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Sample records for brycon orbignyanus valenciennes

  1. Water quality and zooplankton in tanks with larvae of Brycon Orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1949).

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Alvarez, E J da S; Braga, F M de S

    2008-02-01

    Due to the importance of water variables conditions and available food in the development and survival of fish larvae, the current research evaluates the effects of two different food treatments (ration + zooplankton and only zooplankton) and water quality in tanks with Brycon orbignyanus larvae. Total water transparency (45 cm) has been mainly associated with short residence time, continuous water flow and shallowness. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 1.32 and 7.00 mg.L(-1) in tanks with ration + zooplankton and between 1.82 and 7.60 mg.L(-1) in tanks with only zooplankton treatments. Nutrients were directly affected by the addition of ration in water, with the exception of nitrite. Ten Rotifera species were found represented by high densities, ranging between 8.7 x 10(5) and 1.3 x 10(6) org.m(-3), throughout the experimental period (January to March/1996). Cladocera had the lowest density in the four tanks under analysis and ranged between 4.7 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(5) org.m(-3) for the six species. Diaphanosoma birgei has been classified as the most frequent species. Since ration + zooplankton produced better larvae yield, this treatment is recommended for Brycon orbignyanus larvae.

  2. Structural analysis of fertilization in the fish Brycon orbignyanus.

    PubMed

    Ganeco, Luciana Nakaghi; Franceschini-Vicentini, Irene Bastos; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2009-05-01

    In the present work, we analyzed the structure of oocytes and fertilized eggs of the piracanjuba fish (Brycon orbignyanus) under light and scanning electron microscopy. After inducing spawning, samples were collected at the moment of oocyte extrusion, when oocytes and semen were mixed (time 0), as well as at 10, 20 and 30 s after mixing, every minute up to 10 min, and then at 15 and 20 min. The oocytes are spherical, translucent and greenish with a mean diameter of 1.3 +/- 0.11 mm. During the extrusion, cytoplasmic movement was observed in eggs towards the micropyle, characterizing the animal pole. At the moment of fertilization, the cortical cytoplasm showed a higher concentration of cortical alveoli at the animal pole than at the vegetal pole. The cortical alveoli breakdown promoted the elevation of the chorion with a consequent increase in egg diameter (1.95 +/- 0.08 mm). The penetration of the spermatozoon promotes the formation of a fertilization cone of spherical external structure, which obstructs the opening of the micropyle. This structure acts as a main mechanism to avoid polyspermy, intercepting the access of supernumerary spermatozoa. Such studies about the reproductive biology of fish are important to species survival and conservation programmes.

  3. Methyl glycol, methanol and DMSO effects on post-thaw motility, velocities, membrane integrity and mitochondrial function of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Nascimento, Ariane F; Leal, Marcelo C; Gonçalves, Antônio C S; Orfão, Laura H; Cosson, Jacky

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use more accurate techniques to investigate the effects of cryoprotectants (CPAs) and extenders on post-thaw sperm quality of Brycon orbignyanus and Prochilodus lineatus. Six freezing media comprising the combination of three CPAs (DMSO, methanol and methyl glycol) and two extenders (BTS and glucose) were used. Sperm was diluted in each medium, loaded into 0.5-mL straws, frozen in a nitrogen vapor vessel (dry-shipper), and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 °C. Post-thaw sperm motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; straight line = VSL; average path = VAP) were evaluated using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Membrane integrity and mitochondrial function were determined using fluorochromes. Post-thaw quality was considered high when samples presented the following minimum values: 60 % motile sperm, 140 µm/s of VCL, 50 % intact sperm membrane and 50 % mitochondrial function integrity. High post-thaw quality was observed in B. orbignyanus sperm frozen in BTS-methyl glycol and in P. lineatus sperm frozen in BTS-methyl glycol, glucose-methyl glycol and glucose-methanol. All samples frozen in DMSO yielded low quality. The presence of ions in the BTS extender affected post-thaw sperm quality positively in B. orbignyanus and negatively in P. lineatus. Methyl glycol was the most suitable CPA for both fish species, leading to a good protection of cell membrane, mitochondrial function and motility apparatus during the cryopreservation process. For an improved protection, B. orbignyanus sperm should be frozen in an ionic freezing medium. PMID:25433690

  4. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships among species of the genus Brycon (Characiformes: Characidae) from four hydrographic basins in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Antunes, R S P; Gomes, V N; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, R A; Júlio, H F; Prioli, L M; Agostinho, C S; Prioli, A J

    2010-01-01

    Brycon is one of the main genera of Neotropical freshwater fish. In Brazil, Brycon species have been found in many hydrographic basins, such as the Amazon, Paraná, Paraguay, and Araguaia-Tocantins basins. We examined the phylogenetic relationships among the species Brycon orbignyanus, B. hilarii, B. cf. pesu, B. cephalus, B. falcatus, and B. gouldingi, using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. Specimens of B. orbignyanus were collected in the Paraná River. Specimens of B. hilarii were collected in the Manso River. Specimens of B. cephalus were obtained from a fish farm, and specimens of B. cf. pesu, B. falcatus and B. gouldingi were sampled in the Araguaia-Tocantins basin. DNA extraction was carried out using the phenol/chloroform method. Molecular polymorphism studies of Brycon species were carried out with the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique, using the total DNA of six specimens of each species. In DNA amplification of B. cf. pesu, eight specimens were used. The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were used directly in sequencing reactions. Each ISSR primer produced from 7 to 14 scorable and reproducible bands. The (GGAC)(3)A and (GGAC)(3)C primers produced the greatest number of species-specific bands. A 264-bp fragment, corresponding to the partial region of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b, was sequenced and used for analysis. According to the phylogenetic tree obtained from the data, these Brycon species can be divided into two clades: one comprised only B. cf. pesu, and the second comprised the remaining Brycon species. We conclude that ISSR primers can be used for the identification of species-specific bands in fish, such as Brycon spp. PMID:20449799

  5. Early development of Brycon orthotaenia (Pisces: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rafael Zeferino; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-02-01

    Brycon orthotaenia is an important fish for commercial and sport fishing and may reach 7 kg in body weight; it is endangered in some regions of Brazil's São Francisco River Basin. Breeders were subjected to spawning induction to analyse the early development; oocytes and semen were obtained by manual extrusion and fertilization was carried out using the dry method. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 24°C. Egg samples were collected every 10 min until hatching in order to monitor embryonic development and were analysed and photographed. Larvae samples were collected daily until the seventh day to analyse the larvae development; larvae were fixed in Bouin's fluid and subjected to routine histological and histochemical techniques for glycoprotein and glyco-conjugated detection. Oocyte extrusion occurred 6 h after the second hormone dose at 26°C. The recently extruded oocytes were spherical, dark green and non-adhesive, with a diameter of 1479.67 ± 53.18 and 3094.60 ± 80.34 μm after hydration. The blastopore closure occurred within 7 h 30 min of fertilization and the fertilization rate was 50.0 ± 5.5 % at 24°C. Embryonic development was completed within 21 h 30 min of fertilization. Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day after hatching, at which time an adhesive organ with mucosubstances was observed. On the third day, an olfactory chamber with cilia and intense cannibalism amongst the larvae was observed. The complete differentiation of the digestive system occurred on the fifth day and the nervous and sensorial systems differentiation occurred on the sixth to seventh days. PMID:21733293

  6. Early development of Brycon orthotaenia (Pisces: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rafael Zeferino; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-02-01

    Brycon orthotaenia is an important fish for commercial and sport fishing and may reach 7 kg in body weight; it is endangered in some regions of Brazil's São Francisco River Basin. Breeders were subjected to spawning induction to analyse the early development; oocytes and semen were obtained by manual extrusion and fertilization was carried out using the dry method. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 24°C. Egg samples were collected every 10 min until hatching in order to monitor embryonic development and were analysed and photographed. Larvae samples were collected daily until the seventh day to analyse the larvae development; larvae were fixed in Bouin's fluid and subjected to routine histological and histochemical techniques for glycoprotein and glyco-conjugated detection. Oocyte extrusion occurred 6 h after the second hormone dose at 26°C. The recently extruded oocytes were spherical, dark green and non-adhesive, with a diameter of 1479.67 ± 53.18 and 3094.60 ± 80.34 μm after hydration. The blastopore closure occurred within 7 h 30 min of fertilization and the fertilization rate was 50.0 ± 5.5 % at 24°C. Embryonic development was completed within 21 h 30 min of fertilization. Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day after hatching, at which time an adhesive organ with mucosubstances was observed. On the third day, an olfactory chamber with cilia and intense cannibalism amongst the larvae was observed. The complete differentiation of the digestive system occurred on the fifth day and the nervous and sensorial systems differentiation occurred on the sixth to seventh days.

  7. [Preliminary study of the larvae (Nematode: Ascaridida) Paralichthys orbignyyanus parasite (Valenciennes, 1839) and Paralichthys patagonicus (Pisces: Pleuronectiformes)].

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, I S; Díaz de Astarloa, J M

    1998-01-01

    The present paper deals with a preliminary study of different larvae of nematoda found in two species of fish Paralichthys orbignyanus and Paralichthys patagonicus. In P. orbignyanus the genus Terranova type A was found. Both Anisakis type I and Hysterothylacium were present in P. patagonicus. Different types of larvae belonging to genera Terranova (B and B'), Contracaecum (A and B) and Raphidascaris occurred in both P. patagonicus and P. orbignyanus. The specimens of Nematoda were described and the corresponding morphometric indexes were determined. The abundance of Nematoda obtained in relation to the diet of the flounders led us to conclude that P. orbignyanus feeds basically on crabs and fish, while P. patagonicus has a more diverse diet. PMID:9830724

  8. Frugivory by the fish Brycon hilarii (Characidae) in western Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reys, Paula; Sabino, José; Galetti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Frugivory and seed dispersal have been poorly studied in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by the piraputanga fish ( Brycon hilarii, Characidae) in the Formoso River, Bonito, western Brazil. We examined the stomach contents of 87 fish and found the diet of piraputanga consisted of 24% animal prey (arthropods, snails, and vertebrates), 31% seeds/fruits and 45% other plant material (algae/macrophytes/leaves/flowers). The piraputangas fed on 12 fruit species, and were considered as seed dispersers of eight species. Fruits with soft seeds larger than 10 mm were triturated, but all species with small seeds (e.g. Ficus, Psidium) and one species with large hard seed ( Chrysophyllum gonocarpum) were dispersed. Piraputangas eat more fruits in the dry season just before the migration, but not during the spawning season. Fish length had a positive relation with the presence of fruits in their guts. The gallery forest of the Formoso River apparently does not have any plant species that depend exclusively on B. hilarii for seed dispersal because all fruit species are also dispersed by birds and mammals. Based on seed size and husk hardness of the riparian plant community of Formoso River, however, the piraputangas may potentially disperse at least 50% of the riparian fleshy fruit species and may be particularly important for long-distance dispersal. Therefore, overfishing or other anthropogenic disturbances to the populations of piraputanga may have negative consequences for the riparian forests in this region.

  9. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829).

    PubMed

    Nakauth, A C S Sampaio; Villacorta-Correa, M A; Figueiredo, M R; Bernardino, G; França, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF). The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM). The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C), with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1) pigmentation and gut formation, 2) branchial arches, 3) pectoral fins, 4) a mouth opening and 5) teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF) which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF), signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature) influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  10. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829).

    PubMed

    Nakauth, A C S Sampaio; Villacorta-Correa, M A; Figueiredo, M R; Bernardino, G; França, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF). The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM). The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C), with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1) pigmentation and gut formation, 2) branchial arches, 3) pectoral fins, 4) a mouth opening and 5) teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF) which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF), signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature) influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject. PMID:26909629

  11. Biomarkers of exposure and effect in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus (Teleostei: Paralichthyidae) from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Amado, Lílian Lund; Robaldo, Ricardo B; Geracitano, Laura; Monserrat, José M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2006-02-01

    Biomarkers of exposure (liver metallothionein-like proteins content and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities) and effect (liver lipoperoxidation and blood cell DNA damage) of contaminants were analyzed in the Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus from the Patos Lagoon estuary (Southern Brazil). Flounders were collected for a year in two sites: "Coroa do Boi" (polluted site) and "Saco do Justino" (non-polluted site). Results indicated that micronucleated cells frequency was the best biomarker to distinguish flounders from the two sites. Taken together, data from DNA damage analyses (micronucleus test and comet assay) indicated that flounders from the non-polluted site efficiently repaired the DNA breaks, contrary to those from the polluted site, which probably had their DNA repair system inhibited or exhausted. Furthermore, data from enzyme activities (catalase and GST) and lipid peroxidation indicated that flounders from the polluted site were under oxidative stress in summer and autumn.

  12. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni. PMID:27117920

  13. Variations of body geometry in Brycon henni (Teleostei: Characiformes, Bryconidae) in different rivers and streams.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, N; Hurtado-Alarcón, J C; Mancera-Rodríguez, N J; Márquez, E J

    2016-07-01

    Landmark-based geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the effect of flow and depth in the water column on the body size and shape of Brycon henni from river and stream populations. The dendrogram showed that stream populations clustered apart and showed significantly smaller centroid size and narrower bodies than river populations, indicating a role for flow and depth on whole body morphometric variation. The results are concordant with morphometric variation described in other fish species and provide the first insights into phenotypic variation in natural populations of B. henni.

  14. Social challenge increases cortisol and hypothalamic monoamine levels in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Serra, Mônica; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-12-01

    The neural circuitry for social behavior and aggression appears to be evolutionarily conserved across the vertebrate subphylum and involves a complex neural network that includes the hypothalamus as a key structure. In the present study, we evaluated the changes in monoamine levels in the hypothalamus and on serum cortisol and plasma glucose of resident matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) submitted to a social challenge (introduction of an intruder in their territory). The fight promoted a significant increase in hypothalamic 5-HT, NA and DA levels and on the metabolites 5-HIAA and DOPAC, and decreased 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios in resident fish. Furthermore, an increase in serum cortisol and plasma glucose was also observed after the fight. Resident fish presented a high aggressiveness even with increased 5-HT levels in the hypothalamus. The alteration in hypothalamic monoaminergic activity of matrinxã suggests that this diencephalic region is involved in aggression and stress modulation in fish; however, it does not exclude the participation of other brain areas not tested here. PMID:26205527

  15. Brycon gouldingi (Teleostei, Characidae): aspects of the embryonic development in a new fish species with aquaculture potential.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Francine; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika

    2011-11-01

    Brycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River - Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum - Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.

  16. Morphological and morphometric aspects of early life stages of piabanha Brycon gouldingi (Characidae).

    PubMed

    Faustino, F; Makino, L C; Neumann, E; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-05-01

    Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices.

  17. Moments of induced spawning and embryonic development of Brycon amazonicus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Neumann, Erika; Faustino, Francine; Mendes, José Mário Ribeiro; de Braga, Francisco Manoel

    2014-11-01

    Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.

  18. First record of red filament threadfin bream, Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830) (Perciformes, Nemipteridae), from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Ping; Wu, Renxie; Liu, Jing

    2011-11-01

    We collected five specimens of threadfin bream from Beihai, Guangxi, China in March 2010. These were subsequently identified as red filament threadfin bream Nemipterus marginatus (Valenciennes, 1830), being the first record of this species from Chinese waters. N. marginatus is distinguished by the following characteristics: lower border of eye lies above a line from tip of snout to upper base of pectoral fin; mouth oblique, maxillary extending to lower anterior border of pupil; teeth in jaws in several rows, pointed; upper jaw with 3 to 5 pairs of small recurved canines; suborbital with straight lower edge and rounded posterior edge; pectoral fins extending to between level of anus and origin of anal fin; pelvic fins reaching to the first or second anal rays; caudal fin forked, upper lobe tails into a short reddish filament; dorsal fin bluish with a yellow margin distally and a broad yellow median band which subdivides posteriorly into 3 small bands.

  19. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning. PMID:16862307

  20. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 56. New species of Anacanthorus (Dactylogyridae) from the gills of matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia (Characiformes: Characidae), in the Rio São Francisco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Kritsky, Delane C; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2010-09-01

    Anacanthorus franciscanus sp. n. and Anacanthorus brevicirrus sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) are described from the gills of the matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia Günther (Characidae), from the Rio São Francisco in Brazil. Anacanthorusfranciscanus most closely resembles Anacanthorus e[egans and A. kruidenieri from the matrinchõ, Brycon melanopterus, of the Amazon River Basin. It differs from these species in part by having the bulbous proximal end of the hook shank with two translucent regions. Anacanthorus brevicirrus resembles A. franciscanus, A. kruidenieri and A. elegans but is differentiated from these species by its short straight male copulatory organ and by having one translucent region in the bulbous base of the hook shank. PMID:20941907

  1. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 56. New species of Anacanthorus (Dactylogyridae) from the gills of matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia (Characiformes: Characidae), in the Rio São Francisco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Kritsky, Delane C; Brasil-Sato, Marilia C

    2010-09-01

    Anacanthorus franciscanus sp. n. and Anacanthorus brevicirrus sp. n. (Dactylogyridae) are described from the gills of the matrinchã, Brycon orthotaenia Günther (Characidae), from the Rio São Francisco in Brazil. Anacanthorusfranciscanus most closely resembles Anacanthorus e[egans and A. kruidenieri from the matrinchõ, Brycon melanopterus, of the Amazon River Basin. It differs from these species in part by having the bulbous proximal end of the hook shank with two translucent regions. Anacanthorus brevicirrus resembles A. franciscanus, A. kruidenieri and A. elegans but is differentiated from these species by its short straight male copulatory organ and by having one translucent region in the bulbous base of the hook shank.

  2. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  3. Persistence of external signs in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes with ichthyophoniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Lucas M.; Conway, Carla M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    The progression of external signs of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes was highly variable and asynchronous after intraperitoneal injection with pure parasite preparations; however, external signs generally persisted through the end of the study (429 days post-exposure). Observed signs included papules, erosions and ulcers. The prevalence of external signs plateaued 35 days post-exposure and persisted in 73–79% of exposed individuals through the end of the first experiment (147 days post-exposure). Among a second group of infected herring, external signs completely resolved in only 10% of the fish after 429 days. The onset of mortality preceded the appearance of external signs. Histological examination of infected skin and skeletal muscle tissues indicated an apparent affinity of the parasite for host red muscle. Host responses consisted primarily of granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in the skeletal muscle and other tissues. The persistence and asynchrony of external signs and host response indicated that they were neither a precursor to host mortality nor did they provide reliable metrics for hindcasting on the date of exposure. However, the long-term persistence of clinical signs in Pacific herring may be useful in ascertaining the population-level impacts of ichthyophoniasis in regularly observed populations.

