Science.gov

Sample records for buccal motor programs

  1. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  2. Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Edwin; Robin, Donald A.; Wright, David L.; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AOS) is an impairment of motor programming. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains unclear. The present study examined motor programming in AOS in the context of a recent two-stage model [Klapp, S. T. (1995). Motor response programming during simple and choice reaction time: The role of practice. "Journal of…

  3. Testosterone Buccal

    MedlinePlus

    ... depending on the amount of testosterone in your blood during your treatment.Testosterone buccal systems may control your condition but will not cure it. Continue to use testosterone even if you feel well. Do not stop using testosterone without talking to your doctor. If ...

  4. An in vitro preparation for eliciting and recording feeding motor programs with physiological movements in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Chiel, Hillel J

    2012-12-05

    Multifunctionality, the ability of one peripheral structure to generate multiple, distinct behaviors(1), allows animals to rapidly adapt their behaviors to changing environments. The marine mollusk Aplysia californica provides a tractable system for the study of multifunctionality. During feeding, Aplysia generates several distinct types of behaviors using the same feeding apparatus, the buccal mass. The ganglia that control these behaviors contain a number of large, identified neurons that are accessible to electrophysiological study. The activity of these neurons has been described in motor programs that can be divided into two types, ingestive and egestive programs, based on the timing of neural activity that closes the food grasper relative to the neural activity that protracts or retracts the grasper(2). However, in isolated ganglia, the muscle movements that would produce these behaviors are absent, making it harder to be certain whether the motor programs observed are correlates of real behaviors. In vivo, nerve and muscle recordings have been obtained corresponding to feeding programs(2,3,4), but it is very difficult to directly record from individual neurons(5). Additionally, in vivo, ingestive programs can be further divided into bites and swallows(1,2), a distinction that is difficult to make in most previously described in vitro preparations. The suspended buccal mass preparation (Figure 1) bridges the gap between isolated ganglia and intact animals. In this preparation, ingestive behaviors - including both biting and swallowing - and egestive behaviors (rejection) can be elicited, at the same time as individual neurons can be recorded from and stimulated using extracellular electrodes(6). The feeding movements associated with these different behaviors can be recorded, quantified, and related directly to the motor programs. The motor programs in the suspended buccal mass preparation appear to be more similar to those observed in vivo than are motor

  5. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  6. Complementary interactions between command-like interneurons that function to activate and specify motor programs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Perkins, Matthew H; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Jing, Jian

    2014-05-07

    Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity.

  7. Young Athletes program: impact on motor development.

    PubMed

    Favazza, Paddy C; Siperstein, Gary N; Zeisel, Susan A; Odom, Samuel L; Sideris, John H; Moskowitz, Andrew L

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Young Athletes program to promote motor development in preschool-aged children with disabilities. In the study, 233 children were randomly assigned to a control group or the Young Athletes (YA) intervention group which consisted of 24 motor skill lessons delivered 3 times per week for 8 weeks. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) showed that children who participated in the YA intervention exhibited mean gains of 7-9 months on the Peabody Developmental Motor Subscales (PDMS) compared with mean gains of 3-5 months for the control group. Children in the YA intervention also exhibited significant gains on the gross motor subscale of the Vineland Teacher Rating Form (VTRF). Teachers and parents reported benefits for children not only in specific motor skills, but also kindergarten readiness skills and social/play skills. The necessity for direct and intentional instruction of motor skills, as well as the challenges of involving families in the YA program, are discussed.

  8. Activities for a Perceptual Motor Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Perceptual motor activities for physically handicapped children are presented in the areas of fine and gross motor skills. Also detailed are activities to develop body image, visual motor skills, and tactile and auditory perception. (JD)

  9. [Influence of semantic stress on the motor program structure].

    PubMed

    Shalimov, P M; Ermolaev, B V

    1998-01-01

    To approach the applied aspects of support to operator interacting with the aerospace technical systems, the authors are working on the problems of structuring the motor programs and deformation caused to them by semantic stressful agents. Possibility for varying the composition of locomotion programs to ensure success of a general motor task had been experimentally demonstrated. Data obtained are viewed from the standpoint of revision of the motor image in the psychic control system.

  10. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  11. Fourth annual report to Congress, Federal Alternative Motor Fuels Programs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report to Congress presents the current status of the alternative fuel vehicle programs being conducted across the country in accordance with the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988. These programs, which represent the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative fuels, are beginning their fifth year. This report summarizes tests and results from the fourth year.

  12. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  13. Nondestructive Evaluation and Inspection Programs for Pershing II motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    2. Maintenance instructions. 3. Electrical schematics. 4. Parts lists. 40 APPENDIX D: ULTRASONIC THICKNESS GAGE FOR PERSHING-H NDI Background A...Specifications for Real-Time Digital Radiographic Inspection System 26 APPENDIX C: Borescope System Specification 37 APPENDIX D: Ultrasonic Thickness Gage for...returned from the field. Motors are now being removed from the field as part of an ongoing program of replacement. These motors have been subjected to

  14. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  15. Motor and cognitive growth following a Football Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a “natural and enjoyable tool” to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014

  16. Masticatory motor programs in Australian herbivorous mammals: diprotodontia.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Alfred W

    2011-08-01

    Movement of the jaw during molar occlusion is determined by the sequence of activity in the adductor muscles and this sequence is one way to define a masticatory motor program. Based on the similarity of molar structure, it is probable that the American opossum and the early Tertiary mammals that gave rise to all Australian marsupials probably shared a common "primitive" masticatory motor program. The distinct and various patterns of movement of the jaw in the major groups of Australian marsupial herbivores (diprotodontids) are achieved by both subtle and substantial shifts in the timing of the primitive sequence. All diprotodonts divide jaw movements during occlusion into a vertical Phase Im and horizontal Phase IIm, but the number of muscles involved and the level of activity associated with each phase varies considerably. In macropodids (potoroos and kangaroos) Phase Im dominates; in wombats Phase IIm dominates and in koalas the two phases are more evenly divided, with a more equal distribution of muscles between them. The motor program of koalas parallels that of some placental ungulates, while both macropodids and wombats have motor programs unique among mammals.

  17. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  20. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the

  1. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  2. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motors

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1983-11-01

    This report describes the work done under contract to Sandia National Labs and to the Department of Energy for improvement of downhole drilling motors. The focus of this program was the development of a better bearing-and-seal assembly that could be used in different kinds of drilling motors in a geothermal environment. Major tasks were: (1) design and construction of seal testing devices, (2) screening and evaluation of candidate seals in a simulated bearing/seal package, (3) tests of the most promising candidates in a full-scale bearing/seal package, and (4) analysis of failed seals after testing. The key results from this program were: (1) identification of seal/shaft/lubricant systems that performed well at high pressure and temperature, (2) identification of other seal designs that should be avoided for similar applications, and (3) evaluation of the test machines' design.

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support...

  5. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  6. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors.

  7. The Effect of Additional Tactile Stimulation in a Perceptual-Motor Treatment Program for School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibbin, Elsie H.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the value of a perceptual-motor program using predominantly gross motor activities for children with developmental apraxia and deficits in tactile perception. (Author)

  8. Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program Overview and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Stan R.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program is provided with a summary of lessons learned since the first test firing in 1977. Fifteen different lessons learned are discussed that fundamentally changed the motor's design, processing, and RSRM program risk management systems. The evolution of the rocket motor design is presented including the baseline or High Performance Solid Rocket Motor (HPM), the Filament Wound Case (FWC), the RSRM, and the proposed Five-Segment Booster (FSB).

  9. Environmental impact statement Space Shuttle advanced solid rocket motor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site. Sites being considered for the new facilities include John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi; the Yellow Creek site in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, which is currently in the custody and control of the Tennessee Valley Authority; and John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County, Florida. TVA proposes to transfer its site to the custody and control of NASA if it is the selected site. All facilities need not be located at the same site. Existing facilities which may provide support for the program include Michoud Assembly Facility, New Orleans Parish, Louisiana; and Slidell Computer Center, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. NASA's preferred production location is the Yellow Creek site, and the preferred test location is the Stennis Space Center.

