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Sample records for bt cotton ecological

  1. Tritrophic Effects in Bt Cotton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic insecticidal Bt crops are being increasingly used worldwide, and concern is increasing about resistance and their effects on nontarget organisms. The toxin acts as a weak pesticide and, hence, the effects are subtler than those of chemical biocides. However, the toxin is ever present, but concentrations vary with age of plant and plant…

  2. Potential shortfall of pyramided Bt cotton for resistance management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. In the United States, two-toxin Bt cotton has replaced one-toxin Bt cotton. Althou...

  3. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly. PMID:27509747

  4. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  5. Within-plant distribution of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, F S; Ramalho, F S; Nascimento, J L; Malaquias, J B; Nascimento, A R B; Silva, C A D; Zanuncio, J C

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge of the vertical and horizontal distribution of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on genetically modified cotton plants over time could help optimize decision-making in integrated cotton aphid management programs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of A. gossypii in non-transgenic Bt cotton and transgenic Bt-cotton over time during two cotton seasons by examining plants throughout the seasons. There was no significant interaction between years and cotton cultivar treatments for apterous or alate aphids. Considering year-to-year data, analyses on season-long averages of apterous or alate aphids showed that aphid densities per plant did not differ among years. The number of apterous aphids found per plant for the Bt transgenic cultivar (2427 apterous aphids per plant) was lower than for its isoline (3335 apterous aphids per plant). The number of alate aphids found per plant on the Bt transgenic cultivar (12.28 alate aphids per plant) was lower than for the isoline (140.56 alate aphids per plant). With regard to the vertical distribution of apterous aphids or alate aphids, there were interactions between cotton cultivar, plant age and plant region. We conclude that in comparison to non-Bt cotton (DP 4049), Bt cotton (DP 404 BG (Bollgard)) has significant effects on the vertical, horizontal, spatial and temporal distribution patterns of A. gossypii, showing changes in its distribution behaviour inside the plant as the cotton crop develops. The results of our study are relevant for understanding the vertical and horizontal distribution of A. gossypii on Bt cotton cultivar (DP 404 BG (Bollgard)) and on its isoline (DP 4049), and could be useful in decision-making, implementing controls and determining the timing of population peaks of this insect.

  6. Soil microbial biomass and root growth in Bt and non-Bt cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Broughton, K.; Knox, O. G.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has had a substantial impact on pest management in the cotton industry. While there has been substantial research done on the impact of Bt on the above-ground parts of the cotton plant, less is known about the effect of Bt genes on below ground growth of cotton and soil microbial biomass. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that Bt [Sicot 80 BRF (Bollgard II Roundup Ready Flex®)] and non-Bt [Sicot 80 RRF (Roundup Ready Flex®)] transgenic cotton varieties differ in root growth and root turnover, carbon indices and microbial biomass. A field experiment was conducted in Narrabri, north-western NSW. The experimental layout was a randomised block design and used minirhizotron and core break and root washing methods to measure cotton root growth and turnover during the 2008/09 season. Root growth in the surface 0-0.1 m of the soil was measured using the core break and root washing methods, and that in the 0.1 to 1 m depth was measured with a minirhizotron and an I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to calculate root length per unit area, root carbon added to the soil through intra-seasonal root death, carbon in roots remaining at the end of the season and root carbon potentially added to the soil. Microbial biomass was also measured using the ninhydrin reactive N method. Root length densities and length per unit area of non-Bt cotton were greater than Bt cotton. There were no differences in root turnover between Bt and non-Bt cotton at 0-1 m soil depth, indicating that soil organic carbon stocks may not be affected by cotton variety. Cotton variety did not have an effect on soil microbial biomass. The results indicate that while there are differences in root morphology between Bt and non-Bt cotton, these do not change the carbon turnover dynamics in the soil.

  7. Early Warning of Cotton Bollworm Resistance Associated with Intensive Planting of Bt Cotton in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haonan; Yin, Wei; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Lin; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Shuwen; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Yidong

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on “natural” refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins. PMID:21857961

  8. Early detection of field-evolved resistance to Bt cotton in China: cotton bollworm and pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming; Wu, Yidong

    2012-07-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some major insect pests, but pests can evolve resistance and thereby reduce the effectiveness of such Bt crops. The main approach for slowing pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, several countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. This strategy is designed for cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), which attacks many crops and is the primary target of Bt cotton in China, but it does not apply to pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we review evidence of field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by cotton bollworm in northern China and by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. For both pests, results of laboratory diet bioassays reveal significantly decreased susceptibility of field populations to Cry1Ac, yet field control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported. The early detection of resistance summarized here may spur countermeasures such as planting Bt cotton that produces two or more distinct toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  9. Feeding and Dispersal Behavior of the Cotton Leafworm, Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on Bt and Non-Bt Cotton: Implications for Evolution and Resistance Management

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Francisco S.; Pachú, Jéssica K. S.; Lira, Aline C. S.; Malaquias, José B.; Zanuncio, José C.; Fernandes, Francisco S.

    2014-01-01

    The host acceptance of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to Bt cotton plants exerts a strong influence on the potential risk that this pest will develop resistance to Bt cotton. This will also determine the efficiency of management strategies to prevent its resistance such as the “refuge-in-the-bag” strategy. In this study, we assessed the acceptance of neonate A. argillacea larvae to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants at different temperatures during the first 24 h after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used in the study, one a Bt DP 404 BG (Bollgard) cultivar, and the other, an untransformed isoline, DP 4049 cultivar. There was a greater acceptance by live neonate A. argillacea larvae for the non-Bt cotton plants compared with the Bt cotton plants, especially in the time interval between 18 and 24 h. The percentages of neonate A. argillacea larvae found on Bt or non-Bt plants were lower when exposed to temperatures of 31 and 34°C. The low acceptance of A. argillacea larvae for Bt cotton plants at high temperatures stimulated the dispersion of A. argillacea larvae. Our results support the hypothesis that the dispersion and/or feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea larvae is different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. The presence of the Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton plants, and its probable detection by the A. argillacea larvae tasting or eating it, increases the probability of dispersion from the plant where the larvae began. These findings may help to understand how the A. argillacea larvae detect the Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton and how the toxin affects the dispersion behavior of the larvae over time. Therefore, our results are extremely important for the management of resistance in populations of A. argillacea on Bt cotton. PMID:25369211

  10. [Effects of high temperature and humidity on leaf Bt protein expression of transgenic Bt cotton].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Gu, Chao; Han, Yong; Xu, Ying-Fei; Chen, Yuan; Chen, De-Hua

    2012-11-01

    Different origins Bt cotton cultivars, including DP410B (conventional cultivar) and Daiza No. 1 (hybridized cultivar) from US and Sikang No. 1 (conventional cultivar) and Sikang No. 3 (hybridized cultivar) from China, were taken as the test materials to investigate the effects of high temperature (37 degrees C) and different humidity (50%, 70%, and 90%) on the leaf Bt protein expression of Bt cotton. At high temperature, temperature and humidity had no significant effects on the leaf Bt protein expression of the cultivars at peak squaring stage. At peak flowering stage, as compared with the control (25-30 degrees C and 60%-70% humidity), 37 degrees C and 50% humidity decreased the leaf Bt protein content of conventional cultivars significantly by 2.6%-3.0%. At peak bolling stage, compared with the control, 37 degrees C and 50% humidity decreased the leaf Bt protein content of DP410B, Sikang No. 1, and Sikang No. 3 significantly by 3.3%-5.8%. Among the four cultivars, DP410B and Daiza No. 1 had the highest leaf Bt protein content, while Sikang No. 1 had the lowest one.

  11. Bacterial communities of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii associated with Bt cotton in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are infected with a wide variety of endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits. However, the bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. This study investigated the bacterial diversity of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii associated with Bt cotton in northern China by targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Our sequencing data revealed that bacterial communities of A. gossypii were generally dominated by the primary symbiont Buchnera, together with the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the facultative symbiont Hamiltonella in A. gossypii. Moreover, the bacterial community structure was similar within aphids from the same province, but distinct among those from different provinces. The taxonomic diversity of the bacterial community is greater in Hebei Province compared with in samples from Henan and Shandong Provinces. The selection pressure exerted by the different geographical locations could explain the differences found among the various provinces. These findings broaden our understanding of the interactions among aphids, endosymbionts and their environments, and provide clues to develop potential biocontrol techniques against this cotton aphid. PMID:27079679

  12. Bacterial communities of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii associated with Bt cotton in northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are infected with a wide variety of endosymbionts that can confer ecologically relevant traits. However, the bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. This study investigated the bacterial diversity of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii associated with Bt cotton in northern China by targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Our sequencing data revealed that bacterial communities of A. gossypii were generally dominated by the primary symbiont Buchnera, together with the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Hamiltonella. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the facultative symbiont Hamiltonella in A. gossypii. Moreover, the bacterial community structure was similar within aphids from the same province, but distinct among those from different provinces. The taxonomic diversity of the bacterial community is greater in Hebei Province compared with in samples from Henan and Shandong Provinces. The selection pressure exerted by the different geographical locations could explain the differences found among the various provinces. These findings broaden our understanding of the interactions among aphids, endosymbionts and their environments, and provide clues to develop potential biocontrol techniques against this cotton aphid. PMID:27079679

  13. Assessment of Bt trait purity in different generations of transgenic cottons.

    PubMed

    Singh, B P; Sandhu, S S; Kalia, V K; Gujart, G T; Dhillon, M K

    2016-04-01

    Adequate expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) toxins and purity of seeds of Bt-transgenic cottons are important for controlling bollworms, and thereby increasing the cotton productivity. Therefore, we examined the variability in expression of Bt toxin proteins in the seeds and in leaves of different cotton (Gossypium hirsutum (L.) hybrids (JKCH 226, JKCH 1947, JKCH Durga, JKCH Ishwar, JKCH Varun KDCHH 441 and KDCHH 621) expressing Bt toxins in F₁ and F₂ generations, using bioassays against the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), and the lateral flow strip (LFS) test. Toxicity of Bt toxin proteins in the seeds of Bt-transgenic cottons to H. armigera correlated with their toxicity in the leaves in one- toxin Bt cotton hybrids. The Bt-F₁ and Bt-F₂ seeds of JKCH 1947 were more toxic to H. armigera than those of JKCH Varun seeds. The seeds and leaves of F₁s showed greater toxicity than the F2 seeds or leaves of one-toxin (cry1Ac) Bt cotton hybrids. However, no significant differences were observed for the two-toxin (cry1Ac and cry2Ab) hybrid, KDCHH 621. Toxicity of leaves to H. armigera increased with crop age, until 112 days after seedling emergence. The Bt trait purity in F₁ seeds of four two-toxin Bt cotton hybrids ranged from 86.7 to 100%. The present study emphasizes the necessity of 95% Bt trait purity in seeds of transgenic cotton for sustainable crop production. PMID:27295920

  14. Pest tradeoffs in technology: Reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies have now reported increased levels of non Bt-targeted secondary pests in Bt crops. We carried out a series of greenhouse and field experiments comparing aphid populations on Bt-and non Bt-cotton that were damaged by the Bt-targeted caterpillar, Heliothis virescens. We found in bo...

  15. Comparative study on oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella on Bt and non-Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Shera, P S; Arora, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Oviposition and larval preference of spotted bollworm, Earias vittella (Fabricius) was assessed on four transgenic Bt cotton hybrids, viz. MRC 6304 Bt (cry1Ac gene), JKCH 1947 Bt (modified cry1Ac gene), NCEH 6R Bt (cry1Ab/cry1Ac fused gene) and MRC 7017 BG II (cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes) in comparison to the respective isogenic cotton. The results showed that Bt toxin did not deter oviposition preference of E. vittella moths as there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid on squares/bolls of Bt and non-Bt cotton hybrids, across different crop growth stages. There was also no behavioral change in larval preference with respect to selecting non-Bt cotton in comparison to Bt cotton. Floral bodies from Bt and the respective isogenic cotton genotypes were equally preferred by both first and third instar larvae after 24 hrs indicating that initial selection was independent of susceptibility to Bt toxin. However, E. vittella larvae showed significant difference in preference for different cotton genotypes. Studies on the relative preference indicated that third instar larvae had greater preference for bolls (7.29-7.50%) than for the squares (5.0-5.21%) and reverse was true for the first instar larvae which showed greater preference for squares (7.08-7.29%) than for the bolls (5.21-5.42%), in a multiple-choice test. It may be concluded that oviposition and larval preference of E. vittella did not differ significantly between Bt and isogenic non-Bt cotton genotypes.

  16. The Effects of Fe2O3 Nanoparticles on Physiology and Insecticide Activity in Non-Transgenic and Bt-Transgenic Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Van Nhan, Le; Ma, Chuanxin; Rui, Yukui; Cao, Weidong; Deng, Yingqing; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP) applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg⋅L-1) but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg⋅L-1). Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health. PMID:26834767

  17. Aphid honeydew quality as a food source for parasitoids is maintained in Bt cotton.

    PubMed

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance.

  18. Aphid Honeydew Quality as a Food Source for Parasitoids Is Maintained in Bt Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L.; Romeis, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton has proven to be highly efficient in controlling key lepidopteran pests. One concern with the deployment of Bt cotton varieties is the potential proliferation of non-target pests. We previously showed that Bt cotton contained lower concentrations of insecticidal terpenoids as a result of reduced caterpillar damage, which benefited the aphid Aphis gossypii. It is thus important that non-target herbivores are under biological control in Bt cotton fields. The induction or lack of induction of terpenoids could also influence the quality of aphid honeydew, an important food source for beneficial insects. We therefore screened A. gossypii honeydew for cotton terpenoids, that are induced by caterpillars but not the aphids. We then tested the influence of induced insect-resistance of cotton on honeydew nutritional quality for the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes and the whitefly parasitoid Eretmocerus eremicus. We detected the cotton terpenoids gossypol and hemigossypolone in A. gossypii honeydew. Although a feeding assay demonstrated that gossypol reduced the longevity of both parasitoid species in a non-linear, dose-dependent manner, the honeydew was capable of sustaining parasitoid longevity and reproduction. The level of caterpillar damage to Bt and non-Bt cotton had no impact on the quality of honeydew for the parasitoids.These results indicate that the nutritional quality of honeydew is maintained in Bt cotton and is not influenced by induced insect resistance. PMID:25226521

  19. FROM Qutn TO Bt COTTON: DEVELOPMENT, ADOPTION AND PROSPECTS. A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Maik, W; Abid, M A; Cheema, H M N; Khan, A A; Iqbal, M Z; Qayyum, A; Hanif, M; Bibi, N; Yuan, S N; Yasmeen, A; Mahmood, A; Ashraf, J

    2015-01-01

    Cotton has unique history of domestication, diversification, and utilization. Globally it is an important cash crop that provides raw material for textile industry. The story of cotton started from human civilization and the climax arrived with the efforts of developing transgenic cotton for various traits. Though conventional breeding brought steady improvement in developing resistance against biotic stresses but recent success story of gene transferfrom Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton showed game changing effects on cotton cultivation. Amongst various families of insecticidal proteins Bt Cry-toxins received more attention because of specificity against receptors on the cell membranes of insect midgut epithelial cells. Rapid Bt cotton adoption by farmers due to its economic and environmental benefits has changed the landscape of cotton cultivation in many countries. But the variable expression of Bt transgene in the newly developed Bt cotton genotypes in tropical environment is questionable. Variability of toxin level in different plant parts at various life stage of plant is an outcome of genotypic interaction with environmental factors. Temporal gene expression of Cry1Ac is also blamed for the epigenetic background in which transgene has been inserted. The presence of genotypes with sub-lethal level of Bt toxin might create resistance in Lepidopteron insects, limiting the use of Bt cotton in future, with the opportunityfor other resistance development strategies to get more attention like gene stacking. Until the farmers get access to more recent technology, best option is to delay the development of resistance by applying Insect Resistance Management (IRM) strategies. PMID:26841496

  20. Pest trade-offs in technology: reduced damage by caterpillars in Bt cotton benefits aphids.

    PubMed

    Hagenbucher, Steffen; Wäckers, Felix L; Wettstein, Felix E; Olson, Dawn M; Ruberson, John R; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    The rapid adoption of genetically engineered (GE) plants that express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has raised concerns about their potential impact on non-target organisms. This includes the possibility that non-target herbivores develop into pests. Although studies have now reported increased populations of non-target herbivores in Bt cotton, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We propose that lack of herbivore-induced secondary metabolites in Bt cotton represents a mechanism that benefits non-target herbivores. We show that, because of effective suppression of Bt-sensitive lepidopteran herbivores, Bt cotton contains reduced levels of induced terpenoids. We also show that changes in the overall level of these defensive secondary metabolites are associated with improved performance of a Bt-insensitive herbivore, the cotton aphid, under glasshouse conditions. These effects, however, were not as clearly evident under field conditions as aphid populations were not correlated with the amount of terpenoids measured in the plants. Nevertheless, increased aphid numbers were visible in Bt cotton compared with non-Bt cotton on some sampling dates. Identification of this mechanism increases our understanding of how insect-resistant crops impact herbivore communities and helps underpin the sustainable use of GE varieties.

  1. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    PubMed

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  2. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Morin, Shai; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in several countries for more than a decade. In China, the frequency of resistance to Cry1Ac has increased, but control failures have not been reported. In western India, pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac has caused widespread control failures of Bt cotton. By contrast, in the state of Arizona in the southwestern United States, monitoring data from bioassays and DNA screening demonstrate sustained susceptibility to Cry1Ac for 16 y. From 1996-2005, the main factors that delayed resistance in Arizona appear to be abundant refuges of non-Bt cotton, recessive inheritance of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance and incomplete resistance. From 2006-2011, refuge abundance was greatly reduced in Arizona, while mass releases of sterile pink bollworm moths were made to delay resistance as part of a multi-tactic eradication program. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona has provided a cornerstone for the pink bollworm eradication program and for integrated pest management in cotton. Reduced insecticide use against pink bollworm and other cotton pests has yielded economic benefits for growers, as well as broad environmental and health benefits. We encourage increased efforts to combine Bt crops with other tactics in integrated pest management programs.

  3. Effects of Resistance to Bt Cotton on Diapause in the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Yves; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Biggs, Robert W.; Sims, Maria A.; Dennehy, Timothy J.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops are expected to delay the evolution of resistance. In a previous study where pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), larvae overwintered in outdoor insectaries, individuals from Bt-resistant strains had lower survival than individuals from Bt-susceptible strains or F1 progeny from crosses between resistant and susceptible adults. To investigate the physiological basis of such recessive cost, diapause duration was experimentally manipulated in the laboratory. Compared to a Bt-susceptible strain and F1 progeny, we hypothesized that Bt-resistant strains could exhibit a lower propensity or intensity of diapause, faster weight loss during overwintering, lower initial weight of diapausing larvae, and reduced longevity of moths emerging from diapause. Results were as expected for initial weight of diapausing larvae and longevity of overwintered male moths or female moths remaining in diapause for a short period. However, a higher diapause induction and intensity and slower weight loss occurred in F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains than in a Bt-susceptible strain. Moreover, F1 progeny had greater overwintering survival than the Bt-resistant and Bt-susceptible strains, and F1 female moths had the greatest longevity after sustaining long diapausing periods. All of these unexpected results may be explained by pleiotropic effects of resistance to Bt cotton that increased the strength of diapause in the F1 progeny and Bt-resistant strains. Incomplete resistance was reflected in disadvantages suffered by Bt-resistant individuals feeding on a Bt diet instead of a non-Bt diet, including lower diapause propensity, lower diapause intensity and reduced longevity of overwintered male moths. While this study suggests that the evolution of resistance to Bt cotton and feeding on a Bt diet in Bt-resistant individuals have pervasive effects on several traits associated with diapause

  4. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  5. [Effects of high temperature on Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology in boll wall of Bt cotton].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Abidallah, Eltayib H M A; Hua, Ming-ming; Heng, Li; Lyu, Chun-hua; Chen, De-hua

    2015-10-01

    Bt cotton cultivar Sikang 1 (a conventional cultivar) and Sikang 3 (a hybrid cultivar) from China, and 99B (a conventional cultivar) and Daiza 1 (a hybrid cultivar) from USA were selected as experimental materials, the ball wall Bt protein content and nitrogen metabolic physiology were investigated under different high temperature levels at peak boll stage. The results showed that the Bt protein content of boll wall decreased with the increasing temperature. Compared with the control (32 °C, the boll wall Bt protein content decreased significantly when the temperature was above 38 °C for the conventional cultivars and above 40 °C for the hybrid cultivars. The Bt protein contents of cultivar Sikang 1 and 99B decreased by 53.0% and 69.5% respectively with the temperature at 38 °C, and that of cultivar Sikang 3 and Daiza 1 decreased by 64.8% and 54.1% respectively with the temperature at 40 °C. Greater reductions in the boll wall soluble protein contents and GPT activities, larger increments for the boll wall free amino acid contents and proteinsase activities were also observed when the boll wall Bt protein content was significantly reduced. Therefore, high temperature resulted in the reduction of Bt protein synthesis and increase of the insecticidal protein degradation in the boll wall significantly, which caused the reductions in boll wall Bt protein content and insect resistance. PMID:26995932

  6. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171

  7. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171

  8. Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, Yves; Crowder, David W; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are used worldwide to control major pests of corn and cotton. Development of strategies to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops requires an understanding of factors affecting responses to natural selection, which include variation in survival on Bt crops, heritability of resistance, and fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations. The two main strategies adopted for delaying resistance are the refuge and pyramid strategies. Both can reduce heritability of resistance, but pyramids can also delay resistance by reducing genetic variation for resistance. Seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic cultivars, however, can increase the heritability of resistance. The fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations can be reduced by agronomic practices, including increasing refuge size, manipulating refuges to increase fitness costs, and manipulating Bt cultivars to reduce fitness of resistant individuals. Manipulating costs and fitness of resistant individuals on transgenic insecticidal crops may be especially important for thwarting evolution of resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests. Field-evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14 years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate. PMID:25567947

  9. Economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Kathage, Jonas; Qaim, Matin

    2012-07-17

    Despite widespread adoption of genetically modified crops in many countries, heated controversies about their advantages and disadvantages continue. Especially for developing countries, there are concerns that genetically modified crops fail to benefit smallholder farmers and contribute to social and economic hardship. Many economic studies contradict this view, but most of them look at short-term impacts only, so that uncertainty about longer-term effects prevails. We address this shortcoming by analyzing economic impacts and impact dynamics of Bt cotton in India. Building on unique panel data collected between 2002 and 2008, and controlling for nonrandom selection bias in technology adoption, we show that Bt has caused a 24% increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and a 50% gain in cotton profit among smallholders. These benefits are stable; there are even indications that they have increased over time. We further show that Bt cotton adoption has raised consumption expenditures, a common measure of household living standard, by 18% during the 2006-2008 period. We conclude that Bt cotton has created large and sustainable benefits, which contribute to positive economic and social development in India.

  10. Identification of Top-Down Forces Regulating Cotton Aphid Population Growth in Transgenic Bt Cotton in Central China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild. PMID:25170907

  11. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-ying; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ) in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt)+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor) cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control) was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1%) and spiders (1.5%). The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma). Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation). The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild. PMID:25170907

  12. Mortality of bollworm and tobacco budworm larvae exposed to microbial and chemical insecticides in treated Bt and non-Bt cotton assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory colonies of bollworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie) and tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens F.) were exposed to microbial and chemical insecticides on non-Bt (DP1441) and Bt (DP1321) cotton leaves in spray-table and field-plot experiments. The microbial insecticides included commercial formula...

  13. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions.

  14. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions. PMID:26930855

  15. Helicoverpa armigera baseline susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins and resistance management for Bt cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Gujar, G T; Kalia, V; Kumari, A; Singh, B P; Mittal, A; Nair, R; Mohan, M

    2007-07-01

    Transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), often referred to as Bt cotton, is widely grown in many countries. Bt cotton with a single cry1A gene and stacked also with cry2A gene has provided satisfactory protection against the damage by the lepidopteran bollworms, especially the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which is considered as a key pest. The baseline susceptibility of the larvae of H. armigera to Cry1Ac and other toxins carried out in many countries has provided a basis for monitoring resistance. There is no evidence of development of field-level resistance in H. armigera leading to the failure of Bt cotton crop anywhere in the world, despite the fact that Bt cotton was grown on the largest ever area of 12.1 million hectares in 2006 and its cumulative cultivation over the last 11 years has surpassed the annual cotton area in the world. Nevertheless, the Bt resistance management has become a necessity to sustain Bt cotton and other transgenic crops in view of potential of the target insects to evolve Cry toxin resistance.

  16. Reduced foliage herbivory in Bt cotton benefits phloem-feeding insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically modified cotton plants that express Lepidoptera-active Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown on 15 millions hectares worldwide. Numerous studies have established that these plants pose a negligible risk to non-target arthropods due to the narrow spectrum of activity of th...

  17. Reduced foliage herbivory in Bt cotton benefits phloem-feeding insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered cotton plants that express Lepidoptera-active Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown on 15 millions hectares worldwide. Numerous studies have established that these plants pose a negligible risk to non-target arthropods due to the narrow spectrum of activity of ...

