the researchers' interpretation of results from the Hamburg School Experiment, an empirical study that focused on mainstreaming elementary students diagnosed as needing special education: (1) integrating these children in normal classrooms is legitimated; and (2) social integration should not preclude…

  3. Nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus with open apex: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Nidhi; Sroa, Renu B

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare malformation with a widely varied morphology. It typically affects permanent maxillary lateral incisors, central incisors, and premolars. This article demonstrates rapid management of type II dens invagination with open apex and large periradicular lesion using calcium hydroxide as intracanal medicament for 1-week followed by apical plug formation with mineral trioxide aggregate Plus and lateral condensation of Gutta-percha. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and lesion was entirely resolved. PMID:26751206

  4. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens.

    PubMed

    Gharajehdaghipour, Tazarve; Roth, James D; Fafard, Paul M; Markham, John H

    2016-04-05

    Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra. We estimated the effects of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August 2014. Soils from fox dens contained higher nutrient levels in June (71% more inorganic nitrogen, 1195% more extractable phosphorous) and in August (242% more inorganic nitrogen, 191% more extractable phosphorous) than adjacent control sites. Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Pup production the previous year, which should enhance nutrient deposition (from urine, feces, and decomposing prey), did not affect soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting the impact of Arctic foxes persists >1 year. Dens supported 2.8 times greater vegetation biomass in August, but δ(15)N values in sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) were unaffected by denning. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra.

  5. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharajehdaghipour, Tazarve; Roth, James D.; Fafard, Paul M.; Markham, John H.

    2016-04-01

    Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra. We estimated the effects of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August 2014. Soils from fox dens contained higher nutrient levels in June (71% more inorganic nitrogen, 1195% more extractable phosphorous) and in August (242% more inorganic nitrogen, 191% more extractable phosphorous) than adjacent control sites. Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Pup production the previous year, which should enhance nutrient deposition (from urine, feces, and decomposing prey), did not affect soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting the impact of Arctic foxes persists >1 year. Dens supported 2.8 times greater vegetation biomass in August, but δ15N values in sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) were unaffected by denning. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra.

  6. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens

    PubMed Central

    Gharajehdaghipour, Tazarve; Roth, James D.; Fafard, Paul M.; Markham, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra. We estimated the effects of Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August 2014. Soils from fox dens contained higher nutrient levels in June (71% more inorganic nitrogen, 1195% more extractable phosphorous) and in August (242% more inorganic nitrogen, 191% more extractable phosphorous) than adjacent control sites. Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Pup production the previous year, which should enhance nutrient deposition (from urine, feces, and decomposing prey), did not affect soil nutrient concentrations, suggesting the impact of Arctic foxes persists >1 year. Dens supported 2.8 times greater vegetation biomass in August, but δ15N values in sea lyme grass (Leymus mollis) were unaffected by denning. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra. PMID:27045973

  7. Remote identification of maternal polar bear (Ursus maritimus) denning habitat on the Colville River Delta, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Justin J.

    High resolution digital aerial photographs (1 foot pixel size) of the Colville River Delta, Alaska were examined in 3D, with the use of a digital photogrammetric workstation. Topographic features meeting the criteria required for adequate snow accumulation, and subsequent construction of terrestrial polar bear maternal dens, were identified and digitized into an ArcGIS line shapefile. Effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy were improved when compared to previous polar bear denning habitat efforts which utilized contact photo prints and a pocket stereoscope in other geographic areas of northern Alaska. Accuracy of photograph interpretation was systematically evaluated visually from the air with the use of a helicopter and physically on the ground. Results show that the mapping efforts were successful in identifying den habitat 91.3% of the time. Knowledge denning habitat can improve and inform decision making by managers and regulators when considering travel and development in the study area. An understanding of polar bear denning habitat extent and location will be a crucial tool for planning activities within the study area in a way that minimizes conflicts with maternal dens.

  8. Despotism and risk of infanticide influence grizzly bear den-site selection.

    PubMed

    Libal, Nathan S; Belant, Jerrold L; Leopold, Bruce D; Wang, Guiming; Owen, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide. Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den-site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. To test the role of predation risk and the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation, we compared adult female (n = 142), adult male (n = 36), and juvenile (n = 35) den locations in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, USA. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites. We identified the global model as the best-fitting model for adult female (area under curve (AUC) = 0.926) and elevation as the best predictive variable for adult male (AUC = 0.880) den sites. The model containing land cover and elevation best-predicted juvenile (AUC = 0.841) den sites. Adult females spatially segregated from adult males, with dens characterized by higher elevations (mean= 1,412 m, SE = 52) and steeper slopes (mean = 21.9°, SE = 1.1) than adult male (elevation: mean = 1,209 m, SE = 76; slope: mean = 15.6°, SE = 1.9) den sites. Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring.

  9. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  10. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  11. The Chimeric Protein Domain III-Capsid of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 (DEN-2) Successfully Boosts Neutralizing Antibodies Generated in Monkeys upon Infection with DEN-2▿

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; Romero, Yaremis; Castro, Jorge; Puente, Pedro; Lazo, Laura; Marcos, Ernesto; Guzmán, María G.; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2011-01-01

    Use of a heterologous prime-boost strategy based on a combination of nonreplicative immunogens and candidate attenuated virus vaccines against dengue virus in the same schedule is an attractive approach. These combinations may result in a condensed immunization regime for humans, thus reducing the number of doses with attenuated virus and the time spacing. The present work deals with the evaluation of the heterologous prime-boost strategy combining a novel chimeric protein (domain III-capsid) of dengue virus serotype 2 (DEN-2) and the infective homologous virus in the same immunization schedule in monkeys. Primed monkeys received one dose of infective DEN-2 and were then vaccinated with the recombinant protein. We found that animals developed a neutralizing antibody response after the infective dose and were notably boosted with a second dose of the chimeric protein 3 months later. The neutralizing antibodies induced were long lasting, and animals also showed the ability to induce a specific cellular response 6 months after the booster dose. As a conclusion, we can state that the domain III region, when it is properly presented as a fusion protein to the immune system, is able to recall the neutralizing antibody response elicited following homologous virus infection in monkeys. Further prime-boost approaches can be performed in a condensed regime combining the chimeric domain III-capsid protein and candidate live attenuated vaccines against DEN-2. PMID:21209159

  12. Mapping polar bear maternal denning habitat in the National Petroleum Reserve -- Alaska with an IfSAR digital terrain model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska (NPR-A) in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur. Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) to generate a map of putative denning habitat. We then tested the map’s ability to identify polar bear denning habitat on the landscape. Our final map correctly identified 82% of denning habitat estimated to be within the NPR-A. Mapped denning habitat comprised 19.7 km2 (0.1% of the study area) and was widely dispersed. Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor. Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.

  13. Identification of a dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) serotype-specific B-cell epitope and detection of DEN-2-immunized animal serum samples using an epitope-based peptide antigen.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han-Chung; Jung, Mei-Ying; Chiu, Chien-Yu; Chao, Ting-Ting; Lai, Szu-Chia; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Shaio, Men-Fang

    2003-10-01

    In this study, a serotype-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), D(2) 16-1 (Ab4), against dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) was generated. The specificity of Ab4, which recognized DEN-2 non-structural protein 1, was determined by ELISA, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. The serotype-specific B-cell epitope of Ab4 was identified further from a random phage-displayed peptide library; selected phage clones reacted specifically with Ab4 and did not react with other mAbs. Immunopositive phage clones displayed a consensus motif, His-Arg/Lys-Leu/Ile, and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the phage-displayed peptide bound specifically to Ab4. The His and Arg residues in this epitope were found to be crucial for peptide binding to Ab4 and binding activity decreased dramatically when these residues were changed to Leu. The epitope-based synthetic peptide not only identified serum samples from DEN-2-immunized mice and rabbits by ELISA but also differentiated clearly between serum samples from DEN-2- and Japanese encephalitis virus-immunized mice. This mAb and its epitope-based peptide antigen will be useful for serologic diagnosis of DEN-2 infection. Furthermore, DEN-2 epitope identification makes it feasible to dissect antibody responses to DEN and to address the role of antibodies in the pathogenesis of primary and secondary DEN-2 infections.

  14. Protective effects of guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) against DEN-induced DNA damage on mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Fukumasu, H; Avanzo, J L; Heidor, R; Silva, T C; Atroch, A; Moreno, F S; Dagli, M L Z

    2006-06-01

    Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis) is a plant originally from Brazil, which is rich in tannins. Some tannins are known to present protective effects against DNA damage. This study was performed to investigate the anti-genotoxic/cytotoxic properties of guarana in hepatocytes of mice injected with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). The protective effect of guarana was evaluated both by comet assay and DNA smear fragmentation technique in two month-old female BALB/c mice. These were treated previously with 2.0 mg/g bw of guarana for 16 days and then injected with DEN (160 microg/g body weight) to induce DNA damage. The DEN-only treated group presented higher comet image length than the guarana plus DEN and untreated groups (116.06+/-5.0 microm, 104.09+/-3.3 microm and 93.28+/-14.4 microm, respectively; p<0.01). Guarana treatment presented a 52.54% reduction in comet image length when animals were exposed to DEN (p<0.05). DNA samples from the guarana plus DEN group clearly showed less EtBr fluorescence intensity when compared to the DEN-only group, reinforcing the comet assay data. These results show, for the first time, that guarana has a protective effect against DEN-induced DNA damage in mouse liver.

  15. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A; Maia, Paula F; Magalhães, Arthur R; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-06-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother-pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena.

  16. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of an Impacted Canine in the Presence of Dens Invaginatus and Follicular Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Canevello, Carola; Laffi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. “Dens invaginatus” is a dental anomaly which originates from the invagination of the ameloblastic epithelium into the lingual surface of the dental crown during the odontogenesis. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature. Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor (2.2) suffering from type III dens invaginatus with radicular cyst, in a 15-year-old patient. Discussion. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. PMID:24963421

  17. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with notes on their social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Astúa, Diego; Carvalho, Rafael A.; Maia, Paula F.; Magalhães, Arthur R.; Loretto, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother–pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought. These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults. Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. PMID:26085500

  18. DenHunt - A Comprehensive Database of the Intricate Network of Dengue-Human Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Selvam; Sastri, Narayan P.; Chandra, Nagasuma

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature. However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue–human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called DenHunt. We retrieved 682 direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, 382 indirect interactions and 4120 differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients. We have illustrated the importance of DenHunt by mapping the dengue–human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus. The whole dataset has been catalogued in a searchable database, called DenHunt (http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/DenHunt/). PMID:27618709

  19. First report of captive New Guinea dingo (Canis dingo hallstromi) den-digging and parental behavior.

    PubMed

    Koler-Matznick, Janice; Stinner, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    New Guinea dingoes (NGDs) (Canis dingo hallstromi; Troughton [1957] Proc Roy Soc new South Wells 1955-1956:93-94) have been kept in zoos since 1956. Almost nothing is known of their wild behavior. These observations of a captive pair are the first documentation of natal den-digging and parental behavior for this taxon. The main den, excavated near the top of a 1.5 m hill, consisted of a rounded chamber about 50.8 cm deep, with an entrance about 30.5 cm high and 40.6 cm wide. The dam frequently moved the pups from the natal den to secondary locations for short periods during the day and then back to the den, starting when the pups were 2 weeks old. When the pups were between 5 and 12 weeks of age, both parents regularly regurgitated for them. The sire expressed escalating threat behavior toward the male pup starting when the pup was 5 months old, and the female began threatening the female pups at about 6 months of age. Rejection of same-sex offspring is usual for captive NGDs as the next breeding season approaches.

  20. [Annual distribution and abundance of Ceratium dens (Peridinales: Ceratiaceae) in the Gulf of California, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cortés Altamirano, R; Nuñez Pasten, A

    2000-01-01

    Ceratium dens distribution in the Gulf of California was studied based on three oceanographic campaigns, monthly abundance (1995-96) and during three red tide events in Mazatlán Bay. 52 phytoplankton samples with a Bongo net and 64 microns mesh light, during the year 120 water samples with a van Dorn bottle were collected in two sampling stations and from three red tide events. All samples were counted by the inverted-microscope method. The results showed that C. dens was present in the upper Gulf of California and surroundings of Cabo San Lucas. Two peaks were observed during spring and autumn in Mazatlán Bay during 1995-1996. The highest densities (20-360 cells.-l-1) were observed in coastal areas, whereas the lowest densities (1-14 cells.-l-1) were recorded in the open sea. During red tide events in 1985, 1989 and 1997, 144,000-256,000 cells.-l-1, 100,000-400,000 cells.-l-1, and 189,000-592,000 cells.ul-l was observed, respectively. During the red tide events C. dens varied, although sometimes was replaced by Skeletonema costatum or Pseudonitzchia spp and Ceratium furca. C. dens, seems to prefer areas with high productivity.

  1. "Where's the Bear? Over There!"--Creative Thinking and Imagination in Den Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    This small scale research project examines opportunities for creative thinking and imagination through den making in a rural private day nursery with its own woodland area on the borders of England and Wales in the UK. The research is underpinned by sociocultural theory and is an ethnographic study of non-participant observations of children aged…

  2. Effect of age on respiratory carcinogenesis with diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN) in hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, S.F.; Saffiotti, U.

    1986-03-01

    Groups of male and female Syrian golden hamsters were given 12 weekly s.c. injections of 10 mg/kg DEN beginning at 1 day (85 animals) or 8 weeks (70 animals) of age, and were held for lifetime observation. In hamsters receiving DEN from birth, the first respiratory tumors were observed at 15 experimental weeks; all animals were dead by 66 weeks with a 99% respiratory tumor incidence. Of these hamster, 87% developed carcinomas or adenomas in the nasal cavities, 75% papillomas of the trachea, larynx or extrapulmonary bronchi and 7% adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the peripheral lung. Hamsters given DEN from 8 weeks of age first showed respiratory tumors after 25 weeks with a 96% incidence by 62 weeks when all had died. Of these hamsters, 24% developed carcinomas or adenomas in the nasal cavities, 91% papillomas of the trachea, larynx or bronchi, and 9% adenomas or adenocarcinomas of the peripheral lung. In comparison, the nasal tumors in the first group were more anaplastic and invaded the brain more frequently than in the second. These results indicate that the nasal mucosa of newborns is more sensitive to carcinogenesis with DEN than is that of adults, while there appears to be little age-related susceptibility of the epithelium of the airways or lung. A serial sacrifice experiment is currently under way to study the cells of origin of the various tumors using immuno-histochemical and electron microscopic techniques.

  3. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  4. Iron promotes DEN initiated GST-P foci in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Carthew, P; Nolan, B M; Smith, A G; Edwards, R E

    1997-03-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was administered to rats as a single dose, which is known not to give rise to liver tumours without subsequent promotion. Iron dextran (Fe/Dex) was then administered parenterally to the animals, to induce iron overload. At 3 and 6 months after the final Fe/Dex treatments, livers were examined quantitatively for the numbers of the placental form of glutathione-S-transferase (GST-P) expressing foci, the area occupied by these foci and their size distribution. The results demonstrate that iron not only increased the number of foci after DEN initiation in the rat liver, but that the area occupied by these lesions increased significantly between 3 and 6 months after initiation. There is no evidence that iron increased the number of GST-P expressing foci present in rats not exposed to DEN. This indicates that iron did not act as an initiator in this rodent model of liver cancer. The increase in the area of the liver occupied by the foci in iron and DEN treated rats was due to an increase in the size of the foci, as well as to an increase in the number of foci. This is the first demonstration that iron can act as a promoter of DEN initiated hepatocytes. It also demonstrates that fibrogenesis is not an absolute requirement for the promotion, by iron, of liver foci in the rat, and that this could also be the case for iron overload in man. Iron may also act as a promoter of already initiated hepatocytes in the development of human liver cancer, as it does in the rat.

  5. Importance of Native Grassland Habitat for Den-Site Selection of Indian Foxes in a Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Punjabi, Girish Arjun; Chellam, Ravi; Vanak, Abi Tamim

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26) by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis) in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010). At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001) and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05) than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69) and boulder piles (0.27) in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox. PMID:24098494

  6. Importance of native grassland habitat for den-site selection of Indian foxes in a fragmented landscape.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Girish Arjun; Chellam, Ravi; Vanak, Abi Tamim

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation of native habitats is now a ubiquitous phenomenon affecting wildlife at various scales. We examined selection of den-sites (n = 26) by Indian foxes (Vulpes bengalensis) in a highly modified short-grassland landscape in central India (Jan-May, 2010). At the scale of the home-range, defined by an 800 m circular buffer around den sites, we examined the effect of land-cover edges and roads on selection of sites for denning using a distance-based approach. At the smaller den-area scale, defined by a 25 m x 25 m plot around den and paired available sites, the effect of microhabitat characteristics was examined using discrete-choice models. Indian foxes selected den-sites closer to native grasslands (t = -9.57, P < 0.001) and roads (t = -2.04, P = 0.05) than random at the home-range scale. At the smaller scale, abundance of rodents and higher visibility increased the odds of selection of a site by eight and four times respectively, indicating resource availability and predator avoidance to be important considerations for foxes. Indian foxes largely chose to den in human-made structures, indicated by the proportion of dens found in earthen bunds (0.69) and boulder piles (0.27) in the study area. With agricultural expansion and human modification threatening native short-grassland habitats, their conservation and effective management in human-dominated landscapes will benefit the Indian fox. The presence of some human-made structures within native grasslands would also be beneficial for this den-dependent species. We suggest future studies examine the impact of fragmentation and connectivity of grasslands on survival and reproductive success of the Indian fox.

  7. HyDEn: a hybrid steganocryptographic approach for data encryption using randomized error-correcting DNA codes.

    PubMed

    Tulpan, Dan; Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach.

  8. HyDEn: A Hybrid Steganocryptographic Approach for Data Encryption Using Randomized Error-Correcting DNA Codes

    PubMed Central

    Regoui, Chaouki; Durand, Guillaume; Belliveau, Luc; Léger, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hybrid DNA encryption (HyDEn) approach that uses randomized assignments of unique error-correcting DNA Hamming code words for single characters in the extended ASCII set. HyDEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message. Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, HyDEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach. PMID:23984392

  9. CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on spatial grids.

    PubMed

    Pacios, Luis F; Fernandez, Alberto

    2009-09-01

    CheckDen, a program to compute quantum molecular properties on a variety of spatial grids is presented. The program reads as unique input wavefunction files written by standard quantum packages and calculates the electron density rho(r), promolecule and density difference function, gradient of rho(r), Laplacian of rho(r), information entropy, electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities G(r) and K(r), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL) function. These properties can be calculated on a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional grids that can be processed by widely used graphics programs to render high-resolution images. CheckDen offers also other options as extracting separate atom contributions to the property computed, converting grid output data into CUBE and OpenDX volumetric data formats, and perform arithmetic combinations with grid files in all the recognized formats.

  10. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  11. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  12. Computational anatomy of the dens axis evaluated by quantitative computed tomography: Implications for anterior screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Gehweiler, Dominic; Wähnert, Dirk; Meier, Norbert; Spruit, Maarten; Raschke, Michael Johannes; Richards, Robert Geoff; Noser, Hansrudi; Kamer, Lukas

    2017-01-05

    The surgical fracture fixation of the odontoid process (dens) of the second cervical vertebra (C2/axis) is a challenging procedure, particularly in elderly patients affected by bone loss, and includes screw positioning close to vital structures. The aim of this study was to provide an extended anatomical knowledge of C2, the bone mass distribution and bone loss, and to understand the implications for anterior screw fixation. One hundred and twenty standard clinical quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans of the intact cervical spine from 60 female and 60 male European patients, aged 18-90 years, were used to compute a three-dimensional statistical model and an averaged bone mass model of C2. Shape and size variability was assessed via principal component analysis (PCA), bone mass distribution by thresholding and via virtual core drilling, and the screw placement via virtual positioning of screw templates. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a highly variable anatomy of the dens with size as the predominant variation according to the first principal component (PC) whereas shape changes were primarily described by the remaining PCs. The bone mass distribution demonstrated a characteristic 3D pattern, and remained unchanged in the presence of bone loss. Virtual screw positioning of two 3.5 mm dens screws with a 1 mm safety zone was possible in 81.7% in a standard, parallel position and in additional 15.8% in a twisted position. The approach permitted a more detailed anatomical assessment of the dens axis. Combined with a preoperative QCT it may further improve the diagnostic procedure of odontoid fractures. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  13. Catalogue of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, 1910-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of 392 polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between 1910 and 2010 that are archived by the U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska. A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades. Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens.

  14. Assessment of adverse effects of neurotropic drugs in monkeys with the "drug effects on the nervous system" (DENS) scale.

    PubMed

    Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Shaffer, Christopher L; Menniti, Frank S; Schmidt, Christopher J; Papa, Stella M

    2013-04-30

    Research into therapeutics for neuropsychiatric disorders is increasingly focusing on drugs with new mechanisms of action, and such agents are often assessed in preclinical studies using nonhuman primates. However, researchers lack a standardised method to compare different drugs for common adverse effects on the nervous system. We have developed a new scale for this purpose, named "Drug Effects on the Nervous System" (DENS), and tested its utility in an analysis of the second-generation antipsychotic risperidone in monkeys. The behavioural effects of risperidone over a ten-fold clinically relevant exposure range were rated with the DENS scale and compared with a standard motor disability scale for primates. The ratings were correlated with projected D2 and 5-HT2A receptor occupancies over time. The DENS scale detected dose-dependent side effects of risperidone in addition to the motor effects detected with the motor disability scale, including cognitive, sensorimotor and autonomic functions. A consistent temporal association between the DENS scale changes and the projected D2 receptor occupancy was observed, and the DENS scale ratings demonstrated high inter-rater reliability. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the DENS scale as a highly sensitive, reliable and accurate method to identify common adverse effects of risperidone and potentially other neurotropics for translational studies in primates.

  15. Reconnaissance study of late quaternary faulting along cerro GoDen fault zone, western Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, P.; Prentice, C.S.; Hippolyte, J.-C.; Grindlay, N.R.; Abrams, L.J.; Lao-Davila, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Cerro GoDen fault zone is associated with a curvilinear, continuous, and prominent topographic lineament in western Puerto Rico. The fault varies in strike from northwest to west. In its westernmost section, the fault is ???500 m south of an abrupt, curvilinear mountain front separating the 270- to 361-m-high La CaDena De San Francisco range from the Rio A??asco alluvial valley. The Quaternary fault of the A??asco Valley is in alignment with the bedrock fault mapped by D. McIntyre (1971) in the Central La Plata quadrangle sheet east of A??asco Valley. Previous workers have postulated that the Cerro GoDen fault zone continues southeast from the A??asco Valley and merges with the Great Southern Puerto Rico fault zone of south-central Puerto Rico. West of the A??asco Valley, the fault continues offshore into the Mona Passage (Caribbean Sea) where it is characterized by offsets of seafloor sediments estimated to be of late Quaternary age. Using both 1:18,500 scale air photographs taken in 1936 and 1:40,000 scale photographs taken by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1986, we iDentified geomorphic features suggestive of Quaternary fault movement in the A??asco Valley, including aligned and Deflected drainages, apparently offset terrace risers, and mountain-facing scarps. Many of these features suggest right-lateral displacement. Mapping of Paleogene bedrock units in the uplifted La CaDena range adjacent to the Cerro GoDen fault zone reveals the main tectonic events that have culminated in late Quaternary normal-oblique displacement across the Cerro GoDen fault. Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the La CaDena range exhibit large folds with wavelengths of several kms. The orientation of folds and analysis of fault striations within the folds indicate that the folds formed by northeast-southwest shorTening in present-day geographic coordinates. The age of Deformation is well constrained as late Eocene-early Oligocene by an angular unconformity separating folDed, Deep

  16. Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2008-08-25

    Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance.

  17. Hubble constant from Pritchet and von den Bergh's nova distance to the Virgo cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Sandage, A.; Tammann, G.A.

    1988-05-01

    Two reasons are offered why the value for H(0) of 69 + or - 14 km/s/Mpc of Pritchet and van den Bergh (1987) is likely to be too high by about 20 percent even when their value of 6.8 + or - 0.4 for the M31-Virgo modulus difference is adopted. One reason concerns the free expansion velocity of the Virgo cluster core and the other concerns the apparent distance modulus of M31. Reasons for adopting a global H(0) value of 56 + or - 12 km/s/Mpc are discussed. 25 references.

  18. Successful orthograde treatment of dens invaginatus Type 3 with a main C-shaped canal based on cone-beam computed tomography evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Solomonov, Michael; Itzhak, Joe Ben; Levin, Avi; Katzenell, Vered; Shemesh, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare anatomic variation that is found primarily in maxillary lateral incisors. The management of dens invaginatus is challenging for clinicians; diagnosing the type of malformation, choosing the most appropriate treatment, and carrying out treatment are complicated by the intricate root system of these teeth. The following case report describes the diagnosis and treatment planning of dens invaginatus Type 3 after cone-beam computed tomography evaluation. PMID:27994325

  19. Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Berg von Linde, Maria; Arevström, Lilith; Fröbert, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease.

  20. Dens Axis Vertebroplasty Combined with C 3 Vertebral Body Arthroplasty. Case Study.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Spinal tumors are most commonly located in the thoracic and lumbar spine, less commonly in the cervical section of the spine. Diagnosis is usually late and surgery is not radical. Myeloma is one of the most frequent metastatic spinal tumors. Surgical treatment of osteolytic lesions in the spine involves posterior and anterior stabilization, full or partial tumorectomies as well as decompression of neural structures. Bone cement injection has been increasingly used in plastic surgery of vertebral bodies and is most frequently performed percutaneously in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Cervical vertebroplasty can be performed both percutaneously and after anterior exposure of the spine. The dens axis can also be approached transorally. The safest surgical technique seems to be the Southwick approach, which allows exposure of the spine at C2-Th2 and, if necessary, can be extended both proximally and distally. Cemented cervical vertebroplasty, especially dens axis vertebroplasty, shows good results, yet this technique has rarely been described in the literature. It has the advantage of early patient mobility and little limitation of motion of the spine. Cervical vertebroplasty can be successfully combined with other procedures utilizing the same surgical approach in a single-stage operation. Post-resection anterior stabilization of the cervical spine with plates and vertebral body prosthesis allows for good stability of the spine and makes it possible to restore the spinal axis and curvatures.

  1. Nonsurgical management of a dilacerated maxillary lateral incisor with type III dens invaginatus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gound, Tom G; Maixner, David

    2004-06-01

    Type III dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly characterized by an enamel-lined channel that originates on the coronal surface and passes apically through part or all of the root and exits into the periodontal ligament. In this case report, a 13-yr-old male had a Type III dens that exited at the midroot level of tooth #7. At that same level, the root dilacerated severely to the mesial, and a periradicular radiolucency was present on the distal. A 12-mm periodontal defect was present on tooth #6 and a sinus tract was present. All maxillary anterior teeth responded normally to pulp vitality testing, and no other abnormal probing depths were present. The channel opening in the crown was located, and the channel was negotiated, enlarged, and filled with calcium hydroxide. Thirteen weeks later, the probing was normal and the canal was obturated with gutta-percha and restored. Two- and 6-yr recalls showed complete healing of the bony defects and continued normal responses to vitality testing.

  2. Erythronium dens-canis L. (Liliaceae): an unusual case of change of leaf mottling.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo; Puppi, Giovanna; Rascio, Nicoletta

    2014-01-01

    Erythronium dens-canis is an early-flowering understory lily of southern Europe with two leaves and a single flower, although a number of plants have only one leaf and do not flower. The leaves are mottled with silvery flecks and brown patches, that gradually vanish turning to a lively green color. The nature and function of this striking variegation pattern were investigated in differently colored leaf parts following the springtime color change. Tissue organization was examined by light and electron microscopy; photosynthetic pigments were analyzed by spectrophotometry and HPLC; chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were evaluated by MINI-PAM. The results showed that brown patches originated in vacuolar anthocyanins in the subepidermal cell layer while air spaces between the upper epidermis and underlying chlorenchyma resulted in silvery flecks. The two leaf areas did not differ in photosynthetic pigments, chloroplast organization and photosynthetic parameters (F(v)/F(m), NPQ, rETR). Greening of brown patches due to anthocyanin resorption was faster in non-flowering plants than in flowering ones, occurring only when young fruits were developing. Anthocyanin disappearance did not change the structural-functional features of photosynthetic tissues. As a whole the results suggest that the anthocyanin pigmentation of E. dens-canis leaves does not affect the photosynthetic light use and has no photoprotective function. It is proposed that the complex leaf color pattern may act as a camouflage to escape herbivores, while the reflective silvery spots may have a role in attracting pollinators of this early-flowering species.

  3. Management of Oehler's Type III Dens Invaginatus Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Jaya; Rangarajan Sundaresan, Mohan Kumar; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Dens Invaginatus is a dental malformation that poses diagnostic difficulties in the clinical context. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate endodontic procedure due to the aberrant root canal anatomy. Compared to conventional radiographs, three-dimensional images obtained with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) are invaluable in the diagnosis of the extent of this anomaly and in the appropriate treatment planning. Oehler's classification (1957) for Dens Invaginatus (DI) into three types depending on the depth of the invagination has been used for treatment planning. Of the three types Type III DI is characterized by infolding of the enamel into the tooth up to the root apex and is considered as the most severe variant of DI and hence the most challenging to treat endodontically, due to the morphological complexities. This report describes a case of Oehler's Type III DI in a necrotic permanent maxillary lateral incisor in which CBCT images played a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. The case was managed successfully by a combination of nonsurgical and surgical endodontic therapy with orthograde and retrograde thermoplastic gutta percha obturation. PMID:27069697

  4. Characteristics of dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, W.H.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.T.; McCue, P.M.

    1987-08-01

    A total of 946 dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, were observed on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 and surrounding lands in Kern County, California. Of these, 887 were typical subterranean dens located in 65 sections, and 59 were atypical dens in man-made structures located in 24 sections and in two pipe storage yards. Although the number of entrances to dens ranged between 1 and 17, most (90%) had six or fewer entrances and the average, which did not differ between developed and undeveloped habitats, was 3.4. Entrances were significantly higher than wide, and 53% had ramp-shaped dirt berms. Dens had an average slope angle of 16.1/sup 0/ and more were found on slopes than in flats. Fewer dens faced the northwest quadrant and more faced the southern quadrant than expected. Evidence of kit foxes (tracks, scats, or prey remains) was observed at 80% of the dens, but 11% were not associated with kit fox sign (matted vegetation or trails) even though they were occupied. Human disturbances, most frequently roads, were observed in the immediate vicinity of 78% of the dens. Most (93%) atypical dens were in metal pipes, three were in buried wooden culverts, and one was under a concrete slab. 27 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Protective effect of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on DEN-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok K; Vijayalakshmi, K

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to find out the efficacy of ethanol extracts of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as normal control, and the second group received DEN at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by single intraperitoneal administration. The third one received DEN as in DEN-treated group and co-treated with 400 mg/kg P. granatum peel extract. The final group also received DEN and co-treated with 400 mg/kg V. vinifera seed extract. DEN administration to rats resulted in significantly elevated levels of serum SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and GGT which is indicative of hepatocellular damage. DEN-induced oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxides and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and liver tissues. The status of non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and reduced glutathione were also found to be decreased in serum and tissues of DEN-administered rats. Co-treatment with the P. granatum peel and V. vinifera seed extracts orally for 12 weeks significantly reversed the DEN-induced alterations in the serum and liver tissues.

  6. Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an Interferon-Stimulated Cellular Inhibitor against Dengue Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Youichi; Chin, Wei-Xin; Han, Qi'En; Ichiyama, Koji; Lee, Ching Hua; Eyo, Zhi Wen; Ebina, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Chikako; Tan, Beng Hui; Hishiki, Takayuki; Ohba, Kenji; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Tan, Yee-Joo; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Sano, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection and disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression and gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 and LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication and, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA and cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

  7. Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an Interferon-Stimulated Cellular Inhibitor against Dengue Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, Koji; Lee, Ching Hua; Eyo, Zhi Wen; Ebina, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Chikako; Tan, Beng Hui; Hishiki, Takayuki; Ohba, Kenji; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Tan, Yee-Joo; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Chu, Justin Jang Hann; Vasudevan, Subhash G.; Sano, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection and disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression and gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, and human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), and La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 and LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication and, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA and cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells. PMID:26735137

  8. Remote identification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in northern Alaska using airborne LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Durner, G. M.; Stoker, J.; Shideler, R.; Perham, C.; Liston, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations throughout the Arctic are being threatened by reductions in critical sea ice habitat. Throughout much of their range, polar bears give birth to their young in winter dens that are excavated in snowdrifts. New-born cubs, which are unable to survive exposure to Arctic winter weather, require 2-3 months of the relatively warm, stable, and undisturbed environment of the den for their growth. In the southern Beaufort Sea (BS), polar bears may den on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP).The proportion of dens occurring on land has increased because of reductions in stable multi-year ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the fall open-water period. Large portions of the ACP are currently being used for oil and gas activities and proposed projects will likely expand this footprint in the near future. Since petroleum exploration and development activities increase during winter there is the potential for human activities to disturb polar bears in maternal dens. Thus, maps showing the potential distribution of terrestrial denning habitat can help to mitigate negative interactions. Prior remote sensing efforts have consisted of manual interpretation of vertical aerial photography and automated classification of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (IfSAR) derived digital terrain models (DTM) (5-m spatial resolution) focused on the identification of snowdrift forming landscape features. In this study, we assess the feasibility of airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data (2-m spatial resolution) for the automated classification of potential polar bear maternal denning habitat in a 1,400 km2 area on the central portion of the ACP. The study region spans the BS coast from the Prudhoe Bay oilfield in the west to near Point Thompson in the east and extends inland from 10 to 30 km. Approximately 800 km2 of the study area contains 19 known den locations, 51 field survey sites with information on bank height and

  9. The Political Views of Students at the Universities of the Armed Forces in Comparison to Those of Students at Public Institutions (Die politischen Orientierungen der Studenten an den Universitaeten der Bundeswehr im Vergleich zu den Studenten an oeffentlichen Hochschulen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    zu sein scheint" ( Noelle - Neumann , E. und Petersen, Th., S. 40).5 4 Gerade auch bei den rasant zunehmenden Aufgaben der Bundeswehr bei...Bonnemann A., Hoffmann-Broll U., 1999 Studentische Orientierungen zwischen akademischer und soldatischer Lebenswelt. Noelle - Neumann E., Petersen Th

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of a Type III Dens Invagination Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mohsen; Adl, Alireza; Javanmardi, Samane; Naghizadeh, Sina

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with the history of pain and swelling in the anterior maxillary segment. The periapical radiography was indicative of a dental anomaly in right maxillary lateral incisor. Due to the insufficient information from conventional radiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was ordered. CBCT showed apical root resorption, large apical lucency and two separate canals with distinct apical foramen (Oehlers type III dens invagination). The CBCT image was used as a guide for dentine removal with an ultrasonic tip. Conventional root canal therapy was done using lateral compaction technique. One-and two-year follow-up radiographies revealed periapical repair and absence of symptoms. PMID:27790268

  11. Altered denA and anr gene expression in aminoglycoside adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, J A; Hoban, D J; Zelenitsky, S A; Zhanel, G G

    1997-09-01

    Adaptive resistance to aminoglycoside killing and cytoplasmic accumulation occurs in cultures of originally susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa following an initial incubation with aminoglycoside. Anaerobiosis has also been reported to reduce bacterial killing and limit cytoplasmic aminoglycoside accumulation. We hypothesized that a common mechanism may facilitate reduced bacterial killing and aminoglycoside accumulation in both cases. Northern blot analysis of P. aeruginosa adaptively resistant to gentamicin demonstrated increased mRNA levels of both denA (nitrite reductase), which facilitates terminal electron acceptance in the anaerobic respiratory pathway, and its regulatory protein, ANR, in the absence of promoter DNA sequence changes, when compared with controls. These observations suggested that P. aeruginosa may regulate the expression of genes in its anaerobic respiratory pathway in response to aminoglycosides and may explain, at least partially, P. aeruginosa adaptive resistance to aminoglycosides.

  12. [An alternative dorsal fusion technique after transoral dens resection in basilar impression with atlas assimilation].

    PubMed

    Kaden, B; Schramm, J; Koch, W; Solymosi, L

    1998-01-01

    Current therapy of basilar impression includes transoral dens resection. The essential disadvantage of this procedure is the instability of C1/C2 due to loss of the transverse ligament. We describe two patients in whom this instability was treated by modified screwing. Using MAGERL-screws between C0-C2 an interposition of an iliac graft between the occiput and the arc of C2 was made. Neurological symptoms improved in both patients postoperatively. In both cases stable fusion C0/C2 was achieved with an additional treatment with a HALO-fixateur for eight weeks. In our opinion the combined transoral/dorsal procedure is most suitable and efficient in treatment of basilar impressions. By this approach both, decompression of the myelon as well as stable fusion C0/C2, is achieved.

  13. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Goodman, Christin H.; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JE Detect™ MAC-ELISA (JE Detect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JE Detect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA (DEN Detect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JE Detect and DEN Detect and were classified as JE− (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JE Detect and DEN Detect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  15. [Surgical treatment for third-grade fracture of the dens of the second cervical vertebra with transdental posterior subluxation].

    PubMed

    Dzukaev, D N; Dreval', O N; Sidorenko, V V; Siviakov, A A; Khoreva, N E

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a case of successful treatment in a patient with third-grade fracture of the dens of the second cervical vertebra with transdental posterior subluxation. According to the treatment policy chosen, posterior upper cervical spine stabilization and anterior upper spinal cord decompression that was supplemented by anterior cervical spondylodesis were performed in the early period.

  16. Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals

    PubMed Central

    Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

  17. Temperature controls seed germination and dormancy in the European woodland herbaceous perennial Erythronium dens-canis (Liliaceae).

    PubMed

    Mondoni, A; Rossi, G; Probert, R

    2012-05-01

    We examined the germination ecology and the temperature requirements for germination of Erythronium dens-canis, under both outdoor and laboratory conditions. E. dens-canis is a spring flowering woodland geophyte widely distributed across Europe. Germination phenology, including embryo development and radicle and cotyledon emergence, were investigated in a natural population growing in Northern Italy. Immediately after harvest, seeds of E. dens-canis were either sown on agar in the laboratory under simulated seasonal temperatures or placed in nylon mesh sachets and buried in the wild. Embryos, undifferentiated at the time of seed dispersal, grew during summer and autumn conditions in the laboratory and in the wild, culminating in radicle emergence in winter when temperatures fell to ≈ 5 °C. Emergence of cotyledons did not occur immediately after radicle emergence, but was delayed until the end of winter. Laboratory experiments showed that temperature is the main factor controlling dormancy and germination, with seeds becoming non-dormant only when given warmth, followed by cold stratification. Unlike seeds of E. dens-canis that germinate in winter, in other Erythronium species radicle emergence occurs in autumn, while in some it is delayed until seeds are transferred from winter to spring conditions. Our results suggest that there is genetic and environmental control of the expression of seed dormancy amongst Erythronium species, which is related to local climate.

  18. Distribution of dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit fox on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California, 1980-1987

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Tabor, S.P.; Kato, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Locations of 945 dens used by radiocollared San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) on or adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) in western Kern County, California between 1980-1987 were recorded on maps and stored within a computer-compatible data base. Most (516 of 887) typical subterranean dens of this endangered species were found in undeveloped portions of 65 sections, but most (41 of 58) atypical dens (dens in man-made structures) were found in developed portions of 26 sections. Program managers can plan construction, maintenance, and operational activities on NPR-1 in ways that avoid potential conflicts with the conservation of kit fox dens by using the section maps provided in this report or by accessing the computerized data base through the Endangered Species Contractor, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. 20 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  19. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for DEN2-43 and New Guinea C virus strains of dengue 2 virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Xing, Dan; Xue, Rui-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The vector competence of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti with regard to DEN2-43 and New Guinea C (NGC) virus strains of Dengue 2 viruses was assessed and compared. The infection and dissemination rate and distribution of DEN2-43 antigens in orally infected Ae. albopictus was investigated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. To better understand the initial infection, dissemination and transmission of these viral strains in vector mosquitoes, Ae. albopoictus and Ae. aegypti were fed an artificial blood meal containing either the DEN2-43 or NGC strain. There was no significant difference in the infection and dissemination rates of DEN2-43 and NGC virus strains in Ae. albopictus, however, Ae. aegypti was more susceptible to infection by NGC than DEN2-43 vrius strain. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes infected with the NGC strain developed a higher percentage of midgut infections than those infected with the DEN2-43 strain (t=2.893, df=7, P=0.024). Approximately 26.7% of midgut samples were positive for the NGC antigen 5 days after infection, and 80% of mosquitoes had infected midgets after 15 days. The NGC antigen first became evident in mosquito salivary glands on Day 5, and 40% of mosquitoes had infected salivary by Day 9. In contrast, the DEN2-43 antigen first became evident in salivary glands on Day 7. The infection rate of NGC and DEN2-43 virus strains in salivary glands were similar. These results indicate that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti are moderately competent vectors for the DEN2-43 virus, which could provide basic data for the epidemiology study of dengue fever in China.

  20. Book of Abstracts, Logic Colloquium 󈨦, the ASL European Summer Meeting, August 9-15, 1998, Prague, Czech Republic.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    remain open. References [11 Amitava Bagchi. Economy of Descriptions and Minimal Indices. MAC Technical Memo- randum, MIT, 1972. [21 Manuel Blum. On the...References: 1. Godel Kurt, (1931), Uber formal unentscheidbare Satze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme I, Monatshefte fur Mathematik und...in his ideas for the axiom of completeness proposed in " Uber den Zahlbegriff’. Most commentators find this suspicion based on a confusion which

  1. Nerve Regeneration in Vitro: Comparative Effects of Direct and Induced Current and NGF. Appendix.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-26

    that the proton economy of the cell surface may play an extremely important role in regulating many aspects of membrane functionality because most...Washington, Seattle, VA 98195 There are a few tumnors which Involve the human eye, but the Impact of visual dys- function to a patient is Immense. Such...Bioelectric. Repair and Growth Soc. 4: 24. DuBois-Reymond, E. (1843). Vorlaufiger abrifs einer untersuchung uber den sogenannten froschstrom und uber die

  2. Dens evaginatus: review of the literature and report of several clinical cases.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, K J; Mills, C M; Greenfeld, R S; Coil, J M

    1998-02-01

    Dens evaginatus (DE) presents as an innocuous looking tubercle of enamel on the occlusal surface of a tooth, most commonly a bicuspid. Problems can arise when the tubercle is either worn, ground, or fractured off, resulting in pulpal exposure and possible loss of vitality of the tooth. Dentists who perform orthodontic treatment should be aware of this dental anomaly, which occurs in at least two per cent of the Asian and Native Indian populations. Bicuspid extraction cases should involve the extraction of the anomalous premolars rather than the normal ones. In addition, the dentist should be mindful of occlusal changes that may occur during treatment or occlusal equilibration, both of which can jeopardize the vitality of teeth with DE. Pulp capping or partial pulpotomy has been postulated to be one of the most reliable forms of vital tooth treatment when pulp exposure is encountered following the sterile removal of the tubercle. When pulp exposure is not encountered, preventive resin composite sealing of the dentin or class I amalgam cavity preparation seems to be the treatment of choice.

  3. Design und Analyse elektrisch kleiner Antennen für den Einsatz in UHF RFID Transpondern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herschmann, R.; Camp, M.; Eul, H.

    2006-09-01

    RFID Systeme werden seit Anfang der neunziger Jahre mit stetig zunehmender Verbreitung im Bereich der automatischen Produktidentifikation, der Diebstahlsicherung (EAS, Electronic Article Surveillance) und für automatische Zutrittskontrollsysteme eingesetzt. Objekte werden hierzu mit einem Transponder ausgestattet, der aus einer Antenne und einem Chip auf einem Trägermaterial besteht. Von großem Interesse ist die Entwicklung und Optimierung von passiven Transpondern für den Einsatz in UHF RFID Systemen. Diese Transponder beziehen die Energie zum Betrieb des Chips aus dem elektromagnetischen Feld einer Schreib-Leseeinheit. Hierfür ist neben der Anpassung der Eingangsimpedanz der Antenne an die Chipimpedanz auch eine möglichst hohe Bandbreite der Antennen wünschenswert, um die Funktion des Transponders bei Schwankungen der Chipimpedanz und variablen Umgebungsparametern zu gewährleisten. Der aus Platzgründen notwendige Einsatz elektrisch kleiner Antennen bedingt eine möglichst optimale Ausnutzung der zur Verfügung stehenden Fläche auf dem Trägermaterial zur Aufnahme der Antenne. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Analyse und Synthese neuartiger Antennendesigns auf der Basis parametrisierter meandrierter, spiralförmiger und logarithmisch periodischer Dipole.