  10. Motor programming when sequencing multiple elements of the same duration.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Curt E; Robin, Donald A; Wright, David L

    2008-11-01

    Motor programming at the self-select paradigm was adopted in 2 experiments to examine the processing demands of independent processes. One process (INT) is responsible for organizing the internal features of the individual elements in a movement (e.g., response duration). The 2nd process (SEQ) is responsible for placing the elements into the proper serial order before execution. Participants in Experiment 1 performed tasks involving 1 key press or sequences of 4 key presses of the same duration. Implementing INT and SEQ was more time consuming for key-pressing sequences than for single key-press tasks. Experiment 2 examined whether the INT costs resulting from the increase in sequence length observed in Experiment 1 resulted from independent planning of each sequence element or via a separate "multiplier" process that handled repetitions of elements of the same duration. Findings from Experiment 2, in which participants performed single key presses or double or triple key sequences of the same duration, suggested that INT is involved with the independent organization of each element contained in the sequence. Researchers offer an elaboration of the 2-process account of motor programming to incorporate the present findings and the findings from other recent sequence-learning research.

  11. Two alternating motor programs drive navigation in Drosophila larva.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Subhaneil; Shen, Konlin; Klein, Mason; Tang, Anji; Kane, Elizabeth; Gershow, Marc; Garrity, Paul; Samuel, Aravinthan D T

    2011-01-01

    When placed on a temperature gradient, a Drosophila larva navigates away from excessive cold or heat by regulating the size, frequency, and direction of reorientation maneuvers between successive periods of forward movement. Forward movement is driven by peristalsis waves that travel from tail to head. During each reorientation maneuver, the larva pauses and sweeps its head from side to side until it picks a new direction for forward movement. Here, we characterized the motor programs that underlie the initiation, execution, and completion of reorientation maneuvers by measuring body segment dynamics of freely moving larvae with fluorescent muscle fibers as they were exposed to temporal changes in temperature. We find that reorientation maneuvers are characterized by highly stereotyped spatiotemporal patterns of segment dynamics. Reorientation maneuvers are initiated with head sweeping movement driven by asymmetric contraction of a portion of anterior body segments. The larva attains a new direction for forward movement after head sweeping movement by using peristalsis waves that gradually push posterior body segments out of alignment with the tail (i.e., the previous direction of forward movement) into alignment with the head. Thus, reorientation maneuvers during thermotaxis are carried out by two alternating motor programs: (1) peristalsis for driving forward movement and (2) asymmetric contraction of anterior body segments for driving head sweeping movement.

  12. 75 FR 80292 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AB71 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Electric Motors..., promulgating energy conservation standards for certain electric motors as prescribed in the Energy Policy and... motors that, due to a drafting error, are not consistent with statutory requirements. DATES:...

  13. 77 FR 26607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... methods, marking requirements, and energy efficiency levels for three-phase induction motors, March 2010... Performance of Single-Speed Three-Phase Cage Induction Motors, clauses 5.2, 5.4, 6, and 8, and Tables 1, 2, 3... Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators, approved February 9, 2004: (i) Section...

  14. 76 FR 647 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors and Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...This supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking (SNOPR) proposes to clarify certain terms and language in our regulations for certain commercial and industrial equipment, as follows: revise the definitions of certain terms related to electric motors and small electric motors, clarify the scope of energy conservation standards for electric motors, update references to several industry and......

  15. Motor neuron death in ALS – programmed by astrocytes?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons in ALS die via cell-autonomous and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. Using adult human astrocytes and motor neurons, Re et al (2014) discover that familial and sporadic ALS derived human adult astrocytes secrete neurotoxic factors that selectively kill motor neurons through necroptosis, suggesting a new therapeutic avenue. PMID:24607221

  16. Comment: a schema for the interactions between motor programs and sensory input.

    PubMed

    Tatton, W G; Bruce, I C

    1981-07-01

    In this overview we utilize and extend a model, originally developed for "command interneuron" control of the generation of motor programs, to discuss the roles sensory inputs play in movement control. To provide a conceptual framework, we present a modular schematic of the motor control and sensory processing apparatus of an hypothetical nervous system. In the schematic, "subroutines" (basic units of motor programs) are seen as "playing out" through switching and sequencing networks to "driver neurons." The "driver neurons" then activate motoneurons to execute the programmed movements. Five modes of interaction between motor programs and sensory input are considered using examples from invertebrate and vertebrate neuronal circuitry. These modes of interaction occur at the following locations: (1) the "program selector," to initiate a motor program; (2) the "motor subroutine directory," advancing the program to the next subroutine; (3) the "driver neurons" and motoneurons, where the "gain" of subroutine instructions can be modulated; (4) the "motor programmer," which monitors programs in progress and provides for program development and updating; and (5) the "driver neurons" themselves, which control sensory processing by "selecting" the appropriate sensory inputs for the program in progress. Mode 5 is illustrated in more detail through a consideration of the modification of stretch receptor input by "extensor" and "flexor" command interneurones in the circuitry controlling postural movements of the crayfish abdomen.

  17. Use of buccal mucosa in hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Castellan, Miguel; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Hypospadias is an embryological disorder that results in an abnormal ventral positioning of the urethral meatus. Among multiple surgical techniques described to correct this anomaly, the use of buccal mucosa grafts has gained popularity among pediatric urologists, pediatric surgeons and plastic surgeons. Buccal mucosa grafts have shown favorable histological changes that result in an excellent scaffold for urethral reconstructive surgery. This review describes the evolution of the use of buccal mucosa grafts in hypospadias repair.

  18. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  19. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vehicle leasing program. 101-26.501-9 Section 101-26.501-9 Public Contracts and Property Management... vehicle leasing program. GSA has a centralized leasing program to provide an additional source of motor.... The centralized leasing program covers subcompact, compact, and midsize sedans, station wagons,...

  1. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  2. Buccal attachment loss in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Källestål, C; Uhlin, S

    1992-08-01

    A case referent study was performed to identify factors connected with loss of buccal attachment in adolescents. The study group was identified among 18-year-olds who had participated 2 years earlier in a study of periodontal conditions in adolescents. The criterion for inclusion in the case group was buccal attachment loss (greater than or equal to 1 mm) in one or more sites. Information on 28 variables, identified earlier as being related to recessions, was collected in a clinical examination, interview and observation. The referent group consisted of 66 subjects and the case group of 71 subjects. The case group comprised 2 subgroups, one identified as having buccal attachment loss in 1987 and the other with attachment loss occurring in the years 1987-89. Statistical analyses, using the chi 2 test, logistic regression and a variance component model, were performed to detect factors related to buccal attachment loss. These factors were thin alveolar tissue, narrow width of the attached gingiva and presence of teeth with buccal displacement. The results indicate that the anatomy of the buccal alveolar process is related to the presence of buccal attachment loss in populations with a high level of oral hygiene. To evaluate the importance of possible risk factors or etiological factors for development of buccal loss of tooth support, prospective epidemiological or experimental studies are needed.

  3. Young Athletes: A Special Olympics Motor Skill Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Siperstein, Gary N.