  18. Fitness Cost of Resistance to Bt Cotton Linked with Increased Gossypol Content in Pink Bollworm Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer L.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orth, Robert G.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Head, Graham; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins. PMID:21738799

  19. Comparative studies on the effects of Bt-transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on arthropod diversity, seedcotton yield and bollworms control.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M K; Sharma, H C

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercial Bt-cotton in pest management, influence on arthropod diversity, natural enemies, and toxin flow in the insect fauna under field conditions were studied keeping in view the need to assess bioefficacy and biosafety of Bt-transgenic cotton. There were no significant differences in oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons (9.2 versus 9.6 eggs plants(-100)), while the numbers of H. armigera larvae were significantly more on non-transgenic than on Bt-transgenic (10.4 versus 4.0 larvae plants(-100)) cotton. The Bt-cotton had significantly more number of mature opened bolls (9.6 versus 4.4 bolls plant(-1)), lower bollworm damage (12.8 versus 40.2% bolls damaged), and higher seedcotton yield (667.7 versus 231.7 kg ha 1). Population of cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula was lower (582.2 versus 732.2 leafhoppers plants(-100)), while that of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was higher on Bt-transgenic (65.2 versus 45.6 whiteflies plants(-100)) than on non-transgenic cotton. There was no significant influence of Bt-transgenic cotton on abundance of natural enemies of crop pests - chrysopids (9.6 versus 8.4 chrysopids plants(-100), ladybird beetles (16.0 versus 10.8 ladybirds plants(-100)), and spiders (128.4 versus 142.8 spiders plants(-100)). There were no significant differences in H. ormigera egg (19.8 versus 20.9%), larval (7.4 versus 9.6%), and larval-pupal (1.3 versus 2.9%) parasitism on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons in the farmer's fields. The parasitism in larvae of H. armigera was far lower than that of the eggs, which might be because of early mortality of H. armigera prior to parasitoid development in the host larvae. Although, Cry1Ac Bt toxin was detected in Cheilomenes sexmoculatus, chrysopids, A. bigutulla bigutulla, Thrips taboci, Myllocerus sp., Oxycarenus laetus, Dysdercus koenigii, spiders, bugs, and grasshoppers, no significant differences were observed in their abundance on

  20. Recent evaluations of Bt and non-Bt cotton in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of the first transgenic cotton for the control of caterpillar pests in 1996, there has been interest in evaluating the cost of control and the resulting yields of these transgenic traits in both sprayed and unsprayed environments. During the 2011 growing season, five location...

  1. Impact of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Cotton on the Honey Bee and Silkworm

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3rd day of 5th B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm2), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

  2. Impact of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-cotton on the honey bee and silkworm.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lin; Ma, Yan; Mannakkara, Amani; Zhao, Yao; Ma, Weihua; Lei, Chaoliang; Chen, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton (Bt cotton) has been extensively planted in China, but its effects on non-targeted insect species such as the economically important honey bee (Apis mellifera) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) currently are unknown. In this study, pollen from two Bt cotton cultivars, one expressing Cry1Ac/EPSPS and the other expressing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, were used to evaluate the effects of Bt cotton on adult honey bees and silkworm larvae. Laboratory feeding studies showed no adverse effects on the survival, cumulative consumption, and total hemocyte count (THC) of A. mellifera fed with Bt pollen for 7 days. No effects on the survival or development of B. mori larvae were observed either. A marginally significant difference between Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and the conventional cotton on the THC of the 3(rd) day of 5(th) B. mori instar larvae was observed only at the two highest pollen densities (approximately 900 and 8000 grains/cm(2)), which are much higher than the pollen deposition that occurs under normal field conditions. The results of this study show that pollen of the tested Bt cotton varieties carried no lethal or sublethal risk for A. mellifera, and the risk for B. mori was negligible. PMID:24039838

  3. Impact of Water Content and Temperature on the Degradation of Cry1Ac Protein in Leaves and Buds of Bt Cotton in the Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei-jun; Feng, Mei-chen; Xiao, Lu-jie; Song, Xiao-yan; Yang, Wu-de; Ding, Guang-wei

    2015-01-01

    Determining the influence of soil environmental factors on degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues is vital for assessing the ecological risks of this commercialized transgenic crop. In this study, the degradation of Cry1Ac protein in leaves and in buds of Bt cotton in soil was evaluated under different soil water content and temperature settings in the laboratory. An exponential model and a shift-log model were used to fit the degradation dynamics of Cry1Ac protein and estimate the DT50 and DT90 values. The results showed that Cry1Ac protein in the leaves and buds underwent rapid degradation in the early stage (before day 48), followed by a slow decline in the later stage under different soil water content and temperature. Cry1Ac protein degraded the most rapidly in the early stage at 35°C with 70% soil water holding capacity. The DT50 values were 12.29 d and 10.17 d and the DT90 values were 41.06 d and 33.96 d in the leaves and buds, respectively. Our findings indicated that the soil temperature was a major factor influencing the degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues. Additionally, the relative higher temperature (25°C and 35°C) was found to be more conducive to degradation of Cry1Ac protein in the soil and the greater water content (100%WHC) retarded the process. These findings suggested that under appropriate soil temperature and water content, Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues will not persist and accumulate in soil. PMID:25559638

  4. Impact of water content and temperature on the degradation of Cry1Ac protein in leaves and buds of Bt cotton in the soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei-jun; Feng, Mei-chen; Xiao, Lu-jie; Song, Xiao-yan; Yang, Wu-de; Ding, Guang-wei

    2015-01-01

    Determining the influence of soil environmental factors on degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues is vital for assessing the ecological risks of this commercialized transgenic crop. In this study, the degradation of Cry1Ac protein in leaves and in buds of Bt cotton in soil was evaluated under different soil water content and temperature settings in the laboratory. An exponential model and a shift-log model were used to fit the degradation dynamics of Cry1Ac protein and estimate the DT50 and DT90 values. The results showed that Cry1Ac protein in the leaves and buds underwent rapid degradation in the early stage (before day 48), followed by a slow decline in the later stage under different soil water content and temperature. Cry1Ac protein degraded the most rapidly in the early stage at 35°C with 70% soil water holding capacity. The DT50 values were 12.29 d and 10.17 d and the DT90 values were 41.06 d and 33.96 d in the leaves and buds, respectively. Our findings indicated that the soil temperature was a major factor influencing the degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues. Additionally, the relative higher temperature (25°C and 35°C) was found to be more conducive to degradation of Cry1Ac protein in the soil and the greater water content (100%WHC) retarded the process. These findings suggested that under appropriate soil temperature and water content, Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues will not persist and accumulate in soil.

  5. Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients

  6. Cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the cotton bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Jie; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between two toxins in pyramided Bt cotton (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab). Selection with Cry1Ac for 125 generations produced 1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 6.8-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry2Ab for 29 generations caused 5.6-fold resistance to Cry2Ab and 61-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Without exposure to Bt toxins, resistance to both toxins decreased. For each of the four resistant strains examined, 67 to 100% of the combinations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab tested yielded higher than expected mortality, reflecting synergism between these two toxins. Results showing minor cross-resistance to Cry2Ab caused by selection with Cry1Ac and synergism between these two toxins against resistant insects suggest that plants producing both toxins could prolong the efficacy of Bt cotton against this pest in China. Including toxins against which no cross-resistance occurs and integrating Bt cotton with other control tactics could also increase the sustainability of management strategies. PMID:25586723

  7. Changes in Cry1Ac Bt transgenic cotton in response to two environmental factors: temperature and insect damage.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K M; Daly, J C; Finnegan, E J; Mahon, R J

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of Cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton plants against field populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) has been inconsistent over the growing season. Any reduction in efficacy (where efficacy is the capacity of the plant to affect the survival of the insect) increases the opportunities for H. armigera to evolve resistance to Bt toxin. Changes in efficacy could be due to changes at the level of gene expression and/or in the physiological makeup of the plant and may be induced by environmental conditions. Two environmental factors, temperature and insect damage, were investigated. Temperature was found to affect efficacy, whether plants were grown at different temperatures continuously or were exposed to a change in temperature for a short period. Damage caused by chewing insects (H. armigera larvae) produced a dramatic increase in the efficacy of presquare Bt cotton. In contrast, damage by sucking insects (aphids) did not induce changes in efficacy. Changes in efficacy seemed to be mediated through modification of the physiological background of the plant rather than changes in the level of Cry1Ac expression or in the concentration of the Bt toxin. The impact of the non-Bt responses of plants on strains of H. armigera should be evaluated. It is possible that by enhancing existing defensive mechanisms of plants, the rate of evolution of resistance to Bt toxins could be retarded by increasing the plants overall toxicity through the additive effects of the toxins and plant defenses.

  8. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton.

    PubMed

    Von Kanel, M B; Gore, J; Catchot, A; Cook, D; Musser, F; Caprio, M

    2016-04-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae.

  9. Influence of Dual-Bt Protein Corn on Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Survivorship on Bollgard II Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Gore, J.; Catchot, A.; Cook, D.; Musser, F.; Caprio, M.

    2016-01-01

    Similar Cry proteins are expressed in both Bt corn, Zea mays L., and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), commercial production systems. At least one generation of corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), completes development on field corn in the Mid-South before dispersing across the landscape into other crop hosts like cotton. A concern is that Bt corn hybrids may result in selection for H. zea populations with a higher probability of causing damage to Bt cotton. The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of H. zea offspring from moths that developed on non-Bt and VT Triple Pro (VT3 PRO) field corn to lyophilized Bollgard II cotton tissue expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Offspring of individuals reared on VT3 PRO expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab had a significantly higher LC50 two out of the three years this study was conducted. Excess larvae were placed on artificial diet and allowed to pupate to determine if there were any inheritable fitness costs associated with parental development on VT3 PRO corn. Offspring resulting from males collected from VT3 PRO had significantly lower pupal weight and longer pupal duration compared with offspring of individuals collected from non-Bt corn. However, offspring from females collected from VT3 PRO were not different from non-Bt offspring. Paternal influence on offspring in insects is not commonly observed, but illustrates the side effects of development on a transgenic plant expressing less than a high dose, 25 times the concentration needed to kill susceptible larvae. PMID:26809264

  10. [Advances in effects of insecticidal crystal proteins released from transgenic Bt crops on soil ecology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Yong; Liu, Ning; Zhao, Man; Li, He; Zhou, Lang; Tang, Zong-Wen; Cao, Fei; Li, Wei

    2011-05-01

    With the large scale cultivation of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal proteins in the world, the problem of environmental safety caused by these Bt crops has received extensive attention. These insecticidal crystal proteins can be released into the soil continuously in the growing period of Bt plants. If their accumulation of the insecticidal crystal proteins exceeds consumption by insect larvae and degradation by the environmental factors, these insecticidal crystal proteins could constitute a hazard to non-target insects and soil microbiota. There are three main ways to release insecticidal crystal proteins into soil for Bt plants: root exudates, pollen falling, and crop reside returning. The Bt insecticidal crystal proteins released into soil can be adsorbed rapidly by active soil particles and the absorption equilibrium attained within 1-3 h. The adsorption protects Bt insecticidal crystal proteins against soil microbial degradation or enzyme degradation, which leads to remarkable prolong of the persistence of insecticidal activity. The change of soil microorganism species is an important index for evaluating the effect of Bt plants on soil ecology. The research showed that these insecticidal crystal proteins released by the Bt plant root exudates or Bt organism had no toxicity to the soil earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria and fungi; however, it could reduce the mycelium length of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and restrain AMF to form invasion unit. The influencing degree of Bt protein on soil enzyme activity varied with the releasing modes or growth period of Bt crops. Bt Cry1Ab protein can be taken up from soil by parts of following crops; however, different results were obtained with different commercial kits. To better understand the soil ecological evaluation about the insecticidal crystal proteins released from transgenic Bt crops, this review provides a comprehensive overview about the release

  11. Detection and characterization of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton: multiple polymerase chain reaction approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Kachru, Devendra N

    2007-01-01

    To comply with international labeling regulations for genetically modified (GM) crops and food, and to enable proper identification of GM organisms (GMOs), effective methodologies and reliable approaches are needed. The spurious and unapproved GM planting has contributed to crop failures and commercial losses. To ensure effective and genuine GM cultivation, a methodology is needed to detect and identify the trait of interest and concurrently evaluate the structural and functional stability of the transgene insert. A multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was developed for detection, identification, and gene stability confirmation of cry1Ac transgene construct in Bt cotton. As many as 9 samples of Bt cotton hybrid seeds comprising 3 approved Bt hybrids, MECH-12Bt, MECH-162Bt, MECH-184Bt, and a batch of 6 nonapproved Bt hybrids were tested. Initially, single standard PCR assays were run to amplify predominant GM DNA sequences (CaMV 35S promoter, nos terminator, and npt-II marker gene); a housekeeping gene, Gossypium hirsutum fiber-specific acyl carrier protein gene (acp1); a trait-specific transgene (cry1Ac); and a sequence of 7S 3' transcription terminator which specifically borders with 3' region of cry1Ac transgene cassette. The concurrent amplification of all sequences of the entire cassette was performed by 3 assays, duplex, triplex, and quadruplex multiplex PCR assays, under common assay conditions. The identity of amplicons was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion profile. The 2 distinct transgene cassettes, cry1Ac and npt-II, of the Bt cotton were amplified using the respective forward primer of promoter and reverse primer of terminator. The resultant amplicons were excised, eluted, and purified. The purified amplicons served as template for nested PCR assays. The nested PCR runs confirmed the transgene construct orientation and identity. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (cry1Ac) was 0.1%. This approach

  12. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ13C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure. PMID:27628897

  13. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-09-15

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure.

  14. Difference in leaf water use efficiency/photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency of Bt-cotton and its conventional peer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruqing; Sun, Shucun; Liu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    This study is to test the effects of Bt gene introduction on the foliar water/nitrogen use efficiency in cotton. We measured leaf stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate under light saturation condition at different stages of a conventional cultivar (zhongmian no. 16) and its counterpart Bt cultivar (zhongmian no. 30) that were cultured on three levels of fertilization, based on which leaf instantaneous water use efficiency was derived. Leaf nitrogen concentration was measured to calculate leaf photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, and leaf δ(13)C was used to characterize long term water use efficiency. Bt cultivar was found to have lower stomatal conductance, net photosynthetic rates and transpiration rates, but higher instantaneous and long time water use efficiency. In addition, foliar nitrogen concentration was found to be higher but net photosynthetic rate was lower in the mature leaves of Bt cultivar, which led to lower photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency. This might result from the significant decrease of photosynthetic rate due to the decrease of stomatal conductance. In conclusion, our findings show that the introduction of Bt gene should significantly increase foliar water use efficiency but decrease leaf nitrogen use efficiency in cotton under no selective pressure. PMID:27628897

  15. Economic, ecological, food safety, and social consequences of the deployment of bt transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Zhao, J-Z; Roush, R T

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are revolutionizing agriculture. Bt, which had limited use as a foliar insecticide, has become a major insecticide because genes that produce Bt toxins have been engineered into major crops grown on 11.4 million ha worldwide in 2000. Based on the data collected to date, generally these crops have shown positive economic benefits to growers and reduced the use of other insecticides. The potential ecological and human health consequences of Bt plants, including effects on nontarget organisms, food safety, and the development of resistant insect populations, are being compared for Bt plants and alternative insect management strategies. Scientists do not have full knowledge of the risks and benefits of any insect management strategies. Bt plants were deployed with the expectation that the risks would be lower than current or alternative technologies and that the benefits would be greater. Based on the data to date, these expectations seem valid.

  16. Influence of one or two Bt genes transgenic cotton free living nitrogen fixers and p-solubilising microorganisms in vertisols and alfisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, T.; Babu, R.; Biradar, D. P.; Patil, V. C.; Shirnalli, G.

    2012-04-01

    India, the largest cotton grower in the world benefited from the cultivation of genetically modified Bt transgenic cotton. Bt cotton with the single gene (cry 1Ac) contributed to increased productivity over the last eight years. But in the recent years, there has been an increasing trend to adopt two genes (cry 1Ac and cry 2Ab) transgenic cotton in India. The two gene Bt cotton hybrids were planted over a large area (57%) during 2009 than the single gene Bt cotton hybrids. In this context, the field experiments were conducted in farmers field in both Vertisols and Alfisols during monsoon season of 2009 to study the effect of a single gene Bt hybrid (RCH-2Bt, JK-99Bt, Mallika Bt, MRC-6918 Bt, Brahma Bt, RCH-708 Bt, Bunny Bt) as well as two gene Bt hybrids (RCH-2 BGII Bt, Bunny BGII Bt) compared with the non genetically modified (non-Bt) hybrid (DHH-11) on the population of free living nitrogen fixing microorganisms (Azospirillum and methylotrophs) and P-solubilizers in two different soil types under rainfed situation. Observations on microbial population were recorded at flowering and at harvest in both the soil types. Results indicated a higher population of Azospirillum, methylotrophs and P-solubilisers in the rhizosphere grown with single or two gene Bt hybrid and non-Bt hybrid at flowering stage in both the soil types. In Vertisol, significantly higher population of methylotrophs in MRC-6918 Bt (30 x 102/g of soil), P-solubilizers in RCH-2 Bt (31x103/g of soil) and Azospirillum in RCH-708 Bt (0.79 x 106 /g of soil) was recorded as compared to non-Bt hybrid DHH-11 (2 x 102/g of soil, 12 x 103/g of soil, 0.54 x 106/g of soil), respectively. Whereas, in Alfisol, significantly higher population of methylotrophs in RCH-2 Bt (13x 102/g of soil), P-solubilisers in JK-99 Bt (38 x 103/g of soil) and Azospirillum in RCH-2Bt (0.57 x 106/g of soil) was recorded over non Bt hybrid DHH-11 (2x 102/g of soil, 13x 103/g of soil and 0.17 x106/g of soil) respectively. Our results

  17. Non-Recessive Bt Toxin Resistance Conferred by an Intracellular Cadherin Mutation in Field-Selected Populations of Cotton Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haonan; Wu, Shuwen; Yang, Yihua; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been planted widely to control insect pests, yet evolution of resistance by the pests can reduce the benefits of this approach. Recessive mutations in the extracellular domain of toxin-binding cadherin proteins that confer resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by disrupting toxin binding have been reported previously in three major lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Here we report a novel allele from cotton bollworm with a deletion in the intracellular domain of cadherin that is genetically linked with non-recessive resistance to Cry1Ac. We discovered this allele in each of three field-selected populations we screened from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown intensively. We expressed four types of cadherin alleles in heterologous cell cultures: susceptible, resistant with the intracellular domain mutation, and two complementary chimeric alleles with and without the mutation. Cells transfected with each of the four cadherin alleles bound Cry1Ac and were killed by Cry1Ac. However, relative to cells transfected with either the susceptible allele or the chimeric allele lacking the intracellular domain mutation, cells transfected with the resistant allele or the chimeric allele containing the intracellular domain mutation were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the intracellular domain of cadherin is involved in post-binding events that affect toxicity of Cry1Ac. This evidence is consistent with the vital role of the intracellular region of cadherin proposed by the cell signaling model of the mode of action of Bt toxins. Considered together with previously reported data, the results suggest that both pore formation and cell signaling pathways contribute to the efficacy of Bt toxins. PMID:23285292

  18. Evaluation of Bt-cotton Genotypes for Resistance to Cotton Leaf Curl Disease under High Inoculum Pressure in the Field and Using Graft Inoculation in Glasshouse

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Khalid Pervaiz; Hussain, Manzoor; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan; Sarwar, Muhammad; Sarwar, Nighat

    2015-01-01

    Bt-cotton germplasm, consisting of 75 genotypes was evaluated against cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) under high inoculum pressure in the field and using graft inoculation in glasshouse by visual symptom scoring assessments. None of the tested genotype was found disease free under both evaluation tests. Under field conditions in 2011, 3 genotypes were found resistant, 4 moderately resistant, 3 tolerant, 2 moderately susceptible and one susceptible; in 2012, 3 genotypes were tolerant, 7 moderately susceptible, 5 susceptible and 38 highly susceptible; in 2013, one was moderately susceptible and 51 were highly susceptible with varying degree of percent disease index (PDI) and severity index (SI). However, through graft evaluation in glasshouse, none of the graft inoculated plant was symptomless. All tested genotypes showed disease symptoms with SI values ranging between 5.0 and 6.0, and latent period between 12 and 14 days. Of the 75 genotypes evaluated using graft inoculation, 11 were found susceptible with SI values of 5.0 to 5.4 while remaining 64 were highly susceptible with SI values of 5.5 to 6.0. Inoculated plants of all tested genotypes exhibited severe disease symptoms within 10 days after the appearance of initial symptoms. No reduction in SI value was observed until the end of the experiment i.e., 90 days after grafting. Information generated under the present study clearly demonstrates that no sources of resistance to CLCuD are available among the tested Bt-cotton genotypes. So, a breeding programme is needed to introgress the CLCuD-resistance from other resistant sources to agronomically suitable Bt-cotton genotypes. PMID:26060432

  19. Economic comparisons of Bt and non-Bt cotton under different insecticide regimens in the MS Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the introduction of the first transgenic cotton for the control of caterpillar pests, Bollgard®, in 1996, there has been interest in evaluating the cost of control and the resulting yields of these transgenic traits in both sprayed and unsprayed environments. During the 2011 growing season, f...

  20. Multi-toxin resistance enables pink bollworm survival on pyramided Bt cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins kill key insect pests, providing economic and environmental benefits. However, the evolution of pest resistance threatens the continued success of such Bt crops. To delay or counter resistance, transgenic plant "pyramids" producing tw...

  1. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. de A. e; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants. PMID:27721425

  2. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  3. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Bt Cotton on Coleomegilla maculata Demonstrates No Detrimental Effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Wang, Ping; Peng, Yufa; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms. PMID

  4. Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Li, Xianchun; Oppert, Brenda; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we examined the mechanism of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the laboratory-selected LF5 strain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. This strain had 110-fold resistance to Cry1Ac protoxin and 39-fold resistance to Cry1Ac activated toxin. Evaluation of five trypsin genes revealed 99% reduced transcription of one trypsin gene (HaTryR) was associated with resistance. Silencing of this gene with RNA interference in susceptible larvae increased their survival on diets containing Cry1Ac. Bioassays of progeny from crosses revealed that resistance to Cry1Ac was genetically linked with HaTryR. We identified mutations in the promoter region of HaTryR in the resistant strain. In transfected insect cell lines, transcription was lower when driven by the resistant promoter compared with the susceptible promoter, implicating cis-mediated down-regulation of HaTryR transcription as a mechanism of resistance. The results suggest that H. armigera can adapt to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by decreased expression of trypsin. Because trypsin activation of protoxin is a critical step in toxicity, transgenic plants with activated toxins rather than protoxins might increase the durability of Bt crops.

  5. Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Li, Xianchun; Oppert, Brenda; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we examined the mechanism of resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in the laboratory-selected LF5 strain of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. This strain had 110-fold resistance to Cry1Ac protoxin and 39-fold resistance to Cry1Ac activated toxin. Evaluation of five trypsin genes revealed 99% reduced transcription of one trypsin gene (HaTryR) was associated with resistance. Silencing of this gene with RNA interference in susceptible larvae increased their survival on diets containing Cry1Ac. Bioassays of progeny from crosses revealed that resistance to Cry1Ac was genetically linked with HaTryR. We identified mutations in the promoter region of HaTryR in the resistant strain. In transfected insect cell lines, transcription was lower when driven by the resistant promoter compared with the susceptible promoter, implicating cis-mediated down-regulation of HaTryR transcription as a mechanism of resistance. The results suggest that H. armigera can adapt to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by decreased expression of trypsin. Because trypsin activation of protoxin is a critical step in toxicity, transgenic plants with activated toxins rather than protoxins might increase the durability of Bt crops. PMID:25427690

  6. The substantive equivalence of transgenic (Bt and Chi) and non-transgenic cotton based on metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Modirroosta, Bentol Hoda; Tohidfar, Masoud; Saba, Jalal; Moradi, Foad

    2014-03-01

    Compositional studies comparing transgenic with non-transgenic counterpart plants are almost universally required by governmental regulatory bodies. In the present study, two T(2) transgenic cotton lines containing chitinase (Line 11/57) and Bt lines (Line 61) were compared with non-transgenic counterpart. To do this, biochemical characteristics of leaves and seeds, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, anions, and cations contents of the studied lines were analyzed using GC/MS, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and ion chromatography (IC) analyzers, respectively. polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analyses confirmed the presence and expression of Chi and Bt genes in the studied transgenic lines. Although, compositional analysis of leaves contents confirmed no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic counterpart lines, but it was shown that glucose content of chitinase lines, fructose content of transgenic lines (Bt and chitinase) and asparagine and glutamine of chitinase lines were significantly higher than the non-transgenic counterpart plants. Both the transgenic lines (Bt and chitinase) showed significant decrease in the amounts of sodium in comparison to the non-transgenic counterpart plants. The experiments on the seeds showed that histidine, isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine contents of all transgenic and non-transgenic lines were the same, whereas other amino acids were significantly increased in the transgenic lines. Surprisingly, it was observed that the concentrations of stearic acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid in the chitinase line were significantly different than those of non-transgenic counterpart plants, but these components were the same in both Bt line and its non-transgenic counterpart. It seems that more changes observed in the seed contents than leaves is via this point that seeds are known as metabolites storage organs, so they show greater changes in the

  7. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread. PMID:27301612

  8. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L.; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread. PMID:27301612

  9. [Comparison between transgenic insect-resistant cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein and its parental variety in rhizospheric fungal diversity].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian-Gang; Jiao, Hai-Hua; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Qi, Hong-Yan; Ma, An-Zhou; Zhuang, Guo-qiang; Zhang, Hong-xun

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of rhizospheric fungal diversity and biomass at different sampling stages associated with two transgenic insectresistant cottons expressing Cry1Ac protein and their control varieties were studied under greenhouse conditions, followed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), in order to evaluate the ecological security of planting transgenic cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein. The results indicated that the fungal superior bands in rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton were similar with that of control cotton at four sampling stages, the more obvious difference in the blurred bands among transgenic Bt cotton, JM20 and SHIYUAN321 was detected. The rhizospheric fungal biomass of transgenic Bt cotton SGK321 was significantly lower than that of its parental control cotton at seedling stage, while the slight decrease in fungal biomass of transgenic Bt cotton XP188 was detected at boll forming stage, the ill-defined decrease, even growing tendency in two transgenic Bt cottons was detected at other stages. However, the difference of rhizospheric fungal community compositions and biomass was not only existed between transgenic cotton and its control, but also between SHIYUAN321 and JM20, and the same phenomenon was also detected between transgenic Bt cotton SGK321 and XP188. Hence, Bt protein is not the only incentive resulting in the difference in fungal community composition and diversity, the decrease in biomass between transgenic cotton and untransgenic cotton, different cotton varieties has an effect on them. PMID:25639113

  10. Update on monitoring of resistance to Bt cotton in key lepidopteran pests in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers sprayed more Bollgard II to control target lepidopteran pests in 2010 than in previous years, and therefore concerns have been expressed that the susceptibility of the target lepidopteran pests to the Bt Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins in Bollgard II has significantly decreased. However, resist...