  4. Persistence of external signs in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes with ichthyophoniasis.

    PubMed

    Hart, L M; Conway, C M; Elliott, D G; Hershberger, P K

    2016-04-01

    The progression of external signs of Ichthyophonus infection in Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes was highly variable and asynchronous after intraperitoneal injection with pure parasite preparations; however, external signs generally persisted through the end of the study (429 days post-exposure). Observed signs included papules, erosions and ulcers. The prevalence of external signs plateaued 35 days post-exposure and persisted in 73-79% of exposed individuals through the end of the first experiment (147 days post-exposure). Among a second group of infected herring, external signs completely resolved in only 10% of the fish after 429 days. The onset of mortality preceded the appearance of external signs. Histological examination of infected skin and skeletal muscle tissues indicated an apparent affinity of the parasite for host red muscle. Host responses consisted primarily of granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis and necrosis in the skeletal muscle and other tissues. The persistence and asynchrony of external signs and host response indicated that they were neither a precursor to host mortality nor did they provide reliable metrics for hindcasting on the date of exposure. However, the long-term persistence of clinical signs in Pacific herring may be useful in ascertaining the population-level impacts of ichthyophoniasis in regularly observed populations.

  5. [Description of three new monogenean gill parasites from Mormyrus rume (Valenciennes, 1846) (Teleostei: Mormyridae) in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Blahoua, K G; Pariselle, A; N'Douba, V; Kone, T; Kouassi, N J

    2009-03-01

    The study of the gill parasites from elephant fish Mormyrus rume Valenciennes, 1846 (Teleostei: Mormyridae) from the Ayamé man-made Lake (Ivory Coast) revealed the presence of three new monogenean species of the genus Bouixella Euzet & Dossou, 1976, which can be mainly distinguished from all other species of the genus by the morphology and the size of the sclerotised parts of the haptor (dorsal and ventral anchor, dorsal and ventral bar) and by the size and the structure of the male copulatory organ. In this paper, descriptions of Bouixella gorei n. sp., Bouixella yaoi n. sp. and Bouvixella koutouani n. sp. are given. PMID:19353952

  6. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Liza subviridis (Valenciennes, 1836) of Parangipettai waters, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ashiq Ur Rahman, M; Khan, S Ajmal; Lyla, P S; Kadharsha, K; Chander, P Mohan; John, B Akbar

    2013-04-01

    Determination of Length-weight Relationship (LWR) of any commercially important fish is crucial to validate the wild stock level, to predict their wellbeing in the natural habitat and for various sustainable fishery management practices. Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) is noted to be highly abundant along the coast of Parangipettai, South east coast of India. Hence, the present study was aimed to establish Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Greenback mullet, Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) occurring in Vellar estuary, Parangipettai (lat. 11 degrees 30' N, long. 79 degrees 46' E) using least square method. To determine the actual relationship between length and weight of L. subviridis exponent coefficient or equilibrium constant (b) and relative condition factor (Kn) analysis were adopted. The females were found to be heavier than males at similar length. The equilibrium constant 'b' was found to be 2.7106 in males and 2.8927 in females. The corresponding parabolic representation for male was W = 0.0462L(2.7106) and for female W = 0.0382L(2.8927). The equilibrium constant did not obey the cube law as it deviated significantly from 3 in the case of males. The relative condition factor around 1 and little over it revealed the well-being of L. subviridis in Parangipettai waters.

  7. Individual growth trajectories of sibling Brycon moorei raised in isolation since egg stage, and their relationship with aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Baras, E; Lucas, M C

    2010-09-01

    The growth of sibling dorada Brycon moorei (Characidae) housed individually in small enclosures (0·25 l; 27·0° C, range ±0·5° C; 12L:12D) from the egg stage was examined at regular intervals until 36 days after hatching (dah) and compared with their behaviour. From 1 to 8 dah, when cannibalism is intense among B. moorei raised in groups, there was no significant increase of size heterogeneity among isolated fish (c.v. of total length of 3·1 and 3·6%, at 1 and 8 dah, respectively) and no primacy of early size differences either. These results suggest that cannibals of B. moorei raised in groups are not natural-born killers with greater growth capacities than others. Size heterogeneity among isolated fish increased significantly first when B. moorei were weaned on formulated feed (8-15 dah), then again from 24 to 36 dah when the average growth rate was half as fast as before (c. 0·5 v. 1·0 mm day(-1) ), despite fish consistently feeding. During both periods, there was a significant, positive relationship between individual growth and aggression or boldness. These results suggest that (1) boldness can favour the transition to a new food type and (2) fish exhibited a variable responsiveness to spatial restriction in small enclosures, which may have been alleviated in some individuals by establishment of territorial behaviour, as suggested by their enhanced aggression. PMID:20840625

  8. Novelty of the arena impairs the cortisol-related increase in the aggression of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Serra, Mônica; Wolkers, Carla Patrícia Bejo; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo

    2015-03-15

    The dichotomic effect of a cortisol level rise in vertebrate behavior has been widely observed. Generally, a chronic increase of the hormone level inhibits aggression, while an acute rise increases aggression. However, in this study, we show that this increase in aggression through an acute rise of cortisol also depends on the context in which the agonistic interaction occurs in the tropical fish matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus. We combined two factors: the type of housing (resident or non-resident in the trial arena) and the level of cortisol at the beginning of the fight (normal level - control, or high level - hydrocortisone-treated fish). The cortisol treatment increased the aggressiveness in the resident fish, but this effect was not observed in the non-resident fish, which fought in an unknown arena. The novelty of the arena may have elicited an "alerted state" in the non-resident fish; in this situation the fight was not the priority, and the cortisol effect in aggression could be impaired by a conflict between motivational systems (fear and aggression). In our knowledge, in fish, the increase of aggression promoted by an acute rise in cortisol levels was always tested and observed in a resident context, and the inhibition of cortisol effect in the agonist behavior is demonstrated for the first time. As the cortisol effect in aggression is observed in several taxa, the inhibition of aggressiveness increased by the novelty of the arena should be investigated in other groups to clarify the dynamics of this effect of cortisol in animal behavior.

  9. Host-parasite and phylogenetic relationships of Myxobolus filamentum sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of Brycon orthotaenia (Characiformes: Bryconidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, Juliana; Zatti, Suellen A; Capodifoglio, Kassia R H; Milanin, Tiago; Maia, Antonio A M; Silva, Marcia R M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-01-01

    Myxobolus filamentum sp. n. was found infecting gill filaments of three of 39 Brycon orthotaenia Günther specimens examined (8%), which were taken from the river São Francisco in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Plasmodia of the parasite were white and long, measuring 5 mm in lenght. Mature spores of M. filamentum sp. n. were oval from the frontal view and biconvex from the lateral view, measuring 7.5-9.7 µm (9.0 ± 0.3 µm) in length and 5.2-7.3 µm (6.2 ± 0.4 µm) in width. The polar capsules were elongated and equal in size, measuring 3.8-5.5 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) in length and 1.3-2.2 µm (1.7 ± 0.1 µm) in width. The development of the parasite led to compression of the adjacent tissues and inflammatory infiltrate with granulocytic cells. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the plasmodia were delimited by two membranes, which had numerous and extensive pinocytotic channels extending into the wide ectoplasm zone. The plasmodial wall exhibited abundant villi-like projections and a thin layer of granular material prevented direct contact between the plasmodial wall and the host tissue. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 18S rDNA, showed M. filamentum sp. n. as a sister species of Myxobolus oliveirai Milanin, Eiras, Arana, Maia, Alves, Silva, Carriero, Ceccarelli et Adriano, 2010, a parasite of other fish species of the genus Brycon Müller et Troschel from South America. PMID:25960558

  10. Host-parasite and phylogenetic relationships of Myxobolus filamentum sp. n. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a parasite of Brycon orthotaenia (Characiformes: Bryconidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Naldoni, Juliana; Zatti, Suellen A; Capodifoglio, Kassia R H; Milanin, Tiago; Maia, Antonio A M; Silva, Marcia R M; Adriano, Edson A

    2015-01-01

    Myxobolus filamentum sp. n. was found infecting gill filaments of three of 39 Brycon orthotaenia Günther specimens examined (8%), which were taken from the river São Francisco in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Plasmodia of the parasite were white and long, measuring 5 mm in lenght. Mature spores of M. filamentum sp. n. were oval from the frontal view and biconvex from the lateral view, measuring 7.5-9.7 µm (9.0 ± 0.3 µm) in length and 5.2-7.3 µm (6.2 ± 0.4 µm) in width. The polar capsules were elongated and equal in size, measuring 3.8-5.5 µm (4.7 ± 0.3 µm) in length and 1.3-2.2 µm (1.7 ± 0.1 µm) in width. The development of the parasite led to compression of the adjacent tissues and inflammatory infiltrate with granulocytic cells. Ultrastructural observation revealed that the plasmodia were delimited by two membranes, which had numerous and extensive pinocytotic channels extending into the wide ectoplasm zone. The plasmodial wall exhibited abundant villi-like projections and a thin layer of granular material prevented direct contact between the plasmodial wall and the host tissue. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 18S rDNA, showed M. filamentum sp. n. as a sister species of Myxobolus oliveirai Milanin, Eiras, Arana, Maia, Alves, Silva, Carriero, Ceccarelli et Adriano, 2010, a parasite of other fish species of the genus Brycon Müller et Troschel from South America.

  11. Microcotyle omanae n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae), a parasite of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Sparidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Machkewskyi, Volodymyr K; Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Al-Jufaili, Sara; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa A M

    2013-10-01

    Microcotyle omanae n. sp. (Monogenea: Microcotylidae) is described from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Sparidae) from the Arabian Sea. The new species closely resembles Microcotyle arripis Sandars, 1945, M. helotes Sandars, 1944, M. caudata Goto, 1984 and M. sebastis Goto, 1984, which have also been found in the Indo-Pacific. Microcotyle omanae n. sp. differs from M. arripis, M. helotes and M. caudata by its greater number of testes, from M. arripis, M. helotes by its greater length of the genital atrium, length/width ratio of the genital atrium and length of the eggs, and from M. helotes also in greater width of the clamps, from M. caudata and M. sebastis in its greater number of clamps and additionally from M. sebastis by its smaller genital atrial spines and clamps and by the ratio between length and width of the genital atrium. Moreover, the mature specimens of the new species have greater average body length than all above mentioned species. Correlations between 15 morphometric characters and body length are analysed in the new species, and their significance for species differentiation is discussed.

  12. Metazoan parasites of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil-Sato, Marilia de C; Dos Santos, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    Specimens of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) were collected from the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12'32''S, 45 degrees 15'41''W) in the municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate their parasitofauna. Of the 24 pirá fish collected, 8 were male (33.3%) and 16 were female (66.7%). Of this total, 12 were parasitized (50%). Nine species of parasites were found: Helobdella sp., Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Palaeocryptogonimus claviformis Szidat, 1954; metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. and of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz 1928); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. (young specimen); larvae of Anisakidae and Rhabdochona sp.; and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (young specimen). Helobdella sp. had the highest prevalence, followed by C. creptotrema (most abundant) and P. claviformis. Creptotrema creptotrema was dominant species in the parasite community of C. conirostris. There was no influence of the host size and sex on the prevalence and abundance of parasites, with P. claviformis being found only in male hosts. With the exception of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., this was the first record of these parasites in C. conirostris.

  13. Comparative analysis of Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) from different biotopes of the Black Sea based on its morphological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kos'yan, A. R.

    2013-02-01

    The Asian whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Muricidae), being tolerant to wide variations in the temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration, successfully settled down in the Black Sea and eventually became one of the dominant species in the benthic ecosystems. The whelk inhabits all types of grounds all over the Black sea demonstrating a wide spectrum of morphological modifications. The objective of this research is to compare 10 samples of R. venosa from different biotopes of the Black Sea coast from the western Crimea to Sochi. The results of the statistical comparison based on 15 morphological characteristics showed that most of the samples differed from each other with high statistical significance ( p < 0.001). The material fell into five groups on the discriminant analysis diagram corresponding to the biotope in which each was collected. The main ecological factor influencing the morphological variability of the rapa whelk populations is the characteristics of prey items they feed on, i.e., the bivalve species ( Mytilus galloprovincialis, Anadara sp., Chamelea gallina), the prevailing prey size, and its abundance.

  14. A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) from the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Doo Nam

    2015-10-01

    A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), parasitic in the branchial cavities of the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Korea is described. The new species is most closely related to A. tangi Venmathi Maran, Moon & Adday, 2014, but differs from it by the following combination of characters in the adult female: the U-shaped rostrum, the distal margin of the anal somite lacks patches of spinules, the proximal segment of the maxilliped is without seta, and the maxilliped claw is armed with long and small naked setae. This is the tenth species of the genus and a key is provided to distinguish all nominal species.

  15. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) chimalapasensis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the freshwater fish Awaous banana (Valenciennes) (Gobiidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Martínez-Ramírez, Emilio

    2010-03-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) chimalapasensis n. sp. (Eoacanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from the intestine of Awaous banana (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Gobiidae) collected in the Río Negro, a tributary in the upper Río Coatzacoalcos basin, Santa María Chimalapa, Oaxaca State, Mexico. It is the third species of Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 described from Mexican freshwater fishes, although 36 other species are known from freshwater fishes in the Americas. Like four other species of Neoechinorhynchus from freshwater fishes in North America and Mexico, N. (N.) limi Muzzall & Buckner, 1982, (N.) rutili (Müller, 1780) Stiles & Hassall, 1905, N. (N.) salmonis Ching, 1984 and N. (N.) roseus Salgado-Maldonado, 1978, males and females of the new species are less than 20 mm in length, lack conspicuous sexual dimorphism in size, have a small proboscis of about 0.1 mm in length with the largest hooks being the anteriormost, about 30-90 microm in length and of equal size, and have subequal lemnisci, larger than the proboscis receptacle but still relatively short and, in males, generally restricted to a position considerably anterior to the testes. The new species is closest to N. (N.) roseus, but it is distinguished from it by having: (1) a slightly larger cylindrical proboscis with almost parallel sides versus a globular proboscis with a rounded tip which is shorter and somewhat wider in N. (N.) roseus; (2) smaller but robust anterior proboscis hooks that do not reach the equatorial level or extend beyond the hooks of the middle circle as in N. (N.) roseus; and (3) the female gonopore situated ventrally subterminal, as opposed to being a significant distance anteriorly to the posterior extremity in N. (N.) roseus.

  16. [Genetic variability of Brycon henni (Characiformes: Characidae) in the middle basin of Nare and Guatapé Rivers, Magdalena River system, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio César; Mancera-Rodríguez, Néstor J; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I

    2011-03-01

    Brycon henni is a native species in Magdalena's River basin, and because of its cultural and economic importance, is strongly overexploited. This study aimed to describe the genetic variability and population structure of this species from Nare and Guatapé rivers basins. A total of 195 individuals were collected and DNA extractions were obtained from muscle and blood tissue. Fourteen primers were evaluated with the RAPD technique, being four of them polymorphic, and produced 66 different fragments (63% polymorphism). Besides, using the molecular variance (AMOVA) analysis, the population structure was described for all sites (phi(ST) = 0.297, phi(ST) = 0.163; Nare and Guatapé river basins, respectively), and suggested the importance of the migratory behaviour of the species in the genetic differentiation. Genetic distances among sampled sites showed that most of the genetic differentiation occurred between sites Guatapé and El Cardal with respect to the others. A Mantel Test demonstrated a correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.431 both of the basins evaluated; r = 0.377, Nare river middle basin), and suggested isolation by distance. The outcomes obtained in this study have valuable implications in species conservation and the genetic variability of natural populations of B. henni, and should be complemented with morphological analyses.

  17. Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg) levels in Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775), and sediment samples from the Black Sea littoral (Thrace, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Mülayim, A; Balkıs, H

    2015-06-15

    Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) and Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775) are the dominant benthic invertebrate species along the Thrace Coast of the western Black Sea. The aim of this study was to determine toxic metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) accumulation levels in these species, as well as within littoral sediments from this area. Our results showed that all of the metals, except for Cd, were below that in average shale. The measured accumulation levels were mostly within the range of what is naturally found within the earth's crust. However, some study stations did have increased concentrations, indicating anthropogenic pollution in these areas. The Cd contents of E. verrucosa collected from all our study stations were well above the limits set by the Turkish Food Codex, especially in Kıyıköy, whereas Pb content was close to the limit at all stations and exceeded the limit in Kıyıköy, but Hg content was below the limit at all stations. Cd content of R. venosa exceeded the limit only in Kumköy. Pb content was below the limit, and Hg was at or slightly above the limit at all stations. PMID:25913797

  18. Toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg) levels in Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775), and sediment samples from the Black Sea littoral (Thrace, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Mülayim, A; Balkıs, H

    2015-06-15

    Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846) and Eriphia verrucosa (Forskal, 1775) are the dominant benthic invertebrate species along the Thrace Coast of the western Black Sea. The aim of this study was to determine toxic metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) accumulation levels in these species, as well as within littoral sediments from this area. Our results showed that all of the metals, except for Cd, were below that in average shale. The measured accumulation levels were mostly within the range of what is naturally found within the earth's crust. However, some study stations did have increased concentrations, indicating anthropogenic pollution in these areas. The Cd contents of E. verrucosa collected from all our study stations were well above the limits set by the Turkish Food Codex, especially in Kıyıköy, whereas Pb content was close to the limit at all stations and exceeded the limit in Kıyıköy, but Hg content was below the limit at all stations. Cd content of R. venosa exceeded the limit only in Kumköy. Pb content was below the limit, and Hg was at or slightly above the limit at all stations.

  19. Spatial variability of helminth parasites and evidence for stock discrimination in the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847), off the coast of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Feki, M; Châari, M; Neifar, L

    2016-05-01

    Three digeneans - Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910), Aphanurus stossichii (Monticelli, 1891) and Lecithochirium sp. - and one tetraphyllidean cestode larva were used as biological tags to discriminate the stock of Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847). In total, 579 fish were examined in five zones off the Tunisian coast, including Bizerte and Kelibia in the north, Mahdia in the east, Gabes and Zarzis in the south. Discriminant analyses used for the separation of S. aurita allowed for the identification of two discrete stocks. Sardinella aurita from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis clumped together as a single stock. Parahemiurus merus and A. stossichii were the most important species in determining the location of sampled fish from these regions. Specimens from Mahdia and Gabes were grouped as one stock characterized by the presence of Lecithochirium sp. and larvae of the Tetraphyllidea. These results were corroborated by comparing the parameters of prevalence and mean abundance of parasites among zones. The separation of S. aurita between localities after pooling specimens from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis and separately pooling those from Mahdia and Gabes also allowed the identification of two discrete stocks, one in offshore waters from Bizerte, Kelibia and Zarzis characterized by the digeneans P. merus and A. stossichii and one in inshore waters from Mahdia and Gabes characterized by Lechithochirium sp. and tetraphyllidean larvae.