    2013-01-01

    While motor skills develop naturally among most typically developing preschoolers, young children with disabilities often experience deficits in this area. Therefore, it is important that children with disabilities are provided with "direct and intentional instruction" for motor skill development during the preschool years. One program…

  4. Innovative Perceptual Motor Activities: Programing Techniques That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1978-01-01

    A circuit approach and station techniques are used to depict perceptual motor games for handicapped and nonhandicapped children. Twenty activities are described in terms of objectives, materials, and procedures, and their focus on visual tracking, visual discrimination and copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile…

  5. Coordination of distinct motor structures through remote axonal coupling of projection interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Jian; Sasaki, Kosei; Perkins, Matthew H; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Ludwar, Bjoern C; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2011-01-01

    Complex behaviors often require coordinated movements of dissimilar motor structures. The underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated cycle-by-cycle coordination of two dissimilar feeding structures in Aplysia californica: the external lips and the internal radula. During feeding, the lips open while the radula protracts. Lip and radula motoneurons are located in the cerebral and buccal ganglia respectively, and radula motoneurons are controlled by a well-characterized buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Here, we examined whether the three electrically-coupled lip motoneurons C15/16/17 are controlled by the buccal CPG or by a previously-postulated cerebral CPG. Two buccal-cerebral projection interneurons, B34 and B63, which are part of the buccal CPG and mediate radula protraction, monosynaptically excite C15/16/17. Recordings from the B34 axon in the cerebral ganglion demonstrate its direct electrical coupling with C15/16/17, eliminating the need for a cerebral CPG. Moreover, when the multifunctional buccal CPG generates multiple forms of motor programs due to the activation of two inputs: the command-like neuron CBI-2 and the esophageal nerve (EN), C15/16 exhibit activity patterns that are distinct from C17. These distinct activity patterns result from combined activity of B34 and B63 and their differential excitation of C15/16 vs. C17. In more general terms, we identified neuronal mechanisms that allow a single CPG to coordinate the phasing and activity of remotely-located motoneurons innervating distinct structures that participate in the production of different motor outputs. We also demonstrated that axo-dendritic electrical coupling by projection interneurons plays a pivotal role in coordinating activity of these remotely-located neurons. PMID:22031890

  6. Motor Drive Technologies for the Power-by-Wire (PBW) Program: Options, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1995-01-01

    Power-By-Wire (PBW) is a program involving the replacement of hydraulic and pneumatic systems currently used in aircraft with an all-electric secondary power system. One of the largest loads of the all-electric secondary power system will be the motor loads which include pumps, compressors and Electrical Actuators (EA's). Issues of improved reliability, reduced maintenance and efficiency, among other advantages, are the motivation for replacing the existing aircraft actuators with electrical actuators. An EA system contains four major components. These are the motor, the power electronic converters, the actuator and the control system, including the sensors. This paper is a comparative literature review in motor drive technologies, with a focus on the trends and tradeoffs involved in the selection of a particular motor drive technology. The reported research comprises three motor drive technologies. These are the induction motor (IM), the brushless dc motor (BLDCM) and the switched reluctance motor (SRM). Each of the three drives has the potential for application in the PBW program. Many issues remain to be investigated and compared between the three motor drives, using actual mechanical loads expected in the PBW program.

  7. Osteolipoma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alvimar-Lima; de Castro, Eni-Vaz-Franco-Lima; Felipini, Renata-Callestini; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Soubhia, Ana-Maria-Pires

    2010-03-01

    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms of soft tissue that can be found in any part of the human body. Conversely, their presence in the oral mucosa is rather uncommon, with approximately 4% of the cases occurring in the oral cavity. In such cases, they are likely to have originated from mature adipose tissue and to be among several described histological variants of lipomas, which are identified according to the predominant type of tissue. There is a rare lipoma, known as an osteolipoma or an ossifying lipoma; however, little has been written this type of lipoma characterized by a classical lipoma with areas of osseous metaplasia. Considering the few cases of oral osteolipomas previously described in the English-related literature and the consequent risk of misdiagnosis and overtreatment, this paper describes an extreme case of an osteolipoma affecting the buccal mucosa of an adult patient. This paper focuses particularly on the pathogenesis of this lesion and the discussion of a correct diagnosis.

  8. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderesch, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Plans for conducting Phase C/D for a solid rocket motor booster vehicle are presented. Methods for conducting this program with details of scheduling, testing, and program management and control are included. The requirements of the space shuttle program to deliver a minimum cost/maximum reliability booster vehicle are examined.

  9. Movement observation specifies motor programs activated by the action observed objective.

    PubMed

    Lago, Angel; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2011-04-15

    There are human cortical areas that fire both when a person executes an action and when he observes someone performing a similar action. The observer activates a motor program that resembles the observed action. However, it is not known whether the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. In this study, using simple pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), we investigated whether the Mirror System activates a muscle specific motor program, or codes the observed action in terms of its goal. The results showed that when subjects observed a static effector in front of an object, cortical excitability was enhanced even in muscles not involved in the observed movement, but that are able to achieve the goal of the action. When there was an effector-object interaction the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. These results suggest that when subjects observe an object related action there is an activation of a motor program based on the observed action goal, that is transformed into a muscle specific program when the subject shows an effector-object interaction.

  10. A suppression hierarchy among competing motor programs drives sequential grooming in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seeds, Andrew M; Ravbar, Primoz; Chung, Phuong; Hampel, Stefanie; Midgley, Frank M; Mensh, Brett D; Simpson, Julie H

    2014-01-01

    Motor sequences are formed through the serial execution of different movements, but how nervous systems implement this process remains largely unknown. We determined the organizational principles governing how dirty fruit flies groom their bodies with sequential movements. Using genetically targeted activation of neural subsets, we drove distinct motor programs that clean individual body parts. This enabled competition experiments revealing that the motor programs are organized into a suppression hierarchy; motor programs that occur first suppress those that occur later. Cleaning one body part reduces the sensory drive to its motor program, which relieves suppression of the next movement, allowing the grooming sequence to progress down the hierarchy. A model featuring independently evoked cleaning movements activated in parallel, but selected serially through hierarchical suppression, was successful in reproducing the grooming sequence. This provides the first example of an innate motor sequence implemented by the prevailing model for generating human action sequences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02951.001 PMID:25139955

  11. Using the Self-Select Paradigm to Delineate the Nature of Speech Motor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David L.; Robin, Don A.; Rhee, Jooyhun; Vaculin, Amber; Jacks, Adam; Guenther, Frank H.; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the involvement of 2 speech motor programming processes identified by S. T. Klapp (1995, 2003) during the articulation of utterances differing in syllable and sequence complexity. According to S. T. Klapp, 1 process, INT, resolves the demands of the programmed unit, whereas a second process, SEQ, oversees the serial…

  12. Developing an Industry-Education Community: The United Auto Workers/General Motors Quality Educator Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen; Walline, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review the evolution of the Quality Educator Program (QEP), a program sponsored by the United Auto Workers (UAW)/General Motors (GM) that employs school teachers, administrators, and college and university faculty each summer in GM assembly plants. The QEP provides educators and those in industry the unique opportunity to interact…

  13. Motor Activity Programs Designed for Teaching Supportive Personnel in Physical Therapy. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lucy V.; And Others

    A study developed a format for the programed instruction of various physical therapy skills to paramedical personnel. Principles of motor learning and programed instruction served as a guide. An effective first practice and several formats for a second practice evolved. Mandatory second practice with a branching format that allowed students to…

  14. The Effectiveness of a Web-Based Motor Skill Assessment Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Luke E.; Moran, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based, intereactive video assessment program on teaching preservice physical education majors to assess the motor skill of kicking. The program provided component specific feedback through tutorial, guided practice, and competency training options. The 72 participants were…

  15. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  16. Short time sports exercise boosts motor imagery patterns: implications of mental practice in rehabilitation programs

    PubMed Central

    Wriessnegger, Selina C.; Steyrl, David; Koschutnig, Karl; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 min of training are enough to boost MI patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA) but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that MI has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity. PMID:25071505

  17. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-06-03

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable

  18. NASA Glenn Research Center Program in High Power Density Motors for Aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.; Ebihara, Ben; Johnson, Dexter; Choi, Benjamin; Siebert, Mark; Buccieri, Carl

    2005-01-01

    Electric drive of transport-sized aircraft propulsors, with electric power generated by fuel cells or turbo-generators, will require electric motors with much higher power density than conventional room-temperature machines. Cryogenic cooling of the motor windings by the liquid hydrogen fuel offers a possible solution, enabling motors with higher power density than turbine engines. Some context on weights of various systems, which is required to assess the problem, is presented. This context includes a survey of turbine engine weights over a considerable size range, a correlation of gear box weights and some examples of conventional and advanced electric motor weights. The NASA Glenn Research Center program for high power density motors is outlined and some technical results to date are presented. These results include current densities of 5,000 A per square centimeter current density achieved in cryogenic coils, finite element predictions compared to measurements of torque production in a switched reluctance motor, and initial tests of a cryogenic switched reluctance motor.