  11. Alternative Splicing and Highly Variable Cadherin Transcripts Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance of Pink Bollworm to Bt Cotton in India

    PubMed Central

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

  12. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  13. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  14. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jizhen; Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  15. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management.

  16. Efficacy evaluation of selected herbicides on weed control and productivity evaluation of Bt cotton in Punjab.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides for weed management in cotton. Highest seed cotton yield (3537.3 kg ha(-1)) was recorded in weed free plots followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre.em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (3318.9 kg ha") owing to improved number of bolls per plant and boll weight. Statistically least yield was recorded underweedy check (1435.4 kg ha(-1)). Application of pyrithiobac sodium could not express any visible toxic effect on crop indicating its selectivity for cotton, although none of the tested new chemicals i.e., pyrithiobac sodium@ 62.5g a.i ha(-1) and quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1) when applied alone could not outperform the existing recommended chemicals for weed management. Yield losses to the extent of 6.2-59.4% were recorded due to weed competition. Weed control efficiency (WCE) was highest under weed free check (86.8%) followed by pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre. em.+quizalofopethyl @50g a.i ha(-1), at 2-4 weed leaf stage + one hoeing (73.7%), whereas minimum values were for weedy check (24.7%). Though net returns (r94660 ha(-1)) were highest for weed free check but higher B:C ratio (2:11) was observed for pendimethalin @1.0 kg a.i ha(-1) as Pre em.+quizalofopethyl @50 g a.i ha(-1) post-em at 2-4 weed leaf stage+one hoeing. Therefore, for reasons such as labor shortage besides their timely availability, using these herbicides in combination with cultural practices could be the practical solution foreconomically efficient and effective weed management. PMID:26364480

  17. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:25629069

  18. Cis-mediated down-regulation of a trypsin gene associated with Bt resistance in cotton bollworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are useful for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Previously identified mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins include reduced binding of activated Bt toxins to m...

  19. Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape (Brassica rapa).

    PubMed

    Vacher, Corinne; Weis, Arthur E; Hermann, Donald; Kossler, Tanya; Young, Chad; Hochberg, Michael E

    2004-08-01

    The inevitable escape of transgenic pollen from cultivated fields will lead to the emergence of transgenic crop-wild plant hybrids in natural patches of wild plants. The fate of these hybrids and that of the transgene depend on their ability to compete with their wild relatives. Here we study ecological factors that may enhance the fitness of genetically modified hybrids relative to wild plants for a Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt) transgene conferring resistance to insects. Mixed stands of wild plants and first-generation hybrids were grown under different conditions of herbivore pressure and density, with Bt oilseed rape ( Brassica napus) as the crop and B. rapa as the wild recipient. Biomass and fitness components were measured from plant germination to the germination of their offspring. The frequency of transgenic seedlings in the offspring generation was estimated using the green fluorescent protein marker. The biomass of F(1) Bt-transgenic hybrids relative to that of wild-type plants was found to be sensitive to both plant density and herbivore pressure, but herbivore pressure appeared as the major factor enhancing their relative fitnesses. In the absence of herbivore pressure, Bt hybrids produced 6.2-fold fewer seeds than their wild neighbors, and Bt plant frequency fell from 50% to 16% within a single generation. Under high herbivore pressure, Bt hybrids produced 1.4-fold more seeds, and Bt plant frequency was 42% in the offspring generation. We conclude that high-density patches of highly damaged wild plants are the most vulnerable to Bt-transgene invasion. They should be monitored early to detect potential transgene spread.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of a spatially-explicit stochastic simulation model of the evolution of resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Bt transgenic corn and cotton.

    PubMed

    Storer, Nicholas P; Peck, Steven L; Gould, Fred; Van Duyn, John W; Kennedy, George G

    2003-02-01

    The sensitivities of a model simulating the evolution of resistance in Helicoverpa zea to Bt toxins in transgenic crops were investigated by examining effects of each of the model parameters on the frequency of resistance alleles after 8 yr. The functional dominance of resistance alleles and the initial frequency of those alleles had a major impact on resistance evolution. The survival of susceptible insects on the transgenic crops and the population dynamics of the insect, driven by winter survival and reproductive rates, were also important. In addition, agricultural practices including the proportion of the acreage planted to corn, and the larval threshold for spraying cotton fields affected the R-allele frequency. Many of these important parameters are inherently variable or cannot be measured with accuracy, so model output cannot be interpreted as being a forecast. However, this analysis is useful in focusing empirical research on those aspects of the insects' life system that have the largest effects on resistance development, and indicates ways in which to improve products and agricultural practices to increase the expected time to resistance. The model can thus be used as a scientific basis for devising a robust resistance management strategy for Bt crops.

  1. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem. PMID:27399776

  2. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem. PMID:27399776

  3. Distribution and Metabolism of Bt-Cry1Ac Toxin in Tissues and Organs of the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhuoya; Li, Yunhe; Xiao, Yutao; Ali, Abid; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Chen, Wenbo; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Crystal (Cry) proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely used in transgenic crops due to their toxicity against insect pests. However, the distribution and metabolism of these toxins in insect tissues and organs have remained obscure because the target insects do not ingest much toxin. In this study, several Cry1Ac-resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera, fed artificial diets containing high doses of Cry1Ac toxin, were used to investigate the distribution and metabolism of Cry1Ac in their bodies. Cry1Ac was only detected in larvae, not in pupae or adults. Also, Cry1Ac passed through the midgut into other tissues, such as the hemolymph and fat body, but did not reach the larval integument. Metabolic tests revealed that Cry1Ac degraded most rapidly in the fat body, followed by the hemolymph, peritrophic membrane and its contents. The toxin was metabolized slowly in the midgut, but was degraded in all locations within 48 h. These findings will improve understanding of the functional mechanism of Bt toxins in target insects and the biotransfer and the bioaccumulation of Bt toxins in arthropod food webs in the Bt crop ecosystem.

  4. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  5. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  6. A point mutation (L1015F) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with lambda-cyhalothrin resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) population from the transgenic Bt cotton field of China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Congai; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-02-01

    In China, the green mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), has caused severe economic damage to many kinds of crops, especially the cotton and jujubes. Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely used for controlling this pest in the transgenic Bt cotton field. Five populations of A. lucorum collected from cotton crops at different locations in China were evaluated for lambda-cyhalothrin resistance. The results showed that only the population collected from Shandong Province exhibited 30-fold of resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Neither PBO nor DEF had obvious synergism when compared the synergistic ratio between SS and RR strain which was originated from the Shandong population. Besides, there were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, or 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase activities between the Shandong population and the laboratory susceptible strain (SS). The full-length sodium channel gene named AlVSSC encoding 2028 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). One single point mutation L1015F in the AlVSSC was detected only in the Shandong population. Our results revealed that the L1015F mutation associated with pyrethroid resistance was identified in A. lucorum populations in China. These results will be useful for the rational chemical control of A. lucorum in the transgenic Bt cotton field. PMID:26821662

  7. Laboratory assessment of the impacts of transgenic Bt rice on the ecological fitness of the soil non-target arthropod, Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yiyang; Xiao, Nengwen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Chen, Fajun; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins (Bt rice) for pest control is considered an important solution to food security in China. However, tests for potential effects on non-target soil organisms are required for environmental risk assessment. The soil collembolan Folsomia candida L. (Collembola: Isotomidae) is a potential non-target arthropod that is often used as a biological indicator in bio-safety assessments of transgenic crops. In the present study, the roots, stems, and leaves of Bt rice were exposed to F. candida under laboratory conditions, with survival, reproduction and growth of the collembolan as ecological fitness parameters. Significant differences in ecological fitness were found among the different treatments, including differences in the plant parts and varieties of non-Bt rice, presumably as the result of three factors: gene modification, plant parts and rice varieties. The fitness of F. candida was less affected by the different diets than by the exposure to the same materials mixed with soil. Our results clearly showed that there was no negative effect of different Bt rice varieties on the fitness of F. candida through either diet or soil exposure.

  8. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  9. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  10. Sources, sinks, and spatial ecology of cotton mice in longleaf pine stands undergoing restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, N.W.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Fire and Fire Surrogate studya replicated, manipulative experimentsought the most economically and ecologically efficient way to restore the nation's fire-maintained ecosystems. As part of this study, we conducted a 3-year markrecapture study, comprising 105,000 trap-nights, to assess demographic responses of cotton mice (Peromyscus gossypinus) to Fire and Fire Surrogate treatments at the Gulf Coastal Plain site, where longleaf pine was the ecosystem to be restored. We compared competing models to evaluate restoration effects on variation in apparent survival and recruitment over time, space, and treatment, and incorporated measures of available source habitat for cotton mice with reverse-time modeling to infer immigration from outside the study area. The top-ranked survival model contained only variation over time, but the closely ranked 2nd and 3rd models included variation over space and treatment, respectively. The top 4 recruitment models all included effects for availability of source habitat and treatments. Burning appeared to degrade habitat quality for cotton mice, showing demographic characteristics of a sink, but treatments combining fire with thinning of trees or application of herbicide to the understory appeared to improve habitat quality, possibly creating sources. Bottomland hardwoods outside the study also acted as sources by providing immigrants to experimental units. Models suggested that population dynamics operated over multiple spatial scales. Treatments applied to 15-ha stands probably only caused local variation in vital rates within the larger population. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Survey of organophosphate resistance and an Ala216Ser substitution of acetylcholinesterase-1 gene associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) collected from the transgenic Bt cotton fields in China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Congai; Miao, Ling; Liang, Pei; Gao, Xiwu

    2016-09-01

    The mirid bug is frequently controlled by the application of organophosphorus insecticides in the transgenic Bt cotton field of China. A topical bioassay method was performed to evaluate the toxicities of chlorpyrifos and malathion towards field-collected Chinese populations of Apolygus lucorum from transgenic Bt cotton fields. For chlorpyrifos, the resistance ratios ranged from 0.8 to 9.4-fold compared to a susceptible strain. For malathion, the resistance levels relative to the susceptible strain ranged from 1.2 to 14.4-fold. Compared to a susceptible strain, the Cangzhou population from Hebei province showed the highest resistance ratios towards these insecticides. A comparison of the detoxifying and target enzyme activities between the Cangzhou population and a susceptible strain revealed that altered acetylcholinesterase possibly account for the chlorpyrifos and malathion resistance in the Cangzhou population. Two acetylcholinesterase (AChE-encoding) genes (designated Alace1 and Alace2) from the green mirid bug (A. lucorum) were identified. The Alace1 and Alace2 genes encoded 597 and 645 amino acids, respectively. Both AChE proteins had conserved motifs including a catalytic triad, a choline-binding site, and an acyl pocket. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that Alace1 had a much higher transcriptional level than Alace2, for the expression profiles of both spatial and time distributions. One amino acid substitution, Ala216Ser in Alace1, was found in the Cangzhou population. These results suggest that the mutation Ala216Ser should be most likely involved in organophosphorus resistance in A. lucorum. PMID:27521910

  12. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  13. Detrimental effect of expression of Bt endotoxin Cry1Ac on in vitro regeneration, in vivo growth and development of tobacco and cotton transgenics.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Preeti; Singh, Amarjeet Kumar; Ray, Krishna; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Taru; Kanoria, Shaveta; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Paritosh; Pental, Deepak; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-06-01

    High levels of expression of the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis cannot be routinely achieved in transgenic plants despite modifications made in the gene to improve its expression. This has been attributed to the instability of the transcript in a few reports. In the present study, based on the genetic transformation of cotton and tobacco, we show that the expression of the Cry1Ac endotoxin has detrimental effects on both the in vitro and in vivo growth and development of transgenic plants. A number of experiments on developing transgenics in cotton with different versions of cry1Ac gene showed that the majority of the plants did not express any Cry1Ac protein. Based on Southern blot analysis, it was also observed that a substantial number of lines did not contain the cry1Ac gene cassette although they contained the marker gene nptII. More significantly, all the lines that showed appreciable levels of expression were found to be phenotypically abnormal. Experiments on transformation of tobacco with different constructs expressing the cry1Ac gene showed that in vitro regeneration was inhibited by the encoded protein. Further, out of a total of 145 independent events generated with the different cry1Ac gene constructs in tobacco, only 21 showed expression of the Cry1Ac protein, confirming observations made in cotton that regenerants that express high levels of the Cry1Ac protein are selected against during regeneration of transformed events. This problem was circumvented by targeting the Cry1Ac protein to the chloroplast, which also significantly improved the expression of the protein.

  14. Detrimental effect of expression of Bt endotoxin Cry1Ac on in vitro regeneration, in vivo growth and development of tobacco and cotton transgenics.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Preeti; Singh, Amarjeet Kumar; Ray, Krishna; Chaudhary, Bhupendra; Kumar, Sanjeev; Gautam, Taru; Kanoria, Shaveta; Kaur, Gurpreet; Kumar, Paritosh; Pental, Deepak; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-06-01

    High levels of expression of the cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis cannot be routinely achieved in transgenic plants despite modifications made in the gene to improve its expression. This has been attributed to the instability of the transcript in a few reports. In the present study, based on the genetic transformation of cotton and tobacco, we show that the expression of the Cry1Ac endotoxin has detrimental effects on both the in vitro and in vivo growth and development of transgenic plants. A number of experiments on developing transgenics in cotton with different versions of cry1Ac gene showed that the majority of the plants did not express any Cry1Ac protein. Based on Southern blot analysis, it was also observed that a substantial number of lines did not contain the cry1Ac gene cassette although they contained the marker gene nptII. More significantly, all the lines that showed appreciable levels of expression were found to be phenotypically abnormal. Experiments on transformation of tobacco with different constructs expressing the cry1Ac gene showed that in vitro regeneration was inhibited by the encoded protein. Further, out of a total of 145 independent events generated with the different cry1Ac gene constructs in tobacco, only 21 showed expression of the Cry1Ac protein, confirming observations made in cotton that regenerants that express high levels of the Cry1Ac protein are selected against during regeneration of transformed events. This problem was circumvented by targeting the Cry1Ac protein to the chloroplast, which also significantly improved the expression of the protein. PMID:21654089

  15. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C A; Chiaravalle, W; Dalla-Rizza, M; Farias, J R; García-Degano, M F; Gastaminza, G; Mota-Sánchez, D; Murúa, M G; Omoto, C; Pieralisi, B K; Rodríguez, J; Rodríguez-Maciel, J C; Terán-Santofimio, H; Terán-Vargas, A P; Valencia, S J; Willink, E

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis- (Bt) insecticidal proteins (Bt crops) have provided useful pest management tools to growers for the past 20 years. Planting Bt crops has reduced the use of synthetic insecticides on cotton, maize and soybean fields in 11 countries throughout Latin America. One of the threats that could jeopardize the sustainability of Bt crops is the development of resistance by targeted pests. Governments of many countries require vigilance in measuring changes in Bt-susceptibility in order to proactively implement corrective measures before Bt-resistance is widespread, thus prolonging the usefulness of Bt crops. A pragmatic approach to obtain information on the effectiveness of Bt-crops is directly asking growers, crop consultants and academics about Bt-resistance problems in agricultural fields, first-hand information that not necessarily relies on susceptibility screens performed in laboratories. This type of information is presented in this report. Problematic pests of cotton and soybeans in five Latin American countries currently are effectively controlled by Bt crops. Growers that plant conventional (non-Bt) cotton or soybeans have to spray synthetic insecticides against multiple pests that otherwise are controlled by these Bt crops. A similar situation has been observed in six Latin American countries where Bt maize is planted. No synthetic insecticide applications are used to control corn pests because they are controlled by Bt maize, with the exception of Spodoptera frugiperda. While this insect in some countries is still effectively controlled by Bt maize, in others resistance has evolved and necessitates supplemental insecticide applications and/or the use of Bt maize cultivars that express multiple Bt proteins. Partial control of S. frugiperda in certain countries is due to its natural tolerance to the Bt bacterium. Of the 31 pests targeted and controlled by Bt crops in Latin America, only S. frugiperda has shown

  16. Increasing the cotton yield and improving the ecology in cotton fields by utilizing the properties of natural resources in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Changyan; Lu, Zhaozhi; Song, Yudong; Zhang, Henian

    2003-07-01

    The area of aeolian sand soil in Xinjiang is 3.7189×107 hm2 and occupies 25% of the total land area. Traditionally, it is considered that aeolian sand soil has low yield of crops due to its poor retention power of soil moisture and soil fertility. However, the stems of cotton growing on aeolian sand soil are small and their fictile shape is easy to be controlled. Thus, a culture mode of "increasing stems and bolls, double-layer and double-stem" of cotton is developed by scientific irrigation and fertilizer spread as well as artificial control of fictile shape based on the growth laws of cotton and the properties of aeolian sand soil, and a lint yield of over 3,750 kg/hm2 has been reaped in successive 3 years. Currently, the cotton culture in Xinjiang is rapidly developed, the proportion of cotton-culture areas occupies 40~60%, the cultivating areas of other crops are reduced, the ecosystems are simplified, and the natural enemies in cotton fields are reduced. Alfalfa belts of 8~10 m in width are planted in the zones affected by shelter forests, the occurrence of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) in alfalfa belts is 10~15 days earlier than that of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), and in the alfalfa belts the quantity of herioaphis maculata (Buckton), the natural enemies, is 13.65 times of that in cotton fields when the cotton aphids occur. To resect the alfalfa this moment makes the natural enemies in the alfalfa belts enter the cotton fields and eat cotton aphids, which has good effects for preventing and controlling cotton aphids.

  17. Bt resistance in Australian insect pest species.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Walsh, Tom; Tay, Wee Tek

    2016-06-01

    Bt cotton was initially deployed in Australia in the mid-1990s to control the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) which was intractably resistant to synthetic chemistries. A conservative strategy was enforced and resistance to first generation single toxin technology was managed. A decade later, shortly after the release of dual toxin cotton, high baseline frequencies of alleles conferring resistance to one of its components prompted a reassessment of the thinking behind the potential risks to this technology. Several reviews detail the characteristics of this resistance and the nuances of deploying first and second generation Bt cotton in Australia. Here we explore recent advances and future possibilities to estimate Bt resistance in Australian pest species and define what we see as the critical data for enabling effective pre-emptive strategies. We also foreshadow the imminent deployment of three toxin (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3A) Bollgard 3 cotton, and examine aspects of resistance to its novel component, Vip3A, that we believe may impact on its stewardship. PMID:27436735

  18. A Black (White) Hole in the Global Spread of GM Cotton.

    PubMed

    Burkitbayeva, Saule; Qaim, Matin; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been widely adopted, notably by smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, it has not been used in Central Asia, an important cotton-producing region. We discuss possible reasons and hypothesize that the most likely explanation is limited local demand for Bt owing to low levels of pest infestation. This would imply that global Bt cotton adoption rates may already be close to 100% when considering real demand for insect-resistant varieties.

  19. A Black (White) Hole in the Global Spread of GM Cotton.

    PubMed

    Burkitbayeva, Saule; Qaim, Matin; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been widely adopted, notably by smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, it has not been used in Central Asia, an important cotton-producing region. We discuss possible reasons and hypothesize that the most likely explanation is limited local demand for Bt owing to low levels of pest infestation. This would imply that global Bt cotton adoption rates may already be close to 100% when considering real demand for insect-resistant varieties. PMID:27017312

  20. Development of transgenic Acala 1517 cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through backcross breeding, insect resistant Bt genes (W and BGII) and herbicide resistant Roundup Ready genes (RR and RF) have been introduced into Acala 1517 cotton, resulting in the development of one Acala cultivar 1517-99W and a number of elite breeding lines. Acala 1517 germplasm with two Bt g...

  1. The ecological roles of Bacillus thuringiensis within phyllosphere environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxian; Xue, Yarong; Han, Meizhe; Bu, Yuanqing; Liu, Changhong

    2014-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is one of the most used bio-control agents to control plant insects, but little is known about its effect on the microbial population and communities on plant leaves. With the culture dependent method, it has been observed that the dynamics of Bt within the phyllosphere varied dependent on both the doses of Bt sprayed on the leaves and the plant species, however, Bt's population size kept stable at about 1000 cfu g(-1) after 15 d since inoculation. By comparing the bacterial abundances and community structures within the phyllosphere of three plant species, we confirmed that Bt at the doses of 1.5×10(7) and 1.5×10(9) cfu mL(-1) respectively did not significantly influence the natural bacterial population size on the leaf surfaces based on culture dependent assay. However, based on culture independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), Shannon-Wiener index (H') and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) analysis, Bt has a significant influence on the bacterial communities within the phyllosphere of amaranth and cotton, but not rice. These results indicate that Bt exhibits different behaviors and ecological roles on the microbial diversity within the phyllosphere, and its environmental safety has to be concerned and evaluated in the future. PMID:24534157

  2. Mantis BT Cluster Support

    SciTech Connect

    Riot, V.

    2009-06-05

    The software is a modidication to the Mantis BT V1.5 open source application provided by the mantis BT group to support cluster web servers. It also provides various cosmetic modifications used a LLNL.

  3. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    PubMed

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed.

  4. Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui-Lin; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated. In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests.

  5. [Effects of two years planting transgenic Bt rice (BtSY63) on soil nematode community].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Qiang; Chen, Fa-Jun; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Hu, Feng

    2012-11-01

    A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of planting transgenic Bt rice (BtSY63) and its near-isogenic non-Bt rice (SY63) on the soil nematode abundance, trophic group composition, ecological indices, and community structure. With the planting of BtSY63 and SY63, the soil nematode abundance changed obviously with sampling time, but had no significant difference between planting BtSY63 and SY63. Only at specific sampling time, the percentage of omnivore-predators and the Shannon diversity index of nematode community under the planting of BtSY63 were significantly higher than those under the planting of SY63. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) of nematode community revealed that no significant difference was observed in the nematode community composition between planting BtSY63 and SY63 across all sampling times. In conclusion, two years planting BtSY63 had no deleterious effects on the soil nematode community.

  6. The present and future role of insect-resistant GM cotton in IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons producing Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control lepidopteran pests and were first commercially grown in Australia, Mexico and the USA in 1996. As of 2007, six additional countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and South Africa) now grow Bt cotton on a t...

  7. [Advances in safety studies of soil Bt toxin proteins released from transgenic Bt crops].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaoyu; Jiang, Mingxing; Cheng, Jia; Jiang, Yonghou

    2003-11-01

    Commercialized transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops are permitted for field growth in a large scale, which leads to significant issues of ecological risk assessment in soil ecosystem. In this paper, some general safety problems involving in the soil Bt active toxins released from insect-resistant transgenic Bt crops in the forms of plant residues, root exudates and pollens were reviewed, including their adsorption by soil active-particles, their insecticidal activity, persistence, and biodegradation by soil microbes, and their effects on soil organisms.

  8. Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development, Survivorship, and Damage on Cotton Plants Expressing Insecticidal Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

    PubMed

    Hardke, Jarrod T; Jackson, Ryan E; Leonard, B Rogers; Temple, Joshua H

    2015-06-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), plants expressing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner are planted on significant acreage across the southern region of the United States. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), can be a significant cotton pest in some years, but this species has not been a primary target of Bt cotton technologies. The objective of this study was to quantify fall armyworm larval survivorship and fruiting form injury on transgenic cotton lines expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard), Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab (Bollgard II), and Cry1Ac+Cry1F (WideStrike) Bt proteins. Larval survivorship and fruiting form damage of fall armyworm on Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, and non-Bt (control) cotton lines were evaluated in no-choice field studies. Fall armyworm (third instars) were placed on flower buds (squares), white flowers, and bolls, enclosed within a nylon mesh exclusion cage, and evaluated at selected intervals after infestation. Exposure of fall armyworm larvae to Bollgard cotton lines generally resulted in no significant effects on survivorship compared with larvae exposed to the non-Bt cotton line. Survivorship and plant injury by fall armyworm on Bollgard II cotton lines was variable compared with that on non-Bt cotton lines, and significant differences between treatments were inconsistent. Fall armyworm had significantly lower survivorship and caused less plant injury on WideStrike cotton lines than on non-Bt cotton lines across all plant structures. Development and survivorship of fall armyworm larvae on these cotton lines also were evaluated in no-choice laboratory assays by offering the previously described fruiting forms to third instars. Bollgard II and WideStrike cotton lines significantly reduced fall armyworm development and survivorship compared with those larvae offered non-Bt tissue. These results suggest that differences exist among selected Bt cotton technologies in their performance against fall

  9. Large-scale test of the natural refuge strategy for delaying insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lin; Zhang, Haonan; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Yidong

    2015-02-01

    The 'natural refuge strategy" for delaying insect resistance to transgenic cotton that produces insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) relies on refuges of host plants other than cotton that do not make Bt toxins. We tested this widely adopted strategy by comparing predictions from modeling with data from a four-year field study of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in six provinces of northern China. Bioassay data revealed that the percentage of resistant insects increased from 0.93% in 2010 to 5.5% in 2013. Modeling predicted that the percentage of resistant insects would exceed 98% in 2013 without natural refuges, but would increase to only 1.1% if natural refuges were as effective as non-Bt cotton refuges. Therefore, the results imply that natural refuges delayed resistance, but were not as effective as an equivalent area of non-Bt cotton refuges. The percentage of resistant insects with nonrecessive inheritance of resistance increased from 37% in 2010 to 84% in 2013. Switching to Bt cotton producing two or more toxins and integrating other control tactics could slow further increases in resistance.