  4. Recombinant soluble gp130 protein reduces DEN-induced primary hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jing; Wang, Hang; Shen, Guoying; Lin, Da; Lin, Yanxue; Ye, Nanhui; Guo, Yashan; Li, Qiaoling; Ye, Nanhui; Deng, Chengjun; Meng, Chun

    2016-01-01

    IL-6 (interleukin 6) plays an important role in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via both classic signaling and trans-signaling pathways. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) is known to be a natural inhibitor of the trans-signaling pathway. In the present study, our goal was to investigate whether recombinant sgp130 could suppress the initiation and progression of HCC in mouse models. Our results demonstrate that sgp130 induced an apoptosis of HepG2 cells and inhibited the clonogenicity of HepG2 in vitro. Moreover, the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway is significantly suppressed by sgp130 as reflected by the decrease in the level of STAT3 phosphorylation and other inflammatory factors both in vitro and in vivo. In the DEN-induced HCC mouse model, intravenous injection of sgp130 attenuated hepatic fibrosis at 16 weeks and reduced the initiation and progression of primary HCC at 36 weeks. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that intravenous administration of sgp130 significantly suppressed the growth and metastasis of xenograft human HCC in NOD/SCID mice. PMID:27080032

  5. A comprehensive photometric study of dynamically evolved small van den Bergh-Hagen open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2016-12-01

    We present results from Johnson UBV, Kron-Cousins RI and Washington CT1T2 photometries for seven van den Bergh-Hagen (vdBH) open clusters, namely, vdBH 1, 10, 31, 72, 87, 92, and 118. The high-quality, multiband photometric data sets were used to trace the cluster stellar density radial profiles and to build colour-magnitude diagrams and colour-colour diagrams from which we estimated their structural parameters and fundamental astrophysical properties. The clusters in our sample cover a wide age range, from ˜60 Myr up to 2.8 Gyr, are of relatively small size (˜1-6 pc) and are placed at distances from the Sun which vary between 1.8 and 6.3 kpc, respectively. We also estimated lower limits for the cluster present-day masses as well as half-mass relaxation times (tr). The resulting values in combination with the structural parameter values suggest that the studied clusters are in advanced stages of their internal dynamical evolution (age/tr ˜ 20-320), possibly in the typical phase of those tidally filled with mass segregation in their core regions. Compared to open clusters in the solar neighbourhood, the seven vdBH clusters are within more massive (˜80-380 M⊙), with higher concentration parameter values (c ˜ 0.75-1.15) and dynamically evolved ones.

  6. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality.

  7. Conservative management of dens evaginatus and attached supernumerary tooth/odontome in mandibular premolar with dual radiolucencies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an innovative, nonsurgical regenerative endodontic treatment protocol “SealBio” was introduced to manage mature nonvital permanent teeth with periapical lesions. This paper explains the management of an unusual case of dens evaginatus and an attached supernumerary tooth/an odontome associated with two distinct radiolucencies in a mandibular premolar with “SealBio” technique and discusses the various hypotheses on the pathogenesis of unusual malformation and associated pericervical cyst-like radiolucency in the involved tooth. PMID:26604586

  8. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment of an Infected Immature Dens Invaginatus with the Aid of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kaya-Büyükbayram, Işıl; Özalp, Şerife; Aydemir, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental anomaly that results in an enamel-lined cavity intruding into the crown or root before the mineralization phase. This report presents regenerative endodontic treatment of a necrotic immature tooth with Oehler's type III dens invaginatus of a nine-year-old female patient. A diagnosis of dens invaginatus (Oehler's type III) and a large periapical lesion was established with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In the presented case contrary to the classic revascularization protocol, mechanical instrumentation was performed which apparently did not interfere with the regeneration process. After mechanical instrumentation of the invaginated canal by manual K-files, the invaginated canal space was disinfected by triple antibiotic paste followed by blood clot induction from the periapical tissues and the placement of mineral trioxide aggregate. At one-year follow-up, the tooth remained clinically asymptomatic. Radiographic examination revealed complete healing of the periapical lesion. At the 20-month follow-up, the radiographic examination also showed that the open apex was closed and the walls of the root canal were thickened. PMID:25530890

  9. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2009-05-01

    Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

  10. Korrelationsstatistischer Vergleich zweier Schulleistungstests fur den Unterricht in Englisch an Hauptschulen (Comparison by Statistical Correlation of Two English Achievement Tests for Intermediate Schools)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Holger; Scheibner-Herzig, Gudrun

    1971-01-01

    Expanded version of a lecture given at a meeting of the Teachers of Modern Languages in Colleges of Education (Tagung der Fachdidaktiker fur neuere Sprachen an den Padagogischen Hochschulen), October 1, 1970 in Luneburg, West Germany. (RS)

  11. [Co-infection by Chikungunya virus (CHIK-V) and dengue virus (DEN-V) during a recent outbreak in Cali, Colombia: Report of a fatal case].

    PubMed

    Rosso, Fernando; Pacheco, Robinson; Rodríguez, Sarita; Bautista, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The recent outbreaks of Chikungunya (CHIK-V) virus in endemic areas of dengue (DEN-V) could increase the risk of co-infection. CHIK infection has been considered not severe and with very unusual mortality, however DEN is associated with severe manifestations and increased mortality. Little is known about coinfection. It is possible that co-infection could generate severe cases. We present a case report of co-infection DEN-V -3 and CHIK-V in an elderly patient who developed acute renal failure, dengue shock syndrome (DSS), progresses to multiple organ failure and died. With the recent emergence of CHIK-V in Colombia, the possibility of co-infection with DEN-V should be suspected, especially in severe cases.

  12. Mutations in SCARF2 Are Responsible for Van Den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Natascia; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Teebi, Ahmad; Ha, Kevin C.H.; Lalonde, Emilie; Ali, Rehab; Almureikhi, Mariam; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M.; Liu, Junhui; Rosenblatt, David S.; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2010-01-01

    Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an extremely rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, which include blepharophimosis, malar and/or maxillary hypoplasia, a narrow and beaked nose, and an everted lower lip. Other features are arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal development and intelligence. We present molecular data on four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous Qatari families belonging to the same highly inbred Bedouin tribe. The patients were genotyped with SNP microarrays, and a 2.4 Mb homozygous region was found on chromosome 22q11 in an area overlapping the DiGeorge critical region. This region contained 44 genes, including SCARF2, a gene that is expressed during development in a number of mouse tissues relevant to the symptoms described above. Sanger sequencing identified a missense change, c.773G>A (p.C258Y), in exon 4 in the two closely related patients and a 2 bp deletion in exon 8, c.1328_1329delTG (p.V443DfsX83), in two unrelated individuals. In parallel with the candidate gene approach, complete exome sequencing was used to confirm that SCARF2 was the gene responsible for VDEGS. SCARF2 contains putative epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, along with a number of positively charged residues in its intracellular domain, indicating that it may be involved in intracellular signaling. However, the function of SCARF2 has not been characterized, and this study reports that phenotypic effects can be associated with defects in the scavenger receptor F family of genes. PMID:20887961

  13. Mutations in SCARF2 are responsible for Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anastasio, Natascia; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Teebi, Ahmad; Ha, Kevin C H; Lalonde, Emilie; Ali, Rehab; Almureikhi, Mariam; Der Kaloustian, Vazken M; Liu, Junhui; Rosenblatt, David S; Majewski, Jacek; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A

    2010-10-08

    Van Den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is an extremely rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, which include blepharophimosis, malar and/or maxillary hypoplasia, a narrow and beaked nose, and an everted lower lip. Other features are arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, peculiar skeletal abnormalities, and normal development and intelligence. We present molecular data on four VDEGS patients from three consanguineous Qatari families belonging to the same highly inbred Bedouin tribe. The patients were genotyped with SNP microarrays, and a 2.4 Mb homozygous region was found on chromosome 22q11 in an area overlapping the DiGeorge critical region. This region contained 44 genes, including SCARF2, a gene that is expressed during development in a number of mouse tissues relevant to the symptoms described above. Sanger sequencing identified a missense change, c.773G>A (p.C258Y), in exon 4 in the two closely related patients and a 2 bp deletion in exon 8, c.1328_1329delTG (p.V443DfsX83), in two unrelated individuals. In parallel with the candidate gene approach, complete exome sequencing was used to confirm that SCARF2 was the gene responsible for VDEGS. SCARF2 contains putative epidermal growth factor-like domains in its extracellular domain, along with a number of positively charged residues in its intracellular domain, indicating that it may be involved in intracellular signaling. However, the function of SCARF2 has not been characterized, and this study reports that phenotypic effects can be associated with defects in the scavenger receptor F family of genes.

  14. A Probabilistic Wake Vortex Lateral Transport Model Using Data from SFO and DEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellman, George R.; Delisi, Donald P.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous report, we considered the behavior of the lateral position of vortices as a function of time after vortex formation for Out of Ground Effects (OGE) data for aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport (SFO). We quantified the spread in lateral position as a function of time and examined how predictable lateral position is under a variety of assumptions. The combination of spread and predictability allowed us to derive probability distribution functions (PDFs) for lateral position given observed crosswind (CW) velocities. In this study, we examine the portability of these PDFs with respect to other landing sites. To this end, we consider OGE data obtained by the Federal Aviation Administration for landings at Denver International Airport (DEN) between 04/05/2006 and 06/03/2006. We consider vortices from both B733 (Boeing 737 models 200-500) and B757 (Boeing 757) aircraft. The data set contains 635 B733 landings and 506 B757 landings. The glide slope altitude for these measurements was 280 m, determined by the average initial vortex observation adjusted for a 3-second delay in the initial observation. The comparable SFO altitude was 158 m. We note that the principal mechanism for lateral transport in the OGE regime is advection by the ambient wind. This implies that a simple crosswind correction may be effective in explaining much of the variation in the lateral transport data. In this study, we again consider the use of ASOS data and average Lidar crosswind data over the vortex altitude range to predict vortex location as a function of time.

  15. ‘Neanderthal bone flutes’: simply products of Ice Age spotted hyena scavenging activities on cave bear cubs in European cave bear dens

    PubMed Central

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2015-01-01

    Punctured extinct cave bear femora were misidentified in southeastern Europe (Hungary/Slovenia) as ‘Palaeolithic bone flutes’ and the ‘oldest Neanderthal instruments’. These are not instruments, nor human made, but products of the most important cave bear scavengers of Europe, hyenas. Late Middle to Late Pleistocene (Mousterian to Gravettian) Ice Age spotted hyenas of Europe occupied mainly cave entrances as dens (communal/cub raising den types), but went deeper for scavenging into cave bear dens, or used in a few cases branches/diagonal shafts (i.e. prey storage den type). In most of those dens, about 20% of adult to 80% of bear cub remains have large carnivore damage. Hyenas left bones in repeating similar tooth mark and crush damage stages, demonstrating a butchering/bone cracking strategy. The femora of subadult cave bears are intermediate in damage patterns, compared to the adult ones, which were fully crushed to pieces. Hyenas produced round–oval puncture marks in cub femora only by the bone-crushing premolar teeth of both upper and lower jaw. The punctures/tooth impact marks are often present on both sides of the shaft of cave bear cub femora and are simply a result of non-breakage of the slightly calcified shaft compacta. All stages of femur puncturing to crushing are demonstrated herein, especially on a large cave bear population from a German cave bear den. PMID:26064624

  16. Dose response for TCDD promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats initiated with DEN: histologic, biochemical, and cell proliferation endpoints.

    PubMed Central

    Maronpot, R R; Foley, J F; Takahashi, K; Goldsworthy, T; Clark, G; Tritscher, A; Portier, C; Lucier, G

    1993-01-01

    The present study examines the dose-response relationship for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) promotion of histologic and biochemical parameters by using a two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats initiated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 175 mg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/kg body weight at 70 days of age. Starting 2 weeks after initiation, treatment groups of 8-10 rats were given TCDD by gavage in corn oil once every 2 weeks for 30 weeks. Doses were 3.5, 10.7, 35.7, and 125 ng TCDD/kg body weight/day. A significant body weight reduction was present in the noninitiated group that received 125 ng TCDD. Relative liver weight was statistically increased in initiated rats treated with > or = 10.7 ng TCDD and in noninitiated rats treated with > or = 35.7 ng TCDD. Histopathologic evidence of cytotoxicity was dose-related in all TCDD-treated groups. There was a statistically significant dose response in the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) S-phase labeling index (LI) in the DEN-initiated rats (p < 0.01) and a marginally significant trend in the saline-treated rats (p = 0.10), but proliferating cell nuclear antigen S-phase LI and growth fraction within altered hepatic foci showed no increase. Among the DEN-initiated groups there was a significant increase in glutathione S-transferase altered hepatic foci stereological parameters in the 125 ng TCDD group. This study demonstrates that dose-response relationships for TCDD's effects on cell proliferation growth of altered hepatic foci are different from previously reported effects on P450 gene expression, indicating that different biological or biochemical responses may exhibit different dose-response relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8143597

  17. Dose response for TCDD promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats initiated with DEN: histologic, biochemical, and cell proliferation endpoints.

    PubMed

    Maronpot, R R; Foley, J F; Takahashi, K; Goldsworthy, T; Clark, G; Tritscher, A; Portier, C; Lucier, G

    1993-12-01

    The present study examines the dose-response relationship for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) promotion of histologic and biochemical parameters by using a two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats initiated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 175 mg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)/kg body weight at 70 days of age. Starting 2 weeks after initiation, treatment groups of 8-10 rats were given TCDD by gavage in corn oil once every 2 weeks for 30 weeks. Doses were 3.5, 10.7, 35.7, and 125 ng TCDD/kg body weight/day. A significant body weight reduction was present in the noninitiated group that received 125 ng TCDD. Relative liver weight was statistically increased in initiated rats treated with > or = 10.7 ng TCDD and in noninitiated rats treated with > or = 35.7 ng TCDD. Histopathologic evidence of cytotoxicity was dose-related in all TCDD-treated groups. There was a statistically significant dose response in the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) S-phase labeling index (LI) in the DEN-initiated rats (p < 0.01) and a marginally significant trend in the saline-treated rats (p = 0.10), but proliferating cell nuclear antigen S-phase LI and growth fraction within altered hepatic foci showed no increase. Among the DEN-initiated groups there was a significant increase in glutathione S-transferase altered hepatic foci stereological parameters in the 125 ng TCDD group. This study demonstrates that dose-response relationships for TCDD's effects on cell proliferation growth of altered hepatic foci are different from previously reported effects on P450 gene expression, indicating that different biological or biochemical responses may exhibit different dose-response relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Geothermal Project Den Haag - 3-D models for temperature prediction and reservoir characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottaghy, D.; Pechnig, R.; Willemsen, G.; Simmelink, H. J.; Vandeweijer, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the "Den Haag Zuidwest" geothermal district heating system a deep geothermal installation is projected. The target horizon of the planned doublet is the "Delft sandstone" which has been extensively explored for oil- and gas reservoirs in the last century. In the target area, this upper Jurassic sandstone layer is found at a depth of about 2300 m with an average thickness of about 50 m. The study presented here focuses on the prediction of reservoir temperatures and production behavior which is crucial for planning a deep geothermal installation. In the first phase, the main objective was to find out whether there is a significant influence of the 3-dimensional structures of anticlines and synclines on the temperature field, which could cause formation temperatures deviating from the predicted extrapolated temperature data from oil and gas exploration wells. To this end a regional model was set up as a basis for steady state numerical simulations. Since representative input parameters are decisive for reliable model results, all available information was compiled: a) the subsurface geometry, depth and thickness of the stratigraphic layers known from seismic data sets 2) borehole geophysical data and c) geological and petrographical information from exploration wells. In addition 50 cuttings samples were taken from two selected key wells in order to provide direct information on thermal properties of the underlying strata. Thermal conductivity and rock matrix density were measured in the laboratory. These data were combined with a petrophysical log analysis (Gamma Ray, Sonic, Density and Resistivity), which resulted in continuous profiles of porosity, effective thermal conductivity and radiogenetic heat production. These profiles allowed to asses in detail the variability of the petrophysical properties with depth and to check for lateral changes between the wells. All this data entered the numerical simulations which were performed by a 3-D

  19. An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

  20. Role of phosphorylated histone H3 serine 10 in DEN-induced deregulation of Pol III genes and cell proliferation and transformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping

    2013-01-01

    The products of Pol III genes (RNA polymerase III-dependent genes), such as tRNAs and 5S rRNA, are elevated in both transformed and tumor cells suggesting that they play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. An increase in Brf1 (TFIIIB-related factor 1), a subunit of TFIIIB, augments Pol III gene transcription and is sufficient for cell transformation and tumor formation. We have demonstrated that enhancement of Brf1 and Pol III gene expression is associated with the occurrences of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in mice. This suggests that Brf1 may be a key molecule during HCC development. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), a chemical carcinogen, has been used to induce HCC in rodents. To determine the role of Brf1 and the epigenetic-regulating events in cell proliferation and transformation, hepatocytes were treated with DEN. The results indicate that DEN increases proliferation and transformation of AML-12 cells. DEN enhanced Brf1 expression and tRNALeu and 5S rRNA transcription, as well as H3S10ph (phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 10). Interestingly, DEN-induced Pol III gene transcription and H3S10ph in tumor cells of liver are significantly higher than in non-tumor cells. Inhibition of H3S10ph by H3S10A attenuates the induction of Brf1 and Pol III genes. Further analysis indicates that H3S10ph occupies the promoters of Brf1 and Pol III genes to modulate their expression. Blocking H3S10ph represses cell proliferation and transformation. These results demonstrate that DEN induces H3S10ph, which mediate Brf1 expression, including but not limited Brf1-dependent genes, to upregulate Pol III gene transcription, resulting in an increase in cell proliferation and transformation. PMID:23774401

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles are highly toxic to chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (DEN-2), and their mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Wei, Jiang; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paulpandi, Manickam; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Paneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Wei, Hui; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Jaganathan, Anitha; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Higuchi, Akon; Kumar, Suresh; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Nataraj, Devaraj; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    A main challenge in parasitology is the development of reliable tools to prevent or treat mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) produced by Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (strain MSR-1) on chloroquine-resistant (CQ-r) and sensitive (CQ-s) Plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (DEN-2), and two of their main vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. MNP were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They were toxic to larvae and pupae of An. stephensi, LC50 ranged from 2.563 ppm (1st instar larva) to 6.430 ppm (pupa), and Ae. aegypti, LC50 ranged from 3.231 ppm (1st instar larva) to 7.545 ppm (pupa). MNP IC50 on P. falciparum were 83.32 μg ml(-1) (CQ-s) and 87.47 μg ml(-1) (CQ-r). However, the in vivo efficacy of MNP on Plasmodium berghei was low if compared to CQ-based treatments. Moderate cytotoxicity was detected on Vero cells post-treatment with MNP doses lower than 4 μg ml(-1). MNP evaluated at 2-8 μg ml(-1) inhibited DEN-2 replication inhibiting the expression of the envelope (E) protein. In conclusion, our findings represent the first report about the use of MNP in medical and veterinary entomology, proposing them as suitable materials to develop reliable tools to combat mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  3. Patterns of cellular immunity associated with experimental infection with rDEN2Δ30 (Tonga/74) supports its suitability as a human DENV challenge strain.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Alba; Angelo, Michael; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Diehl, Sean A; Botten, Jason; Boyson, Jonathan; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P; Sette, Alessandro; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2017-02-01

    A deletion variant of the DENV2 Tonga/74 strain lacking 30 nucleotides from its 3' untranslated region (rDEN2Δ30) has previously been established for use in a controlled DENV human challenge model. To evaluate if this model is appropriate to derive correlates of protection for DENV vaccines based on cellular immunity, we wanted to compare how the cellular immune response to this challenge strain compares to the response induced by natural infection. To achieve this, we predicted HLA class I and class II restricted peptides from rDEN2Δ30 and used them, in an IFN-gamma ELISPOT assay, to interrogate CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses in healthy volunteers infected with rDEN2Δ30. At the level of CD8 responses, vigorous ex vivo responses were detected in approximately 80% of donors. These responses were similar in terms of magnitude and numbers of epitopes recognized to previously reported responses observed in PBMC from donors from DENV hyper-endemic regions. The similarity extended to the immunodominance hierarchy of the DENV nonstructural proteins NS3, NS5, and NS1 being dominant in both donor cohorts. At the CD4 level, responses were less vigorous compared to natural DENV infection, and were more focused on nonstructural proteins. The epitopes recognized following rDEN2Δ30 infection and natural infection were largely overlapping for both CD8 (100%) and CD4 (85%) responses. Finally, rDEN2Δ30 induced stronger CD8 responses compared to other more attenuated DENV isolates.

  4. Accounting for model error in air quality forecasts: an application of 4DEnVar to the assimilation of atmospheric composition using QG-Chem 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Emanuele; Gürol, Selime; Cariolle, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Model errors play a significant role in air quality forecasts. Accounting for them in the data assimilation (DA) procedures is decisive to obtain improved forecasts. We address this issue using a reduced-order coupled chemistry-meteorology model based on quasi-geostrophic dynamics and a detailed tropospheric chemistry mechanism, which we name QG-Chem. This model has been coupled to the software library for the data assimilation Object Oriented Prediction System (OOPS) and used to assess the potential of the 4DEnVar algorithm for air quality analyses and forecasts. The assets of 4DEnVar include the possibility to deal with multivariate aspects of atmospheric chemistry and to account for model errors of a generic type. A simple diagnostic procedure for detecting model errors is proposed, based on the 4DEnVar analysis and one additional model forecast. A large number of idealized data assimilation experiments are shown for several chemical species of relevance for air quality forecasts (O3, NOx, CO and CO2) with very different atmospheric lifetimes and chemical couplings. Experiments are done both under a perfect model hypothesis and including model error through perturbation of surface chemical emissions. Some key elements of the 4DEnVar algorithm such as the ensemble size and localization are also discussed. A comparison with results of 3D-Var, widely used in operational centers, shows that, for some species, analysis and next-day forecast errors can be halved when model error is taken into account. This result was obtained using a small ensemble size, which remains affordable for most operational centers. We conclude that 4DEnVar has a promising potential for operational air quality models. We finally highlight areas that deserve further research for applying 4DEnVar to large-scale chemistry models, i.e., localization techniques, propagation of analysis covariance between DA cycles and treatment for chemical nonlinearities. QG-Chem can provide a useful tool in this

  5. [Presence of the dinoflagellates Ceratium dens, C. fusus and C. furca (Gonyaulacales: Ceratiaceae) in Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Montero, Maribelle; Freer, Enrique

    2004-09-01

    Harmful Algae Blooms (HAB) are a frequent phenomenon in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, as in other parts of the world. The morphology and physiology of these microalgae are important because HAB species have adaptive characteristics. The production of high concentrations of paralytic toxins by Ceratium dinoflagellates has only been documented at the experimental level. However, this genus has been associated with the mortality of aquatic organisms, including oyster and shrimp larva, and fish, and with decreased water quality. Recently, fishermen reported massive mortality of encaged fish near Tortuga Island (Gulf of Nicoya). Samples were taken from an algal bloom that had produced an orange coloration and had a strong foul-smelling odor. Ultrastructural details were examined with scanning electron microscopy. The dinoflagellates Ceratium dens, C. furca and C. fusus were found in samples taken at the surface. The cell count revealed four million cells of this genus per liter. The morphological variability of these species is high; therefore electron microscopy is an useful tool in the ultrastructural study of these organisms. This is the first time that three Ceratium species are reported concurrently producing harmful blooms in Costa Rica.

  6. Hepatocyte-specific Smad7 deletion accelerates DEN-induced HCC via activation of STAT3 signaling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, T; Dzieran, J; Yuan, X; Dropmann, A; Maass, T; Teufel, A; Marhenke, S; Gaiser, T; Rückert, F; Kleiter, I; Kanzler, S; Ebert, M P; Vogel, A; ten Dijke, P; Dooley, S; Meindl-Beinker, N M

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β signaling in liver cells has variant roles in the dynamics of liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously found a correlation of high levels of the important endogenous negative TGF-β signaling regulator SMAD7 with better clinical outcome in HCC patients. However, the underlying tumor-suppressive molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we show that conditional (TTR-Cre) hepatocyte-specific SMAD7 knockout (KO) mice develop more tumors than wild-type and corresponding SMAD7 transgenic mice 9 months after diethylnitrosamine (DEN) challenge, verifying SMAD7 as a tumor suppressor in HCC. In line with our findings in patients, Smad7 levels in both tumor tissue as well as surrounding tissue show a significant inverse correlation with tumor numbers. SMAD7 KO mice presented with increased pSMAD2/3 levels and decreased apoptosis in the tumor tissue. Higher tumor incidence was accompanied by reduced P21 and upregulated c-MYC expression in the tumors. Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 signaling was found in Smad7-deficient mouse tumors and in patients with low tumoral SMAD7 expression as compared with surrounding tissue. Together, our results provide new mechanistic insights into the tumor-suppressive functions of SMAD7 in hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:28134936

  7. Biological evidence of an oviposition-deterring pheromone inLobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D

    1992-03-01

    Females of the European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff.) usually deposit isolated eggs on flowers and berries of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). We have investigated whether an epideictic pheromone could be present on the egg surface to explain this spacing behavior. About 21,000 eggs ofL. botrana were washed in cold methanol, and the biological activity was tested in a two-choice bioassay offering treated and nontreated areas. Different dilutions of the extract were tested in methanol, which was inactive alone. At the dose of four egg equivalents per microliter of extract, the number of eggs laid by theL. botrana females was reduced by as much as 57% on the treated areas compared to nontreated areas. A longer-term suppression of oviposition (at least 24 hr) following an exposure to the extract occurred for two doses (0.6 and 4.0 eggs/μl) of egg extract. Our results strongly suggest the occurrence of an oviposition-deterring pheromone (ODP) on the eggs ofL. botrana. The ecological value of these results is discussed.

  8. Analytical, Numerical, and Experimental Investigations of Oblique-Shock-Wave Reflections in Pure and Dusty Gases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    curves in Figs. 1Oa and 2, April 1982, (English Edition), pp. 195-216.22Mach. E., " Uber den Vevlauf des Funkenwellen in der Ebene und lob. The present...34Triggered Lightning in France and New Mexico ," Studies, Canada. UTIAS, Rept. 285, 1986. Endeavor, Vol. 8. No. 2, 1984, pp. 85-89. 34Glaz, H. M., Colella, P

  9. Topically Classified Bibliography on Shapes of Falling Drops, Drops in Electric Fields, and Related Topics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    aufgobe in der hydrodynamik, Arkiv for Matematik Bd vi no. 29 (1910). b. F. Noether , Uber den Guttigkeitsbereich der Stokes’schen Widerstands- formal...Prosperetti, A., 11, 13, 14, 43, Neiburger, M., 38 44 Nicholson, J. R., 44 Pruppacher, H. R., 15, 19, 24, Noether , F., 12 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 38, 40

  10. "Das Konkrete ist das Abstrakte, an das man sich schließlich gewöhnt hat." (Laurent Schwartz) Über den Ablauf des mathematischen Verstehens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowsky, Martin

    Die im Titel genannte Aussage findet sich in den Lebenserinnerungen von Laurent Schwartz (1915-2002), einem der fruchtbarsten Mathematiker, Mitglied der Gruppe Bourbaki. Im Original lautet die Aussage: "un objet concret est un objet abstrait auquel on a fini par s'habituer." Schwartz erläutert sie am Beispiel des Integrals über {e^{-1/2{x^2}}} , das den Wert Wurzel aus 2π hat und in dem sich also die Zahlen e und π verknüpfen. Was Schwartz aber vor allem ausdrücken will, ist dies: Das mathematische Verständnisd geht langsam vor sich und es bedarf der Anstrengung. "Es ist eine Frage der Zeit und der Energie", sagt Schwartz, und gerade dies mache es so schwer, die höhere Mathematik unter das Volk zu bringen. Das Lernen und Lehren von Mathematik laufe eben mühevoll und langsam ab.

  11. A Live Attenuated Chimeric West Nile Virus Vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, Is Well Tolerated and Immunogenic in Flavivirus-Naive Older Adult Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Kristen K; Whitehead, Stephen S; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Grier, Palmtama L; Jarvis, Adrienne; Kenney, Heather; Carmolli, Marya P; Reynolds, Cynthia; Tibery, Cecilia M; Lovchik, Janece; Janiak, Anna; Luke, Catherine J; Durbin, Anna P; Pletnev, Alexander G

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a major cause of mosquito-borne illness in the United States. Human disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe fatal neurologic infection. Adults aged >60 years are more susceptible to neuroinvasive disease accompanied by a high mortality rate or long-lasting neurologic sequelae. A chimeric live attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, was shown to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adults aged 18-50 years. This study evaluated rWN/DEN4Δ30 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50-65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic. Outbreaks of WNV infection tend to be unpredictable, and a safe and effective vaccine will be an important public health tool.

  12. Studying at the Universities of the Armed Forces: Comparative Results from the 1999 Student Questionnaire (Studieren an den UniBw: Vergleichende Ergebnisse aus der Studentenbefragung 1999)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    distanziert kollegial UniBw Miinchen: Auf den ersten Blick scheint das allgemeine Kommunikationsgeschehen in M • nchen im Prinzip dem an der Hamburger UniBw...Hochschulforschung m )chten wir an dieser Stelle danken fMr das Oberlassen des Frageinstrumen- tariums, das dem ZHQ zur Nutzung fu-r die eigene...gerweise war schon im Grandungskonzept der UniBw diesem Moment einer m ~glichst nahen, en- gen und transparenten Kommunikation besondere Beachtung

  13. Perspectives on the Federal Republic of Germany: Past, Present, and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-30

    Summer 1987, pp. 72-84. See also Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann and Renate Kocher in their book Der Verletzte Nation: Uber den Versuch der Deutachen ihren...Movement and the Changed Image of America in West Germany." International Security, Summer 1987, pp. 72-84. Noelle - Neumann , Elisabeth. "Do the Germans Have...A National Character?" Encounter, March 1987, pp. 68-72. 42 Noelle -Neuman, Elisebeth, and Kocher, Renate. Der Verletzte Nation: "Ober den Versuch der

  14. DensToolKit: A comprehensive open-source package for analyzing the electron density and its derivative scalar and vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M.

    2015-11-01

    DensToolKit is a suite of cross-platform, optionally parallelized, programs for analyzing the molecular electron density (ρ) and several fields derived from it. Scalar and vector fields, such as the gradient of the electron density (∇ρ), electron localization function (ELF) and its gradient, localized orbital locator (LOL), region of slow electrons (RoSE), reduced density gradient, localized electrons detector (LED), information entropy, molecular electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities K and G, among others, can be evaluated on zero, one, two, and three dimensional grids. The suite includes a program for searching critical points and bond paths of the electron density, under the framework of Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules. DensToolKit also evaluates the momentum space electron density on spatial grids, and the reduced density matrix of order one along lines joining two arbitrary atoms of a molecule. The source code is distributed under the GNU-GPLv3 license, and we release the code with the intent of establishing an open-source collaborative project. The style of DensToolKit's code follows some of the guidelines of an object-oriented program. This allows us to supply the user with a simple manner for easily implement new scalar or vector fields, provided they are derived from any of the fields already implemented in the code. In this paper, we present some of the most salient features of the programs contained in the suite, some examples of how to run them, and the mathematical definitions of the implemented fields along with hints of how we optimized their evaluation. We benchmarked our suite against both a freely-available program and a commercial package. Speed-ups of ˜2×, and up to 12× were obtained using a non-parallel compilation of DensToolKit for the evaluation of fields. DensToolKit takes similar times for finding critical points, compared to a commercial package. Finally, we present some perspectives for the future development and

  15. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hytönen, Marjo K; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka; Drögemüller, Cord; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hytönen, Marjo K.; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions. PMID:27187611

  17. A Self Consistent Estimate of the Elastic Constants of a Random Array of Equal Spheres with Application to Granular Soil under Isotropic Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    pp. 852-854. Brandt (1955), "A Study of the Speed of Sound in Porous Media," J. Appl. Mech. 22, pp. 479-486. " ’ L. Brauns, J. (1968), Uber den Einfuss...Karlsruhe. Brauns, J. and Leussnink (1970), Uber mechanische Eigenschaften von Kugelpackungen, verfahrenstechnik 4, 1, S.5-8. Brown, C.B. (1978), "The...Characteristics," State-of-the-Art Report, Proceedings Seventh Int. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Mexico City, pp. 1-47. - Seed, H.B. and

  18. Paleoenvironmental and Human Behavioral Implications of the Boegoeberg 1 Late Pleistocene Hyena Den, Northern Cape Province, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard G.; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Hart, Tim; Parkington, John E.

    1999-11-01

    Boegoeberg 1 (BOG1) is located on the Atlantic coast of South Africa, 850 km north of Cape Town. The site is a shallow rock shelter in the side of a sand-choked gully that was emptied by diamond miners. Abundant coprolites, chewed bones, and partially digested bones implicate hyenas as the bone accumulators. The location of the site, quantity of bones, and composition of the fauna imply it was a brown hyena nursery den. The abundance of Cape fur seal bones shows that the hyenas had ready access to the coast. Radiocarbon dates place the site before 37,000 14C yr ago, while the large average size of the black-backed jackals and the presence of extralimital ungulates imply cool, moist conditions, probably during the early part of the last glaciation (isotope stage 4 or stage 3 before 37,000 14C yr ago) or perhaps during one of the cooler phases (isotope substages 5d or 5b) within the last interglaciation. Comparisons of the BOG1 seal bones to those from regional Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archeological sites suggest (1) that hyena and human seal accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for vertebrae to be much more common in a hyena accumulation and (2) that hyena and LSA accumulations can be distinguished by a tendency for hyena-accumulated seals to represent a much wider range of individual seal ages. Differences in the way hyenas and people dismember, transport, and consume seal carcasses probably explain the contrast in skeletal part representation, while differences in season of occupation explain the contrast in seal age representation. Like modern brown hyenas, the BOG1 hyenas probably occupied the coast year-round, while the LSA people focused their coastal visits on the August-October interval when nine-to-eleven-month-old seals were abundant. The MSA sample from Klasies River Mouth Cave 1 resembles BOG1 in seal age composition, suggesting that unlike LSA people, MSA people obtained seals more or less throughout the year.

  19. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log10 TCID50/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log10 TCID50/ml after a single treatment with 20 μl/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log10 PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log10 PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 μl/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC50 values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

  20. Morphological and molecular investigations of a microsporidium infecting the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff., and its taxonomic determination as Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

    PubMed

    Kleespies, Regina G; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A

    2003-07-01

    We have isolated a microsporidium from a laboratory stock of the European grape vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Screening of this stock showed an infection rate of more than 90%, whereas field collected larvae from three different locations in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) did not demonstrate any signs of infection. Light and electron microscopic investigations of infected insects showed that gross pathology, morphology, and ultrastructure of the microsporidium are similar to those described earlier for Pleistophora legeri. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rDNA using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and neighbour joining distance methods showed that our isolate was closely related to Cystosporogenes operophterae. Based on our morphological and molecular investigations we propose to rename this species Cystosporogenes legeri nov. comb.

  1. Transoral vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of a patient with a dens fracture nonunion and subarticular vertebral body fracture of C2.

    PubMed

    Beall, Douglas P; Stanfield, Matthew; Martin, Hal D; Stapp, Annette M

    2007-05-01

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach.

  2. Factors Affecting Date of Implantation, Parturition, and Den Entry Estimated from Activity and Body Temperature in Free-Ranging Brown Bears

    PubMed Central

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human. PMID:24988486

  3. Factors affecting date of implantation, parturition, and den entry estimated from activity and body temperature in free-ranging brown bears.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Andrea; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M; Blanc, Stéphane; Brunberg, Sven; Fleissner, Günther; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of factors influencing the timing of reproduction is important for animal conservation and management. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to vary the birth date of their cubs in response to their fat stores, but little information is available about the timing of implantation and parturition in free-ranging brown bears. Body temperature and activity of pregnant brown bears is higher during the gestation period than during the rest of hibernation and drops at parturition. We compared mean daily body temperature and activity levels of pregnant and nonpregnant females during preimplantation, gestation, and lactation. Additionally we tested whether age, litter size, primiparity, environmental conditions, and the start of hibernation influence the timing of parturition. The mean date of implantation was 1 December (SD = 12), the mean date of parturition was 26 January (SD = 12), and the mean duration of the gestation period was 56 days (SD = 2). The body temperature of pregnant females was higher during the gestation and lactation periods than that of nonpregnant bears. The body temperature of pregnant females decreased during the gestation period. Activity recordings were also used to determine the date of parturition. The parturition dates calculated with activity and body temperature data did not differ significantly and were the same in 50% of the females. Older females started hibernation earlier. The start of hibernation was earlier during years with favorable environmental conditions. Dates of parturition were later during years with good environmental conditions which was unexpected. We suggest that free-ranging pregnant brown bears in areas with high levels of human activities at the beginning of the denning period, as in our study area, might prioritize investing energy in early denning than in early parturition during years with favorable environmental conditions, as a strategy to prevent disturbances caused by human.

  4. Discovery of a new species of hermit crab of the genus Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 from the Caribbean: "den commensal" or "cleaner"? (Crustacea, Anomura, Paguridae).

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    A new secretive, yet brightly colored hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis mollymulleraesp. n., is fully described based on specimens from the reefs of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea. Populations of this new species were discovered and photographed in the Bonaire National Marine Park under a large coral ledge, at a depth of 13.7 m, living in crevices known by scuba divers to serve as den to a pair of "flaming reef lobsters" Enoplometopus antillensis, or a "broad banded moray" Channomuraena vittata. This new species is only the second species of Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 known from the western Atlantic, the 20(th) named worldwide, and belongs in the teevana group of species of the genus. It is remarkably similar, and herein considered geminate, to the tropical eastern Pacific congener, Pylopaguropsis teevana (Boone, 1932), the two being characterized and uniquely different from all other species of the genus, by the striking and deeply excavated, scoop-like ventral surface of the chela of the right cheliped. Minor differences separate this new species from Pylopaguropsis teevana in the relative length of the antennal acicles (exceeding the corneas versus not exceeding the corneas in Pylopaguropsis teevana); dorsal armature of the right chela (smooth or with scattered minute tubercles versus with numerous small tubercles in Pylopaguropsis teevana); surface shape of the lateral face of the dactyl of right pereopod 3 (evenly convex versus flattened in Pylopaguropsis teevana); and coloration (red bright red stripes versus brown stripes in Pylopaguropsis teevana). The highly visible color pattern of bright red stripes on white background typical of decapods known to have cleaning symbioses with fish, dense setation on the flagella of the antennae, and preference for a crevicular habitat, combined with brief in situ nocturnal observations, suggests the possibility that Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n. engages in "cleaner

  5. Discovery of a new species of hermit crab of the genus Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 from the Caribbean: “den commensal” or “cleaner”? (Crustacea, Anomura, Paguridae)

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new secretive, yet brightly colored hermit crab species of the family Paguridae, Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n., is fully described based on specimens from the reefs of Bonaire, Lesser Antilles, southern Caribbean Sea. Populations of this new species were discovered and photographed in the Bonaire National Marine Park under a large coral ledge, at a depth of 13.7 m, living in crevices known by scuba divers to serve as den to a pair of “flaming reef lobsters” Enoplometopus antillensis, or a “broad banded moray” Channomuraena vittata. This new species is only the second species of Pylopaguropsis Alcock, 1905 known from the western Atlantic, the 20th named worldwide, and belongs in the teevana group of species of the genus. It is remarkably similar, and herein considered geminate, to the tropical eastern Pacific congener, Pylopaguropsis teevana (Boone, 1932), the two being characterized and uniquely different from all other species of the genus, by the striking and deeply excavated, scoop-like ventral surface of the chela of the right cheliped. Minor differences separate this new species from Pylopaguropsis teevana in the relative length of the antennal acicles (exceeding the corneas versus not exceeding the corneas in Pylopaguropsis teevana); dorsal armature of the right chela (smooth or with scattered minute tubercles versus with numerous small tubercles in Pylopaguropsis teevana); surface shape of the lateral face of the dactyl of right pereopod 3 (evenly convex versus flattened in Pylopaguropsis teevana); and coloration (red bright red stripes versus brown stripes in Pylopaguropsis teevana). The highly visible color pattern of bright red stripes on white background typical of decapods known to have cleaning symbioses with fish, dense setation on the flagella of the antennae, and preference for a crevicular habitat, combined with brief in situ nocturnal observations, suggests the possibility that Pylopaguropsis mollymullerae sp. n. engages

  6. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedeschi, M.F.; Colombo, L.; Mari, F.; Hofmann, K.; Rauch, A.; Gentilin, B.; Renieri, A.; Clerici, D.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation. PMID:22140376

  7. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  8. [Immunohistochemical Analysis of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) Expression in Lung Tissue in Primary Lung Cancer Patients with High Serum KL-6 Levels].

    PubMed

    Yatsuyanagi, Eiji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Sato, Keisuke

    2015-09-01

    We investigated sialylated carbohydrate antigen( Krebs von den Lungen-6:KL-6) expression in lung tissue and correlation between the expression and serum KL-6 level in the patients with primary lung cancer. Thirty-four primary lung cancer patients with high serum KL-6 levels( >500 U/ml) were evaluated. A coexistence of interstitial pneumonia (IP) was histopathologically evaluated and an immunohistochemical staining using a mouse anti-human KL-6 antibody (mKL-6) was performed. A multiple regression analysis was also caluculated using a serum KL-6 level as a target variable and the histopathological and immunohistochemical factors (KL-6 expression in cancer tissue and IP tissue, coexistence of IP, tumor size, pathological staging) as descriptive variables. Twenty-two patients (64.7%) were histopathologically concomitant with IP. Cancer tissues were positively stained by mKL-6 in 32 patients (94.1%). Among them, 20 patients were concomitant with IP and all of their cancer tissues were more strongly stained by mKL-6 than IP tissues. Although considerable high rate of lung cancer patients might express the KL-6 in the cancer tissue, we could not reveal the relationship between the expression and serum KL-6 level by a multiple regression analysis. For revealing the mechanism of elevating serum KL-6 level in the patients with lung cancer, more detailed and powerful study is thought to be needed.

  9. Anti-influenza A virus activity of a new dihydrochalcone diglycoside isolated from the Egyptian seagrass Thalassodendron ciliatum (Forsk.) den Hartog.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Magdy M D; Hamdy, Abdel-Hamid A; El-Fiky, Nabaweye M; Mettwally, Walaa S A; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    One new dihydrochalcone diglycoside has been isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the Egyptian seagrass Thalassodendrin ciliatum (Forsk.) den Hartog, and was identified as 6'-O-rhamnosyl-(1‴ → 6″)-glucopyranosyl asebogenin for which a trivial name Thalassodendrone was established. Furthermore, five known phenolics were isolated and identified as asebotin, quercetin 3,7-diglucoside, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The structures of all the isolated compounds were established based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution-mass spectrometer. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra (HR-ESI-MS) were obtained using a JEOL JMS-T100TD spectrometer (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The anti-influenza A virus activity of the isolated new compound and asebotin was evaluated, and the obtained results revealed that the inhibition dose concentration of asebotin was more than that of Thalassodendrone with IC50 = 2.00 and 1.96 μg/mL, respectively, and with cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 3.36 and 3.14 μg/mL, respectively.

  10. Differential predation by age and sex classes in blue wildebeest in Serengeti: study of a modern carnivore den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania).

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey.