  19. MP MP: A Program of Motor-Perceptual Movement Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dorothy; Olson, Borghild

    This collection of color and symbol-coded cards comprises an activity program designed to help parents, teachers, or tutors teach basic movements to children. The 10 sets of activities included in the program are (1) relaxation, (2) flip flops and crawling, (3) lifting and rolling, (4) limb movements, (5) rolling, (6) creeping, (7) locomotion…

  20. The Need for Motor Development Programs for Visually Impaired Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazesi, Margot A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper advocates the development of movement programs for preschool visually impaired children to compensate for their orientation deficits. The author asserts that skills necessary for acquisition of spatial concepts should be taught through movement programs at an early age in the normal developmental sequence instead of attempting to remedy…

  1. Speech Motor Programming in Hypokinetic and Ataxic Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, K.A.; Rogers, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the cerebellar and basal ganglia control circuits contribute to the programming of movement. Converging evidence from neuroimaging, limb control, and neuropsychological studies suggests that (1) people with cerebellar disease have reduced ability to program movement sequences in advance of movement onset and (2) people…

  2. Model of interactions between cortical areas for sensory-motor programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnod, Yves; Guigon, Emmanuel; Otto, Isabelle; Grandguillaume, Philippe; Boutkhil, Latifa; Dorizzi, Bernadette; Marchal, Patrick

    1992-04-01

    The brain represents perceptual and motor information in several reference frames (for example body-centered, object-centered, or retinal-centered reference frames). In a simple sensory-motor program such as looking at and taking an object, at least three fundamental processes must be carried out by the cerebral cortex; (1) in order to recognize the target object, the cortex has to transform the pattern of excitation on the retina from a retinotopic coordinate system to a coordinate system centered on the object itself; (2) in order to bring a hand to the desired position in space, the cortex must transform the visual information related to the target location (relative to the hand) into an appropriate motor command of the reaching hand; (3) in order to guide coherent behavioral actions, more complex sensory-motor programs (for example, conditional reaching of a target) are constructed from time-dependent relations between these basic transformations. The cortex correlates sensory and motor events and learns to prepare responses to forthcoming events. Neurophysiological data on the motor area of the monkey allowed us to model the coordinate transformations from body-centered to arm-centered reference frames involved in the command of arm reaching movements in 3-D space. Anatomical and neuropsychological data suggest similar coordinate transformations along the visual pathway to relate retinal-centered to object-centered reference frames and we have thus extended the model to this coordinate transformation. Time integration seems to proceed differently since internal representations of programs are dynamically constructed. Available physiological and anatomical data on frontal areas (and particularly prefrontal cortex) help to predict specific learning mechanisms for time processing and then construct a model for learning sensory-motor sequences.

  3. Effect of perioperative buccal fracture of the proximal segment on postoperative stability after sagittal split ramus osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Yang, Hoon Joo; Han, Jeong-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Buccal fracture of the mandibular proximal bone segment during bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) reduces the postoperative stability. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this type of fracture on bone healing and postoperative stability after mandibular setback surgery. Materials and Methods Ten patients who experienced buccal fracture during SSRO for mandibular setback movement were evaluated. We measured the amount of bone generation on a computed tomography scan, using an image analysis program, and compared the buccal fracture side to the opposite side in each patient. To investigate the effect on postoperative stability, we measured the postoperative relapse in lateral cephalograms, immediately following and six months after the surgery. The control group consisted of ten randomly-selected patients having a similar amount of set-back without buccal fracture. Results Less bone generation was observed on the buccal fracture side compared with the opposite side (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in anterior-posterior postoperative relapse between the group with buccal fracture and the control group. The increased mandibular plane angle and anterior facial height after the surgery in the group with buccal fracture manifested as a postoperative clockwise rotation of the mandible. Conclusion Bone generation was delayed compared to the opposite side. However, postoperative stability in the anterior-posterior direction could be maintained with rigid fixation. PMID:24471048

  4. Representation and Execution of Vocal Motor Programs for Expert Singing of Tonal Melodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Fontenot, Dwight L.; Meyer, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to study motor programs used by expert singers to produce short tonal melodies. Each experiment involved a response-priming procedure in which singers prepared to sing a primary melody but on 50% of trials had to switch and sing a different (secondary) melody instead. In Experiment 1, secondary melodies in the same…

  5. Speech Motor Programming in Apraxia of Speech: Evidence from a Delayed Picture-Word Interference Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mailend, Marja-Liisa; Maas, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Apraxia of speech (AOS) is considered a speech motor programming impairment, but the specific nature of the impairment remains a matter of debate. This study investigated 2 hypotheses about the underlying impairment in AOS framed within the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA; Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006) model: The…

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans exhibit a coupling between the defecation motor program and directed locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Stanislav; Huang, Yung-Chi; Alkema, Mark J.; Biron, David

    2015-01-01

    Distinct motor programs can be coupled to refine the repertoire of behavior dynamics. However, mechanisms underlying such coupling are poorly understood. The defecation motor program (DMP) of C. elegans is composed of a succession of body contraction and expulsion steps, performed repeatedly with a period of 50–60 sec. We show that recurring patterns of directed locomotion are executed in tandem with, co-reset, and co-terminate with the DMP cycle. Calcium waves in the intestine and proton signaling were shown to regulate the DMP. We found that genetic manipulations affecting these calcium dynamics regulated the corresponding patterns of directed locomotion. Moreover, we observed the initiation of a recurring locomotion pattern 10 seconds prior to the posterior body contraction, suggesting that the synchronized motor program may initiate prior to the DMP. This study links two multi-step motor programs executed by C. elegans in synchrony, utilizing non-neuronal tissue to drive directed locomotion. PMID:26597056

  7. Developing Learning Readiness; A Visual-Motor-Tactile Skills Program. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, G.N.; And Others

    A flexible program for preschool, primary grades, or remedial classes provides opportunities for the child to achieve readiness for learning through the development of visual, motor, and tactile skills. A cardboard doll is discussed which may be utilized by the teacher and children in a variety of gymnasium routines to increase knowledge of body…

  8. Fifth annual report to congress. Federal alternative motor fuels programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the status of the US Department of Energy`s alternative fuel vehicle demonstration and performance tracking programs being conducted in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. These programs comprise the most comprehensive data collection effort ever undertaken on alternative transportation fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The report summarizes tests and results from the fifth year. Electric vehicles are not included in these programs, and the annual report does not include information on them. Since the inception of the programs, great strides have been made in developing commercially viable alternative fuel vehicle technologies. However, as is the case in the commercialization of all new technologies, some performance problems have been experienced on vehicles involved in early demonstration efforts. Substantial improvements have been recorded in vehicle practicality, safety, and performance in real-world demonstrations. An aspect of particular interest is emissions output. Results from light duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated superior inservice emissions performance. Heavy duty alternative fuel vehicles have demonstrated dramatic reductions in particulate emissions. However, emissions results from vehicles converted to run on alternative fuel have not been as promising. Although the technologies available today are commercially viable in some markets, further improvements in infrastructure and economics will result in greater market expansion. Information is included in this report on light and heavy duty vehicles, transit buses, vehicle conversions, safety, infrastructure support, vehicle availability, and information dissemination.