  10. [Determination of nutrient elements in transgenic insect-resistant cotton tissues by three different spectroscopical methods].

    PubMed

    Sun, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Yu-Quan; Yang, Lei; Wang, Jie; Cui, Zhen-Bo

    2009-11-01

    In order to find out the effects of exogenous genes, such as Bt and Bt coupled with CpTI, on nutrition metabolism in transgenic plants, totally eleven types of nutrient elements in transgenic Bt (Z30) and Bt-CpTI (CCRI41 and SGK321) cotton were determined using methods of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, flame atomic emission spectroscopy and spectrophotometry at flowering stage and boll-opening stage. The results showed that the chemical composition of plant nutrition in transgenic insect-resistant cotton differed in comparison with non-transgenic cotton counterparts related to varieties, tissues and stages. The content of total N in transgenic cotton changed most significantly. Especially, it increased by 21% for transgenic Bt cotton Z30 compared to non-transgenic cotton Z16. These changes in total N content were probably caused by both transgenes expression in transgenic cotton and other processes not studied in this experiment. The content of Mg, Na and Cu in transgenic cotton varied significantly only in some certain varieties or tissues. It was unobvious how the incorporation of transgenes impacted on the content of organic C, total P, total S, K, Ca, Fe and Zn in transgenic cotton. The authors speculated that there were no significant changes in utilization and accumulation of these nutrient elements between transgenic insect-resistant cotton and their non-transgenic cotton counterparts (Z16, CCRI23 and SY321, respectively).

  11. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  12. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  14. Pollen- and Seed-Mediated Transgene Flow in Commercial Cotton Seed Production Fields

    PubMed Central

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not) for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. Conclusions/Significance A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow. PMID:21152426

  15. [Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals. PMID:20707123

  16. [Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals.

  17. E.QUALITY@BT...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Roderick H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a management system developed by BT Laboratories (United Kingdom) that is based on ISO 9001 using the World Wide Web, a hypermedia system, and part of the Internet. Subject matter is presented as an alphabetical list of linked entries, numerous navigational techniques are available, and searching options function within an index file.…

  18. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950.

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. White

    2004-01-01

    White, D.L. 2004. Deerskins and Cotton. Ecological impacts of historical land use in the Central Savannah River Area of the Southeastern US before 1950. Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 324 pp. Abstract: The history of land use for an area is the history of the way in which humans have manipulated or altered the environment. Most land use activities can be viewed as disturbance to ecosystems. Within a given climatic regime, the interaction of the disturbance regime with vegetation, soil, and landform factors largely determines the distribution and composition of plant and associated animal communities. For these reasons, a greater understanding of the ecological impacts of both human and non-human related disturbance is needed to improve our ability to make natural resource management decisions. This document outlines the land use history of the Savannah River Site and surrounding areas from about 1780 thru 1950, when the site was converted to a government facility for the purposes of national defense.

  19. Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: definition, theory, and data.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Van Rensburg, J B J; Carrière, Yves

    2009-12-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the definition of field-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and field control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from five continents reported in 41 studies that evaluate responses of field populations of 11 lepidopteran pests to four Bt toxins produced by Bt corn and cotton. After more than a decade since initial commercialization of Bt crops, most target pest populations remain susceptible, whereas field-evolved resistance has been documented in some populations of three noctuid moth species: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) to Cry1F in Bt corn in Puerto Rico, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to CrylAb in Bt corn in South Africa, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to CrylAc and Cry2Ab in Bt cotton in the southeastern United States. Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-toxin Bt crops. The insights gained from systematic analyses of resistance monitoring data may help to enhance the durability of transgenic insecticidal crops. We recommend continued use of the longstanding definition of resistance cited here and encourage discussions about which regulatory actions, if any, should be triggered by specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of field-evolved resistance.

  20. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests.

  1. The design and implementation of insect resistance management programs for Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Head, Graham P; Greenplate, John

    2012-01-01

    Cotton and corn plants with insect resistance traits introduced through biotechnological methods and derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since they were first introduced in 1996. Because of concerns about resistance evolving to these Bt crops, they have been released with associated IRM programs that employ multiple components and reflect the input of academic, industrial and regulatory experts. This paper summarizes the current status of Bt crop technologies in cotton and corn, the principles of IRM for Bt crops and what they mean for the design of IRM programs. It describes how these IRM programs have been implemented and some of the key factors affecting successful implementation. Finally, it suggests how they may evolve to properly steward these traits in different geographies around the world. The limited number of reported cases of resistance after more than 15 years of intensive global use of Bt crops suggest that this exercise has been broadly successful. Where resistance issues have been observed, they have been associated with first generation technologies and incomplete or compromised IRM programs (i.e., inadequate structured refuge). Next generation technologies with multiple pyramided modes of action, together with the implementation of IRM strategies that are more dependent upon manufacturing and less dependent upon grower behavior, such as seed mixes, should further enhance IRM programs for Bt crops.

  2. Measuring gene flow in the cultivation of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao-Hong; Pan, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Teng-Long; Wang, Qing-Lian; Anderson, Todd A

    2005-09-01

    Transgenic Bt cotton NewCott 33B and transgenic tfd A cotton TFD were chosen to evaluate pollen dispersal frequency and distance of transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Huanghe Valley Cotton-producing Zone, China. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of biosafety procedures used to reduce pollen movement. A field test plot of transgenic cotton (6 x 6 m) was planted in the middle of a nontransgenic field measuring 210 x 210 m. The results indicated that the pollen of Bt cotton or tfd A cotton could be dispersed into the environment. Out-crossing was highest within the central test plot where progeny from nontransgenic plants, immediately adjacent to transgenic plants, had resistant plant progeny at frequencies up to 10.48%. Dispersal frequency decreased significantly and exponentially as dispersal distance increased. The flow frequency and distance of tfd A and Bt genes were similar, but the pollen-mediated gene flow of tfd A cotton was higher and further to the transgenic block than that of Bt cotton (chi2 = 11.712, 1 degree of freedom, p < 0.001). For the tfd A gene, out-crossing ranged from 10.13% at 1 m to 0.04% at 50 m from the transgenic plants. For the Bt gene, out-crossing ranged from 8.16% at 1 m to 0.08% at 20 m from the transgenic plants. These data were fit to a power curve model: y = 10.1321x-1.4133 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and y = 8.0031x-1.483 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998, respectively. In this experiment, the farthest distance of pollen dispersal from transgenic cotton was 50 m. These results indicate that a 60-m buffer zone would serve to limit dispersal of transgenic pollen from small-scale field tests. PMID:16118411

  3. Does the growing of Bt maize change populations or ecological functions of non-target animals compared to the growing of conventional non-GM maize? A systematic review protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been grown on an ever increasing area worldwide. Maize producing a Cry protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was among the first GM crops released for commercial production and it is the only GM crop currently cultivated in Europe. A ...

  4. Comparative diversity of arthropods on Bt maize and non-Bt maize in two different cropping systems in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Truter, J; Van Hamburg, H; Van Den Berg, J

    2014-02-01

    The biodiversity of an agroecosystem is not only important for its intrinsic value but also because it influences ecological functions that are vital for crop production in sustainable agricultural systems and the surrounding environment. A concern about genetically modified (GM) crops is the potential negative impact that such crops could have on diversity and abundance of nontarget organisms, and subsequently on ecosystem functions. Therefore, it is essential to assess the potential environmental risk of the release of a GM crop and to study its effect on species assemblages within that ecosystem. Assessment of the impact of Bt maize on the environment is hampered by the lack of basic checklists of species present in maize agroecosystems. The aims of the study were to compile a checklist of arthropods that occur on maize in South Africa and to compare the diversity and abundance of arthropods and functional groups on Bt maize and non-Bt maize. Collections of arthropods were carried out during two growing seasons on Bt maize and non-Bt maize plants at two localities. Three maize fields were sampled per locality during each season. Twenty plants, each of Bt maize and non-Bt maize, were randomly selected from the fields at each site. The arthropods collected during this study were classified to morphospecies level and grouped into the following functional groups: detritivores, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Based on feeding strategy, herbivores and predators were further divided into sucking herbivores or predators (piercing-sucking mouthparts) and chewing herbivores or predators (chewing mouthparts). A total of 8,771 arthropod individuals, comprising 288 morphospecies and presenting 20 orders, were collected. Results from this short-term study indicated that abundance and diversity of arthropods in maize and the different functional guilds were not significantly affected by Bt maize, either in terms of diversity or abundance.

  5. Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t

  6. On risk and regulation: Bt crops in India.

    PubMed

    Herring, Ronald J

    2014-07-01

    Genetic engineering in agriculture raises contentious politics unknown in other applications of molecular technology. Controversy originated and persists for inter-related reasons; these are not primarily, as frequently assumed, differences over scientific findings, but rather about the relationship of science to 'risk.' First, there are inevitably differences in how to interpret 'risk' in situations in which there are no established findings of specific hazard; 'Knightian uncertainty' defines this condition. Science claims no method of resolution in such cases of uncertainty. Second, science has no claim about risk preferences in a normative sense. In genetic engineering, Knightian uncertainty is pervasive; declaring uncertainty to constitute 'risk' enables a precautionary politics in which no conceivable evidence from science can confirm absence of risk. This is the logic of the precautionary state. The logic of the developmental state is quite different: uncertainty is treated as an inevitable component of change, and therefore a logic of acceptable uncertainty, parallel to acceptable risk of the sort deployed in cost-benefit analysis in other spheres of behavior, dominates policy. India's official position on agricultural biotechnology has been promotional, as expected from a developmental state, but regulation of Bt crops has rested in a section of the state operating more on precautionary than developmental logic. As a result, notwithstanding the developmental success of Bt cotton, Bt brinjal [eggplant, aubergine] encountered a moratorium on deployment despite approval by the regulatory scientific body designated to assess biosafety. PMID:25437239

  7. On risk and regulation: Bt crops in India.

    PubMed

    Herring, Ronald J

    2014-07-01

    Genetic engineering in agriculture raises contentious politics unknown in other applications of molecular technology. Controversy originated and persists for inter-related reasons; these are not primarily, as frequently assumed, differences over scientific findings, but rather about the relationship of science to 'risk.' First, there are inevitably differences in how to interpret 'risk' in situations in which there are no established findings of specific hazard; 'Knightian uncertainty' defines this condition. Science claims no method of resolution in such cases of uncertainty. Second, science has no claim about risk preferences in a normative sense. In genetic engineering, Knightian uncertainty is pervasive; declaring uncertainty to constitute 'risk' enables a precautionary politics in which no conceivable evidence from science can confirm absence of risk. This is the logic of the precautionary state. The logic of the developmental state is quite different: uncertainty is treated as an inevitable component of change, and therefore a logic of acceptable uncertainty, parallel to acceptable risk of the sort deployed in cost-benefit analysis in other spheres of behavior, dominates policy. India's official position on agricultural biotechnology has been promotional, as expected from a developmental state, but regulation of Bt crops has rested in a section of the state operating more on precautionary than developmental logic. As a result, notwithstanding the developmental success of Bt cotton, Bt brinjal [eggplant, aubergine] encountered a moratorium on deployment despite approval by the regulatory scientific body designated to assess biosafety.

  8. On risk and regulation: Bt crops in India

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Genetic engineering in agriculture raises contentious politics unknown in other applications of molecular technology. Controversy originated and persists for inter-related reasons; these are not primarily, as frequently assumed, differences over scientific findings, but rather about the relationship of science to ‘risk.’ First, there are inevitably differences in how to interpret ‘risk’ in situations in which there are no established findings of specific hazard; ‘Knightian uncertainty’ defines this condition. Science claims no method of resolution in such cases of uncertainty. Second, science has no claim about risk preferences in a normative sense. In genetic engineering, Knightian uncertainty is pervasive; declaring uncertainty to constitute ‘risk’ enables a precautionary politics in which no conceivable evidence from science can confirm absence of risk. This is the logic of the precautionary state. The logic of the developmental state is quite different: uncertainty is treated as an inevitable component of change, and therefore a logic of acceptable uncertainty, parallel to acceptable risk of the sort deployed in cost-benefit analysis in other spheres of behavior, dominates policy. India's official position on agricultural biotechnology has been promotional, as expected from a developmental state, but regulation of Bt crops has rested in a section of the state operating more on precautionary than developmental logic. As a result, notwithstanding the developmental success of Bt cotton, Bt brinjal [eggplant, aubergine] encountered a moratorium on deployment despite approval by the regulatory scientific body designated to assess biosafety. PMID:25437239

  9. Chloroplast-targeted expression of recombinant crystal-protein gene in cotton: an unconventional combat with resistant pests.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Sarfraz; Mohamed, Bahaeldeen Babiker; Shehzad, Kamran; Jamal, Adil; Shahid, Muhammad Naveed; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2013-07-10

    Plants transformed with single Bt gene are liable to develop insect resistance and this has already been reported in a number of studies carried out around the world where Bt cotton was cultivated on commercial scale. Later, it was envisaged to transform plants with more than one Bt genes in order to combat with resistant larvae. This approach seems valid as various Bt genes possess different binding domains which could delay the likely hazards of insect resistance against a particular Bt toxin. But it is difficult under field conditions to develop homozygous plants expressing all Bt genes equally after many generations without undergoing recombination effects. A number of researches claiming to transform plants from three to seven transgenes in a single plant were reported during the last decade but none has yet applied for patent of homozygous transgenic lines. A better strategy might be to use hybrid-Bt gene(s) modified for improved lectin-binding domains to boost Bt receptor sites in insect midgut. These recombinant-Bt gene(s) would express different lectin domains in a single polypeptide and it is relatively easy to develop homozygous transgenic lines under field conditions. Enhanced chloroplast-localized expression of hybrid-Bt gene would leave no room for insects to develop resistance. We devised and successfully applied this strategy in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and data up to T3 generation showed that our transgenic cotton plants were displaying enhanced chloroplast-targeted Cry1Ac-RB expression. Laboratory and field bioassays gave promising results against American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), pink bollworm (Pictinophora scutigera) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) that otherwise, were reported to have evolved resistance against Cry1Ac toxin. Elevated levels of hybrid-Bt toxin were confirmed by ELISA of chloroplast-enriched protein samples extracted from leaves of transgenic cotton lines. While, localization of recombinant Cry1Ac-RB protein in

  10. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure.

  11. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  12. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  13. Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  14. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-01-01

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects. PMID:26345739

  15. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  16. Impact of transgenic cotton varieties on activity of enzymes in their rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mina, Usha; Chaudhary, Anita

    2012-06-01

    The impact of five Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties and their respective isogenic non-Bt(NBt) isolines (ANKUR-2534, MECH-6304, RCH-317, ANKUR-651 and MECH-6301) was assessed on the key soil enzymes i.e., dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease in their rhizosphere at four growth stages of the crop, namely vegetative, flowering, bolling and harvesting. These varieties were grown on farmer's field in villages 22 miles and 24 miles of Ganganagar District of Rajasthan State in India. Results showed that dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities were higher in rhizosphere of Bt isolines as compared to NBt isolines of all the varieties. Except phosphatase, differences in dehydrogenase and urease activities in rhizosphere of Bt and NBt isolines of all five varieties were significant (P < 0.05). Maximum enhancement in the three enzymes activities was observed in MECH-6304 Bt isoline rhizosphere. Maximum and minimum activities of dehydrogenase and urease were observed in MECH-6304 and RCH-317 Bt isolines, respectively, whereas phosphatase activity was maximum and minimum in MECH-6304 and ANKUR-651 Bt isolines, respectively. Maximum dehydrogenase and urease activities were observed at boll formation and minimum at flowering and harvesting stage, respectively, while maximum phosphatase activity was observed at vegetative stage and minimum at harvesting stage. In conclusion, all the studied Bt isolines of cotton varieties showed no adverse effect on dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease activities in the rhizosphere.

  17. Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as

  18. Mode of inheritance for biochemical traits in genetically engineered cotton under water stress

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Muhammad Ali; Malik, Waqas; Yasmeen, Azra; Qayyum, Abdul; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Chengzhen; Guo, Sandui; Ashraf, Javaria

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an abiotic environmental stress that can significantly reduce crop productivity. We examined the mode of inheritance for different biochemical traits including total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total phenolic contents and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and their relationship with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin under control and drought conditions. Eight genetically diverse cotton genotypes were selfed for two generations to ensure homozygosity. Fifteen F1 hybrids were developed by crossing five non-Bt female lines with three Bt male testers. The F1 hybrids and eight parents were finally evaluated under control (100 % field capacity (FC)) and drought (50 % FC) conditions in 2013. The biochemical traits appeared to be controlled by non-additive gene action with low narrow sense heritability estimates. The estimates of general combining ability and specific combining ability for all biochemical traits were significant under control and drought conditions. The genotype-by-trait biplot analysis showed the better performance of Bt cotton hybrids when compared with their parental genotypes for various biochemical traits under control and drought conditions. The biplot and path coefficient analyses revealed the prevalence of different relationships between Cry1Ac toxin and biochemical traits in the control and drought conditions. In conclusion, biochemical traits could serve as potential biochemical markers for breeding Bt cotton genotypes without compromising the optimal level of Bt toxin. PMID:26839284

  19. Mode of inheritance for biochemical traits in genetically engineered cotton under water stress.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad Ali; Malik, Waqas; Yasmeen, Azra; Qayyum, Abdul; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Chengzhen; Guo, Sandui; Ashraf, Javaria

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an abiotic environmental stress that can significantly reduce crop productivity. We examined the mode of inheritance for different biochemical traits including total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total phenolic contents and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and their relationship with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin under control and drought conditions. Eight genetically diverse cotton genotypes were selfed for two generations to ensure homozygosity. Fifteen F1 hybrids were developed by crossing five non-Bt female lines with three Bt male testers. The F1 hybrids and eight parents were finally evaluated under control (100 % field capacity (FC)) and drought (50 % FC) conditions in 2013. The biochemical traits appeared to be controlled by non-additive gene action with low narrow sense heritability estimates. The estimates of general combining ability and specific combining ability for all biochemical traits were significant under control and drought conditions. The genotype-by-trait biplot analysis showed the better performance of Bt cotton hybrids when compared with their parental genotypes for various biochemical traits under control and drought conditions. The biplot and path coefficient analyses revealed the prevalence of different relationships between Cry1Ac toxin and biochemical traits in the control and drought conditions. In conclusion, biochemical traits could serve as potential biochemical markers for breeding Bt cotton genotypes without compromising the optimal level of Bt toxin. PMID:26839284

  20. Mode of inheritance for biochemical traits in genetically engineered cotton under water stress.

    PubMed

    Abid, Muhammad Ali; Malik, Waqas; Yasmeen, Azra; Qayyum, Abdul; Zhang, Rui; Liang, Chengzhen; Guo, Sandui; Ashraf, Javaria

    2016-01-01

    Drought is an abiotic environmental stress that can significantly reduce crop productivity. We examined the mode of inheritance for different biochemical traits including total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, total phenolic contents and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), and their relationship with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin under control and drought conditions. Eight genetically diverse cotton genotypes were selfed for two generations to ensure homozygosity. Fifteen F1 hybrids were developed by crossing five non-Bt female lines with three Bt male testers. The F1 hybrids and eight parents were finally evaluated under control (100 % field capacity (FC)) and drought (50 % FC) conditions in 2013. The biochemical traits appeared to be controlled by non-additive gene action with low narrow sense heritability estimates. The estimates of general combining ability and specific combining ability for all biochemical traits were significant under control and drought conditions. The genotype-by-trait biplot analysis showed the better performance of Bt cotton hybrids when compared with their parental genotypes for various biochemical traits under control and drought conditions. The biplot and path coefficient analyses revealed the prevalence of different relationships between Cry1Ac toxin and biochemical traits in the control and drought conditions. In conclusion, biochemical traits could serve as potential biochemical markers for breeding Bt cotton genotypes without compromising the optimal level of Bt toxin.

  1. Yield and economic performance of organic and conventional cotton-based farming systems--results from a field trial in India.

    PubMed

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007-2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1(st) crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007-2008) for cotton (-29%) and wheat (-27%), whereas in the 2(nd) crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009-2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (-1% in cycle 1, -11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of cotton and

  2. Yield and Economic Performance of Organic and Conventional Cotton-Based Farming Systems – Results from a Field Trial in India

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Dionys; Andres, Christian; Verma, Rajeev; Zundel, Christine; Messmer, Monika M.; Mäder, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has in recent time gained significant interest. So far, global agricultural development has focused on increased productivity rather than on a holistic natural resource management for food security. Thus, developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information concerning the performance of farming systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is scarce. This study presents agronomic and economic data from the conversion phase (2007–2010) of a farming systems comparison trial on a Vertisol soil in Madhya Pradesh, central India. A cotton-soybean-wheat crop rotation under biodynamic, organic and conventional (with and without Bt cotton) management was investigated. We observed a significant yield gap between organic and conventional farming systems in the 1st crop cycle (cycle 1: 2007–2008) for cotton (−29%) and wheat (−27%), whereas in the 2nd crop cycle (cycle 2: 2009–2010) cotton and wheat yields were similar in all farming systems due to lower yields in the conventional systems. In contrast, organic soybean (a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant) yields were marginally lower than conventional yields (−1% in cycle 1, −11% in cycle 2). Averaged across all crops, conventional farming systems achieved significantly higher gross margins in cycle 1 (+29%), whereas in cycle 2 gross margins in organic farming systems were significantly higher (+25%) due to lower variable production costs but similar yields. Soybean gross margin was significantly higher in the organic system (+11%) across the four harvest years compared to the conventional systems. Our results suggest that organic soybean production is a viable option for smallholder farmers under the prevailing semi-arid conditions in India. Future research needs to elucidate the long-term productivity and profitability, particularly of

  3. Fusarium verticillioides: A new cotton wilt pathogen in Uzbekistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increase in wilt has been observed in cotton fields in Uzbekistan. This prompted us to conduct a survey of Uzbek cotton fields for wilt over a five year period beginning in 2007. Twenty-four regions with different soil types and ecologies were screened. In 9 regions, over 45% of the plants dem...

  4. Detection and identification of transgenic elements by fluorescent-PCR-based capillary gel electrophoresis in genetically modified cotton and soybean.

    PubMed

    Basak, Sanjay; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Sesikeran, Boindala; Ghosh, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    A detection method for genetically modified foods is an essential regulatory requirement for many countries. The present study is aimed at developing a qualitative method for detection of genetically modified organisms by combining PCR methodology with capillary gel electrophoresis (PCR-CGE) in a sequencing platform to detect Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-cotton (MON 531) and Roundup Ready (RR) soybean (GTS 40-3-2). A sensitive duplex PCR-CGE method was developed in which target DNA sequences (35S and Nos) were separated both by size and color to detect 0.01% Cry1Ac DNA (w/w) in Bt-cotton. A multiplex PCR-CGE method was developed to simultaneously detect four targets such as Sad1, Cry1Ac, 35S, and Nos in Bt-cotton. Four novel PCR primers were designed to customize amplicon size for multiplexing for better visualization of multiple peaks. The LOD for CrylAc DNA specific PCR was 0.01% for Bt-cotton. The LOD for multiplex PCR assay was 0.05% for Bt-cotton. A singleplex PCR-CGE method was developed to detect Lec, 35S and Nos in a trace sample of RR soybean grain powder (0.1%, w/w). This study demonstrates a PCR-CGE-based method for the qualitative detection of 35S, Nos and Cry1Ac targets associated with genetically modified products.