  11. Differential Predation by Age and Sex Classes in Blue Wildebeest in Serengeti: Study of a Modern Carnivore Den in Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)

    PubMed Central

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Martínez-Maza, Cayetana; Mabulla, Audax; Baquedano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex selection of prey is an aspect of predator ecology which has been extensively studied in both temperate and African ecosystems. This dimension, along with fecundity, survival rates of prey and mortality factors other than predation are important in laying down the population dynamics of prey and have important implications in the management of species. A carnivore den located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti was studied. Sex- and age- class (using five age categories) of the wildebeest remains recovered were analyzed through horn morphology, biometrics of the bones and tooth wear patterns. We compared our results with previous studies from lion and hyaena kills through multivariate analyses. Seasonality of the accumulation was analyzed through tooth histology. PCA and CVA results show that age class selection by predators depends on season, habitat-type, and growth rate of the wildebeest population. Female-biased predation was found to contradict classical hypotheses based on territorial male behaviour. The lion and spotted hyaena showed strong selection on age classes, contrary to previous studies. Migratory wildebeest sex ratio is regulated through differential predation by seasons and female deaths in the wet season are a trade-off for population stability. These data are crucial for an effective management of the species and the new method created may be useful for different carnivore species and their prey. PMID:26017363

  12. An Improvement to a Method for Measuring the Absorption Coefficient of Atmospheric Dust and other Strongly Absorbing Powders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    coefficient. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and in particular the Kubelka - Munk (K-M) theory, can provide such information. A convenient method for...34Uber Den Streukoeffizienten Der Kubelka - Munk -Theorie," Z. Naturforsch, 19a, 28. 3. J. B. Gillespie, J. D. Lindberg and L. S. Laude, 1975 " Kubelka ... Munk Optical Coefficients for a Barium Sulfate White Reflectance Standard," Appl. Opt. 14, 807. 4. F. Grum and G. W. Lucky, 1968, "Optical Sphere

  13. Community Reaction to Impulsive Noise. A Final 10-Year Research Summary. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    A.A.28/70 (April 1970). ’Fluglarmwirkungen. (inc Interdisziplinare Untersuchung uber die Autwir- kungen des Fluglanhs Suf den Menschen." (Effects of... disruption caused by the various respondents within given noise zone strata. In the conven- sources. Taken as a group these articles will show by tional... disruption caused by impulse (which is incorporated within the C-weighted DNL environments, noise as compared to other forms of A-weighted DNL model

  14. Data assimilative twin-experiment in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration: 4DEnOI based on stochastic modeling of the wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervatis, V.; Testut, C. E.; De Mey, P.; Ayoub, N.; Chanut, J.; Quattrocchi, G.

    2016-04-01

    A twin-experiment is carried out introducing elements of an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), to assess and correct ocean uncertainties in a high-resolution Bay of Biscay configuration. Initially, an ensemble of 102 members is performed by applying stochastic modeling of the wind forcing. The target of this step is to simulate the envelope of possible realizations and to explore the robustness of the method at building ensemble covariances. Our second step includes the integration of the ensemble-based error estimates into a data assimilative system adopting a 4D Ensemble Optimal Interpolation (4DEnOI) approach. In the twin-experiment context, synthetic observations are simulated from a perturbed member not used in the subsequent analyses, satisfying the condition of an unbiased probability distribution function against the ensemble by performing a rank histogram. We evaluate the assimilation performance on short-term predictability focusing on the ensemble size, the observational network, and the enrichment of the ensemble by inexpensive time-lagged techniques. The results show that variations in performance are linked to intrinsic oceanic processes, such as the spring shoaling of the thermocline, in combination with external forcing modulated by river runoffs and time-variable wind patterns, constantly reshaping the error regimes. Ensemble covariances are able to capture high-frequency processes associated with coastal density fronts, slope currents and upwelling events near the Armorican and Galician shelf break. Further improvement is gained when enriching model covariances by including pattern phase errors, with the help of time-neighbor states augmenting the ensemble spread.

  15. Briefwechsel uber die Partikel "bis" (An Exchange of Letters about the Particle "bis").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Horst; Holschuh, Albrecht

    1990-01-01

    A discussion, in the form of an animated letter exchange, argues that, contrary to most current grammatical descriptions, the German particle "bis" should not be viewed as a preposition governing the accusative case. Rather, it is demonstrated that "bis" most often occurs as a proclitic adverb. (16 references) (JTC)

  16. A novel minimally invasive, dorsolateral, tubular partial odontoidectomy and autologous bone augmentation to treat dens pseudarthrosis: cadaveric, 3D virtual simulation study and technical report.

    PubMed

    Archavlis, Eleftherios; Serrano, Lucas; Schwandt, Eike; Nimer, Amr; Molina-Fuentes, Moisés Felipe; Rahim, Tamim; Ackermann, Maximilian; Gutenberg, Angelika; Kantelhardt, Sven Rainer; Giese, Alf

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to demonstrate the clinical and technical nuances of a minimally invasive, dorsolateral, tubular approach for partial odontoidectomy, autologous bone augmentation, and temporary C1-2 fixation to treat dens pseudarthrosis. METHODS A cadaveric feasibility study, a 3D virtual reality reconstruction study, and the subsequent application of this approach in 2 clinical cases are reported. Eight procedures were completed in 4 human cadavers. A minimally invasive, dorsolateral, tubular approach for odontoidectomy was performed with the aid of a tubular retraction system, using a posterolateral incision and an oblique approach angle. Fluoroscopy and postprocedural CT, using 3D volumetric averaging software, were used to evaluate the degree of bone removal of C1-2 lateral masses and the C-2 pars interarticularis. Two clinical cases were treated using the approach: a 23-year-old patient with an odontoid fracture and pseudarthrosis, and a 35-year-old patient with a history of failed conservative treatment for odontoid fracture. RESULTS At 8 cadaveric levels, the mean volumetric bone removal of the C1-2 lateral masses on 1 side was 3% ± 1%, and the mean resection of the pars interarticularis on 1 side was 2% ± 1%. The median angulation of the trajectory was 50°, and the median distance from the midline of the incision entry point on the skin surface was 67 mm. The authors measured the diameter of the working channel in relation to head positioning and assessed a greater working corridor of 12 ± 4 mm in 20° inclination, 15° contralateral rotation, and 5° lateral flexion to the contralateral side. There were no violations of the dura. The reliability of C-2 pedicle screws and C-1 lateral mass screws was 94% (15 of 16 screws) with a single lateral breach. The patients treated experienced excellent clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS A minimally invasive, dorsolateral, tubular odontoidectomy and autologous bone augmentation combined with C1

  17. Long-term Outcomes and Quality of Life of 186 Patients With Primary Parotid Carcinoma Treated With Surgery and Radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Rooij, Peter van; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Levendag, Peter C.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcomes, toxicity, and quality of life (QOL) of patients with primary parotid carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. Methods and Materials: Between 1995 and 2010, 186 patients with parotid carcinoma were treated with parotidectomy with or without neck dissection, followed by radiotherapy. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) was applied to high-risk, node-negative disease. End points were locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS), late toxicity, and QOL. Results: After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 4-172 months), the 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for LRC, DFS, CSS, and OS were 89%, 83%, 80%, and 68%, respectively. Forty-five events were reported: 24 distant metastases (DM) and 21 locoregional failures (LRF). Event-free survival rates by histological types were 89%, 78%, 76%, 74%, and 70% for acinic cell, mucoepidermoid, adenoid cystic, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. More LRF were reported in patients with squamous cell and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (21% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other histological types (p = 0.04) and more DM in patients with adenoid cystic and adenocarcinoma (20% and 19%, respectively) than in patients with other types (p = 0.03). None of the high-risk node-negative patients who received ENI developed regional failure. On multivariate analysis, T stage, N stage, grade, and presence of perineural invasion and facial paralysis correlated significantly with DFS. The 5-year cumulative incidence of grade {>=}2 late toxicity was 8%. QOL scores deteriorate during and shortly after treatment but returned in almost all scales to baseline scores within 6 months. Conclusions: Of the entire group, surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent outcomes with minimal side effects and preservation of good QOL scores. However, in

  18. Application of DEN refinement and automated model building to a difficult case of molecular-replacement phasing: the structure of a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Brunger, Axel T; Das, Debanu; Deacon, Ashley M; Grant, Joanna; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Read, Randy J; Adams, Paul D; Levitt, Michael; Schröder, Gunnar F

    2012-04-01

    Phasing by molecular replacement remains difficult for targets that are far from the search model or in situations where the crystal diffracts only weakly or to low resolution. Here, the process of determining and refining the structure of Cgl1109, a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, at ∼3 Å resolution is described using a combination of homology modeling with MODELLER, molecular-replacement phasing with Phaser, deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement and automated model building using AutoBuild in a semi-automated fashion, followed by final refinement cycles with phenix.refine and Coot. This difficult molecular-replacement case illustrates the power of including DEN restraints derived from a starting model to guide the movements of the model during refinement. The resulting improved model phases provide better starting points for automated model building and produce more significant difference peaks in anomalous difference Fourier maps to locate anomalous scatterers than does standard refinement. This example also illustrates a current limitation of automated procedures that require manual adjustment of local sequence misalignments between the homology model and the target sequence.

  19. The dating of the ornithological section of Middendorff's Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, with comments on the nomenclature of Pallas's Bunting Emberiza pallasi Cabanis (Aves: Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2014-05-14

    Middendorff's work on the Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien, published as part 2 of volume 2 of his Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, was variably dated from 1851, 1852 or 1853. I document that the work was published shortly before 15 December 1852 and I recommend using this date for the purposes of zoological nomenclature.Due to this, Emberiza polaris Middendorff, 1852 has precedence over Cynchramus pallasi Cabanis, 1853. This bunting species thus should be called Emberiza polaris and its four subspecies should be called Emberiza polaris polaris Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris minor Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris pallasi (Cabanis, 1853) and E. polaris lydiae Portenko, 1929. 

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SMC BV photometry of 9 star cluster fields (Dias+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Kerber, L.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.

    2016-05-01

    Photometric magnitudes from SOAR Optical Imager for individual stars in nine stellar clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud are presented. The following clusters are presented: Bruck2, Bruck4, Bruck6, HW5, HW6, Kron8, Kron11, Lindsay14, and NGC152. For each star equatorial coordinates and B, V (Bessel) magnitudes with their errors are given. (10 data files).

  1. Eigenstandig lernende Schulerinnen und Schuler--Bericht uber ein empirisches Forschungsprojekt = Autonomous Learners--An Empirical Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Erwin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of an experiment enabling students to develop their own cognitive and metacognitive strategies to promote autonomous learning in mathematical problem solving, knowledge acquisition, and written composition. Explains that students dealt with models of teachers' and classmates' cognitive performances and monitored their own…

  2. Astronomische Konzepte und Jenseitsvorstellungen in den Pyramidentexten.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, R.

    The Egyptian pyramid texts were first written down around 2300 B.C. They are based on the religious belief in a stellar hereafter and contain the astronomical knowledge of their authors. For example, the ecliptical belt was understood as a canal, on which moon and planets cruise; of the latter Mercury, Venus and Mars were identified. On the basis of their visibility in the course of a year the fixed stars were divided into two groups; a southern group with a period of invisibility and a northern group with continual visibility. The ecliptical "canal" was correctly identified as a division line between the two groups of fixed stars. The aim of this book is to bring these texts foreward to a better understanding of their astronomical background.

  3. Denning, William Frederick (1848-1931)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Possibly a journalist and certainly an amateur astronomer. Born in Redpost, Somerset, England. The spectacular meteor storm of 1866, and a fireball in 1869, focused his interest on meteor astronomy. In 1877 he demonstrated a steady night by night movement in the Perseid meteor radiant, which proved that meteors came from showers of dust distributed along the path of a comet. Had the distinction t...

  4. Von der Freundlichkeit in der Welt: Uber die phatische Funktion der Sprache im interkulturellen Dialog (Of Friendliness in the World: The Phatic Function of Language in Intercultural Dialogue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rall, Marlene

    1996-01-01

    We humans do have a gift for bringing friendliness to this world, and this ability directly challenges the lines that Brecht wrote in which "the friendliness in this world" amounts to little more than "two handfuls of earth." With examples and thoughts from linguistics, cultural anthropology, and literature, readers are invited to reflect on how…

  5. Soziale Welten von Schulern und Schulerinnen. Uber Populare, Padagogische und Szientifische Ethnographien (Social World of Male and Female Students -- On Popular, Pedagogical and Scientific Ethnographies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnecker, Jurgen

    2000-01-01

    Provides a survey on projects, authors, topics, and methods in recent ethnographic studies carried out in Germany and elsewhere. Describes embedding scientific student ethnography into a field of discourse. Concludes with a prognosis relating to the future perspectives of this segment of educational research. (CMK)

  6. Wie Effektiv ist Microteaching? Ein Uberblick uber funfundreifsig Jahre Forschung (How Effective Is Micro-Teaching? A Survey of Fifty-Three Years of Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Reviews 200+ studies on microteaching. Argues that the use of microteaching in pre- and inservice education leads to positive and long-term effects in the acquisition of verbal and non-verbal behaviorial patterns, integration of learning into individual behavioral repertoire, and in the transfer into professional teaching practice. (CAJ)

  7. Zwischen "Fassade" und "wirklicher Absicht": Eine Betrachtung uber die dritte Erziehungsreform in Japan = Between "Facade" and "Real Intent": Observations on Japan's Third Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Toshiko

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that the Japanese educational system consists of the "facade" of ministerially-decreed harmony and the "real intent" of competition. Argues that the balance between the two has been endangered by recent reforms that seek to promote "creativity and diversification." Suggests that policymakers did not analyze…

  8. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  9. Das Bin Ich. Ein Buch von mir uber mich (It's Me! A Book By and About Myself). Communicative Activities for German Immersion and Second Language Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer

    This workbook is intended as a text for the learner of German as a foreign language. The workbook is complete with exercises that require students to provide information about themselves. Students provide information by reading questions and filling in the blanks. Questions are asked about families, friends, likes and dislikes, hobbies, and even…

  10. Zwischen Gesetz und Fall. Mutmassungen uber Typologien als Padagogische Wissensform (Between General Law and the Individual Case. Conjectures Concerning Typologies as a Form of Pedagogical Knowledge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Considers the mediation between scientific knowledge and practical action as a crucial feature of professional teaching. Investigates the assumption that typologies represent a form of knowledge which can bridge the gap between theory and practice. Differentiates between two forms of typological thinking and discusses reservations concerning…

  11. Uber die Vereinbarkeit individueller Bildungsbedurfnisse und betrieblicher Qualifikationsanforderungen (On the Compatibility of Individual Needs for Education and Employment-Related Qualification Requirements).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    States that a tendency has developed to orientate educational-practical acting using learners' educational needs, while representatives of the employment system deduce political and practical educational maxims from requirements that result from economic structural changes. Defines the instructional importance of individual educational needs and…

  12. Kooperatives Lernen lernen? Zur Diskussion uber das Bildungswesen in Japan (Learning Cooperative Learning? On the Discussion of the Japanese Educational System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Volker

    1998-01-01

    Suggests a reconsideration of the criticism of Japanese competition against the background of the Japanese educational system's highly developed learning culture. Considers some of the basic aspects of group-oriented communal learning in school, while also cautioning against a "monocausal" culturalism. (Author/CMK)

  13. Naturwissenschaft und Bildung: Betrachtungen uber die Aktualitat des Genetischen Lernens (Natural Science and Education - Reflections on the Pertinence of Genetic Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich, Heiner

    2000-01-01

    States that the educational mission of instruction in natural science is still not clearly defined. Explains that the unclear mission is revealed by the situation in instruction in physics today as well as by the scholastic achievement in this field. (CMK)

  14. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  15. The historical aspects of sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Urbach, F

    2001-11-15

    While there is little literature on the way in which people protected themselves against the sun, evidence from paintings suggest that clothing covering the body, veils and large brim hats were used by ancient Greeks, and that umbrellas existed in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and India. Veiel in 1887 (Vierteljahresschr. Derm. Syph. 14, 113-116) was able to protect a patient with eczema solare by the use of a tightly woven red veil. In 1889, Widmark (Uber den Einfluss des Lichtes auf die Haut. Hygiea, Festband #3, Samson and Wallin, Stockholm) used acidified quinine sulfate to absorb UVB, apparently because, since quinine fluoresces when irradiated with UVR, he rightly assumed that it would absorb the short wavelengths. In 1891, Hammer (Uber den Enfluss des Lichtes auf die Haut, Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart) repeated Widmark's experiments and used quinine prepared in lotion or ointment as the first human sunscreen. Various plant extracts had been used at the turn of the century in folk medicine. One of the most effective was a chestnut extract from which aesculin was derived. Unna (Med. Klinik. 1911;7:454-456) developed several glycosides of aesculin,which were introduced as Zeozon and Ultrazeozon. In 1922, Eder and Freund (Wiener. Klin. Wchnschr. 35, 681-684) introduced 2-naphthol-6,8-disulfonic acid salts (Antilux) which were quite effective in both the UVB and UVA region. Over the next 40 years a number of different chemicals were introduced for sunscreen purposes: tannic acid (1925), benzyl salicylate (1931), para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives and 2-phenylimidazole derivatives (1942), anthranilic acid (1950), various cinnamates (1954), chloroquine (1962), benzophenones (1965) and many more since then. The list of chemical useful for sunscreen formulation is now extensive, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Community have published compendia of approved chemicals and inorganic filters.

  16. Structure and Functional Studies of DEN-2 Virus Genome.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    No. 3. RECIPIENT’S CAT ALO NUMBER 4. TI TL E (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Structure and Functional Studies on Dengue -2 Progress... Dengue virus glycoprotein antigen E. . Cloning of complementary DNA (eDNA) copy of Dengue viral RNA into E. coli HB101/pBR322 host/vector system and...characterization of a alone that containe-a 400 bp insert complementary to Dengue RNA will be described. 2. Construction of a cDNA library using Dengue

  17. Bergsteigen in den Alpen (Mountain Climbing in the Alps).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawrysz, Ilse; Budzinski, Elisabeth

    German second language instructional materials contain a short text in German on mountain climbing in the Alps, a vocabulary list with translation, a simple German climbing song, a recipe for goulash soup in English, and a short text in English on mountain climbing. (MSE)

  18. Chao Mung Den Dat My (Welcome to America).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The purpose of this booklet is to introduce Southeast Asian refugees to some American attitudes and social styles. The complete English text is repeated in Khmer (Cambodian language) and Vietnamese. Topics discussed include: America as a very young country; America as a mixture of different people; that urban life is complex, fast-paced, and…

  19. Reflections on My Time in the Wolfe Den

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    The three and a half years I spent as a member of the Infrared Group were transitional. Bill Wolfe was the nexus. Bill played a role in getting me to Arizona and keeping me there. He helped me advance professionally and taught me how to think like a systems engineer. He played a central role in my effort to earn a PhD. And, he helped start me in SPIE. This paper contains my personal and honest reflections on the impact which Bill Wolfe has had on me.

  20. Eine "typische" hydrogeologische Systembeschreibung für den Buntsandstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Paul J.; Leßmann, Bernd; Matzer, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    On the site of a former ammunition factory in Hessisch-Lichtenau/Hirschhagen in northern Hesse, a large number of boreholes and groundwater monitoring wells were installed as part of a remediation and containment plan. Hydraulic testing over a period of 20 years has significantly improved the understanding of the hydrogeological system. The alternating sandstone, siltstone and claystone formations of the Middle Buntsandstein at the site constitute a succession of aquifers, semi-pervious layers and aquicludes. The subsurface is fractured by step faults and is also permeated by tectonic faults and fissures. This results in a heterogeneous, anisotropic system in which water circulates primarily through permeable fault zones. The aquifer consists of three different zones that are connected through preferential pathways along fault lines. The Upper Zone (Hirschhagen) and the Intermediate Zone are perched aquifers that enable groundwater seepage to lower aquifers. In all three zones, preferential flow paths were observed along north-south striking fault lines.

  1. Englisch Klasse 7: 1. Bericht Uber die audio-linguale Konzeption, 2. The Nature of the Curriculum for the Eighties and Onwards (Grade 7 English: 1. A Report on the Audiolingual Concept).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenstein, Reinhold; Habel, Hans-Gunther

    This report consists of two papers devoted to the learning of English in the comprehensive high schools of Hessia, West Germany. The first paper discusses a study which suggests replacement of traditional methods by an audiolingual approach. A catalog of learning goals supplants outdated curriculums, thereby ensuring a stepwise progression of…

  2. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this…

  3. Lehrer in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Eine Kritische Analyse Statistischer Daten uber das Lehrpersonal an Allgemeinbildenden Schulen. (Education in the Federal Republic of Germany. A Statistical Study of Teachers in Schools of General Education.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Helmut

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the available statistics concerning teachers in schools of general education in the Federal Republic of Germany. An analysis of the demographic structure of the pool of full-time teachers showed that in 1971 30 percent of the teachers were under age 30, and 50 percent were under age 35. It was expected that…

  4. "Weil Man da Uber Seine Probleme Reden Kann . . ." Partielle Geschlechtertrennung aus der Sicht der Schulerinnen und Schuler ("Because There, You can Talk about Your Problems . . ." Partial Separation by Gender from the Perspective of Male and Female Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Claudia; Pfister, Gertrud; Robke, Cathrin

    1998-01-01

    Examines the results of interviews with elementary school children that gauged the attitudes towards and reasons for a partial separation by gender. Proposes an occassional separation of girls and boys for special pedogogical intervention. Discusses the findings. (CMK)

  5. Investigations on a Flaps-Like Disease of Cattle (’Benign Flaps,’ Stomatitis Papulosa Bovis Specifica) (Untersuchungen uber eine Maulseucheahnliche Erkrankung des Rindes (’Gutartige Maulseuche,’ Stomatitis Papulosa Bovis Specifica))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Stomatitis papulosa infections of cattle can be differentiated from so-called sporadic aphtha and from aphthous fever. Stomatitis papulosa can be...distinguished from both diseases by the absence of blisters and pustules. Moreover, it can also be differentiated from aphthous fever in that it involves only the oral cavity and not the skin and hooves.

  6. A Predictive Multiscale Model of Wear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-09

    theoretical tensile strength, and by fitting the calculated data to universal binding energy relationships ( UBERs ), which permit the extrapolation of the...calculated results to arbitrary length scales. The results demonstrate the ability of an UBER that accounts for fracture surface relaxation to yield a...materials subjected to shear up to the point at which slip occurs. The model we devised is analogous to the tensile-load UBER and leads to a size

  7. The Role of the Omental Microenvironment in Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Colonization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Archives 26: 36. 6. Recklinghausen F (1863) Uber Eiter und Bindegewebskorperchen. Virchow’s Archives 28: 40. 7. Hagiwara A, Takahashi T, Sawai K...cells. Br J Cancer 89(2):374–384 32. Recklinghausen FTv (1863) Uber Eiter und Bindegewebskor- perchen. Virchow’s Arch 28:157–197 33. Recklinghausen FTv

  8. Bounding the Edge Cover Time of Random Walks on Graphs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    34. The Annals of Probability, Vol 16, No. 1, pp. 189-199, 1988. [21] Niels Erik N6rlund. Vorlesungen Uber Diffcrcnzenrechnung. New York, Chelsea, 1954...16, No. 1, pp. 189-199, 1988. [21] Niels Erik N6rlund. Voriesungen Uber Differenzenrcchnung. New York, Chelsea, 1954. [22] Prasad Tetali. "Random

  9. Unboxing Space Rocks

    ScienceCinema

    Bruck Syal, Megan

    2016-07-12

    The box was inconspicuous, but Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) postdoctoral researcher Megan Bruck Syal immediately knew its contents: two meteorites around the size of walnuts. They formed about 4.6 billion years ago and survived a history of violent collisions in the asteroid belt before being bumped into a near-Earth-object orbit by gravitational interactions with the planets. After finally raining down on Earth, these rocks were scavenged in Antarctica by researchers, sorted and classified at NASA Johnson Space Center, then mailed first-class to Bruck Syal. Now that these space rocks are in Bruck Syal’s hands, they are mere months away from fulfilling their destiny. They are to be vaporized by a high-powered laser, and the data they yield on asteroid deflection could one day save the planet.

  10. Unboxing Space Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruck Syal, Megan

    2016-05-09

    The box was inconspicuous, but Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) postdoctoral researcher Megan Bruck Syal immediately knew its contents: two meteorites around the size of walnuts. They formed about 4.6 billion years ago and survived a history of violent collisions in the asteroid belt before being bumped into a near-Earth-object orbit by gravitational interactions with the planets. After finally raining down on Earth, these rocks were scavenged in Antarctica by researchers, sorted and classified at NASA Johnson Space Center, then mailed first-class to Bruck Syal. Now that these space rocks are in Bruck Syal’s hands, they are mere months away from fulfilling their destiny. They are to be vaporized by a high-powered laser, and the data they yield on asteroid deflection could one day save the planet.

  11. Physik gestern und heute Suprafluidität - Von den Schwierigkeiten einer Messung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichau, Christian

    2003-03-01

    Der Vater der Tieftemperaturphysik, Heike Kammerlingh Onnes, benötigte zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts für die Verflüssigung von wenigen Litern Heliums noch mehrere Jahre, eine riesige Apparatur und viel Geld. Heute gelingt dies routinemäßig. Die Untersuchung der Materie bei tiefen Temperaturen, insbesondere zur Suprafluidität, bietet viele Überraschungen.

  12. Effects of methoxyfenozide on Lobesia botrana Den & Schiff (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg, larval and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Cabezón Irigaray, Francisco-Javier; Marco, Vicente; Zalom, Frank G; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio

    2005-11-01

    The effect of the non-steroidal ecdysone agonist methoxyfenozide was evaluated against different developmental stages of the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Dennis & Schiffermuller (Lep, Tortricidae). Methoxyfenozide administered orally reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5 and 10 mg litre(-1); longevity was not affected. An LC(50) value of 4.5 mg litre(-1) was obtained when applied to eggs of less than 1 day old. Surface treatment was more effective than when applied by spraying. Administered into the diet, methoxyfenozide had a larvicidal effect; older larvae were more susceptible than younger larvae, with LC(50) values of 0.1 mg litre(-1) for L(1), 0.04 for L(3) and 0.02 for L(5). Larvae treated with sub-lethal doses throughout their lives did not emerge as adults at the highest doses (0.08, 0.04, 0.02 and 0.01 mg litre(-1)), with 65% and 40% emergence occurring for the lowest (0.005 and 0.0025 mg litre(-1)). Mortality occurred only in the larval stage.

  13. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed.

  14. Pyritoxidationsprozesse im cretazischen Emschermergel infolge von aeroben Bedingungen durch den Emscherumbau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Björn; Wisotzky, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Due to the restoration of the Emscher river system, large amounts of the Emschermergel, a Cretaceous sediment containing significant amounts of carbonate and pyrite, will be released from its anoxic state. The oxidation of pyrite results in the release of protons, iron and sulfate. In order to evaluate the impact of the reaction products, extensive laboratory investigations were carried out. The methodology can detect pyrite content in the range of magnitude of the Rhenish lignite mining area (average 0.21 wt.% Pyritic-S). The formation of a naturally-occurring weathering horizon could also be detected. Under laboratory conditions, further oxidation of the weathered laboratory samples could be observed. Column experiments show significant release of sulfate at high concentrations. Hydrochemical modelling and acid-base accounting show neutralization of the free protons by the effective carbonate buffer in the sediment.

  15. Identifizierung der Nitratabbauprozesse und Prognose des Nitratabbaupotenzials in den Sedimenten des Hessischen Rieds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kludt, Christoph; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Bergmann, Axel; Knöller, Kay; Berthold, Georg; Schüth, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Microbial denitrification contributes significantly to the mitigation of nitrate contamination in sedimentary aquifers by reducing nitrate coupled to the consumption of organic carbon (heterotrophic) and iron sulphides like pyrite (autotrophic). However, these phases are often only present in trace amounts and can become depleted, so that denitrification will eventually cease. In order to implement measures within the EC-Water Framework Directive, we investigated the denitrification potential and the denitrification processes in the sediments of the Hessian Ried. The reduction potential was quantified and characterized by solid-phase analyses of drill core samples. Depth-oriented investigations of hydrochemistry (i.e. stable isotopes, N2Excess) allowed determining nitrate input, reduction progress and average reduction kinetics upstream of selected wells. Despite low sulphide contents (max. 123 mg-S/kg), autotrophic denitrification was typically the dominant process. The results can be used to delineate risk areas, downstream of which denitrification can be expected to cease in the near future.

  16. Ein anisotropes homologes Modell für den Core-Kollaps in Sternhaufen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, P. D.

    1990-07-01

    The author describes a new method for computing the quasi-stationary evolution of spherical star clusters, which is based on moment equations of Boltzmann's equation. The deficiency of high velocity stars and the anisotropic velocity distribution, both of which are distinctive features of real stellar systems, are approximated by single parameters. The effects of gravitational encounters between individual stars are represented by collision terms in the moment equations which are considered up to fourth order in this treatment. Using heuristic algebraic relations between the flux velocities the moment equations are closed at fifth order. The model is applied to the phenomenon of core collapse in one-component star clusters. The ordinary differential equations for self-similar evolution are derived and the eigenvalue problem for pre-collapse is solved. In the isotropic version the author finds a power-law index and a core collapse rate which are in reasonable agreement with existing homological models. The anisotropic model is characterized by a somewhat steeper density profile, a considerably reduced value for the core collapse rate and moderate anisotropy in the outer parts of the halo. The effects of modifying the equations of this approximative model are discussed in detail and the discrepancies between Larson's calculations and other models including anisotropy are resolved.

  17. First trace and body fossil evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, David J; Martin, Anthony J; Katsura, Yoshihiro

    2007-06-07

    A fossil discovery in the mid-Cretaceous Blackleaf Formation of southwest Montana, USA, has yielded the first trace and body fossil evidence of burrowing behaviour in a dinosaur. Skeletal remains of an adult and two juveniles of Oryctodromeus cubicularis gen. et sp. nov. a new species of hypsilophodont-grade dinosaur, were found in the expanded distal chamber of a sediment-filled burrow. Correspondence between burrow and adult dimensions supports Oryctodromeus as the burrow maker. Additionally, Oryctodromeus exhibits features of the snout, shoulder girdle and pelvis consistent with digging habits while retaining cursorial hindlimb proportions. Association of adult and young within a terminal chamber provides definitive evidence of extensive parental care in the Dinosauria. As with modern vertebrate cursors that dig, burrowing in Oryctodromeus may have been an important adaptation for the rearing of young. Burrowing also represents a mechanism by which small dinosaurs may have exploited the extreme environments of polar latitudes, deserts and high mountain areas. The ability among dinosaurs to find or make shelter may contradict some scenarios of the Cretaceous-Paleogene impact event. Burrowing habits expand the known range of nonavian dinosaur behaviours and suggest that the cursorial ancestry of dinosaurs did not fully preclude the evolution of different functional regimes, such as fossoriality.

  18. Bemerkungen zu den Pronominaladverbien und zur Pronominalitaet (Notes on Pronominal Adverbs and Pronominalness)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbig, Gerhard

    1974-01-01

    Calls "pro-words" those which refer to a preceding substantive. They are (1) pronouns, (2) pronominal adverbs - "dadurch,""hiermit,""wofur," etc., and (3) pro-adverbs - "dort,""dann," etc. Both (2) and (3) stand for combinations of preposition plus preceding substantive; (3) does this only semantically, while (2) marks the relation overtly. (Text…

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Laboratory transition probabilities for Gd II (Den Hartog+, 2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2008-05-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to +/-5%, have been measured for 49 even-parity and 14 odd-parity levels of GdII using laser-induced fluorescence. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 611 lines of Gd II. This work is the largest-scale laboratory study to date of GdII transition probabilities and the first using a high-performance Fourier transform spectrometer. This improved data set has been used to determine a new solar photospheric Gd abundance, log{epsilon}=1.11+/-0.03. Revised Gd abundances have also been derived for the r-process-rich metal-poor giant stars CS 22892-052, BD +17 3248, and HD 115444. The resulting Gd/Eu abundance ratios are in very good agreement with the solar system r-process ratio. We have employed the increasingly accurate stellar abundance determinations, resulting in large part from the more precise laboratory atomic data, to predict directly the solar system r-process elemental abundances for Gd, Sm, Ho, and Nd. Our analysis of the stellar data suggests slightly higher recommended values for the r-process contribution and total solar system values, consistent with the photospheric determinations, for the elements for Gd, Sm, and Ho. (1 data file).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Atomic transition probabilities of Mn (Den Hartog+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, E. A.; Lawler, J. E.; Sobeck, J. S.; Sneden, C.; Cowan, J. J.

    2011-08-01

    The goal of the present work is to produce transition probabilities with very low uncertainties for a selected set of multiplets of MnI and MnII. Multiplets are chosen based upon their suitability for stellar abundance analysis. We report on new radiative lifetime measurements for 22 levels of MnI from the e8D, z6P, z6D, z4F, e8S, and e6S terms and six levels of MnII from the z5P and z7P terms using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atom/ion beam. New branching fractions for transitions from these levels, measured using a Fourier-transform spectrometer, are reported. (2 data files).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BH masses & host galaxy dispersion vel. (van den Bosch, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, R. C. E.

    2017-02-01

    According to the virial theorem, all gravitational systems in equilibrium sit on a plane in the three-dimensional parameter space defined by their mass, size, and second moment of the velocity tensor. While these quantities cannot be directly observed, there are suitable proxies: the luminosity Lk, half-light radius Re, and dispersion σe. These proxies indeed lie on a very tight fundamental plane (FP). How do the black holes (BHs) in the centers of galaxies relate to the FP? Their masses are known to exhibit no strong correlation with total galaxy mass, but they do correlate weakly with bulge mass (when present), and extremely well with the velocity dispersion through the M{bullet}∝σe5.4 relation. These facts together imply that a tight plane must also exist defined by BH mass, total galaxy mass, and size. Here, I show that this is indeed the case using a heterogeneous set of 230 BHs. The sample includes BHs from zero to 10 billion solar masses and host galaxies ranging from low surface brightness dwarfs, through bulgeless disks, to brightest cluster galaxies. The resulting BH-size-luminosity relation M{bullet}∝(Lk/Re)3.8 has the same amount of scatter as the M*-σ relation and is aligned with the galaxy FP, such that it is just a reprojection of σe. The inferred BH-size-mass relation is M{bullet}∝(M*/Re)2.9. These relationships are universal and extend to galaxies without bulges. This implies that the BH is primarily correlated with its global velocity dispersion and not with the properties of the bulge. I show that the classical bulge-mass relation is a projection of the M*-σ relation. When the velocity dispersion cannot be measured (at high z or low dispersions), the BH-size-mass relation should be used as a proxy for BH mass in favor of just galaxy or bulge mass. (4 data files).

  2. In the lion's den? Experiences of interaction with research ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Quilligan, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Research ethics review is an important process, designed to protect participants in medical research. However, it is increasingly criticised for failing to meet its aims. Here, two researchers reflect on their experiences of applying for ethical approval of observational research in clinical settings. They highlight some problems faced by reviewers and researchers and propose a two-stage ethical review process that would alert researchers to the committee's concerns and allow them to give a more considered response. PMID:22048853

  3. Teriparatide anabolic therapy as potential treatment of type II dens non-union fractures

    PubMed Central

    Pola, Enrico; Pambianco, Virginia; Colangelo, Debora; Formica, Virginia M; Autore, Giovanni; Nasto, Luigi A

    2017-01-01

    Odontoid fractures account for 5% to 15% of all cervical spine injuries and 1% to 2% of all spine fractures. Type II fractures are the most common fracture pattern in elderly patients. Treatment (rigid and non-rigid immobilization, anterior screw fixation of the odontoid and posterior C1-C2 fusion) remains controversial and represents a unique challenge for the treating surgeon. The aims of treatment in the elderly is to quickly restore pre-injury function while decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with inactivity, immobilization with rigid collar and prolonged hospitalization. Conservative treatment of type II odontoid fractures is associated with relatively high rates of non-union and in a few cases delayed instability. Options for treatment of symptomatic non-unions include surgical fixation or prolonged rigid immobilization. In this report we present the case of a 73-year-old woman with post-traumatic odontoid non-union successfully treated with Teriparatide systemic anabolic therapy. Complete fusion and resolution of the symptoms was achieved 12 wk after the onset of the treatment. Several animal and clinical studies have confirmed the potential role of Teriparatide in enhancing fracture healing. Our case suggests that Teriparatide may have a role in improving fusion rates of C2 fractures in elderly patients. PMID:28144584

  4. Effiziente Verfahren zur Parallelisierung von EMV-Simulationen für den Entwurfsprozess integrierter Schaltungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barke, M.; Preisner, T.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird mit einer parallelisierten Version des PCG-Verfahrens (preconditioned conjugate gradient method) eine effiziente Technik zur numerischen Lösung großer Gleichungssysteme vorgestellt. Der Anwendungsbereich ist dabei die Simulation numerischer Feldberechnungen (beispielsweise durch die Finite-Elemente-Methode). Es wird ferner auf eine Datenstruktur eingegangen, die für die spezielle Struktur der auftretenden Koeffizientenmatrizen geeignet ist.

  5. Children's Special Places: Exploring the Role of Forts, Dens, and Bush Houses in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David

    This book describes a study of childhood experiences with creating personal space in the outdoors, the role these spaces play in children's evolving sense of self, and implications of place-making for education. Chapter 1 describes the author's personal interests that led to the study, the study population, and the way in which each study site was…

  6. Untersuchungen zum hydraulischen Grundbruch in Baugruben in homogenen Böden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltuk, Serdar; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Azzam, Rafig

    2016-09-01

    In this study, two problems are discussed with respect to hydraulic heave. Firstly, the verification of safety against hydraulic heave according to DIN EN 1997-1 (2014-03) yields different results depending on the considered limit state conditions. It is demonstrated that this problem can be solved by using hydraulic gradients as a parameter for the limit state condition. Secondly, the form of a potential failure body appearing in three-dimensional groundwater models is unknown. Based on numerical analyses, it has been shown that an average hydraulic gradient that is determined by using an assumed three-dimensional failure body with the width suggested by Terzaghi for two-dimensional cases leads to a quicksand condition in an infinitesimal soil column directly adjacent to the wall, when its value is equal to the critical hydraulic gradient of the soil. The model tests show that Terzaghi's method or quicksand condition refers to certain deformations in an excavation base. The hydraulic gradient required for the first sign of a quicksand condition in loose sands may be lower than the theoretically required hydraulic gradient, whereas it is higher in dense sands.

  7. Rear-Guard Actions against an "Impoverishing Delusion": Anmerkungen zur Situation der Auslandsgermanistik in den Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This contribution responds to the previous three articles by highlighting common concerns across the Americas. It also offers suggestions for how the field of German might want to move forward in an inclusive fashion. Key principles of orientation are EU language policy and transcultural education as a transformative experience in shaping…

  8. First trace and body fossil evidence of a burrowing, denning dinosaur

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J; Martin, Anthony J; Katsura, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    A fossil discovery in the mid-Cretaceous Blackleaf Formation of southwest Montana, USA, has yielded the first trace and body fossil evidence of burrowing behaviour in a dinosaur. Skeletal remains of an adult and two juveniles of Oryctodromeus cubicularis gen. et sp. nov., a new species of hypsilophodont-grade dinosaur, were found in the expanded distal chamber of a sediment-filled burrow. Correspondence between burrow and adult dimensions supports Oryctodromeus as the burrow maker. Additionally, Oryctodromeus exhibits features of the snout, shoulder girdle and pelvis consistent with digging habits while retaining cursorial hindlimb proportions. Association of adult and young within a terminal chamber provides definitive evidence of extensive parental care in the Dinosauria. As with modern vertebrate cursors that dig, burrowing in Oryctodromeus may have been an important adaptation for the rearing of young. Burrowing also represents a mechanism by which small dinosaurs may have exploited the extreme environments of polar latitudes, deserts and high mountain areas. The ability among dinosaurs to find or make shelter may contradict some scenarios of the Cretaceous–Paleogene impact event. Burrowing habits expand the known range of nonavian dinosaur behaviours and suggest that the cursorial ancestry of dinosaurs did not fully preclude the evolution of different functional regimes, such as fossoriality. PMID:17374596

  9. Von den Flitterwochen zur distanzierten Partnerschaft - Deutsche Manager in internationalen M&A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Martina; Schalljo, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) require considerable intercultural openness on the part of the managers involved. A recent wave of takeovers by private equity investors and foreign investors from emerging economies has challenged German executives. In cases of friendly takeovers, as described in this study, managers at first appear to extend a cosmopolitan welcome to the new owners. However, further analysis of structural hermeneutics reveals latent normative professional ethics of managers which lead to practices of distancing, in particular from young investors from China, India, and Russia.

  10. Investigations of Tissue-Level Mechanisms of Primary Blast Injury Through Modeling, Simulation, Neuroimaging and Neuropathological Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-10

    Selected biomechanical issues of brain injury caused by blasts. Brain Injury Professional 2007;4(1):10-15. [17] Wang Z, Liu Y, Lei D, Bai Z, Zhou S. A new...1985;25(3):232-244. [44] Bruck HA, McNeill SR, Sutton MA, Peters WH. Digital image correlation using Newton -Raphson method of partial differential

  11. Influence of temperature-dependent material properties on heat transfer in the turbulent flow over a flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehle, F.; Brandt, F.

    The influence of temperature dependence of material properties on heat transfer in a turbulent plate boundary layer is investigated using differential equations for the velocity and temperature fields of even, steady, and compressible boundary layer flows. The results are compared with the well-known material property correction factors of Zhukauskas (1966), Sieder and Tate (1936), and Hufschmidt and Bruck (1968).

  12. Microstructural Influence on Dynamic Properties of Age Hardenable FeMnAl Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    dependent on the separation distance between the two crystal slabs and modeled using the universal binding energy relation ( UBER ) 28, 29: GC (x... UBER fit results for pure Fe3AlC gave a cleavage energy of GC=5.04 J/m2 and an ideal stress ζ max=40 GPa with the maximum stress and separation...distance λ at 163 0.46 Å, which corresponds to an ideal strain of 12.3%. The UBER fit results for a phosphorus doped Fe3AlC supercell showed that the

  13. Ernst F. F. Chladni (1756-1827) and the beginnings of meteoritics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1994-07-01

    Two hundred years ago, in April 1794, Chladni published his small book Uber den Ursprung ... on meteorites and their origins. This bicentennial year seems an appropriate time to examine how Chladni's contemporaries received his book. Would meteoritics have emerged about the turn of the nineteenth century without Chladni's book? Evidence suggests that Chladni's book by itself would have wielded little influence had not several witnessed falls occurred and epoch-making chemical analyses been performed within the next 10 years. Perhaps Chladni narrowly escaped the fate of those scientists who formulate correct hypotheses prematurely. Chladni was the first person to seriously investigate reports of fireballs and masses of stone and iron falling from the sky. He found descriptions to be so consistent from century to century and place to place that he concluded that falling bodies are authentic natural phenomena. After refuting other modes of origin, Chladni proposed that the bodies are small masses of planetary materials from outer space, that produce meteors and fireballs as they plunge through the atmosphere. The Aristotelian dictum that only ether exists between the large bodies of the universe was reaffirmed by Isaac Newton in 1685. Chladnia protested, but his rhetoric and reputation were no match for Newton's. Given the succession of witnessed falls and the chemical work that took place in three countries, meteoritics clearly would have begun flourishing as a new science even if Chladni had not written his book. Nevertheless, as events compelled radical changes of ideas, Chaldni's historical and theoretical treatment of meteorites must have gained the increasing respect of his peers. Today we can admire the clarity of his insights.