  20. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of embryos and larvae of the veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Shaojun; Zhang, Tao; Pan, Hengqian; Pan, Yang; Wang, Pingchuan; Xue, Dongxiu

    2014-07-01

    The major population of the veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846), which is an important fishery resource, is facing a large decline in China. We studied the effects of incubation temperature (16-34°C at salinity 30) and salinity (5-45 at 25°C) on the incubation period and subsequent larval development. In the temperature experiment, the shortest incubation period was 12 days at 34°C, the lower temperature limit was 16°C, the longest mean shell length (1 193±17 μm) occurred at 25°C and the highest survival rate 72.28%±5.62% was observed at 28°C. In the salinity experiment, the shortest incubation period was 15 days at 25. The salinity tolerance range was 15-40, the longest mean shell length (855±9 μm) and the highest survival rate 72.93%±4.85% were both observed at 35. This study demonstrated that, during the egg-mass stage, temperature and salinity regimes influence later growth and survival of larvae. These observations deepen our understanding of the ecology and conservation of natural populations of Rapana venosa.

  1. Lamellodiscus aff. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Sparidae) collected in the Arabian Sea, with comments on the distribution, specificity and historical biogeography of Lamellodiscus spp.

    PubMed

    Machkewskyi, Volodymyr K; Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gibson, David I; Al-Jufaili, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Specimens of Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) were collected from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Sparidae) in the Arabian Sea. All of these parasites belonged to one and the same species, which is morphologically very close to L. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011. A different host, distant locality and small morphological differences compared with the original description of L. euzeti acted as a stimulus for a detailed redescription. The specimens from the Arabian Sea differ slightly in the details of the male copulatory organ (MCO) from the type-specimens of L. euzeti, which were re-examined, and from the respective drawings in its original description. Such differences include a longer inner process of the large element of the accessory piece associated with the proximal part of the copulatory tube, a longer point on the small element of the accessory piece associated with the distal part of the copulatory tube, and the presence of a smooth or slightly folded inner margin of this element rather than structures resembling spines which occur in the type-specimens of L. euzeti. Therefore, the present specimens infecting C. nufar in the Indo-Pacific may represent a different, but morphologically very similar species to the Atlantic form L. euzeti; consequently, they are recognised here as Lamellodiscus aff. euzeti. This form belongs to the 'ignoratus s. str.' subgroup of the genus. The composition of this subgroup is redefined to comprise 17 species, including L. corallinus Paperna, 1965 but excluding L. acanthopagri Roubal, 1981, and the morphology of the MCO of representatives of this group is clarified. A link between the diversity of Lamellodiscus species and the ancestral origin of present-day sparid species in the Tethys Sea is suggested. It is shown that Lamellodiscus spp. exhibit rather high levels of specificity to their hosts, since half of them parasitise only a single host species and c.90

  2. Isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare (Bernardet et al. 2002) from four tropical fish species in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, F; Rossini, A J; Ceccarelli, P S

    2008-05-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in freshwater fish, implicated in skin and gill disease, often causing high mortality. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of Flavobacterium columnare in tropical fish in Brazil. Piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus), pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and cascudo (Hypostomus plecostomus) were examined for external lesions showing signs of colunmaris disease such as greyish white spots, especially on the head, dorsal part and caudal fin of the fish. The sampling comprised 50 samples representing four different fish species selected for study. Samples for culture were obtained by skin and kidney scrapes with a sterile cotton swabs of columnaris disease fish and streaked onto Carlson and Pacha (1968) artificial culture medium (broth and solid) which were used for isolation. The strains in the liquid medium were Gram negative, long, filamentous, exhibited flexing movements (gliding motility), contained a large number of long slender bacteria and gathered into columns'. Strains on the agar produced yellow-pale colonies, rather small, flat that had rhizoid edges. A total of four Flavobacterium columnare were isolated: 01 Brycon orbignyanus strain, 01 Piaractus mesopotamicus strain, 01 Colossoma macropomum strain, and 01 Hypostomus plecostomus strain. Biochemical characterization, with its absorption of Congo red dye, production of flexirubin-type pigments, H2S production and reduction of nitrates proved that the isolate could be classified as Flavobacterium columnare.

  3. Passage performance of long-distance upstream migrants at a large dam on the Paraná River and the compounding effects of entry and ascent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Ricardo Luiz; Makrakis, Sergio; Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro; Belmont, René Fuster

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a fishway evaluation performed at the Engenheiro Sérgio Motta Hydroelectric Power Plant (known as Porto Primavera) - CESP, Paraná River, Brazil. The evaluation was designed to quantify entry and passage proportions of 4 long-distance migratory fish species: Brycon orbignyanus (piracanjuba), Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu), Prochilodus lineatus (curimba), and Rhinelepis aspera (cascudo-preto). Proportions finding and entering the fishway differed between species, ranged from 7.4 % (Prochilodus lineatus) to 55.4% (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Also, proportion passing was different between species, ranged from 31% (R. aspera) to 100% (Prochilodus lineatus). Fish that were marked and released within the fishway had greater failure rates than those that entered volitionally. Total time to pass ranged from 1.48 hours (Prochilodus lineatus) to 178.9 hours (R. aspera). Failure rates were greatest in the lower end of the fishway. Although some individuals of all species passed successfully, significant challenges remain to restoring connectivity of the upper Paraná River.

  4. Influence of temperature on viral hemorrhagic septicemia (Genogroup IVa) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Purcell, M.K.; Hart, L.M.; Gregg, J.L.; Thompson, R.L.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    An inverse relationship between water temperature and susceptibility of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) to viral hemorrhagic septicemia, genogroup IVa (VHS) was indicated by controlled exposure studies where cumulative mortalities, viral shedding rates, and viral persistence in survivors were greatest at the coolest exposure temperatures. Among groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific herring maintained at 8, 11, and 15 °C, cumulative mortalities after waterborne exposure to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were 78%, 40%, and 13%, respectively. The prevalence of survivors with VHSV-positive tissues 25 d post-exposure was 64%, 16%, and 0% (at 8, 11 and 15 °C, respectively) with viral prevalence typically higher in brain tissues than in kidney/spleen tissue pools at each temperature. Similarly, geometric mean viral titers in brain tissues and kidney/spleen tissue pools decreased at higher temperatures, and kidney/spleen titers were generally 10-fold lower than those in brain tissues at each temperature. This inverse relationship between temperature and VHS severity was likely mediated by an enhanced immune response at the warmer temperatures, where a robust type I interferon response was indicated by rapid and significant upregulation of the herring Mx gene. The effect of relatively small temperature differences on the susceptibility of a natural host to VHS provides insights into conditions that preface periodic VHSV epizootics in wild populations throughout the NE Pacific.

  5. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  6. Quantitative genetic properties of four measures of deformity in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi Valenciennes, 1833.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, N H; Whatmore, P; Miller, A; Knibb, W

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to estimate the heritability for four measures of deformity and their genetic associations with growth (body weight and length), carcass (fillet weight and yield) and flesh-quality (fillet fat content) traits in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi. The observed major deformities included lower jaw, nasal erosion, deformed operculum and skinny fish on 480 individuals from 22 families at Clean Seas Tuna Ltd. They were typically recorded as binary traits (presence or absence) and were analysed separately by both threshold generalized models and standard animal mixed models. Consistency of the models was evaluated by calculating simple Pearson correlation of breeding values of full-sib families for jaw deformity. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among traits were estimated using a multitrait linear mixed model in ASReml. Both threshold and linear mixed model analysis showed that there is additive genetic variation in the four measures of deformity, with the estimates of heritability obtained from the former (threshold) models on liability scale ranging from 0.14 to 0.66 (SE 0.32-0.56) and from the latter (linear animal and sire) models on original (observed) scale, 0.01-0.23 (SE 0.03-0.16). When the estimates on the underlying liability were transformed to the observed scale (0, 1), they were generally consistent between threshold and linear mixed models. Phenotypic correlations among deformity traits were weak (close to zero). The genetic correlations among deformity traits were not significantly different from zero. Body weight and fillet carcass showed significant positive genetic correlations with jaw deformity (0.75 and 0.95, respectively). Genetic correlation between body weight and operculum was negative (-0.51, P < 0.05). The genetic correlations' estimates of body and carcass traits with other deformity were not significant due to their relatively high standard errors. Our results showed that there are prospects for genetic selection to improve deformity in yellowtail kingfish and that measures of deformity should be included in the recording scheme, breeding objectives and selection index in practical selective breeding programmes due to the antagonistic genetic correlations of deformed jaws with body and carcass performance. PMID:25683477

  7. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the endemic shortfin silverside, Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes, 1835).

    PubMed

    Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A; De León, Francisco J García; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin silverside Chirostoma humboldtianum, is an endemic fish from the Mesa Central of Mexico, it is considered the "ancestral" species of the "peces blancos" and plays an important role as a potential species for aquaculture. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ921739), which has a total length of 16,447 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Atheriniformes. This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic, population and phylogeographic studies of this and other important atherinopsid species.

  8. The complete mitochondrial DNA of the endemic shortfin silverside, Chirostoma humboldtianum (Valenciennes, 1835).

    PubMed

    Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A; De León, Francisco J García; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin silverside Chirostoma humboldtianum, is an endemic fish from the Mesa Central of Mexico, it is considered the "ancestral" species of the "peces blancos" and plays an important role as a potential species for aquaculture. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ921739), which has a total length of 16,447 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Atheriniformes. This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic, population and phylogeographic studies of this and other important atherinopsid species. PMID:25185796

  9. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations.

  10. Dynamics and effects of Ligula intestinalis (L.) infection in the native fish Barbus callensis Valenciennes, 1842 in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Rouis, Sonia Ould; Rouis, Abdelhalim Ould; Dumont, Henri J; Magellan, Kit; Arab, Abdeslem

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of the emergence, duration, and decline phases in epizootic cycles are well known for humans and some crops, but they are poorly understood for host-parasite systems in the wild. Parasites may be particularly insidious as they are often introduced unintentionally, simultaneously with their hosts, and later transferred to species in the new location. Here we investigate the epizootic dynamics of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in the Hamiz reservoir, Algeria, and explore its effects on the cyprinid fish Barbus callensis. Regular sampling was conducted from October 2005 to February 2008 with intermittent surveys carried out until 2010. Five percent of the 566 specimens of B. callensis that were caught were infected, with the maximum number of parasites found in spring. There was no obvious difference in weight between uninfected fish and infected ones, and infection did not affect fish condition. However, infected fish were significantly longer than uninfected fish and had inhibited gonad development. The proportion of infected fish caught was significantly higher in year 1 and by the second winter, infection collapsed to zero. The Ligula infection thus appeared to have minimal ecological effects and be of a temporary nature, thus exhibiting an epizootic cycle. Taken together, our data indicates that this infection declined or even failed during our study period. Failure may be due to the specific genetic strain of Ligula, but invasive carp may also have been influential in both the introduction and subsequent decline of this parasite.

  11. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area. PMID:25844860

  12. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  13. Efficacy of a glycoprotein DNA vaccine against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii Valenciennes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, L.M.; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.; Grady, C.A.; Roon, S.E.; O’Reilly, J.; Gregg, J.L.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and its associated disease state, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), is hypothesized to be a proximate factor accounting for the decline and failed recovery of Pacific herring populations in Prince William Sound, AK (Marty et al. 1998, 2003, 2010). Survivors of laboratory-induced VHSV epizootics develop resistance to subsequent viral exposure (Kocan et al. 2001; Hershberger et al. 2007, 2010), which is likely the result of immune system recognition of the viral glycoprotein (G) (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994), a surface antigen that contains neutralizing epitopes (Lorenzen, Olesen & Jorgensen 1990; Jørgensen et al. 1995) and cell attachment domains (Lecocq-Xhonneux et al. 1994; Estepa & Coll 1996). These properties have proven useful in the development of G-gene-based DNA vaccines for VHSV and a related rhabdovirus, infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) (Anderson et al. 1996; Heppell et al. 1998; Corbeil et al. 1999; Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Rainbow trout fingerlings, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated with 1 µg of either the VHS or IHN vaccine are protected from VHS when exposed to virus as early as 4 days (44 degree days) post-vaccination (p.v.) (Lorenzen et al. 2002). At later time points (80 days p.v.; 880 degree days), the level of cross-protection against VHS by IHN vaccination is either completely lost (60 days p.v.; 660 degree days) (3 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Lorenzen et al. 2002) or present at intermediate levels (6.5 g rainbow trout; 1 µg vaccine dose) (Einer-Jensen et al. 2009). Comparatively, VHS vaccination remains effective as long as 9 months (2520 degree days) p.v. (100 g rainbow trout; 0.5 µg vaccine dose) (McLauchlan et al. 2003). These results suggest that IHN and VHS vaccination activate a rapid transitory innate immune response against VHSV that is followed by long-term adaptive immunity in VHS-vaccinated trout (Lorenzen et al. 2002).

  14. Differential leukocyte counts in "dourado", Salminus maxillosus Valenciennes, 1840, from the Mogi-Guaçu River, Pirassununga, SP.

    PubMed

    Ranzani-Paiva, M J; Rodrigues, E L; Veiga, M L; Eiras, A C; Campos, B E

    2003-08-01

    From August, 1996 to December, 1997, 293 of "dourado" specimens, Salminus maxillosus (Valencienes, 1840), of various sizes, were caught in Mogi-Guaçu River, Emas Falls, for hematologic studies. Total weight (Wt in g) and length (Lt in cm) were taken for each individual animal. Smears were prepared from blood samples and utilized for differential leukocyte counts (lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, special granulocytic cell and immature cells). The mean percentages of leukocytes were determined according to sex and stage of gonadal maturation (immature, in maturation, mature, spent and resting). Significant differences between male and female occurred only for the special granulocytic cell. In analyzing the leukocyte profile during gonadal development, only female showed significant differences in mean percentages of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils.

  15. Detection of cutaneous antibodies in excised skin explants from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes), immune to Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Lü, A-J; Li, Z-Q; Zhang, Q-Y

    2008-08-01

    This study determined whether cutaneous antibodies were present in excised skin explants of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, immune to Scophthalmus maximus rhabdovirus (SMRV). Culture fluid from immune skin explants were assayed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA), Western blot, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and flow cytometry (FCM). iELISA showed that cutaneous antibody titres were much lower (1:12) than antiserum titres (1:1458) from intraperitoneally immunized grass carp. The phosphoprotein and matrix protein antigens of purified SMRV proteins were recognized by cutaneous antibodies from skin culture fluid using Western blot. The skin culture fluid produced staining signals in viral assembly sites and cytoplasm of SMRV-infected epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells by IFA. FCM showed that 4.39% SMRV-infected EPC cells were detected, while non-specific reaction was seen in 2% of control cells. This is the first description of cutaneous antibodies against SMRV in grass carp.

  16. [Composition and content of carotenoids in body of the Black Sea gastropod mollusc Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846)].

    PubMed

    Borodina, A V; Maoka, T; Soldatov, A A

    2013-01-01

    There were studied content and composition of carotenoids in body of the Black Sea gastropod mollusc Rapana venosa. To separate and identify this group of compounds, methods of thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography, mass-spectra and spectra in UV-VIS range were used. There were identified 84-87% of carotenoids. The main proportion belonged to mytiloxanthine--28-30%. The rest--pectenolon, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin--accounted for 10-15% of the total content except for beta-carotene--3-4%. The fraction is also isolated which contains complex esters of pectenolon, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and mytiloxanthin. It amounts to 17-20 % of pigments of carotenoid line. Minor components were not determined. Pathways of metabolic transformation of carotenoids in tissues of R. venosa are considered on the basis of study of the trophic system "mollusc-filtrator--mollusc-predator" by the example of Mytilus galloprovincialis and R. venosa.

  17. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  18. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  19. A preliminary study on Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) as an alternative nutrient supplement in the diets of Poecillia sphenops (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arijit; Chakravorty, Ranita; Sarkar, Angshuman; Mandal, Dipak K; Haldar, Parimalendu; Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, Jose Manuel Pino

    2014-01-01

    Growth of the ornamental fish industry is being hindered by the scarcity of low cost feed; hence alternative protein supplements should be explored. In this context the present study aims to evaluate whether the grasshopper Oxya fuscovittata could be used as a supplement for fish meal in the diets of Poecillia sphenops, which is one of the most common ornamental fishes worldwide. The present work is divided into three phases: In the first phase proximate composition of the grasshopper is obtained and five diets are prepared where fish meal is gradually replaced by Oxya meal and named as control, D1, D2, D3 and D4. All the diets are formulated on iso-nitrogenous basis where the protein percentage is fixed at 400 g/kg. The second phase deals with feeding trial and in the third phase all the data of the feeding trial are subjected to a linear model. The feeding trial shows that the control, D1 and D2 fed fishes have almost similar results. The linear model proves that the variation in the indices are mainly due to replacement of fish meal by Oxya meal, not due to the variations of rice husk and mustard oil cake that are also used to formulate the diets of the present study. From the results two Oxya supplemented diets, i.e. D1 and D2 are proved to be almost equivalent to the control diet. Hence it is concluded that Oxya meal is able to replace 25% to 50% of fish meal from the diets of P. sphenops. PMID:25383946

  20. Dynamics and effects of Ligula intestinalis (L.) infection in the native fish Barbus callensis Valenciennes, 1842 in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Rouis, Sonia Ould; Rouis, Abdelhalim Ould; Dumont, Henri J; Magellan, Kit; Arab, Abdeslem

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of the emergence, duration, and decline phases in epizootic cycles are well known for humans and some crops, but they are poorly understood for host-parasite systems in the wild. Parasites may be particularly insidious as they are often introduced unintentionally, simultaneously with their hosts, and later transferred to species in the new location. Here we investigate the epizootic dynamics of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis in the Hamiz reservoir, Algeria, and explore its effects on the cyprinid fish Barbus callensis. Regular sampling was conducted from October 2005 to February 2008 with intermittent surveys carried out until 2010. Five percent of the 566 specimens of B. callensis that were caught were infected, with the maximum number of parasites found in spring. There was no obvious difference in weight between uninfected fish and infected ones, and infection did not affect fish condition. However, infected fish were significantly longer than uninfected fish and had inhibited gonad development. The proportion of infected fish caught was significantly higher in year 1 and by the second winter, infection collapsed to zero. The Ligula infection thus appeared to have minimal ecological effects and be of a temporary nature, thus exhibiting an epizootic cycle. Taken together, our data indicates that this infection declined or even failed during our study period. Failure may be due to the specific genetic strain of Ligula, but invasive carp may also have been influential in both the introduction and subsequent decline of this parasite. PMID:27078654

  1. A Preliminary Study on Oxya fuscovittata (Marschall) as an Alternative Nutrient Supplement in the Diets of Poecillia sphenops (Valenciennes)

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Arijit; Chakravorty, Ranita; Sarkar, Angshuman; Mandal, Dipak K.; Haldar, Parimalendu; Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, Jose Manuel Pino

    2014-01-01

    Growth of the ornamental fish industry is being hindered by the scarcity of low cost feed; hence alternative protein supplements should be explored. In this context the present study aims to evaluate whether the grasshopper Oxya fuscovittata could be used as a supplement for fish meal in the diets of Poecillia sphenops, which is one of the most common ornamental fishes worldwide. The present work is divided into three phases: In the first phase proximate composition of the grasshopper is obtained and five diets are prepared where fish meal is gradually replaced by Oxya meal and named as control, D1, D2, D3 and D4. All the diets are formulated on iso-nitrogenous basis where the protein percentage is fixed at 400 g/kg. The second phase deals with feeding trial and in the third phase all the data of the feeding trial are subjected to a linear model. The feeding trial shows that the control, D1 and D2 fed fishes have almost similar results. The linear model proves that the variation in the indices are mainly due to replacement of fish meal by Oxya meal, not due to the variations of rice husk and mustard oil cake that are also used to formulate the diets of the present study. From the results two Oxya supplemented diets, i.e. D1 and D2 are proved to be almost equivalent to the control diet. Hence it is concluded that Oxya meal is able to replace 25% to 50% of fish meal from the diets of P. sphenops. PMID:25383946

  2. Length-weight and Length-length Relationship of Longsnouted Catfish, Plicofollis argyropleuron (Valenciennes, 1840) in the Northern Part of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rosli, Nor Aziella Mohd; Isa, Mansor Mat

    2012-12-01

    Scanty information exists pertaining to the length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) parameters of longsnouted catfish, Plicofollis argyropleuron in lotic systems throughout the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. It is vital to reveal these biological properties of P. argyropleuron in Kuala Muda and Merbok estuary for future management and to increase knowledge about this fish stocks. The fish samples were randomly collected in the estuary area of Kuala Muda and Merbok, Kedah for 10 months from March 2009 to December 2009. The values of the exponent b in the LWR equations (W = aL(b) ) were approximately 3, indicating an isometric growth with high correlation coefficient (r(2)). The value of LLR (r(2)>0.9) indicated that they are highly significant and highly correlated. These parameters are essential for evaluating the relative condition of fish and species managements as well as their fisheries and stock assessment.