  5. A transgenic approach for controlling Lygus in cotton.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Anilkumar; Rydel, Timothy J; Wollacott, Andrew M; Brown, Robert S; Akbar, Waseem; Clark, Thomas L; Flasinski, Stanislaw; Nageotte, Jeffrey R; Read, Andrew C; Shi, Xiaohong; Werner, Brent J; Pleau, Michael J; Baum, James A

    2016-01-01

    Lygus species of plant-feeding insects have emerged as economically important pests of cotton in the United States. These species are not controlled by commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties resulting in economic losses and increased application of insecticide. Previously, a Bt crystal protein (Cry51Aa2) was reported with insecticidal activity against Lygus spp. However, transgenic cotton plants expressing this protein did not exhibit effective protection from Lygus feeding damage. Here we employ various optimization strategies, informed in part by protein crystallography and modelling, to identify limited amino-acid substitutions in Cry51Aa2 that increase insecticidal activity towards Lygus spp. by >200-fold. Transgenic cotton expressing the variant protein, Cry51Aa2.834_16, reduce populations of Lygus spp. up to 30-fold in whole-plant caged field trials. One transgenic event, designated MON88702, has been selected for further development of cotton varieties that could potentially reduce or eliminate insecticide application for control of Lygus and the associated environmental impacts. PMID:27426014

  6. A transgenic approach for controlling Lygus in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Anilkumar; Rydel, Timothy J.; Wollacott, Andrew M.; Brown, Robert S.; Akbar, Waseem; Clark, Thomas L.; Flasinski, Stanislaw; Nageotte, Jeffrey R.; Read, Andrew C.; Shi, Xiaohong; Werner, Brent J.; Pleau, Michael J.; Baum, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Lygus species of plant-feeding insects have emerged as economically important pests of cotton in the United States. These species are not controlled by commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton varieties resulting in economic losses and increased application of insecticide. Previously, a Bt crystal protein (Cry51Aa2) was reported with insecticidal activity against Lygus spp. However, transgenic cotton plants expressing this protein did not exhibit effective protection from Lygus feeding damage. Here we employ various optimization strategies, informed in part by protein crystallography and modelling, to identify limited amino-acid substitutions in Cry51Aa2 that increase insecticidal activity towards Lygus spp. by >200-fold. Transgenic cotton expressing the variant protein, Cry51Aa2.834_16, reduce populations of Lygus spp. up to 30-fold in whole-plant caged field trials. One transgenic event, designated MON88702, has been selected for further development of cotton varieties that could potentially reduce or eliminate insecticide application for control of Lygus and the associated environmental impacts. PMID:27426014

  7. The impact of secondary pests on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Rui; Ceddia, Graziano; Areal, Francisco J; Park, Julian

    2015-06-01

    The intensification of agriculture and the development of synthetic insecticides enabled worldwide grain production to more than double in the last third of the 20th century. However, the heavy dependence and, in some cases, overuse of insecticides has been responsible for negative environmental and ecological impacts across the globe, such as a reduction in biodiversity, insect resistance to insecticides, negative effects on nontarget species (e.g. natural enemies) and the development of secondary pests. The use of recombinant DNA technology to develop genetically engineered insect-resistant crops could mitigate many of the negative side effects of insecticides. One such genetic alteration enables crops to express toxic crystalline (Cry) proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Despite the widespread adoption of Bt crops, there are still a range of unanswered questions concerning longer term agro-ecosystem interactions. For instance, insect species that are not susceptible to the expressed toxin can develop into secondary pests and cause significant damage to the crop. Here, we review the main causes surrounding secondary pest dynamics in Bt crops and the impact of such outbreaks. Regardless of the causes, if nonsusceptible secondary pest populations exceed economic thresholds, insecticide spraying could become the immediate solution at farmers' disposal, and the sustainable use of this genetic modification technology may be in jeopardy. Based on the literature, recommendations for future research are outlined that will help to improve the knowledge of the possible long-term ecological trophic interactions of employing this technology. PMID:25832330

  8. Effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on the fitness cost of resistance to Bt toxin crylac in pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Stock, S Patricia; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    The widespread use of crop plants genetically engineered to produce toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) imposes selection on insect populations to evolve resistance. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest of cotton in the southwestern United States that is currently controlled with transgenic cotton that produces Bt toxin Cry1Ac. Previously reported theoretical work suggests that, in conjunction with a high dose/refuge strategy, fitness costs of Bt resistance can slow or prevent the evolution of resistance. We report here that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) increased the fitness cost of resistance to Cry1Ac in P. gossypiella. Mortality of P. gossypiella from fourth instar to adult eclosion was significantly higher for a Bt-resistant strain than a susceptible strain in tests with two to 14 infective juveniles of S. riobrave per larva, but it did not differ between strains when nematodes were absent. Nematodes established in P. gossypiella larvae at all concentrations tested, and nematode reproduction in infected P. gossypiella larvae occurred at nematode concentrations of four to 14 infective juveniles per larva. Our results suggest that incorporation of entomopathogenic nematodes into an integrated resistance management strategy could help to delay pest resistance to Bt toxins.

  9. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Michael S.; Ward, Jason M.; Levine, Steven L.; Baum, James A.; Vicini, John L.; Hammond, Bruce G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms. PMID:25972882

  10. The food and environmental safety of Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael S; Ward, Jason M; Levine, Steven L; Baum, James A; Vicini, John L; Hammond, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) microbial pesticides have a 50-year history of safety in agriculture. Cry proteins are among the active insecticidal ingredients in these pesticides, and genes coding for Cry proteins have been introduced into agricultural crops using modern biotechnology. The Cry gene sequences are often modified to enable effective expression in planta and several Cry proteins have been modified to increase biological activity against the target pest(s). Additionally, the domains of different but structurally conserved Cry proteins can be combined to produce chimeric proteins with enhanced insecticidal properties. Environmental studies are performed and include invertebrates, mammals, and avian species. Mammalian studies used to support the food and feed safety assessment are also used to support the wild mammal assessment. In addition to the NTO assessment, the environmental assessment includes a comparative assessment between the Bt crop and the appropriate conventional control that is genetically similar but lacks the introduced trait to address unintended effects. Specific phenotypic, agronomic, and ecological characteristics are measured in the Bt crop and the conventional control to evaluate whether the introduction of the insect resistance has resulted in any changes that might cause ecological harm in terms of altered weed characteristics, susceptibility to pests, or adverse environmental impact. Additionally, environmental interaction data are collected in field experiments for Bt crop to evaluate potential adverse effects. Further to the agronomic and phenotypic evaluation, potential movement of transgenes from a genetically modified crop plants into wild relatives is assessed for a new pest resistance gene in a new crop. This review summarizes the evidence for safety of crops containing Cry proteins for humans, livestock, and other non-target organisms.

  11. Impacts of Bt rice expressing Cry1C or Cry2A protein on the performance of nontarget leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z B; Tian, J C; Wang, W; Xu, H X; Hu, C; Guo, Y Y; Peng, Y F; Ye, G Y

    2014-02-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) protein can effectively control target insects including stem borers and leaf folders. However, the potential effects of Bt rice on nontarget organisms including nontarget herbivores have not been fully evaluated. In the current study, ecological fitness parameters of the nontarget herbivore, Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), fed on T1C-19 (Cry1C) or T2A-1 (Cry2A) rice were compared with non-Bt rice (MH63) under laboratory conditions. A 2-yr field trial was also conducted to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps in the Bt and control rice plots using the vacuum-suction machine and yellow sticky card traps. Laboratory results showed that there were no significant differences in some of biological parameters including egg developmental duration, adult fresh weight, adult longevity, and oviposition period when N. cincticeps fed on Bt or non-Bt rice was compared. However, the survival rate of N. cincticeps nymphs fed on T2A-1 Bt rice plants was significantly higher than that on the control. When N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 Bt rice plants, its nymphal duration was significantly longer and fecundity significantly lower compared with those fed on both T2A-1 Bt and non-Bt rice plants; the preoviposition period of N. cincticeps fed on T1C-19 and T2A-1 Bt rice was also significantly shorter than those on non-Bt rice. Nonetheless, both seasonal density and population dynamics of N. cincticeps adults and nymphs were similar between Bt (T1C-19 and T2A-1) and non-Bt rice plots under field conditions. In conclusion, our results indicate that our two tested Bt rice lines would not lead to higher population of N. cincticeps. Long-term experiments to monitor the population dynamics of N. cincticeps at large scale need to be carried out to confirm the current results.

  12. Large-scale management of insect resistance to transgenic cotton in Arizona: can transgenic insecticidal crops be sustained?

    PubMed

    Carrière, Y; Dennehy, T J; Pedersen, B; Haller, S; Ellers-Kirk, C; Antilla, L; Liu, Y B; Willott, E; Tabashnik, B E

    2001-04-01

    A major challenge for agriculture is management of insect resistance to toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced by transgenic crops. Here we describe how a large-scale program is being developed in Arizona for management of resistance to Bt cotton in the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and other insect pests of cotton. Financial support from growers makes this program possible. Collaboration between the Arizona Cotton Research and Protection Council, the University of Arizona, and government agencies has led to development of resistance management guidelines, a remedial action plan, and tools for monitoring compliance with the proposed guidelines. Direct participation in development of resistance management policies is a strong incentive for growers to invest in resistance management research. However, more research, regularly updated regulations, and increased collaboration between stakeholders are urgently needed to maintain efficacy of Bt toxins in transgenic crops.

  13. The Present and Future Role of Insect-Resistant GM Crops in Cotton IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons producing Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide for control of lepidopteran pests and were first commercially grown in Australia, Mexico and the USA in 1996. As of 2006, a total of six additional countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and South Africa...

  14. Bt pollen dispersal and Bt kernel mosaics: integrity of non-Bt refugia for lepidopteran resistance management in maize.

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2012-10-01

    Field trials were conducted at Rosemount, MN in 2009 and 2010, to measure pollen movement from Bt corn to adjacent blocks of non-Bt refuge corn. As the use of Bt corn hybrids continues to increase in the United States, and new insect resistance management (IRM) plans are implemented, it is necessary to measure the efficacy of these IRM plans. In Minnesota, the primary lepidopteran pests of corn include the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). The primary IRM plan in transgenic corn is the use of hybrids expressing a high dose of insecticidal proteins and an insect refuge containing hybrids not expressing insecticidal proteins that produce susceptible insects. Wind-assisted pollen movement in corn occurs readily, and is the primary method of pollination for corn. The combination of pollen movement and viability determines the potential for cross pollination of refuge corn. In 2009 and 2010, cross pollination occurred with the highest frequency on the north and east sides of Bt corn fields, but was found at some level in all directions. Highest levels of cross pollination (75%) were found within the first four rows (3 m) of non-Bt corn adjacent to Bt corn, and in general decreasing levels of cross pollination were found the further the non-Bt corn was planted from the Bt corn. A mosaic of Bt cross-pollinated kernels was found throughout the ear, but in both years the ear tip had the highest percentage of cross-pollinated kernels; this pattern may be linked to the synchrony of pollen shed and silking between Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The dominant wind direction in both years was from WNW. However, in both years, there were also prevailing winds from SSW and WSW. Further studies are needed to quantify Bt levels in cross-pollinated kernels, measure the Bt dose of such kernels and associated lepidopteran pest survival, and measure the impact of Bt pollen on lepidopteran pests, particularly when considering the

  15. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  16. Partnership and Workplace Learning at BT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Explores BT's partnership with the Communication Workers' Union and London University's Queen Mary and Westfield College and examines its significance for the development of a degree level programme of workplace learning. Describes the programme's philosophy, aims, funding and effectiveness. Incorporates interviews with BT managers, trade union…

  17. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  18. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  19. Bt Crop Effects on Functional Guilds of Non-target Arthropods: A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncertainty continues to persist over the potential environmental effects of crops genetically engineered to produce the insecticidal Cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Little work has examined broader impacts on ecological function of non-target species within agroecosystems. Here we use me...

  20. Nutrition as a neglected factor in insect herbivore susceptibility to Bt toxins.

    PubMed

    Deans, C A; Sword, G A; Behmer, S T

    2016-06-01

    The widespread global adoption of Bt crops elevates concerns about the evolution of Bt resistance in insect pest species. Current insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies focus solely on genetic variation as a causal factor in the evolution of resistance, but ignore the role that environmental factors, such as nutrition, may play. In this opinion paper, we discuss the benefits that insect herbivores gain from consuming foods with protein-carbohydrate content that matches their self-selected protein-carbohydrate intake, and show that even within monocultures there is amply opportunity for insect herbivores to regulate their macronutrient intake. Next we review new data that show that dietary protein and carbohydrates can: firstly, have predictably strong effects on the survival and performance of caterpillars challenged with Bt toxins, and secondly, mediate plasticity in susceptibility to Cry1Ac, which can account for large differences in LC50 values. Nutrition-Bt interactions such as these have important implications for IRM, particularly given that diet-incorporated Bt bioassays commonly use artificial diets that vary substantially from their self-selected optimal diets, which likely results in underestimates of resistance in the field. Failing to bioassay larvae on ecologically-relevant diets can seriously confound the results of Bt resistance monitoring bioassays and undermine our ability to detect resistance in the field. PMID:27436738

  1. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm.

    PubMed

    Ocelotl, Josue; Sánchez, Jorge; Arroyo, Raquel; García-Gómez, Blanca I; Gómez, Isabel; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations.

  2. Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Deist, Benjamin R.; Rausch, Michael A.; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2014-01-01

    Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

  3. A comparison of spider communities in Bt and non-Bt rice fields.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue Yeon; Kim, Seung Tae; Jung, Jong Kook; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2014-06-01

    To assess the potential adverse effects of a Bt rice line (Japonica rice cultivar, Nakdong) expressing a synthetic cry1Ac1 gene, C7-1-9-1-B, which was highly active against all larval stages of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), we investigated the community structure of spiders in Bt and non-Bt rice fields during the rice-growing season in 2007 and 2008 in Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. Spiders were surveyed with a sweep net and suction device. Suction sampling captured more spiders, measured in terms of species level and abundance, than sweeping. Araneidae and Thomisidae were captured more by sweeping, and certain species were captured only by sweeping. These findings show that both suction and sweep sampling methods should be used because these methods are most likely complementary. In total, 29 species in 23 genera and nine families were identified from the 4,937 spiders collected, and both Bt and non-Bt rice fields showed a typical Korean spider assemblage. The temporal patterns of spider species richness and spider abundance were very similar between Bt and non-Bt rice, although significant differences in species richness were observed on a few occasions. Overall, spider community structure, including diversity, the dominant species, and abundance did not differ between Bt and non-Bt rice. The results of the study indicated that the transgenic Cry1Ac rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the spider community structure of the rice fields.

  4. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection.

  5. Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-07-01

    Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)⩾0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton.

  6. Susceptibility to Bt proteins not required for Agrotis ipsilon aversion to Bt maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize has been widely adopted in diverse regions around the world, relatively little is known about the susceptibility and behavioral response of certain insect pests to Bt maize in countries where this maize is not currently cultivated. These are important facto...

  7. Cannibalism of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn versus non-Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F

    2006-06-01

    Because of the importance of cannibalism in population regulation of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn, Zea mays L., it is useful to understand the interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn and cannibalism. To determine the effects of Bt corn on cannibalism in H. zea, pairs of the same or different instars were taken from Bt or non-Bt corn and placed on artificial diet in proximity. Cannibalism occurred in 91% of pairs and was approximately 7% greater for pairs of larvae reared from Bt transgenic corn (95%) than from non-Bt corn (88%). Also, first instar by first instar pairs had a lower rate of cannibalism than other pairs. Time until cannibalism was not different for larvae from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Pupation rate of cannibals and surviving victims was not different for pairs from Bt corn versus non-Bt corn. Finally, cannibalism increased pupation rate of cannibals from both Bt and non-Bt corn by approximately 23 and 12%, respectively, although the increases were not significant. Thus, negative effects of Bt on larvae were compensated by increased cannibalism in comparison with larvae reared on non-Bt corn, which increased larval survival to levels comparable with larvae reared on non-Bt plants.

  8. Comparison of the physiological characteristics of transgenic insect-resistant cotton and conventional lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Ding, Changfeng; Wang, Xingxiang; Liu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of transgenic insect-resistant cotton into agricultural ecosystems has raised concerns regarding its ecological effects. Many studies have been conducted to compare the differences in characteristics between transgenic cotton and conventional counterparts. However, few studies have focused on the different responses of transgenic cotton to stress conditions, especially to the challenges of pathogens. The aim of this work is to determine the extent of variation in physiological characteristics between transgenic insect-resistant cotton and the conventional counterpart infected by cotton soil-borne pathogens. The results showed that the difference in genetic backgrounds is the main factor responsible for the effects on biochemical characteristics of transgenic cotton when incubating with cotton Fusarium oxysporum. However, genetic modification had a significantly greater influence on the stomatal structure of transgenic cotton than the effects of cotton genotypes. Our results highlight that the differences in genetic background and/or genetic modifications may introduce variations in physiological characteristics and should be considered to explore the potential unexpected ecological effects of transgenic cotton. PMID:25737015

  9. Comparison of the physiological characteristics of transgenic insect-resistant cotton and conventional lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaogang; Ding, Changfeng; Wang, Xingxiang; Liu, Biao

    2015-03-04

    The introduction of transgenic insect-resistant cotton into agricultural ecosystems has raised concerns regarding its ecological effects. Many studies have been conducted to compare the differences in characteristics between transgenic cotton and conventional counterparts. However, few studies have focused on the different responses of transgenic cotton to stress conditions, especially to the challenges of pathogens. The aim of this work is to determine the extent of variation in physiological characteristics between transgenic insect-resistant cotton and the conventional counterpart infected by cotton soil-borne pathogens. The results showed that the difference in genetic backgrounds is the main factor responsible for the effects on biochemical characteristics of transgenic cotton when incubating with cotton Fusarium oxysporum. However, genetic modification had a significantly greater influence on the stomatal structure of transgenic cotton than the effects of cotton genotypes. Our results highlight that the differences in genetic background and/or genetic modifications may introduce variations in physiological characteristics and should be considered to explore the potential unexpected ecological effects of transgenic cotton.

  10. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  11. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  12. Field Performance of Bt Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) in the Philippines: Cry1Ac Expression and Control of the Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée).

    PubMed

    Hautea, Desiree M; Taylo, Lourdes D; Masanga, Anna Pauleen L; Sison, Maria Luz J; Narciso, Josefina O; Quilloy, Reynaldo B; Hautea, Randy A; Shotkoski, Frank A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP) lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010-2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75-24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots) and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6-100%) and fruit damage (98.1-99.7%) and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8-99.3%) under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides.

  13. Field Performance of Bt Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) in the Philippines: Cry1Ac Expression and Control of the Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée).

    PubMed

    Hautea, Desiree M; Taylo, Lourdes D; Masanga, Anna Pauleen L; Sison, Maria Luz J; Narciso, Josefina O; Quilloy, Reynaldo B; Hautea, Randy A; Shotkoski, Frank A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP) lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010-2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75-24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots) and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6-100%) and fruit damage (98.1-99.7%) and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8-99.3%) under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides. PMID:27322533

  14. Field Performance of Bt Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) in the Philippines: Cry1Ac Expression and Control of the Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée)

    PubMed Central

    Hautea, Desiree M.; Taylo, Lourdes D.; Masanga, Anna Pauleen L.; Sison, Maria Luz J.; Narciso, Josefina O.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Randy A.; Shotkoski, Frank A.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants expressing Cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have become a major tactic for controlling insect pests in maize and cotton globally. However, there are few Bt vegetable crops. Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia that is heavily treated with insecticides to control the eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (EFSB). Herein we provide the first publicly available data on field performance in Asia of eggplant engineered to produce the Cry1Ac protein. Replicated field trials with five Bt eggplant open-pollinated (OP) lines from transformation event EE-1 and their non-Bt comparators were conducted over three cropping seasons in the Philippines from 2010–2012. Field trials documented levels of Cry1Ac protein expressed in plants and evaluated their efficacy against the primary target pest, EFSB. Cry1Ac concentrations ranged from 0.75–24.7 ppm dry weight with the highest in the terminal leaves (or shoots) and the lowest in the roots. Cry1Ac levels significantly increased from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated excellent control of EFSB. Pairwise analysis of means detected highly significant differences between Bt eggplant lines and their non-Bt comparators for all field efficacy parameters tested. Bt eggplant lines demonstrated high levels of control of EFSB shoot damage (98.6–100%) and fruit damage (98.1–99.7%) and reduced EFSB larval infestation (95.8–99.3%) under the most severe pest pressure during trial 2. Moths that emerged from larvae collected from Bt plants in the field and reared in their Bt eggplant hosts did not produce viable eggs or offspring. These results demonstrate that Bt eggplant lines containing Cry1Ac event EE-1 provide outstanding control of EFSB and can dramatically reduce the need for conventional insecticides. PMID:27322533

  15. The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yanyan; Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants’ ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation. PMID:26717324

  16. The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huilan; Tan, Fengxiao; Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yanyan; Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation.

  17. The Cry1Ab Protein Has Minor Effects on the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities after Five Seasons of Continuous Bt Maize Cultivation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huilan; Tan, Fengxiao; Shu, Yinghua; Zhang, Yanyan; Feng, Yuanjiao; Wang, Jianwu

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMP) has raised concerns regarding the plants' ecological safety. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the impact of five seasons of continuous Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) maize cultivation on the colonisation and community structure of the non-target organisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the maize roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 28S ribosomal DNA and sequencing methods. AMF colonisation was significantly higher in the two Bt maize lines that express Cry1Ab, 5422Bt1 (event Bt11) and 5422CBCL (MON810) than in the non-Bt isoline 5422. No significant differences were observed in the diversity of the AMF community between the roots, bulk soils and rhizospheric soils of the Bt and non-Bt maize cultivars. The AMF genus Glomus was dominant in most of the samples, as detected by DNA sequencing. A clustering analysis based on the DNA sequence data suggested that the sample types (i.e., the samples from the roots, bulk soils or rhizospheric soils) might have greater influence on the AMF community phylotypes than the maize cultivars. This study indicated that the Cry1Ab protein has minor effects on the AMF communities after five seasons of continuous Bt maize cultivation. PMID:26717324

  18. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Ocelotl, Josue; Sánchez, Jorge; Arroyo, Raquel; García-Gómez, Blanca I.; Gómez, Isabel; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm), a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations. PMID:26633693

  19. Dusky sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and other kernel damaging insects in Bt and non-Bt sweet corn in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F

    2000-12-01

    Bt and non-Bt sweet corn hybrids (Rogers 'Empire' Bt and non-Bt, respectively) were compared for distribution of kernel damaging insect pests in central Illinois in 1998 and 1999. The occurrence and damage by caterpillars [primarily Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)] were reduced by at least 80% in each year for the Bt compared with the non-Bt hybrid. However, the incidence of sap beetle adults (primarily Carpophilus lugubris Murray) was higher, and larvae, lower for the Bt versus non-Bt in 1999. The incidence of ears with more than five kernels damaged by sap beetles was higher for the Bt compared with non-Bt hybrid in 1998 (13.8 versus 5.5%), but nearly equivalent in 1999 (15.3 versus 15.1%, respectively). Distribution of predators on plants (primarily Coccinelidae) and harvested ears (primarily Orius spp.) were not significantly different on Bt versus non-Bt hybrids. Ears with husks flush with the ear tip or with ear tips exposed had significantly higher sap beetle damage for both hybrids, and the Bt hybrids had significantly higher incidence of exposed ear tips in both years. Sap beetle numbers determined by scouting were often proportional to numbers of beetles captured in baited traps, increasing and decreasing at about the same time. However, values determined with traps were typically less variable than when scouted, and time of sampling was typically four times more rapid for each trap than for each 10 plant scout sample when measured in 1999. PMID:11142303

  20. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  1. A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  2. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  3. Risk Assessment and Stewardship of Bt Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Registration of Bt crops as part of the FIFRA requirements involves the assessment of environmental risk associated with the new crop variety. The assessment analysis stipulates that the seed producer provide clear and unambiguous information relating to certain risk categories a...

  4. Roles of insect midgut cadherin in Bt intoxication and resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically engineered crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins for insect control target major insect pests. Bt crops have improved yield and reduced risks associated with conventional insecticides; however, the evolution of resistance to Bt toxins by target pests threatens the long-ter...

  5. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  6. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingsong; Hallerman, Eric; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-01-01

    Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis), demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field. PMID:27763554

  7. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  8. A Critical Assessment of the Effects of Bt Transgenic Plants on Parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mao; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Collins, Hilda L.; Earle, Elizabeth D.; Cao, Jun; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological safety of transgenic insecticidal plants expressing crystal proteins (Cry toxins) from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) continues to be debated. Much of the debate has focused on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of pest insects in many crops. Although many studies have been conducted on predators, few reports have examined parasitoids but some of them have reported negative impacts. None of the previous reports were able to clearly characterize the cause of the negative impact. In order to provide a critical assessment, we used a novel paradigm consisting of a strain of the insect pest, Plutella xylostella (herbivore), resistant to Cry1C and allowed it to feed on Bt plants and then become parasitized by Diadegma insulare, an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella. Our results indicated that the parasitoid was exposed to a biologically active form of the Cy1C protein while in the host but was not harmed by such exposure. Parallel studies conducted with several commonly used insecticides indicated they significantly reduced parasitism rates on strains of P. xylostella resistant to these insecticides. These results provide the first clear evidence of the lack of hazard to a parasitoid by a Bt plant, compared to traditional insecticides, and describe a test to rigorously evaluate the risks Bt plants pose to predators and parasitoids. PMID:18523682

  9. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  15. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  16. Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

  17. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control. PMID:26545599

  18. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control.