  14. Der Aufbau mentaler Modelle durch bildliche Darstellungen: Eine experimentalle Studie uber die Bedeutung der Merkmalsdimensionen Elaboriertheit und Strukturierheit im Sachunterricht der Grundschule (The Development of Mental Processes through Graphic Representation with Diverging Degrees of Elaboration and Structurization: An Experimental Study Carried Out in Elementary Science Instruction in Primary School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martschinke, Sabine

    1996-01-01

    Examines types of graphical representation as to their suitability for knowledge acquisition in primary grades. Uses the concept of mental models to clarify the relationship between external presentation and internal representation of knowledge. Finds that students who learned with highly elaborated and highly structured pictures displayed the…

  15. Willkommen, Mr. Chance: Methodologische Betrachtungen zur Gute empirischer Forschung in der Padagogik, diskutiert vor allem an der neueren Untersuchung uber Gewalt von Heitmeyer u.a. (1995) = Welcome, Mr. Chance: Methodological Considerations Concerning the Quality of Empirical Research in Educational Science Based on a Recent Study on Violence Published by Heitmeyer et al. (1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellenreuther, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the usefulness of strictly quantitative research is still questioned in educational studies, primarily due to deficiencies in methodological training. Uses a critique of a recent study by Heitmeyer et al. (1995) to illustrate the requirements of "good" empirical research. Considers the problems of hypothesis testing in field research.…

  16. Schule in der Transformation--Transformation der Schule? Was man aus Gesprachen mit ehemaligen Schulern uber die Schule "zwischen zwei Diktaturen" erfahren kann (Schools in Transitions--Transformation of the School? What Can Be Learnt from Former Students Who Experienced Schooling under Two Dictatorial Regimes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluchert, Gerhard; Leschinsky, Achim

    1998-01-01

    Addresses interviews that focused on former students' educations under two dictatorial regimes. All the interviewees took their school-leaving examinations between 1951 and 1954. Explains that the interviews are evaluated according to the preconditions, limits, and mechanisms of the school's influence on children and adolescents. (CMK)

  17. Vietnam and the Soviet Union: Implications for Europe and American Foreign Policy Options.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia . Zl Pakistani report that 30,000 Soviet families have settled in Afghanistan’s northern provinces...34 Far Eastern Economic Review, 4 April 1980, pp. 22-24. Chanda, Nayan. "Vietnam uber alles." Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 June 1980, pp. 28-29...34Vietnam uber alles." Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 June 1980, pp. 28-29. Chanda, Nayan. "The Bigger Borther." Far Eastern Economic Review, 5 June

  18. Wartime Test and Evaluation; Initiatives Lead to Cultural Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision; Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona; and White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico , and each specializes in...MRTFBs, led to the “ Uber Lean” process of evaluating each test center’s mission, functions and core competencies. That analysis identified each test...facilities that could be eliminated. The outcome led to the development of investment strategies from a holistic DTC perspective. The DTC “ Uber Lean

  19. Surface Currents. Central Indian Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    ATLASES ADD TO THE WEALTH OF NAUTICAL INFORMATION UPON WHICH OPERA- TIONAL PLANNING, NAVIGATIONAL SAFETY, AND SHIPPING ECONOMY DEPEND. RAPID PRODUCTION...on land) have been eliminated. , i The accepted data are considered most useful when used collectively as In summaries s where a uber of observations...opposite rvatbons. lhere pair. This generally Indicates variability uber of observa- that occurs In zones of entraisent between opposing carrents (see

  20. Workshop on Coherent Structure of Turbulent Boundary Layers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    the point of having direct impact on our field; namely, the large scale digital computer and the method of multi-scale, rational analysis (i.e., the...1895, pp. 123-164. 4. Prandtl, L.: Uber die ausgebildete Turbulenz. ZAMM, Vol. 5, 1925, p. 136. 5. Nikuradse, J.: Untersuchungen Uber die...drag on long- haul aircraft, any reduction in this drag is of great import- ance in improving fuel economy and aircraft range as well as increasing

  1. Gestaltung und Verwendung von Unterrichtsmittelkomplexen fuer den Russischunterricht (The Designing and Application of Instructional Units for the Teaching of Russian)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    Presents bases from school policy and general characteristics of teaching-material units, the main features and elements of each of said units, and the pedagogic-methodological functions of the various parts. Presentation is based on, as an example, the teaching unit "In the department store" (Grade 9). (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Versuch einer Ubungstypologie fur den fachbezogenen Fremdsprachenunterricht (A Trial Typology of Exercises for Career-Oriented Foreign Language Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Norbert

    1973-01-01

    Examples of exercises derived from the text Fachdeutsch fur spanischsprachige Naturwissenschaftler: Mathematiker, Physiker, Chemiker'' (Technical German for Spanish-Speaking Scientists: Mathematicians, Physicists, Chemists) soon to be published by the Max Hueber Verlag, Munich, West Germany. (RS)

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FeI radiative lifetime and branching fractions (Den Hartog+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Ruffoni, M. P.; Lawler, J. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Lind, K.; Brewer, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    From our recent work for the APOGEE and Gaia-ESO surveys (Ruffoni et al. 2013ApJ...779...17R; 2014, J/MNRAS/441/3127), we have assembled a catalog of high-resolution, intensity calibrated FeI line spectra, measured in emission by Fourier transform (FT) spectroscopy in overlapping regions from 1800/cm to 35500/cm. From this catalog, we have used the two spectra shown in Table 2 to measure branching fractions (BFs) for lines linked to many of the levels listed in Table 1. (2 data files).

  4. Thirty years of marine ecotoxicological studies at the TNO Laboratory for Applied Marine Research, Den Helder (The Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholten, M. C. Th.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reviews the development of marine field ecotoxicology at the TNO Laboratory for Applied Marine Research. The scope of research, including biological monitoring with mussels, mesocosm studies and ecological risk analysis, is described. Some highlights from an historical point of view are given, with as yet unpublished data presented as examples.

  5. Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: Juni 1971 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. June 1971 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

    This listing, updating the 1969 publication, cites commerically available language instruction programs having audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids are available only as components of total programs noted in this work. Organization is by language and commerical source. Indications for classroom applications and prices (in German…

  6. Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht. Stand: August 1969 (Audiovisual Materials for Modern Foreign Language Instruction. August 1969 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter, Comp.

    This listing cites commercially available programs for foreign language instruction which have audiovisual components. Supplementary audiovisual aids without accompanying basic text materials are not included. Organization is by language and commercial source. Indications for classroom application and prices (in German currency) are provided. The…

  7. Fishers' knowledge as a source of information about the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis, van Bénéden, 1864).

    PubMed

    Manzan, Maíra Fontes; Lopes, Priscila F M

    2015-01-01

    Fishers' local ecological knowledge (LEK) is an additional tool to obtain information about cetaceans, regarding their local particularities, fishing interactions, and behavior. However, this knowledge could vary in depth of detail according to the level of interaction that fishers have with a specific species. This study investigated differences in small-scale fishers' LEK regarding the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) in three Brazilian northeast coastal communities where fishing is practiced in estuarine lagoons and/or coastal waters and where dolphin-watching tourism varies from incipient to important. The fishers (N = 116) were asked about general characteristics of S. guianensis and their interactions with this dolphin during fishing activities. Compared to lagoon fishers, coastal fishers showed greater knowledge about the species but had more negative interactions with the dolphin during fishing activities. Coastal fishing not only offered the opportunity for fishers to observe a wider variety of the dolphin's behavior, but also implied direct contact with the dolphins, as they are bycaught in coastal gillnets. Besides complementing information that could be used for the management of cetaceans, this study shows that the type of environment most used by fishers also affects the accuracy of the information they provide. When designing studies to gather information on species and/or populations with the support of fishers, special consideration should be given to local particularities such as gear and habitats used within the fishing community.

  8. In the footsteps of astronomers in Bremen and Lilienthal. (German Title: Auf den Spuren von Astronomen in Bremen und Lilienthal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langkavel, Arno

    When Bremen and Lilienthal are mentioned, people interested in the history of astronomy will first of all remember Wilhelm Olbers (1785-1840) and Johann Hieronymus Schroeter (1745-1816). In addition to them, Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846) and Carl Friedrich Gauß (1777-1855) have also left their traces. Two walks describe the main memorial sites, which are all outdoors and easily accessible to the general public.

  9. Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  10. Investitionen aus den BRIC-Staaten - Grund zur Sorge für Unternehmen, Beschäftigte und Kommunen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Martin; Henn, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Investments from BRIC countries - Brazil, Russia, India and China - are playing an increasingly important role in Germany. However, both the public and the potentially affected labour force often adopt sceptical, and sometimes even hostile attitudes towards investors from these countries. This article shows that apart from a few exceptions investors from the BRIC countries are generally better than their reputation precedes. An important conclusion drawn in this paper is that investors should not be received with stereotypes. Rather, it is necessary to perform deeper investigations into their strategies and the specific investment goals in each case. This is all the more necessary to ensure that investments from BRIC countries do not conflict with the domestic firms' interests or of their personnel. In fact, they can assist to increase the competitiveness of German firms, and as such not only prove beneficial for the workforce but also for Germany as a business destination.

  11. Seismic Interface Waves in Coastal Waters: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-15

    water. In 1976 McLeroy and his co-workers [1861 again performed a very extensive real-world experiment in the Gulf of Mexico . Using a receiving array of...York, Academic Press, 1967. 4. SOMMERFELD, A. Uber die Ausbreitung der Wellen in der drahtlosen Telegraphie. Annalen der Physik, 28, 1909. 665-736. 5...Rayleigh waves on the confines of two solid elastic media. Doklady Akademii Nauk, SSSR, 33, 1947: 15-17. 30. KOPPE, H. Uber Rayleigh-Wellen an der

  12. Traction curves for the decohesion of covalent crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrique, Raúl A.; Van der Ven, Anton

    2017-01-01

    We study, by first principles, the energy versus separation curves for the cleavage of a family of covalent crystals with the diamond and zincblende structure. We find that there is universality in the curves for different materials which is chemistry independent but specific to the geometry of the particular cleavage plane. Since these curves do not strictly follow the universal binding energy relationship (UBER), we present a derivation of an extension to this relationship that includes non-linear force terms. This extended form of UBER allows for a flexible and practical mathematical description of decohesion curves that can be applied to the quantification of cohesive zone models.

  13. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Martha Eloy Bandeira; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Neto, Eraldo Medeiros Costa

    2012-05-14

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen's reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40'59"S and 38°56'38"W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary --the region's main river--at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species.

  14. Grüne Infrastruktur in den Städten Nordrhein-Westfalens. Bedeutung als Standortfaktor und Einfluss auf das Standortmarketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, Ina

    2016-06-01

    Hardly any other city in North Rhine-Westphalia has such a green image as the city of Münster. It embodies the image of a livable city in Germany. Other North Rhine-Westphalian cities also work on their external perception and are approaching the task of getting a greener image for themselves in many ways. A central question is how it is done precisely and whether urban green infrastructure can be a locational factor to affect location-based marketing. This article deals with the strategies of various cities in North Rhine-Westphalia.

  15. Group size and composition of Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) (Van Bénèden, 1864) in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of Guiana dolphins (S. guianensis) group size and composition in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (25 degrees 15'-25 degrees 36' S and 48 degrees 02'-48 degrees 45' W), Paraná State, as well as to verify the existence of relationships between a given environmental variable (water depth, salinity, transparency and temperature) and group size. An area of around 124 km(2) was surveyed by boat from April 2006 to February 2008 in the following subsets of the estuary: Canal do Superagui (approximately 28 km(2)), Pinheiros bay (approximately 34 km(2)), part of Laranjeiras bay, which included the Guaraqueçaba sub-estuary (approximately 38 km(2)), and part of the Mixture Section of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (approximately 24 km(2)). In 45 survey days, a total of 147 hours were spent observing 286 groups of S. guianensis. Groups varied from two individuals to aggregations of up to 90 individuals (mean +/- SD: 11.5 +/- 14.4 individuals). Solitary individuals were seen only on five occasions (1.7% of all observations). Groups with calves (n = 247) represented 86.4% overall and were more common in all sub-areas when compared to groups without calves. Groups without calves were found in all sub-areas and were usually smaller and composed of up to 12 individuals. A usual group composition of 70% of adults and 30% of calves was observed considering all sub-areas and seasons. No correlations were found between group size and water temperature (Spearman's rank test, r = 0.0059, p = 0.9338), transparency (Spearman's rank test, r = 0.0597, p = 0.9333), depth (Spearman's rank test, r = 0.1421, p = 0.4698), and salinity (Spearman's rank test, r = -0.1938, p = 0.0665). While Guiana dolphin groups were seen in the entire surveyed area, group size varied significantly among the three main surveyed sub-areas (Kruskal Wallis, H2,196 = 29.85, p = 0.0000). Groups were larger in Laranjeiras bay and smaller in Canal do Superagui. The physical environment, risk of predation, seasonal distribution and abundance of prey are the main possible factors driving larger groups in inner and protected waters.

  16. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p < 0.05), while in the PEC no differences were reported when comparing seabird species (chi2 = 5.78; d.f.=3, p = 0.1223). In the CE, feeding associations were significantly more frequent in inner waters (subset A0; chi2 = 9.52; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05), and in winter (chi2 = 12.46; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05). Within these events, 44.7% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), with same patterns observed in the CE. Interactions were more frequent in inner waters of the Laranjeiras bay, PEC (chi2 = 11.65; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05). Within these events, 74.2% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird abundance and distribution, cetacean group size, and the life cycle of prey and seabirds are listed as the main factors addressing multi-species feeding associations in the Lagamar estuary.

  17. Drei Wochen bei den Internationalen Sommerkursen in Erfurt, 22. Juli-11. August 1968 (Three Weeks at the International Summer Courses in Erfurt).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This paper discusses life in East Germany as observed by the author during a three-week program of summer courses in Erfurt. Background information includes a description of Erfurt, a brief review of its history, and analysis of the daily life of East Germans--their attitudes towards the state, physical appearance, salary structure, and…

  18. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specifi...

  19. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis van Bénéden, 1864).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Mari, Renata de Britto; Marigo, Juliana; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the tongue during feeding, and the limited information on the tongue of most aquatic mammals led us to investigate its morphological aspects in sexually immature and mature Sotalia guianensis. Six tongues were measured and photo-documented after their removal from the oral cavity. The samples were divided into rostral, middle, and caudal regions, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). Sotalia guianensis tongue presented lateral grooves from the apex to the middle portion, while the anterolateral region presented marginal papillae. Histological characteristics revealed the presence of a keratinized stratified epithelium, salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue, and filiform papillae in the caudal region. S.E.M. images revealed the presence of filiform papillae and ducts of salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue. We can conclude that the characteristics found in this study may reflect an adaptation to changes in diet after weaning.

  20. Audiovisuelle Materialien fur den modernen Fremdsprachenunterricht: Englisch, Franzosisch. Stand: Mai 1974 (Audiovisual Materials for Foreign Language Instruction: English, French May 1974 Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Informationszentrum fuer Fremdsprachenforschung, Marburg (West Germany).

    This catalogue cites language instruction programs available in West Germany that have audiovisual components. The first part gives programs for English and the second for French. Each part is organized alphabetically according to the commercial sources whose addresses are given in the appendix. Each entry includes: (1) full bibliographic…

  1. Materialien und Modelle fuer den Franzoesischunterricht in der Sekundarstufe Zwei (Materials and Models for Teaching French in Grades 11-13)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frei, Alfons

    1978-01-01

    Texts available for French courses in the highest grades are listed according to topics, which include: position of women, today's youth, the language of advertising, French colonialism, holidays and tourism, modern city living, criminality, French politics. Hints for the teacher are included. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Sozialindex und gewichtenregeling . Berücksichtigung von sozialräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen bei der Mittelvergabe an Schulen am Beispiel Nordrhein-Westfalens und den Niederlanden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpoorten, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    In Germany and the Netherlands spatial information about the social structure of the inhabitants is used for the coordination of financial and human resources in the local school-system. The aim is to reduce educational inequalities by taking the social context of the schools into account. The article explains two approaches. In North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) a so called Sozialindex is used to distribute additional teachers to municipalities with difficult social surroundings. The Dutch government uses an instrument to give each pupil a weight (gewichtenregeling) depending on the specific educational background. Combined with an evaluation of the school location an additional budget, if necessary, will be payed.

  3. Taxonomic examination of longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, "dragon bone") and a related crude drug, longchi (Dens Draconis, "dragon tooth"), from Japanese and Chinese crude drug markets.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuki; Nishioka, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2017-02-20

    Longgu ("dragon bone," Ryu-kotsu, Fossilia Ossis Mastodi, or Os Draconis) is the only fossil crude drug listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia. All longgu in the current Japanese market is imported from China, where its resources are being depleted. Therefore, effective countermeasures are urgently needed to prevent resource depletion. One possible solution is the development of a substitute made from bones of contemporary animals that are closely related to the original animal source of the current longgu. However, no research has been conducted on the original animal source of longgu, except for a report on the longgu specimens present in the Shosoin Repository. Taxonomic examination was performed on the fossil specimens related to longgu which are owned by the Museum of Osaka University, Japan. In total, 20,939 fossil fragments were examined, of which 20,886 were mammalian fossils, and 246 of these fossils were classified into nine families. The longgu specimens from the Japanese market belonged to a relatively smaller variety of taxa than those from the Chinese market. Despite the variety of taxa in longgu, medical doctors using Kampo preparations with longgu have not reported any problems due to the presence of impurities in the original animal source. These results suggest that the effect of longgu is independent of its origin as long as it is closely related to the origin of the current longgu. Thus, despite the considerable effects of fossilization, our results could help in developing an optimal substitute for longgu.

  4. Berufliche Bildung in den USA - Von der Werkbank zur Schulbank (Vocational Education in the United States - from the Work Bench to the School Desk).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreysing, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Presents an account of the history of U.S. vocational education. Emphasizes the tension between the two fundamental concepts underlying vocational education: the pedagogical and sociopolitical perspective and the economic interests. Reflects the conflict in the debate on the form of vocational education: work based or school based. (CAJ)

  5. Grüne Infrastruktur -. Konzepte und Strategien zur Förderung eines Bewusstseins für den Wert von Stadtgrün

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Due to climate change, but also because of the demographic change and financial constraints in many municipalities, the future of cities is a currently much-discussed topic. Conflicts over land-use are inevitable: As densification is an essential principle in growing cities, the pressure on open (green) spaces rises. Climate Change and water-management as well as mobility-issues and air-quality confront municipalities with new challenges, in terms of open space planning and greenery in the city. It is necessary to save the existing green in these days of budget-shortage and other priorities in communities. Municipalities have to raise new strategies to strengthen the awareness of the value of green in public and in the local business.

  6. Behaviour of Sotalia guianensis (van Bénéden, 1864) (Cetacea, Delphinidae) and ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from Canavieiras, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal fishermen, because of their direct and frequent contact with the aquatic environment, possess a wealth of knowledge about the natural history of the fauna of the region in which they live. This knowledge, both practical and theoretical, has been frequently utilized and integrated into academic research. Taking this into consideration, this study discusses the ethnoecological knowledge of artisanal fishermen from a community in Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil regarding the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a typically costal member of the family Delphinidae that is little studied in this region. To this end, the behaviour of S. guianensis in Canavieiras was recorded over one year and the data obtained were compared with fishermen’s reports. A total of 609 hours of behavioural observations of S. guianensis was conducted from a fixed point in alternate morning and afternoon sessions between October 2009 and September 2010. Observations were conducted from a pier (15°40’59”S and 38°56’38”W) situated on the banks of the Pardo River estuary - the region’s main river - at 5.5 m above water level. For ethnoecological data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 26 fishermen in May, June and September 2010 and January 2011 in the fishing community of Atalaia. Occasional boat expeditions were made with the fishermen to compare their reports with direct observations of the behaviour of S. guianensis. The results demonstrate that fishermen possess a body of knowledge about S. guianensis that describes in detail the main behavioural aspects of the species. They reported the presence of S. guianensis in the Pardo River estuary throughout the year and its gregarious behaviour. They cited a relationship between the movement of dolphins and tidal cycles, and their presence in the estuary associated with the search for food. In addition, the fishermen reported that numbers of infants in groups were proportional to group size. Behaviours described were compatible with the observations made in situ and with data found in the scientific literature, confirming the importance of traditional knowledge in complementing scientific data. One behaviour mentioned by the fishermen that had no equivalence in the scientific literature was confirmed in situ and, therefore, constitutes the first record for this species. PMID:22584063

  7. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson=Nitel Veri Toplama ve Yorumlama: Türkiye' den bir Sosyal Bilgiler Dersi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grammes, Tilman; Açikalin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of "embryonic society" in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of "mirror" of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires in-depth…

  8. American Security and the International Energy Situation. Volume 2. World Energy and the Security of Supply

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-15

    countries: Arab countries like Lebanon, Jordan, Egypt, and Tunisia; Islamic countries which Import Saudi crude such as Pakistan, Turkey, and Malaysia ...global energy crisis Is but a manifestation of the precariousness of the structure of global Interdependence. The Uberal promise that trade will

  9. Aspects on the Development of the New Computer Technology in Indonesia as a Developing Country.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    LIST OF TABLES 1. The rstimate labour Forces. .............. ’ uber of Questionnaires Sent out £ Pesponses Received... Malaysia in which si liiLar spe11ing of both the Malaysian "Bahasa Persatuan" and the Irdcnesian "Pahasa Indonesia" have been agreed upon. 3. Economic

  10. A Thermal Stability Test for Primary Explosive Stab Sensitizers: Study of the Thermal and Hydrolytic Stability of 2-Picryl-5-Nitrotetrazole,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    CRC Press, Ohio, 56th edition, p. E-46. 13. Krien, G. (1976). " Uber die Thermische Zersetzung von Tatrazen" in Proc. 4th. Symp. on Chem. Prob. Conn...Standardisation Representative (4 copies) Director, Defence Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Exchange Section, British Library, UK Periodicals

  11. Five Stances That Have Got to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Earle F.

    1973-01-01

    The five stances in physical education that have to go are as follows: a) the shotgun approach'' to professional preparation; b) the athletics uber alles approach''; c) the women are all right in their place approach''; d) the body of knowledge approach'' and the password is treadmill' approach.''

  12. Revisiting Regression in Autism: Heller's "Dementia Infantilis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, Alexander; Schelinski, Stefanie; Volkmar, Fred; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Theodor Heller first described a severe regression of adaptive function in normally developing children, something he termed dementia infantilis, over one 100 years ago. Dementia infantilis is most closely related to the modern diagnosis, childhood disintegrative disorder. We translate Heller's paper, Uber Dementia Infantilis, and discuss…

  13. German Views of American Education, with Particular Reference to Industrial Development. Bulletin, 1906, No. 2. Whole Number 361

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailmann, William N.

    1907-01-01

    The history and purpose of the Reiseberichte uber Nordamerika (Reports of an inspection tour in North America), of which this bulletin presents a partial synopsis, will best appear in the following statements from the preface of the Reiseberichte. The Prussian House of Deputies, on the 4th of June, 1902, requested the Prussian Government to…

  14. Evolution of Languages for Specific Purposes Programs in the United States: 1990-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mary K.; Uscinski, Izabela

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a national survey of LSP offerings in U.S. higher education conducted during 2011. The survey updates one carried out by Christine Uber-Grosse and Geoffrey M. Voght in 1990. The data provide: (a) a profile of institutions that offer LSP; (b) an overview of the number, type, level, and enrollment in LSP courses;…

  15. Small Changes Won't Assure Sustainability--but Reimagining Might

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdaway, Xarissa

    2008-01-01

    Almost every day, the author learns about new green buildings from press releases. One example is that of Arizona State University's new Biodesign Institute, a soaring, "uber"-chic, high-performance, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design-certified center. However, the author maintains that such buildings are undoubtedly a step up…

  16. Oscillations in the Visual Response to Pulsed Stimuli,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    B). 105:60-92. MacLeod, D. I. A. 1972. Rods cancel cones in flicker. Nature. 235: 173-174. Motokawa, K. and Mita, T. 1942. Uber eine einfachere... Mexico 88002 (1) Commander Chief 10th Medical Laboratory Benet Weapons Laboratory ATTN: DEHE (Audiologist) LCWSL, USA ARRADCOM APO New York 09180 (1

  17. Radon Optical Processing in Radon Space.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-15

    yields one line through the three-dimensional Fourier transform 1. Radon, J., " Uber die Bestimmung von Funktiontn of the three-dimensional function (3...Alamos, New Mexico , April 11-15. 1983.a 6. W. G. Wee, "Application of projection techniques to image image. Figure 1(a) has approximately 8.0 bits/pixel

  18. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 17, Number 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Orthotropic Shells," NACA Tech. Note No. ASME, JZ, pp 1031-1036 (1970). 1833 (Mar 1949). 18. Seide, P., Small Elastic Deformations 7. Hencky, A., " Uber die...Arroyo National Physical Lab., New Delhi-110012, New Mexico State Univ. India "Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics," Trans. Inst. Mech. E., A (1), pp 53

  19. Interdisciplinary Breast Cancer Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine "Protection of Genomic Integrity by a BRCA2...1817-1823. a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J. It. Slrit. (37) H- uber , W.; von Heydebreck, A.; Suitmaon, H-.; Poustka, A.; Sac

  20. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly. Volume 28. Number 3,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    EQUIPMENT Michael Q. Anderson 4 Robert 0. Anderson Schools of Management University of New Mexico Albuquerque, New Mexico ABSTRACT This paper examines various...F., " Uber eine Klasse von Inspektionsmodellen der Zuveriissigkeitstheorie," Mathematische Operationsforschung unde Statistik, 5, 281-298 (1974). [61

  1. Approximations of Two-Attribute Utility Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Introduction to Approximation Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966. Faber, G., Uber die interpolatorische Darstellung stetiger Funktionen, Deutsche...Management Review 14 (1972b) 37-50. Keeney, R. L., A decision analysis with multiple objectives: the Mexico City airport, Bell Journal of Economics

  2. An Unstructured Grid Morphodynamic Model with a Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Bed Evolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-24

    3), 193-224. Exner, F.M., 1925. Uber die wechselwirkung zwischen wasser und geschiebe in flussen. Sitzenberichte Akad. Wiss. Wien. 165 (3-4...Westerink, J.J., Luettich, R.A., Mark, D.J. 2002. A tidal constituent database for the western north Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea

  3. The Investigation of Hypervelocity Gouging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Holloman High Speed Test Track (HHSTT) facility at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico , is a ground based test facility designed to test items...Friedrichs KO, and Lewy H, ‘ Uber die partiellen Differenzengleichungen der mathematischen Physik’, Mathematische Annalen Vol. 100, pp 32-74 (1928

  4. Impact Dynamics: Theory and Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Friedricks, K.O., and Lewy, H., " Uber die Partiallen Differenzen-gleichungen der Matematischen Physik," Math. Ann. 100 1928. 38. Van Thiel, M., "Compendium of...92647 65 DISTRIBUTION LIST No. of No. of Copies Organization Copies Organization 1 New Mexico Institute of 1 US Steel Corporation Mining and

  5. Transactions of the Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing (3rd) Held at Atlanta, Georgia on 13-16 May 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ABSTRACT The method of front tracking is applied to problems involving curved detonation fronts, surface instabilities and...the foundations of the theory of small displacements of orthotropic shells," NACA Technical Note No. 1833, March 1949. Hencky, H., " uber die

  6. Block Iterative Methods for Elliptic and Parabolic Difference Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    Wisconsin 53706. (3) University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545. *Will also appear as Los Alamos Scientic...Courant, K. Friedrichs, and H. Lewy, Uber die Partiellen Differenzengleichungen der Mathematischen Physik, Math. Ann., 100 (1928), pp. 32-74 = On the

  7. Bio-Inspired Concepts: Studies of Biological Response to External Electric Fields for Cellular Manipulation and Diagnostics - Modeling and Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-03

    Dielectric Spectroscopy," IEEE trans. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 8, 253 (2001). 8. M. Smoluchowski, "Drei vortrage uber diffusion...Intensity Electric Fields," IEEE Conf. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation (Bio- Electrics Workshop), Cancun, Mexico , Oct. 2002 (invited

  8. Optimal Active Sound-Reduction in Airplane-Cubicles for High Tonal Noise-Levels (optimale aktive gerauschreduzierung in flugzeugkabinen fur hohe tonale larmpegel)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    verglichen. Rechenzeiten Die benbtigten Rechenzeiten sind in Tab. 5.2 aufgef~hrt. Wie zu erwarten war, liegen die Rechenzeiten von COSA wesentlich Uber ...of optimal design: modeling and computation. 2. Aufl. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. [Pareto7l] Pareto, V.: Manual of political economy

  9. The Investigation of Take-off and Landing Characteristics of Jet Shortened Take-off and Landing Aircraft (STOL) (K Voprosu Issledovaniya Vzletno-Posadochnykh Kharakteristik Reaktivnykh Samoletov Ukorochennogo Vzleta i Posadki (SUVP)),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-25

    including an analysis made from the viewpoint of take-off and landing and flight characteristics , as well as safety and economy is vital for this purpose...No. 16, l96~ . 8. A Manual on VTOL Aircraft. Trudy TsAGI , 1965. 9. W. Seibold. Untersuchungen uber die von Hubstrahlen an Senkrechstartern Erzeugen

  10. Automatic Registration of Scanned Satellite Imagery with a Digital Map Data Base.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    des images. ZUSAMMENFASSONG Die Auswertung digitaler Fernerkundungsbilder soll auf der gesamten Information beruhen, welche Uber das Interessensge...a positional reference, however, in an inefficient manner. For improved economy of this type of search processes one would have to define the

  11. Botany and the Taming of Female Passion: Rousseau and Contemporary Educational Concepts of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinau, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…

  12. Les Differences dans l'emploi de la construction possessive "N1"+"DE"+"N2" entre le XIX et le XX s. dans la prose litteraire francaise (Differences in the Use of the Possessive Construction "N1"+"de"+"N2" between 19th and 20th Century French Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roglic, Vera

    1991-01-01

    Study looks at frequency of noun1 + de + noun2 possessive in French prose. Researchers used chi-square and Pearson test to analyze results of syntagmatic possessive construction in works by Hugo, Stendahl, Balzac, Zola, Gide, Malraux, St. Exupery, and Sartre. Findings indicate that syntagmatic genitive possessive is more commonly found in…

  13. Foundations of isomathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2013-10-01

    Santilli's isomathematics has a strong foundation in the early literature of mathematics surveyed by R.H. Bruck in his land mark book `A Survey of Binary Systems' [1] dating back to 1958. This work aims at exploring the very basics of Isomathematics as suggested by Santilli [7] and [8]. The concept of `Isotopy' plays a vital role in the development of this new age mathematics. Starting with Isotopy of groupoids we develop the study of Isotopy of quasi groups and loops via Partial Planes, Projective planes, 3-nets and multiplicative 3-nets.

  14. Electronic Structure at Oxide Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    800 1000 1200 1400 T [ K ] 0 5 10 15 20 25 ( = 0 ) [ eV 1 ] DMFT PM a 0 500 1000 1500 T [ K ] 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 n n [ B ] DMFT FM b Ni1 Ni2...superconductivity in lanio3/lamo3 superlattices. Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:016404, 2008. [6] P. Hansmann, X. P. Yang, A. Toschi, G. Khaliullin, O. K . Andersen, and K ...Haverkort, S. Bruck, E. Goering, S. Macke, A. Frano, X. P. Yang, O. K . Andersen, G. Cristiani, H. U. Habermeier, A. V. Boris, I. Zegkinoglou, P

  15. Fourier Modulus Image Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Fourier Optics: the Encoding of Infor- mation by Complex Zeroes," Optica Acta 26, 1139-46 (1979). 13. Y.M. Bruck and L.(. Sodin, "On the Ambiguity of the...0002 UNCLASSIFIED RADC-TR-81-63 NL -- END LEVEL# " DC-TR-61143 Finul Technical Relort 0 FOURIER MODULUS IMAGE "N CONSTRUCTION C Environmental Research... FOURIER MODULUS IMAGE CONSTRUCTION 7Sep 9--3 Sep 8 _ N/A 7. AUTHOR(s) N . James E Fienup. 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. Serological and virological features of dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever in Thailand from 1999 to 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Anantapreecha, S.; Chanama, S.; A-nuegoonpipat, A.; Naemkhunthot, S.; Sa-Ngasang, A.; Sawanpanyalert, P.; Kurane, I.

    2005-01-01

    Serological and virological features of dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) in Thailand were analysed in 2715 patients from 1999 to 2002. The illness was caused by DEN-1 in 45%, DEN-2 in 32%, DEN-3 in 18% and DEN-4 in 5% of patients. Almost all of the DHF cases caused by DEN-2 and DEN-4 were in secondary infection, while approximately 20% of the DHF cases caused by DEN-1 and DEN-3 were in primary infection. Male:female ratio and age distribution were not different among four serotypes in primary and secondary infections. These results indicate that DEN-1 and DEN-3 induce DHF in both primary and secondary infections, and suggest that DEN-2 and DEN-4 in Thailand are less likely to cause DHF in primary infections. PMID:15962557

  17. Requirements Definition and Design Guidelines for Man-Machine Interface in C3 System Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    the American Society for Information Science, 1971, 22, 361-373. Uber , G. T., Williams, P. E. and Hisey, B. L. The organization and formatting of...from several squadrons of aircraft to a list of preplanned missions, trying to optimize aircraft, armament and crew capabilities in relation to target ...characteristics, trying to minimize flight distances and on route refueling requirements, trying to schedule takeoffs to meet required time over target

  18. The Analytical Exponential Decay Coefficient of the Submarine Light Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    fundamental optical terms is required. An exact expression can be derived from Schellenberger 14 which is Kd = (a/p)(l - R) + RK (10) UU where R is...Bingham Oceanogr. Coll. 15, 15 (1956). -, 33 *1% * .~.., 5-. .;.~.*4(5%~Ilk 10. G. Schellenberger , "Uber Zusammenhange Zwischen Optischen Parametern Von...Oceanogr. 20, 976 (1975). 14. G. Schellenberger , "Die Form der Raumlichen Strahlungsver- teilung in Gewassern", Acta Hydrophys. 14, 207 (1969). 15. A

  19. Dynamical Mechanisms for the South China Sea Seasonal Circulation and Thermohaline Variabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    shelf is the submerged connection between southeast Asia, Malaysia , Sumatra, Java, and Borneo and is 100 m deep in the middle; the center of the Gulf... Malaysia , and it still joins the flow out of the Gulf of Thailand to contribute to an intensification of current off southern Vietnam. Winter closed...survey of the South China Sea, May 1995. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 21 637–21 652. Courant, R., K. O. Friedrichs, and H. Levy, 1928: Uber die partiellen

  20. Anopheles Maculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Type Locality of Hong Kong and Two New Species of the Maculatus Complex from the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    cytogenetic studies of natural populations from the Philippines, Thailand, and Malaysia (Green et al. 1985a). In 1986 we worked with C. A. Green to...whether or not populations from all areas of this distribution are conspeci- fit. Populations from Malaysia and Indonesia, for ex- ample, may...the identification of the anopheline larvae of the colony of Hong Kong. Chin. Med. J. 53:259-270. Kinoshita, K. 1906. Uber die Verbreitung der

  1. Fragment and Debris Hazards from Accidental Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-13

    caeind ,.o Poiar zons, a()*Subtr of !-Xqmacs P.r S toradlas n io sLAr tons Ot ca~d from, areasc tests where: I a ftsmot 4!0itjI for asch d, - uber of...Code MME 1 Attn: FCTOH Ogden, UT 84401 Kirtland Air Force Base, NM 87115 Commander Headquarters Air Force T!RA Inspection and Safety Center New Mexico

  2. Identification of European Air Masses Using an Interactive Computer Technique for Separating Mixed Normal Distributions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    classifying a maritime surface, he refers to the Pacific, Atlantic, or Gulf of Mexico using the general term "maritime" only when the exact origin is...portions of North Atlantic NPA PA air modified over warm North Atlantic TC Southern U.S. and Northern Mexico TG Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean NTG TG...Bergeron, T., 1928: " Uber Die Dreidimensional Verknupfende Wetteranalyse, Teil I." Geofys. Pub!., Vol. 5, No. 6. Berggren, R., 1953: "On Temperature

  3. Preliminary Study of Effects of Military Obscurant Smokes on Flora and Fauna During Field and Laboratory Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    may travel 500 to 1000 m, but "heir home ranges are probably much smaller than 2 to 4 ha in the Mojave. The home range of D. merriami in New Mexico is...in the mesquite association of southern New Mexico . Contributions Lab Vertebrate Biology. 12:1-40. University of Michigan. 2. Kapila, S., R. K...naphthalene. Chemical-Biological Interactions. 40:287-303. 12. Knake, E. 1956. Uber schwache geschwulsterzengende wirkung von haphthalin und benzol

  4. LINEAR Multistep Methods with Near-Optimal Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    gained are economy , simplicity, and versatility. Economy is realized with regard to speed of computation, pro ranrid-ig efforts iF. developing a reliable...step ethod needs at most k values stored between integrationa steps. This removes storage economy as a relevant comparison. As indicated in Table 4.2...ed by J. F.. kiL) Aca~ IC Press, Hlew York, 1977 12. Grigorieff. R. D., and J. Schroll , Uber A(o.)-Stabile Verfahren holier Konsistenzorilung, Coi

  5. Three-Dimensional Interactions and Vortical Flows with Emphasis on High Speeds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    experimental evidence, but there are also advantages to be gained by such an economy . Recently, J. C. R. Hunt et al. (1978) have shown that the notions of...Atraghji (1972), in which circum- ferential measurements of surface static pressure, surface impact pressure, and oil-dot flow visualization were...209, Jan. 1975. Fiechter, M., " Uber Wirbelsysteme an schlanken Rotationskbrpern und ihren Einfluss auf die aerodynamischen Beiwerte," Deutsch

  6. An Assessment of Joint Chat Requirements From Current Usage Patterns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    bridged by UCC. • Speed acquisition of UCC. Measured Impact : • UCC and Uber are IRC protocol, operating at approximately 4Kpbs. • Jabber XMPP operated at...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This research assesses the impact of...the impact of synchronous (real-time), text-based chat on military command and control (C2) processes. Chat use among the services, particularly

  7. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). Atlantic Herring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    from alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) economy (Briggs et al. 1982). The and shads (Alosa spp.): the point of average annual value of Maine herring origin...D.J. Wildish, and R.H. pp. Peterson. 1981. Possible impact 20 .. .. , ,,n ,nnmm, m mm • ~ mlm mBNIN - - !| from dredging and spoil disposal on...a herring (Clu__ a No. 1008. 33 pp. harengus L.) spawning bed in Miramichi Bay, New Brunswick. Can. Meyer, H.A. 1878. Beobachtungen uber Tech. Rep

  8. First International Conference on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics Held in Gaithersburg, Maryland on 20-22 October 1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    innovative mathematician and philosopher with a wide range of interests. His impact upon the development of theoretical and numerical hydrodynamics is...Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Gilbarg, D. 1949 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 35, 609-612. Helrnholtz, H. 1868 Uber diskontinuierliche Flits sigkeitsbewegungen...The force of impact on a cone striking a water surface. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 4, 379-417. Southwell, R. V. and Vaisey, G 1946 Fluid motions

  9. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly. Volume 27, Number 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    results when demands are Erlang, see [8]. The motivation for this approach is that the full impact of outdating is taken into account at the time the order...it is possible to graph the decision regions and observe the economic substitution and the impact of perishability on the ordering policy. The optimal...Research Logistics Quarterly 14, 147-162 (1967). [61 Ritter, K., Uber Probleme Parameterabhdngiger Planungsrechnung (DVL-Bericht Nr. 238)," Vereinigte

  10. Non-Destructive Impermeability Testing of Land-Based Sewage Systems (zerstoerungsfreie dichtheitspruefung con grundstuecksentwaesserungsleitungen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    STOTZEK, A. (1999): Kommunales Abwasser. 4. Aufl. Essen: Vulkan-Verlag. KRAUTH , K . H.; KLEiN, H. (1982): Untersuchungen Uber die Beschaffenheit des...Prototyp, mit dem solche Prii- fungen durchgeftihrt und die oben genannten Wasserverluste zuverldissig gemessen werden k •innen. Beide Fragen wurden...11 2.2 " G eraite - K om ponenten und M esstechnik ........................................................................ ........... 13 2.2.1

  11. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental effects of predation rates of mosquito predators, such as C. auratus.

  12. PROPOSED MEASURES OF CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THE GRAPE MOTH, LOBESIA BOTRANA DEN AND SCHIFF (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE), IN REFERENCE TO INFESTATION PERCENTAGES, YIELD LOSS AND ECONOMICS OF CONTROL IN EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Kordy, A M; Zaghloul, O A; Mourad, A K

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of five measures; including the release of two strains of Trichogramma, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.). Sweetened B.t. and the environmentally friend insecticide (Tracer®), to manage the grape moth, Lobesia botrana that infested the grape vines c.v. "Thompson seedless " in Egypt severely during the two successive years of 2011 and 2012. In concern to the release of the worldwide, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood., the mean total grape yield ranged from 8.00 to 14.00 ton/fed and from 6.90 to 11.9, in respect to the two seasons and the mean infestation percentages fluctuated between 50.00 and 16.14; 43.48 and 21.01 in sequence for the same years. The corresponding grape bunches loss percentages averaged from 21.43 to 6.91; 18.63 to 9.00,respectively for the same periods of this study. Whereas, it was noticed that in releasing the indigenous T. bourarchae was more effective than T. evanescens in reducing all the above mentioned grape yield particularly. Applying Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) and/or adding sugar as a stimulant to improve yields reduced the infestation and the crop loss percentage. However, Bacillus thuringiensis mixed with sugar which overweighed the use of Bacillus thuringiensis alone. Although Tracer® provided good harvest in both years, but unfortunately it affected the grape berries components rather than the other treatments. Control plots indicated 48 and 50% infestation, with very low yield compared with the other five trials to manage the assigned insect pest. For the first time worldwide economics and profits were computed taking into account the whole market sale, the total control costs and the gross income to decide the most profitable treatment for the table grape growers under the Egyptian conditions. It was found that the mean (L.E.) profits/fed were arranged in a descending order as follows: 470.95, 513.28, 504.78, 500.82, 397.25 and 0.00 for Bacillus thuringiensis + sugar, Trichogramma bourarchae, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Dipel-2x®, Tracer® and control in respect in 2011. The corresponding values in the year 2012 were 453.85, 445.58, 427.18, 377.00, 349.18 and 0.00 for Trichogramma bourarchae, Bacillus thuringiensis + sugar, Dipel-2x®, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Tracer® and control in respect. The obtained results were analysed and discussed in the text.

  13. Five letters by Tycho Brahe to the Görlitz astronomer Bartholomäus Scultetus. (German Title: Fünf Briefe Tycho Brahes an den Görlitzer Astronomen Bartholomäus Scultetus (1540-1614))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfricht, Juergen

    The five letters by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe to the Görlitz astronomer, mayor, and reformer of the calendar Bartholomäus Scultetus are for the first time translated from Latin into German with comments. The letters of October 12, 1581, August 17, 1588, December 8, 1590, March 12, 1592, and Januar 7, 1600, which are to a certain extent very personal letters, deal with, among other items, Scultetus's manuscript on the comet of 1577 and offer interesting details regarding Brahe's observatories on the island Hveen and near Prague. In addition, they provide information on his projects of books, problems with paper and print, his pupil Paul Wittich, currently largely unknown correspondents and his friends in Saxony and Silesia. The author prefaces the letters with biographical information on the 16th century Görlitz astronomer.

  14. James Baldwin und das Rassenproblem in den USA. Unterrichtsprojekt zum Komplex "Texte und ihre gesellschaftliche Bedingtheit" (James Baldwin and the Race Problem in the USA. Teaching Project in the Series "Texts and their Social Context")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschgens, Edda

    1977-01-01

    Reports on an 18-hour teaching project with students at a teachers' college. Four Baldwin texts were used. Questions considered included whether Baldwin's treatment of the race problem reveals any changes or shifts of emphasis. Suggestions are made for adaptation to teaching in grades 11-13. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  15. Simultaneous anterior and posterior screw fixations confined to the axis for stabilization of a 3-part fracture of the axis (odontoid, dens, and hangman fractures): report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Shinbo, Jun; Sameda, Hiroaki; Ikenoue, Sumio; Takase, Kan; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Eiko; Enomoto, Takahiro; Kanazuka, Aya; Mimura, Masaya

    2014-03-01

    Fractures of the axis are considered to be one of the most common injuries to the cervical spine, accounting for more than 20% of all cervical spine fractures. Multiple fractures of the axis are much rarer, accounting for 1% of all cervical fractures. Management of such complex fractures is still challenging, and there is no strong consensus for the treatment. The authors describe the cases of 2 patients who presented with 3-part fractures of the axis consisting of an odontoid Type II fracture and a Levine-Edwards Type IA fracture, which were treated with concurrent insertion of an anterior odontoid screw and bilateral posterior pedicle screws. The cases presented were characterized by 1) a Type II odontoid fracture; 2) a Type IA traumatic spondylolisthesis with no or a little translation and angulation of C-2 on C-3 in a ring fracture of the axis; and 3) no disorders at the C2-3 disc on MR images. Therefore, the authors performed surgery confined to the axis by concurrently inserting an anterior odontoid screw and posterior bilateral pedicle screws without arthrodesis of C2-3. This was followed with cervical soft collar fixation for only 1-2 weeks. The outcomes were favorable, including good osteosynthesis, high primary stability, early patient mobilization, and preserved range of motion of the cervical spine at C2-3 as well as at C1-2.