  3. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components. PMID:27605835

  4. Evaluation of genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormalities in the tropical sea fish Bathygobius soporator (Valenciennes, 1837) (Teleostei, Gobiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities assays have been used increasingly to evaluate genotoxicity of many compounds in polluted aquatic ecossystems. The aim of this study is to verify the efficiency of the micronucleus assay and nuclear abnormality assay in field and laboratory work, when using erythrocytes of the tropical marine fish Bathygobius soporator as genotoxicity biomarkers. Gill peripheral blood samples were obtained from specimens of Bathygobius soporator. In order to investigate the frequencies of micronuclei and to assess the sensitivity of species, the results were compared with samples taken at the reference site and maintained in the laboratory, and fish treated with cyclophosphamide. The micronucleus assay was efficient in demonstrating field pollution and reproducing results in the labotatory. There were significant higher frequencies of micronuclei in two sites subject to discharge of urban and industrial effluents. The nuclear abnormality assay did not appear to be an efficient tool for genotoxicity evaluation when compared with field samples taken at a reference site in laboratory, with a positive control. PMID:21637697

  5. Viral replication in excised fin tissues (VREFT) corresponds with prior exposure of Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, C.A.; Gregg, J.L.; Wade, R.M.; Winton, J.R.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for a viral replication in excised fin tissue (VREFT) assay were adapted to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, and optimized both to reduce processing time and to provide the greatest resolution between na??ve herring and those previously exposed to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), Genogroup IVa. The optimized procedures included removal of the left pectoral fin from a euthanized fish, inoculation of the fin with >105 plaque-forming units (PFU) mL-1 VHSV for 1 h, rinsing the fin in fresh medium six times to remove unadsorbed virions, incubation of the fin in fresh medium for 4 days and enumeration of the viral titre in a sample of the incubation medium by plaque assay. The optimized VREFT assay was effective at identifying the prior exposure history of laboratory-reared Pacific herring to VHSV. The geometric mean VREFT value was significantly greater (P < 0.01) among na??ve herring (1.2 ?? 103 PFU mL-1) than among groups that survived exposure to VHSV (1.0-2.9 ?? 102 PFU mL-1); additionally, the proportion of cultures with no detectable virus was significantly greater (P = 0.0002) among fish that survived exposure to VHSV (39-47%) than among na??ve fish (3.3%). The optimized VREFT assay demonstrates promise for identifying VHSV exposure history and forecasting disease potential in populations of wild Pacific herring. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).

  7. Histopathological and bacterial study of skin and gill of grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Valenciennes 1844) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Jooyandeh, Fatemeh; Sadeghpour, Ali; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabihollah

    2016-09-01

    The gill histology and bacterial load of skin of the grass carp juveniles were investigated in relation to various concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in five treatments (for copper sulfate: 1, 1.94, 3.71, 7.07 and 15 mg/l and for potassium permanganate: 0.25, 0.52, 1.91, 2.27 and 5 mg/l) with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting product was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to results, the lowest bacterial load (CFU/g) of skin was observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 0.25 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P < 0.05). Also, the histological investigation showed a range of histopathological alternations in gills tissue including lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, clubbing of gill lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. In this regard, the highest histological damages were observed in 15 mg/l copper sulfate and 5 mg/l potassium permanganate respectively. Our results showed that low dosage of potassium permanganate has best effect on reducing of bacterial load of skin with lowest adverse effects on gill tissue. PMID:27605829

  8. Larval Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), are highly susceptible to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and survivors are partially protected after their metamorphosis to juveniles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.; Pacheco, C.; Winton, J.; Richard, J.; Traxler, G.

    2007-01-01

    Pacific herring were susceptible to waterborne challenge with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) throughout their early life history stages, with significantly greater cumulative mortalities occurring among VHSV-exposed groups of 9-, 44-, 54- and 76-day-old larvae than among respective control groups. Similarly, among 89-day-1-year-old and 1+year old post-metamorphosed juveniles, cumulative mortality was significantly greater in VHSV-challenged groups than in respective control groups. Larval exposure to VHSV conferred partial protection to the survivors after their metamorphosis to juveniles as shown by significantly less cumulative mortalities among juvenile groups that survived a VHS epidemic as larvae than among groups that were previously nai??ve to VHSV. Magnitude of the protection, measured as relative per cent survival, was a direct function of larval age at first exposure and was probably a reflection of gradual developmental onset of immunocompetence. These results indicate the potential for easily overlooked VHS epizootics among wild larvae in regions where the virus is endemic and emphasize the importance of early life history stages of marine fish in influencing the ecological disease processes. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  9. Stress indices of Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella, (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1884) change in response to Monogenean parasites pollution, Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

    PubMed

    Tekmedash, Fatemeh Shojaei; Hemmatzadeh, Mohtaram; Khara, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was study of stress indices in response to Monogenean infection in Grass carp, Ceteopharyngodon idella. In this regard, some stress indices were measured in two adult groups of Grass carp including healthy and infected fish. According to our results, the values of cortisol and glucose and lactate were significantly higher in infected fishes than healthy individuals. Elevation of cortisol and glucose demonstrated the existence of stressful condition caused by parasitic infection and demands for energy for adaptation. In conclusion, our results showed that Monogenean infection by Gyrodactylus spp. and Dactylogyrus spp. affects health condition of Grass carp through alternation of stress components.

  10. Genetic Structure and Preliminary Findings of Cryptic Diversity of the Malaysian Mahseer (Tor tambroides Valenciennes: Cyprinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rahim, Khairul Adha

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the population genetic structure of Tor tambroides, an important freshwater fish species in Malaysia, using fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci and sequencing of 464 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. A total of 152 mahseer samples were collected from eight populations throughout the Malaysia river system. Microsatellites results found high levels of intrapopulation variations, but mitochondrial COI results found high levels of interpopulations differentiation. The possible reasons for their discrepancies might be the varying influence of genetic drift on each marker or the small sample sizes used in most of the populations. The Kelantan population showed very low levels of genetic variations using both mitochondrial and microsatellite analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene found a unique haplotype (ER8∗), possibly representing a cryptic lineage of T. douronensis, from the Endau-Rompin population. Nevertheless, the inclusion of nuclear microsatellite analyses could not fully resolve the genetic identity of haplotype ER8∗ in the present study. Overall, the findings showed a serious need for more comprehensive and larger scale samplings, especially in remote river systems, in combination with molecular analyses using multiple markers, in order to discover more cryptic lineages or undescribed “genetic species” of mahseer. PMID:24455674

  11. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  12. Ectoparasites of the whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor (Valenciennes, 1835) off the Kenyan Coast: distribution within the host population and site selection on the gills.

    PubMed

    Geets, A; Coene, H; Ollevier, F

    1997-07-01

    Different populations of the whitespotted rabbitfish, Siganus sutor, were examined for ectoparasites: adults from the Mombasa area (sampled in December 1990) and different age classes (adult, subadult and juveniles) from Gazi Bay (sampled in December 1992 and August 1993). The most common gill parasites were: the monogeneans Pseudohaliotrema sp., Tetrancistrum sigani and Microcotyle mouwoi, the copepods Hatschekia sp., Pseudolepeophtheirus sp. and juvenile Caligidae, and prazina larvae of the isopod Gnathia sp. Adult siganids had a higher parasite load than subadults. Juvenile rabbitfish did not harbour any gill parasites. Temporal differences in the parasite load of subadult rabbitfish were observed for M. mouwoi (highest in the December samples) and for juvenile Caligidae (highest in August). The microhabitat of the 5 most common gill parasites was species specific. Most parasite species showed distinct site preferences with respect to both gill arches and gill sectors, within the gill arches. Niche breadth of the different gill parasite species was independent of the abundance of any of the other species present. However, niche breadths of M. mouwoi, Tetrancistrum sp. and Hatschekia sp. increased with their own abundance. This suggests that interspecific competition for space is low and that intraspecific factors could play an important role in the microhabitat choice of these gill parasites. The hypothesis that niche restriction leads to higher intraspecific contact and an enhancement of chances to mate was tested on 2 monogenean species, Pseudohaliotrema sp. and Tetrancistrum sigani. Their highly aggregated distribution over the gill filaments, leading to increased intraspecific contact, is consistent with the hypothesis.

  13. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Cavisomidae), from Siganus lineatus (Pisces, Teleostei, Siganidae) (Valenciennes, 1835) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an ultrastructural study of Cavisoma magnum (Acanthocephala, Cavisomatidae) with a Transmission Electron Microscopy tool. This parasite of the fish Siganus lineatus is here reported for the first time from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. It is the first study describing the ultrastructure, spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of a species of the family Cavisomatidae. The young spermatid of C. magnum possesses a centriole constituted of doublets without a central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Then the flagellum migration occurs and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The distribution and the size of the protein granules are reported and the posterior extremity appears like a chromatin lamina wave. Comparative ultrastructural data are presented on sperm and spermiogenesis of the Acanthocephala and Rotifers examined to date and the phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  14. Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology during the annual reproductive cycle of river catfish Hemibagrus nemurus (Valenciennes, 1840) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Fatimat Adenike; Siraj, Siti Shapor; Harmin, Sharr Azni; Christianus, Annie

    2013-06-01

    Plasma sex steroid hormonal profile and gonad histology were correlated to study the annual reproductive cycle of Hemibagrus nemurus. Hormones were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gonad tissues were observed by using light microscopy. The highest testosterone (T) value for male was observed in November and that of female was in October. 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were highest in June and November, respectively. Hormonal profiles of T, 11-KT and E2 showed several peaks which indicated a non-seasonal pattern. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the monthly levels of T, 11-KT and E2. Gonadosomatic index of H. nemurus ranged from 1.14 ± 0.02 % to 7.06 ± 1.40 %, and high gonadosomatic indices were recorded in May, August and November. Gonad histology revealed that spermatozoa were always present in the testes which implied continuous spermatogenesis and asynchronous ovarian development pattern was observed in the ovaries. The annual reproductive cycle of H. nemurus did not show a seasonal pattern and this indicate that H. nemurus is a non-seasonal breeder with several spawning cycles and can be referred to as indeterminate batch spawner. The major significances of this study are annual sex steroid hormonal profile and asynchronous ovarian development of H. nemurus. This information will contribute to our knowledge of reproductive biology of H. nemurus.

  15. Effect of niacin and folic acid in feed rations on growth and live weights of Green catfish (Mystus nemurus Valenciennes 1840).

    PubMed

    Hien, D V; Doolgindachbaporn, S

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to justify effects of niacin and folic acid in feed rations on growth and survival rate of the fish under in vitro conditions. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications for Experiment I and three replications for Experiment II was used. Niacin (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1)) and folic acid (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg kg(-1)) were used for Experiments I, and II, respectively. The cement tanks were used for Experiment I and fibre tanks for Experiment II. A static water system was used. Water temperature was maintained at a range from 26 to 30 degrees C with pH values from 7.4 to 7.9. The results showed that niacin at a rate of 10 mg kg(-1) feed ration gave significant differences on weight gained %, survival %, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate % and feed conversion ratio with mean values of 99.92, 100, 1.18, 5.77 and 1.35, respectively. Folic acid at a rate of 2 mg kg(-1) gave significant differences on weight gained %, survival %, protein efficiency ratio, specific growth rate % and feed conversion ratio with mean values of 108.88, 100, 1.22, 6.13 and 1.43, respectively. Niacin at a rate of 10 and 2 mg kg(-1) of folic acid were the best rates for in vitro culture of Green catfish.

  16. Description of Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) and redescription of P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Serranidae) in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bijian; Yang, Tingbao

    2007-03-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus justinei n. sp. is reported and described from the gills of the longfin grouper Epinephelus quoyanus in Dapeng Bay, South China Sea off the town of Nan'ao, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. P. justinei n. sp. is characterised by the presence of a male copulatory organ (MCO) composed of a moderately quadriloculate organ, a short cone and a long, variable internal tube, and a sclerotised vagina comprising anterior 'trumpet' with a characteristic sclerotised ring, slightly medially curved canal, heavily sclerotised principal chamber and star-shaped lateral structure with accessory chambers. It is differentiated from the most similar species, P. caledonicus Justine, 2005, by the absence of a thinly sclerotised posterior tube of the MCO and by the size and morphology of the sclerotised vagina. P. vagampullum (Young, 1969) is redescribed based on specimens collected from the same species of host and locality as P. justinei n. sp. In comparison with the original description by Young [Young, P. C. (1969). Journal of Helminthology, 43, 223-254] and the redescription by Justine [Justine, J.-L. (2005a). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 1-37; (2005b). Systematic Parasitology, 62, 39-45] based on old museum material, the new specimens of P. vagampullum clearly showed the internal anatomy of the terminal genitalia, especially the sclerotised vagina, consisting of a distal, cylindrical canal with an anterior 'trumpet' continuing as an unsclerotised, curved, bulb-shaped vaginal pore, a conical principal chamber and a star-shaped lateral structure with an accessory chambers leading to the seminal receptacle via a fine, unsclerotised duct.

  17. Molecular characterization of "Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola," a novel Chlamydia-like epitheliocystis agent in yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes), and the proposal of a new family, "Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae" fam. nov. (order Chlamydiales).

    PubMed

    Stride, M C; Polkinghorne, A; Miller, T L; Groff, J M; Lapatra, S E; Nowak, B F

    2013-03-01

    Three cohorts of farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) from South Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To characterize the bacteria, 38 gill samples were processed for histopathology, electron microscopy, and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Microscopically, the presence of membrane-enclosed cysts was observed within the gill lamellae. Also observed was hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolization and fusion of the gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological features of the reticulate and intermediate bodies typical of members of the order Chlamydiales. A novel 1,393-bp 16S chlamydial rRNA sequence was amplified from gill DNA extracted from fish in all cohorts over a 3-year period that corresponded to the 16S rRNA sequence amplified directly from laser-dissected cysts. This sequence was only 87% similar to the reported "Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis" (AY462244) from Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence against 35 Chlamydia and Chlamydia-like bacteria revealed that this novel bacterium belongs to an undescribed family lineage in the order Chlamydiales. Based on these observations, we propose this bacterium of yellowtail kingfish be known as "Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola" and that the new family be known as "Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae." PMID:23275507

  18. Molecular Characterization of “Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola,” a Novel Chlamydia-Like Epitheliocystis Agent in Yellowtail Kingfish, Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes), and the Proposal of a New Family, “Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae” fam. nov. (Order Chlamydiales)

    PubMed Central

    Polkinghorne, A.; Miller, T. L.; Groff, J. M.; LaPatra, S. E.; Nowak, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Three cohorts of farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) from South Australia were examined for Chlamydia-like organisms associated with epitheliocystis. To characterize the bacteria, 38 gill samples were processed for histopathology, electron microscopy, and 16S rRNA amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Microscopically, the presence of membrane-enclosed cysts was observed within the gill lamellae. Also observed was hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with cytoplasmic vacuolization and fusion of the gill lamellae. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological features of the reticulate and intermediate bodies typical of members of the order Chlamydiales. A novel 1,393-bp 16S chlamydial rRNA sequence was amplified from gill DNA extracted from fish in all cohorts over a 3-year period that corresponded to the 16S rRNA sequence amplified directly from laser-dissected cysts. This sequence was only 87% similar to the reported “Candidatus Piscichlamydia salmonis” (AY462244) from Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr. Phylogenetic analysis of this sequence against 35 Chlamydia and Chlamydia-like bacteria revealed that this novel bacterium belongs to an undescribed family lineage in the order Chlamydiales. Based on these observations, we propose this bacterium of yellowtail kingfish be known as “Candidatus Parilichlamydia carangidicola” and that the new family be known as “Candidatus Parilichlamydiaceae.” PMID:23275507

  19. [Secure cupboards, an advantage for the medicine use pathway].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Amandine; Foqué, Carole

    2016-05-01

    At Valenciennes general hospital, for some patients, the medicine use pathway is made secure through the use of computer systems which ensure named-patient daily dispensing. Secure cupboards are a complement to this main pathway. PMID:27155273

  20. Cytogenetic and Molecular Data Demonstrate that the Bryconinae (Ostariophysi, Bryconidae) Species from Southeastern Brazil Form a Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic Unit

    PubMed Central

    Travenzoli, Natália Martins; Silva, Priscilla Caroline; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José Cola; Oliveira, Claudio; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-01-01

    Brycon spp. occur in Neotropical watersheds to the west and east of the Andes, and as they are sensitive to anthropogenic changes, many these species are endangered in southeastern Brazil. Coastal rivers in southeastern Brazil are characterized by the presence of relatively few freshwater fish species and high endemism of this fauna. The objective of this study was to examine whether Brycon spp. occurring in the coastal basins of southeastern Brazil are monophyletic, using cytogenetic data, mitochondrial, and nuclear molecular markers. All the species showed a diploid number of 50 chromosomes, a conserved number within the subfamily Bryconinae. However, the karyotypic formulas were unique to most species, including Brycon devillei (26m+22sm+2st), Brycon ferox (26m+12sm+12st), Brycon insignis (22m+20sm+8st), Brycon opalinus, and Brycon vermelha (24m+20sm+6st), indicating the prevalence of pericentric and paracentric inversions in the chromosomal evolution of these species. All of them had nucleolar organizer regions in the first pair of subtelocentric chromosomes and no equilocal distribution of heterochromatin in the first pair of chromosomes of the karyotype. These two features, not seen in any other Brycon spp. examined to date, indicate that Bryconinae species from the Brazilian southeastern coastal basins, including the monotypic genus Henochilus, are monophyletic. Also, this is the first study that reports NOR location and C-banding patterns as synapomorphies for a Neotropical fish species group. The monophyly was also supported by a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA (16S), cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), alpha-myosin (MYH6) genes and S72 intron molecular data. Our results partially corroborate the “Brycon acuminatus” group proposed by Howes in 1982: our proposed clade keeps B. devillei, B. ferox, and B. insignis; but it also includes B. opalinus, B. vermelha, and H. weatlandii whereas it excludes B. nattereri. The phylogeographic unit formed by

  1. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  2. Phanurus oligoovus gen. et sp. nov. (Digenea: Waretrematidae) from Liza carinatus from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-fa; Yang, Ting-bao

    2002-04-01

    The species Phanurus oligoovus gen. et sp. nov. is described from the intestine of Liza carinatus (Cuvier et Valencienne) from the South China Sea. From the general internal anatomy, it belongs to the Waretrematidae and is distinguished from the other known species of the Waretrematidae by the tail appendage. A new subfamily, Phanurunae, is proposed for the genus Phanurus.