  19. Natural Enemies Delay Insect Resistance to Bt Crops

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Collins, Hilda L.; Onstad, David W.; Roush, Richard T.; Zhang, Qingwen; Earle, Elizabeth D.; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether development of resistance to a Bt crop in the presence of a natural enemy would be slower than without the natural enemy and whether biological control, in conjunction with a Bt crop, could effectively suppress the pest population. Additionally, we investigated whether insecticide-sprayed refuges of non-Bt crops would delay or accelerate resistance to the Bt crop. We used a system of Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ac, a population of the pest Plutella xylostella with a low frequency of individuals resistant to Cry1Ac and the insecticide spinosad, and a natural enemy, Coleomegilla maculata, to conduct experiments over multiple generations. The results demonstrated that after 6 generations P. xylostella populations were very low in the treatment containing C. maculata and unsprayed non-Bt refuge plants. Furthermore, resistance to Bt plants evolved significantly slower in this treatment. In contrast, Bt plants with no refuge were completely defoliated in treatments without C. maculata after 4–5 generations. In the treatment containing sprayed non-Bt refuge plants and C. maculata, the P. xylostella population was low, although the speed of resistance selection to Cry1Ac was significantly increased. These data demonstrate that natural enemies can delay resistance to Bt plants and have significant implications for integrated pest management (IPM) with Bt crops. PMID:24595158

  20. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  1. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  2. BT's adoption of customer centric design.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Mark; Esquivel, Jacqueline; Miller, Fiona; Patmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2010 BT underwent a major transformation from a company with a special section devoted to 'older and disabled consumers' to a company with an inclusive design strategy. The mainstreaming of these issues responded to a demand for better, more user-friendly communications products and growing awareness of the importance of previously marginalised consumer groups. It also took place alongside the development and publication of BS7000-6, a guide to inclusive design management. Based on several product design case studies, this paper reflects on how and why this transformation was seen as necessary for future success, and how the transformation was achieved. The evolution of BT's approach has continued since, but this paper looks back in time, and documents the transformation up to 2010 and reflects the state of the company in 2010 rather than at the time of publication. PMID:24268467

  3. BT's adoption of customer centric design.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Mark; Esquivel, Jacqueline; Miller, Fiona; Patmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2010 BT underwent a major transformation from a company with a special section devoted to 'older and disabled consumers' to a company with an inclusive design strategy. The mainstreaming of these issues responded to a demand for better, more user-friendly communications products and growing awareness of the importance of previously marginalised consumer groups. It also took place alongside the development and publication of BS7000-6, a guide to inclusive design management. Based on several product design case studies, this paper reflects on how and why this transformation was seen as necessary for future success, and how the transformation was achieved. The evolution of BT's approach has continued since, but this paper looks back in time, and documents the transformation up to 2010 and reflects the state of the company in 2010 rather than at the time of publication.

  4. A nebula around Nova BT Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, T. R.; Oke, J. B.; Wade, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    H-alpha observations of Nova BT Mon obtained on December 15, 1981 using an 800x800-pixel CCD detector on the double spectrograph of the 5-m Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory are reported. The reciprocal dispersion at H-alpha was 6.04 A/pixel and the angular scale along the 1.0-arcsec-wide east-west slit was 0.58 arcsec/pixel; resolution of the combined, processed image is about 12 A. A ring-shaped nebular emission with a center displaced slightly from the stellar image and an expansion distance to BT Mon of about 1800 pc was detected. The velocity diameter is found to be about 1500 km/sec along the ridge line and 2100 km/sec along the 10-unit contour. The mass of the visible nebula is estimated as 0.00003 solar mass, similar to the BT Mon ejection mass determined by Schaefer and Patterson (1983).

  5. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  6. Responses of stream macroinvertebrates to Bt maize leaf detritus.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Catherine P; Whiles, Matt R; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Tank, Jennifer L; Royer, Todd V; Griffiths, Natalie A; Evans-White, Michelle A; Stojak, Amber R

    2010-10-01

    In the midwestern United States, maize detritus enters streams draining agricultural land. Genetically modified Bt maize is commonly planted along streams and can possibly affect benthic macroinvertebrates, specifically members of the order Trichoptera, which are closely related to target species of some Bt toxins and are important detritivores in streams. The significance of inputs of Bt maize to aquatic systems has only recently been recognized, and assessments of potential nontarget impacts on aquatic organisms are lacking. We conducted laboratory feeding trials and found that the leaf-shredding trichopteran, Lepidostoma liba, grew significantly slower when fed Bt maize compared to non-Bt maize, while other invertebrate taxa that we examined showed no negative effects. We also used field studies to assess the influence of Bt maize detritus on benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, biomass, and functional structure in situ in 12 streams adjacent to Bt maize or non-Bt maize fields. We found no significant differences in total abundance or biomass between Bt and non-Bt streams, and trichopterans comprised only a small percentage of invertebrate biomass at all sites (0-15%). Shannon diversity did not differ among Bt and non-Bt streams and was always low (H' range = 0.9-1.9). Highly tolerant taxa, such as oligochaetes and chironomids, were dominant in both Bt and non-Bt streams, and macroinvertebrate community composition was relatively constant across seasons. We used litterbags to examine macroinvertebrate colonization of Bt and non-Bt maize detritus and found no significant differences among litter or stream types. Our in situ findings did not support our laboratory results; this is likely because the streams we studied in this region are highly degraded and subject to multiple, persistent anthropogenic stressors (e.g., channelization, altered flow, nutrient and pesticide inputs). Invertebrate communities in these streams are a product of these degraded

  7. Diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in the rice field soils of different ecologies in India.

    PubMed

    Das, J; Dangar, T K

    2007-12-01

    Diversity of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in the rice field soils of different ecologies viz. the island (Port Blair), the Himalayan (Srinagar), brackish water (Mahe) and coastal mesophilic (Mangalore) habitats was analyzed by phenotypic characterization of 5, 66, 14 and 54 Bt isolates, respectively. The Bt isolates produced either monotypic (bipyramidal or spherical) or heterotypic (polymorphic-bipyramidal or bipyramidal-rhomboidal) crystals. The organisms were generally resistant to the penicillin group of antibiotics, tolerated 5-12% NaCl and 0.5M Na-acetate. The Bt isolates contained 1-5 plasmids of 0.89-58.61 kbp sizes. The plasmid profiles had no correlation with crystal morphology or salt tolerance of different bacteria. Each soil was inhabited by different types of Bt. Two Bt strains of Mangalore and one strain each of the other places were phenotypically similar. One Bt strain each of Port Blair and Srinagar was different from all other strains. PMID:23100691

  8. Testing Pollen of Single and Stacked Insect-Resistant Bt-Maize on In vitro Reared Honey Bee Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksma, Harmen P.; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops. PMID:22194811

  9. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops. PMID:22194811

  10. Testing pollen of single and stacked insect-resistant Bt-maize on in vitro reared honey bee larvae.

    PubMed

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Härtel, Stephan; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    The ecologically and economic important honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) crops. Honey bee larvae are directly exposed to transgenic products by the consumption of GM pollen. But most ERA studies only consider responses of adult bees, although Bt-proteins primarily affect the larval phases of target organisms. We adopted an in vitro larvae rearing system, to assess lethal and sublethal effects of Bt-pollen consumption in a standardized eco-toxicological bioassay. The effects of pollen from two Bt-maize cultivars, one expressing a single and the other a total of three Bt-proteins, on the survival and prepupae weight of honey bee larvae were analyzed. The control treatments included pollen from three non-transgenic maize varieties and of Heliconia rostrata. Three days old larvae were fed the realistic exposure dose of 2 mg pollen within the semi-artificial diet. The larvae were monitored over 120 h, until the prepupal stage, where larvae terminate feeding and growing. Neither single nor stacked Bt-maize pollen showed an adverse effect on larval survival and the prepupal weight. In contrast, feeding of H. rostrata pollen caused significant toxic effects. The results of this study indicate that pollen of the tested Bt-varieties does not harm the development of in vitro reared A. mellifera larvae. To sustain the ecosystem service of pollination, Bt-impact on A. mellifera should always be a crucial part of regulatory biosafety assessments. We suggest that our approach of feeding GM pollen on in vitro reared honey bee larvae is well suited of becoming a standard bioassay in regulatory risk assessments schemes of GM crops.

  11. Cotton, fleece, and beads

    SciTech Connect

    Raloff, J.

    1993-05-22

    Texas researchers are exploring two types of environmentally friendly spilled oil-cleanup products. These new nontoxic products not only sop up oil but also facilitate the breakdown of that oil. One group is looking at microscopic glass bubbles coated with titanium dioxide, which functions as a photocatalyst for the breakdown of chemical including hydrocarbons. The surface reactions yield far fewer toxic material and a more complete breakdown than sunlight-only decomposition. Another group is looking at cotton fiber. In its raw form poor quality cotton, rejected by fabric manufactures and weavers, makes a superior mop for spilled oil and, unlike synthetic materials, is biodegradable. The oil absorbed on cotton fibers could also be recovered for further fermentation or reuse. Relatively little oil-cleanup research is being done worldwide. The USA, a world leader in this area, recent federal spending on R D has averaged only about $30 million.

  12. Dispersal and movement behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on non-Bt and transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Jessica A; Mason, Charles E; Pesek, John

    2010-04-01

    Neonate movement and dispersal behavior of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were investigated under controlled conditions on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to assess plant abandonment, dispersal from their natal plant, and silking behavior after Bt and non-Bt preexposure. With continuous airflow, neonates on a Bt corn plant for 24 h abandoned that plant 1.78 times more frequently than neonates on a non-Bt corn plant. Indirect evidence indicated that at least one third of the neonates were capable of ballooning within 24 h. In the greenhouse, some neonates were recovered after 24 h from plants 76 and 152 cm away that likely ballooned from their natal plant. After 1 h of preexposure on a Bt corn leaf, neonates placed on a new corn leaf and observed for 10 min began silking off of a new Bt leaf significantly sooner than a new non-Bt leaf. Results suggest that neonates are unable to detect Bt in the corn within 10 min but that they can detect it within the first hour.

  13. [Effects of mepiquat chloride on inorganic elements contents in seeds of transgenic insect-resistant cotton determined by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xi-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhao-Hu; He, Zhong-Pei; Zhai, Zhi-Xi; Duan, Liu-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of a worldwide used plant growth regulator mepiquat chloride on the nutrition value and safety of seeds of transgenic Bt cotton, inorganic element components and contents in seeds of Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. Guoxin 6) under field condition were determined using ICP-MS. In Bt cotton seeds, 54 kinds of inorganic elements were identified by ICP-MS, and 5 kinds of major elements, K, P, Mg, Ca and Na, were in range from 138.3 to 13,835.1 microg x g(-1). The contents of 14 kinds of microelements were determined as in descending order of Si, B, Mn, Sr, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mo, Fe, Co, Se, V, I and Sn, in the range from 14.2 ng x g(-1) to 81.7 microg x g(-1). Five kinds of heavy metals were detected with the contents from 0.14 to 55.3 ng x g(-1), and their order from high to low is Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Hg. Other 30 kinds of elements were also detected in Bt cotton seeds by ICP-MS, including Rb, Be, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Ge, Rh, Ag, Sb, W, U and Y. Foliar application of mepiquat chloride significantly reduced the contents of Ca, Fe, Si, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and I, and remarkably decreased heavy metals Pb, Cd and Cr in the cotton seeds, by 68%, 67% and 54% respectively. While mepiquat chloride did not change the contents of most major and micro elements, it heightened 8 kinds, but lowered 7 kinds of the other 30 trace elements. This research indicated that mepiquat chloride application strengthened the security regarding the cotton seed as the material of cooking oil.

  14. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  4. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  5. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  6. TMD factorization and evolution at large $b_T$

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John; Rogers, Ted

    2015-07-20

    In using transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton densities and fragmentation functions, important non-perturbative information is at large transverse position $b_T$. This concerns both the TMD functions and their evolution. Fits to high energy data tend to predict too rapid evolution when extrapolated to low energies where larger values of $b_T$ dominate. I summarize a new analysis of the issues. It results in a proposal for much weaker $b_T$ dependence at large $b_T$ for the evolution kernel, while preserving the accuracy of the existing fits. The results are particularly important for using transverse-spin-dependent functions like the Sivers function.

  7. The development and status of Bt rice in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Hallerman, Eric M; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of transgenic rice expressing insecticidal genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China, posing the prospect of increases in production with decreased application of pesticides. We explore the issues facing adoption of Bt rice for commercial production in China. A body of safety assessment work on Bt rice has shown that Bt rice poses a negligible risk to the environment and that Bt rice products are as safe as non-Bt control rice products as food. China has a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of genetically modified (GM) plants; however, decision-making regarding approval of commercial production has become politicized, and two Bt rice lines that otherwise were ready have not been allowed to enter the Chinese agricultural system. We predict that Chinese farmers would value the prospect of increased yield with decreased use of pesticide and would readily adopt production of Bt rice. That Bt rice lines may not be commercialized in the near future we attribute to social pressures, largely due to the low level of understanding and acceptance of GM crops by Chinese consumers. Hence, enhancing communication of GM crop science-related issues to the public is an important, unmet need. While the dynamics of each issue are particular to China, they typify those in many countries where adoption of GM crops has been not been rapid; hence, the assessment of these dynamics might inform resolution of these issues in other countries. PMID:26369652

  8. The development and status of Bt rice in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Hallerman, Eric M; Liu, Qingsong; Wu, Kongming; Peng, Yufa

    2016-03-01

    Multiple lines of transgenic rice expressing insecticidal genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed in China, posing the prospect of increases in production with decreased application of pesticides. We explore the issues facing adoption of Bt rice for commercial production in China. A body of safety assessment work on Bt rice has shown that Bt rice poses a negligible risk to the environment and that Bt rice products are as safe as non-Bt control rice products as food. China has a relatively well-developed regulatory system for risk assessment and management of genetically modified (GM) plants; however, decision-making regarding approval of commercial production has become politicized, and two Bt rice lines that otherwise were ready have not been allowed to enter the Chinese agricultural system. We predict that Chinese farmers would value the prospect of increased yield with decreased use of pesticide and would readily adopt production of Bt rice. That Bt rice lines may not be commercialized in the near future we attribute to social pressures, largely due to the low level of understanding and acceptance of GM crops by Chinese consumers. Hence, enhancing communication of GM crop science-related issues to the public is an important, unmet need. While the dynamics of each issue are particular to China, they typify those in many countries where adoption of GM crops has been not been rapid; hence, the assessment of these dynamics might inform resolution of these issues in other countries.

  9. Food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 mutant protein using Cry1Ac as a control Bt protein.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2015-07-01

    Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein.

  10. Food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 mutant protein using Cry1Ac as a control Bt protein.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2015-07-01

    Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein. PMID:25890087

  11. Areawide suppression of European corn borer with Bt maize reaps savings to non-Bt maize growers.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, W D; Burkness, E C; Mitchell, P D; Moon, R D; Leslie, T W; Fleischer, S J; Abrahamson, M; Hamilton, K L; Steffey, K L; Gray, M E; Hellmich, R L; Kaster, L V; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Pecinovsky, K; Rabaey, T L; Flood, B R; Raun, E S

    2010-10-01

    Transgenic maize engineered to express insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become widely adopted in U.S. agriculture. In 2009, Bt maize was planted on more than 22.2 million hectares, constituting 63% of the U.S. crop. Using statistical analysis of per capita growth rate estimates, we found that areawide suppression of the primary pest Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) is associated with Bt maize use. Cumulative benefits over 14 years are an estimated $3.2 billion for maize growers in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, with more than $2.4 billion of this total accruing to non-Bt maize growers. Comparable estimates for Iowa and Nebraska are $3.6 billion in total, with $1.9 billion for non-Bt maize growers. These results affirm theoretical predictions of pest population suppression and highlight economic incentives for growers to maintain non-Bt maize refugia for sustainable insect resistance management.

  12. Field Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization in Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin-Expressing (Bt) and Non-Bt Maize

    PubMed Central

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Rosenstiel, Todd N.

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-expressing (Bt) maize continues to increase worldwide, yet the effects of Bt crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil are poorly understood. In this field experiment, we investigated the impact of seven different genotypes of Bt maize and five corresponding non-Bt parental cultivars on AMF and evaluated plant growth responses at three different physiological time points. Plants were harvested 60 days (active growth), 90 days (tasseling and starting to produce ears), and 130 days (maturity) after sowing, and data on plant growth responses and percent AMF colonization of roots at each harvest were collected. Spore abundance and diversity were also evaluated at the beginning and end of the field season to determine whether the cultivation of Bt maize had a negative effect on AMF propagules in the soil. Plant growth and AMF colonization did not differ between Bt and non-Bt maize at any harvest period, but AMF colonization was positively correlated with leaf chlorophyll content at the 130-day harvest. Cultivation of Bt maize had no effect on spore abundance and diversity in Bt versus non-Bt plots over one field season. Plot had the most significant effect on total spore counts, indicating spatial heterogeneity in the field. Although previous greenhouse studies demonstrated that AMF colonization was lower in some Bt maize lines, our field study did not yield the same results, suggesting that the cultivation of Bt maize may not have an impact on AMF in the soil ecosystem under field conditions. PMID:23624473

  13. Field evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-expressing (Bt) and non-Bt maize.

    PubMed

    Cheeke, Tanya E; Cruzan, Mitchell B; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2013-07-01

    The cultivation of genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-expressing (Bt) maize continues to increase worldwide, yet the effects of Bt crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil are poorly understood. In this field experiment, we investigated the impact of seven different genotypes of Bt maize and five corresponding non-Bt parental cultivars on AMF and evaluated plant growth responses at three different physiological time points. Plants were harvested 60 days (active growth), 90 days (tasseling and starting to produce ears), and 130 days (maturity) after sowing, and data on plant growth responses and percent AMF colonization of roots at each harvest were collected. Spore abundance and diversity were also evaluated at the beginning and end of the field season to determine whether the cultivation of Bt maize had a negative effect on AMF propagules in the soil. Plant growth and AMF colonization did not differ between Bt and non-Bt maize at any harvest period, but AMF colonization was positively correlated with leaf chlorophyll content at the 130-day harvest. Cultivation of Bt maize had no effect on spore abundance and diversity in Bt versus non-Bt plots over one field season. Plot had the most significant effect on total spore counts, indicating spatial heterogeneity in the field. Although previous greenhouse studies demonstrated that AMF colonization was lower in some Bt maize lines, our field study did not yield the same results, suggesting that the cultivation of Bt maize may not have an impact on AMF in the soil ecosystem under field conditions.

  14. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tests a competitive release hypothesis that Helicoverpa zea larval herbivory will 1) deter oviposition and increase leaving rates of the stink bugs, Euchistus servus and Nezara viridula and that 2) that these effects will be stronger for E. servus than for N. viridula. By spatially separa...

  15. Current trends in Bt crops and their fate on associated microbial community dynamics: a review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kishore; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Cry protein expressing insect-resistant trait is mostly deployed to control major devastating pests and minimize reliance on the conventional pesticides. However, the ethical and environmental issues are the major constraints in their acceptance, and consequently, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has invited intense debate. Since root exudates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops harbor the insecticidal protein, there is a growing concern about the release and accumulation of soil-adsorbed Cry proteins and their impact on non-target microorganisms and soil microbial processes. This review pertains to reports from the laboratory studies and field trials to assess the Bt toxin proteins in soil microbes and the processes determining the soil quality in conjunction with the existing hypothesis and molecular approaches to elucidate the risk posed by the GM crops. Ecological perturbations hinder the risk aspect of soil microbiota in response to GM crops. Therefore, extensive research based on in vivo and interpretation of results using high-throughput techniques such as NGS on risk assessment are imperative to evaluate the impact of Bt crops to resolve the controversy related to their commercialization. But more studies are needed on the risk associated with stacked traits. Such studies would strengthen our knowledge about the plant-microbe interactions. PMID:26560114

  16. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  17. Can pyramids and seed mixtures delay resistance to Bt crops?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary strategy for delaying evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) entails refuges of plants that do not produce Bt toxins and thus allow survival of susceptible pests. Recent advances include using refuges together...

  18. Susceptibility of field populations of sugarcane borer from non-Bt and Bt maize plants to five individual cry toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is a major target pest of transgenic maize expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in South America and the U.S. mid-south region. Resistance development in target pest populations is a major threat to the sustainable use of Bt crops. In our field ...

  19. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  20. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  1. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  5. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  6. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  7. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  8. Characterization of directly transformed weedy Brassica rapa and introgressed B. rapa with Bt cry1Ac and gfp genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Good, Laura L; Raymer, Paul L; Neal Stewart, C

    2007-07-01

    Crop to weed transgene flow, which could result in more competitive weed populations, is an agricultural biosafety concern. Crop Brassica napus to weedy Brassica rapa hybridization has been extensively characterized to better understand the transgene flow and its consequences. In this study, weedy accessions of B. rapa were transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ac- and green fluorescence protein (gfp)-coding transgenes using Agrobacterium to assess ecological performance of the wild biotype relative to introgressed hybrids in which the transgenic parent was the crop. Regenerated transgenic B. rapa events were characterized by progeny analysis, Bt protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Southern blot analysis, and GFP expression assay. GFP expression level and Bt protein concentration were significantly different between independent transgenic B. rapa events. Similar reproductive productivity was observed in comparison between transgenic B. rapa events and B. rapa x B. napus introgressed hybrids in greenhouse and field experiments. In the greenhouse, Bt transgenic plants experienced significantly less herbivory damage from the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). No differences were found in the field experiment under ambient, low, herbivore pressure. Directly transformed transgenic B. rapa plants should be a helpful experimental control to better understand crop genetic load in introgressed transgenic weeds.

  9. Characterization of directly transformed weedy Brassica rapa and introgressed B. rapa with Bt cry1Ac and gfp genes.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong S; Halfhill, Matthew D; Good, Laura L; Raymer, Paul L; Neal Stewart, C

    2007-07-01

    Crop to weed transgene flow, which could result in more competitive weed populations, is an agricultural biosafety concern. Crop Brassica napus to weedy Brassica rapa hybridization has been extensively characterized to better understand the transgene flow and its consequences. In this study, weedy accessions of B. rapa were transformed with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ac- and green fluorescence protein (gfp)-coding transgenes using Agrobacterium to assess ecological performance of the wild biotype relative to introgressed hybrids in which the transgenic parent was the crop. Regenerated transgenic B. rapa events were characterized by progeny analysis, Bt protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Southern blot analysis, and GFP expression assay. GFP expression level and Bt protein concentration were significantly different between independent transgenic B. rapa events. Similar reproductive productivity was observed in comparison between transgenic B. rapa events and B. rapa x B. napus introgressed hybrids in greenhouse and field experiments. In the greenhouse, Bt transgenic plants experienced significantly less herbivory damage from the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). No differences were found in the field experiment under ambient, low, herbivore pressure. Directly transformed transgenic B. rapa plants should be a helpful experimental control to better understand crop genetic load in introgressed transgenic weeds. PMID:17333014

  10. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  11. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa.

  12. Stable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin content in interspecific F1 and backcross populations of wild Brassica rapa after Bt gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Lawrence, J R; Warwick, S I; Mason, P; Braun, L; Halfhill, M D; Stewart, C N

    2004-01-01

    Stable expression of a transgene may lead to increased fitness for wild plants after acquiring the transgene via crop-weed hybridization. Here, we investigate the stability of Bt toxin content in wild Brassica rapa acquiring the Bt gene from Bt Brassica napus. The Bt toxin content in nine Bt-expressing B. napus lines was 0.80-1.70 micro g/g leaf tissue throughout the growing season. These nine lines were crossed with three accessions of wild B. rapa and the Bt gene was successfully transferred to interspecific hybrids (F1) and successive backcross generations (BC1 to BC4). The Bt toxin level in F1 and BC progenies containing the Bt gene remained at 0.90-3.10 micro g/g leaf tissue. This study indicates that the Bt gene can persist and be stably expressed in wild B. rapa. PMID:14653804

  13. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  3. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  4. Characterizations of BT Ceramics Synthesized by Modified Solid State Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonia, Sonia; Patel, R. K.; Prakash, C.; Kumar, P.

    2011-11-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3/BT) ferroelectric system was synthesized in single perovskite phase by modified solid state reaction (MSSR) and solid state reaction (SSR) routes. With the modification of SSR route, calcination temperature lowered down by 200 °C. Dense packing of grains with average grain size ˜12μm was observed in BT samples synthesized by MSSR route. Room temperature (RT) dielectric constant (ɛr) and dielectric loss (tanδ) at 1 kHz frequency of BT samples synthesized by MSSR route were found to be ˜1630 and 0.008. Transition temperature (Tc) is lowered and remnant polarization is increased of BT samples synthesized by MSSR route.

  5. Developing Analytic Rating Guides for "TOEFL iBT"® Integrated Speaking Tasks. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report, TOEFL iBT-20. ETS Research Report. RR-13-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan; Poonpon, Kornwipa

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of a new type of scoring rubric for the integrated speaking tasks of "TOEFL iBT"® are described. These "analytic rating guides" could be helpful if tasks modeled after those in TOEFL iBT were used for formative assessment, a purpose which is different from TOEFL iBT's primary use for admission…

  6. Bt brinjal in India: a long way to go.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Misra, Amita; Verma, Alok Kumar; Roy, Ruchi; Tripathi, Anurag; Ansari, Kausar M; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2011-01-01

    Brinjal occupies the major proportion amongst all vegetable crops in India and is vulnerable to many diseases caused by insect-pests, fungus, bacteria and virus. Brinjal production is extensively affected by the insect brinjal fruit and shoot borer. Use of conventional chemical pesticides not only damage environment including the biotic and abiotic components but, also affect human health. Bt Brinjal was developed to combat brinjal fruit and shoot borer that has an advantage minimizing use of chemical pesticides. Extensive biosafety investigations, nutritional studies, substantial equivalence studies, relative toxicity and allergenicity assessment using animal models like Sprague Dawley rats, Brown Norway rats, rabbit, fish, chicken, goats, etc. revealed no significant differences between genetically modified brinjal and its native counterpart. Bt brinjal could effectively control the target pest and was found to be safe for environment and human health. In spite of all the scientific studies, release of Bt Brinjal has been put under moratorium. Indian government has constituted an expert committee to address this issue. In this review we have tried to explore the facts related to Bt Brinjal including its production, use of Bt toxin, use of chemical pesticides in controlling the FSB in native brinjal, along with perspective of public opinion and government initiatives. Key words: Bt Brinjal, agriculture, insecticides, GM foods, agrobacterium, transgenic crops. PMID:21865863

  7. Modeling the impact of alternative hosts on Helicoverpa zea adaptation to bollgard cotton.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David I; Head, Graham P; Caprio, Michael A

    2006-12-01

    For highly polyphagous cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests such as Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), a substantial portion of the larval population develops on noncotton alternative hosts. These noncotton hosts potentially provide a natural refuge for H. zea, thereby slowing the evolution of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt)-derived Cry1Ac protein present in Bollgard cotton. Here, we demonstrate how the measured contribution of such alternative hosts can be included in estimating the "effective refuge" present for H. zea and in modeling resistance evolution in this species. A single-gene, two-compartment model was used in which one compartment represented corn, Zea mays L., and cotton that express the Cry1Ac protein or similar proteins, and the other compartment was the effective refuge, made up of a weighted average of non-Bt cotton and noncotton hosts. The effective refuge was estimated for each of six generations of H. zea based upon available data on larval population densities on different hosts and cropping patterns. Model runs were performed for regions centered on three states: Georgia, Mississippi, and North Carolina. Three sets of fitness cost assumptions for the putative resistance gene were used: none, low, and moderate, with either recessive or additive inheritance for resistance and fitness costs. For Georgia and North Carolina, resistance was predicted to take >30 yr to evolve except in the absence of fitness costs. For Mississippi, results were sensitive to fitness costs: >30 yr with moderate costs, 7-14 yr with low costs, and 6-10 yr without such costs.