  16. In vivo study on the effects of curcumin on the expression profiles of anti-tumour genes (VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4) in liver of rats injected with DEN.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chu Zhu; Huang, Wei Zhe; Zhang, Ge; Tang, Dan Ling

    2013-10-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of curcumin, derived from plant Curcuma longa, on oxidative toxicity, and the possible molecular mechanism of antitumour of curcumin in liver cancer rats. Results showed that blood levels of Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glutathione S-transferase, and liver level of MD were significantly decreased after curcumin feeding. Levels of the liver malondialdehyde MDA, nitric oxide and antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis results showed that curcumin treatment significantly decreased liver vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA expression levels and CyclinD1 and CDK4 proteins levels in liver cancer rats. These findings were confirmed by histopathology. It is concluded that curcumin can protect the liver from the damage caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine. Moreover, curcumin has the potential to be used in a therapy for liver cancer. The present data provide evidence to support the presence of free radicals and VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA in rat tumour cells. Studies are in progress in order to further characterize the role of VEGF, CyclinD1 and CDK4 mRNA in liver cancer cells and in hepatic therapeutics.

  17. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metabolites und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. III. Mitteilung: Experimente mit Essentiellen Fettsaeuren (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. III. Communication: Experiments with Essential Fatty Acids),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationship between the double and trifold unsaturated fatty acids and Trichomonas vaginalis was tested. The experiments aimed at testing the...influence of vitamin F, linolic and linoleic acid upon multiplication of Trichomonas vaginalis . Vitamin F exerts trichomonacidal effect upon... Trichomonas vaginalis cultures. Linolic acid alone does not yet show great differences at concentrations of 0,01 to 0.05 mg/ml, as compared to the controls. At

  18. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. Communication: Effect of Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A number of substances (folic acid, axerophtol, tokopherol and others) stimulate the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and, therefore, are very well...group of vitamins (thiamine, lactoflavin, pyridoxine and others) are without recognizeable effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . The third...inhibiting effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Further investigations with these substances within a combined inhibition system seem to be important. (Modified author abstract)

  19. Experimente ueber den Einflussee von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VII. Mitteilung: Experimente mit Antimetaboliten (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VII. Communication: Experiments on Antimetabolites),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    with six trichomonas strains and the following antivitamins: aminopterine, acetylpyridine, pyridine sulfonic acid, aminobutyric acid, pantoyltaurin...benzimidazol, 5.6-dimethyl-benzimidazid, azaadenin, avidine, phthiocol, dicumarol, tri-o-cresylphosphate, di-o-cresylacetate. Growth of trichomonas in...concentrations above 0.80 mg/ml. A clear inhibiting effect upon the development of trichomonas cultures was seen with phthiocole at a concentration of

  20. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VIII. Mitteilung: Experiments mit Hormonen (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VIII. Communication: Experiments with Hormones),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    experiments were performed on 7 trichomonas vaginalis strains. The test cultures with serotonin, oestron, testosteron and methyltestosteron grew at...The present study has been concerned with the influence of some hormones upon trichomonas growth. The following substances were used for our...ml onward. Adrenalin and noradrenalin have generally inhibiting action (from 0.80 mg/ml onward) upon trichomonas growth. The antihormone 3.5-dijodtyrosin does rarely influence the growth of trichomonas . (Author)

  1. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. IX. Mitteilung: Experimente mit Enzymen (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. IX. Communication: Experiments on Enzymes),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The digestive enzymes may be of special interest with regard to oral trichomonas infection. We have made it our task to demonstrate the relations of...some enzymes to trichomonas . The following enzymes were used for experiment: pepsin, trypsin, distaste, urease and lysozyme. Tests were performed...on six trichomonas strains and evaluated by microscopical readings and determination of the population density at varying concentrations of the

  2. Corporate Regional Responsibility - Warum engagieren sich Unternehmen gemeinsam für ihre Region?. Motive der kollektiven regionalen Verantwortungsübernahme von Unternehmen an den Beispielen des Initiativkreises Ruhr und der Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiek, Meike

    2016-03-01

    Companies can voluntarily participate in matters of regional developments, thereby accepting responsibility on a regional level. Referring to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the term Corporate Regional Responsibility (CRR) is used to describe this behavior. Moreover, companies can form a CRR-corporation with other companies in order to take over a collective CRR. So far, the motives of companies for exercising collective CRR are unknown, thus, corporate resources can not be mobilized and utilized efficiently for regional developments. This article explores the subject of collective CRR and illustrates CRR motives using the example of the two CRR-cooperations Initiativkreis Ruhr and Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain.

  3. Zwischen den Stuhlen: Untersuchungen zur Situation der Korrektoren an der Fernuniversitat 1980, (In between Chairs: The Situation of Tutors (Correctors) at the FernUniversitat in 1980). ZIFF Papiere 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut; And Others

    An empirical study of tutors responsible for evaluating students' assignments at the Fernuniversitat in 1980 employed an 18-item questionnaire, analysis of open-ended responses, analysis of graders' comments on more than 1,000 assignments, and interviews with staff. The process of evaluating students' work was shown to be inefficient, with minimal…

  4. Can Break-Dance Break Your Neck? C1/C2 Luxation with a Combined Dens Fracture Without Neurological Deficits in an 11-Year Old Boy After a Break-Dance Performance.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Kinzel, Adrian; Blaeser, Klaus; Thissen, Joost; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2015-09-28

    Atlantoaxial dislocation in children is a very rare condition. We present the case of a dislocation happened during a break-dance maneuver. The purpose of this report is describing dangers of break-dancing and discussing the treatment we chose. The patient was followed up until 12 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine were evaluated. Translaminar fixation of C1/C2 had been performed after manual reposition under X-ray illumination. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient shows a stable condition without neurological dysfunction. He is not allowed to perform any extreme sports.

  5. Can Break-Dance Break Your Neck? C1/C2 Luxation with a Combined Dens Fracture Without Neurological Deficits in an 11-Year Old Boy After a Break-Dance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kinzel, Adrian; Blaeser, Klaus; Thissen, Joost; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial dislocation in children is a very rare condition. We present the case of a dislocation happened during a break-dance maneuver. The purpose of this report is describing dangers of break-dancing and discussing the treatment we chose. The patient was followed up until 12 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine were evaluated. Translaminar fixation of C1/C2 had been performed after manual reposition under X-ray illumination. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient shows a stable condition without neurological dysfunction. He is not allowed to perform any extreme sports. PMID:26664716

  6. Dreissig Jahre Volksrepublik Polen. Aus den Thesen des Zentralkomitees der Polnischen Vereinigten Arbeiterpartei (Thirty years of the People's Republic of Poland. From the Theses of the Central Committee of the Polish United Workers' Party)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremdsprachenunterricht, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Offers an overview of the development of the teaching of Russian in the People's Republic of Poland since its introduction in 1945 and the support of the periodical "Jezyk Rosyjski" (Russian Language) in the attainment of the goals set by the Ministry of Popular Education of the People's Republic of Poland. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Inhibitory effect of tamoxifen on diethylstilbestrol-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis in male rats and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Kohigashi, K; Fukuda, Y; Imura, H

    1988-12-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 200 mg/kg body weight). Two weeks later the rats were divided into 4 groups; DEN-C group rats were given no further treatment; DEN-DES group rats were fed diethylstilbestrol (DES, 0.5 mg/day); DEN-TMX group rats were given tamoxifen (TMX, 1.0 mg/day) orally; DEN-DES TMX group rats were fed both DES and TMX for 8 months. Rats of the DEN-DES group developed grossly visible hepatic tumors. On the other hand, tumor development was significantly inhibited in rats of the DEN-DES TMX group. Total area of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive lesions and the mean area per lesion were significantly larger in rats of the DEN-DES group than those of the DEN-C, DEN-TMX or DEN-DES-TMX group. Estrogen receptor (ER) content of liver cytosol assayed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was significantly greater in rats of the DEN-DES group than in those of the DEN-C group and smaller in rats of the DEN-TMX and DEN-DES TMX group than in the DEN-C group. On the contrary, ER content of liver nuclei was significantly greater in rats of the DEN-TMX and DEN-DES TMX group than in those of the DEN-C or DEN-DES group. These results suggest that the promotive action of DES and the inhibitory action of TMX on DES-promoted hepatic tumorigenesis are, at least in part, mediated by ER in the rat.

  8. Leistungsverzeichnis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Grundvoraussetzung eines jeden Dienstleistungsauftrages ist eine Ausschreibung, die öffentlich oder auch beschränkt erfolgen kann. Hierfür sind vom Auftraggeber entsprechende Ausschreibungstexte herauszugeben. Diese Ausschreibungstexte müssen sich aus den Vorbemerkungen, die die allgemeinen Erläuterungen zum Leistungsumfang, den Leistungen des Auftraggebers, den Anforderungen zur personellen, gerätetechnischen und fachlichen Kompetenz eines Auftragnehmers sowie den Anforderungen zur Durchführung der zu leistenden Arbeit und den allgemeinen Vertragsbedingungen beinhalten,

  9. Genetically modified, live attenuated dengue virus type 3 vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Blaney, Joseph E; Hanson, Christopher T; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Hanley, Kathryn A; Murphy, Brian R; Whitehead, Stephen S

    2004-12-01

    Three novel recombinant dengue type 3 (DEN3) virus vaccine candidates have been generated from a DEN3 virus isolated from a mild outbreak of dengue fever in the Sleman area of central Java in Indonesia in 1978. Antigenic chimeric viruses were prepared by replacing the membrane precursor and envelope (ME) proteins of recombinant DEN4 (rDEN4) virus with those from DEN3 Sleman/78 in the presence (rDEN3/4Delta30(ME)) and the absence (rDEN3/4(ME)) of the Delta30 mutation, a previously described 30-nucleotide deletion in the 3' untranslated region. In addition, a full-length infectious cDNA clone was generated from the DEN3 isolate and used to produce rDEN3 virus and the vaccine candidate rDEN3Delta30. The chimeric viruses rDEN3/4(ME) and rDEN3/4Delta30(ME) appear to be acceptable vaccine candidates since they were restricted in replication in severe combined immune deficiency mice transplanted with human hepatoma cells, in rhesus monkeys, and in Aedes and Toxorynchites mosquitoes, and each was protective in rhesus monkeys against DEN3 virus challenge. The rDEN3/4(ME) and rDEN3/4Delta30(ME) viruses were comparable in all parameters evaluated, indicating that antigenic chimerization resulted in the observed high level of attenuation. Surprisingly, rDEN3Delta30 was not attenuated in any model tested when compared with wild-type rDEN3 and therefore, is not a vaccine candidate at present. Thus, the rDEN3/4(ME) and rDEN3/4Delta30(ME) antigenic chimeric viruses can be considered for evaluation in humans and for inclusion in a tetravalent dengue vaccine.

  10. The ophthalmoscope: Helmholtz's Augenspiegel.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    The origins of Helmholtz's invention of the ophthalmoscope are found in the ancient observation that the back of the eye appeared black. In 1703, Jean Méry reported that the luminosity of the cat's eye could be seen when the animal was held under water, and Mariotte observed that a dog's eye was luminous but erroneously thought this was because its choroid was white. Prévost made a breakthrough when he deduced it was incident light and not light coming out of the eye. Purkinje and von Brucke used lenses to attempt to see the fundus and almost succeeded. However, it was Helmholtz who created the first useable ophthalmoscope, whose development and clinical application are traced in this paper. One of the greatest physical scientists in many spheres of learning, his biography is briefly sketched.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sour gas effects on the eye. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy William; Goodwin, Verona Marie; Stefani, Dennis; Strosher, Lisa

    2006-08-15

    The toxicology of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and sour gas on the eye has a long history beginning at least with Ramazzini's observations [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc.; 1964. 98-99 pp.]. In contrast, a recent review by Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW Report) concluded that there is little evidence of eye irritation following short-term exposures to H(2)S at concentrations up to 100ppm and that the H(2)S literature on the eye is a series of unsubstantiated claims reproduced in review articles dating back to the 1930s [Alberta Health and Wellness (AHW report). Health effects associated with short-term exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide: a technical review, Alberta Health and Wellness, October 2002, 81pp.]. In this paper, we evaluated this claim through a historical review of the toxicology of the eye. Ramazzini noted the effects of sewer gas on the eye [Ramazzini B. Diseases of Workers--De Morbis Artificum Diatriba--1713. Wright WC (trans). New York, C. Hafner Publishing Co Inc. 1964. 98-99 pp.]. Lehmann experimentally showed eye effects in men at 70-90ppm H(2)S and also in animals [Lehmann K. Experimentalle Studien uber den Einfluss technisch und hygienisch wichtiger Gase und Dampfe auf den Organismus. Arch Hyg 1892;14:135-189]. In 1923, Sayers, Mitchell and Yant reported eye effects in animals and men at 50ppm H(2)S. Barthelemy showed eye effects in animals and men at 20ppm H(2)S [Barthelemy HL. Ten years' experience with industrial hygiene in connection with the manufacture of viscose rayon. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 1939;21:141-51]. Masure experimentally showed that H(2)S is the causative agent of eye impacts in animals and men [Masure R. La Keratoconjunctivite des filatures de viscose; etude clinique and experiementale. Rev Belge Pathol 1950;20:297-341]. Michal upon microscopic examination of the rat's cornea, found nuclear pyknosis, edema and separation of cells in

  12. A prospective seroepidemiologic study on dengue in children four to nine years of age in Yogyakarta, Indonesia I. studies in 1995-1996.

    PubMed

    Graham, R R; Juffrie, M; Tan, R; Hayes, C G; Laksono, I; Ma'roef, C; Erlin; Sutaryo; Porter, K R; Halstead, S B

    1999-09-01

    A prospective study on dengue (DEN) viruses was initiated in October 1995 in Gondokusuman kecamatan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This report presents data from the first year of the study. The studied cohort included all children 4-9 years of age living in the kecamatan. Blood samples for serology were collected from 1,837 children in October 1995 and again in October 1996. Blood samples for virus isolation and serology were collected from cohort children who were seen in municipal health clinics with febrile syndromes or admitted to hospitals with a provisional diagnosis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue serotype antibody prevalence and 1995-1996 infection rates were calculated using a single dilution (1:60) 70% plaque reduction endpoint neutralization test. Prevalence of dengue antibody at the beginning of the study was DEN 1 = 12%, DEN 2 = 16%, DEN 3 = 2%, DEN 4 = 4%, and two or more dengue infections = 22%. Total dengue antibody prevalence increased from 38% in 4-year-old children to 69% in 9-year-old children. During the observation period, primary dengue infection rates were DEN 1 = 4.8%, DEN 2 = 7.7%, DEN 3 = 4.2%, and DEN 4 = 3.4%, while two or more dengue infections occurred in 6.7% of the study population. The secondary dengue infection rate was 19.0%. From febrile cases, all four dengue viruses were isolated with DEN 3 predominating. Seven children were hospitalized, including one fatal case with a hospital diagnosis of dengue shock syndrome. Based upon presence of antibody in the initial cohort bleeding and the serologic response both weeks and several months following illness, all had secondary dengue infections. Neutralizing antibody patterns in the initial cohort bleeding and in late convalescent serum samples permitted recognition of dengue infection sequence in five patients: DEN 2-DEN 1 (3), DEN 2-DEN 4 (1), DEN 1-DEN 3 (1), and none in the sequence DEN 1-DEN 2. In the total cohort 6.5% of the observed secondary infections were of the sequence DEN 2

  13. Serotype and genotype analysis of dengue virus by sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis using samples from three mini outbreaks-2007-2009 in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since the first reported outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan, several mini outbreaks have erupted in the region. Dengue virus serotype 3 (DEN-3) was first documented in 2005 outbreak in Karachi. Reports show that serotype 3 is prevalent in Lahore since 2008. Serotype 2 (DEN-2) is the major circulating serotype in Pakistan as it is documented since 1994. We have conducted a detailed study of three outbreaks of dengue virus infection that occurred in years 2007, 2008 and 2009 in Lahore by using molecular techniques such as PCR and nucleotide sequencing of the C-prM gene junction of Dengue virus. Results Through the analysis of 114 serum samples collected over the period of three years (2007-2009), total 20 patients were found to be infected with dengue virus. In year 2007, four were positive for serotype 2 and one sample was positive for serotype DEN-3. In 2008, five samples had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while three samples were infected only with serotype DEN-2. In year 2009, one sample had concurrent infection with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3 while six were positive for serotype DEN-2 only. Conclusions Our study showed that serotype DEN-2 was dominant in positive samples of dengue virus infection collected during the period of three years (2007-2009). The other serotype present was serotype DEN-3. Genotypes of serotype DEN-2 and serotype DEN-3 were subtype IV and subtype III, respectively. PMID:21906394

  14. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Brown bear and polar bear denning special areas. Whenever he deems it necessary or appropriate to ensure that exploratory activities do not significantly adversely affect denning bears, the Regional Director shall designate within the coastal plain brown bear and polar bear denning sites within 1/2 mile...

  15. 50 CFR 37.32 - Special areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Brown bear and polar bear denning special areas. Whenever he deems it necessary or appropriate to ensure that exploratory activities do not significantly adversely affect denning bears, the Regional Director shall designate within the coastal plain brown bear and polar bear denning sites within 1/2 mile...

  16. Matthias Falter und die frühe Halbleitertechnik in der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Frank

    Nach einer ganzen Reihe von Vorarbeiten weltweit1 konnten im Dezember 1947 die amerikanischen Physiker Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen und William Shockley in den Bell Laboratories den Transistoreffekt demonstrieren. Damit legten sie den Grundstein für die Mikroelektronik als Basistechnologie des Informationszeitalters.

  17. Optimum Aeroelastic Characteristics for Composite Supermaneuverable Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-28

    Re- gime," J. Aero/Space Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 11, November 1959, pp. 703-716, 738. 2. Strutt , J.W. (Baron Rayleigh ), The Theory of Sound, Vol. 1...efforts of Mr. John Calle- 73 ja, a graduate student in the department and we thank Mrs. B. Hein for patiently typing the manuscript. 0 74 5.3.13...and Williams , M. It., "Linear/Non- ’Molenbrock, P.. "Uber einige Bewegungen eines Gases bei An- linear Behavior in Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics

  18. Human Auditory Localization Performance in Azimuth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    October 1988. 23 15. Peterson, J. The Nature of Probable Origin of Binaural Beats . Psychol. Rev., 23, 333-351 (1916). 16. Petri, J. Uber Aufbau und leistung...Theory of Binaural Audition. Phil. Mag. 7, 181-197, 261-274 (1879). 26. Stewart, G.W. The Theory of Binaural Beats . Phys Rev., series II, 9, 514-528...inside the listener’s head. In 1930, Firestone (6) demonstrated an electro-acoustic method called the binaural process (also called simulated

  19. The Gravity Field for an Ellipsoid of Revolution as a Level Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-05-01

    e KI+ a+ 15e4 28 18304 16 n•2- 1 2 +. 2 n - 50 3n + 25 n4 -. 1 7 7 4231 1], (94) 2 e3 + 9 8f 2 200of 600 .+ Y5 7 7 231 1001 B/ E. E. Kummer. " Uber ...Alabama 1 Commanding Officer White Sands Proving Ground 5 Commanding General Oro Grande, New Mexico Eighth Air Force Carswell Air Force Base 1 Commandant...Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico 1 Commanding Officer Engineer Res. and Dev. Labs. 1 Commanding Officer The Engineer Center Holloman AF Base Fort

  20. Investigations of Large Scale Storm Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-08

    and data availability, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 58:1299-1301. 5. Bergeron, T. (1950) Uber der mechanssims der ausiebigen nederschlage, Berichte des...reference to the position of the surface storm difficult. The sampling area on 1 March was in New Mexico ; on 2 March it was in Arkansas; and on 3 March it...described by Cohen and Barnes (1980); 1 3 data were collected in northwestern New Mexico before (4 Apr) and after (5 Apr) the passage of a cold front

  1. A Study of the Jettisoning of JP-4 Fuel in the Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    AFB, NEW MEXICO 87117 NOTICES When U. S. Government drawings specifications, or other dat~. are used for any purpose other than a definitely related...Fo rce Weapons L a b o r a t o r i e s / DE, Ki r t l and AFB, New Mexico , under P r o g r a m E lemen t 62601F, P r o - jec t No. 1900. The...29. F r o s s l i n g , N. " Uber die Verdunstung F a l l a n d e r Tropfen. " Ger lands Bei t r~ge fur Geophysik, Vol. 52, 1938, pp. 170-216

  2. World Weather Extremes. Revision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Sahara at 320 32’N.13°01’E., eleva- a International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico , "Flow of the Colorado River and Other...rainfall, 124.79 centimeters (49.13 inches), occurred during Typhoon Gloria, and it was measured in a recording 114 Ibid. 1 lbid. 116 S. Marx, ’ Uber die...from New Mexico to Alberta. This area averages more hail days, more hailstorms, more and bigger hailstones, and thus a greater hail intensity than any

  3. Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    AD-A276 963 1111111111 I NAWCWPNS TP 8185 Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays OTIC by ELECTE Dr. Gary Hewer MAR 151994 and...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1994 Final; 199 ,L TTLE ND SBTILE LFUNDNG UBER Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays...nonlinearity 71,(w) = sgn(w)(IwI-t). with threshold t to each empirical sample value w in the wavelet transform d scales. After thresholding the wavelet

  4. Projections of Demand for Waterborne Transportation, Ohio River Basin, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2020, 2040. Volume 3. Group I. Coal & Coke.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    waterways Traffic surveys 0, ABST’ACT ( a , nf us , -rover"s td - d Ido.njd by block n.uber) < This Corps of Engineers report describes one of three...will be used to evaluate specific waterway improvements to meet short and long-term navigation needs. The output from these studies will serve as...System. These data will be used in current studies relating to improvement of Gallipolis Locks, the Monongahela River, the Upper Ohio River, th4

  5. Short History of the P.S.I.I. (Chronological) - Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    thc ocnstitUt.on of S.1. which aind at the raising of the Poo- pie’s standard on education and economy , But before any dr cl sion could be taken, the...program ae an urgancy prr g,1 .of F311) b. To adopt an economie program as the basis of the a ’tVvitios of the Porty in t’he field of Fcednoray by...Djakarta, 22 Jkie 1945. Ir. Soekarno Abikugno Tjokrosujoso H. A. Salim Dr:s. Mohammad Hatta Abdulkah1.r Muzakir Mr. Achnad S uber •"d jo Mr. A. A

  6. Microcomputer Microeconomics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    software in the economics of the system. Economies of scale and sensitivity analysis are also discussed.- The thesis serves as a structured beginning...of. RASTER 3F SCIENZE IN tNF3Rl&ZION sysreas from taq N&VAL p~srGRADcJArE S:HOOL 09:. uber 1932 Aut hcr-: k~or’vedby: __ -rhesi’s Adviso: 59cocad...emphasis is placed upon the role of software in the econoaics of the system. Economies )f scale and sensitivity analysis are also discuss-d. The tiasis

  7. Airfield Damage Recovery Techniques of 18th Engineer Brigade in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    problem. Material procurement through host nation sources is expensive with unique staff coordination impacts . These areas represent only a few of...34 I’I i Il’l- I 4 ,, m , , m m I I I I I I I c. Tests should be done on material that is locally available on the German economy and would also be...have to be observed. Comparable German regulations are published in "Verordnung uber gefAbrliche Arbeitsstoffe", issue May 1, 1976. Ŗ.1. Most important

  8. Financial Planning Strategies for Senior Military Officers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    emphasizes the role of monetary policy in guiding -" .the economy . Monetary policy: Government policy affecting the economy through * impact on money...PERFORMING ORG. REPORT N.. UBER 7. AUTHOR(S) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NJMEl’, ’" QDL David H. Parrish, FIC 9. PERFORM;NG ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROE,𔃾M...rates. We can however, minimize these impacts by knowing and understanding how to legally apply the tax laws to our economic benefit. 5). Failure to keep

  9. Application of modified shell vial culture procedure for arbovirus detection.

    PubMed

    Caceda, Edna R; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2007-10-17

    The isolation of arboviruses from patient's low titer sera can be difficult. Here we compared the detection efficiency of Dengue (DEN), Yellow Fever (YF), Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE), West Nile (WN), Ilheus (ILH), Group C (GC), Oropouche (ORO), Mayaro (MAY) and Venezuela Encephalitis Equine (VEE) viruses using a Modified Shell Vial Culture (MSVC) protocol to a Standard Cell Culture (SCC) protocol. First the MSVC and SCC protocols were compared using five dilutions for each of the following stock viruses: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN, ILH, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE. Next, patients' original sera from which viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, YF, GC, ORO, MAY and VEE) had been previously isolated were compare by the two methods using five sera dilutions. In addition, seven sera that were positive for DEN-3 by RT-PCR and negative by SCC were processed by MSVC. The MSVC protocol was consistently 1-2 logs higher virus dilution more sensitive for virus detection than the SCC protocol for all stock Flaviviruses tested (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, YF, SLE, WN and ILH). MSVC was equal to or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC for the stock Bunyaviruses (GC and ORO). For the stock Alphavirus MAY, MSVC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than SCC, while for VEE SCC was equally or one log more sensitive for virus detection than MSVC. MSVC was consistently one to two sera dilutions more sensitive than SCC for the detection of Flaviviruses from patients' sera. Both methods were approximately equally sensitive for the detection of Bunyaviruses from patients' sera and equal or one dilution less sensitive for the detection of Alphaviruses from patients' sera. Additionally, MSVC detected DEN virus in five of seven DEN-3 RT-PCR positive, SCC negative patients' sera.

  10. Introduction of mutations into the non-structural genes or 3' untranslated region of an attenuated dengue virus type 4 vaccine candidate further decreases replication in rhesus monkeys while retaining protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kathryn A; Manlucu, Luella R; Manipon, Gracielle G; Hanson, Christopher T; Whitehead, Stephen S; Murphy, Brian R; Blaney, Joseph E

    2004-09-03

    A dengue virus vaccine candidate, rDEN4Delta30, has been previously reported to be safe and immunogenic in humans, but a subset of vaccinees developed asymptomatic rash, elevation of liver enzymes and/or mild neutropenia. In the current study, mutations that had previously been shown to reduce replication of DEN4 virus in suckling mice and/or in SCID mice engrafted with human liver cells (SCID-HuH-7 mice) were introduced into rDEN4Delta30 in an attempt to further attenuate this virus. Three of the five resulting modified rDEN4Delta30 viruses showed decreased replication in SCID-HuH-7 mice relative to rDEN4Delta30. Moreover, in rhesus monkeys, two of the modified rDEN4Delta30 viruses showed a decrease in replication relative to rDEN4Delta30 while generating levels of neutralizing antibody similar to rDEN4Delta30 virus. All of the modified rDEN4Delta30 viruses completely protected immunized rhesus monkeys from challenge with wild-type DEN4 virus. Based on their attenuation for both human liver cells and rhesus monkeys, two of the modified rDEN4Delta30 vaccine candidates are currently being prepared for use in clinical trials. The application of these attenuating mutations to flavivirus vaccine development is discussed.

  11. Interferon-dependent immunity is essential for resistance to primary dengue virus infection in mice, whereas T- and B-cell-dependent immunity are less critical.

    PubMed

    Shresta, Sujan; Kyle, Jennifer L; Snider, Heidi M; Basavapatna, Manasa; Beatty, P Robert; Harris, Eva

    2004-03-01

    Dengue virus (DEN) causes dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, which are major public health problems worldwide. The immune factors that control DEN infection or contribute to severe disease are neither well understood nor easy to examine in humans. In this study, we used wild-type and congenic mice lacking various components of the immune system to study the immune mechanisms in the response to DEN infection. Our results demonstrate that alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) and IFN-gamma receptors have critical, nonoverlapping functions in resolving primary DEN infection. Furthermore, we show that IFN-alpha/beta receptor-mediated action limits initial DEN replication in extraneural sites and controls subsequent viral spread into the central nervous system (CNS). In contrast, IFN-gamma receptor-mediated responses seem to act at later stages of DEN disease by restricting viral replication in the periphery and eliminating virus from the CNS. Mice deficient in B, CD4(+) T, or CD8(+) T cells had no increased susceptibility to DEN; however, RAG mice (deficient in both B and T cells) were partially susceptible to DEN infection. In summary, (i) IFN-alpha/beta is critical for early immune responses to DEN infection, (ii) IFN-gamma-mediated immune responses are crucial for both early and late clearance of DEN infection in mice, and (iii) the IFN system plays a more important role than T- and B-cell-dependent immunity in resistance to primary DEN infection in mice.

  12. Trends in Dengue Cases Imported into the United States from Pan America 2001–2012

    PubMed Central

    van Dodewaard, Caitlin A.M.; Richards, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve risk assessments of travel on dengue (DEN) virus (DENV) distribution. We investigated the exposure risk of US citizens traveling to DEN-endemic Pan American countries. The number of DEN cases reported in 51 Pan American countries from 2001 to 2012 was compared to the population of the same countries. The number of US travelers visiting the Pan American countries was categorized by region, and travel-related DEN infections were analyzed. US residents visiting the Dominican Republic exhibited the highest traveler-related DEN incidence. Brazil showed the most DEN cases in its residents (>1 million reported cases in 2010). The number of DEN cases continues to rise as does international travel and the geographic range of potential DENV vectors. DENV risk assessments may be improved by analyzing the possible routes of entry. Underreporting remains an issue for calculating DENV transmission risk by country and region. PMID:26766913

  13. High Genetic Stability of Dengue Virus Propagated in MRC-5 Cells as Compared to the Virus Propagated in Vero Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Michael; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2008-01-01

    This work investigated the replication kinetics of the four dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1 to DEN-4), including dengue virus type 4 (DEN-4) recovered from an infectious cDNA clone, in Vero cells and in MRC-5 cells grown on Cytodex 1 microcarriers. DEN-1 strain Hawaii, DEN-2 strain NGC, DEN-3 strain H-87, and DEN-4 strain H-241 , and DEN-4 strain 814669 derived from cloned DNA, were used to infect Vero cells and MRC-5 cells grown in serum-free or serum-containing microcarrier cultures. Serum-free and serum-containing cultures were found to yield comparable titers of these viruses. The cloned DNA-derived DEN-4 started genetically more homogeneous was used to investigate the genetic stability of the virus propagated in Vero cells and MRC-5 cells. Sequence analysis revealed that the DEN-4 propagated in MRC-5 cells maintained a high genetic stability, compared to the virus propagated in Vero cells. Amino acid substitutions of Gly104Cys and Phe108Ile were detected at 70%, 60%, respectively, in the envelope (E) protein of DEN-4 propagated in Vero cells, whereas a single mutation of Glu345Lys was detected at 50% in E of the virus propagated in MRC-5 cells. Sequencing of multiple clones of three separate DNA fragments spanning 40% of the genome also indicated that DEN-4 propagated in Vero cells contained a higher number of mutations than the virus growing in MRC-5 cells. Although Vero cells yielded a peak virus titer approximately 1 to 17 folds higher than MRC-5 cells, cloned DEN-4 from MRC-5 cells maintained a greater stability than the virus from Vero cells. Serum-free microcarrier cultures of MRC-5 cells offer a potentially valuable system for the large-scale production of live-attenuated DEN vaccines. PMID:18350148

  14. Diverse fates of uracilated HIV-1 DNA during infection of myeloid lineage cells

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Erik C; Ransom, Monica; Hesselberth, Jay R; Hosmane, Nina N; Capoferri, Adam A; Bruner, Katherine M; Pollack, Ross A; Zhang, Hao; Drummond, Michael Bradley; Siliciano, Janet M; Siliciano, Robert; Stivers, James T

    2016-01-01

    We report that a major subpopulation of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) contains high levels of dUTP, which is incorporated into HIV-1 DNA during reverse transcription (U/A pairs), resulting in pre-integration restriction and post-integration mutagenesis. After entering the nucleus, uracilated viral DNA products are degraded by the uracil base excision repair (UBER) machinery with less than 1% of the uracilated DNA successfully integrating. Although uracilated proviral DNA showed few mutations, the viral genomic RNA was highly mutated, suggesting that errors occur during transcription. Viral DNA isolated from blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages (but not T cells) of drug-suppressed HIV-infected individuals also contained abundant uracils. The presence of viral uracils in short-lived monocytes suggests their recent infection through contact with virus producing cells in a tissue reservoir. These findings reveal new elements of a viral defense mechanism involving host UBER that may be relevant to the establishment and persistence of HIV-1 infection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18447.001 PMID:27644592

  15. A membrane-free, continuously feeding, single chamber up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor for nitrobenzene reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Jie; Cui, Dan; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Guo, Yu-Qi; Kong, Fan-Ying; Ren, Nan-Qi; Wu, Wei-Min

    2012-01-15

    A new bioelectrochemical system (BES), a membrane-free, continuous feeding up-flow biocatalyzed electrolysis reactor (UBER) was developed to reduce oxidative toxic chemicals to less- or non-toxic reduced form in cathode zone with oxidation of electron donor in anode zone. Influent was fed from the bottom of UBER and passed through cathode zone and then anode zone. External power source (0.5 V) was provided between anode and cathode to enhance electrochemical reactions. Granular graphite and carbon brush were used as cathode and anode, respectively. This system was tested for the reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) using acetate as electron donor and carbon source. The influent contained NB (50-200 mg L(-1)) and acetate (1000 mg L(-1)). NB was removed by up to 98% mainly in cathode zone. The anode potential maintained under -480 mV. The maximum NB removal rate was up to 3.5 mol m(-3) TV d(-1) (TV=total empty volume) and the maximum aniline (AN) formation rate was 3.06 mol m(-3) TV d(-1). Additional energy required was less than 0.075 kWh mol(-1)NB. The molar ratio of NB removed vs acetate consumed varied from 4.3 ± 0.4 to 2.3 ± 0.1 mol mol(-1). Higher influent phosphate or acetate concentration helped NB removal rate. NB could be efficiently reduced to AN as the power supplied of 0.3 V.

  16. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  17. Huong Dan Cho Phu Huynh Ve Thanh Qua La Viec Quan Trong Nhat: Ke hoach giao duc cua Maryland cho cac lop chuan bi hoc mau giao den lop 12, 2002-2003. (A Parent's Guide to Achievement Matters Most: Maryland's Plan for PreK-12 Education, 2002-2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    To raise the achievement of every student in the state, Maryland implemented "Achievement Matters Most," a new plan for public elementary and secondary schools that sets goals in the areas of achievement, teaching, testing, safety, and family involvement in schools. This Vietnamese-language guide for parents outlines the goals and…

  18. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Model von Trichomonas Vaginalis. II. Mitteilung: Experimente mit der Vitamin K-Gruppe (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. II. Communication: Experiments with the Vitamin K-Group),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    K4 essential reduction of multiplication of Trichomonas vaginalis was observed within a range of 0.25 and 0.35 mg/ml, from 0.40 mg/ml onward single...The aim of the investigation was to test the relationship between the individual K-vitamins K1, K3, K4 and K5 and Trichomonas analytically. The...show any remarkable differences between the control culture and the test series (Table 1) in Trichomonas multiplication. With vitamin K3 gradually

  19. Experiment ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. IV. Mitteilung: Vitamine, die das Wachstum von Trichomonas Vaginalis Beguenstigen (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. IV. Communication: Vitamins Favouring the Growth of Trichomonas Vaginalis),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A number of vitamins have been investigated for their influence upon Trichomonas vaginalis . At a concentration of 0.20 mg ml vitamin A has...stimulating action upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Vitamin D2 has been shown to favour Trichomonas multiplication in all experimental series...Vitamin D3 generally favours the Trichomonas vaginalis population. Addition of vitamin E resulted in enhanced multiplication of Trichomonas and longer

  20. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. V. Mitteilung: Beziehungen der Vitamin-B-Kemplexe zu Trichomonas Vaginalis (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. V. Communication: Relationship between Vitamin-B-Complexes and Trichomonas Vaginalis),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    vitamin B1 clear evidence of any influence upon Trichomonas growth could not be obtained. Choline favours the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . In...0.20 mg/ml onward liponic acid had inhibiting effect upon Trichomonas . Carnitine chloride favoured the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . (Modified author abstract)...The present study was concerned with the relationship between the vitamins of the B-complex and Trichomonas . From the results obtained in studies on

  1. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. I. Mitteilung Experimente mit dem Vitamin B2-Komplex (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas vaginalis. I. Communication: Experiments with the Vitamin-B2-Complex),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    pathogenic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis have been studied. Material and methods are described in the paper. The efficacy of the individual admixtures from the vitamin-B2-complex is subsequently discussed. (Author)

  2. "Bringing Boys Back In". Soziale Ungleichheit Zwischen den Geschlechtern im Bildungssystem Zuungunsten von Jungen am Beispiel der Sekundarschulabschlusse ("Bringing Boys Back In". Social Inequality between the Sexes in the Educational System to the Disadvantage of Boys as Illustrated by Graduation from Secondary Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefenbach, Heike; Klein, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Shows that in the German educational system, boys are at a disadvantage with girls. Explains that boys often leave secondary school without a final degree. Concludes that the smaller the proportion of male elementary teachers and the higher the rate of unemployment, the lower the achievement of boys in secondary schools. (CAJ)

  3. Chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus as a candidate dengue vaccine: quantitation of the dengue virus-specific CD8 T-cell response.

    PubMed

    van Der Most, R G; Murali-Krishna, K; Ahmed, R; Strauss, J H

    2000-09-01

    We have constructed a chimeric yellow fever/dengue (YF/DEN) virus, which expresses the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes from DEN type 2 (DEN-2) virus in a YF virus (YFV-17D) genetic background. Immunization of BALB/c mice with this chimeric virus induced a CD8 T-cell response specific for the DEN-2 virus prM and E proteins. This response protected YF/DEN virus-immunized mice against lethal dengue encephalitis. Control mice immunized with the parental YFV-17D were not protected against DEN-2 virus challenge, indicating that protection was mediated by the DEN-2 virus prM- and E-specific immune responses. YF/DEN vaccine-primed CD8 T cells expanded and were efficiently recruited into the central nervous systems of DEN-2 virus challenged mice. At 5 days after challenge, 3 to 4% of CD8 T cells in the spleen were specific for the prM and E proteins, and 34% of CD8 T cells in the central nervous system recognized these proteins. Depletion of either CD4 or CD8 T cells, or both, strongly reduced the protective efficacy of the YF/DEN virus, stressing the key role of the antiviral T-cell response.

  4. Dengue Type 4 Live-Attenuated Vaccine Viruses Passaged in Vero Cells Affect Genetic Stability and Dengue-Induced Hemorrhaging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Chi; Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Wen-Yu; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Most live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines in current clinical trials are produced from Vero cells. In a previous study we demonstrated that an infectious cDNA clone-derived dengue type 4 (DEN-4) virus retains higher genetic stability in MRC-5 cells than in Vero cells. For this study we investigated two DEN-4 viruses: the infectious cDNA clone-derived DEN-4 2A and its derived 3′ NCR 30-nucleotide deletion mutant DEN-4 2AΔ30, a vaccine candidate. Mutations in the C-prM-E, NS2B-NS3, and NS4B-NS5 regions of the DEN genome were sequenced and compared following cell passages in Vero and MRC-5 cells. Our results indicate stronger genetic stability in both viruses following MRC-5 cell passages, leading to significantly lower RNA polymerase error rates when the DEN-4 virus is used for genome replication. Although no significant increases in virus titers were observed following cell passages, DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 virus titers following Vero cell passages were 17-fold to 25-fold higher than titers following MRC-5 cell passages. Neurovirulence for DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 viruses increased significantly following passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. In addition, more severe DEN-induced hemorrhaging in mice was noted following DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. Target mutagenesis performed on the DEN-4 2A infectious clone indicated that single point mutation of E-Q438H, E-V463L, NS2B-Q78H, and NS2B-A113T imperatively increased mouse hemorrhaging severity. The relationship between amino acid mutations acquired during Vero cell passage and enhanced DEN-induced hemorrhages in mice may be important for understanding DHF pathogenesis, as well as for the development of live-attenuated dengue vaccines. Taken together, the genetic stability, virus yield, and DEN-induced hemorrhaging all require further investigation in the context of live-attenuated DEN vaccine development. PMID:22053180

  5. Dengue type 4 live-attenuated vaccine viruses passaged in vero cells affect genetic stability and dengue-induced hemorrhaging in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Chi; Yen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Wen-Yu; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Most live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines in current clinical trials are produced from Vero cells. In a previous study we demonstrated that an infectious cDNA clone-derived dengue type 4 (DEN-4) virus retains higher genetic stability in MRC-5 cells than in Vero cells. For this study we investigated two DEN-4 viruses: the infectious cDNA clone-derived DEN-4 2A and its derived 3' NCR 30-nucleotide deletion mutant DEN-4 2AΔ30, a vaccine candidate. Mutations in the C-prM-E, NS2B-NS3, and NS4B-NS5 regions of the DEN genome were sequenced and compared following cell passages in Vero and MRC-5 cells. Our results indicate stronger genetic stability in both viruses following MRC-5 cell passages, leading to significantly lower RNA polymerase error rates when the DEN-4 virus is used for genome replication. Although no significant increases in virus titers were observed following cell passages, DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 virus titers following Vero cell passages were 17-fold to 25-fold higher than titers following MRC-5 cell passages. Neurovirulence for DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 viruses increased significantly following passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. In addition, more severe DEN-induced hemorrhaging in mice was noted following DEN-4 2A and DEN-4 2AΔ30 passages in Vero cells compared to passages in MRC-5 cells. Target mutagenesis performed on the DEN-4 2A infectious clone indicated that single point mutation of E-Q(438)H, E-V(463)L, NS2B-Q(78)H, and NS2B-A(113)T imperatively increased mouse hemorrhaging severity. The relationship between amino acid mutations acquired during Vero cell passage and enhanced DEN-induced hemorrhages in mice may be important for understanding DHF pathogenesis, as well as for the development of live-attenuated dengue vaccines. Taken together, the genetic stability, virus yield, and DEN-induced hemorrhaging all require further investigation in the context of live-attenuated DEN vaccine development.

  6. A 4D-Ensemble-Variational System for Data Assimilation and Ensemble Initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Neill; Clayton, Adam; Jardak, Mohamed; Lee, Eunjoo; Jermey, Peter; Lorenc, Andrew; Piccolo, Chiara; Pring, Stephen; Wlasak, Marek; Barker, Dale; Inverarity, Gordon; Swinbank, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Met Office has been developing a four-dimensional ensemble variational (4DEnVar) data assimilation system over the past four years. The 4DEnVar system is intended both as data assimilation system in its own right and also an improved means of initializing the Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS). The global MOGREPS ensemble has been initialized by running an ensemble of 4DEnVars (En-4DEnVar). The scalability and maintainability of ensemble data assimilation methods make them increasingly attractive, and 4DEnVar may be adopted in the context of the Met Office's LFRic project to redevelop the technical infrastructure to enable its Unified Model (MetUM) to be run efficiently on massively parallel supercomputers. This presentation will report on the results of the 4DEnVar development project, including experiments that have been run using ensemble sizes of up to 200 members.