  3. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 October 2012-30 November 2012.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Serap; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F; Azevedo, V C R; Baucom, Regina; Bazaga, Pilar; Beheregaray, L B; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Burgess, Treena I; Caccone, Adagisa; Chang, Shu-Mei; Ciampi, A Y; Ciancaleoni, S; Clímaco, Gisele T; Clouet, Cécil; Coimbra, Maria R M; Coutinho, Luiz L; Dantas, Hozana L; De Vega, Clara; Echodu, Richard; Enyaru, John; Figueira, Antonio; Filho, Manoel A G; Foltz, Britnie; Fressigné, L; Gadomski, Mateusz; Gauthier, Nathalie; Herrera, Carlos M; Hyseni, Chaz; Jorge, Erika C; Kaczmarczyk, Dariusz; Knott, Emily; Kuester, Adam; Lima, Ana P S; Lima, Maíra A; Lima, Marcos P; Longo, Ana Luiza B; Lor, Grant; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Marques, Thiago S; Martins, Aline R; Matoso, Daniele A; Medrano, Mónica; Mendonça, M A C; Mettler, Raeann; Nascimento, Priscila Roberta M; Negri, V; Oliveira, Karine K C; Oliveira, L O; Ovcarenko, Irina; Paula-Silva, Maria N; Raggi, L; Sandoval-Castillo, J; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Martin Schaefer, H; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seino, Miyuki M; Sistrom, Mark; Taole, Matsepo M; Teske, P R; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Verdade, Luciano M; Villela, Priscilla M S; Vinson, C C; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 153 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Brassica oleracea, Brycon amazonicus, Dimorphandra wilsonii, Eupallasella percnurus, Helleborus foetidus, Ipomoea purpurea, Phrynops geoffroanus, Prochilodus argenteus, Pyura sp., Sylvia atricapilla, Teratosphaeria suttonii, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Trypanosoma brucei. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Dimorphandra coccicinea, Dimorphandra cuprea, Dimorphandra gardneriana, Dimorphandra jorgei, Dimorphandra macrostachya, Dimorphandra mollis, Dimorphandra parviflora and Dimorphandra pennigera.

  4. Systematic and historical biogeography of the Bryconidae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes) suggesting a new rearrangement of its genera and an old origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent molecular hypotheses suggest that some traditional suprageneric taxa of Characiformes require revision, as they may not constitute monophyletic groups. This is the case for the Bryconidae. Various studies have proposed that this family (considered a subfamily by some authors) may be composed of different genera. However, until now, no phylogenetic study of all putative genera has been conducted. Results In the present study, we analyzed 27 species (46 specimens) of all currently recognized genera of the Bryconidae (ingroup) and 208 species representing all other families and most genera of the Characiformes (outgroup). Five genes were sequenced: 16SrRNA, Cytochrome b, recombination activating gene 1 and 2 and myosin heavy chain 6 cardiac muscle. The final matrix contained 4699 bp and was analyzed by maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. The results show that the Bryconidae, composed of Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, is monophyletic and is the sister group of Gasteropelecidae + Triportheidae. However, the genus Brycon is polyphyletic. Fossil studies suggest that the family originated approximately 47 million years ago (Ma) and that one of the two main lineages persisted only in trans-Andean rivers, including Central American rivers, suggesting a much older origin of Mesoamerican ichthyofauna than previously accepted. Conclusion Bryconidae is composed by five main clades, including the genera Brycon, Chilobrycon, Henochilus and Salminus, but a taxonomic review of these groups is needed. Our results point to a possible ancient invasion of Central America, dating about 20.3 ± 5.0 Ma (late Oligocene - early Miocene), to explain the occurrence of Brycon in Central America. PMID:25005252

  5. A new species of Hemipera Nicoll, 1913 (Digenea: Derogenidae) from fishes of the intertidal rocky zone of Chile.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo E; Muñoz, Gabriela; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2016-09-01

    A new species, Hemipera cribbi sp. nov., is described. This trematode was found in three intertidal fish species: Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes) (Blenniidae), Gobiesox marmoratus Jenyns (Gobiesocidae) and Myxodes viridis Valenciennes (Clinidae) from the central and southern coast of Chile. Of 233 individuals of S. viridis from the central coast examined, 19 were infected. From the southern coast, nine individuals of S. viridis (one infected), five individuals of G. marmoratus (four infected), and 16 individuals of M. viridis (one fish infected) were examined. Hemipera cribbi sp. nov. is distinguished from the five other congeneric species mainly in the body size, being the smallest and narrowest species in the genus, reaching five times longer than wide. This is the first species of the genus described for the South Pacific Ocean off South America. ITS2 rDNA sequences of Hemipera cribbi sp. nov. from each host and locality were identified. PMID:27447214

  6. Similascarophis n. gen. n. spp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitizing marine fishes off the Chilean coast.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; González, María Teresa; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2004-08-01

    Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott), Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, Girella laevifrons (Tschudi), and Graus nigra Philippi. Morphology and morphometry are compared between 2 new Similascarophis species: Similascarophis maulensis n. sp. and S. chilensis n. sp., which differ in the presence of sublabia and in the length of the glandular esophagus and left spicule. We also recorded Similascarophis sp. in 2 other host species, which showed some distinct proportional measurements, although these differences were not sufficiently clear to identify them as a new species.

  7. Fish filleting residues for enrichment of wheat bread: chemical and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Tavares, Tássia; de Sousa Gomes Pimenta, Maria Emília; Leal, Renato; Fabrício, Luís Felipe; Pimenta, Carlos José; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2014-09-01

    The fish processing industry generates a large amount of materials discarded as residue. It is known that fish and its residue are a source of essential nutrients. Conversely, bread is a food accessible to different social classes but is deficient in protein, minerals, and fatty acids. Thus, this study aimed to develop bread products based on the addition of flour from Red-tailed Brycon (Brycon cephalus) processing residue and then evaluate the chemical and sensory qualities of the products. In relation to a standard bread formulation without fish flour, the addition of fish flour to bread formulations resulted in products with not only higher contents of protein, essential fatty acids, and minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, but also lower contents of carbohydrates. The breads with fish flour received sensory acceptance better than or as good as that of a bread formulation without fish flour. Hence, the addition of fish processing residue to breads is a way to provide essential nutrients to the population through a well-accepted, accessible, and low-cost product.

  8. Four new records of fish species (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Balitoridae; Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) and corrections of two misidentified fish species (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae; Beloniformes: Belonidae) in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this study, six fish species of five families are reported for the first time from Yunnan Province, China. The nemacheilid Schistura amplizona Kottelat, 2000 is reported from the Luosuojiang River and Nanlahe River subbasins, Mekong basin; the prochilodontid Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837), the balitorid Vanmanenia serrilineata Kottelat, 2000, and the tetraodontid Monotrete turgidus Kottelat, 2000, from Nanlahe River subbasin, Mekong basin; the balitorid Beaufortia daon (Mai, 1978), and the belonid Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker, 1854), both, from Black River subbasin, Red River basin. The freshwater puffer M. turgidus and the needlefish X. canciloides have been previously misidentified as Tetraodon leiurus (Bleeker, 1950) and Tylosurus strongylurus (van Hasselt, 1823), respectively. PMID:24470454

  9. Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) from the gills of mullets (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) collected from the inland waters of southern Iraq, with an evalutation of previous records of Gyrodactylus spp. on mullets in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Ali, Atheer H; Khamees, Najim R

    2013-11-01

    Gyrodactylus aff. mugili Zhukov, 1970 (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae) is recorded and described from the gill lamellae of 11 of 35 greenback mullet, Chelon subviridis (Valenciennes) (minimum prevalence 31%), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Arab Estuary in southern Iraq. The gyrodactylid was also found on the gill lamellae of one of eight Speigler's mullet, Valamugil speigleri (Bleeker), from the brackish waters of the Shatt Al-Basrah Canal (minimum prevalence 13%). Fifteen Klunzinger's mullet, Liza klunzingeri (Day), and 13 keeled mullet, Liza carinata (Valenciennes), collected and examined from southern Iraqi waters, were apparently uninfected. The gyrodactylids from the greenback mullet and Speigler's mullet were considered to have affinity to G. mugili Zhukov, 1970, and along with G. mugili may represent members of a species complex occurring on mullets in the Indo-Pacific Region. A single damaged gyrodactylid from the external surfaces of the abu mullet, Liza abu (Heckel), was insufficient for species identification. Previously identified species of Gyrodactylus recorded on L. abu in Iraq by various authors were considered possible misidentifications or accidental infections.

  10. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  11. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  12. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  13. Outbreak of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase VEB-1-producing isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in a French hospital.

    PubMed

    Poirel, Laurent; Menuteau, Olivier; Agoli, Nathalie; Cattoen, Christian; Nordmann, Patrice

    2003-08-01

    Twelve clonally related and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were recovered during a 4-month period from 12 patients hospitalized at the Valenciennes Hospital in France. Antibiograms determined by the double-disk diffusion technique on cloxacillin-containing plates detected a clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). PCR and sequencing identified the gene encoding the Ambler class A ESBL VEB-1. This gene was located on the chromosome and was part of a class 1 integron identical to that previously identified in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Thailand. Additionally, seven clonally related bla(VEB-1)-positive A. baumannii strains were identified in the immediate environment of the hospitalized patients. This is the first report of the ESBL VEB-1 in Acinetobacter spp. and the first description of VEB-1-producing strains as a source of an outbreak occurring outside Southeast Asia. This report underlines the difficulty of the identification of ESBLs in A. baumannii.

  14. Hysterothylacium winteri sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), a parasite of Chilean rock cod, Eleginops maclovinus (Perciformes: Eleginopidae), from South Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, Patricio; Soto, María Soledad

    2004-03-01

    Hysterothylacium winteri sp. n. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) was collected from the intestine of a marine-estuarine fish, Eleginops maclovinus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Eleginopsidae), from Abtao in the Gulf of Ancud, Chile. Sixteen (51.6%) out of 31 fish were infected; the intensity was 1-10 (mean 4) worms/host. The new species belongs to the group of congeners possessing one double pair of postanal papillae. By possessing a lateral pair of phasmids situated near the tip of tail, H. winteri most closely resembles Hysterothylacium habena. The new species can be distinguished by the lip flanges forming broadly rounded points and the equal, short spicules (320-400 microm long) representing 0.9-1.7% of body length. PMID:15139378

  15. On a new species of Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Cauque mauleanum (Pisces: Atherinidae) by brightfield and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Andrade, P; Silva, R

    1998-01-01

    Hysterothylacium geschei n. sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) is described from the intestine of Cauque mauleanum (Steindachner) (Pisces: Atherinidae) from Lake Panguipulli (39 degrees-43'S; 72 degrees-13'W), Chile. Eleven (78.6%) out of 14 fish were infected, with a mean intensity (range) of 14.4 (1-55) worms. The new species can be differentiated from the two previously described species of freshwater fishes from South America by the presence of lateral alae, the number of caudal papillae, and the length of the spicules, oesophagus, intestinal caecum, distance vulva-anterior extremity and the length ratio intestinal caecum: ventricular appendix. From the fishes examined in Lake Panguipulli, including the introduced salmonid species Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and the authochthonous species Basilichthys australis Eigenmann (Atherinidae) and Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes) (Percichthyidae), only one specimen of P. trucha was found parasitized by a third-stage larva of this species. PMID:9921297

  16. Purification of a toxic factor from Arabian Gulf catfish epidermal secretions.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M; Al-Hassan, J M; Fayad, S; Al-Saleh, J; Ali, M

    1998-06-01

    The Arabian Gulf catfish, Arius bilineatus (Valenciennes) secretes a proteinaceous epidermal secretion when threatened or injured. A toxic factor has been isolated and purified from the crude extract (crude skin toxin) of these secretions by a combination of gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and preparative discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified skin toxin has a molecular weight of 39,000 Da and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. Injection of the purified skin toxin into rabbits i.v. and determination of the LD50 indicated that the protein had been purified approximately 30 fold by these procedures. Injection of the purified skin toxin into rabbits caused agitation, convulsions and death within 5 min. Analysis of plasma levels of lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in injected rabbits indicated that the skin toxin caused cardiac and liver damage to the animals. PMID:9663692

  17. A new Huffmanela species, H. schouteni sp. n. (Nematoda: Trichosomoididae) from flying fishes in Curaçao.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Campbell, B G

    1991-01-01

    A new nematode species, Huffmanela schouteni sp. n., has been established on the basis of its egg morphology and biological characters (adult nematodes are unknown). The dark-shelled eggs of this histozoic parasite occur in masses in the abdominal cavity, serose covers of internal organs and in the liver of the flying fishes Hirundichthys affinis Günther (type host) and Cypselurus cyanopterus Cuvier et Valenciennes in Curaçao. The eggs of H. schouteni sp. n. differ from those in other congeneric species mainly in the absence of small spines on the surface of the transparent envelope enclosing the egg proper, measurements (size of eggs 0.069-0.075 x 0.027-0.030 mm) and their localization in the host. A key to Huffmanela species based on egg morphology has been provided.

  18. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  19. Transmission rate variation among three B chromosome variants in the fish Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae).

    PubMed

    Penitente, Manolo; Voltolin, Tatiana A; Senhorini, José A; Bortolozzi, Jehud; Foresti, Fausto; Porto-Foresti, Fábio

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies were developed in Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836), describing an interesting system of small supernumerary chromosomes. The purpose of this work is to study the frequency and morphology of B chromosomes in individuals from the parental line and the inheritance patterns of these elements in individuals obtained from controlled crosses in the species P. lineatus. The transmission rate of B chromosomes revealed a k(B)=0.388 for the acrocentric type, a kB=0.507 for the metacentric type and a k(B)=0.526 for the submetacentric type. The obtained results raise hypothesis that B-acrocentric chromosomes are involved in an extinction process in this species, while the metacentric and submetacentric supernumerary elements comprises a neutral mechanism and follows a Mendelian transmission rate.

  20. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area.

  1. The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass in the late 1950s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, J.C.; Margraf, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    The diet of Chesapeake Bay striped bass, (Morone saxatilis) Walbaum, based on unpublished stomach content data from 916 fish collected between 1955 and 1959 was described. The diet in the late 1950s, quantified using an index of relative importance (IRI), was dominated by Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus Latrobe. Atlantic menhaden (66%) and bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli Valenciennes, (19%) had the highest IRI value overall. Small striped bass ( <600 mm total length) ate predominantly bay anchovy (IRI = 67%). Large striped bass (??? 600 mm total length) ate predominantly Atlantic menhaden (IRI = 93%). Since 1990 small striped bass rely more on invertebrate prey and larger fish now rely more on small pelagic prey, such as bay anchovy and 0-age clupeids. Analysis of historical data using current techniques provided a valuable tool for comparison to help in understanding the current striped bass predator-prey relationship in Chesapeake Bay.

  2. New records of species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off New Caledonia, including P. cephalopholidis sp. n. from Cephalopholis sonnerati (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-09-01

    Two different species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from marine perciform fishes, the tomato hind Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes) (Serranidae) and the painted sweetlips Diagramma pictum (Thunberg) (Haemulidae), from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Nematodes (only males) from the gonad of C. sonnerati represent a new taxon, P. cephalopholidis sp. n., which is mainly characterized by almost equally long spicules (length 186-228 μm), the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip, and the structure of the caudal end. The nematodes (only gravid females) from abdominal tissues of D. pictum may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra cephalopholidis is the sixth nominal species of this genus recorded from fishes off New Caledonia and the thirteenth species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Serranidae.

  3. Sunagocia omanensis, a new flathead fish (Scorpaeniformes, Platycephalidae) from the Western Indian Ocean, with comments on the distribution of Sunagocia carbuncular.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Leslie W; Randall, John E

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Platycephalidae having a weak development of sensory tubules on the cheek is placed in the genus Sunagocia Imamura. The description is based on two specimens taken at the Kuria Muria Ids., Oman. The new species may be distinguished from its congeners by having three preocular spines, ethmoid spines forming a rosette on mid-line with 5-6 tips coming from a common base, and a body coloration of tan with dark saddles reaching to lower sides. It is also characterized by having numerous small serrations along the supraorbital and suborbital ridges and sixgill rakers. A section concerning the status and range of Sunagocia carbuncula Valenciennes in the western Indian Ocean is also included. A key separating the species of Sunagocia appears below.

  4. How to catch a falling fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marantan, Andrew; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2015-03-01

    A variety of fish engage in complex hunting behaviors involving catching airborne prey falling to the surface of the water. In principle this requires that the fish develop internal models describing both the falling prey and its own motion relative to that prey. However learning such models is complicated by the fact that the fish must also account for noise in optical measurements and the refraction occurring at the air/water interface. Inspired by experimental observations, we describe how one such species (Brycon guatemalensis) might feasibly overcome these obstacles and learn a model accurate enough to catch falling fruit. Instead of learning a model for how the fruit falls and a model for how it moves in the water and a model accounting for refraction, we argue that the fish could instead learn one approximate linear model relating a set of measured inputs to a set of measured outputs valid in a limited domain of initial conditions. The fish could then make its control decisions based on the outcome predicted by this combined linear model. We also discuss how the fish can leverage neural transformations of raw data to learn a model with a larger domain of validity and yet more sensitive to noise due to nontrivial Jacobians arising from the neural transformations.