  8. Field response of aboveground non-target arthropod community to transgenic Bt-Cry1Ab rice plant residues in postharvest seasons.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yao-Yu; Yan, Rui-Hong; Ye, Gong-Yin; Huang, Fangneng; Wangila, David S; Wang, Jin-Jun; Cheng, Jia-An

    2012-10-01

    Risk assessments of ecological effects of transgenic rice expressing lepidoptera-Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) on non-target arthropods have primarily focused on rice plants during cropping season, whereas few studies have investigated the effects in postharvest periods. Harvested rice fallow fields provide a critical over-wintering habitat for arthropods in the Chinese rice ecosystems, particularly in the southern region of the country. During 2006-08, two independent field trials were conducted in Chongqing, China to investigate the effects of transgenic Cry1Ab rice residues on non-target arthropod communities. In each trial, pitfall traps were used to sample arthropods in field plots planted with one non-Bt variety and two Bt rice lines expressing the Cry1Ab protein. Aboveground arthropods in the trial plots during the postharvest season were abundant, while community densities varied significantly between the two trials. A total of 52,386 individual insects and spiders, representing 93 families, was captured in the two trials. Predominant arthropods sampled were detritivores, which accounted for 91.9% of the total captures. Other arthropods sampled included predators (4.2%), herbivores (3.2%), and parasitoids (0.7%). In general, there were no significant differences among non-Bt and Bt rice plots in all arthropod community-specific parameters for both trials, suggesting no adverse impact of the Bt rice plant residues on the aboveground non-target arthropod communities during the postharvest season. The results of this study provide additional evidence that Bt rice is safe to non-target arthropod communities in the Chinese rice ecosystems.

  9. Bt rice does not disrupt the host-searching behavior of the parasitoid Cotesia chilonis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsong; Romeis, Jörg; Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether plant volatiles help explain why Cotesia chilonis (a parasitoid of the target pest Chilo suppressalis) is less abundant in Bt than in non-Bt rice fields. Olfactometer studies revealed that C. chilonis females responded similarly to undamaged Bt and non-Bt rice plants. Parasitoids preferred rice plants damaged by 3(rd)-instar larvae of C. suppressalis, but did not differentiate between caterpillar-infested Bt and non-Bt plants. According to GC-MS analyses of rice plant volatiles, undamaged Bt and non-Bt rice plants emitted the same number of volatile compounds and there were no significant differences in the quantity of each volatile compound between the treatments. When plants were infested with and damaged by C. suppressalis larvae, both Bt and non-Bt rice plants emitted higher numbers and larger amounts of volatile compounds than undamaged plants, but there were no significant differences between Bt and non-Bt plants. These results demonstrate that the volatile-mediated interactions of rice plants with the parasitoid C. chilonis were not disrupted by the genetic engineering of the plants. We infer that parasitoid numbers are lower in Bt than in non-Bt fields because damage and volatile induction by C. suppressalis larvae are greatly reduced in Bt fields.

  10. Bt rice does not disrupt the host-searching behavior of the parasitoid Cotesia chilonis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingsong; Romeis, Jörg; Yu, Huilin; Zhang, Yongjun; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether plant volatiles help explain why Cotesia chilonis (a parasitoid of the target pest Chilo suppressalis) is less abundant in Bt than in non-Bt rice fields. Olfactometer studies revealed that C. chilonis females responded similarly to undamaged Bt and non-Bt rice plants. Parasitoids preferred rice plants damaged by 3rd-instar larvae of C. suppressalis, but did not differentiate between caterpillar-infested Bt and non-Bt plants. According to GC-MS analyses of rice plant volatiles, undamaged Bt and non-Bt rice plants emitted the same number of volatile compounds and there were no significant differences in the quantity of each volatile compound between the treatments. When plants were infested with and damaged by C. suppressalis larvae, both Bt and non-Bt rice plants emitted higher numbers and larger amounts of volatile compounds than undamaged plants, but there were no significant differences between Bt and non-Bt plants. These results demonstrate that the volatile-mediated interactions of rice plants with the parasitoid C. chilonis were not disrupted by the genetic engineering of the plants. We infer that parasitoid numbers are lower in Bt than in non-Bt fields because damage and volatile induction by C. suppressalis larvae are greatly reduced in Bt fields. PMID:26470012

  11. Antiquity of American Polyploid Cotton.

    PubMed

    Smith, C E; Macneish, R S

    1964-02-14

    Fragments of a boll of Gossypium hirsutum L. from archeological excavations near Tehuacán, Mexico, prove that this species existed in 5800 B. C. No doubt remains that American tetraploid cotton species originated through natural hiybridization.

  12. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  13. Recent Advances in Cotton Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Yaning; Wang, Baohua; Chee, Peng W.

    2008-01-01

    Genome research promises to promote continued and enhanced plant genetic improvement. As a world's leading crop and a model system for studies of many biological processes, genomics research of cottons has advanced rapidly in the past few years. This article presents a comprehensive review on the recent advances of cotton genomics research. The reviewed areas include DNA markers, genetic maps, mapped genes and QTLs, ESTs, microarrays, gene expression profiling, BAC and BIBAC libraries, physical mapping, genome sequencing, and applications of genomic tools in cotton breeding. Analysis of the current status of each of the genome research areas suggests that the areas of physical mapping, QTL fine mapping, genome sequencing, nonfiber and nonovule EST development, gene expression profiling, and association studies between gene expression and fiber trait performance should be emphasized currently and in near future to accelerate utilization of the genomics research achievements for enhancing cotton genetic improvement. PMID:18288253

  14. Nanowire-functionalized cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Sanchez-Botero, Lina; McDonald, Matthew P; Hinestroza, Juan; Kuno, Masaru

    2014-02-26

    We show the general functionalization of cotton fabrics using solution-synthesized CdSe and CdTe nanowires (NWs). Conformal coatings onto individual cotton fibers have been achieved through various physical and chemical approaches. Some involve the electrostatic attraction of NWs to cotton charged positively with a Van de Graaff generator or via 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride treatments. Resulting NW-functionalized textiles consist of dense, conformal coatings and have been characterized for their UV-visible absorption as well as Raman activity. We demonstrate potential uses of these functionalized textiles through two proof-of-concept applications. The first entails barcoding cotton using the unique Raman signature of the NWs. We also demonstrate the surface-enhancement of their Raman signatures using codeposited Au. A second demonstration takes advantage of the photoconductive nature of semiconductor NWs to create cotton-based photodetectors. Apart from these illustrations, NW-functionalized cotton textiles may possess other uses in the realm of medical, anticounterfeiting, and photocatalytic applications.

  15. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  16. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  17. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  20. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  1. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  2. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  3. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  4. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  8. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  9. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  10. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  11. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  12. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  13. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  15. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  17. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  18. Market Forces and Technological Substitutes Cause Fluctuations in the Value of Bat Pest-Control Services for Cotton

    PubMed Central

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular. PMID:24498400

  19. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    PubMed

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Goldstein, Joshua; Lasharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  20. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  1. Resistance of Trichoplusia ni Populations Selected by Bacillus thuringiensis Sprays to Cotton Plants Expressing Pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Wendy; Song, Xiaozhao; Janmaat, Alida F.; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Myers, Judith; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Two populations of Trichoplusia ni that had developed resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis sprays (Bt sprays) in commercial greenhouse vegetable production were tested for resistance to Bt cotton (BollGard II) plants expressing pyramided Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. The T. ni colonies resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki formulations were not only resistant to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac, as previously reported, but also had a high frequency of Cry2Ab-resistant alleles, exhibiting ca. 20% survival on BollGard II foliage. BollGard II-resistant T. ni strains were established by selection with BollGard II foliage to further remove Cry2Ab-sensitive alleles in the T. ni populations. The BollGard II-resistant strains showed incomplete resistance to BollGard II, with adjusted survival values of 0.50 to 0.78 after 7 days. The resistance to the dual-toxin cotton plants was conferred by two genetically independent resistance mechanisms: one to Cry1Ac and one to Cry2Ab. The 50% lethal concentration of Cry2Ab for the resistant strain was at least 1,467-fold that for the susceptible T. ni strain. The resistance to Cry2Ab in resistant T. ni was an autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive monogenic trait. Results from this study indicate that insect populations under selection by Bt sprays in agriculture can be resistant to multiple Bt toxins and may potentially confer resistance to multitoxin Bt crops. PMID:25480752

  2. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging that are...

  3. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  4. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  5. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  6. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances migrating from cotton and cotton... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.70 Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in...

  7. MST's Programmable Power Supplies: Bt Update, Bp Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holly, D. J.; Chapman, B. E.; McCollam, K. J.; Morin, J. C.; Thomas, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    MST's toroidal field programmable power supply (Bt PPS) has now been in operation for several years and has provided important new capabilities. One of the primary goals for the Bt PPS is the partial optimization of inductive current profile control, involving control of the poloidal electric field. The Bt PPS has achieved fluctuation reduction over MST's entire range of Ip. At the largest Ip, the Bt PPS achieves fluctuation reduction with a smaller poloidal electric field than the previous passive system, implying that substantially longer periods of current profile control may be possible. The Bt PPS has also been used to produce Ohmic tokamak plasmas in MST. With an applied toroidal field of 0.135 T, and q(a) > 2, the estimated energy confinement time is roughly consistent with neo-Alcator scaling. Driving q(a) < 2 with larger Ip, the confinement time degrades, but the discharge duration does not terminate prematurely. To fully optimize current profile control and to test MST operational limits, a PPS is also needed for the Bp circuit. Currently in prototype stage, the Bp PPS will feature a number of innovations to increase its flexibility and performance. Isolated charging, control, and monitor systems will eliminate charging relays, reduce coupling between modules, and minimize capacitor heating. Seven-level pulse width modulation will reduce output ripple and switching losses. Solid state shorting bars will eliminate shorting relays and minimize wiring. A balanced switching algorithm will minimize capacitive noise generation. Work supported by U. S. D. o. E.

  8. Field efficacy and seasonal expression profiles for terminal leaves of single and double Bacillus thuringiensis toxin cotton genotypes.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, J J; Adams, L C; Hardee, D D

    2001-12-01

    Examination of commercial Cry1Ac transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cotton varieties (Bollgard, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) and an experimental Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab transgenic Bt cotton variety (Bollgard II, Monsanto) for lepidopteran field efficacy was conducted during the 2000 growing season. In addition, a commercially available (Envirologix, Portland, ME) quantification assay (ELISA) was used to measure and profile the expression levels of Cry proteins in two of these varieties ['DP50B, Bollgard'; 'DP50BII, Bollgard II' (Delta & Pine Land, Scott, MS)]. Populations of beet army worms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and soybean loopers, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in Bollgard II plots compared with Bollgard. Population numbers for fall army worms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and salt marsh caterpillars, Estigmene acrea (Drury), were lower in Bollgard II plots compared with Bollgard but means did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Single and dual-toxin genotypes remained superior (P < 0.05) compared with conventional cotton against the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.). The addition of Cry2Ab had no significant (P > 0.05) impact on Cry1Ac expression in Bollgard II compared with Cry1Ac expression in Bollgard. Furthermore, throughout the season Cry2Ab was present at much higher levels in the plant compared with Cry1Ac for Bollgard II plants. Possible species-specific reasons for increased efficacy of Bollgard II over Bollgard are discussed.

  9. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Rice Is Safer to Aquatic Ecosystems than Its Non-Transgenic Counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems. PMID:25105299

  10. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  11. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangsheng; Wang, Yongmo; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt) significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems. PMID:25105299

  12. A 2-Year Field Study Shows Little Evidence That the Long-Term Planting of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Cotton Affects the Community Structure of Soil Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic insect-resistant cotton has been released into the environment for more than a decade in China to effectively control the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and other Lepidoptera. Because of concerns about undesirable ecological side-effects of transgenic crops, it is important to monitor the potential environmental impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton after commercial release. Our 2-year study included 1 cotton field where non-transgenic cotton had been planted continuously and 2 other cotton fields where transgenic insect-resistant cotton had been planted for different lengths of time since 1997 and since 2002. In 2 consecutive years (2009 and 2010), we took soil samples from 3 cotton fields at 4 different growth stages (seedling, budding, boll-forming and boll-opening stages), collected soil nematodes from soil with the sugar flotation and centrifugation method and identified the soil nematodes to the genus level. The generic composition, individual densities and diversity indices of the soil nematodes did not differ significantly between the 2 transgenic cotton fields and the non-transgenic cotton field, but significant seasonal variation was found in the individual densities of the principal trophic groups and in the diversity indices of the nematodes in all 3 cotton fields. The study used a comparative perspective to monitor the impact of transgenic insect-resistant cotton grown in typical ‘real world’ conditions. The results of the study suggested that more than 10 years of cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton had no significant effects–adverse or otherwise–on soil nematodes. This study provides a theoretical basis for ongoing environmental impact monitoring of transgenic plants. PMID:23613899

  13. [Ecology and ecologies].

    PubMed

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  14. Hepatic gene mutations induced in Big Blue rats by both the potent rat liver azo-carcinogen 6BT and its reported noncarcinogenic analogue 5BT.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, K; Soames, A R; Tinwell, H; Lefevre, P A; Ashby, J

    1999-01-01

    The potent rat liver carcinogen 6-p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (6BT) and its reported noncarcinogenic analogue 5-p-dimethylaminophenylazobenzthiazole (5BT; evaluated for carcinogenicity under the similar limited bioassay conditions used for 6BT) have been studied in order to seek an explanation for their different carcinogenic activities. Both compounds act as DNA-damaging agents to the rat liver, and both have now been shown to induce lacI (-) gene mutations in the liver of Big Blue(trade mark) transgenic rats. Both compounds were mutagenic following ten daily gavage doses or following administration in diet for 10 days. Neither chemical induced cell proliferation in the liver following repeat gavage administrations. In contrast, dietary administration of 6BT, and to a lesser extent of 5BT, induced hepatic cell proliferation. The carcinogen 6BT, but not the noncarcinogen 5BT, caused proliferation of oval stem cells in the livers by both routes of administration. It is possible that mutations induced in oval cells by 6BT are responsible for its potent carcinogenicity, and that the comparative absence of these cells in 5BT-treated livers may account for the carcinogenic inactivity of 5BT. Equally, the proliferation of the oval cells may reflect changes in liver homeostasis associated with the liver toxicity observed at the dose level of 6BT used (which was, nonetheless, the dose level used in the positive cancer bioassays). It is concluded that the new data presented cannot explain the differing carcinogenic activities of 5BT and 6BT, and that the reported noncarcinogen 5BT may also be carcinogenic when adequately assessed for this activity.

  15. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  16. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  17. Widespread risks of dental fluorosis in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) residing on petrochemical waste sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Stair, E L; Lochmiller, R L; Rafferty, D P; Schroder, J L; Basta, N T; Lish, J W; Qualls, C W

    2001-01-26

    Fluoride has been identified as a ubiquitous contaminant of soils where petrochemical wastes have been disposed. The purpose of this study was to assess how widespread toxicity risks are to resident vertebrates from chronic exposure to fluoride in the soil of petrochemical-contaminated waste sites. In total, 573 wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were examined. The rats that were seasonally collected from 12 contaminated and 12 ecologically matched reference sites across Oklahoma over a 3-yr period. The risks of cotton rats exposed to fluoride were analyzed by means of gross examination, histopathology, and scanning electron microscopy of rat incisors. Cotton rats from reference sites showed no pathologic changes in incisors (98%). In comparison, 46% of cotton rats from contaminated sites had various degrees of dental lesions. The prevalence and severity of dental lesions in cotton rats from contaminated sites were significantly influenced by season. There was a 45% increase in prevalence and a 65% increase in severity of dental lesions from summer to winter. This study demonstrated that cotton rats are very sensitive biomonitors for assessing toxicity risks from soils contaminated with fluoride and that such assessments should consider seasonal influences.

  18. Acute, sublethal, and combination effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp . kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. PMID:25373177

  19. Acute, Sublethal, and Combination Effects of Azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis on the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Vojoudi, Samad; Mahdavi, Vahid; Parsaeyan, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous and cosmopolitan insect pest that causes damage to various plants. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner sub sp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) were evaluated on third instar H. armigera under laboratory conditions. The LC50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 12.95 and 96.8 µg a.i./mL, respectively. A total mortality of 56.7% was caused on third instar larvae when LC20 values of the insecticides were applied in combination with each other. The LT50 values of azadirachtin and Bt were 4.8 and 3.6 days, respectively. The results of the sublethal study showed that the application of LC30 value of azadirachtin and Bt reduced the larval and pupal weight and increased larval and pupal duration of H. armigera. The longevity and fecundity of female adults were affected significantly by the insecticides. Female fecundity was reduced by the treatments, respectively. The lowest adult emergence ratio and pupation ratio were observed in the azadirachtin treatment. The results indicated that both insecticides have high potential for controlling of the pest. PMID:25373177

  20. Organic cotton systems improved soil properties vis-a-vis the modern systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, D.; Venugopalan, M. V.; Singh, J. V.; Narkhedkar, N. G.; Velmourougane, K.

    2012-04-01

    India is the largest cotton growing country in the world. Traditionally, cotton in India was grown with minimal inputs and resources available on farm were put to efficient use. Advent of hybrids and Bt cotton revolutionized cotton production in the country and lead to heavy reliance on external inputs. However, there is a growing awareness of the detrimental effects of excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers. This is leading to growing interest in organic cultivation of crops. An organic system (OS) was compared with the modern systems (MS) for changes in the soil physical, chemical and biological properties in field experiments conducted both on station and farmers fields in Maharashtra, India on rain dependent cotton grown on Vertisols. Soil samples of the organic plots had significantly greater C content than the MS plots relying on mineral fertilizers and pesticides. Similarly, other nutrients were also greater in the OS than the MS across locations. Most of the increases were noticed in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Interestingly, enrichment of the soil at lower depths was noticed in the OS which could be due to the surface creep of soils through the cracks in the Vertisols. With regard to the physical properties, water-stable aggregates and mean weight diameter in the MS were significantly lesser than the OS. Differences were restricted to the top 20 cm. Soil biological properties of the two systems were compared through the enzyme assays such as the dehydrogenase, glucosidase, phosphatase, sulfatase periodically during the crop growing season. All the enzyme assays indicated greater activities in the OS than the MS. Further, microfauna (nematodes) monitored indicated less of plant parasitic nematodes in the OS than the MS. Excessive tillage followed in the MS did bring about a reduction in the nematode numbers. But the systems had more parasitic nematodes.

  1. Spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Tillman, P G; Northfield, T D; Mizell, R F; Riddle, T C

    2009-08-01

    In the southeast United States, a field of peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L., is often closely associated with a field of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. The objective of this 4-yr on-farm study was to examine and compare the spatiotemporal patterns and dispersal of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), in six of these peanut-cotton farmscapes. GS(+) Version 9 was used to generate interpolated estimates of stink bug density by inverse distance weighting. Interpolated stink bug population raster maps were constructed using ArcMap Version 9.2. This technique was used to show any change in distribution of stink bugs in the farmscape over time. SADIE (spatial analysis by distance indices) methodology was used to examine spatial aggregation of individual stink bug species and spatial association of the two stink bug species in the individual crops. Altogether, the spatiotemporal analyses for the farmscapes showed that some N. viridula and E. servus nymphs and adults that develop in peanuts disperse into cotton. When these stink bugs disperse from peanuts into cotton, they aggregate in cotton at the interface, or common boundary, of the two crops while feeding on cotton bolls. Therefore, there is a pronounced edge effect observed in the distribution of stink bugs as they colonize the new crop, cotton. The driving force for the spatiotemporal distribution and dispersal of both stink bug species in peanut-cotton farmscapes seems to be availability of food in time and space mitigated by landscape structure. Thus, an understanding of farmscape ecology of stink bugs and their natural enemies is necessary to strategically place, in time and space, biologically based management strategies that control stink bug populations while conserving natural enemies and the environment and reducing off-farm inputs.

  2. Comparing Gene Expression Profiles Between Bt and non-Bt Rice in Response to Brown Planthopper Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Ning, Duo; Chen, Yang; Dang, Cong; Han, Nai-Shun; Liu, Yu'e; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH) fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3834 and 3273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR, and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes) that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and early nodulin gene ENOD

  3. Regulatory considerations surrounding the deployment of Bt-expressing cowpea in Africa: report of the deliberations of an expert panel.

    PubMed

    Huesing, Joseph; Romeis, Jörg; Ellstrand, Norman; Raybould, Alan; Hellmich, Richard; Wolt, Jeff; Ehlers, Jeff; Dabiré, Clémentine; Fatokun, Christian; Hokanson, Karen; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F; Margam, Venu; Obokoh, Nompumelelo; Mignouna, Jacob; Nangayo, Francis; Ouedraogo, Jeremy; Pasquet, Rémy; Pittendrigh, Barry; Schaal, Barbara; Stein, Jeff; Tamò, Manuele; Murdock, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata spp unguiculata) is adapted to the drier agro-ecological zones of West Africa where it is a major source of dietary protein and widely used as a fodder crop. Improving the productivity of cowpea can enhance food availability and security in West Africa. Insect predation--predominately from the legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata), flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) and a complex of pod-sucking bugs (e.g., Clavigralla spp)--is a major yield-limiting factor in West African cowpea production. Dramatic increases in yield are shown when M. vitrata is controlled with insecticides. However, availability, costs, and safety considerations limit pesticides as a viable option for boosting cowpea production. Development of Bt-cowpea through genetic modification (GM) to control the legume pod borer is a promising approach to cowpea improvement. Cowpea expressing the lepidopteran-active Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis is being developed as a first generation Bt-cowpea crop for West Africa. Appropriate stewardship of Bt-cowpea to assure its sustainability under West African conditions is critical to its successful development. A first step in this process is an environmental risk assessment to determine the likelihood and magnitude of adverse effects of the Cry1Ab protein on key environmental protection goals in West Africa. Here we describe the results of an expert panel convened in 2009 to develop the problem formulation phase for Bt-cowpea and to address specific issues around gene flow, non-target arthropods, and insect resistance management.