  9. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  10. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Matt Q.; McCumsey, Stephanie J.; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  11. Environmental Impact Statement Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    the Occupational Safety and Health Act (Hlass 1986). This training/ educational program is aimed at ensuring employee protection against potential...analysis purposes, it is assumed that each household has 0.9 children (Kehm 1988) (the national average of children under 18 per household). Furthermore...migrating children are of school age, and therefore probably overstates the potential impact. Some overcrowding in the Hancock and Pearl River county

  12. Using the Self-Select Paradigm to Delineate the Nature of Speech Motor Programming

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David L.; Robin, Don A.; Rhee, Jooyhun; Vaculin, Amber; Jacks, Adam; Guenther, Frank H.; Fox, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The authors examined the involvement of 2 speech motor programming processes identified by S. T. Klapp (1995, 2003) during the articulation of utterances differing in syllable and sequence complexity. According to S. T. Klapp, 1 process, INT, resolves the demands of the programmed unit, whereas a second process, SEQ, oversees the serial order demands of longer sequences. Method A modified reaction time paradigm was used to assess INT and SEQ demands. Specifically, syllable complexity was dependent on syllable structure, whereas sequence complexity involved either repeated or unique syllabi within an utterance. Results INT execution was slowed when articulating single syllables in the form CCCV compared to simpler CV syllables. Planning unique syllables within a multisyllabic utterance rather than repetitions of the same syllable slowed INT but not SEQ. Conclusions The INT speech motor programming process, important for mental syllabary access, is sensitive to changes in both syllable structure and the number of unique syllables in an utterance. PMID:19474396

  13. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities.

  14. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist. PMID:27857817

  15. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist.

  16. Trend analysis for large solid rocket motors - A program level approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babbitt, Norman E., III

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines a program-level trend analysis effort that can be applied to large solid rocket motors. The effort is especially applicable to large segmented rocket motors such as the Space Transportation System's solid rocket boosters. Five types of trend analysis are discussed for different aspects of a rocket motor program, (performance, reliability, problem, supportability, and programmatic). Ideas are offered for implementing and performing a program-level trend analysis effort by giving suggestions for selecting computer capabilities, choosing parameters, selecting statistical processes, routine screening for trends, analyzing significant trends (for example, looking for related trends and determining if adverse trends are resolved), and reporting results of trend analysis. The use of program-level trending allows for the ability to easily transfer data between organizations and easily use the data to correlate trends from the various organizations to find causal relationships. Efficiency is enhanced from upper level management to the shop floor at vendor locations by using the same trend analysis software and methodology at all organizations.

  17. Effectiveness of aides in a perceptual motor training program for children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gersten, J W; Foppe, K B; Gersten, R; Maxwell, S; Mirrett, P; Gipson, M; Houston, H; Grueter, B

    1975-03-01

    A program for children with learning disabilities associated with perceptual deficits was designed that included elements of gross and fine motor coordination, visual and somatosensory perceptual training, dance, art, music and language. The effectiveness of nonprofessional "perceptual-aides," who were trained in this program, was evaluated. Twenty-eight children with learning disabilities associated with perceptual deficits were treated by occupational, physical, recreational and language therapists; and 27 similarly involved children were treated by two aides, under supervision, after training by therapists. Treatment in both groups was for four hours weekly over a four to seven month period. There was significant improvement in motor skills, visual and somatosensory perception, language and educational skills in the two programs. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, there was a slight advantage to the aide program. The cost of the aide program was 10 percent higher than the therapist program during the first year, but 22 percent lower than the therapist program during the second year.

  18. Effect of the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Leah E.; Palmer, Kara K.; Bub, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  19. Effect of the Children's Health Activity Motor Program on Motor Skills and Self-Regulation in Head Start Preschoolers: An Efficacy Trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Leah E; Palmer, Kara K; Bub, Kristen L

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulatory skills are broadly defined as the ability to manage emotions, focus attention, and inhibit some behaviors while activating others in accordance with social expectations and are an established indicator of academic success. Growing evidence links motor skills and physical activity to self-regulation. This study examined the efficacy of a motor skills intervention (i.e., the Children's Health Activity Motor Program, CHAMP) that is theoretically grounded in Achievement Goal Theory on motor skill performance and self-regulation in Head Start preschoolers. A sample of 113 Head Start preschoolers (Mage = 51.91 ± 6.5 months; 49.5% males) were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 68) or control (n = 45) program. CHAMP participants engaged in 15, 40-min sessions of a mastery climate intervention that focused on the development of motor skills over 5 weeks while control participants engaged in their normal outdoor recess period. The Delay of Gratification Snack Task was used to measure self-regulation and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2nd Edition was used to assess motor skills. All measures were assessed prior to and following the intervention. Linear mixed models were fit for both self-regulation and motor skills. Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (p < 0.001). In regard to motor skills, post hoc comparisons found that all children improved their motor skills (p < 0.05), but the CHAMP group improved significantly more than the control group (p < 0.001). Children in CHAMP maintained their self-regulation scores across time, while children in the control group scored significantly lower than the CHAMP group at the posttest (p < 0.05). CHAMP is a mastery climate movement program that enhance skills associated with healthy development in children (i.e., motor skills and self-regulation). This efficacy trial provided evidence that CHAMP helped maintain delay of gratification in preschool

  20. Enhancing Visual Perception and Motor Accuracy among School Children through a Mindfulness and Compassion Program

    PubMed Central

    Tarrasch, Ricardo; Margalit-Shalom, Lilach; Berger, Rony

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed the effects of the mindfulness/compassion cultivating program: “Call to Care-Israel” on the performance in visual perception (VP) and motor accuracy, as well as on anxiety levels and self-reported mindfulness among 4th and 5th grade students. One hundred and thirty-eight children participated in the program for 24 weekly sessions, while 78 children served as controls. Repeated measures ANOVA’s yielded significant interactions between time of measurement and group for VP, motor accuracy, reported mindfulness, and anxiety. Post hoc tests revealed significant improvements in the four aforementioned measures in the experimental group only. In addition, significant correlations were obtained between the improvement in motor accuracy and the reduction in anxiety and the increase in mindfulness. Since VP and motor accuracy are basic skills associated with quantifiable academic characteristics, such as reading and mathematical abilities, the results may suggest that mindfulness practice has the ability to improve academic achievements. PMID:28286492

  1. Space Shuttle solid rocket motor testing for return to flight - Transient Pressure Test Article test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vibbart, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    The Transient Pressure Test Article (TPTA) test program, which is being conducted at a new facility at NASA-Marshall, is described. The facility is designed to test and verify the sealing capability of the redesigned solid rocket motor's (RSRM) field, igniter, and nozzle joints. The test article consists of full-scale RSRM hardware loaded with inert propellant and assembled in a short stack configuration. The test facility is described as well as test implementation, test effectiveness, and test results.

  2. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection..., 1999, the State of Utah submitted an evaluation of the Utah County inspection and maintenance...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection..., 1999, the State of Utah submitted an evaluation of the Utah County inspection and maintenance...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2348 National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection..., 1999, the State of Utah submitted an evaluation of the Utah County inspection and maintenance...

  5. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  6. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  7. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... sulfur content standard in § 80.520(c). (1) Beginning June 1, 2006, the sulfur content standard of §...

  8. Handedness of a motor program in C. elegans is independent of left-right body asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Downes, Joanna C; Birsoy, Bilge; Chipman, Kyle C; Rothman, Joel H

    2012-01-01

    Complex animals display bilaterally asymmetric motor behavior, or "motor handedness," often revealed by preferential use of limbs on one side. For example, use of right limbs is dominant in a strong majority of humans. While the mechanisms that establish bilateral asymmetry in motor function are unknown in humans, they appear to be distinct from those for other handedness asymmetries, including bilateral visceral organ asymmetry, brain laterality, and ocular dominance. We report here that a simple, genetically homogeneous animal comprised of only ~1000 somatic cells, the nematode C. elegans, also shows a distinct motor handedness preference: on a population basis, males show a pronounced right-hand turning bias during mating. The handedness bias persists through much of adult lifespan, suggesting that, as in more complex animals, it is an intrinsic trait of each individual, which can differ from the population mean. Our observations imply that the laterality of motor handedness preference in C. elegans is driven by epigenetic factors rather than by genetic variation. The preference for right-hand turns is also seen in animals with mirror-reversed anatomical handedness and is not attributable to stochastic asymmetric loss of male sensory rays that occurs by programmed cell death. As with C. elegans, we also observed a substantial handedness bias, though not necessarily the same preference in direction, in several gonochoristic Caenorhabditis species. These findings indicate that the independence of bilaterally asymmetric motor dominance from overall anatomical asymmetry, and a population-level tendency away from ambidexterity, occur even in simple invertebrates, suggesting that these may be common features of bilaterian metazoans.