  5. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, Tilden R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  6. Helminth parasites of Epinephelus morio (Pisces: Serranidae) of the Yucatan Peninsula, southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Vidal-Martínez, V M; Vargas-Vázquez, J; Vivas-Rodríguez, C; González-Solís, D; Mendoza-Franco, E; Simá-Alvarez, R; Güemez-Ricalde, J

    1997-01-01

    The present paper comprises a systematic survey of helminths from 202 red groupers, Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Serranidae), the most important commercial marine fish in the region, collected from ten localities off the Yucatan Peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico during 1994-1996; two more helminth species were recorded from E. morio earlier. Thirty species of helminths were found: Monogenea 1, Cestoda 3, Trematoda 17, Nematoda 8, Acanthocephala 1. Of them, 15 species were adults, whereas 15 species were larval stages parasitizing piscivorous elasmobranch and teleostean fishes, birds and marine mammals as adults. A new didymozoid trematode, Allonematobothrium yucatanense sp. n., is described from the fins of this host. Most findings represent new host- and geographical records. Philometra margolisi, a nematode parasitizing the gonads, is undoubtedly the most important parasite affecting the reproduction of the host, endangering E. morio in aquaculture. Larval anisakid nematodes (Anisakis, Pseudoterranova, Hysterothylacium) recorded from the red grouper in the region of the southern Gulf of Mexico are important from the viewpoint of public health. PMID:9437838

  7. A new record of blue-spotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus from Chinese coastal waters documented from morphology and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Liu, Jing; Wu, Renxie

    2015-03-01

    A new record of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes, 1830), collected from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea in April 2013, was documented based on morphology and cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene barcoding analyses. It can be distinguished by a combination of the following characteristics: head scaled to above eyes; cheeks with 5 or 6 rows of scales; lateral line scales 51-52; 5 rows of scales above the lateral line; 4 and 6 cuspidate teeth in front of upper and lower jaws, respectively, followed by 2 rows of blunter teeth posteriorly; gill rakers on first arch 12 to 15; D XI-XII +9-11; A III +8-9; the first two dorsal spines very short, the third to fifth extended, filamentous in the young; the first pelvic ray filamentous; silvery pink with dark blue spots on back and sides; caudal fin pinkish; other fins bluish or pinkish; the blue spots generally disappear in large specimens. The present report of P. caeruleostictus suggests that its distribution in Chinese coastal waters may be attributed to human effort, since this species is unlikely to have expanded naturally from the eastern Atlantic to the South China Sea, with no other records from the Indian or Pacific Oceans. We recommend that a precautionary approach should be adopted for the management of P. caeruleostictus.

  8. Micronucleus test in fishes as indicators of environmental quality in subestuaries of the Río de la Plata (Uruguay).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; Villar, Silvia; Acuña Plavan, Alicia

    2015-02-28

    Genotoxic agents may exert damage that may be active through following generations. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses outside the main cell nucleus, indicators of chromosomal damage. This study applied micronuclei test to evaluate genetic damage of fish in three breeding and nursery areas of commercially important fishes exposed to differing degrees of anthropogenic impact: Pando, Solís Chico and Solís Grande sub-estuaries. The micronuclei test revealed differences in the presence and concentrations of genotoxic components in these sub-estuaries. Fish in the urban and industrialized Pando sub-estuary presented the highest percentages of micronuclei. The absence of seasonal changes in micronuclei in Pando fish could be explained by physical characteristics of the sub-estuary and by regional weather conditions. Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835) was the species most susceptible to genotoxic components. It is recommended the use of a battery of biomarkers to better explain the health of organisms in that important nursery area. PMID:25455785

  9. Fish mortality and physicochemistry in a managed floodplain wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargent, J.C.; Galat, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Patterns of fish mortality and associated physicochemical factors were studied during late spring in a managed wetland canal along the lower Missouri River, Missouri. Mean dawn dissolved oxygen was lower and mean un-ionized ammonia and turbidity were higher during the fish kill than before or after the kill, or than was observed in a nearby wetland canal where no fish kill occurred. Dissolved oxygen at dawn and un-ionized ammonia concentrations were at critically low and high levels respectively, so that both likely contributed to the fish mortality. Timing and magnitude of observed carcasses suggested that Ameiurus melas Rafinesques was the most tolerant species for the sizes observed compared to Ictiobus cyprinellus Valenciennes, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, Cyprinus carpio Linneaus, and Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque. Decreasing mean lengths of fish carcasses during the fish kill for C. carpio, L. cyanellus, and A. melas, indicate that smaller fishes may have been more tolerant of harsh environmental conditions than larger individuals of the same species. Differential mortalities among species and sizes during drawdowns in actively managed wetland pools may have intentional and unintentional ramifications on wetland and riverine fish community structure, fish-avian interactions, and implementing an ecosystem management perspective to restoring more naturalized river floodplain wetland functions. Late summer and early autumn draining of managed wetlands might be used to benefit a wider diversity of wildlife and fishes.

  10. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-01-01

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal.  PMID:24943153

  11. Factors controlling the early stages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia epizootics: Low exposure levels, virus amplification and fish-to-fish transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Hart, L.M.; Roon, S.R.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, Genogroup IVa (VHSV), was highly infectious to Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes), even at exposure doses occurring below the threshold of sensitivity for a standard viral plaque assay; however, further progression of the disease to a population-level epizootic required viral amplification and effective fish-to-fish transmission. Among groups of herring injected with VHSV, the prevalence of infection was dose-dependent, ranging from 100%, 75% and 38% after exposure to 19, 0.7 and 0.07 plaque-forming units (PFU)/fish, respectively. Among Pacific herring exposed to waterborne VHSV (140PFUmL-1), the prevalence of infection, geometric mean viral tissue titre and cumulative mortality were greater among cohabitated herring than among cohorts that were held in individual aquaria, where fish-to-fish transmission was prevented. Fish-to-fish transmission among cohabitated herring probably occurred via exposure to shed virus which peaked at 680PFUmL-1; shed virus was not detected in the tank water from any isolated individuals. The results provide insights into mechanisms that initiate epizootic cascades in populations of wild herring and have implications for the design of VHSV surveys in wild fish populations. ?? Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  13. Inability to demonstrate fish-to-fish transmission of Ichthyophonus from laboratory infected Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to naïve conspecifics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; Friedman, C.S.; Hershberger, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Ichthyophonus is enzootic in many marine fish populations of the northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Forage fishes are a likely source of infection for higher trophic level predators; however, the processes that maintain Ichthyophonus in forage fish populations (primarily clupeids) are not well understood. Lack of an identified intermediate host has led to the convenient hypothesis that the parasite can be maintained within populations of schooling fishes by waterborne fish-to-fish transmission. To test this hypothesis we established Ichthyophonus infections in Age-1 and young-of-the-year (YOY) Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) via intraperitoneal (IP) injection and cohabitated these donors with naïve conspecifics (sentinels) in the laboratory. IP injections established infection in 75 to 84% of donor herring, and this exposure led to clinical disease and mortality in the YOY cohort. However, after cohabitation for 113 d no infections were detected in naïve sentinels. These data do not preclude the possibility of fish-to-fish transmission, but they do suggest that other transmission processes are necessary to maintain Ichthyophonus in wild Pacific herring populations.

  14. Can the name Mugil cephalus (Pisces: Mugilidae) be used for the species occurring in the north western Atlantic?

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Almanzar, Eloísa; Simons, James; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor; Chiappa-Carrara, Xavier; Ibáñez, Ana L

    2016-05-09

    Menezes et al. (2010) show that Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 is different from Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, the latter being the mullet found along the Atlantic coast of South America. They also suggest that individuals identified as M. cephalus from the northwest Atlantic could represent a population of M. liza in this region, since they doubt the presence of M. cephalus in waters colder than the ones of the West Indies. In order to clarify the presence of M. cephalus in the northwest Atlantic, this study compares meristic and morphometric measurements of M. cephalus and M. liza from the Gulf of Mexico with those obtained by Menezes et al. (2010) for M. liza from South America and for M. cephalus in the Mediterranean Sea. Results show that there are differences in both morphometric and meristic data between the two species. The morphometric measure that differentiates these species is the distance from the snout to the dorsal fin, which is positioned backwards in M. liza compared with M. cephalus. The body width is consistently greater in M. cephalus than M. liza. The meristic character that discriminates between both species is the number of scales in the longitudinal series that, in M. cephalus, ranges from 38 to 43 while in M. liza between 32 to 39. The information presented in this work confirms the presence of M. cephalus in the Gulf of Mexico and the sympatric presence of M. liza is established, even if its abundance is quite low.

  15. Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Diplosentidae) from freshwater catfishes (Siluriformes) in the Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Olga; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. is described from the catfishes Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host) and Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes) in the River Amazon basin, Peru. The new species belongs to the subfamily Diplosentinae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 of the family Diplosentidae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 because of its possession of an unarmed trunk, a cylindrical proboscis, proboscis hooks arranged in longitudinal rows and two tubular cement glands of the same length in males. Sharpilosentis n. g. differs from the other genera of the Diplosentidae in the morphology of the reproductive system: males have a large muscular penis covered with small tubercles and the vulva of females is devoid of muscular sphincters and the cephalic ganglion is located between the second and third part of the proboscis receptacle. In addition, proboscis hooks are of three types: large hooks with simple roots in the anterior part of the proboscis, transitional 6th hook in one from two adjacent rows with bifurcated root in the distal part and small hooks without roots in the posterior part of the proboscis. A partial sequence for the mitochondrial cox1 gene is provided for this new taxon. The taxonomic composition of the family Diplosentidae is discussed. PMID:25962462

  16. Stocking density and Piscirickettsia salmonis infection effect on Patagonian blennie (Eleginops maclovinus, Cuvier 1830) skeletal muscle intermediate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Chacoff, L; Ortíz, E; Oyarzún, R; Martínez, D; Saavedra, E; Sá, R; Olavarría, V; Nualart, D; Yáñez, A; Bertrán, C; Mancera, J M

    2014-12-01

    The need to expand aquaculture production has led to other fish to be considered as potential species for culture, such as the sub-Antarctic notothenioid Eleginops maclovinus (Valenciennes, 1830). The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of density and pathogen infection by protein extract of Piscirickettsia salmonis on skeletal muscle metabolism. In a first experiment, specimens were submitted to three different stocking densities: (1) 3.1 kg m(-3), (2) 15 kg m(-3) and (3) 60 kg m(-3), for a period of 10 days. In a second experiment, metabolic changes caused by an infection of P. salmonis protein extract (a single injection of 0.5 μL P. salmonis protein extract g body weight(-1) was inoculated in the fish) and its combined effect with stocking density was assessed during a period of 10 days. This study concludes that stress caused by high stocking density led to the reorganization of some metabolic routes to fulfill skeletal muscle energy needs. Furthermore, infection response by pathogen P. salmonis differed when stocking density increased, suggesting an increase of energy needs with density in skeletal muscle of infected fish.

  17. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species.

  18. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae. PMID:25236267

  19. Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger, 1870) (Pisces: Serranidae), a valid species of grouper endemic to the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

    PubMed

    Randall, John E; Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Krupp, Friedhelm; Rose, Jean Michel; Fricke, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The grouper Epinephelus geoffioyi (Klunzinger), type locality Red Sea, previously regarded as a synonym of E. chlorostigma (Valenciennes) is recognized as a valid species. It is differentiated from E. chlorostigma by having 25-29 (modally 27) gill rakers vs. 23-26 (modally 24), a more angular anal fin, the dark spots on the abdomen more widely separated, and lacking a clear white margin posteriorly on the caudal fin. The missing holotype of E. geoffroyi was found at the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart (SMNS 233, 191 mm). Epinephelits chlorostigma is wide-ranging from the Gulf of Aden and east coast of Africa to Samoa; it is reported from the depth range of 32-280 m. Epinephelus geoffroyi is presently known only from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden at depths of 3-32 m. Illustrations are provided for three other species of groupers with numerous small dark spots, E. areolatus (Forsskål), E. gabriellae Randall & Heemstra, and E. polylepis Randall & Heemstra, that are, or might be, sympatric with E. geoffroyi. PMID:26287104

  20. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed.

  1. Two New Genera of Fish Blood Flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from Catfishes in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    Cladocaecum tomasscholzi n. gen., n. sp. infects the heart (lumen of ventricle) of driftwood catfish, Ageneiosus inermis Linnaeus, 1766 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from the Nanay River (Amazon River Basin, near Iquitos, Peru). It differs from all other aporocotylid genera by having a highly branched intestine comprising a central cecum that terminates immediately anterior to the ovary and that has numerous laterally directed diverticula. Kritsky platyrhynchi ( Guidelli, Isaac, and Pavanelli, 2002 ) n. gen., n. comb. (= Plehniella p.) is redescribed based on paratypes plus new specimens collected from the body cavity of the type host (porthole shovelnose catfish, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos Valenciennes, 1840) (Pimelodidae) from the nearby Itaya River. Kritsky differs from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 , Plehniella Szidat, 1951 , Nomasanguinicola Truong and Bullard, 2013 , and Cladocaecum by the combination of having a spinous anterior sucker, an intestine comprising 6 asymmetrical ceca, a lanceolate body, a straight vas deferens, an ovary with finger-like lateral projections, a small and spheroid oötype, numerous, minute, spheroid uterine eggs, and separate genital pores. An updated list of hosts, tissues infected, and geographic localities for the catfish blood flukes (9 spp.; 5 genera) is provided. This is the first report of a fish blood fluke infecting a member of Auchenipteridae and first proposal of a new genus of blood fluke (Schistosomatoidea) from South America in 64 yr. It brings the total number of Amazonian fish blood flukes to a mere 4 species. PMID:26859799

  2. Does Alella Leigh-Sharpe, 1925 (Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) really consist of seven species?

    PubMed

    Dippenaar, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Alella Leigh-Sharpe, 1925 (Lernaeopodidae) consists of seven species, namely A. pagelli (Krøyer, 1863), A. canthari (Heller, 1865), A. macrotrachelus (Brian, 1906), A. ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939), A. pterobrachiata (Kabata, 1968), A. tarakihi Hewitt & Blackwell, 1987 and A. gibbosa van Niekerk & Olivier, 1995. Specimens of Alella collected from Rhabdosargus sarba (Forsskål), R. holubi (Steindachner), R. globiceps (Valenciennes) and Acanthopagrus berda (Forsskål) (Sparidae) from South African waters were examined. The specimens from R. sarba are from the same host individuals that A. gibbosa were described. However, comparing the armature of the appendages, no consistent and conclusive differences were found between the examined specimens and the other congeners. Additionally, a comparison of the morphology of the appendages and their armature of the examined specimens and those described and illustrated for the known species also revealed limited differences which may be due to regional or intraspecific variation and inconsistent observations rather than distinguishing characteristics of different species. Therefore it is proposed that Alella only has one valid species namely A. pagelli.

  3. Population Structure of the Rockpool Blenny Entomacrodus vomerinus Shows Source-Sink Dynamics among Ecoregions in the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Sergio M. Q.; Mendes, Liana F.; Torres, Rodrigo A.; Pereira, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    The Tropical Southwestern Atlantic is characterized by prominent ecosystems with large-scale oceanographic complexity. Yet, the evolutionary processes underlying genetic differentiation and connectivity in this region remain largely unknown. Entomacrodus vomerinus (Valenciennes, 1836) is a demersal fish with planktonic larvae endemic to this marine province, inhabiting shallow tidal pools in continental and oceanic reef environments. We evaluated the population structure, genetic diversity and gene flow of E. vomerinus using mitochondrial data (CYTB and COI) and nuclear (rhodopsin, RHO) DNA sequences. We sampled a total of 85 individuals, comprising 46 from three oceanic archipelagos with varying distance from the coast (São Pedro and São Paulo—SS, Fernando de Noronha—FE and Rocas Atoll—RA) and 39 from two localities in northeastern Brazilian coast (Rio Grande do Norte—RN and Bahia—BA). Multilocus analysis revealed the presence of three Evolutionarily Significant Units—ESUs (SS, FE+RA, and RN+BA), which are in accordance with distinct marine ecoregions. Coalescent analyses showed that the central ESU has a larger effective population size than the other two, suggesting strong asymmetries in the genetic diversity across the species range. Moreover, they showed that gene flow is highly asymmetric, suggesting a source-sink dynamics from the central ESU into the remaining ones, in agreement with oceanic currents. Together, these results provide insights in the evolutionary mechanisms facilitating diversification in this marine province. PMID:27309356

  4. Redescriptions and new records of species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha).

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Redescriptions are provided for five incompletely described species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890: Otobothrium alexanderi Palm, 2004 from two species of carcharhinid sharks, Carcharhinus cautus (Whitley) and C. melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard) at three localities off northern Australia; O. australe Palm, 2004 based on material collected from the type-host and type-locality and from six additional myliobatid and carcharhinid host species off Western Australia, the Northern Territory and northern Queensland; O. insigne Linton, 1905 from Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson) and Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes) in the Atlantic Ocean off Senegal and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; O. mugilis Hiscock, 1954, previously known only from larval stages, based on adults from five sphyrnid and carcharhinid definitive host species off northern Australia and Malaysian Borneo; and O. penetrans Linton, 1907 from material collected from two species of hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) in the Red Sea off Jordan and the Indian Ocean off Western Australia. Additional host and locality records are added for the type-species, O. crenacolle Linton, 1890 and for O. carcharidis (Shipley & Hornell, 1906). Two descriptions are provided for Otobothrium spp. treated here as Otobothrium sp. 1 from C. melanopterus off northern Australia and Otobothrium sp. 2 from Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. PMID:23263940

  5. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, P K; Gregg, J L; Hart, L M; Moffitt, S; Brenner, R; Stick, K; Coonradt, E; Otis, E O; Vollenweider, J J; Garver, K A; Lovy, J; Meyers, T R

    2016-04-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20-32% in 2007 to 0-3% during 2009-13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host-pathogen relationship.