  4. Tritrophic choice experiments with bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Tanja H; Potting, Roel P J; Denholm, Ian; Clark, Suzanne J; Clark, Alison J; Stewart, C Neal; Poppy, Guy M

    2003-06-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely to have consequent effects on parasitoids specialising on such pests. A better understanding of the interaction between transgenic plants, pests and parasitoids is important to limit disruption of biological control and to provide background knowledge essential for implementing measures for the conservation of parasitoid populations. It is also essential for investigations into the potential role of parasitoids in delaying the build-up of Bt-resistant pest populations. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major pest of brassica crops, is normally highly susceptible to a range of Bt toxins. However, extensive use of microbial Bt sprays has led to the selection of resistance to Bt toxins in P. xylostella. Cotesia plutellae is an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella larvae. Although unable to survive in Bt-susceptible P. xylostella larvae on highly resistant Bt oilseed rape plants due to premature host mortality, C. plutellae is able to complete its larval development in Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae. Experiments of parasitoid flight and foraging behaviour presented in this paper showed that adult C. plutellae females do not distinguish between Bt and wildtype oilseed rape plants, and are more attracted to Bt plants damaged by Bt-resistant hosts than by susceptible hosts. This stronger attraction to Bt plants damaged by resistant hosts was due to more extensive feeding damage. Population scale experiments with mixtures of Bt and wildtype plants demonstrated that the parasitoid is as effective in controlling Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae on Bt plants as on wildtype plants. In these experiments equal or higher numbers of parasitoid adults emerged per

  5. Tritrophic choice experiments with bt plants, the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and the parasitoid Cotesia plutellae.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Tanja H; Potting, Roel P J; Denholm, Ian; Clark, Suzanne J; Clark, Alison J; Stewart, C Neal; Poppy, Guy M

    2003-06-01

    Parasitoids are important natural enemies of many pest species and are used extensively in biological and integrated control programmes. Crop plants transformed to express toxin genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide high levels of resistance to certain pest species, which is likely to have consequent effects on parasitoids specialising on such pests. A better understanding of the interaction between transgenic plants, pests and parasitoids is important to limit disruption of biological control and to provide background knowledge essential for implementing measures for the conservation of parasitoid populations. It is also essential for investigations into the potential role of parasitoids in delaying the build-up of Bt-resistant pest populations. The diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major pest of brassica crops, is normally highly susceptible to a range of Bt toxins. However, extensive use of microbial Bt sprays has led to the selection of resistance to Bt toxins in P. xylostella. Cotesia plutellae is an important endoparasitoid of P. xylostella larvae. Although unable to survive in Bt-susceptible P. xylostella larvae on highly resistant Bt oilseed rape plants due to premature host mortality, C. plutellae is able to complete its larval development in Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae. Experiments of parasitoid flight and foraging behaviour presented in this paper showed that adult C. plutellae females do not distinguish between Bt and wildtype oilseed rape plants, and are more attracted to Bt plants damaged by Bt-resistant hosts than by susceptible hosts. This stronger attraction to Bt plants damaged by resistant hosts was due to more extensive feeding damage. Population scale experiments with mixtures of Bt and wildtype plants demonstrated that the parasitoid is as effective in controlling Bt-resistant P. xylostella larvae on Bt plants as on wildtype plants. In these experiments equal or higher numbers of parasitoid adults emerged per

  6. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    PubMed

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  7. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  8. Effects of Transgenic Bt Rice on Nontarget Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Shao-Peng; Yang, Fan; Gao, Ming-Qing; Pu, De-Qiang; Shi, Min; Ye, Gong-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-08-01

    The effects of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice lines, KMD1, KMD2, and G8-7, on biological parameters and population dynamics of nontarget insect, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were investigated in the laboratory and field. No significant differences were found between Bt and non-Bt rice lines for aphid survival. The developmental time of R. maidis that fed on KMD1 and KMD2 did not differ significantly from those of the individuals feeding on the parental variety Xiushui11, but significantly prolonged developmental time was observed on G8-7 as compared with its parental variety Xiushui110. Aphid fecundity was significantly higher on Bt than on parental rice. A 2-yr field survey indicated that Bt rice did not significantly affect the population dynamics of R. maidis in comparison with non-Bt rice. Additionally, guttation droplets of Bt rice and aphids feeding on Bt rice were analyzed for presence of Cry1Ab using ELISA. No Cry1Ab protein was found in aphid adults feeding on Bt rice lines both in the laboratory and field. By using the guttation droplets from the top of rice seedlings, we designed a novel method to collect phloem sap, and found that relatively low concentrations were detected in the guttation droplets from Bt rice lines. In conclusion, although the Bt rice lines tested in this study stimulate the fecundity of R. maidis, the aphid population density did not increase in Bt rice fields. PMID:27389683

  9. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    PubMed

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-03-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies.

  10. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    PubMed

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-03-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  11. Genetic Markers for Western Corn Rootworm Resistance to Bt Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Flagel, Lex E.; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L.; Michel, Andrew P.; Head, Graham P.; Goldman, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  12. Cotton moisture – its importance, measurements and impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton moisture impacts cotton from field to fabric. The proper control, and measurement to allow for control, of cotton moisture is essential to maintaining and preserving fiber quality. Cotton color, length and strength; as well as other properties, are all impacted by cotton moisture content. ...

  13. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  14. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  15. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  20. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  1. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  2. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  3. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  4. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  8. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  9. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  12. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  14. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  15. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  17. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  20. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  1. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  2. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  3. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  5. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  7. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  10. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  13. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  14. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  16. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  20. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  1. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  2. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  4. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  10. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  12. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  13. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  14. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  15. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  16. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  19. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  20. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  1. Utilizing the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), as a biological control agent within an integrated pest management programme for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Creontiades spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) in cotton.

    PubMed

    Grundy, P R

    2007-06-01

    Helicoverpa spp. and mirids, Creontiades spp., have been difficult to control biologically in cotton due to their unpredictable temporal abundance combined with a cropping environment often made hostile by frequent usage of broad spectrum insecticides. To address this problem, a range of new generation insecticides registered for use in cotton were tested for compatibility with the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker), a potential biological control agent for Helicoverpa spp. and Creontiades spp. Indoxacarb, pyriproxifen, buprofezin, spinosad and fipronil were found to be of low to moderate toxicity on P. plagipennis whilst emamectin benzoate, abamectin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and omethaote were moderate to highly toxic. Inundative releases of P. plagipennis integrated with insecticides identified as being of low toxicity were then tested and compared with treatments of P. plagipennis and the compatible insecticides used alone, conventionally sprayed usage practice and an untreated control during two field experiments in cotton. The biological control provided by P. plagipennis nymphs when combined with compatible insecticides provided significant (P<0.001) reductions in Helicoverpa and Creontiades spp. on cotton and provided equivalent yields to conventionally sprayed cotton with half of the synthetic insecticide input. Despite this, the utilization of P. plagipennis in cotton as part of an integrated pest management programme remains unlikely due to high inundative release costs relative to other control technologies such as insecticides and transgenic (Bt) cotton varieties. PMID:17524159

  2. Cotton Square Morphology Offers New Insights into Host Plant Resistance to Cotton Fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) in Upland Cotton.

    PubMed

    McLoud, Laura Ann; Hague, Steven; Knutson, Allen; Wayne Smith, C; Brewer, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that feeds preferentially on developing flower buds, called squares. Heavy infestations cause yield reductions that result from abscission of squares damaged by the cotton fleahopper feeding. Antixenosis, or nonpreference, has been reported as a mechanism of host plant resistance in cotton to cotton fleahopper. Square structure, particularly the placement of the reproductive tissues, and stylet penetration were investigated as factors that influence resistance to cotton fleahopper in cotton lines derived from crosses with Pilose, a cultigen of upland cotton resistant to cotton fleahopper, and backcrossed with high-yielding, susceptible lines. Ovary depth varied among the lines tested and was found to be a heritable trait that affected the ability of a fleahopper's feeding stylets to penetrate the reproductive tissues in the square and might influence preference. Behavioral assays suggested antixenosis as a mechanism of host plant resistance, and the trait conferring antixenosis was found to be heritable. Results suggest ovary depth plays a role in conferring resistance to cotton fleahopper and is an exploitable trait in resistance breeding.

  3. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  4. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  5. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  6. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    PubMed

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  7. Canopy temperature and cotton performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract The temperature of a cotton canopy is a useful indicator of both the metabolic state and water status of the crop. Recent advances in equipment have resulted in reductions in the cost and complexity of near continuous canopy temperature monitoring. Measurements on a seasonal timeframe at a ...

  8. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  9. FUM Gene Expression Profile and Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides Inoculated in Bt and Non-Bt Maize.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Liliana O; Barroso, Vinícius M; Andrade, Ludmila J; Pereira, Gustavo H A; Ferreira-Castro, Fabiane L; Duarte, Aildson P; Michelotto, Marcos D; Correa, Benedito

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710) were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with F. verticillioides and analyzed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15, and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference for FB2 production (P > 0.05). The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid. PMID:26779158

  10. FUM Gene Expression Profile and Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides Inoculated in Bt and Non-Bt Maize

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Liliana O.; Barroso, Vinícius M.; Andrade, Ludmila J.; Pereira, Gustavo H. A.; Ferreira-Castro, Fabiane L.; Duarte, Aildson P.; Michelotto, Marcos D.; Correa, Benedito

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by Fusarium verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710) were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with F. verticillioides and analyzed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15, and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P < 0.05). However, there was no statistical difference for FB2 production (P > 0.05). The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid. PMID:26779158

  11. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  12. Discourse Characteristics of Writing and Speaking Task Types on the "TOEFL iBT"® Test: A Lexico-Grammatical Analysis. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-19. Research Report. RR-13-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    One of the major innovations of the "TOEFL iBT"® test is the incorporation of integrated tasks complementing the independent tasks to which examinees respond. In addition, examinees must produce discourse in both modes (speech and writing). The validity argument for the TOEFL iBT includes the claim that examinees vary their discourse in…

  13. Investigating the Value of Section Scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® Test. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-21. ETS Research Report RR-13-35

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the value of reporting the reading, listening, speaking, and writing section scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® test, focusing on 4 related aspects of the psychometric quality of the TOEFL iBT section scores: reliability of the section scores, dimensionality of the test, presence of distinct score profiles, and the…

  14. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  15. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present. PMID:25487040

  16. Dominant Inheritance of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bt Corn in Busseolafusca

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Pascal; Kruger, Marlene; Pasquet, Rémy; Le Ru, Bruno; Van den Berg, Johnnie

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the “high dose/refuge” strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the “high dose/refuge” strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance. PMID:23844262

  17. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  18. Uptake and Transfer of a Bt Toxin by a Lepidoptera to Its Eggs and Effects on Its Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Débora Pires; Andow, David A.; Timbó, Renata Velozo; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S. S.; Fontes, Eliana M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on non-target effects of transgenic crop plants has focused primarily on bitrophic, tritrophic and indirect effects of entomotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, but little work has considered intergenerational transfer of Cry proteins. This work reports a lepidopteran (Chlosyne lacinia) taking up a Bt entomotoxin when exposed to sublethal or low concentrations, transferring the entomotoxin to eggs, and having adverse effects on the first filial generation (F1) offspring. Two bioassays were conducted using a sublethal concentration of toxin (100.0 ng/µl Cry1Ac) for adults and a concentration equal to the LC10 (2.0 ng/µl Cry1Ac) for larvae. Cry1Ac is the most common entomotoxin expressed in Bt cotton in Brazil. In the adult diet bioassay there was no adverse effect on the parental generation (P0) adults, but the F1 larvae had higher mortality and longer development time compared to F1 larvae of parents that did not ingest Cry1Ac. For the 3rd instar larvae, there was no measurable effect on the P0 larvae, pupae and adults, but the F1 larvae had higher mortality and longer development time. Using chemiluminescent Western Blot, Cry1Ac was detected in F1 eggs laid by P0 butterflies from both bioassays. Our study indicates that, at least for this species and these experimental conditions, a ∼65 kDa insecticidal protein can be taken up and transferred to descendants where it can increase mortality and development time. PMID:24747962

  19. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913.

  20. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 27 and 28 RIN 0581-AD19 Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... official leaf grade for Upland and Pima cotton. The leaf grade is a part of the official...

  1. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  2. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  3. Ecological Schoolyards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  4. Arthropod abundance and diversity in transgenic Bt soybean.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huilin; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-08-01

    Before the commercialization of any insect-resistant genetically modified crop, it must be subjected to a rigorous premarket risk assessment. Here, possible effects of growing of transgenic Cry1Ac soybean on arthropod communities under field conditions were assessed for 2 yr and quantified in terms of arthropod community indices including the Shannon-Weaver diversity index, richness index, and dominance index. Our results showed no significant differences of diversity, richness, or dominant indices for Bt soybean compared with the recipient cultivar, conventional soybean, or sprayed conventional soybean. Conventional soybean treatment with insecticide had an adverse effect on the arthropod community after spraying, but arthropod community diversity recovered quickly. Bt soybean had no negative effect on the dominant distribution of subcommunities, including sucking pests, other pests, predators, parasitoids, and others except for lepidopteran pests. The dominance distribution of lepidopteran pests decreased significantly in Bt soybean because of the significant decrease in the numbers of Spodoptera litura (F.) and Ascotis selenaria Schiffermüller et Denis compared with the recipient cultivar. Our results showed that there were no negative effects of Cry1Ac soybean on the arthropod community in soybean field plots in the short term.

  5. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    DOEpatents

    Van't Hof, Jack

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means.

  6. Estimation of ovular fiber production in cotton

    SciTech Connect

    Van`t Hof, J.

    1998-09-01

    The present invention is a method for rendering cotton fiber cells that are post-anthesis and pre-harvest available for analysis of their physical properties. The method includes the steps of hydrolyzing cotton fiber cells and separating cotton fiber cells from cotton ovules thereby rendering the cells available for analysis. The analysis of the fiber cells is through any suitable means, e.g., visual inspection. Visual inspection of the cells can be accomplished by placing the cells under an instrument for detection, such as microscope or other means. 4 figs.

  7. The impact of common smut(Ustilago maydis) on aflatoxin and fumonisin in transgenic Bt and non-Bt maize (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn infected with Ustilago maydis (common smut), produces galls that are valued food in certain cultures, but may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Field studies conducted in Elizabeth, Mississippi used near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt corn hybrids. The levels of aflatoxin and fumonisin were determined ...

  8. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM. PMID:26559133

  9. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-11-12

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM.

  10. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM. PMID:26559133

  11. Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33). Results Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50°C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60°C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. Conclusions PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain. PMID:23249212

  12. Ionizing radiation graft polymerized and modified flame retardant cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. R. S.; Agathian, G.; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-03-01

    Halogen free flame retardant cotton (FR cotton) fabric was prepared by grafting 2,3-epoxypropyl methacrylate (GMA) on ordinary or untreated cotton (UT cotton) fabric by γ-rays from 60Co source. Epoxy groups present in GMA grafted cotton (GMA-g-cotton) fabric was reacted with ethylene diamine and subsequently modified with orthophosphoric acid solution to convert in to FR cotton fabric. Effects of imparted dose, concentration of monomer on grafting percentage were studied. The changes in thermal properties after treatment were investigated by using Thermo gravimetric analyser. Limiting oxygen index, char length, time after glow and time after flame were also studied as per ASTM D2863 and IS11871, respectively, for both FR cotton and UT cotton fabrics. The FR cotton fabric was found to pass all the above tests. Washing durability of the FR cotton fabric in different cleaning agents was also studied and a washing solution containing organic solvent mixture is suggested.

  13. Quantification of toxins in a Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton cultivar and its potential effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Cui, Jin-Jie; Desneux, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton (CCRI41) is increasingly planted throughout China. However, negative effects of this cultivar on the honey bee Apis mellifera L., the most important pollinator for cultivated ecosystem, remained poorly investigated. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential side effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen from cotton on young adult honey bees A. mellifera L. Two points emphasized the significance of our study: (1) A higher expression level of insecticidal protein Cry1Ac in pollen tissues was detected (when compared with previous reports). In particular, Cry1Ac protein was detected at 300 ± 4.52 ng g(-1) [part per billion (ppb)] in pollen collected in July, (2) Effects on chronic mortality and feeding behaviour in honey bees were evaluated using a no-choice dietary feeding protocol with treated pollen, which guarantee the highest exposure level to bees potentially occurring in natural conditions (worst case scenario). Tests were also conducted using imidacloprid-treated pollen at a concentration of 48 ppb as positive control for sublethal effect on feeding behaviour. Our results suggested that Cry1Ac + CpTI pollen carried no lethal risk for honey bees. However, during a 7-day oral exposure to the various treatments (transgenic, imidacloprid-treated and control), honey bee feeding behaviour was disturbed and bees consumed significantly less CCRI41 cotton pollen than in the control group in which bees were exposed to conventional cotton pollen. It may indicate an antifeedant effect of CCRI41 pollen on honey bees and thus bees may be at risk because of large areas are planted with transgenic Bt cotton in China. This is the first report suggesting a potential sublethal effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of risk assessment for bees as well as for directions of future work involving risk assessment of CCRI41 cotton. PMID:20700762

  14. Transgenic Cry1Ab Rice Does Not Impact Ecological Fitness and Predation of a Generalist Spider

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Li, Kai; Chen, Mao; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Shelton, Anthony M.; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. Methodology/Principal Findings A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand)) that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. Conclusions/Significance The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized. PMID:22511982

  15. Functional validation of cadherin as a receptor of Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Huidong; Zhao, Shan; Zuo, Yayun; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2016-09-01

    Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out. A single positive CRISPR event with a frame shift deletion of 4 nucleotides was identified and made homozygous to create a knockout line named SCD-Cad. Western blotting confirmed that HaCad was no longer expressed in the SCD-Cad line while an intact HaCad of 210 kDa was present in the parental SCD strain. Insecticide bioassays were used to show that SCD-Cad exhibited 549-fold resistance to Cry1Ac compared with SCD, but no significant change in susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Our results not only provide strong reverse genetics evidence for HaCad as a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but also demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can act as a powerful and efficient genome editing tool to study gene function in a global agricultural pest, H. armigera.

  16. Functional validation of cadherin as a receptor of Bt toxin Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa armigera utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Haonan; Wang, Huidong; Zhao, Shan; Zuo, Yayun; Yang, Yihua; Wu, Yidong

    2016-09-01

    Cadherins have been identified as receptors of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A toxins in several lepidopteran insects including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Disruption of the cadherin gene HaCad has been genetically linked to resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in H. armigera. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9), HaCad from the Cry1Ac-susceptible SCD strain of H. armigera was successfully knocked out. A single positive CRISPR event with a frame shift deletion of 4 nucleotides was identified and made homozygous to create a knockout line named SCD-Cad. Western blotting confirmed that HaCad was no longer expressed in the SCD-Cad line while an intact HaCad of 210 kDa was present in the parental SCD strain. Insecticide bioassays were used to show that SCD-Cad exhibited 549-fold resistance to Cry1Ac compared with SCD, but no significant change in susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Our results not only provide strong reverse genetics evidence for HaCad as a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but also demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 technique can act as a powerful and efficient genome editing tool to study gene function in a global agricultural pest, H. armigera. PMID:27343383

  17. Spatio-temporal variation in Helicoverpa egg parasitism by Trichogramma in a tropical Bt-transgenic cotton landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics of insects in agroecosystems is crucial when developing effective management strategies that emphasise biological control of pests. Wild populations of Trichogramma Westwood egg parasitoids are utilised for biological suppression of the potentially resistan...

  18. Productivity potential and monetary evaluation of Bt cotton hybrids under varied agronomic manipulations in semi-arid conditions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kulvir; Rathore, Pankaj; Gumber, R K

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments comprising three Btcotton hybrids in main, two plant geometries in sub and three nutrient levels in sub sub plots of Split Plot design replicated thrice were conducted at PAU, Regional Research Station, Faridkot during Kharif 2010 and 2011. MRC7361 recorded significantly the highest SCY (3121.6 kg ha(-1)) followed by Bioseed 6488 (2649.5 kg ha(-1)) and RCH134 (2107.4 kg ha(-1)). Statistically improved bolls per plant and boll weight primarily helped MRC7361 in achieving the highest yield. Owing to better fertilizer use efficiency (5.47) and water productivity (649.3 gm(-3)), highest net returns of < or = 101047 ha(-1) were observed with MRC7361 as compared to Bioseed 6488 (< or = 83343 ha(-1)) and RCH134 (< or = 63014 ha(-1)). Bolls per plant and benefit cost ratio was significantly enhanced under wider geometry of 67.5 x 90 cm. Application of 225 kg N, 45 kg P ha(-1) produced significantly higher SCY (2825.9 kg ha(-1)) owing to improved sympods and bolls per plant than 150 kg N, 30 kg P ha(-1) (2374.9 kg ha(-1)) and 187.5 kg N, 37.5 kg P ha(-1) (2677.6 kg ha(-1)). As a result of this, statistically highest net returns of < or = 89552 ha(-1) were obtained with application of 225 kg N, 45 kg Pha(-1). Water productivity improved significantly with each successive increase in the level of nutrients. Contrarily, fertilizer use efficiency exhibited reverse trend with statistically highest value (5.08) for the lowest level of nutrients. PMID:25204056

  19. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn bt11: a clinico-biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nobuaki; Murata, Hideo; Mikami, Osamu; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2006-10-01

    Genetically modified corn Bt11 is insect-resistant and expresses Cry1Ab toxin, an insecticidal protein, in kernels. Although Bt11 corn is considered safe based on animal performance, there are no reports available on the clinico-biochemical effects of feeding it to cattle. In this study, we evaluated the effects of feeding Bt11 to calves, using blood and ruminal clinico-biochemical parameters. Our three-month-long feeding experiment demonstrated that calves (n=6), fed with a ration containing 43.3% of Bt11 corn kernels as dry matter, did not develop any discernible clinical, hematological, biochemical, or ruminal abnormalities as compared with control calves (n=6) fed non-Bt11 corn. The results suggest that the transgenic Bt11 has no negative clinico-biochemical effects on calves.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  1. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  2. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  3. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  4. Cotton breeding-challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition with synthetic fibers is one of the greatest challenges facing today’s cotton industry. Improved fiber quality is essential to increase US cotton’s competitiveness in the global market place. Enhanced fiber quality also offers an opportunity to capture more value from cotton production. ...

  5. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  6. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  7. Cotton Classing and Inspection in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese market is important to U.S. cotton. China is the largest cotton producer, consumer and importer. China produced 35.8 million bales in 2007/08 crop year, India produced 21.8 million bales, and the U.S. produced 19.2 million bales. Comparing the production with consumption, China needs to i...

  8. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  9. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  10. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  11. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  12. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  13. Canopy temperature and maturity in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat units are a widely used indicator of maturity in cotton. It is generally assumed that it takes approximately 2200°F (1222°C) heat units for a cotton plant on the South High Plains of Texas to mature. This value is based on a typical planting date of May 15 with ample irrigation. As water for c...

  14. Water-sensitivity of cotton growth stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All irrigations during a season are not equal in terms of providing economic return on the money spent to irrigate cotton. This article provides a brief description of the effect of water stress on cotton during the different growth stages of the plant and the relative benefit of irrigating to relie...

  15. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  16. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  17. [Effects of transgenic Bt rice on soil dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen contents and microbiological properties].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Qiang; Chen, Fa-Jun; Liu, Man-Qiang; Hu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    A two-year field experiment (2009 and 2010) was conducted to evaluate the effects of three transgenic Bt rice lines (KMD, HH1, and BtSY63) and their non-Bt lines (XSD, MH63, and SY63) on soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) and microbiological properties. All the measured indices changed significantly with sampling time. Comparing with their corresponding non-Bt lines, the test transgenic Bt lines had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN). The transgenic Bt lines had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), basal respiration (BR), and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in certain periods of time in the first year, but no effects in the second year. Among the soils planted with the three non-Bt rice lines, no difference was observed in the DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, whereas in the soil planted with BtSY63, the MBC and BR were significantly higher, but the qCO2 was significantly lower, as compared with those in the soils planted with KMD and HH1. In sum, two years' planting transgenic Bt rice had little effects on the soil DOC, DON, and microbiological properties, but the differences of soil microbiological properties induced by the planting of different transgenic Bt rice lines were larger than those induced by the planting of different non-Bt lines, implying that long term monitoring would help to reveal the effects of transgenic Bt rice on the structure and function of soil ecosystem. PMID:22489485

  18. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement. PMID:24914780

  19. Densovirus Is a Mutualistic Symbiont of a Global Crop Pest (Helicoverpa armigera) and Protects against a Baculovirus and Bt Biopesticide

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengjun; Liu, Yongqiang; Graham, Robert I.; Wilson, Kenneth; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Mutualistic associations between symbiotic bacteria and their hosts are common within insect systems. However, viruses are often considered as pathogens even though some have been reported to be beneficial to their hosts. Herein, we report a novel densovirus, Helicoverpa armigera densovirus-1 (HaDNV-1) that appears to be beneficial to its host. HaDNV-1 was found to be widespread in wild populations of H. armigera adults (>67% prevalence between 2008 and 2012). In wild larval populations, there was a clear negative interaction between HaDNV-1 and H. armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV), a baculovirus that is widely used as a biopesticide. Laboratory bioassays revealed that larvae hosting HaDNV-1 had significantly enhanced resistance to HaNPV (and lower viral loads), and that resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin was also higher at low doses. Laboratory assays indicated that the virus was mainly distributed in the fat body, and could be both horizontally- and vertically-transmitted, though the former occurred only at large challenge doses. Densovirus-positive individuals developed more quickly and had higher fecundity than uninfected insects. We found no evidence for a negative effect of HaDNV-1 infection on H. armigera fitness-related traits, strongly suggesting a mutualistic interaction between the cotton bollworm and its densovirus. PMID:25357125

  20. Climate change and cotton production in modern farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is used every day in the form of clothing made from cotton fiber and products made from cotton-seed oil. Wild ancestors of cotton are found in arid regions, often with high daytime temperatures and cool nights, and are naturally adapted to surviving long periods of hot dry weather. Modern cul...

  1. Pollen genotyping in cotton for genetic linkage analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an important fiber and oil crop and thus makes very important contributions to US agricultural security and sustainable agriculture. Two species are vital for American cotton industry, i.e., Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Pima cotton (G. barbadense) that are prized for high yields...

  2. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  3. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  5. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  7. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  9. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  11. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  12. 7 CFR 28.180 - Issuance of cotton classification memoranda.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. 28.180... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.180 Issuance of cotton classification memoranda. As soon as practicable after the classification...

  13. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  16. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  17. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  20. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  1. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  2. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region....

  4. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  7. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  9. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  10. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  11. 7 CFR 28.160 - Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. 28.160 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Adjustment of Contract Disputes § 28.160 Cotton examiners on foreign exchanges. Whenever...

  12. 7 CFR 28.482 - United States Cotton Futures Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... purposes of the United States Cotton Futures Act (7 U.S.C. 15b) and the regulations thereunder (7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Cotton Futures Act. 28.482 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards General § 28.482 United States Cotton...

  13. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton; determination. 28.8 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  15. 7 CFR 28.181 - Review of cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of cotton classification. 28.181 Section 28.181... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.181 Review of cotton classification. A review of any classification or comparison made pursuant to this...

  16. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of cotton. For purposes of subsection 15b (f) of The Act, classification...

  17. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  18. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton loan deficiency payments. 1427.23 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.23 Cotton loan deficiency payments. (a) In order to be eligible to receive...