  9. Optimal control strategy design based on dynamic programming for a dual-motor coupling-propulsion system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch.

  10. Synergistic binding of transcription factors to cell-specific enhancers programs motor neuron identity

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Esteban O; Mahony, Shaun; Closser, Michael; Morrison, Carolyn A; Nedelec, Stephane; Williams, Damian J; An, Disi; Gifford, David K; Wichterle, Hynek

    2013-01-01

    Efficient transcriptional programming promises to open new frontiers in regenerative medicine. However, mechanisms by which programming factors transform cell fate are unknown, preventing more rational selection of factors to generate desirable cell types. Three transcription factors, Ngn2, Isl1 and Lhx3, were sufficient to program rapidly and efficiently spinal motor neuron identity when expressed in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Replacement of Lhx3 by Phox2a led to specification of cranial, rather than spinal, motor neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation–sequencing analysis of Isl1, Lhx3 and Phox2a binding sites revealed that the two cell fates were programmed by the recruitment of Isl1-Lhx3 and Isl1-Phox2a complexes to distinct genomic locations characterized by a unique grammar of homeodomain binding motifs. Our findings suggest that synergistic interactions among transcription factors determine the specificity of their recruitment to cell type–specific binding sites and illustrate how a single transcription factor can be repurposed to program different cell types. PMID:23872598

  11. Qualification Status of Non-Asbestos Internal Insulation in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Louie

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a status of the qualification efforts associated with NASA's RSRMV non-asbestos internal insulation program. For many years, NASA has been actively engaged in removal of asbestos from the shuttle RSRM motors due to occupation health concerns where technicians are working with an EPA banned material. Careful laboratory and subscale testing has lead to the downselect of a organic fiber known as Polybenzimidazol to replace the asbestos fiber filler in the existing synthetic rubber copolymer Nitrile Butadiene - now named PBI/NBR. Manufacturing, processing, and layup of the new material has been a challenge due to the differences in the baseline shuttle RSRM internal insulator properties and PBI/NBR material properties. For this study, data gathering and reduction procedures for thermal and chemical property characterization for the new candidate material are discussed. Difficulties with test procedures, implementation of properties into the Charring Material Ablator (CMA) codes, and results correlation with static motor fire data are provided. After two successful five segment motor firings using the PBI/NBR insulator, performance results for the new material look good and the material should eventually be qualified for man rated use in large solid rocket motor applications.

  12. Buccal mucosal graft in reconstructive urology: uses beyond urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhishek; Dican, Razvan; Beier, Jörn; Keller, Hansjörg

    2014-07-01

    The use of buccal mucosal grafts for the reconstruction of urethral strictures is an established procedure. Because of its robustness, the buccal mucosal graft could also potentially provide an alternative for other indications in reconstructive urology. We report here six consecutive patients who received a buccal mucosal graft for ureteral strictures, glans reconstruction and stoma stenosis. The follow up for all patients ranged from 26 to 50 months. The buccal mucosal graft showed excellent functional results for the ureteral strictures and stenosis from ureterocutaneostomy. For glans reconstructions, the buccal mucosal grafts delivered excellent cosmetic and functional results without causing meatal stenosis. We conclude the buccal mucosal graft can be used in reconstructive surgery beyond the reconstruction of urethral strictures.

  13. Transbuccal delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate from mucoadhesive buccal patches.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, K Chandra; Naidu, K V S; Vishnu, Y Vamshi; Gannu, Ramesh; Kishan, V; Rao, Y Madhusudan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes buccal permeation of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and its transbuccal delivery using mucoadhesive buccal patches. Permeation of CPM was calculated in vitro using porcine buccal membrane and in vivo in healthy humans. Buccal formulations were developed with hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and evaluated for in vitro release, moisture absorption, mechanical properties, and bioadhesion, and optimized formulation was subjected for bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers. In vitro flux of CPM was calculated to be 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg.h(-1).cm(-2) and buccal absorption also was demonstrated in vivo in human volunteers. In vitro drug release and moisture absorbed were governed by HEC content and formulations exhibited good tensile and mucoadhesive properties. Bioavailability from optimized buccal patch was 1.46 times higher than the oral dosage form and the results showed statistically significant difference.

  14. [Growing complexity of cardiologic intensive rehabilitation: motor rehabilitation resources and programs of physical training].

    PubMed

    Michelis, E; Capurro, E; Remaggi, C; Belloni, L; Griffo, R

    2002-09-01

    In the last few years the population referred to cardiac rehabilitation centers has changed profoundly: the number of survivors of acute cardiac events has increased and heart surgery is being proposed to ever greater numbers of elderly patients with frequent and greater comorbidities, which make the management of physical training programs more complex. Consequently, just as rehabilitation cardiologists have had to expand their field of analyses and professional skills and nurses have had to integrate their care protocols, physiotherapists too have had to adapt the management of motor rehabilitation programs to the various needs and problems of each patient in the different phases of recovery. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the procedures followed in our center concerning both the mode and contents of a standard course of motor rehabilitation for patients without complications and those for patients with complications. The paper analyzes the various assessments, the training program, the instruments of control and verification of the results, and discusses the instruments of intervention in patients affected by complications such as respiratory disturbances, musculoskeletal impairment, complications arising from injury, neurological deficit and severe deconditioning. Finally, the role of the physiotherapist in the active, propositive management of a recovery program is discussed.

  15. Effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on motor coordination, strength, and speed.

    PubMed

    Uzunovic, Slavoljub; Kostic, Radmila; Zivkovic, Dobrica

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of two different programs of modern sports dancing on coordination, strength, and speed in 60 beginner-level female dancers, aged 13 and 14 yrs. The subjects were divided into two experimental groups (E1 and E2), each numbering 30 subjects, drawn from local dance clubs. In order to determine motor coordination, strength, and speed, we used 15 measurements. The groups were tested before and after the experimental programs. Both experimental programs lasted for 18 wks, with training sessions twice a week for 60 minutes. The subjects from the E1 group trained according to a new experimental program of disco dance (DD) modern sports dance, and the E2 group trained according to the classic DD program of the same kind for beginner selections. The obtained results were assessed by statistical analysis: a paired-samples t-test and MANCOVA/ANCOVA. The results indicated that following the experimental programs, both groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the evaluated skills, but the changes among the E1 group subjects were more pronounced. The basic assumption of this research was confirmed, that the new experimental DD program has a significant influence on coordination, strength, and speed. In relation to these changes, the application of the new DD program was recommended for beginner dancers.

  16. A Multi-step Transcriptional and Chromatin State Cascade Underlies Motor Neuron Programming from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Silvia; Ibrahim, Mahmoud M; Kakumanu, Akshay; Garipler, Görkem; Aydin, Begüm; Al-Sayegh, Mohamed Ahmed; Hirsekorn, Antje; Abdul-Rahman, Farah; Satija, Rahul; Ohler, Uwe; Mahony, Shaun; Mazzoni, Esteban O

    2017-02-02

    Direct cell programming via overexpression of transcription factors (TFs) aims to control cell fate with the degree of precision needed for clinical applications. However, the regulatory steps involved in successful terminal cell fate programming remain obscure. We have investigated the underlying mechanisms by looking at gene expression, chromatin states, and TF binding during the uniquely efficient Ngn2, Isl1, and Lhx3 motor neuron programming pathway. Our analysis reveals a highly dynamic process in which Ngn2 and the Isl1/Lhx3 pair initially engage distinct regulatory regions. Subsequently, Isl1/Lhx3 binding shifts from one set of targets to another, controlling regulatory region activity and gene expression as cell differentiation progresses. Binding of Isl1/Lhx3 to later motor neuron enhancers depends on the Ebf and Onecut TFs, which are induced by Ngn2 during the programming process. Thus, motor neuron programming is the product of two initially independent transcriptional modules that converge with a feedforward transcriptional logic.