  6. Four species of digeneans, including Allocreadium patagonicum sp. n. (Allocreadiidae), from freshwater fishes of Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, T; Urawa, S; Coria, C O

    2000-01-01

    Four species of adult digeneans are reported from freshwater fishes of two lakes in Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Allocreadium patagonicum sp. n. (Allocreadiidae) is described from the intestine of Percichthys colhuapiensis MacDonagh and Percichthys trucha (Cuvier et Valenciennes) (Percichthyidae) from Lago Aluminé. Three species redescribed are: Acanthostomoides apophalliformis Szidat, 1956 (Acanthostomidae) from the intestine of P. colhuapiensis and P. trucha from Lago Aluminé and of Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) (Salmonidae) from Lago Huechulafquén; Deropegus patagonicus (Szidat, 1956) comb. n. (= Genarches patagonicus Szidat, 1956) (Derogenidae) from the stomach of P. colhuapiensis, P. trucha, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) (Salmonidae) and Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) (Salmonidae) from Lago Aluminé and of S. trutta from Lago Huechulafquén; and Austrocreadium papilliferum Szidat, 1956 from the intestine of P. trucha from Lago Aluminé. The genus Polylekithum Arnold, 1934 is considered a synonym of the genus Allocreadium Looss, 1900. The genus Austrocreadium Szidat, 1956 is removed to the family Homalometridae.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in British Columbia, Canada, reveals transmission from wild to farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Garver, Kyle A; Traxler, Garth S; Hawley, Laura M; Richard, Jon; Ross, Jay P; Lovy, Jan

    2013-05-27

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) is a fish pathogen found throughout the Northern Hemisphere and is capable of infecting and causing mortality in numerous marine and freshwater hosts. In the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada, the virus has been detected for 20 yr with many occurrences of mass mortalities among populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes) and sardine Sardinops sagax as well as detections among cultured Atlantic Salmo salar and Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha salmon. We compared nucleotide sequence of the full glycoprotein (G) gene coding region (1524 nt) of 63 VHSV isolates sampled during its recorded presence from 1993 to 2011 from 6 species and a total of 29 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVa within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Of the 63 virus isolates, there were 42 unique sequences, each of which was ephemeral, being repeatedly detected at most only 1 yr after its initial detection. Multiple sequence types were revealed during single viral outbreak events, and genetic heterogeneity was observed within isolates from individual fish. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis revealed a close genetic linkage between VHSV isolates obtained from pelagic finfish species and farmed salmonids, providing evidence for virus transmission from wild to farmed fish.

  8. Population Structure of the Rockpool Blenny Entomacrodus vomerinus Shows Source-Sink Dynamics among Ecoregions in the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jessika M M; Lima, Sergio M Q; Mendes, Liana F; Torres, Rodrigo A; Pereira, Ricardo J; Mott, Tamí

    2016-01-01

    The Tropical Southwestern Atlantic is characterized by prominent ecosystems with large-scale oceanographic complexity. Yet, the evolutionary processes underlying genetic differentiation and connectivity in this region remain largely unknown. Entomacrodus vomerinus (Valenciennes, 1836) is a demersal fish with planktonic larvae endemic to this marine province, inhabiting shallow tidal pools in continental and oceanic reef environments. We evaluated the population structure, genetic diversity and gene flow of E. vomerinus using mitochondrial data (CYTB and COI) and nuclear (rhodopsin, RHO) DNA sequences. We sampled a total of 85 individuals, comprising 46 from three oceanic archipelagos with varying distance from the coast (São Pedro and São Paulo-SS, Fernando de Noronha-FE and Rocas Atoll-RA) and 39 from two localities in northeastern Brazilian coast (Rio Grande do Norte-RN and Bahia-BA). Multilocus analysis revealed the presence of three Evolutionarily Significant Units-ESUs (SS, FE+RA, and RN+BA), which are in accordance with distinct marine ecoregions. Coalescent analyses showed that the central ESU has a larger effective population size than the other two, suggesting strong asymmetries in the genetic diversity across the species range. Moreover, they showed that gene flow is highly asymmetric, suggesting a source-sink dynamics from the central ESU into the remaining ones, in agreement with oceanic currents. Together, these results provide insights in the evolutionary mechanisms facilitating diversification in this marine province.

  9. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene).

  10. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  11. Description of a new species of rabbitfish (Perciformes: Siganidae) from southern India, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Woodland, David J; Anderson, R Charles

    2014-05-30

    Siganus insomnis sp. nov. is described from the Maldives, Sri Lanka and southern India. It most closely resembles S. lineatus (Valenciennes) from the Western Pacific but differs in coloration, principally in that most if not all of the bronze bands on its mid and upper sides continue horizontally and unbroken through to the nape and opercular slit. By contrast, in S. lineatus, typically the anterior area below the spinous dorsal fin down to the mid-sides is irregularly marked with golden bronze spots, commas, or a maze of contorted lines. S. guttatus (Bloch) is the third member of this group of sibling species; its sides are covered with orange to bronze-gold spots. It is distributed throughout S.E. Asia, i.e., it occupies a geographic position between the areas inhabited by S. lineatus and S. insomnis. Thus the gene pools of S. lineatus and S. insomnis are quarantined from one another by distance and the intervening presence of S. guttatus in S.E. Asia. The geographical separation of the populations of S. lineatus and S. insomnis from one another is reinforced by the absence of suitable, coralline habitats for these species in the western half of the Bay of Bengal. 

  12. The sea louse Lepeophtheirus acutus (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) as a pathogen of aquarium-held elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Kik, M J L; Janse, M; Benz, G W

    2011-10-01

    Lepeophtheirus acutus Heegaard, 1943 (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda), was collected from or observed on four of six elasmobranch species held at Burgers' Zoo (Arnhem, The Netherlands). Circumstantial evidence suggested that a zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum (Hermann), from the wild carried the infection into the facility, where copepods reproduced and colonized additional hosts. Copepods typically attached on and about the eyes, in the mouth and occasionally about the cloaca and on the claspers. Severe ocular lesions were associated with infections on zebra sharks, a grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker), whitetip reef sharks, Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell), and giant shovelnose ray, Rhinobatos typus Bennett, while blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard), and blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes), living in infested aquaria showed no sign of infection. Water treatments using trichlorfon were considered primarily responsible for the eradication of copepods from hosts and infested aquaria. This case is the first report of a copepod infection being closely associated with disease and death of an aquarium-held elasmobranch. Given its ability to infect a wide variety of elasmobranchs and promote life-threatening lesions on some hosts, L. acutus should be considered a dangerous pathogen of captive elasmobranchs. PMID:21916904

  13. Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Diplosentidae) from freshwater catfishes (Siluriformes) in the Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Olga; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. is described from the catfishes Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host) and Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes) in the River Amazon basin, Peru. The new species belongs to the subfamily Diplosentinae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 of the family Diplosentidae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 because of its possession of an unarmed trunk, a cylindrical proboscis, proboscis hooks arranged in longitudinal rows and two tubular cement glands of the same length in males. Sharpilosentis n. g. differs from the other genera of the Diplosentidae in the morphology of the reproductive system: males have a large muscular penis covered with small tubercles and the vulva of females is devoid of muscular sphincters and the cephalic ganglion is located between the second and third part of the proboscis receptacle. In addition, proboscis hooks are of three types: large hooks with simple roots in the anterior part of the proboscis, transitional 6th hook in one from two adjacent rows with bifurcated root in the distal part and small hooks without roots in the posterior part of the proboscis. A partial sequence for the mitochondrial cox1 gene is provided for this new taxon. The taxonomic composition of the family Diplosentidae is discussed.

  14. Modeling sensitive parrotfish (Labridae: Scarini) habitats along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Roos, Natalia C; Carvalho, Adriana R; Lopes, Priscila F M; Pennino, M Grazia

    2015-09-01

    In coral reef environments, there is an increasing concern over parrotfish (Labridae: Scarini) due to their rising exploitation by commercial small-scale fisheries, which is leading to significant changes in the reefs' community structure. Three species, Scarus trispinosus (Valenciennes, 1840), Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz, 1831) and Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner, 1878), currently labeled as threatened, have been intensively targeted in Brazil, mostly on the northeastern coast. Despite their economic importance, ecological interest and worrisome conservation status, not much is known about which variables determine their occurrence. In this study, we adopted a hierarchical Bayesian spatial-temporal approach to map the distribution of these three species along the Brazilian coast, using landing data from three different gears (gillnets, spear guns, and handlines) and environmental variables (bathymetry, shore distance, seabed slope, Sea Surface Temperature and Net Primary Productivity). Our results identify sensitive habitats for parrotfish along the Brazilian coast that would be more suitable to the implementation of spatial-temporal closure measures, which along with the social component fishers could benefit the management and conservation of these species.

  15. Ensemble forecasting of potential habitat for three invasive fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poulos, Helen M.; Chernoff, Barry; Fuller, Pam L.; Butman, David

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species pose major ecological and economic threats to aquatic ecosystems worldwide via displacement, predation, or hybridization with native species and the alteration of aquatic habitats and hydrologic cycles. Modeling the habitat suitability of alien aquatic species through spatially explicit mapping is an increasingly important risk assessment tool. Habitat modeling also facilitates identification of key environmental variables influencing invasive species distributions. We compared four modeling methods to predict the potential continental United States distributions of northern snakehead Channa argus (Cantor, 1842), round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814), and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) using maximum entropy (Maxent), the genetic algorithm for rule set production (GARP), DOMAIN, and support vector machines (SVM). We used inventory records from the USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database and a geographic information system of 20 climatic and environmental variables to generate individual and ensemble distribution maps for each species. The ensemble maps from our study performed as well as or better than all of the individual models except Maxent. The ensemble and Maxent models produced significantly higher accuracy individual maps than GARP, one-class SVMs, or DOMAIN. The key environmental predictor variables in the individual models were consistent with the tolerances of each species. Results from this study provide insights into which locations and environmental conditions may promote the future spread of invasive fish in the US.

  16. Two new species of Cryptocephalum n. gen. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the cephalic lateral line of Percichthys trucha (Perciformes: Percichthyidae) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vega, Rocío M; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Brugni, Norma L

    2011-04-01

    Two new species of Monogenoidea were found parasitizing the cephalic lateral line canals of Percichthys trucha (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Percichthyidae). These species are described as members of a newly proposed genus of Dactylogyridae. Cryptocephalum n. gen. is characterized by the site of infection and the combination of the several features: ventral and dorsal anchor/bar complexes, anchors with strongly elongated shaft and recurved point, shaft and point of dorsal anchors protruding laterally from haptor, hooks with 2 subunits and with pair 5 smaller than the others; gonads overlapping; coiled male copulatory organ with counterclockwise rings, accessory piece formed by 2 distinct parts, and a tubular, sclerotized ventral vagina. C ryptocephalum petreum n. sp. is characterized by having both anchor pairs protruding laterally from haptor, male copulatory organ with a coil of 2-1/2 rings, accessory piece tweezers-shaped, and sclerotized vaginal vestibule. Cryptocephalum spiralis n. sp. has ventral anchors protruding ventrally and dorsal ones protruding laterally, male copulatory organ with a coil of 1-1/2 rings, the antero-dorsal part of the accessory piece saddle-shaped, vaginal vestibule not present, and coiled vagina. This is the first record of Dactylogyridae species parasitizing the cephalic lateral line of fishes. PMID:21506871

  17. The sea louse Lepeophtheirus acutus (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) as a pathogen of aquarium-held elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Kik, M J L; Janse, M; Benz, G W

    2011-10-01

    Lepeophtheirus acutus Heegaard, 1943 (Caligidae, Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda), was collected from or observed on four of six elasmobranch species held at Burgers' Zoo (Arnhem, The Netherlands). Circumstantial evidence suggested that a zebra shark, Stegostoma fasciatum (Hermann), from the wild carried the infection into the facility, where copepods reproduced and colonized additional hosts. Copepods typically attached on and about the eyes, in the mouth and occasionally about the cloaca and on the claspers. Severe ocular lesions were associated with infections on zebra sharks, a grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos (Bleeker), whitetip reef sharks, Triaenodon obesus (Rüppell), and giant shovelnose ray, Rhinobatos typus Bennett, while blacktip reef sharks, Carcharhinus melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard), and blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus (Valenciennes), living in infested aquaria showed no sign of infection. Water treatments using trichlorfon were considered primarily responsible for the eradication of copepods from hosts and infested aquaria. This case is the first report of a copepod infection being closely associated with disease and death of an aquarium-held elasmobranch. Given its ability to infect a wide variety of elasmobranchs and promote life-threatening lesions on some hosts, L. acutus should be considered a dangerous pathogen of captive elasmobranchs.

  18. Reproduction and mating behavior of the atlantic flyingfish, Cheilopogon melanurus (Exocoetidae), off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, T.L.; Ross, S.W.; Necaise, Ann Marie; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The reproductive biology of Cheilopogon melanurus (Valenciennes, 1847) was examined off North Carolina during the summers of 1991-1992 and 1999-2003. Specimens were collected using a small mesh neuston net and dip nets. A spawning event, the first observation of mating behavior for this species, was recorded off Cape Fear, North Carolina, on 19 August 2003. It was considered to be a spawning event due to: 1) unusual coloration of both sexes, 2) unusual swimming behavior of both sexes, and 3) ready release of gametes by both sexes upon capture. The spawning event occurred in the presence of small clumps of floating Sargassum, but the fish did not appear to use the algae. Over all collections, female gonadosomatic indices were highest in June and July, but mature females were collected each month (June, July, and August). The overall female to male sex ratio did not vary significantly from 1:1. Number of ova increased with increasing fish size, but the relationship was not strong. Our data indicate a spawning season of at least June through August off North Carolina due to high female gonadosomatic indices, large egg diameters, presence of egg filaments, presence of spent females in July and August, and presence of small juveniles (??? 25 mm) in July and August. This is the first report of single pair spawning for this family; other species reportedly spawn in large aggregations. ?? 2005 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science of the University of Miami.

  19. Can the name Mugil cephalus (Pisces: Mugilidae) be used for the species occurring in the north western Atlantic?

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Almanzar, Eloísa; Simons, James; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor; Chiappa-Carrara, Xavier; Ibáñez, Ana L

    2016-01-01

    Menezes et al. (2010) show that Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 is different from Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, the latter being the mullet found along the Atlantic coast of South America. They also suggest that individuals identified as M. cephalus from the northwest Atlantic could represent a population of M. liza in this region, since they doubt the presence of M. cephalus in waters colder than the ones of the West Indies. In order to clarify the presence of M. cephalus in the northwest Atlantic, this study compares meristic and morphometric measurements of M. cephalus and M. liza from the Gulf of Mexico with those obtained by Menezes et al. (2010) for M. liza from South America and for M. cephalus in the Mediterranean Sea. Results show that there are differences in both morphometric and meristic data between the two species. The morphometric measure that differentiates these species is the distance from the snout to the dorsal fin, which is positioned backwards in M. liza compared with M. cephalus. The body width is consistently greater in M. cephalus than M. liza. The meristic character that discriminates between both species is the number of scales in the longitudinal series that, in M. cephalus, ranges from 38 to 43 while in M. liza between 32 to 39. The information presented in this work confirms the presence of M. cephalus in the Gulf of Mexico and the sympatric presence of M. liza is established, even if its abundance is quite low. PMID:27394872

  20. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene). PMID:25862032

  1. Population Structure of the Rockpool Blenny Entomacrodus vomerinus Shows Source-Sink Dynamics among Ecoregions in the Tropical Southwestern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jessika M M; Lima, Sergio M Q; Mendes, Liana F; Torres, Rodrigo A; Pereira, Ricardo J; Mott, Tamí

    2016-01-01

    The Tropical Southwestern Atlantic is characterized by prominent ecosystems with large-scale oceanographic complexity. Yet, the evolutionary processes underlying genetic differentiation and connectivity in this region remain largely unknown. Entomacrodus vomerinus (Valenciennes, 1836) is a demersal fish with planktonic larvae endemic to this marine province, inhabiting shallow tidal pools in continental and oceanic reef environments. We evaluated the population structure, genetic diversity and gene flow of E. vomerinus using mitochondrial data (CYTB and COI) and nuclear (rhodopsin, RHO) DNA sequences. We sampled a total of 85 individuals, comprising 46 from three oceanic archipelagos with varying distance from the coast (São Pedro and São Paulo-SS, Fernando de Noronha-FE and Rocas Atoll-RA) and 39 from two localities in northeastern Brazilian coast (Rio Grande do Norte-RN and Bahia-BA). Multilocus analysis revealed the presence of three Evolutionarily Significant Units-ESUs (SS, FE+RA, and RN+BA), which are in accordance with distinct marine ecoregions. Coalescent analyses showed that the central ESU has a larger effective population size than the other two, suggesting strong asymmetries in the genetic diversity across the species range. Moreover, they showed that gene flow is highly asymmetric, suggesting a source-sink dynamics from the central ESU into the remaining ones, in agreement with oceanic currents. Together, these results provide insights in the evolutionary mechanisms facilitating diversification in this marine province. PMID:27309356

  2. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-01-01

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct. PMID:27394598

  3. Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of the genus Dichelyne Jägerskiöld, 1902 (Ascaridida: Cucullanidae) from marine perciform fishes in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2014-10-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Dichelyne) breviculus n. sp., collected from the intestine of the goatee croaker Dendrophysa russelii (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Sciaenidae), the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina (Bloch & Schneider) and the tropical sand goby Acentrogobius caninus (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in the South China Sea, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the size of body (2.16-2.96 mm in male), the position of the excretory pore and deirids, the length of the spicules (0.90-1.32 mm, representing 32.4-51.9% of body length), the arrangement of the caudal papillae and the morphology of the tail. In addition, in order to primarily assess the validity of the new species genetically, the specimens of D. breviculus n. sp. collected from the three different hosts were also characterised using molecular methods by sequencing and analysing ribosomal [small ribosomal subunit (18S rDNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions. The molecular analyses support the validity of the new species based on the morphological observations.

  4. Comparative morphology of the oocyte surface and early development in four characiformes from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Prado, Paula Suzanna; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2015-10-01

    Early development from the egg fertilization to complete resorption of the yolk-sac is a critical period in the life cycle of teleost fish. Knowledge of this process provides essential parameters for aquaculture and identification of spawning sites in the wild. In the present study, a comparative morphological analysis of the oocyte surface as well as early development was performed in four commercially valuable species from the São Francisco River: Brycon orthotaenia, Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus argenteus, and Salminus franciscanus. Stripped oocytes, embryo, and yolk-sac larvae were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology. A set of 10 lectins was used for investigation of lectin-binding pattern in oocytes. In the four species, the outer layer of the zona radiata reacted to most lectins, indicating complex polysaccharides at the oocyte surface while no reactivity was detected in the inner zona radiata and yolk globules. Typical structural arrangements were recognized at the micropylar region by SEM. The four species showed nonadhesive eggs, short embryonic period (18-20 h at 24 ± 1°C), and poorly developed larvae at hatching. At 24 h posthatching (hph), larvae of the four species had neuromasts on the body surface. Rudimentary cement glands for larval attachment were identified on the cephalic region at 24 and 48 hph in B. orthotaenia and S. franciscanus, and following they were in regression. The time for whole yolk resorption varied among species from 48 to 120 hph, occurring earlier in S. franciscanus, followed by B. orthotaenia, P. argenteus, and L. obtusidens. The formation of the digestive tract and the mouth opening indicated initiation of exogenous feeding 24 h before complete resorption of the yolk. Together, our data indicate similarities in the early development among species that may be related to the life cycle strategies and phylogeny. PMID:26194086

  5. Comparative morphology of the oocyte surface and early development in four characiformes from the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Honorato-Sampaio, Kinulpe; Prado, Paula Suzanna; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2015-10-01

    Early development from the egg fertilization to complete resorption of the yolk-sac is a critical period in the life cycle of teleost fish. Knowledge of this process provides essential parameters for aquaculture and identification of spawning sites in the wild. In the present study, a comparative morphological analysis of the oocyte surface as well as early development was performed in four commercially valuable species from the São Francisco River: Brycon orthotaenia, Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus argenteus, and Salminus franciscanus. Stripped oocytes, embryo, and yolk-sac larvae were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology. A set of 10 lectins was used for investigation of lectin-binding pattern in oocytes. In the four species, the outer layer of the zona radiata reacted to most lectins, indicating complex polysaccharides at the oocyte surface while no reactivity was detected in the inner zona radiata and yolk globules. Typical structural arrangements were recognized at the micropylar region by SEM. The four species showed nonadhesive eggs, short embryonic period (18-20 h at 24 ± 1°C), and poorly developed larvae at hatching. At 24 h posthatching (hph), larvae of the four species had neuromasts on the body surface. Rudimentary cement glands for larval attachment were identified on the cephalic region at 24 and 48 hph in B. orthotaenia and S. franciscanus, and following they were in regression. The time for whole yolk resorption varied among species from 48 to 120 hph, occurring earlier in S. franciscanus, followed by B. orthotaenia, P. argenteus, and L. obtusidens. The formation of the digestive tract and the mouth opening indicated initiation of exogenous feeding 24 h before complete resorption of the yolk. Together, our data indicate similarities in the early development among species that may be related to the life cycle strategies and phylogeny.