  7. World Reference Center for Arboviruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Tyuleniy 32+/32+ Langat 16/32+ 32+/32+ Louping ill 8/16 Zika 8/4 32+/32+ West Nile 32+/32+ Tembusu 8/4 Reciprocal of serum titer/reciprocal of antigen titer...yellow fever, and dengue 1 viruses; the following were negative: Banzi, Spondweni, Zika , Wesselsbron, Dengue 2 and 3, Ntaya and Kadam. A...Antigens NC Ar 250 DEN-i DEN-2 DEN-4 NC Ar 250 256/4b 32/16 4/16 32/16 DEN-i 64/16 16/16 DEN-2 32/16 16/16 DEN-4 512/64 32/64 aKunjin, West Nile, and Zika

  8. Seasonal regulation of the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in the American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Stanley; Morgan-Boyd, Rebecca; Nelson, Ralph; Garshelis, David L; Turyk, Mary E; Unterman, Terry

    2011-10-01

    The American black bear maintains lean body mass for months without food during winter denning. We asked whether changes in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis may contribute to this remarkable adaptation to starvation. Serum IGF-I levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) were analyzed by ligand blotting. Initial studies in bears living in the wild showed that IGF-I levels are highest in summer and lowest in early winter denning. Detailed studies in captive bears showed that IGF-I levels decline in autumn when bears are hyperphagic, continue to decline in early denning, and later rise above predenning levels despite continued starvation in the den. IGFBP-2 increased and IGFBP-3 decreased in early denning, and these changes were also reversed in later denning. Treatment with GH (0.1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) × 6 days) during early denning increased serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lowered levels of IGFBP-2, indicating that denning bears remain responsive to GH. GH treatment lowered blood urea nitrogen levels, reflecting effects on protein metabolism. GH also accelerated weight loss and markedly increased serum levels of free fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate, resulting in a ketoacidosis (bicarbonate decreased to 15 meq/l), which was reversed when GH was withdrawn. These results demonstrate seasonal regulation of GH/IGF-I axis activity in black bears. Diminished GH activity may promote fat storage in autumn in preparation for denning and prevent excessive mobilization and premature exhaustion of fat stores in early denning, whereas restoration of GH/IGF activity in later denning may prepare the bear for normal activity outside the den.

  9. Wolfgang Pauli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enz, Charles P.

    2000-11-01

    Wolfgang Pauli gehört zu den bedeutendsten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts. Erst das von ihm entdeckte Ausschließungsprinzip erklärt den Aufbau des Periodensystems der Elemente. Darüber hinaus legte er den Grundstein für die Quantenfeldtheorie. Privat zeigte sich Pauli als bissiger und humorvoller Mensc gleichermaßen, und sein Hang zur Psychoanalyse lässt ihn überdies als interessante Persönlichkeit erscheinen.

  10. Physikgeschichte Das Rätsel bleibt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2002-05-01

    Die jüngst erfolgte Veröffentlichung von Dokumenten aus dem Privatarchiv der Familie Bohr [1] über den geheimnisumwitterten Besuch von Werner Heisenberg in Kopenhagen im September 1941 hat in den deutschen Medien große Resonanz gefunden [2]. Tatsächlich verraten uns die jetzt veröffentlichten Dokumente sehr viel mehr über die Zeit ihres Entstehens als über den Besuch selbst.

  11. Leader Actions to Enhance Soldier Resiliency in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    become involved in recognizing and solving problems. As Den Hartog et al’s. (1999) multicultural study points out, a universally disliked...across cultures is for a leader to be a team-builder (Den Hartog et al., 1999). Team building by its very nature must be inclusive to be effective...Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618-634. [14] Den Hartog , D.N

  12. A Perspective on the Numerical and Experimental Characteristics of Multi-Mode Dry-Friction Whip and Whirl

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    whip or whirl. The next efforts on the subject were those of Baker [8] and Den Hartog [9], who established the principles of reverse whirl from an...intuitive perspective. Using a simple geometrical model of the rotor-stator contact plane, Baker and Den Hartog derived the kinematic constraint...Using a model similar to the one given in Figure 1, Baker [8] and Den Hartog [9] proposed the following. ω S O ( ) STATOR FIXED ROTOR Ω N FF RO P X

  13. Red fox spatial characteristics in relation to waterfowl predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    Radio-equipped red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on the Cedar Creek area in Minnesota were spatially distributed, with individual families occupying well defined, nonoverlapping, contiguous territories. Territory boundaries often conformed to natural physical boundaries and appeared to be maintained through some nonaggressive behavior mechanism. Individual foxes traveled extensively throughout the family territory each night. Fox territories appeared to range from approximately 1 to 3 square miles in size, dependent largely on population density. Red foxes used a sequence of dens to rear their pups, and the amount and location of food remains at individual dens changed as the pups matured. The denning season was divided into pre-emergence, confined-use, and dispersed-use periods of 4 to 5 weeks each. Remains of adult waterfowl were collected at rearing dens on six townships in three ecologically different regions of eastern North Dakota. Remains of 172 adult dabbling ducks and 16 adult American coots (Fulica americana) were found at 35 dens. No remains from diving ducks were found. The number of adult ducks per den averaged 1.6, 5.9, and 10.2 for paired townships in regions with relatively low, moderate and high duck populations, respectively. Eighty-four percent of the ducks were females. The species and sex composition of ducks found at dens during early and late sampling periods reflected the nesting chronology of prairie dabbling ducks. Occupied rearing dens were focal points of red fox travel, and the locations of dens may have had considerable influence on predation. Thirty-five of 38 dens found on the six township study areas were on pastured or idle lands. The distribution of rearing dens on the Sand Lake and Arrowwood national wildlife refuges suggested that, on these areas, fox dens were concentrated because of the topography and land-use practices.

  14. Cyclooxygenase 2 and Prostaglandin E2 are not Involved in N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Initiated Early Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kumiko; Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Takahashi, Satoru; Asamoto, Makoto; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with nimesulide or eugenol on N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-initiated early hepatocarcinogenesis in F344 male rats. Both compounds did not alter the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1, the enzyme that plays a major role in the activation of DEN to genotoxic products; however, nimesulide induced the expression of CYP1A1. Western blot analysis revealed that COX-1 and COX-2 protein expressions were not modulated by DEN compared with normal controls. Furthermore, post-initiation feeding with nimesulide or eugenol did not modulate COX-2 protein expression in normal or DEN-treated rats, whereas eugenol significantly increased the liver prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels of DEN-injected animals compared with the DEN controls. Ultimately, nimesulide or eugenol did not modify DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis as evidenced by insignificant changes in the number and size of preneoplastic placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive liver foci compared with the DEN controls. These results suggest that COX-2, as well as prostaglandin E2, may play no role in the post-initiation development of DEN-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis at an early stage. PMID:22272001

  15. Magnetic Materials in sustainable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2012-02-01

    A new energy paradigm, consisting of greater reliance on renewable energy sources and increased concern for energy efficiency in the total energy lifecycle, has accelerated research in energy-related technologies. Due to their ubiquity, magnetic materials play an important role in improving the efficiency and performance of devices in electric power generation, conversion and transportation. Magnetic materials are essential components of energy applications (i.e. motors, generators, transformers, actuators, etc.) and improvements in magnetic materials will have significant impact in this area, on par with many ``hot'' energy materials efforts. The talk focuses on the state-of-the-art hard and soft magnets and magnetocaloric materials with an emphasis on their optimization for energy applications. Specifically, the impact of hard magnets on electric motor and transportation technologies, of soft magnetic materials on electricity generation and conversion technologies, and of magnetocaloric materials for refrigeration technologies, will be discussed. The synthesis, characterization, and property evaluation of the materials, with an emphasis on structure-property relationships, will be examined in the context of their respective markets as well as their potential impact on energy efficiency. Finally, considering future bottle-necks in raw materials and in the supply chain, options for recycling of rare-earth metals will be analyzed.ootnotetextO. Gutfleisch, J.P. Liu, M. Willard, E. Bruck, C. Chen, S.G. Shankar, Magnetic Materials and Devices for the 21st Century: Stronger, Lighter, and More Energy Efficient (review), Adv. Mat. 23 (2011) 821-842.

  16. Clinical application of amniotic membranes on a patient with epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pardo, M E; Reyes Frías, M L; Ramos Durón, L E; Gutiérrez Salgado, E; Gómez, J C; Marín, M A; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The case of a patient with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa treated with radiosterilised amniotic membranes is presented. The disorder is a congenital disease characterised by a poor desmosomal junction in the keratinocyte membrane. After proper donor screening, amnios were collected at Hospital Central Sur de Alta Especialidad (HCSAE), PEMEX and microbiological analysis was performed at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, FQUNAM, (Biology Dept. of the Chemistry Faculty, National Autonomous University of Mexico), before and after radiation sterilisation. Processing, packaging and sterilisation were performed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, ININ, (National Nuclear Research Institute). The patient, a ten-year-old boy with severe malnutrition, extensive loss of skin and pseudomonad infection in the whole body, was treated with gentle debridement in a Hubbard bath. Later amnion application was performed with sterilised amnios by using two different processes, in one of which the amnion was sterilised with paracetic acid, preserved in glycerol, kindly donated by the German Institute for Tissue and Cell Replacement and applied by Dr. Johannes C. Bruck, IAEA visiting expert, and the other amnion was processed at ININ: air dried and sterilised by gamma radiation at dose of 30 kGy. After spontaneous epithelisation was successfully promoted for seven days, the pain was alleviated and mobility was improved in a few hours and the patient's general condition was so improved that in a month he was discharged. Unfortunately, because this disease is revertive and has malignant degeneration, the prognosis is not good.

  17. FKBP65-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity potentiates the lysyl hydroxylase 2-driven collagen cross-link switch

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Banerjee, Priyam; Guo, Houfu; Liu, Xin; Yu, Jiang; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Bruck Syndrome is a connective tissue disease associated with inactivating mutations in lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2/PLOD2) or FK506 binding protein 65 (FKBP65/FKBP10). However, the functional relationship between LH2 and FKBP65 remains unclear. Here, we postulated that peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity of FKBP65 positively modulates LH2 enzymatic activity and is critical for the formation of hydroxylysine-aldehyde derived intermolecular collagen cross-links (HLCCs). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed collagen cross-links in Fkbp10-null and –wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts. Although LH2 protein levels did not change, FKBP65 deficiency significantly diminished HLCCs and increased the non-hydroxylated lysine-aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (LCCs), a pattern consistent with loss of LH2 enzymatic activity. The HLCC-to-LCC ratio was rescued in FKBP65-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts by reconstitution with wild-type but not mutant FKBP65 that lacks intact PPIase domains. Findings from co-immunoprecipitation, protein-fragment complementation, and co-immunofluorescence assays showed that LH2 and FKBP65 are part of a common protein complex. We conclude that FKBP65 regulates LH2-mediated collagen cross-linking. Because LH2 promotes fibrosis and cancer metastasis, our findings suggest that pharmacologic strategies to target FKBP65 and LH2 may have complementary therapeutic activities. PMID:28378777

  18. All Effects of Psychophysical Variables on Color Attributes: A Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Pridmore, Ralph W.; Melgosa, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the research and structuring of a classification system for the effects of psychophysical variables on the color attributes. A basic role of color science is to psychophysically specify color appearance. An early stage is to specify the effects of the psychophysical variables (as singles, pairs, etc) on the color attributes (as singles, pairs, etc), for example to model color appearance. Current data on effects are often scarce or conflicting. Few effects are well understood, and the practice of naming effects after their discoverer(s) is inadequate and can be confusing. The number and types of possible effects have never been systematically analyzed and categorized. We propose a simple and rigorous system of classification including nomenclature. The total range of effects is computed from the possible combinations of three psychophysical variables (luminance, dominant wavelength, purity) and six color attributes (lightness, brightness, hue, chroma, colorfulness, saturation) in all modes of appearance. Omitting those effects that are normally impossible to perceive at any one time (such as four- or five-dimensional colors), the total number perceivable is 161 types of effects for all modes of appearance. The type of effect is named after the psychophysical stimulus (or stimuli) and the relevant color attribute(s), e.g., Luminance-on-hue effect (traditionally known as Bezold-Brucke effect). Each type of effect may include slightly different effects with infinite variations depending on experimental parameters. PMID:25859845

  19. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Ultrahigh Selectivity - Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard M. Crooks

    2007-04-11

    (A) Synthesis, Characterization, and Fundamental Properties of Bimetallic DENs. AuAg alloy and core/shell bimetallic DENs were synthesized and characterized. Selective extraction was used as a structural characterization tool for these bimetallic nanoparticles. This is significant because there are few easily accessible methods for structure elucidation of bimetallic nanoparticles in this size regime. As a first step towards the synthesis of catalytically active, bimetallic heterogeneous materials we reported the incorporation of Au and Pd monometallic DENs and AuPd bimetallic DENs into amorphous titania networks. The compositional fidelity of the original DENs, and to some extent their size, is retained following dendrimer removal. Gas-phase catalytic activity for CO oxidation is higher for the bimetallic catalysts than for the corresponding Pd-only and Au-only monometallics. (B) Electrocatalysts based on dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles. Platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) were prepared within fourth-generation, hydroxyl-terminated, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes using an electrochemical immobilization strategy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and electrochemical experiments confirm that the Pt DENs are about 1.4 nm in diameter and that they remain within the dendrimer following surface immobilization. The resulting Pt DEN films were electrocatalytically active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The films are also robust, surviving up to 50 consecutive cyclic voltammograms and sonication. Monometallic Pd DENs were also prepared and found to have little catalytic activity for the ORR. However, PtPd bimetallic DENs had catalytic activity nearly identical to that found for Pt-only DENs. This indicates an overall catalytic enhancement for the bimetallic electrocatalysts.

  20. Identification and immunogenicity of two new HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes on dengue NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Zeng, Gucheng; Pang, Xianwu; Liang, Mifang; Zhou, Junmei; Fang, Danyun; Liu, Yan; Li, Dexin; Jiang, Lifang

    2012-04-01

    Immunopathogenesis of dengue virus (DEN) infection remains poorly studied. Identification and characterization of human CD8(+) T-cell epitopes on DEN are necessary for a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of dengue infection and would facilitate the development of immunotherapy and vaccines to protect from dengue infection. Here, we identified two new HLA-A*0201-restricted CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, DEN-4 NS1(990)(-998) and DEN-4 NS1(997)(-1005) that are conserved in three or four major DEN serotypes, respectively. Unexpectedly, we found that immunization of HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice with DEN-4 NS1(990)(-998) or DEN-4 NS1(997)(-1005) epitope peptide induced de novo synthesis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ, two important pro-inflammatory molecules that are hard to be detected directly without in vitro antigenic re-stimulation. Importantly, we demonstrated that CD8(+) T cells specifically activated by DEN-4 NS1(990)(-998) or DEN-4 NS1(997)(-1005) epitope peptide induced de novo synthesis of perforin. Furthermore, we observed that DEN-4 NS1(990)(-998) or DEN-4 NS1(997)(-1005)-specific CD8(+) T cells capable of producing large amounts of perforin, TNF-α and IFN-γ preferentially displayed CD27(+)CD45RA(-), but not CD27(-)CD45RA(+), phenotypes. This study, therefore, suggested the importance of synergistic effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules which were produced by dengue-specific CD8(+) T cells in immunopathogenesis or anti-dengue immunity during dengue infection.

  1. Size effects and strain localization in atomic-scale cleavage modeling.

    PubMed

    Elsner, B A M; Müller, S

    2015-09-04

    In this work, we study the adhesion and decohesion of Cu(1 0 0) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. An upper stress to surface decohesion is obtained via the universal binding energy relation (UBER), but the model is limited to rigid separation of bulk-terminated surfaces. When structural relaxations are included, an unphysical size effect arises if decohesion is considered to occur as soon as the strain energy equals the energy of the newly formed surfaces. We employ the nudged elastic band (NEB) method to show that this size effect is opposed by a size-dependency of the energy barriers involved in the transition. Further, we find that the transition occurs via a localization of bond strain in the vicinity of the cleavage plane, which resembles the strain localization at the tip of a sharp crack that is predicted by linear elastic fracture mechanics.

  2. Gregor Mendel's classic paper and the nature of science in genetics courses.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Julie F; Fairbanks, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    The discoveries of Gregor Mendel, as described by Mendel in his 1866 paper Versuche uber Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on plant hybrids), can be used in undergraduate genetics and biology courses to engage students about specific nature of science characteristics and their relationship to four of his major contributions to genetics. The use of primary source literature as an instructional tool to enhance genetics students' understanding of the nature of science helps students more clearly understand how scientists work and how the science of genetics has evolved as a discipline. We offer a historical background of how the nature of science developed as a concept and show how Mendel's investigations of heredity can enrich biology and genetics courses by exemplifying the nature of science.

  3. Freud's "bad conscience": The case of Nietzsche's Genealogy.

    PubMed

    Greer, Scott

    2002-01-01

    This article develops the argument that Friedrich Nietzsche influenced several aspects of Freud's later writings by illustrating, in particular, the impact of Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morals on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents. The theoretical and conceptual schemes represented in Freud's Discontents are found to bear a remarkable similarity to Nietzsche's Genealogy on a number of highly specific points. It is suggested that "DAS ES," "Uber-ich," and "bad conscience," concepts central to Freud's moral theory of mind, are at least partly derived from Nietzsche. Moreover, Freud's phylogenetic theory of guilt is based upon premises found in Nietzsche, as are specific details relating to ideas on human prehistory and the ancestral family. Based on this evidence, a re-examination of the moral and social dimensions of Freud's "structural" model may be in order.

  4. Unconventional Cyber Warfare: Cyber Opportunities in Unconventional Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Dorothy Denning Second Reader: Doowan Lee THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704–0188 Public...Approved by: Dorothy Denning Thesis Advisor Doowan Lee Second Reader John Arquilla Chair, Department of Defense Analysis iii THIS PAGE...markup language ICT information communication technology IDS intrusion detection service IP Internet protocol IRC Internet relay chat ISP

  5. Investigation of Pharmaceutical Residues in Hospital Effluents, in Ground- and Drinking Water from Bundeswehr Facilities, and their Removal During Drinking Water Purification (Arzneimittelrueckstaende in Trinkwasser(versorgungsanlagen) und Krankenhausabwaessern der Bundeswehr: Methodenentwicklung - Verkommen - Wasseraufbereitung)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    der Untersuchungen der TU-Bedin ( Ibuprofen [ngL) ......................................................................................... 182...Berechnete Arzneimittelfrachten fOr den Parameter Erythromycin ... 257 Tabelle 191. Berechnete Arzneimittelfrachten fOr den Parameter Ibuprofen ...wie Acetylsalicylsiure oder Ibuprofen jthrlich in Deutschland bis zu Ober 900 t (BLAC, 2003). Arzneimittel stellen eine chemisch sehr diverse Gruppe

  6. Dissipative Particle Dynamics at Isothermal Conditions Using Shardlow-Like Splitting Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    15, 16), den Otter -Clarke integrator (17), first- and second- order Shardlow-splitting algorithms (SSAs) (18), and Lowe-Andersen integrator (19). Still...den Otter , W. K.; Clarke, J. H. R. A New Algorithm for Dissipative Particle Dynamics. Europhys. Lett. 2001, 53, 426. 18. Shardlow, T. Splitting

  7. HLA-D: The T Cell Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    technical and conceptual advances led to our present day understanding of the D region. Romosygots typing cells (HTCs) (Mempel at al. 1973; van den Tweel ...the different D-typed cells. J Exp Med 160:751 37. Van den Tweel JG, Blusse van Oed Alblas A, KeunIng JJ, Goulmy E, Termijtelen A, Bach ML, Jan Rood JJ

  8. Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by strains of Aedes albopictus recently introduced into Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C J; Miller, B R

    1990-06-01

    Three strains of Aedes albopictus from Brazil were examined for their ability to vertically transmit dengue 1 (DEN-1) and dengue 4 (DEN-4) viruses. Parental females were uniformly infected by parenteral inoculation of virus, and 8,121 F1 progeny from DEN-1 and DEN-4 infected mothers were pooled in lots of approximately 50 and tested for virus. Seven of 60 pools were positive for DEN-1 virus, and 1 of 121 pools was positive for DEN-4 virus. In DEN-1 assays, the minimum infection rate (MIR) for larvae (2 pools tested) was 1:84. Among positive cohorts of adults, pooled by sex and by geographic strain of mosquito, the MIR ranged from 1:193 to 1:626 for males and from 1:187 to 1:311 for females. Only a single pool of adult females was positive for DEN-4 virus (MIR 1:1022 for an adult female cohort from Santa Teresa). These results indicate that Brazilian Ae. albopictus have the potential to play a role in the maintenance of dengue viruses in nature.

  9. Rede und Gesinnung (Speech and Ways of Thinking)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzle, Bertram

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes some of the basic ideas in Georg Franklin's book "Versuch einer neuen Lehre von den vornehmsten Gegenstanden der deutschen Sprachlehre; nach den Regeln der Vernunftlehre in sechs Abhandlungen verfasst" (1778) and compares them to those of such modern linguists and philosophers a s Searle, Austin and Wunderlich. Concludes that…

  10. Effects of carnosine, taurine, and betaine pretreatments on diethylnitrosamine-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Başaran-Küçükgergin, C; Bingül, I; Tekkeşin, M Soluk; Olgaç, V; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, S; Uysal, M

    2016-08-01

    Several chemicals such as N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) promote hepatocellular cancer in rodents and induce hepatocyte injury. DEN affects the initiation stage of carcinogenesis together with enhanced cell proliferation accompanied by hepatocellular necrosis. DEN-induced hepatocellular necrosis is reported to be related to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. Carnosine (CAR), taurine (TAU), and betaine (BET) are known to have powerful antioxidant properties. We aimed to investigate the effects of CAR, TAU, and BET pretreatments on DEN-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in male rats. Rats were given CAR (2 g L(-1) in drinking water), TAU (2.5% in chow), and BET (2.5% in chow) for 6 weeks and DEN (200 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally) was given 2 days before the end of this period. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and γ-glutamyl transferase activities were determined and a histopathologic evaluation was performed on the liver tissue. Oxidative stress was detected in the liver by measuring malondialdehyde, diene conjugate, protein carbonyl and nitrotyrosine levels, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase activities. Pretreatments with CAR, TAU, and BET decreased liver prooxidant status without remarkable changes in antioxidant parameters in DEN-treated rats. Pretreatments with TAU and BET, but not CAR, were also found to be effective to reduce liver damage in DEN-treated rats. In conclusion, TAU, BET, and possibly CAR may have an ameliorating effect on DEN-induced hepatic injury by reducing oxidative stress in rats.

  11. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  12. Dietary restriction protects against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular tumorigenesis by restoring the disturbed gene expression profile

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ting; Sun, Wenjie; Zhang, Mohan; Ge, Juan; He, Yansu; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Yifan; Yang, Wei; Shen, Han-ming; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xinqiang; Yu, Peilin

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal and prevalent malignancies, worse still, there are very limited therapeutic measures with poor clinical outcomes. Dietary restriction (DR) has been known to inhibit spontaneous and induced tumors in several species, but the mechanisms are little known. In the current study, by using a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC mice model, we found that DR significantly reduced the hepatic tumor number and size, delayed tumor development, suppressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis. Further transcriptome sequencing of liver tissues from the DEN and the DEN accompanied with DR (DEN+DR) mice showed that DEN induced profound changes in the gene expression profile, especially in cancer-related pathways while DR treatment reversed most of the disturbed gene expression induced by DEN. Finally, transcription factor enrichment analysis uncovered the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) probably functioned as the main regulator of gene changes, orchestrating the protective effects of DR on DEN induced HCC. Taken together, by the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis, we elucidate that DR protects aginst DEN-induced HCC by restoring the disturbed gene expression profile, which holds the promise to provide effective molecular targets for cancer therapies. PMID:28262799

  13. Historisches Rätsel: Punkt, Punkt, Komma, Strich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Es kommt nicht oft vor, dass jemand unter 30 ist, wenn er den Physik-Nobelpreis erhält - auch, wenn Alfred Nobel eigentlich die Idee hatte, junge Entdeckertypen zu fördern. Beim Gesuchten hat es aber mal geklappt, und zwar gemeinsam mit seinem Vater. Mit 25 Jahren ist er bis heute der Benjamin unter den Noblen Herren.

  14. Antibody responses to an immunodominant nonstructural 1 synthetic peptide in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Huang, J H; Wey, J J; Sun, Y C; Chin, C; Chien, L J; Wu, Y C

    1999-01-01

    Two flaviviruses, dengue (DEN) virus and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, are important because of their global distribution and the frequency of epidemics in tropical and subtropical areas. To study the B-cell epitopes of nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein and anti-NS1 antibody response in DEN infection, a series of 15-mer synthetic peptides from the predicted B-cell linear epitopes of DEN-2 NS1 protein were prepared. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze antibody responses to these peptides from sera of both DEN and JE patients. One peptide derived from DEN-2 NS1, D2 NS1-P1 (amino acids 1-15), was identified as the immunodominant epitope that reacted with sera from dengue fever (DF) patients but not JE patients. The isotype of D2 NS1-P1-specific antibodies was mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) in all sera that tested positive. A specificity study demonstrated that sera from all four DEN types reacted with D2 NS1-P1. A dynamics study showed that specific antibodies to this peptide could be detected as early as 2 days after the onset of symptoms. We observed significant anti-D2 NS1-P1 antibody responses in 45% of patients with primary and secondary infections with DF or with dengue hemorrhagic fever. This is the first report demonstrating that significant anti-DEN NS1 antibodies can be induced in the sera of patients with primary DEN infection.

  15. Phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells during acute dengue illness demonstrates infection and increased activation of monocytes in severe cases compared to classic dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna P; Vargas, Maria José; Wanionek, Kimberli; Hammond, Samantha N; Gordon, Aubree; Rocha, Crisanta; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2008-07-05

    In vitro studies have attempted to identify dengue virus (DEN) target cells in peripheral blood; however, extensive phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dengue patients has not been reported. PBMCs collected from hospitalized children suspected of acute dengue were analyzed for DEN prM, CD32, CD86, CD14, CD11c, CD16, CD209, CCR7, CD4, and CD8 by flow cytometry to detect DEN antigen in PBMCs and to phenotype DEN-positive cells. DEN prM was detected primarily in activated monocytes (CD14(+), CD32(+), CD86(+), CD11c(+)). A subset of samples analyzed for DEN nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) confirmed that approximately half of DEN antigen-positive cells contained replicating virus. A higher percentage of PBMCs from DHF patients expressed prM, CD86, CD32, and CD11c than did those from DF patients. Increased activation of monocytes and greater numbers of DEN-infected cells were associated with more severe dengue, implicating a role for monocyte activation in dengue immunopathogenesis.

  16. NATO Study of Mental Health Training in Army Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    many NATO nations. 6.0 REFERENCES [1] Adler, A.B., Cawkill, P., van den Berg, C., Arvers, P., Puente , J., & Cuvelier, Y. (2008...RTO-MP-HFM-205 [4] Cawkill, P., Adler, A., van den Berg, C., Avers, P., Puente , J., & Cuvelier, Y. (2006, April). The Military Leaders Survey

  17. Individual variation in space use by female spotted hyenas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Kapheim, Karen M.; Szykman, Micaela; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    Large carnivores range more widely than many other terrestrial mammals, and this behavior tends to bring them into frequent conflict with humans. Within any carnivore population, individual variation in patterns of space use should be expected to make some animals more vulnerable than others to risks of mortality from humans and other sources. In this study, our goal was to document variation among individuals in space use by female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We examined predictions of hypotheses suggesting that space use by female hyenas is affected by reproductive state, social rank, and local prey abundance. Home-range size, distance at which females were found from the current communal den, and distance at which they were found from the nearest territorial boundary all varied significantly with the 3 independent variables. Females with den-dwelling cubs had smaller home ranges, were found closer to the communal den, and were found farther from the territorial boundary than were females with no den-dwelling cubs. Neither social rank nor prey availability significantly influenced the space-use patterns of females with den-dwelling cubs. Among females with no den-dwelling cubs, high-ranking females had smaller home ranges, were closer to the communal den, and were farther from the territorial boundary than were low-ranking females. The females ranging most widely were low-ranking individuals with no den-dwelling cubs when they were observed during periods of prey scarcity.

  18. A Microcantilever Sensor Array for the Detection and Inventory of Desert Tortoises

    SciTech Connect

    Venedam, R. J.; Dillingham, T. R.

    2008-07-01

    We have designed and tested a portable instrument consisting of a small infrared camera coupled with an array of piezoresistive microcantilever sensors that is used to provide real-time, non-invasive data on desert tortoise den occupancy. The piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) sensors are used to obtain a chemical “signature” of tortoise presence from the air deep within the dens, and provide data in cases where the camera cannot extend deep enough into the den to provide visual evidence of tortoise presence. The infrared camera was used to verify the PMC data during testing, and in many cases, such as shallower dens, may be used to provide exact numbers on den populations.

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of dengue virus-infected cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Baclig, Michael O; Gervacio, Leonora T S; Suarez, Lady-Anne C; Buerano, Corazon C; Matias, Ronald R; Kumatori, Atsushi; Inoue, Shingo; Morita, Kouichi; Natividad, Filipinas F; Hasebe, Futoshi

    2010-11-01

    With the development of permeabilization techniques in flow cytometry and the availability of various monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that specifically bind with cell surface and intracellular antigens, it is now possible to use flow cytometric assay to identify dengue virus (DEN) infected cells in peripheral blood. Blood samples were analyzed using phycoerythrin (PE) labeled anti-CD3, anti-CD14, anti-CD16, and anti-CD19 antibodies and Alexa Fluor 488 labeled anti-flavivirus monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6B6C-1. The predominant DEN-infected cells were CD19+ in this study. There was dim partial to moderately bright partial expression of CD19 positive cells in the blood samples tested. Virus isolation and serotype-specific RT-PCR revealed the cells were infected with dengue serotype 3 (DEN3). Our results suggest B cells may play an important role in DEN1 and DEN3 replication, and dissemination in vivo.

  20. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. Final report, September 15, 1988 - September 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shugart, L. R.; D'Surney, S. J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, Jr, M. S.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  1. Using recombinant DNA technology for the development of live-attenuated dengue vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Chi; Butler, Michael; Wu, Suh-Chin

    2012-07-15

    Dramatic increases in dengue (DEN) incidence and disease severity have been reported, in great part due to the geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. One result is the expanded co-circulation of all dengue 1-4 serotype viruses (DENV) in urban areas worldwide, especially in South and South-East Asia, and South America. DEN disease severity ranges from asymptomatic infections to febrile dengue fevers (DF) to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). There is an urgent need for a safe and effective tetravalent DEN vaccine. Several live attenuated, tetravalent DEN vaccine candidates have been generated by recombinant DNA technology; these candidates are capable of providing immunity to all four DENV serotypes. In this paper we review (a) recombinant live-attenuated DEN vaccine candidates in terms of deletion, antigen chimerization, and the introduction of adaptive mutations; (b) strategies for improving tetravalent vaccine attenuation; and (c) live-attenuated DENV vaccine development.

  2. New Mouse Model for Dengue Virus Vaccine Testing

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alison J.; Roehrig, John T.

    1999-01-01

    Several dengue (DEN) virus vaccines are in development; however, the lack of a reliable small animal model in which to test them is a major obstacle. Because evidence suggests that interferon (IFN) is involved in the human anti-DEN virus response, we tested mice deficient in their IFN functions as potential models. Intraperitoneally administered mouse-adapted DEN 2 virus was uniformly lethal in AG129 mice (which lack alpha/beta IFN and gamma IFN receptor genes), regardless of age. Immunized mice were protected from virus challenge, and survival times increased following passive transfer of anti-DEN polyclonal antibody. These results demonstrate that AG129 mice are a promising small animal model for DEN virus vaccine trials. PMID:9847388

  3. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  4. Adult mouse model of early hepatocellular carcinoma promoted by alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Ambade, Aditya; Satishchandran, Abhishek; Gyongyosi, Benedek; Lowe, Patrick; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mouse model of alcohol-driven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops in livers with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male mice received multiple doses of chemical carcinogen diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 7 wk of 4% Lieber-DeCarli diet. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and liver Cyp2e1 were assessed. Expression of F4/80, CD68 for macrophages and Ly6G, MPO, E-selectin for neutrophils was measured. Macrophage polarization was determined by IL-1β/iNOS (M1) and Arg-1/IL-10/CD163/CD206 (M2) expression. Liver steatosis and fibrosis were measured by oil-red-O and Sirius red staining respectively. HCC development was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by histology. Cellular proliferation was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). RESULTS: Alcohol-DEN mice showed higher ALTs than pair fed-DEN mice throughout the alcohol feeding without weight gain. Alcohol feeding resulted in increased ALT, liver steatosis and inflammation compared to pair-fed controls. Alcohol-DEN mice had reduced steatosis and increased fibrosis indicating advanced liver disease. Molecular characterization showed highest levels of both neutrophil and macrophage markers in alcohol-DEN livers. Importantly, M2 macrophages were predominantly higher in alcohol-DEN livers. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased numbers of intrahepatic cysts and liver histology confirmed the presence of early HCC in alcohol-DEN mice compared to all other groups. This correlated with increased serum alpha-fetoprotein, a marker of HCC, in alcohol-DEN mice. PCNA immunostaining revealed significantly increased hepatocyte proliferation in livers from alcohol-DEN compared to pair fed-DEN or alcohol-fed mice. CONCLUSION: We describe a new 12-wk HCC model in adult mice that develops in livers with alcoholic hepatitis and defines ALD as co-factor in HCC. PMID:27122661

  5. Suppressive effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin on phenobarbital-induced liver tumor promotion in rats.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Shimamoto, Keisuke; Ishii, Yuji; Kuwata, Kazunori; Ogawa, Bun-ichiro; Imaoka, Masako; Hayashi, Shim-mo; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) on hepatocellular tumor promotion induced by phenobarbital (PB), male rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and then fed with a diet containing PB (500 ppm) for 8 weeks, with or without EMIQ (2,000 ppm) in the drinking water. One week after PB administration, rats underwent a two-thirds partial hepatectomy. The PB-induced increase in the number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive ratio was significantly suppressed by EMIQ. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed increases in mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b2 and Mrp2 in the DEN-PB and DEN-PB-EMIQ groups compared with the DEN-alone group, while the level of Mrp2 decreased in the DEN-PB-EMIQ group compared with the DEN-PB group. There were no significant changes in microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers between the DEN-PB and DEN-PB-EMIQ groups. Immunohistochemically, the constitutive active/androstane receptor (CAR) in the DEN-PB group was clearly localized in the nuclei, but its immunoreactive intensity was decreased in the DEN-PB-EMIQ group. These results indicate that EMIQ suppressed the liver tumor-promoting activity of PB by inhibiting nuclear translocation of CAR, and not by suppression of oxidative stress.

  6. Diagnosis of Dengue Virus Infection by Detection of Specific Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA Antibodies in Serum and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Balmaseda, Angel; Guzmán, María G.; Hammond, Samantha; Robleto, Guillermo; Flores, Carolina; Téllez, Yolanda; Videa, Elsa; Saborio, Saira; Pérez, Leonel; Sandoval, Erick; Rodriguez, Yoryelin; Harris, Eva

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate alternative approaches to the serological diagnosis of dengue virus (DEN) infection, the detection of DEN-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA antibodies in serum and saliva specimens was assessed in 147 patients with symptoms of DEN infection seen at the Ministry of Health in Nicaragua. Seventy-two serum samples were determined to be positive for anti-DEN antibodies by IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the routine diagnostic procedure. Serum and saliva specimens were obtained from 50 healthy adults as additional controls. IgM was detected in the saliva of 65 of the 72 serum IgM-positive cases, 6 of the 75 serum IgM-negative cases, and none of the control group, resulting in a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.0% and demonstrating that salivary IgM is a useful diagnostic marker for DEN infection. Detection of IgA in serum may be another feasible alternative for the diagnosis of DEN infection, with serum IgA found in 68 (94.4%) of the IgM-positive cases. In contrast, detection of IgA in saliva was not found to be a useful tool for DEN diagnosis in the present study. Further studies of the kinetics of antibody detection in another set of 151 paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples showed that DEN-specific IgA antibodies were detected in more acute-phase samples than were IgM antibodies. Thus, we conclude that DEN-specific IgA in serum is a potential diagnostic target. Furthermore, given that saliva is a readily obtainable, noninvasive specimen, detection of DEN-specific salivary IgM should be considered a useful, cheaper diagnostic modality with similar sensitivity and specificity to IgM detection in serum. PMID:12626461

  7. An Approach to the Study of Gene Expression in Hepatocarcinogenesis Initiation12

    PubMed Central

    Beltràn-Ramírez, Olga; Sokol, Sergueï; Le-Berre, Véronique; François, Jean M; Villa-Treviño, Saúl

    2010-01-01

    In carcinogenesis, determination of gene and protein expression profiles is important for prevention and treatment. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in a single dose administered before carcinogenic initiation induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) prevents the appearance of preneoplastic lesions. On the basis of this approach, the main purpose of this work was to compare the gene expression profiles induced by DEN or a previously administered single dose of CAPE. Using a modified hepatocarcinogenesis-resistant hepatocyte model, male Fischer-344 rats were administered with one intraperitoneal dose of CAPE (20 mg/kg) 12 hours before DEN administration (200 mg/kg). Livers were removed and processed for microarray analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction 12 hours after CAPE dosing and 24 hours after DEN administration with or without CAPE. CAPE alone did not alter the expression profile. DEN treatment modified the expression of 665 genes, and CAPE plus DEN induced changes in 1371 genes. DEN treatment increased the expression of genes associated with oxidative stress such as glutathione reductase, genes involved in cell cycle regulation including p53, and modified cytochrome P450. CAPE plus DEN diminished the expression of cytochrome involved in DEN bioactivation such as CYP2B1 as well as the expression of regulators of oxidative stress such as glutathione reductase, GST-κ and GST-θ, and cell cycle regulators such as p53. Using CAPE as a tool, we uncovered new approaches for studying the altered expression of reactive genes and identifying proteins that will help to propose well-sustained and concrete hypothesis of DEN mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis initiation. PMID:20360939

  8. Interhemispheric connections between the infralimbic and entorhinal cortices: The endopiriform nucleus has limbic connections that parallel the sensory and motor connections of the claustrum.

    PubMed

    Watson, Glenn D R; Smith, Jared B; Alloway, Kevin D

    2017-04-15

    We have previously shown that the claustrum is part of an interhemispheric circuit that interconnects somesthetic-motor and visual-motor cortical regions. The role of the claustrum in processing limbic information, however, is poorly understood. Some evidence suggests that the dorsal endopiriform nucleus (DEn), which lies immediately ventral to the claustrum, has connections with limbic cortical areas and should be considered part of a claustrum-DEn complex. To determine whether DEn has similar patterns of cortical connections as the claustrum, we used anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques to elucidate the connectivity of DEn. Following injections of retrograde tracers into DEn, labeled neurons appeared bilaterally in the infralimbic (IL) cortex and ipsilaterally in the entorhinal and piriform cortices. Anterograde tracer injections in DEn revealed labeled terminals in the same cortical regions, but only in the ipsilateral hemisphere. These tracer injections also revealed extensive longitudinal projections throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus. Dual retrograde tracer injections into IL and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEnt) revealed intermingling of labeled neurons in ipsilateral DEn, including many double-labeled neurons. In other experiments, anterograde and retrograde tracers were separately injected into IL of each hemisphere of the same animal. This revealed an interhemispheric circuit in which IL projects bilaterally to DEn, with the densest terminal labeling appearing in the contralateral hemisphere around retrogradely labeled neurons that project to IL in that hemisphere. By showing that DEn and claustrum have parallel sets of connections, these results suggest that DEn and claustrum perform similar functions in processing limbic and sensorimotor information, respectively. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1363-1380, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Capture, anesthesia, and disturbance of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) during hibernation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alina L; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Fahlman, Åsa; Brunberg, Sven; Madslien, Knut; Fröbert, Ole; Swenson, Jon E; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-01-01

    We conducted thirteen immobilizations of previously collared hibernating two- to four-year-old brown bears (Ursus arctos) weighing 21-66 kg in central Sweden in winter 2010 and 2011 for comparative physiology research. Here we report, for the first time, an effective protocol for the capture and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears during hibernation and an assessment of the disturbance the captures caused. Bears were darted in anthill, soil, or uprooted tree dens on eleven occasions, but two bears in rock dens fled and were darted outside the den. We used medetomidine at 0.02-0.06 mg/kg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.9-2.8 mg/kg for anesthesia. In addition, ketamine at 1.5 mg/kg was hand-injected intramuscularly in four bears and in six it was included in the dart at 1.1-3.0 mg/kg. Once anesthetized, bears were removed from the dens. In nine bears, arterial blood samples were analyzed immediately with a portable blood gas analyzer. We corrected hypoxemia in seven bears (PaO(2) 57-74 mmHg) with supplemental oxygen. We placed the bears back into the dens and antagonized the effect of medetomidine with atipamezole. Capturing bears in the den significantly increased the risk of den abandonment. One of twelve collared bears that were captured remained at the original den until spring, and eleven, left their dens (mean ± standard deviation) 3.2±3.6 (range 0.5-10.5) days after capture. They used 1.9±0.9 intermediate resting sites, during 6.2±7.8 days before entering a new permanent den. The eleven new permanent dens were located 730±589 m from the original dens. We documented that it was feasible and safe to capture hibernating brown bears, although they behaved differently than black bears. When doing so, researchers should use 25% of the doses used for helicopter darting during the active period and should consider increased energetic costs associated with den abandonment.

  10. Gender-related effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol and B-hexachlorocyclohexane on liver tumor formation in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, J.B.; Hinton, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    When medaka were acutely exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN), greater incidence of hepatocarcinoma was seen in female versus male fish. This is possibly related to elevated female endogenous estrogens, which increase liver weight and production of vitellogenin. To examine roles of estrogens in tumor modulation, 21-day old medaka were exposed to DEN (200 ppm for 24 hr.), then fed purified diets containing the estrogenic compound {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane ({beta}-HCH) or 17-{beta}estradiol (E2) for 6 months. Incidences of basophilic preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration in females receiving DEN and 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0 ppm E2 were three times the incidences in similarly-treated males. Also, incidences of basophilic foci in DEN + 0.1 ppm E2 males were significantly increased over DEN-only males and were equal to incidences in DEN-only females. Liver weights and hepatosomatic indices of males given 0.1 ppm E2 were not significantly different than females fed control diet. Females fed 0.01-10.0 ppm {beta}-HCH after DEN had 4--5 times greater incidences of basophilic foci as males. Gender-related effects on kinetics of growth rates and volumes of foci are being examined.

  11. [Outbreak of Dengue-2 virus in Salta, Argentina, 1988].

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Rangeon, G; Baroni, P; Paz, V; Monteros, M; Sartini, J L; Enria, D

    2000-01-01

    Dengue (DEN) reemergence was first detected in Salta, Argentina, in 1997. It was confirmed by serology and PCR that DEN-2 virus was responsible for sporadic cases and indigenous transmission. A laboratory-based surveillance system allowed the detection of an outbreak in Salta several months later. In total, 378 DEN cases were laboratory diagnosed out of 646 (58%) studied. The cases were distributed in 10 localities of the province between January 3rd and May 31st, 1998. One DEN-2 viral isolation and 4 PCR products were obtained from patients coming from Orán and Embarcación localities. Male and female cases occurred at a similar rate (1:1), with adult cases (82.5%) nearly five times greater than for children under 15 years-old (17.5%). Clinically, all cases corresponded to classic DEN. This is the first time that a DEN outbreak has been laboratory-diagnosed in Argentina and also the first time that DEN virus has been isolated in this country.

  12. A diet rich in cocoa attenuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2009-10-01

    The effects of cocoa feeding against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN)-induced liver injury were studied in rats. Animals were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 were fed with standard and cocoa-diet, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 were injected with DEN at 2 and 4 weeks, and fed with standard and cocoa-diet, respectively. Group 5 was treated with DEN, received the standard diet for 4 weeks and then it was replaced by the cocoa-diet. DEN-induced hepatic damage caused a significant increase in damage markers, as well as a decrease in the hepatic glutathione, diminished levels of p-ERK and enhanced protein carbonyl content, caspase-3 activity and values of p-AKT and p-JNK. The cocoa-rich diet prevented the reduction of hepatic glutathione concentration and catalase and GPx activities in DEN-injected rats, as well as diminished protein carbonyl content, caspase-3 activity, p-AKT and p-JNK levels, and increased GST activity. However, cocoa administration did not abrogate the DEN-induced body weight loss and the increased levels of hepatic-specific enzymes and LDH. These results suggested that cocoa-rich diet attenuates the DEN-induced liver injury.

  13. A spring aerial census of red foxes in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Pfeifer, W.K.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic aerial searches were flown on transects to locate adult red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), pups, and rearing dens on 559.4 km2 (six townships) in eastern North Dakota during mid-May and mid-June each year from 1969 through 1973 and during mid-April 1969 and early May 1970. The combined sightings of foxes and fox dens from the mid-May and mid-June searches were used to identify individual fox families. The number of fox families was used as the measurement of density. Dens, highly visible during the mid-May searches, were the most reliable family indicator; 84 percent of 270 families identified during the study were represented by dens. Adult foxes second in importance, were most observable during the mid-May searches when 20 to 35 percent of those estimated to be available were sighted. Adult sightings during other search periods ranged from 4 to 17 percent of those available. Pup sightings were the most variable family indicator, but they led to the discovery of some dens. Sources of error for which adjustment factors were determined are: den moves exceeding criterion established for the spacing of dens in a single family, overestimation of the number of fox families living near township boundaries, and the percentage of fox families overlooked during the aerial searches. These adjustment factors appeared to be largely compensatory.