  17. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee J.; Wolf, Steven L.; Dromerick, Alexander W.; Lane, Christianne J.; Nelsen, Monica A.; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Cen, Steven Yong; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Clinical trials suggest that higher doses of task-oriented training are superior to current clinical practice for patients with stroke with upper extremity motor deficits. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a structured, task-oriented motor training program vs usual and customary occupational therapy (UCC) during stroke rehabilitation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Phase 3, pragmatic, single-blind randomized trial among 361 participants with moderate motor impairment recruited from 7 US hospitals over 44 months, treated in the outpatient setting from June 2009 to March 2014. INTERVENTIONS Structured, task-oriented upper extremity training (Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program[ASAP]; n = 119); dose-equivalent occupational therapy (DEUCC; n = 120); or monitoring-only occupational therapy (UCC; n = 122). The DEUCC group was prescribed 30 one-hour sessions over 10 weeks; the UCC group was only monitored, without specification of dose. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was 12-month change in log-transformed Wolf Motor Function Test time score (WMFT, consisting of a mean of 15 timed arm movements and hand dexterity tasks). Secondary outcomes were change in WMFT time score (minimal clinically important difference [MCID] = 19 seconds) and proportion of patients improving ≥25 points on the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand function score (MCID = 17.8 points). RESULTS Among the 361 randomized patients (mean age, 60.7 years; 56% men; 42% African American; mean time since stroke onset, 46 days), 304 (84%) completed the 12-month primary outcome assessment; in intention-to-treat analysis, mean group change scores (log WMFT, baseline to 12 months) were, for the ASAP group, 2.2 to 1.4 (difference, 0.82); DEUCC group, 2.0 to 1.2 (difference, 0.84); and UCC group, 2.1 to 1.4 (difference, 0.75), with no significant between-group differences (ASAP vs DEUCC:0.14; 95% CI, −0.05 to 0.33; P = .16; ASAP vs UCC: −0.01; 95% CI, −0.22 to 0.21; P = .94; and

  18. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: IS IT A PROBLEM OF COMPLEX MOTOR PROGRAMMING?*

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Sumant; Mukundan, C.R.; Channabasavanna, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY 44 subjects with Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and 40 normals were compared using an experimental paradigm involving recording of the bereitschaftspotential. A decreased onset latency and increased amplitude was found in the OCD sample as compared to normals. A neurophysiological substrate for the bereitschaftspotential has been proposed. The implications of these findings in OCD as compared to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and for a focal neuro-physiological dysfunction have also been discussed. The findings of this study implicate a dysfunction in complex motor programming in OCD, with the possibility of this dysfunction being in the prefrontal area. PMID:21927207

  19. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase V. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Black, A.D.; DiBona, B.G.

    1983-08-01

    The work done during the fifth and final phase of a program to improve downhole drilling motor bearing and seals is described. The principal activities in this phase were: (a) testing seals with abrasive-laden mud on the low-pressure side; (b) test second and third generation designs of both elastomeric chevron seals and Teflon U-seals; and (c) testing a full-scale bearing/seal package. Several operating parameters which have a radical effect on seal life were identified, and some promising designs and materials were tested.

  20. Odor-identity dependent motor programs underlie behavioral responses to odors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hye; Hueston, Catherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    All animals use olfactory information to perform tasks essential to their survival. Odors typically activate multiple olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and are therefore represented by the patterns of active ORNs. How the patterns of active ORN classes are decoded to drive behavior is under intense investigation. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we investigate the logic by which odors modulate locomotion. We designed a novel behavioral arena in which we could examine a fly’s locomotion under precisely controlled stimulus condition. In this arena, in response to similarly attractive odors, flies modulate their locomotion differently implying that odors have a more diverse effect on locomotion than was anticipated. Three features underlie odor-guided locomotion: First, in response to odors, flies modulate a surprisingly large number of motor parameters. Second, similarly attractive odors elicit changes in different motor programs. Third, different ORN classes modulate different subset of motor parameters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11092.001 PMID:26439011

  1. Training with Inedible Food in "Aplysia" Causes Expression of C/EBP in the Buccal but Not Cerebral Ganglion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Lyons, Lisa C.; Perelman, Alexander; Green, Charity L.; Motro, Benny; Eskin, Arnold; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2008-01-01

    Training with inedible food in "Aplysia" increased expression of the transcription factor C/EBP in the buccal ganglia, which primarily have a motor function, but not in the cerebral or pleural ganglia. C/EBP mRNA increased immediately after training, as well as 1-2 h later. The increased expression of C/EBP protein lagged the increase in mRNA.…

  2. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  3. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348 Protection of... and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised...

  5. Perceptions of Middle-Class Mothers of Their Children with Special Needs Participating in Motor and Sport Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Dana; Rimmerman, Arie

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory research studied middle-class mother's primary reason for registering their young children, mean age 6.9 years, in adapted motor and sports programs and their perceptions of their children upon entering the program and upon completion. Analyses also examined the possible relationship between mothers' age, education or children's…

  6. Programming an offline-analyzer of motor imagery signals via python language.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems control the user's environment via his/her brain signals. Brain signals related to motor imagery (MI) have become a widespread method employed by the BCI community. Despite the large number of references describing the MI signal treatment, there is not enough information related to the available programming languages that could be suitable to develop a specific-purpose MI-based BCI. The present paper describes the development of an offline-analysis system based on MI-EEG signals via open-source programming languages, and the assessment of the system using electrical activity recorded from three subjects. The analyzer recognized at least 63% of the MI signals corresponding to three classes. The results of the offline analysis showed a promising performance considering that the subjects have never undergone MI trainings.

  7. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Valizadeh, Leila; Sanaeefar, Mahnaz; Hosseini, Mohammad Bager; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Shamili, Aryan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation. Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA). Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention. Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs. PMID:28299299

  8. Effects of a Structured Program of Perceptual-Motor Training on the Development and School Achievement of Educable Mentally Retarded Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kirk L.

    Of 102 educable mentally handicapped children in special classes, 54 were identified by the Purdue Perceptual Motor Survey (PMS) as deficient in perceptual motor abilities. These 54 children were assigned to one of the following groups: training, which participated in an individualized, structured perceptual motor program twice a week for 4 1/2…

  9. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  10. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  11. Lugol's test reexamined again: buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edwin L; Leon, Julie A

    2004-01-01

    Lugol's iodine staining technique was used to examine oral samples from 10 men and 10 women. Examination of saliva samples before and after extraction with water shows that the low levels (49 positive cells and 3,951 negative cells) of glycogen in buccal epithelial cells become even lower after water extraction (0 positive cells and 4,000 negative cells). In addition to the 20 samples used in this paper, 40 oral swabs extracted with water were examined under classroom conditions with much less than 1% of the epithelial cells being positive for glycogen. Furthermore, 119 saliva samples from chewed gauze in sexual assault kits were extracted with water and all of them yielded less than 1% glycogen positive cells. This paper proposes that when more than 1% of the nucleated squamous epithelial cells are glycogen positive with Lugol's test after extraction in water, it is reasonable to eliminate the mouth as a source of these glycogen positive cells.

  12. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

  13. Optimal Control Strategy Design Based on Dynamic Programming for a Dual-Motor Coupling-Propulsion System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Chengning; Han, Guangwei; Wang, Qinghui

    2014-01-01

    A dual-motor coupling-propulsion electric bus (DMCPEB) is modeled, and its optimal control strategy is studied in this paper. The necessary dynamic features of energy loss for subsystems is modeled. Dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to find the optimal control strategy including upshift threshold, downshift threshold, and power split ratio between the main motor and auxiliary motor. Improved control rules are extracted from the DP-based control solution, forming near-optimal control strategies. Simulation results demonstrate that a significant improvement in reducing energy loss due to the dual-motor coupling-propulsion system (DMCPS) running is realized without increasing the frequency of the mode switch. PMID:25540814

  14. Investigation of the Effects of an Aquatics Program on the Psycho-Motor Function of Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James F.; Throop, Robert K.