  6. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J; Nicol, Simon J; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  7. Feeding kinematics and performance of Hawaiian stream gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor: linkage of functional morphology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Maie, Takashi; Wilson, Megan P; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-03-01

    Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide streams into multiple segments. Larvae hatch upstream, are flushed into the ocean, and must climb these waterfalls to reach adult habitats when returning back to freshwater as part of an amphidromous life cycle. Stream surveys and studies of climbing performance show that Lentipes concolor Gill can reach fast-flowing upper stream segments but that Awaous guamensis Valenciennes reaches only slower, lower stream segments. Gut content analyses for these two species indicate considerable overlap in diet, suggesting that feeding kinematics and performance of these two species might be comparable. Alternatively, feeding kinematics and performance of these species might be expected to differ in relation to the different flow regimes in their habitat (feeding in faster stream currents for L. concolor versus in slower currents for A. guamensis). To test these alternative hypotheses, we compared food capturing kinematics and performance during suction feeding behaviors of A. guamensis and L. concolor using morphological data and high-speed video. Lentipes concolor showed both a significantly larger gape angle and faster jaw opening than A. guamensis. Geometric models calculated that despite the inverse relationship of gape size and suction pressure generation, the fast jaw motions of L. concolor allow it to achieve higher pressure differentials than A. guamensis. Such elevated suction pressure would enhance the ability of L. concolor to successfully capture food in the fast stream reaches it typically inhabits. Differences in jaw morphology may contribute to these differences in performance, as the lever ratio for jaw opening is about 10% lower in L. concolor compared with A. guamensis, suiting the jaws of L. concolor better for fast opening. PMID:19107821

  8. Feeding kinematics and performance of Hawaiian stream gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor: linkage of functional morphology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Maie, Takashi; Wilson, Megan P; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-03-01

    Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide streams into multiple segments. Larvae hatch upstream, are flushed into the ocean, and must climb these waterfalls to reach adult habitats when returning back to freshwater as part of an amphidromous life cycle. Stream surveys and studies of climbing performance show that Lentipes concolor Gill can reach fast-flowing upper stream segments but that Awaous guamensis Valenciennes reaches only slower, lower stream segments. Gut content analyses for these two species indicate considerable overlap in diet, suggesting that feeding kinematics and performance of these two species might be comparable. Alternatively, feeding kinematics and performance of these species might be expected to differ in relation to the different flow regimes in their habitat (feeding in faster stream currents for L. concolor versus in slower currents for A. guamensis). To test these alternative hypotheses, we compared food capturing kinematics and performance during suction feeding behaviors of A. guamensis and L. concolor using morphological data and high-speed video. Lentipes concolor showed both a significantly larger gape angle and faster jaw opening than A. guamensis. Geometric models calculated that despite the inverse relationship of gape size and suction pressure generation, the fast jaw motions of L. concolor allow it to achieve higher pressure differentials than A. guamensis. Such elevated suction pressure would enhance the ability of L. concolor to successfully capture food in the fast stream reaches it typically inhabits. Differences in jaw morphology may contribute to these differences in performance, as the lever ratio for jaw opening is about 10% lower in L. concolor compared with A. guamensis, suiting the jaws of L. concolor better for fast opening.

  9. Assessing Gear Modifications Needed to Optimize Yields in a Heavily Exploited, Multi-Species, Seagrass and Coral Reef Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Christina C.; McClanahan, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Effective management is necessary if small-scale fisheries, such as those found in mixed habitats including seagrass and coral reefs, are to continue providing food for many of the poorest communities of the world. Gear-based management, although under represented and under studied, has the potential to be adaptive, address multiple objectives, and be crafted to the socio-economic setting. Management effectiveness in seagrass and coral reef fisheries has generally been evaluated at the scale of the fish community. However, community level indicators can mask species-specific declines that provide significant portions of the fisheries yields and income. Using a unique dataset, containing ten years of species level length frequency catch data from a multi-gear, multi-species seagrass and coral reef fishery in Kenya, we evaluate species specific fishery statuses, compare gear use to gear regulations and estimate the potential needs for further gear restrictions. Despite the high diversity of the fishery, fifteen species represented over 90% of the catch, and only three species represented 60% of the catch. The three most abundant species in the catch, Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède), Siganus sutor (Valenciennes) and Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard) all showed evidence of growth overfishing. Lethrinus lentjan, with an exploitation rate of 0.82, also shows evidence of recruitment overfishing. Current legal but weakly enforced gear restrictions are capable of protecting a significant portion of the catch up to maturity but optimization of yield will require that the current mesh size be increased from 6.3 to 8.8 and 9.2 cm to increase yields of L. lentjan and S. sutor, respectively. Given the difficulties of enforcing mesh size, we recommend that the economic benefits of these larger mesh sizes be communicated and enforced through co-management. This abstract is also available in Kiswahili (Abstract S1). PMID:22574133

  10. Species Distribution Models of Tropical Deep-Sea Snappers

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J.; Nicol, Simon J.; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  11. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.

    PubMed

    Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru. PMID:26373332

  12. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Céline; Williams, Ashley J; Nicol, Simon J; Mellin, Camille; Loeun, Kim L; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT) within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone) predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna). Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and conservation planning, and

  13. Assessing gear modifications needed to optimize yields in a heavily exploited, multi-species, seagrass and coral reef fishery.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Christina C; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    Effective management is necessary if small-scale fisheries, such as those found in mixed habitats including seagrass and coral reefs, are to continue providing food for many of the poorest communities of the world. Gear-based management, although under represented and under studied, has the potential to be adaptive, address multiple objectives, and be crafted to the socio-economic setting. Management effectiveness in seagrass and coral reef fisheries has generally been evaluated at the scale of the fish community. However, community level indicators can mask species-specific declines that provide significant portions of the fisheries yields and income. Using a unique dataset, containing ten years of species level length frequency catch data from a multi-gear, multi-species seagrass and coral reef fishery in Kenya, we evaluate species specific fishery statuses, compare gear use to gear regulations and estimate the potential needs for further gear restrictions. Despite the high diversity of the fishery, fifteen species represented over 90% of the catch, and only three species represented 60% of the catch. The three most abundant species in the catch, Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède), Siganus sutor (Valenciennes) and Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard) all showed evidence of growth overfishing. Lethrinus lentjan, with an exploitation rate of 0.82, also shows evidence of recruitment overfishing. Current legal but weakly enforced gear restrictions are capable of protecting a significant portion of the catch up to maturity but optimization of yield will require that the current mesh size be increased from 6.3 to 8.8 and 9.2 cm to increase yields of L. lentjan and S. sutor, respectively. Given the difficulties of enforcing mesh size, we recommend that the economic benefits of these larger mesh sizes be communicated and enforced through co-management. This abstract is also available in Kiswahili (Abstract S1).

  14. Assessing gear modifications needed to optimize yields in a heavily exploited, multi-species, seagrass and coral reef fishery.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Christina C; McClanahan, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    Effective management is necessary if small-scale fisheries, such as those found in mixed habitats including seagrass and coral reefs, are to continue providing food for many of the poorest communities of the world. Gear-based management, although under represented and under studied, has the potential to be adaptive, address multiple objectives, and be crafted to the socio-economic setting. Management effectiveness in seagrass and coral reef fisheries has generally been evaluated at the scale of the fish community. However, community level indicators can mask species-specific declines that provide significant portions of the fisheries yields and income. Using a unique dataset, containing ten years of species level length frequency catch data from a multi-gear, multi-species seagrass and coral reef fishery in Kenya, we evaluate species specific fishery statuses, compare gear use to gear regulations and estimate the potential needs for further gear restrictions. Despite the high diversity of the fishery, fifteen species represented over 90% of the catch, and only three species represented 60% of the catch. The three most abundant species in the catch, Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepède), Siganus sutor (Valenciennes) and Leptoscarus vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard) all showed evidence of growth overfishing. Lethrinus lentjan, with an exploitation rate of 0.82, also shows evidence of recruitment overfishing. Current legal but weakly enforced gear restrictions are capable of protecting a significant portion of the catch up to maturity but optimization of yield will require that the current mesh size be increased from 6.3 to 8.8 and 9.2 cm to increase yields of L. lentjan and S. sutor, respectively. Given the difficulties of enforcing mesh size, we recommend that the economic benefits of these larger mesh sizes be communicated and enforced through co-management. This abstract is also available in Kiswahili (Abstract S1). PMID:22574133

  15. The unionid (Bivalvia) fauna of the Sipsey River in northwestern Alabama, an aquatic hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullagh, W.H.; Williams, J.D.; McGregor, S.W.; Pierson, J.M.; Lydeard, C.

    2002-01-01

    Recent surveys for unionid bivalves were conducted in the mainstem of the Sipsey River and headwater tributaries (Tombigbee River drainage) during the summer and autumn of 1996-1999. A total of 35 species and 22 genera were found. Museum records from the upper Sipsey, based largely on the efforts of H. H. Smith during 1910-11, raised the total number of recorded unionids in the Sipsey to 42. Smith documented 25 species in the river; however, most of his collections were made in the mid- to upper-Sipsey, which has lower diversity. The three most common recently observed species in descending order of abundance were Quadrula asperata (I. Lea, 1861), Pleurobema decisum (I. Lea, 1831), and Tritogonia verrucosa (Rafinesque, 1820). Federally listed species observed recently include Lampsilis perovalis (Conrad, 1834) (threatened), Medionidus acutissimus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened), P. decisum (endangered), P. perovatum (Conrad, 1834) (endangered), and Potamilus inflatus (I. Lea, 1831) (threatened). Species not observed recently but recorded in prior surveys include Anodontoides radiatus (Conrad, 1834), Arcidens confragosus (Say, 1829), Plectomerus dombeyanus (Valenciennes, 1827), Q. metanevra (Rafinesque, 1820), Q. stapes (I. Lea, 1831) (federally endangered), P. taitianum (I. Lea, 1834) (federally endangered), and Toxolasma parvus (Barnes, 1823). Many, species are known recently or historically by only five or fewer recorded specimens including: A. radiatus, Elliptio arctata (Conrad, 1834), Ligumia recta (Lamarck, 1819), P. taitianum, P. inflatus, Q. aspera (Lea, 1831), Q. metanevra, Q. stapes, T. parvus, Truncilla donaciformis (I. Lea, 1828), Uniomerus tetralasmus (Say, 1831), Utterbackia imbecillis (Say, 1829), A. confragosus, and P. dombeyanus. Unlike the mussel fauna of most Alabama streams, that of the Sipsey River is still relatively intact in terms of species richness despite impacts from mining, silvicultural, and agricultural activities. A concerted effort

  16. A review of the genus Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala:Neoechinorhynchidae) from Australia with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Eight species of Neoechinorhynchus were reported from Australian waters. Neoechinorhynchus vittiformis n. sp. is described from Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw). It can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: long cylindrical trunk without cuticular plaques, globular proboscis, proboscis armature with the anterior circle of hooks larger with simple roots and the middle and posterior hooks the same size and smaller, short neck, lemnisci nearly equal, almost reaching the anterior testis which is more than half the length of the posterior testis. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) bryanti n. sp., described from Liza subviridis (Valenciennes), also with an elongated trunk, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a wider anterior trunk without cuticular plaques, a relatively long conical neck, a subglobular proboscis having anterior hooks with manubria, the hooks becoming gradually smaller posteriorly, the lemnisci not reaching level of testes and the anterior testis being longer than posterior testis. Neoechinorhynchus sp. resembled Neoechinorhynchus aldrichettae Edmonds, 1971 but had a rectangular-shaped proboscis with larger anterior hooks. New host and locality records were presented for N. aldrichettae, Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) agilis (Rudolphi) and Neoechinorhynchus tylosuri Yamaguti, 1939 . No additional specimens of either Neoechinorhynchus ningalooensis Pichelin and Cribb, 2001 or the species inquirenda, Neoechinorhynchus magnus Southwell and Macfie, 1925, were available for study. Of the 8 putative species listed here, 5 (N. [N.] bryanti, N. magnus , N. ningalooensis, N. vittiformis, and Neoechinorhynchus sp.) are endemic to Australian waters. By comparison with the North American fauna the Australian fauna was considered impoverished. The morphological and zoogeographical similarities within the group of 8 long, slender neoechinorhynchid species found in the African, Indo

  17. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  18. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  19. Ion and acid-base balance in three species of Amazonian fish during gradual acidification of extremely soft water.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R W; Wood, C M; Gonzalez, R J; Patrick, M L; Bergman, H L; Narahara, A; Val, A L

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity to acid water was assessed in three species of Amazonian fish that encounter naturally acidic blackwaters to differing degrees in the wild: tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), matrincha (Brycon erythropterum), and tamoatá (Hoplosternum littorale), in decreasing order of occurrence in blackwater. Fish were exposed to a graded reduction in water pH, from pH 6 to 5 to 4 to 3.5, followed by return to pH 6. Fish were exposed to each new pH for 24 h. During these exposures, net transfers of ions (Na+, K+, Cl-, and Ca2+) and acid-base equivalents to and from the external water were used as physiological indicators of acid tolerance. Exposure to pH 5 had a minimal effect on net ion fluxes. Significant net losses of all ions (except Ca2+) were recorded in all three species during the first few hours of exposure to pH 4. However, ion balance was usually restored within 18 h at pH 4. Exposure to pH 3.5 caused even greater ion losses in all three species and proved to be acutely lethal to tamoatá. Matrincha sustained irreversible physiological damage at pH 3.5, as ion fluxes did not recover following return to pH 6 and there was some mortality. Tambaqui suffered the least ionoregulatory disturbances at pH 3.5 and was the only species to make a full recovery on return to pH 6. In all species, there was a tendency for ammonia excretion to increase at low water pH, but even at pH 3.5, there was no significant net uptake of acid from the water. Overall, there was a strong relationship between the magnitude of ionic disturbances and the lethality of exposure to low pH. The relative insensitivity of the ionoregulatory system of tambaqui to low pH indicates that this is a feature of fish native to blackwater systems rather than one that is common to all Amazon fish.

  20. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed

  1. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  2. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences.

    PubMed

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study

  3. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  4. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  5. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    PubMed Central

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  6. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-01-01

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  7. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  8. Structure of the female cephalic end and cuticular ornamentations of Paraphilometroides nemipteri (Nematoda:Philometridae), as revealed by SEM.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek

    2010-11-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination of a paratype specimen (gravid female) of the philometrid nematode Paraphilometroides nemipteri Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, the type species of Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, made it possible to recognise the true structure of the cephalic end and the shape of cuticular ornamentations on the body. In contrast to other philometrid genera, the cephalic end is angular in lateral view and rounded in dorsoventral view; large external cephalic papillae are fused together to form a marked dorsal and a ventral ala, each bent into a curve; six minute internal papillae, including a pair of previously not reported lateral papillae, were found; amphids were indistinct. Cuticular ornamentations (inflations) were found to be transversely elongated. These features, especially the unique cephalic structure, clearly distinguish Paraphilometroides from other philometrids and confirm the validity of this genus. Moravec and Shaharom-Harrison (1989) erected the hitherto monotypic philometrid genus Paraphilometroides Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989 with the type species P. Nemipteri Moravec et Shaharom-Harrison, 1989, described from females found in the fins and operculum of the marine fish (notchedfin threadfin bream) Nemipterusperonii (Valenciennes) from off the South China Sea coast, Malaysia. The male of P. nemipteri remains unknown. The authors distinguished Paraphilometroides from the related genus Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 mainly by the unusual structure of the female cephalic end, which is unique within the family Philometridae (see Moravec 2006). However, P. nemipteri was studied only by light microscopy (LM), whereas some details of the cephalic structure, especially the cephalic papillae of gravid philometrid females are usually difficult to observe by LM due to a various degree of their reduction and atrophy (Moravec 2004); in the past, some philometrid species were even reported to have no

  9. The link between water quality and tidal marshes in a highly impacted estuary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meire, Patrick; Maris, Tom; van Damme, Stefan; Jacobs, Sander; Cox, Tom; Struyf, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Schelde estuary is one of the most heavily impacted estuaries in Europe. During several decades, untreated waste water from large cities (e.g. Brussels, Antwerp, Valenciennes, Lille) and industries was discharged in the river. As a result, the Schelde estuary has the reputation of being one of the most polluted estuaries in Europe. For a long time (approx. 1950 - 1995) all forms of higher life (macro-invertebrates and fish) were absent in the fresh and brackish parts of the estuary. Due to European legislation, a large part of the sewage water is now treated resulting in a significant recovery of water quality in the estuary. However, next to water quality, the estuary also suffered serious habitat losses during the last decades, mostly due to economic development and changing hydrological conditions causing more erosion. Over the last fifteen years, the management of the estuary has changed fundamentally. It is now more and more focused on the restoration of ecosystem services. In this presentation we will document the changes in water quality over the last 50 years and summarize recent work on the role of tidal marshes on water quality within the freshwater part of the Schelde estuary. Our results stress the important of taking into account ecosystem services and habitat restoration for long-term estuarine management. .After decades of high inorganic nutrient concentrations and recurring anoxia and hypoxia, we observed a paradoxical increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations with decreasing nutrient inputs, indicating a regime shift. Our results indicate that the recovery of a hypereutrophied systems towards a classical eutrophied state, needs the reduction of waste loads below certain thresholds. Paradoxically, phytoplankton production was inhibited by high ammonia or low oxygen concentrations. The system state change is accompanied by large fluctuations in oxygen concentrations. The improved water quality resulted in a remarkable recovery of different groups