  14. Multiple antigenic peptides as vaccine platform for the induction of humoral responses against dengue-2 virus.

    PubMed

    Amexis, Georgios; Young, Neal S

    2007-12-01

    Dengue is an important agent of human disease for which no licensed vaccine is available to the public. We used multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs) as an antigen carrier for the development of subunit vaccines against dengue-2 virus (DEN-2). Commercially available software (MacVector 7.0) was used to identify potential antigenic B-cell epitopes of E-glycoprotein. A total of 60 BALB/c mice were immunized with 12 recombinant DEN-2-specific MAPs and the humoral immune response was assessed by anti-DEN-2 ELISA and PRNT50 assays. Anti-DEN-2 ELISA showed high levels of anti-DEN-2 antibodies and post-immune sera reduced viral infectivity and prevented infection of monkey kidney cells (LLC-MK2) with live DEN-2 virus. Seven neutralizing DEN-2 epitopes were identified that generated PRNT50 titers of up to 1:160. Our findings show that the MAP platform can be used as an antigen-presenting platform for dengue vaccine development.

  15. Is German Medical Education Research on the rise? An analysis of publications from the years 2004 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Ackel-Eisnach, Kristina; Raes, Patricia; Hönikl, Lisa; Bauer, Daniel; Wagener, Stefan; Möltner, Andreas; Jünger, Jana; Fischer, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Zielsetzung: Ausgangspunkt des vorliegenden Artikels ist die Feststellung, dass es aus Deutschland im Vergleich zu den angloamerikanischen Ländern oder den Niederlanden vor 2004 kaum internationale Publikationen im Bereich der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung gab. In den letzten Jahren wurde jedoch eine steigende Bedeutung der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung im deutschen Raum deutlich. Zielsetzung dieses Beitrags ist es zu prüfen, inwieweit sich in internationalen, englischsprachigen Fachzeitschriften im Themenfeld „Medizinische Ausbildungsforschung“ seit 2004 eine solche Entwicklung durch eine gesteigerte Publikationsaktivität belegen lässt. Methodik: Im Rahmen einer Literaturauswertung und Inhaltsanalyse wurden Artikel deutscher Autoren aus den Jahren 2004 bis 2013 in sechs internationalen englischsprachigen Fachzeitschriften der medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung analysiert. Um einen Überblick über die deutschen Forschungsaktivitäten in diesem Bereich zu bekommen, wurden alle Projekt- und Originalarbeiten deutscher Erst- und Letztautoren identifiziert und einer tiefergehenden inhaltlichen Analyse unterzogen. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 10.055 Artikel untersucht. Die Auswertung zeigt, dass zwischen 2004 und 2013 179 Artikel – hiervon 145 Projekt- und Originalarbeiten – deutscher Autoren in den betrachteten Zeitschriften publiziert wurden. Es zeigen sich Schwankungen im Zeitverlauf. Bei den Projekt- und Originalarbeiten handelt sich vor allem um Querschnitt- (27,8%) und randomisierte Kontrollstudien (25,6%) zum Thema „Lehr- und Lernmethoden“ (43,6%). Schlussfolgerung: Seit 2009 zeigt sich ein deutlicher Anstieg der Publikationszahlen deutscher Ausbildungsforscher in internationalen Fachzeitschriften im Vergleich zu den Jahren 2004-2008.

  16. Vaccination of Volunteers with Low-Dose, Live-Attenuated, Dengue Viruses Leads to Serotype-specific Immunologic and Virologic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Lindow, Janet C.; Durbin, Anna P.; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Pierce, Kristen K.; Carmolli, Marya P.; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.

    2013-01-01

    There are currently no vaccines or therapeutics to prevent dengue disease which ranges in severity from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening illness. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Division of Intramural Research has developed live, attenuated vaccines to each of the four dengue serotypes (DENV-1 – DENV-4). Two doses (10 PFU and 1000 PFU) of three monovalent vaccines were tested in human clinical trials to compare safety and immunogenicity profiles. DEN4Δ30 had been tested previously at multiple doses. The three dengue vaccine candidates tested (DEN1Δ30, DEN2/4Δ30, and DEN3Δ30/31) were very infectious, each with a Human Infectious Dose 50% ≤ 10 PFU. Further, infectivity rates ranged from 90 −100% regardless of dose, excepting DEN2/4Δ30 which dropped from 100% at the 1000 PFU dose to 60% at the 10 PFU dose. Mean geometric peak antibody titers did not differ significantly between doses for DEN1Δ30 (92 ± 19 vs. 214 ± 97, p = 0.08); however, significant differences were observed between the 10 PFU and 1000 PFU doses for DEN2/4Δ30, 19 ± 9 vs. 102 ± 25 (p = 0.001), and DEN3Δ30/31, 119 ± 135 vs. 50 ± 50 (p=0.046). No differences in the incidences of rash, neutropenia, or viremia were observed between doses for any vaccines, though the mean peak titer of viremia for DEN1Δ30 was higher at the 1000 PFU dose (0.5 ± 0 vs. 1.1 ± 0.1, p = 0.007). These data demonstrate that atarget dose of 1000 PFU for inclusion of each dengue serotype into a tetravalent vaccine is likely to be safe and generate a balanced immune response for all serotypes. PMID:23735680

  17. Dengue-specific CD8+ T cells have both protective and pathogenic roles in dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Zhou, De-Shan; Zhang, Jun-Lei; Morida, Hatue; Wang, Jia-Li; Yasui, Kotaro

    2004-09-01

    To analyze roles of memory T cells in the pathogenesis of dengue (DEN) virus infection, a DEN virus-specific CD8+ cell clone (2D42 cell) was employed to investigate its in vivo function after DEN virus infection using an animal model. HepG2 grafted severe combined immunodeficient (HepG2-grafted SCID) mice were divided into three groups--group A: HepG2-grafted SCID mice were inoculated intraperitoneally (ip) with 2D42 cells and then ip-infected with DEN virus type 2 (DEN-2); group B: HepG2-grafted SCID mice were inoculated with naive mouse thymocytes (NMT) and then ip-infected with DEN-2; group C: HepG2-grafted SCID mice were ip-infected with DEN-2 alone. Eighty percentage of group A mice died at average day 12.8 post-infection (p.i.) and 20% of them recovered from the disease after showing clinical signs and survived more than 3 months. They showed severe manifestations including dramatically decreased platelet count, decreased hematocrit, anemia, viremia and high frequency of histopathological changes in several organs. All of group B mice also showed the above severe clinical signs. One hundred percentage mortality rate was noted in these mice and death occurred at average day 10.8 p.i., which was the earliest among three groups. Although the mice from group C showed 100% mortality rate and similar clinical signs, death observed in these mice occurred at average day 17.4 p.i. and the manifestations were slight and developed slowly. Our results suggested both protective and pathogenic roles for DEN-specific CD8+ T cell in DEN virus infection, whereas NMT did not provided any protection.

  18. Expression of heat shock protein 72 in atrophied rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Talmadge, R. J.; Ohira, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) in response to atrophic-inducing perturbations of muscle involving chronic mechanical unloading and denervation were determined. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to a sedentary cage control (CON), hind limb unloading (HU, via tail suspension), HU plus tenotomy (HU + TEN), HU plus denervation (HU + DEN), or HU + TEN + DEN group. Tenotomy and DEN involved cutting the Achilles tendon and removing a segment of the sciatic nerve, respectively. After 5 days, HSP72 levels in the soleus of the HU + DEN and HU + TEN + DEN groups were 42 (P < 0.05) and 53% (P < 0.01) less than CON, respectively. Soleus weight decreased in both groups. Heat shock protein 72 levels in the plantaris of the HU + TEN, HU + DEN, and HU + TEN + DEN groups were 31, 25, and 30% lower than CON, respectively (P < 0.05). Plantaris weight decreased in the HU + DEN and HU + TEN + DEN, but not in the HU + TEN group. Hind limb unloading alone had little effect on the HSP72 level in either muscle. Reduced levels of HSP72 were associated with a decreased soleus (r=0.62, P < 0.01) and plantaris (r=0.78, P < 0.001) weight. These results indicate that the levels of HSP72 in both a slow and a fast rat plantarflexor are responsive to a chronic decrease in the levels of loading and/or activation and suggest that the neuromuscular activity level and the presence of innervation of a muscle are important factors that induce HSP72 expression.

  19. Fkbp10 Deletion in Osteoblasts Leads to Qualitative Defects in Bone.

    PubMed

    Lietman, Caressa D; Lim, Joohyun; Grafe, Ingo; Chen, Yuqing; Ding, Hao; Bi, Xiaohong; Ambrose, Catherine G; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Ingo; Fratzl, Peter; Rai, Jyoti; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David; Keene, Douglas R; Krakow, Deborah; Lee, Brendan H

    2017-02-16

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle bone disease, displays a spectrum of clinical severity from mild (OI type I) to severe early lethality (OI type II), with clinical features including low bone mass, fractures and deformities. Mutations in the FK506 Binding Protein 10 (FKBP10), gene encoding the 65KDa protein FKBP65, cause a recessive form of OI and Bruck syndrome, the latter being characterized by joint contractures in addition to low bone mass. We previously showed that Fkbp10 expression is limited to bone, tendon and ligaments in postnatal tissues. Furthermore, in both patients and Fkbp10 knockout mice, collagen telopeptide hydroxylysine crosslinking is dramatically reduced. To further characterize the bone specific contributions of Fkbp10, we conditionally ablated FKBP65 in Fkbp10(fl/fl) mice (Mus musculus; C57BL/6) using the osteoblast specific Col1a1 2.3kb Cre recombinase. Using µCT, histomorphometry and quantitative backscattered electron imaging, we found minimal alterations in the quantity of bone and no differences in the degree of bone matrix mineralization in this model. However, mass spectroscopy of bone collagen demonstrated a decrease in mature, hydroxylysine-aldehyde crosslinking. Furthermore, bone of mutant mice exhibits a reduction in mineral-to-matrix ratio and in crystal size as shown by Raman spectroscopy and small angle x-ray scattering, respectively. Importantly, abnormalities in bone quality were associated with impaired bone biomechanical strength in mutant femurs compared with those of wild type littermates. Taken together, these data suggest that the altered collagen crosslinking through Fkbp10 ablation in osteoblasts primarily leads to a qualitative defect in the skeleton. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Contention-free Routing for Shift-based Communication in MPI Applications on Large-scale Infiniband Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A

    2009-10-20

    Shift-based communication can be defined as follows. For a set of N nodes assigned to a job, assign each node an ID from 0 to N - 1. Shift-based communication involves N - 1 steps. Let D denote the current step, and let D iterate from 1 to N - 1. Then in step D all nodes choose nodes to send to and receive from such that a node with ID = I sends to the node with ID = (I + D)%N and receives from the node with ID = (I - D + N)%N, where % denotes modulo division. Figure 1 illustrates the communication patterns for various steps in shift-based communication. Shift-based communication patterns enable all nodes in a job to send and receive data simultaneously in all steps. Many MPI operations employ shift-based communication patterns for this reason. This includes large message collective algorithms, such as those typically used to implement large message Allgather and Alltoall collectives. It also includes small message collective algorithms, such as pair-wise exchange, barrier dissemination, and Bruck's index algorithm. Although the small message algorithms typically pack messages such that each node does not send to or receive from every other node directly, the communication patterns they do execute correspond to particular steps in shift-based communication. Common point-to-point message patterns also can benefit from efficient shift-based routing, such as nearest-neighbor exchanges in domain decomposition codes. Supporting efficient shift-based communication within a job thus provides good performance for a number of common MPI operations.

  1. The Crystal Structure of Oxaliplatin: A Case of Overlooked Pseudo Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the anticancer drug oxaliplatin, [Pt(R,R-DACH)(oxalate)] (DACH = diaminocyclohexane), was first reported in the non-centrosymmetric space group P21, confirming the sole presence of the R,R enantiomer of the DACH ligand [M. A. Bruck et al., Inorg. Chim. Acta, 92 (1984) 279–284]. It was later proposed that the crystal structure is better described in the centrosymmetric space group P21/m, signifying the presence of the compound as a racemic mixture [A. S. Abu-Surrah et al., Polyhedron, 22 (2003) 1529–1534]. Herein is presented a reinvestigation of this crystal structure, which shows that the discrepancy between the two proposed space group assignments arises from overlooked pseudo symmetry. The crystal structures of the synthetic precursor to oxaliplatin, Pt(R,R-DACH)I2, and a platinum(IV) derivative, trans-[Pt(R,R-DACH)(oxalate)(OH)2], were also determined, and the absolute configuration of the DACH ligand in each was confirmed to be R,R. A spectroscopic investigation of the optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) of the oxaliplatin crystals was carried out to further confirm the lack of the true crystallographic mirror plane required for a P21/m solution. The ORD was theoretically simulated, in one instance, by applying the Kramers-Kronig transform to the computed circular dichroism spectrum and was found to corroborate the spectroscopic and crystallographic findings. Finally, a brief discussion is given of the importance of discussing the details of nuanced crystal structures and of providing evidence in addition to X-ray structure determination if chemically unexpected results are obtained. PMID:24415827

  2. Characterization of Pt@Cu core@shell dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles synthesized by Cu underpotential deposition.

    PubMed

    Carino, Emily V; Crooks, Richard M

    2011-04-05

    Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) containing averages of 55, 147, and 225 Pt atoms immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes served as the electroactive surface for the underpotential deposition (UPD) of a Cu monolayer. This results in formation of core@shell (Pt@Cu) DENs. Evidence for this conclusion comes from cyclic voltammetry, which shows that the Pt core DENs catalyze the hydrogen evolution reaction before Cu UPD, but that after Cu UPD this reaction is inhibited. Results obtained by in situ electrochemical X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) confirm this finding.

  3. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  4. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  5. Celecoxib enhances the detoxification of diethylnitrosamine in rat liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salcido-Neyoy, Martha Estela; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Beltrán-Ramírez, Olga; Macías-Pérez, José Roberto; Villa-Treviño, Saúl

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of celecoxib (CXB) on diethylnitrosamine activation through the regulation of cytochrome P450 in a hepatocarcinogenesis model. METHODS: Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, a non-treated group (NT), a diethylnitrosamine-treated group (DEN), a DEN+CXB-treated group (DEN+CXB), and CXB 8 d-treated and CXB 32 d-treated groups. The effects of celecoxib on the enzymatic activities of CYP1A1, 2A, 2B1/2, and 2E1 were assessed in hepatic microsomes 24 h after DEN administration. Changes in CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 protein expression were also evaluated. The rate of DEN metabolism was measured by the production of the deethylation metabolite acetaldehyde, and the denitrosation metabolite nitrite. RESULTS: DEN+CXB administration produced a significant increase in the enzymatic activities of CYP2B1/2 and 1A1, whereas it did not change the activities of CYP2A and 2E1, compared to that of the DEN group. CXB treatment for eight days did not produce a significant effect on enzymatic activity when compared to the NT group; however, when it was administered for prolonged times (CXB 32 d group), the enzymatic activities were increased in a similar pattern to those in the DEN+CXB group. The observed increase in the enzymatic activities in the DEN+CXB group was accompanied by an increase in the CYP2B1/2 protein levels; no changes were observed in the levels of CYP1A1. In vitro, CXB increased the denitrosation of DEN, a pathway of metabolic detoxification. The addition of SKF-525A, a preferential inhibitor of CYP2B, abrogated the denitrosation of DEN. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the mechanism of action of CXB involves enhancement of the detoxification of DEN by an increasing denitrosation via CYP2B1/2. PMID:19452576

  6. Grundlagen und Vollzug der amtlichen Lebensmittelkontrolle in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Philipp; Spinner, Christoph

    In der Schweiz wird die Mehrheit der hoheitlichen Aufgaben von den 26 Kantonen, die zusammen die schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft bilden, autonom vollzogen. So liegt zum Beispiel die Kompetenz in den Bereichen Steuern, Gesundheit, Schulen oder Polizei grundsätzlich bei den Kantonen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die Lebensmittelgesetzgebung national durch eidgenössische Erlasse harmonisiert. Die Vollzugsaufgaben liegen aber auch in diesem Bereich, abgesehen vom Vollzug an der Grenze und von einer nationalen Vollzugsaufsicht und Weisungsberechtigung, in kantonaler Kompetenz. Die Kantone können anhand kantonaler Erlasse das Bundesrecht präzisieren - insbesondere die organisatorischen Aspekte - und Regelungen im nicht harmonisierten Bereich treffen.

  7. Morphogenesis of Dengue Virus: Molecular Biology and Molecular Organization of Proteins.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    replication of DEN (1,2,4,5,8,17-19) and several clinical techniques for the isolation and serological identi- fication of the virus are based upon cell... replication and release has essentially been completed by 6Ohr. The infectivity of DEN-2 was found to be dependent upon the pH of the suspension medium...valid for virus replicating in cell culture at 370. It has been previously reported that a variation in pH between 6.6 and 8.6 of the agar overlay in DEN

  8. Attenuation of Dengue Virus Infection by Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated siRNA Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-09

    Pharmingen) for 7 days prior to infection with DEN. Blocking dengue virus infection in vitro 1 × 105 Vero cells or DCs were seeded into six-well tissue...essential for dengue pathogenesis in the human host. In this study, we also utilized peripheral blood iDCs as a cell model to test our AAV system. Similar to...attenu- ate DEN infection. List of abbreviations AAV, adeno-associated virus; DCs, dendritic cells ; DEN, dengue virus; DHF/DSS, dengue hemorrhagic fever

  9. A secondary dengue 4 infection in a traveler returning from Haiti confirmed by virus isolation, complete genome sequencing and neutralisation assay: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Menard, Amelie; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Klitting, Raphaelle; Baronti, Cecile; Stein, Andreas; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the clinical and laboratory findings of a dengue 4 virus (DENV) secondary infection in a patient returning from Haiti to France. The diagnostic of acute DEN-4 virus infection was demonstrated by (i) the presence of DEN-4 RNA in two successive serum samples, (ii) the isolation of a DEN-4 virus in Vero cells and subsequent identification of subtype IIb through complete genome sequencing, (iii) the presence of dengue NS1 antigen, (iv) the seroconversion with detection of dengue IgM in the second serum while negative in the first serum. The diagnosis of secondary dengue episode was demonstrated by (i) the presence of dengue IgG in the early serum, and (ii) the demonstration that neutralising antibodies against DEN-3 were present at the acute stage of the disease. Next-generation sequencing has a primary role to play in phylogeographic studies including database sequences, sequences from imported cases, and sequences from autochthonous cases.

  10. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  11. Detection of flaviviruses by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with the universal primer set.

    PubMed

    Meiyu, F; Huosheng, C; Cuihua, C; Xiaodong, T; Lianhua, J; Yifei, P; Weijun, C; Huiyu, G

    1997-01-01

    Using a universal primer set designed to match the sequence of the NS1 gene of flaviviruses, the virus RNA of dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), powassan and langat of Flaviviridae were successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) via cDNA; and with different internal primers, the serotypes of the dengue viruses were identified. Of the 78 clinically diagnosed dengue fever patients, 18 patients were positive for DEN 1, 48 patients for DEN 2 and 8 patients concurrently infected with DEN 4. Of the 52 patients admitted with Japanese encephalitis (JE), 45 were determined to be JEV infections. By nested PCR, we completed the identification of flaviviruses within 2 days. The results show that seven primers have a potential value for rapid clinical diagnosis of flavivirus infections.

  12. An alternative method for the synthesis of competitor RNA transcripts useful for specific detection and quantitation of dengue virus serotype 2 genome and replicative intermediate RNA.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Gilberto; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Yolanda; Gudino, Jose-Carmen; Olivera, Hiram; Landa-Piedra, Abraham; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2008-09-01

    The development of a quantitative-competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay to quantify dengue virus (DEN) genome (vRNA) and its replicative intermediate RNA (vRI) is described. A highly conserved region located on the DEN capsid-premembrane genes was used to produce a competitor RNA molecule which contains an internal deletion of 70 nucleotides. The competitor provides a suitable internal control useful to quantify viral RNA from all four dengue virus (DEN 1-4) serotypes. The detection limit of the assay was found to be 100 copies per reaction. This is a rapid, simple, sensitive, inexpensive and easy method for quantitation of DEN RNA species.

  13. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Woody Ornamental Plants of California, 1977, University of California; Hillier's Manual of Trees and Shrubs, 1971, Hillier & Sons; Manual of Cultivated Conifers, 1965, P. Den Ouden & B. K. Boom; Hortus...

  14. Amor und der Abstand zur Sonne. Geschichten aus meinem Kosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2001-10-01

    R. Kippenhahn hat in vielen Büchern die Astronomie populär gemacht. Ihn interessieren dabei immer auch die kuriosen Aspekte seiner Wissenschaft. Von ihnen erzählt er in den kleinen Geschichten dieses Buches.

  15. Mortality of arctic fox pups in northern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Reports of mortality among arctic foxes, Alopex lagopus, generally consist of isolated incidents of predation by bald eagles, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, snowy owls, Nyctea scandiaca, red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, and dogs, Canis familiaris. This is a report of observations made on mortality of arctic fox pups observed at dens in the Prudhoe Bay and Colville River Delta areas of northern Alaska during summers of 1975 to 1978 and 1976 to 1979, respectively. Pup mortality was noted amng 15 (19%) of 79 families whose dens we visited. Evidence of at least 20 dead pups was found with remains ranging from intact carcasses to a few bone fragments and tufts of hair. Undoubtedly, researchers failed to detect some dead pups, as predators sometimes carry small pups away from the den before consuming them and adult foxes were observed to dispose of bodies of dead pups within den burrows.

  16. Dengue Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Dengue Fever KidsHealth > For Parents > Dengue Fever Print A ... can help lower the chances of infection. About Dengue Fever Dengue (DEN-gee) fever is caused by ...

  17. Die Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Ein Beispiel für erfolgreiche „Track-II-Diplomacy“ der Naturwissenschaftler im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    "Kein Zeitalter der Geschichte ist stärker von den Naturwissenschaften durchdrungen und abhängiger von ihnen als das 20. Jahrhundert" schreibt Eric Hobsbawn im Kapitel "Zauberer und Lehrlinge: Die Naturwissenschaften" seines Buches "Zeitalter der Extreme".

  18. Typical Farmers: The Strategy Galjart Did Not Explain [and] Article Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protas, J. F. da Silva; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Protas and de Andrade state that rural extension efforts in developing nations should not expect the participation of "progressive" farmers to lead to larger participation of other farmers in adopting innovations. Van den Bar offers comments on the article. (SK)

  19. Formation and properties of silicon/fluorite heterostructures. Final report, June 1, 1994--May 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Olmstead, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    Our primary goal during the previous support periods was to determine the interrelationship among the structure of the CaF{sub 2}/Si interface, the growth kinetics, the structure and morphology of the overlying film, and the intrinsic dielectric properties of the interface itself. The experiments were designed (i) to determine the CaF{sub 2} overlayer structure and morphology as a function of kinetic conditions [Den93a, Den93b, Won93, Den95, Hes95], (ii) to develop and test models explaining the observed structures [Den95, Hes95], (iii) to investigate the stability of the interface structure [Les97] and (iv) to determine and interpret the photoelectron kinetic energy distributions as a function of the emitting atom location [Rot93, Rot94, Rot96]. As summarized below, we were successful in accomplishing these experiments and in largely fulfilling our original goal.

  20. Cover Image, Volume 117, Number 12, December 2016.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Murk, Albertinka J; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2016-12-01

    Cover: The cover image, by Myrthe W. van den Dungen et al., is based on the Article Comprehensive DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Profiling in Differentiating Human Adipocytes, DOI: 10.1002/jcb.25568.

  1. Experiments and Analyses of Distributed Exhaust Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Schein, David B.; Solomon, W. David, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and analytical aeroacoustic properties of several distributed exhaust nozzle (DEN) designs are presented. Significant differences between the designs are observed and correlated back to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flowfield predictions. Up to 20 dB of noise reduction on a spectral basis and 10 dB on an overall sound pressure level basis are demonstrated from the DEN designs compared to a round reference nozzle. The most successful DEN designs acoustically show a predicted thrust loss of approximately 10% compared to the reference nozzle. Characteristics of the individual mini-jet nozzles that comprise the DEN such as jet-jet shielding and coalescence are shown to play a major role in the noise signature.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: cone-rod dystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Free article on PubMed Central Roosing S, Thiadens AA, Hoyng CB, Klaver CC, den Hollander AI, Cremers ... 2014 May 22. Review. Citation on PubMed Thiadens AA, Phan TM, Zekveld-Vroon RC, Leroy BP, van ...

  3. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The following are prohibited: (1) Approaching within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf... moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  4. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The following are prohibited: (1) Approaching within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf... moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  5. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The following are prohibited: (1) Approaching within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf... moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  6. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... The following are prohibited: (1) Approaching within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf... moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  7. 36 CFR 13.920 - Wildlife distance conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The following are prohibited: (1) Approaching within 25 yards of a moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf... moose, caribou, Dall sheep, wolf, an active raptor nest, or occupied den site. (c) Prohibitions....

  8. Physical, chemical, biological, and biotechnological sciences are incomplete without each other

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical analysis and chromatographic techniques could not separate plasma lipoproteins which are now known as cholesterol- containing, heart-disease related macromolecules in human blood. Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory successfully separated plasma lipoproteins using equilibrium den...

  9. Pathology of diethylnitrosamine toxicity in the fish Rivulus marmoratus

    SciTech Connect

    Thiyagarajah, A.; Grizzle, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    Rivulus marmoratus were exposed to 0, 10, 21, 45, 95, or 200 mg/liter diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for 6 weeks and examined 12 weeks after the end of exposure. Fatty change, hepatocellular glycogenosis, multiple basophilic foci, enlarged and distorted cells with or without an enlarged nucleus, and hyaline bodies and cytological alterations observed after exposure to DEN. Hemangiomas, cholangiomas, biliary cystadenomas, and glandular, trabecular and anaplastic hepatocellular carcinomas were observed at the 18th week. Only those fish exposed to 95 mg/liter DEN had cavernous hemangiomas and peliosis-like lesions, which could be a preneoplastic lesion preceding cavernous hemangiomas. Adenomatous hyperplasia of thyroid and granulomas were other chronic reactions caused by DEN toxicosis.

  10. 75 FR 14443 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Maximum Per Diem Rates for the States of Kansas, New Mexico, New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... inadequate. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For clarification of content, contact Ms. Jill Denning, Office... Bulletin 10-03. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background After an analysis of the per diem...

  11. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with dengue infection: a case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Meena; Nayak, Rajeev; Khwaja, Geeta A; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2013-12-15

    Dengue is the commonest arboviral illness caused by four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes (DEN-1 through DEN-4). The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from asymptomatic or mild infection to catastrophic dengue shock syndrome (DSS). In last few years, neurological manifestations of dengue infection have been increasingly observed and reported mainly with serotypes DEN-2 and DEN-3. The pathogenesis of neurological manifestations includes: neurotrophic effect of the dengue virus, related to the systemic effects of dengue infection, and immune mediated. Encephalopathy and encephalitis are the most frequently reported neurological manifestations followed by meningitis, myositis, hypokalemic periodic paralysis, stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome and transverse myelitis. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with dengue infection is rarely reported. We herein report a case of ADEM associated with classic dengue fever. Favourable clinical outcome occurred after a five-day course of intravenous methylprednisolone therapy.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Apert syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... on PubMed Chen L, Deng CX. Roles of FGF signaling in skeletal development and human genetic diseases. ... Kan SH, van den Ouweland AM, Hamel BC. FGFs, their receptors, and human limb malformations: clinical and ...

  13. A Trio of Brownian Donkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeck, C.; Cleuren, B.; Kawai, R.; Kambon, M.

    A previously introduced model (B. Cleuren and C. Van den Broeck, Europhys. Lett. 54, 1 (2001)) is studied numerically. Pure negative mobility is found for the minimum number of three interacting walkers.

  14. Heat transport in a liquid layer locally heated on its free surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Blumenfeld, Laure

    1996-11-01

    A strong heat flux, localized on the upper surface of a fluid, sets up strong convection motions through thermocapillary forces, which limits the temperature elevation in the pool, therefore limiting the efficiency in fusion welding processes. We propose a theoretical estimate of the temperature elevation when the fluid motion is laminar or turbulent, the weld pool surface remaining flat. Our treatment follows the theoretical work of Shraiman and Siggia [

    Phys. Rev. A 42, 3650 (1990)
    ] in Rayleigh-Bénard convection. In the laminar case, the temperature elevation is proportional to the incident power to the 3<den>4den> power, in agreement with earlier estimates, and in the turbulent case, to the incident power to the 2<den>3den> power.

  15. Immune response to synthetic peptides of dengue prM protein.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Susana; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillen, Gerardo; Chinea, Glay; Pérez, Ana Beatriz; Pupo, Maritza; Rodriguez, Rosmary; Reyes, Osvaldo; Garay, Hilda Elisa; Delgado, Iselys; García, Gissel; Alvarez, Mayling

    2002-03-15

    The immunological activities of five synthetic peptides of the prM protein of dengue-2 (DEN-2) virus containing B cell epitopes were evaluated in BALB/c mice. Two peptides elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four DEN serotypes. Virus-specific proliferative responses were demonstrated in mice immunized with four of the five peptides, demonstrating the presence of T cell epitopes. Mice immunized with three of the five peptides conjugated with bovine albumin showed statistically significant levels (P<0.05) of protection when challenged with DEN-2 virus. These results could constitute the basis for the establishment of the role of DEN virus pre and M antigens in the development of anti-flaviviral vaccines.

  16. Preclinical development of a dengue tetravalent recombinant subunit vaccine: Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Meschino, Steven; Guan, Liming; Clements, David E; ter Meulen, Jan H; Casimiro, Danilo R; Coller, Beth-Ann G; Bett, Andrew J

    2015-08-07

    We describe here the preclinical development of a dengue vaccine composed of recombinant subunit carboxy-truncated envelope (E) proteins (DEN-80E) for each of the four dengue serotypes. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy studies in Rhesus monkeys were conducted to evaluate monovalent and tetravalent DEN-80E vaccines formulated with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant. Three different doses and two dosing regimens (0, 1, 2 months and 0, 1, 2, and 6 months) were evaluated in these studies. We first evaluated monomeric (DEN4-80E) and dimeric (DEN4-80EZip) versions of DEN4-80E, the latter generated in an attempt to improve immunogenicity. The two antigens, evaluated at 6, 20 and 100 μg/dose formulated with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, were equally immunogenic. A group immunized with 20 μg DEN4-80E and Alhydrogel™ induced much weaker responses. When challenged with wild-type dengue type 4 virus, all animals in the 6 and 20 μg groups and all but one in the DEN4-80EZip 100 μg group were protected from viremia. Two out of three monkeys in the Alhydrogel™ group had breakthrough viremia. A similar study was conducted to evaluate tetravalent formulations at low (3, 3, 3, 6 μg of DEN1-80E, DEN2-80E, DEN3-80E and DEN4-80E respectively), medium (10, 10, 10, 20 μg) and high (50, 50, 50, 100 μg) doses. All doses were comparably immunogenic and induced high titer, balanced neutralizing antibodies against all four DENV. Upon challenge with the four wild-type DENV, all animals in the low and medium dose groups were protected against viremia while two animals in the high-dose group exhibited breakthrough viremia. Our studies also indicated that a 0, 1, 2 and 6 month vaccination schedule is superior to the 0, 1, and 2 month schedule in terms of durability. Overall, the subunit vaccine was demonstrated to induce strong neutralization titers resulting in protection against viremia following challenge even 8-12 months after the last vaccine dose.

  17. [Management of Odontoid Fractures with Compression Screw and Anterior Transarticular Screw Fixation in Elderly Patients].

    PubMed

    Kočiš, J; Kelbl, M; Veselý, R; Kočiš, T

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In the management of dens axis fractures in patients older than 65 years of age the posterior approach is preferred due to osteoporosis and the risk of a failure of anterior osteosynthesis. The posterior approach, however, is associated with a higher incidence of complications. A combination of anterior transarticular fixation of C1/2 (ATS) with compression osteosynthesis of dens axis significantly increases the stability of osteosynthesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2009 to 2015 our hospital admitted 13 patients older than 65 years of age with a diagnosed type III dens axis fracture based on AO classification. 8 patients sustained a dens axis fracture combined with a stable atlas fracture. The cohort consisted of 13 women aged 67 to 90 years, with the mean age of 82.3 years. None of the female patients were affected neurologically. The dens axis fracture was treated by anterior approach. Once the screw was inserted in the dens axis, two more screws were added, the entrance points of those screws were medial and lateral to the odontoid screw and direction was divergently via C1/2 joints in order to reinforce stability. The patients were monitored at 6-week, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Bone healing was confirmed by CT scan. RESULTS No complications were recorded during the surgery in any of the 13 patients. In one female patient the stabilization failed in the early postoperative period. A reoperation from anterior approach with the use of the same method was necessary. In eleven patients bone healing occurred after 6 to 12 months. In two patients pseudoarthrosis was formed with no clinical symptoms. No neurological deterioration or a patient s death was reported in the monitored period within 12 months after the treatment. DISCUSSION Where dens axis fractures in elderly patients are managed operatively, the posterior approach and transarticular fixation of C1/2 with sublaminar loop are preferred. This procedure is considered

  18. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund: In Deutschland haben viele Einrichtungen für die Bereiche Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin E-Learning-Angebote produziert, die auf unterschiedlichen Lernplattformen basieren (LMS) und spezifisch auf die jeweilige curriculare Präsenzlehre zugeschnitten sind. Bisher existieren keine validen Daten darüber, welche Einrichtungen E-Learning-Angebote bereitstellen und welche Formen des E-Learning diese anbieten.Methoden: Von den 31 deutschen Einrichtungen für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin, die gefragt wurden, den Fragebogen auszufüllen, haben 30 geantwortet, was einer Rücklaufquote von 97% entspricht. Die telefonische Befragung fand zwischen Juli und August 2012 statt.Ergebnisse: Der Einsatz digitaler interaktiver Lehrmaterialien, die webbasiert den Studierenden zur Verfügung gestellt werden, hat in den vergangenen Jahren eine Konjunktur an deutschen Einrichtungen für die Bereiche Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin erfahren. Dieser Trend wird sich weiter fortsetzen, da mehr als die Hälfte (67%) der Einrichtungen ihre bisherigen E-Learning-Angebote ausbauen will. In den vergangenen Jahren sind vor allem Angebote für Medizinische Terminologie entstanden. Viele Einrichtungen möchten künftig ihre Angebote für Medizinische Terminologie weiterentwickeln. Insgesamt wurden die E-Learning-Angebote von den Studierenden sehr gut aufgenommen. 57% der Einrichtungen gaben an, dass 90-100% der Studierenden die Angebote regelmäßig nutzen.Schlussfolgerungen: Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Ergebnisse einer umfangreichen empirischen Studie über E-Learning. Er zeigt den Rahmen auf, in dem deutsche Einrichtungen vorhaben, ihre E-Learning-Optionen in der Zukunft auszuweiten. Schließlich werden spezifische Vorschläge für die Zusammenarbeit unter den Einrichtungen (nicht nur online) gemacht, deren Ziel es ist, Synergien im Bereich E-Learning zu erzeugen.

  19. Live From the Front: Operational Ramifications of Military Web Logs in Combat Zones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-10

    their place in history” 21 Katherine C. Den Bleyker, “The First Ammendment versus Operational Security: Where Should the Milblogging Balance Lie...accessed 25 April 2007). 35 Bleyker, “The First Ammendment versus Operational Security: Where Should the Milblogging Balance Lie?” 36 Ibid. 37 Ibid...Bleyker, Katherine C. Den. “The First Ammendment versus Operational Security: Where Should the Milblogging Balance Lie?” Fordham Intellectual

  20. Skadisotoma, a new genus of Isotomidae (Collembola) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Fjellberg, Arne

    2015-06-13

    A new species and genus, Skadisotoma inpericulosa, is described from south-eastern Australia. It possesses some characters that are found in Tomoceridae, such as a long cylindrical dens that is medially bent and a mucro with at least six teeth of different sizes and three setae but in other characters it resembles an isotomid. In this it shows similarities to the Boreal genus Mucronia Fjellberg, but differs from it in the possession of spines on the dens and in some chaetotaxic characters.

  1. MIL-STD-398 Acceptance Test of Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1974E002 Continuity Kit for M76 Grenade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    SMcAc.DEN C, 0 ! ). Savanna, IL 61074-9639 US ARMY ARMAMENT MUNITIONS EVALUATION DIVISION CHEMICAL COMMAND US ARMY DEFENSE AMMUNITION SAVANNA, ILLINOIS...USADACS). Evaluation Division (SMCAC-DEV), was tasked by the Equipment Division (SMCAC-DEN) to test the Ammunition Peculiar Equipment (APE) 1974E002...Equipment Division and approved by U.S. Army Materiel Command Field Safety Activity (AMCFSA). Charlestown, IN. The test plan defines the Maximum Credible

  2. Oxidation of N-Nitrosoalkylamines by human cytochrome P450 2A6: sequential oxidation to aldehydes and carboxylic acids and analysis of reaction steps.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Calcutt, M Wade; Guengerich, F Peter

    2010-03-12

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2A6 activates nitrosamines, including N,N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) and N,N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN), to alkyl diazohydroxides (which are DNA-alkylating agents) and also aldehydes (HCHO from DMN and CH(3)CHO from DEN). The N-dealkylation of DMN had a high intrinsic kinetic deuterium isotope effect ((D)k(app) approximately 10), which was highly expressed in a variety of competitive and non-competitive experiments. The (D)k(app) for DEN was approximately 3 and not expressed in non-competitive experiments. DMN and DEN were also oxidized to HCO(2)H and CH(3)CO(2)H, respectively. In neither case was a lag observed, which was unexpected considering the k(cat) and K(m) parameters measured for oxidation of DMN and DEN to the aldehydes and for oxidation of the aldehydes to the carboxylic acids. Spectral analysis did not indicate strong affinity of the aldehydes for P450 2A6, but pulse-chase experiments showed only limited exchange with added (unlabeled) aldehydes in the oxidations of DMN and DEN to carboxylic acids. Substoichiometric kinetic bursts were observed in the pre-steady-state oxidations of DMN and DEN to aldehydes. A minimal kinetic model was developed that was consistent with all of the observed phenomena and involves a conformational change of P450 2A6 following substrate binding, equilibrium of the P450-substrate complex with a non-productive form, and oxidation of the aldehydes to carboxylic acids in a process that avoids relaxation of the conformation following the first oxidation (i.e. of DMN or DEN to an aldehyde).

  3. The Need for a Permanent Gun System On the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    5. 9. Emmanuel Gustin and Anthony G Williams, Flying Guns: The Development of Aircraft Guns, Ammunition and Installations 1933-1945 (Airlife...Checking Six Not Enough, 23. 33. Ibid., 24. 34. Ibid., 24. 35. Todd E. Denning, A Case for the Joint Strike Fighter Gun (Army General Command and...Washington DC, 20 October 2006. 38. Ibid 39. Todd E. Denning, A Case Joint Strike Fighter, 56. 40. David R. Mets, Checking Six Not Enough, 41

  4. Probable Optical Counterpart of IGR J00234+6141

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Mirabal, N.

    2006-01-01

    We report a probable identification of the weak hard X-ray source IGR J00234+6141 (den Hartog et al., ATel #394) with a star that has an optical spectrum of a cataclysmic variable. den Hartog et al. noted the presence of a ROSAT All-Sky Survey source 1RXS J002258.3+614111 located 3.15' from the INTEGRAL position and marginally consistent with it, given the estimated 3' error radius (90% confidence) of the latter.

  5. Analysis of the Influence of Federal Air, Water, and Noise Legislation upon Naval Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-12

    U.S. 440 (1960) .............. 3 Ivanhoe Irrigation District v. MeCraken, 357 U.S. 275 (1958; reh. den. 358 U.S. 805 ....... 3 Izaak Walton League v...NOTES 1. See, for example. Ivanhoe Irrigation District v. McCraken, 357 U.S. 275 (1958), reh. den. 358 U.S. 805 and Oklahoma City v. Sanders, 94 F.2d

  6. Evaluation of a dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of secondary dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shingo; Alonzo, Maria T G; Kurosawa, Yae; Mapua, Cynthia A; Reyes, Joyce D; Dimaano, Efren M; Alera, Maria Theresa P; Saito, Mariko; Oishi, Kazunori; Hasebe, Futoshi; Matias, Ronald R; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

    2010-03-01

    To establish a new method for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection, 187 serum samples from the patients with dengue secondary infection, 40 serum samples from the patients with dengue primary infection, and 44 serum samples from the healthy volunteers were tested using the dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DEN IgG ELISA). The results of the test were compared with those from the dengue hemagglutination inhibition (DEN HI) test, which has been recommended as the gold standard by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1997). Japanese encephalitis IgG indirect ELISA (JE IgG ELISA) was also performed to measure anti-flavivirus IgG, which cross-reacts with the Japanese encephalitis virus, to test the possibility of an alternative to DEN IgG ELISA. The results of DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with those of the DEN HI test. In the DEN IgG ELISA, a titer of 1:29,000 was the cut-off value for the diagnosis of dengue secondary infection (91.5% accuracy [95% confidence interval, CI], 90.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 92.9% specificity [95%CI]). A titer of 1:52,000 was the cut-off value for dengue secondary infection using JE IgG ELISA (95.6% accuracy [95%CI], 98.9% sensitivity [95%CI], and 88.1% specificity [95%CI]). In conclusion, this study confirmed that the results of both DEN IgG and JE IgG ELISAs were highly correlated with the results of DEN HI test. Thus, these ELISAs are simple, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative tests that can be used in the determination of dengue secondary infection.

  7. Proceedings of the International Conference on The Performance of Off-Road Vehicles and Machines (8th). Volume 1. Held at Cambridge England, on August 5-11, 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    angewendet. Ausgehend von den ma- thematischen 1Modeilformulierungen. fUr die Teilsysteme " Fahr - zeug* und "Aktiv-Federung", die jeweila auf den Daten...Effektivwerte der vertika--770 len Beschleunigung verwen- _____j det. 01 1 10 ’ 100 FREQUENZ Bild 5 gibt die bei Fahr - geschwindiqkeiten von 12,5 Buld 4...Abstutzung emn Feder-Dimpfer-Element emn- gefUgt wird. Die Auswirkungen dieses Schwingungsabsorbers auf die Fahr - Ssicherheit, die

  8. Taphonomic and zooarchaeological implications of spotted hyena (crocuta crocuta) bone accumulations in kenya: A modern behavioral ecological approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lansing, S.W.; Cooper, S.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    The significant impact of extant carnivores, particularly spotted hyenas, on the depo-sitional history and physical characteristics of archaeofaunal and paleontological assemblages is well recognized. We focus on the behavioral ecology of extant spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in relation to bone accumulations produced by one East African clan at communal dens. Limbs and skulls of prey animals more frequently appear at dens than do other carcass portions. These items reflect the relative abundance of prey species near dens; carnivore remains are poorly represented. Comparative analysis reveals that bones are deposited far more slowly (<7 carcass portions per month) and accumulations tend to be smaller at Crocuta dens than at dens of either brown (Para-hyaena brunnea) or striped (Hyaena hyaena) hyenas. We propose that extant Crocuta bone accumu-lation rates and sizes are likely affected by prey species abundance, clan size, social interactions within the clan, and the type and availability of den sites. We also suggest that the potential for intraspecific behavioral variability in bone accumulation patterns is important when comparisons are made among spotted hyena populations and across hyena species. For example, accumulation patterns may be dramatically influenced by the temporal span, potentially ranging from days to hundreds or thousands of years, in which bones are collected, depending on the species-specific history of occupation at a given site. Understanding the behavioral and ecological variability likely to influence bone accumulation patterns at dens used by different hyaenids will allow taphonomists and zooarchaeologists to refine their knowledge of mechanisms underlying site formation pro-cesses and potential causes of variability in deeper-time den assemblages. ?? 2009 The Paleontological Society.

  9. Communication in Health Professions: A European consensus on inter- and multi-professional learning objectives in German.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Cadja; Kiessling, Claudia; Härtl, Anja; Haak, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund und Zielsetzung: Kommunikation rückt in den Gesundheitsberufen zunehmend in den Blickpunkt. Die Vermittlung kommunikativer Kompetenzen sollte bereits im Studium bzw. in der Ausbildung beginnen.Ziel des Projekts war, einen englischsprachigen Ausbildungszielkatalog für die Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen, das „Health Professions Core Communication Curriculum (HPCCC)“, ins Deutsche zu übersetzen und einer breiten deutschsprachigen Öffentlichkeit zugänglich zu machen. Der Katalog umfasst 61 Ausbildungsziele und wurde von 121 internationalen Kommunikationsexperten konsentiert. Ein europäischer Bezugsrahmen für die inter- und multiprofessionelle Curriculumentwicklung „Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen“ im deutschsprachigen Raum sollte hergestellt werden.Methode: Die deutschsprachige Version des HPCCC wurde von sechs Personen entwickelt und in mehreren Revisionsschleifen konsentiert. Beispielhaft wurden Ausbildungsziele mit geeigneten didaktischen Methoden und Prüfungsinstrumenten aus der Materialiensammlung des teaching committee of the European Association for Communication Health Care (tEACH) versehen. Ergebnisse: Die Ausbildungsziele des HPCCC liegen nun in deutscher Version vor und können für die Curriculumsplanung und -entwicklung in den einzelnen deutschsprachigen Gesundheitsberufen aber auch berufsübergreifend genutzt werden. Anwendungsbeispiele für didaktische Methoden und Prüfungsinstrumente werden aufgelistet und zeigen konkrete Umsetzungsmöglichkeiten auf.Fazit: Die deutschsprachige Version des HPCCC, die Ausbildungsziele für die Kommunikation in den Gesundheitsberufen aufzeigt, kann einen wichtigen Beitrag zur inter- und multiprofessionellen Curriculumentwicklung in den Gesundheitsberufen im deutschen Sprachraum leisten. Beispiele für didaktische Methoden und Prüfungen aus der Materialiensammlung der tEACH ergänzen das curriculare Konzept und sollen Anregungen für die praktische Umsetzung der

  10. Studies on nitrosamine metabolism. III. Comparison of the subcellular distribution of radioactivity in tissues of REM and BALB/c mice following administration of (/sup 14/C)diethylnitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, J.P.; Clapp, N.K.

    1981-10-01

    The tissue distribution of radioactivity in male RFM and BALB/c mice was investigated following a single dose of (/sup 14/C)-labeled diethylnitrosamine (DEN). The radiolabel was associated with all the subcellular fractions, and the majority of the radioactivity was located in the cytosol fraction. The majority of the radiolabel was usually eliminated from the fractions within 16-24 hrs after (/sup 14/C)DEN administration.

  11. Preclinical and clinical development of a dengue recombinant subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Manoff, Susan B; George, Sarah L; Bett, Andrew J; Yelmene, Michele L; Dhanasekaran, Govindarajan; Eggemeyer, Linda; Sausser, Michele L; Dubey, Sheri A; Casimiro, Danilo R; Clements, David E; Martyak, Timothy; Pai, Vidya; Parks, D Elliot; Coller, Beth-Ann G

    2015-12-10

    This review focuses on a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidate based on a recombinant subunit approach which targets the DENV envelope glycoprotein (E). Truncated versions of E consisting of the N-terminal portion of E (DEN-80E) have been expressed recombinantly in the Drosophila S2 expression system and shown to have native-like conformation. Preclinical studies demonstrate that formulations containing tetravalent DEN-80E adjuvanted with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant induce high titer virus neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ producing T cells in flavivirus-naïve non-human primates. The preclinical data further suggest that administration of such formulations on a 0, 1, 6 month schedule may result in higher maximum virus neutralizing antibody titers and better durability of those titers compared to administration on a 0, 1, 2 month schedule. In addition, the virus neutralizing antibody titers induced by adjuvanted tetravalent DEN-80E compare favorably to the titers induced by a tetravalent live virus comparator. Furthermore, DEN-80E was demonstrated to be able to boost virus neutralizing antibody titers in macaques that have had a prior DENV exposure. A monovalent version of the vaccine candidate, DEN1-80E, was formulated with Alhydrogel™ and studied in a proof-of-principle Phase I clinical trial by Hawaii Biotech, Inc. (NCT00936429). The clinical trial results demonstrate that both the 10 μg and 50 μg formulations of DEN1-80E with 1.25 mg of elemental aluminum were immunogenic when administered in a 3-injection series (0, 1, 2 months) to healthy, flavivirus-naïve adults. The vaccine formulations induced DENV-1 neutralizing antibodies in the majority of subjects, although the titers in most subjects were modest and waned over time. Both the 10 μg DEN1-80E and the 50 μg DEN1-80E formulations with Alhydrogel™ were generally well tolerated.

  12. Identification of B-Cell Epitope of Dengue Virus Type 1 and Its Application in Diagnosis of Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han-Chung; Huang, Yue-Ling; Chao, Ting-Ting; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Huang, Jau-Ling; Chiang, Hsien-Yuan; King, Chwan-Chuen; Shaio, Men-Fang

    2001-01-01

    Using a serotype-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) of dengue virus type 1 (DEN-1), 15F3-1, we identified the B-cell epitope of DEN-1 from a random peptide library displayed on phage. Fourteen immunopositive phage clones that bound specifically to MAb 15F3-1 were selected. These phage-borne peptides had a consensus motif of HxYaWb (a = S/T, b = K/H/R) that mimicked the sequence HKYSWK, which corresponded to amino acid residues 111 to 116 of the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of DEN-1. Among the four synthetic peptides corresponding to amino acid residues 110 to 117 of the NS1 of DEN-1, -2, -3, and -4, only one peptide, EHKYSWKS (P14M) of DEN-1, was found to bind to 15F3-1 specifically. Furthermore, P14M was shown to inhibit the binding of phage particles to 15F3-1 in a competitive inhibition assay. Histidine111 (His111) was crucial to the binding of P14M to 15F3-1, since its binding activity dramatically reduced when it changed to leucine111 (Leu111). This epitope-based peptide demonstrated its clinical diagnostic potential when it reacted with a high degree of specificity with serum samples obtained from both DEN-1-infected rabbits and patients. Based on these observations, our DEN-1 epitope-based serologic test could be useful in laboratory viral diagnosis and in understanding the pathogenesis of DEN-1. PMID:11230414

  13. Rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes by NS1 specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay in patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, M; Lakshmi, V; Lavanya, Vanjari; Priyanka, E N; Parida, M M; Dash, P K; Sharma, Shashi; Rao, P V Lakshmana; Reddy, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the acute phase of illness is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of the spread of the infection. In the present study, the standardization and validation of a one step, four tube reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) for rapid detection and serotyping of the DENV targeting NS1 gene using the Genie® II flourometer was carried out. The performance of the RT-LAMP was compared to RT-PCR, CDC 1-4 Real time PCR and the NS1 antigen ELISA, IgM and IgG anti DENV antibodies. Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 250/300 patients suspected clinically of DENV infection. RT- LAMP and CDC 1-4 Real time PCR assay was positive in 148/250 patients, while 92/250 patients were positive for anti- Dengue IgM and IgG antibodies. The RT-LAMP assay and the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay showed high concordance (k=1.0). The detection rate of acute DENV infection improved to 96% (240/250) when the results of RT-LAMP were combined with NS1 Ag, IgM and IgG ELISA. The RT-LAMP had a detection limit of 100 copies for DEN-1 and DEN-2, 10 copies for DEN-3 and DEN-4 compared to 1000 copies for DEN-1 and DEN-2, 100 copies for DEN-3 and DEN-4 by the conventional RT-PCR. The assay showed 100% specificity. The RT-LAMP assay developed in this study has potential use for early clinical diagnosis, serotyping and surveillance of DENV infection in endemic countries such as India.

  14. Predicting cattle age from eye lens weight and nitrogen content, dentition, and United States Department of Agriculture maturity score.

    PubMed

    Raines, C R; Dikeman, M E; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Knock, R C

    2008-12-01

    This research explores the relationship between generally accepted and alternative cattle age-prediction methods and chronological age. Cattle (n = 386) of documented ages ranging from 370 to 1,115 d of age were used. Dentition (DEN), USDA maturity score (MS), lens weight (LW), and lens total N (LN) content were used as possible predictors of age. Correlations with age were determined: LW (r = 0.77); DEN (r = 0.74); LN (r = 0.71); and MS (r = 0.64). Stepwise backward regression was used to generate an age prediction equation: Age (mo) = -21.79 + 17.23(LW, g) + 0.038(DEN). By this equation, 38% of cattle DEN (9.6%), and LN (8.7%). The DEN verified that 87.6% were verified as <30 mo old, and LW verified 81.6% of cattle as <30 mo old. A separate group of cattle (n = 18) ranging in age from 1 to 12 yr were evaluated for lens properties, for which LW (R(2) = 0.91) and LN (R(2) = 0.92) were highly correlated with age. The LW and DEN were the best predictors of age for cattle 13- to 37-mo-old and yielded the most accurate age prediction when used in combination (R(2) = 0.67).

  15. Carvacrol modulates instability of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and downregulates the expressions of PCNA, MMP-2, and MMP-9 during diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Jayakumar; Krishnan, Gokuladhas; Balan, Rajan; Mgj, Divya; Ramasamy, Elamaran; Ramalingam, Shenbhagaraman; Veerabathiran, Ramakrishnan; Thandavamoorthy, Premkumar; Mani, Gopi Krishnan; Thiruvengadam, Devaki

    2014-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignant tumor in the world, both in terms of incidence and mortality in Asian and Western countries. There are currently limited therapeutic regimens available for effective treatment of this cancer. Carvacrol is a predominant monoterpenoic phenol believed to impede cancer promotion and progression. The present study was conducted to decipher the role of carvacrol during diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male wistar albino rats. Carvacrol (15 mg/kg body weight) suppressed the elevation of serum tumor marker enzymes, carcinoembryonic antigen, and α-feto protein induced by DEN. The activities of phase I enzymes increased markedly during DEN induction, but was found to be significantly lowered upon carvacrol treatment. On the contrary, the phase II enzymes decreased in DEN-administered animals, which was improved normalcy upon carvacrol-treated animals. DEN-administered animals showed increased mast cell counts, argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs-2/9), whereas carvacrol supplementation considerably suppressed all the above abnormalities. The results suggest that the carvacrol exhibited the potential anticancer activity by inhibiting cell proliferation and preventing metastasis in DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis.

  16. Direct Endoscopic Necrosectomy Versus Step-Up Approach for Walled-Off Pancreatic Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Conwell, Darwin L.; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a complication of acute pancreatitis requiring intervention. Surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), initial therapy in the step-up approach, minimizes complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We compared outcome and health care utilization of DEN versus step-up approach. Methods This was a matched cohort study using a prospective registry. Twelve consecutive DEN patients were matched with 12 step-up approach patients. Outcomes were clinical resolution after primary therapeutic modality, new organ failure, mortality, endocrine or exocrine insufficiency, length of stay, and health care utilization. Results Clinical resolution in 11 of 12 patients after DEN versus 3 of 12 step-up approach patients after PCD (P < 0.01). Nine step-up approach patients required surgery; 7 of these experienced complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy resulted in less new antibiotic use, pulmonary failure, endocrine insufficiency, and shorter length of stay (P < 0.05). Health care utilization was lower after DEN by 5.2:1 (P < 0.01). Conclusions Direct endoscopic necrosectomy may be superior to step-up approach for WOPN with suspected or established infection. Primary PCD generally delayed definitive therapy. Given the higher efficacy, shorter length of stay, and lower health care utilization, DEN could be the first-line therapy for WOPN, with primary PCD for inaccessible or immature collections. PMID:25083997

  17. Polymerized planar suspended lipid bilayers for single ion channel recordings: comparison of several dienoyl lipids.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Benjamin A; Xu, Juhua; Jones, Ian W; Keogh, John P; Comi, Troy J; Hall, Henry K; Aspinwall, Craig A; Saavedra, S Scott

    2011-03-01

    The stabilization of suspended planar lipid membranes, or black lipid membranes (BLMs), through polymerization of mono- and bis-functionalized dienoyl lipids was investigated. Electrical properties, including capacitance, conductance, and dielectric breakdown voltage, were determined for BLMs composed of mono-DenPC, bis-DenPC, mono-SorbPC, and bis-SorbPC both prior to and following photopolymerization, with diphytanoyl phosphocholine (DPhPC) serving as a control. Poly(lipid) BLMs exhibited significantly longer lifetimes and increased the stability of air-water transfers. BLM stability followed the order bis-DenPC > mono-DenPC ≈ mono-SorbPC > bis-SorbPC. The conductance of bis-SorbPC BLMs was significantly higher than that of the other lipids, which is attributed to a high density of hydrophilic pores, resulting in relatively unstable membranes. The use of poly(lipid) BLMs as matrices for supporting the activity of an ion channel protein (IC) was explored using α-hemolysin (α-HL), a model IC. Characteristic i-V plots of α-HL were maintained following photopolymerization of bis-DenPC, mono-DenPC, and mono-SorbPC, demonstrating the utility of these materials for preparing more durable BLMs for single-channel recordings of reconstituted ICs.

  18. Anticarcinogenic effect of black tea on pulmonary tumors in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-25

    The widespread consumption of tea as beverage throughout the world has stimulated interest in the possibility of its use in chemoprevention of cancer. The present set of investigation was carried out to evaluate the anticarcinogenic activity of black tea using lung tumorigenesis model in Swiss albino mice. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN), a known inducer of pulmonary tumors was given at the multiple (total eight) doses of 20mg/kg body weight through oral intubation to Swiss albino mice. Simultaneously, three different groups of animals received 1, 2 and 4% aqueous black tea extracts (ATE) as a sole source of drinking solution. The positive control group received DEN treatment only. The animals were sacrificed after 28 weeks of the first dose of DEN. They were identified for different histological types of alveologenic pulmonary tumors. In the positive DEN treated group, higher incidences of pulmonary tumors were observed, while in ATE treated groups, a lower incidence of DEN induced lung tumorigenicity was recorded. The percentage of mice having lung tumors was decreased following ATE administration. Besides this, significant decrease in the number of tumors/mouse was observed in 2 and 4% ATE supplemented groups. The histological examination revealed a significant decrease in pulmonary adenomas at all doses of ATE. The number of animals showing pulmonary adenocarcinomas induced by DEN was found to be inhibited significantly by 4% ATE. In addition, splenomegaly was found to be protected by ATE administration.

  19. A Systematic Investigation of p-Nitrophenol Reduction by Bimetallic Dendrimer Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by NaBH4 is catalyzed by both monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). We also demonstrate a straightforward and precise method for the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using poly(amido)amine dendrimers. The resulting dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are monodisperse, and the size distribution does not vary with different elemental combinations. Random alloys of Pt/Cu, Pd/Cu, Pd/Au, Pt/Au, and Au/Cu DENs were synthesized and evaluated as catalysts for p-nitrophenol reduction. These combinations are chosen in order to selectively tune the binding energy of the p-nitrophenol adsorbate to the nanoparticle surface. Following the Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi (BEP) relation, we show that the binding energy can reasonably predict the reaction rates of p-nitrophenol reduction. We demonstrate that the measured reaction rate constants of the bimetallic DENs is not always a simple average of the properties of the constituent metals. In particular, DENs containing metals with similar lattice constants produce a binding energy close to the average of the two constituents, whereas DENs containing metals with a lattice mismatch show a bimodal distribution of binding energies. Overall, in this work we present a uniform method for synthesizing pure and bimetallic DENs and demonstrate that their catalytic properties are dependent on the adsorbate’s binding energy. PMID:23616909

  20. A Systematic Investigation of p-Nitrophenol Reduction by Bimetallic Dendrimer Encapsulated Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pozun, Zachary D; Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Keller, Emily; Tran, Kelly; Tang, Wenjie; Stevenson, Keith J; Henkelman, Graeme

    2013-04-18

    We demonstrate that the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by NaBH4 is catalyzed by both monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). We also demonstrate a straightforward and precise method for the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using poly(amido)amine dendrimers. The resulting dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are monodisperse, and the size distribution does not vary with different elemental combinations. Random alloys of Pt/Cu, Pd/Cu, Pd/Au, Pt/Au, and Au/Cu DENs were synthesized and evaluated as catalysts for p-nitrophenol reduction. These combinations are chosen in order to selectively tune the binding energy of the p-nitrophenol adsorbate to the nanoparticle surface. Following the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation, we show that the binding energy can reasonably predict the reaction rates of p-nitrophenol reduction. We demonstrate that the measured reaction rate constants of the bimetallic DENs is not always a simple average of the properties of the constituent metals. In particular, DENs containing metals with similar lattice constants produce a binding energy close to the average of the two constituents, whereas DENs containing metals with a lattice mismatch show a bimodal distribution of binding energies. Overall, in this work we present a uniform method for synthesizing pure and bimetallic DENs and demonstrate that their catalytic properties are dependent on the adsorbate's binding energy.

  1. A fragment of the envelope protein from dengue-1 virus, fused in two different sites of the meningococcal P64k protein carrier, induces a functional immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Lisset; Rodríguez, Rayner; Lazo, Laura; Bernardo, Lídice; Silva, Ricardo; Zulueta, Aída; López, Carlos; Martín, Jorge; Valdés, Iris; del Rosario, Delfina; Guillén, Gerardo; Guzmán, María G

    2004-02-01

    Previously we have reported the capacity of the fusion protein PD3, composed of the P64k protein and the envelope (E) fragment from amino acids (aa) 286-426 of dengue-2 virus (DEN-2), to induce a functional immune response in mice against the homologous virus. In that case, the E fragment was inserted within the lipoyl-binding domain of the meningococcal P64k protein. In the present study, to test the functionality of the same E region from dengue-1 (DEN-1), a similar construct was made. Furthermore, another alternative of fusion protein was also constructed where the same E fragment from DEN-1 was fused to the C-terminus of the P64k protein. The recombinant proteins obtained (PD11 and PD10) were semi-purified and analysed for their antigenicity, immunogenicity and the ability to protect mice against lethal challenge. Both molecules exhibited the same recognition patterns against anti-DEN-1 polyclonal antibodies. In addition, when administered to mice, they elicited high levels of neutralizing antibodies and induced significant protection against lethal challenge with DEN-1 after intracerebral inoculation. These results reveal the availability of two sites within the P64k for the further insertion of DEN fragments, enabling a construct carrying two fragments from heterologous serotypes within the same molecule of this protein carrier.

  2. Biological survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (Buena Vista), Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Sauls, M.L.

    1987-06-01

    A field survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California, was conducted to determine the distribution and relative abundance of endangered species and other wildlife. Of the 343 San Joaquin kit fox dens found in 40 sections, 33 were observed by surveyors in transit and 310 were found along transects. Of the latter, 264 were typical subterranean dens and 46 were atypical dens in man-made structures. Estimated density of dens was 28.8 +- 4.4 per square mile; relative density was 9.2/1000 acres. The number of typical dens observed per section was inversely correlated with the number of petroleum wells per section (intensity of development). Atypical dens were usually found to be in pipes or pipe culverts and were positively correlated with density of wells. Relative densities of black-tailed jackrabbits (41.9/1000 acres) and desert cottontails (17.1/1000 acres), preferred prey for foxes, were high compared with densities reported on other public lands. Most (81%) of the 19 blunt-nosed leopard lizards were observed in six adjacent sections located in the gentle foothills near Buena Vista Lake playa. Most (86%) of the 275 giant kangaroo rat burrow systems were observed in ten sections containing flat, relatively undeveloped terrain in and around upper Buena Vista Valley. San Joaquin antelope ground squirrels were the second most commonly observed diurnal vertebrate: 761 observations in 45 sections. A total of 6740 observations of 61 species of wildlife were made.

  3. Prolonged local retention of subcutaneously injected polymers monitored by noninvasive SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Chie; Niki, Yuichiro; Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro

    2014-12-10

    Polymers are widely applied to drug delivery systems because polymers are generally excreted from the body more slowly than small molecules. Subcutaneous injection is one plausible means of administration. In this study, the in vivo behaviors of subcutaneously injected polymers, linear poly(glutamic acid) (Poly-Glu), acetylated dendrimer (Ac-den) and collagen peptide-conjugated dendrimer (CP-den), were investigated. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging was used to noninvasively monitor the in vivo behaviors. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) was conjugated to these polymers, which were labeled with radioactive (111)In. These (111)In-DTPA-bearing polymers (Poly-Glu-DTPA, Ac-den-DTPA and CP-den-DTPA) and unconjugated DTPA were subcutaneously injected into tumor-bearing mice, which were subjected to SPECT imaging. These (111)In-DTPA-bearing polymers were largely retained at the injection site for at least 1 day, whereas the unconjugated DTPA was rapidly cleared from the whole body through excretion. Poly-Glu-DTPA and Ac-den-DTPA were partly accumulated in the kidney (and the liver), but the CP-den-DTPA was not. However, these (111)In-DTPA-bearing polymers were accumulated in the liver and the kidney following intravenous administration. These results indicate that the subcutaneously injected polymers did not largely gain substantial access to the systemic circulation, which is useful for a depot of drug around the injection site.

  4. Polymerized Planar Suspended Lipid Bilayers for Single Ion Channel Recordings: Comparison of Several Dienoyl Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Benjamin A.; Xu, Juhua; Jones, Ian W.; Keogh, John P.; Comi, Troy J.; Hall, Henry K.; Aspinwall, Craig A.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The stabilization of suspended planar lipid membranes, or black lipid membranes (BLMs), through polymerization of mono- and bis-functionalized dienoyl lipids was investigated. Electrical properties, including capacitance, conductance, and dielectric breakdown voltage, were determined for BLMs composed of mono-DenPC, bis-DenPC, mono-SorbPC, and bis-SorbPC both prior to and following photopolymerization, with diphytanoyl phosphocholine (DPhPC) serving as a control. Poly(lipid) BLMs exhibited significantly longer lifetimes and increased the stability to air-water transfers. BLM stability followed the order: bis-DenPC > mono-DenPC ≈ mono-SorbPC > bis-SorbPC. The conductance of bis-SorbPC BLMs was significantly higher than that of the other lipids, which is attributed to a high density of hydrophilic pores, resulting in relatively unstable membranes. The use of poly(lipid) BLMs as matrices for supporting the activity of an ion channel protein (IC) was explored using α – hemolysin (α-HL), a model IC. Characteristic i-V plots of α-HL were maintained following photopolymerization of bis-DenPC, mono-DenPC, and mono-SorbPC, demonstrating the utility of these materials for preparing more durable BLMs for single channel recordings of reconstituted ICs. PMID:21226498

  5. A review of the genus Pempheris (Perciformes, Pempheridae) of the Red Sea, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Keita; Yoshino, Tetsuo; Imai, Hideyuki; Tachihara, Katsunori

    2014-04-30

    Four species of the fish genus Pempheris are recognized for the Red Sea: P. adusta Bleeker, 1877; P. mangula Cuvier, 1829; P. nesogallica Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1831; and a new species P. tominagai. All are wide-ranging in the western Indian Ocean, and P. mangula has migrated via the Suez Canal to the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Morphological and genetic analysis of 15 species in this genus show that P. adusta, a widely distributed species, that can't be divided into different species, because of the continuity of morphologies and distribution, and lack of variance in genetics between Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and Pacific Ocean populations. This confirms that the two subspecies described by Randall et al. (2013) are both synonyms of P. adusta. Pempheris adusta is distinguished from other species by a blackish spot on pectoral fin base, pored lateral-line scales 56-64, scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-6 1/2, distinct blackish band on outer edge of anal fin, and blackish band on posterior edge of caudal fin. Pempheris mangula was named by Cuvier (1829) in a footnote making reference to a drawing and short description in Russell (1803) of a Pempheris from southeast India, giving only the native name ''Mangula-Kutti'', and listing no specimen. The wide distribution of this species, from the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea is also demonstrated by morphological and genetic analysis. Thus, the specimen collected from southern India is herein designated as the neotype. This species is distinguished from other species by its huge eye, deep body, blackish tip of the dorsal fin, pored lateral-line scales 49-60, and scale rows above lateral line 4 1/2-5 1/2. The extant syntype of Kossmann & Räuber's P. rhomboidea is designated as the lectotype of the species; however, P. rhomboidea is a synonym of P. mangula. In addition, Kossmann & Räuber's Pempheris erythraea and P. russellii Day, 1888 are also synonyms of P. mangula. Of two existing syntypes of P. nesogallica from

  6. Safety of direct endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with gastric varices

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Andrew C; Thompson, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of transgastric direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) in patients with walled-off necrosis (WON) and gastric varices. METHODS: A single center retrospective study of consecutive DEN for WON was performed from 2012 to 2015. All DEN cases with gastric fundal varices noted on endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the admission for DEN were collected for analysis. In all cases, external urethral sphincter (EUS) with doppler was used to exclude the presence of intervening gastric varices or other vascular structures prior to 19 gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle access into the cavity. The tract was serially dilated to 20 mm and was entered with an endoscope for DEN. Pigtail stents were placed to facilitate drainage of the cavity. Procedure details were recorded. Comprehensive chart review was performed to evaluate for complications and WON recurrence. RESULTS: Fifteen patients who underwent DEN for WON had gastric varices at the time of their procedure. All patients had an INR < 1.5 and platelets > 50. Of these patients, 11 had splenic vein thrombosis and 2 had portal vein thrombosis. Two patients had isolated gastric varices, type 1 and the remaining 13 had > 5 mm gastric submucosal varices on imaging by CT, MRI or EUS. No procedures were terminated without completing the DEN for any reason. One patient had self-limited intraprocedural bleeding related to balloon dilation of the tract. Two patients experienced delayed bleeding at 2 and 5 d post-op respectively. One required no therapy or intervention and the other received 1 unit transfusion and had an EGD which revealed no active bleeding. Resolution rate of WON was 100% (after up to 2 additional DEN in one patient) and no patients required interventional radiology or surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: In patients with WON and gastric varices, DEN using EUS and doppler guidance may be performed safely. Successful resolution

  7. Preferential metabolism of N-nitrosodiethylamine by two cell lines derived from human pulmonary adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Falzon, M.; McMahon, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Schuller, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), in common with other nitrosamines, is a carcinogenic agent which produces tumors in a wide variety of tissues in experimental animals. The pulmonary Clara cell is a major target of N-nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in hamsters and rats. DEN is believed to require metabolic activation to elicit its carcinogenic effects. The metabolism of (/sup 14/C)DEN was studied in two cell lines derived from human lung adenocarcinomas and two cell lines derived from human small cell lung cancers by monitoring /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production and covalent binding of radiolabel from (/sup 14/C)DEN to the cell protein and DNA fractions. (/sup 14/C)DEN was metabolized by adenocarcinoma-derived NCI-H322 (with Clara cell features) and NCI-H358 (with features of alveolar type II cells) but not by NCI-H69 and NCI-H128 (derived from small cell carcinoma). Metabolism was markedly inhibited by heat denaturation of the cell protein. (/sup 14/C)DEN metabolism by NCI-H322 was greatly decreased when the incubation was carried out under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of a carbon monoxide enriched atmosphere. These results suggested the involvement of the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase enzyme system. Metabolism by NCI-H358 was also decreased in the absence of oxygen or presence of carbon monoxide although the effects were relatively small compared with the results with NCI-H322. On the other hand, aspirin or indomethacin, which are inhibitors of the fatty acid cyclooxygenase component of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase, preferentially inhibited (/sup 14/C)DEN metabolism by NIC-H358. There were little or no effects of these inhibitors on the metabolism of DEN in NCI-H322. The data suggest that DEN metabolism in different lung cell types may be carried out by different enzyme systems which in turn may contribute to the selective effect of DEN in the lung.

  8. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  9. Antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) supplementation reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatocellular tumor promotion of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) in rats.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Keisuke; Hayashi, Hitomi; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Imaoka, Masako; Ishii, Yuji; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) has a liver tumor promoting activity in rats, and is also known as a cytochrome p450 1A (CYP1A) inducer. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from CYP1A induction due to I3C, is probably involved in the tumor promotion. To clarify whether ROS generation contributes to I3C's induction of hepatocellular altered foci, partially hepatectomized rats were fed a diet containing 0.5% of I3C for 8 weeks with or without 0.3% N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, in their drinking water after N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci promoted by I3C were suppressed by the administration of NAC. The mRNAs of members of the phase II nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2 (Nrf2) gene batteries, whose promoter region is called as antioxidant response element (ARE), were down-regulated in the DEN-I3C-NAC group compared to the DEN-I3C group, but Cyp1a1 was not suppressed in the DEN-I3C-NAC group compared to the DEN-I3C group. There was no marked difference in production of microsomal ROS and genomic 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxygunosine (8-OHdG) as an oxidative DNA marker between the DEN-I3C-NAC and DEN-I3C groups, while mapkapk3 and Myc were decreased by the NAC treatment. These results indicate that oxidative stress plays an important role for I3C's tumor promotion, and NAC suppresses induction of hepatocellular altered foci with suppressed cytoplasmic oxidative stress.

  10. A Non Mouse-Adapted Dengue Virus Strain as a New Model of Severe Dengue Infection in AG129 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Grace K.; Ng, Jowin K. W.; Trasti, Scott L.; Schul, Wouter; Yip, George; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The spread of dengue (DEN) worldwide combined with an increased severity of the DEN-associated clinical outcomes have made this mosquito-borne virus of great global public health importance. Progress in understanding DEN pathogenesis and in developing effective treatments has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Most of the DEN clinical isolates and cell culture-passaged DEN virus strains reported so far require either host adaptation, inoculation with a high dose and/or intravenous administration to elicit a virulent phenotype in mice which results, at best, in a productive infection with no, few, or irrelevant disease manifestations, and with mice dying within few days at the peak of viremia. Here we describe a non-mouse-adapted DEN2 virus strain (D2Y98P) that is highly infectious in AG129 mice (lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors) upon intraperitoneal administration. Infection with a high dose of D2Y98P induced cytokine storm, massive organ damage, and severe vascular leakage, leading to haemorrhage and rapid death of the animals at the peak of viremia. In contrast, very interestingly and uniquely, infection with a low dose of D2Y98P led to asymptomatic viral dissemination and replication in relevant organs, followed by non-paralytic death of the animals few days after virus clearance, similar to the disease kinetic in humans. Spleen damage, liver dysfunction and increased vascular permeability, but no haemorrhage, were observed in moribund animals, suggesting intact vascular integrity, a cardinal feature in DEN shock syndrome. Infection with D2Y98P thus offers the opportunity to further decipher some of the aspects of dengue pathogenesis and provides a new platform for drug and vaccine testing. PMID:20436920

  11. A non mouse-adapted dengue virus strain as a new model of severe dengue infection in AG129 mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Grace K; Ng, Jowin K W; Trasti, Scott L; Schul, Wouter; Yip, George; Alonso, Sylvie

    2010-04-27

    The spread of dengue (DEN) worldwide combined with an increased severity of the DEN-associated clinical outcomes have made this mosquito-borne virus of great global public health importance. Progress in understanding DEN pathogenesis and in developing effective treatments has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Most of the DEN clinical isolates and cell culture-passaged DEN virus strains reported so far require either host adaptation, inoculation with a high dose and/or intravenous administration to elicit a virulent phenotype in mice which results, at best, in a productive infection with no, few, or irrelevant disease manifestations, and with mice dying within few days at the peak of viremia. Here we describe a non-mouse-adapted DEN2 virus strain (D2Y98P) that is highly infectious in AG129 mice (lacking interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma receptors) upon intraperitoneal administration. Infection with a high dose of D2Y98P induced cytokine storm, massive organ damage, and severe vascular leakage, leading to haemorrhage and rapid death of the animals at the peak of viremia. In contrast, very interestingly and uniquely, infection with a low dose of D2Y98P led to asymptomatic viral dissemination and replication in relevant organs, followed by non-paralytic death of the animals few days after virus clearance, similar to the disease kinetic in humans. Spleen damage, liver dysfunction and increased vascular permeability, but no haemorrhage, were observed in moribund animals, suggesting intact vascular integrity, a cardinal feature in DEN shock syndrome. Infection with D2Y98P thus offers the opportunity to further decipher some of the aspects of dengue pathogenesis and provides a new platform for drug and vaccine testing.

  12. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  13. Sixty years of clinical electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Karbowski, K

    1990-01-01

    As a result of painstaking studies carried out over a period of almost 30 years, the German neurologist and psychiatrist Hans Berger, of Jena, published the first paper on the human electroencephalogram (Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen') in 1929. Clinical electroencephalography, which reached a zenith in the 1950s and 1960s, increased the range of diagnostic techniques available for a series of brain diseases and revolutionized the study of epilepsy. Today, conventional electroencephalography no longer yields startling scientific discoveries. Nor can it complete with computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the diagnosis of structural disorders of the brain. In spite of this, the scope of its uses continues to increase and it remains an indispensable instrument of neurophysiological diagnosis, especially in its capacity as a 'seismograph' of the brain. The trend that is apparent throughout the world to cut back clinical electroencephalographic units in favor of other neurophysiological investigative techniques is both unjustified and dangerous. If it continues, it will inevitably lead to a decline in epileptology, which is an essential part of the work of many different medical specialists both in practice and in hospitals.

  14. On the Application of the Energy Method to Stability Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marguerre, Karl

    1947-01-01

    Since stability problems have come into the field of vision of engineers, energy methods have proved to be one of the most powerful aids in mastering them. For finding the especially interesting critical loads special procedures have evolved that depart somewhat from those customary in the usual elasticity theory. A clarification of the connections seemed desirable,especially with regard to the post-critical region, for the treatment of which these special methods are not suited as they are. The present investigation discusses this question-complex (made important by shell construction in aircraft) especially in the classical example of the Euler strut, because in this case - since the basic features are not hidden by difficulties of a mathematical nature - the problem is especially clear. The present treatment differs from that appearing in the Z.f.a.M.M. (1938) under the title "Uber die Behandlung von Stabilittatsproblemen mit Hilfe der energetischen Methode" in that, in order to work out the basic ideas still more clearly,it dispenses with the investigation of behavior at large deflections and of the elastic foundation;in its place the present version gives an elaboration of the 6th section and (in its 7 th and 8th secs.)a new example that shows the applicability of the general criterion to a stability problem that differs from that of Euler in many respects.

  15. Nonlinear Interaction of the Beat-Photon Beams with the Brain Neurocenters: Laser Neurophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2010-03-01

    I propose a novel mechanism for laser-brain interaction: Nonlinear interaction of ultrashort pulses of beat-photon, (φ1-- φ2), or double-photon, (φ1+φ2), footnotetextMaria Goeppert-Mayer, "Uber Elementarakte mit zwei Quantenspr"ungen, Ann Phys 9, 273, 95. (1931). beams with the corrupted brain neurocenters, causing a particular neurological disease. The open-scull cerebral tissue can be irradiated with the beat-photon pulses in the range of several 100s fs, with the laser irradiances in the range of a few mW/cm^2, repetition rate of a few 100s Hz, and in the frequency range of 700-1300nm generated in the beat-wave driven free electron laser.footnotetextV. Alexander Stefan, The Interaction of Photon Beams with the DNA Molecules: Genomic Medical Physics. American Physical Society, 2009 APS March Meeting, March 16-20, 2009, abstract #K1.276; V. Stefan, B. I. Cohen, and C. Joshi, Nonlinear Mixing of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas Science 27 January 1989:Vol. 243. no. 4890, pp. 494 -- 500 (January 1989). This method may prove to be an effective mechanism in the treatment of neurological diseases: Parkinson's, Lou Gehrig's, and others.

  16. PERSPECTIVE VIEW, CORNER UNIT AND REPRESENTATIVE INTERIOR HOUSE (NOS. 1921 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW, CORNER UNIT AND REPRESENTATIVE INTERIOR HOUSE (NOS. 1921 AND 1923). THE TWO ATTACHED STRUCTURES WERE ONCE PART OF AN EIGHT-UNIT ROW EXTENDING FOR ONE-HALF A BLOCK ON THE NORTH SIDE OF DIAMOND STREET WEST FROM NINETEENTH STREET. THIS DEVELOPMENT LIKELY ALSO INCLUDED FOUR DWELLINGS IMMEDIATELY BEHIND THESE HOUSES TO THE NORTH, FRONTING ON NINETEENTH STREET. A NOTICE FROM THE MAY 28, 1890 ISSUE OF PHILADELPHIA REAL ESTATE RECORD AND BUILDERS’ GUIDE ANNOUNCED THE DEVELOPMENT’S ANTICIPATED CONSTRUCTION BY PROLIFIC LOCAL REAL ESTATE AGENT/BUILDER THOMAS H. PARKS, WHO LIVED ONLY ONE BLOCK AWAY AT THE CORNER OF GRATZ AND DIAMOND STREETS (IN NO. 1821, NOW LOST). THOMAS PARKS HAD USED ARCHITECT ANGUS S. WADE FOR THE 1800 BLOCK OF DIAMOND STREET, BUT IT APPEARS THAT HE MAY HAVE EMPLOYED ANOTHER OF POPULAR ARCHITECT WILLIS G. HALE’S PROTÉGÉS, ROBERT W. MARPLE, FOR THIS BLOCK, AT LEAST FOR THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF ITS CONSTRUCTION. THE HOUSES’ EBULLIENCE AND EXOTICISM SUGGESTS HALE’S WORK OR THAT OF HISO FFICE; THEY BEAR NOTABLE SIMILARITY TO HOUSES DESIGNED BY HALE A YEAR EARLIER IN THE 1800 BLOCK OF W. GIRARD AVENUE. SEE HABS PA-6677 FOR MORE ON THOMAS PARKS AND THE 1800 BLOCK OF DIAMOND STREET, AND HABS PA-6678, FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT WILLIS HALE AND THE 1800 BLOCK OF W. GIRARD AVENUE. - 1900 Block Diamond Street (Houses), Northwest corner of Diamond & Uber Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Weygandt's On the Mixed States of Manic-Depressive Insanity: a translation and commentary on its significance in the evolution of the concept of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J; Centorrino, Franca; Egli, Samy; Albert, Matthew; Gerhard, Angela; Maggini, Carlo

    2002-01-01

    Wilhelm Weygandt's Uber die Mischzustände des manisch-depressiven Irreseins (On the Mixed States of Manic-Depressive Insanity) describes and conceptualizes mixed states of mood, behavior, and thinking commonly found in manic-depressive disorders. These ideas emerged from Weygandt's service in the 1890s at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Heidelberg, directed by Emil Kraepelin. In the sixth (1899) edition of Kraepelin's influential textbook, the concept of manic-depressive illnesses underwent a fundamental shift from a complex group of syndromal subtypes to a single integrated disorder, widely known from the 1921 English translation of the eighth (1920) edition. In the 1899 edition, Kraepelin acknowledged Weygandt for a new section on mixed manic-depressive states within the new integrated view of manic-depressive disorder. We provide biographical notes on Weygandt, a little-known but historically important figure, as well as the first English translation of his monograph and interpretive summaries of his findings. We also consider whether Weygandt's important insight that the same person could be both manic and depressed not only at different times but even at the same time served as an important stimulus to Kraepelin's unified manic-depressive disorder concept, which survives as bipolar disorder a century later.

  18. Helmholtz's early empiricism and the Erhaltung der Kraft.

    PubMed

    Jurkowitz, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Hermann Helmholtz has often been understood to have started research under the influence of Kant, and then to have made a transition to a later mature empiricist phase. Without claiming that in 1847 Helmholtz held the same positions that he later espoused, I suggest that already in his 1847 'Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft' one may find important aspects of his later empiricism. I highlight the ways in which, from early on, Helmholtz turned Kant to use in developing an empirical program of inquiry into possible basic natural causes. To that end, I indicate how, throughout his arguments, Helmholtz employed, sometimes explicitly, but often tacitly, an empiricist logic, one that ran contrary to any form of transcendental deduction, and even to all a priori knowledge. Instead of deriving aspects about the ultimate constituents of nature, Helmholtz aimed to define the proper project for physical natural science. The first part of the paper describes the context of discussion in which Helmholtz entered. The bulk of the paper then analyzes Helmholtz's arguments in order to make space between (1) Kantian, and other, deductions of characteristics that must be true of nature and (2) Helmholtz's delineation of empirically determinable characteristics of presumed ultimate elements of nature, ones that he meant to be specified and delimited through future experimental research. The paper highlights that throughout his discussion Helmholtz meant to define the proper project for physical natural science, a project rife with empiricist aspects.

  19. Thermoregulation and energetics in hibernating black bears: metabolic rate and the mystery of multi-day body temperature cycles.

    PubMed

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Barnes, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    Black bears overwintering in outdoor hibernacula in Alaska decrease metabolism to as low as 25 % basal rates, while core body temperature (T(b)) decreases from 37 to 38 °C to a mid-hibernation average of 33 °C. T b develops cycles of 1.6-7.3 days length within a 30-36 °C range, with no circadian component. We do not know the mechanism or function underlying behind the T(b) cycles, although bears avoid T(b) of <30 °C and shorter cycles are predicted from higher rates of heat loss in colder conditions. To test this we manipulated den temperatures (T(den)) of 12 hibernating bears with body mass (BM) from 35.5 to 116.5 kg while recording T(b), metabolic rate (M), and shivering. T b cycle length (0.8-11.2 days) shortened as T den decreased (partial R(2) = 0.490, p < 0.001). Large bears with low thermal conductance (TC) showed more variation in T b cycle length with changes in T(den) than did smaller bears with high TC. Minimum T b across cycles was not consistent. At low T(den) bears shivered both during rising and decreasing phases of T(b) cycles, with minimum shivering during the fastest drop in T(b). At higher T den the T b pattern was more irregular. Mean M through T(b) cycles was negatively correlated to T den below lower critical temperatures (1.4-10.4 °C). Minimum M (0.3509 W/kg ± 0.0121 SE) during mid-hibernation scaled to BM [M (W) = 1.217 × BM (kg)(0.6979), R(2) = 0.855, p < 0.001]. Hibernating thermal conductance (TC) was negatively correlated to BM (R(2) = 0.721, p < 0.001); bears with high TC had the same T(b) cycle length as bears with low TC except at high T(den), thus not supporting the hypothesis that cooling rate alone determines T(b) cycle length. We conclude that T(b) cycling is effected by control of thermoregulatory heat production, and T(b) cycling may not be present when hibernating bears use passive thermoregulation. More intense shivering in the rising phase of cycles may contribute to the prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. Bears

  20. Numerical modeling of Stickney crater and its aftermath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul L.; Richardson, Derek C.; Zhang, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Phobos is characterized by a large crater called Stickney. Its collisional formation and its aftermath have important implications on the final structure, morphology, and surface properties of Phobos that still need further clarification. This is particularly important in the current environment, with space mission concepts to Phobos under active study by several space agencies. SPH hydrocode simulations of the impact that formed Stickney crater [1] have been performed. Using the Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) collisional routine of the N-body code pkdgrav [2], we take the outcome of SPH simulations as inputs and model the ensuing phase of the crater formation process and its ejecta evolution under the gravitational influence of Phobos and Mars. In our simulations, about 9 million particles comprise Phobos' shape [3], and the evolution of particles that are expected to form or leave the crater is followed using multiple plausible orbits for Phobos around Mars. We track the immediate fate of low-speed ejecta (~3-8 m/s), allowing us to test an hypothesis [4] that they may scour certain groove marks that have been observed on Phobos' surface and to quantify the amounts and locations of re-impacting ejecta. We also compute the orbital fate of ejecta whose speed is below the system escape speed (about 3 km/s). This allows us to estimate the thickness and distribution of the final ejecta blanket and to check whether crater chains may form. Finally, particles forming the crater walls are followed until achieving stability, allowing us to estimate the final crater depth and diameter. We will show examples of these simulations from a set of SPH initial conditions and over a range of parameters (e.g., material friction coefficients). Work ongoing to cover a larger range of plausible impact conditions, allowing us to explore different scenarios to explain Phobos' observed properties and to infer more, giving useful constraints to space mission studies. [1] Bruck