    To determine the effects of an aquatics program on the psycho-motor functions and body image of trainable mentally handicapped children, 60 children under 16 years of age were selected, and 39 children instructed three days per week over a period of one year. Results did not support the hypothesis that subjects in instructional aquatic classes…

  15. Perceptual Motor Development. A Performance-Based Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. Monograph 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Carol; And Others

    The perceptual motor development module, the eleventh in a series developed for the Early Childhood-Special Education Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Virginia, provides the student with basic information on the physiological development of young children. A number of learning and measurement activities related to children's…

  16. 78 FR 75961 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is amending the energy efficiency test procedures for electric motors to allow currently unregulated motors to be tested by clarifying the test setup requirements that are needed to facilitate testing of these types of electric motors. In addition, DOE is adopting definitions, which will determine the applicability of DOE's regulations to various types of......

  17. 78 FR 38455 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ...This notice proposes to clarify aspects of certain U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy efficiency regulations related to electric motors. DOE is considering establishing definitions, specifying testing set-up procedures necessary to test, and extending DOE's existing test procedures for electric motors to certain electric motor types that have not been regulated by DOE. These actions are......

  18. Enhancing the buccal mucosal delivery of peptide and protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Jin, Liang; Simões, Cláudia M O; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    With continuing advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering, there has been a dramatic increase in the availability of new biomacromolecules, such as peptides and proteins that have the potential to ameliorate the symptoms of many poorly-treated diseases. Although most of these macromolecular therapeutics exhibit high potency, their large molecular mass, susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, immunogenicity and tendency to undergo aggregation, adsorption, and denaturation have limited their ability to be administered via the traditional oral route. As a result, alternative noninvasive routes have been investigated for the systemic delivery of these macromolecules, one of which is the buccal mucosa. The buccal mucosa offers a number of advantages over the oral route, making it attractive for the delivery of peptides and proteins. However, the buccal mucosa still exhibits some permeability-limiting properties, and therefore various methods have been explored to enhance the delivery of macromolecules via this route, including the use of chemical penetration enhancers, physical methods, particulate systems and mucoadhesive formulations. The incorporation of anti-aggregating agents in buccal formulations also appears to show promise in other mucosal delivery systems, but has not yet been considered for buccal mucosal drug delivery. This review provides an update on recent approaches that have shown promise in enhancing the buccal mucosal transport of macromolecules, with a major focus on proteins and peptides.

  19. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients.

  20. Entrainment control in the Aplysia buccal ganglion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John D.; Milton, John G.

    2000-03-01

    Many dynamical systems, such as neural networks, can be pushed into or out of an entrained state by varying a system parameter. However, implementing this control strategy in a real biological system remains a difficult problem since many biological effectors have multiple effects. An example is an inhibitory interneuron that generates a postsynaptic current with a constant component, which alters the firing rate of its target, and a time-varying component, which can have a variety of effects. Here we explore the effects of an inhibitory interneuron on the ability of a regularly spiking Aplysia buccal motoneuron to synchronize to an external periodic input. After measuring the Arnold tongue structure of the motoneuron's response to sinusoidal input, we drive the motoneuron to and from an entrained state (onto and off of a tongue) by using the interneuron as a rate controller. These observations indicate that rate control of synchronization is robust even in the case when effectors have multiple actions. Moreover, these results provide direct evidence that inhibitory interneurons can serve as a sensitive mechanism to control the synchronization of neural populations by producing only slight changes in neural firing rate.

  1. A standardized motor imagery introduction program (MIIP) for neuro-rehabilitation: development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wondrusch, C.; Schuster-Amft, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: For patients with central nervous system (CNS) lesions and sensorimotor impairments a solid motor imagery (MI) introduction is crucial to understand and use MI to improve motor performance. The study's aim was to develop and evaluate a standardized MI group introduction program (MIIP) for patients after stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Phase 1: Based on literature a MIIP was developed comprising MI theory (definition, type, mode, perspective, planning) and MI practice (performance, control). Phase 2: Development of a 27-item self-administered MIIP evaluation questionnaire, assessing MI knowledge self-evaluation of the ability to perform MI and patient satisfaction with the MIIP. Phase 3: Evaluation of MIIP and MI questionnaire by 2 independent MI experts based on predefined criteria and 2 patients using semi-structured interviews. Phase 4: Case series with a pre-post design to evaluate MIIP (3 × 30 min) using the MI questionnaire, Imaprax, Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire, and Mental Chronometry. The paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine significant changes. Results: Data of eleven patients were analysed (5 females; age 62.3 ± 14.1 years). Declarative MI knowledge improved significantly from 5.4 ± 2.2 to 8.8 ± 2.9 (p = 0.010). Patients demonstrated good satisfaction with MIIP (mean satisfaction score: 83.2 ± 11.4%). MI ability remained on a high level but showed no significant change, except a significant decrease in the Kinaesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire score. Conclusion: The presented MIIP seems to be valid and feasible for patients with CNS lesions and sensorimotor impairments resulting in improved MI knowledge. MIIP sessions can be held in groups of four or less. MI ability and Mental Chronometry remained unchanged after 3 training sessions. PMID:23986676

  2. Functional interactions of HIV-infection and methamphetamine dependence during motor programming

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Ogasawara, Miki; Woods, Steven P.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) dependence is frequently comorbid with HIV infection and both have been linked to alterations of brain structure and function. In a previous study, we showed that the brain volume loss characteristic of HIV infection contrasts with METH-related volume increases in striatum and parietal cortex, suggesting distinct neurobiological responses to HIV and METH (Jernigan et al., 2005). fMRI has the potential to reveal functional interactions between the effects of HIV and METH. In the present study, 50 participants were studied in four groups: an HIV+ group, a recently METH dependent group, a dually affected group, and a group of unaffected community comparison subjects. An fMRI paradigm consisting of motor sequencing tasks of varying levels of complexity was administered to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes. Within all groups, activity increased significantly with increasing task complexity in large clusters within sensorimotor and parietal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cingulate. The task complexity effect was regressed on HIV status, METH status, and the HIVxMETH interaction term in a simultaneous multiple regression. HIV was associated with less complexity-related activation in striatum, whereas METH was associated with less complexity-related activation in parietal regions. Significant interaction effects were observed in both cortical and subcortical regions; and, contrary to expectations, the complexity-related activation was less aberrant in dually-affected than in single-risk participants, in spite of comparable levels of neurocognitive impairment among the clinical groups. Thus, HIV and METH dependence, perhaps through their effects on dopaminergic systems, may have opposing functional effects on neural circuits involved in motor programming. PMID:22608157

  3. Thermal analysis simulation for a spin-motor used in the advanced main combustion chamber vacuum plasma spray project using the SINDA computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Gary H.

    1990-01-01

    One of the many design challenges of this project is predicting the thermal effects due to the environment inside the vacuum chamber on the turntable and spin motor spindle assembly. The objective of the study is to model the spin motor using the computer program System Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA). By formulating the appropriate input information concerning the motor's geometry, coolant flow path, material composition, and bearing and motor winding characteristics, SINDA should predict temperatures at various predefined nodes. From these temperatures, hopefully, one can predict if the coolant flow rate is sufficient or if certain mechanical elements such as bearings, O ring seals, or motor windings will exceed maximum design temperatures.

  4. Activity changes in jaw motor neurons induced by egg-laying hormone contribute to the feeding suppression during egg-laying behavior in Aplysia kurodai.

    PubMed

    Narusuye, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Aya; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Egg-laying behavior in Aplysia is accompanied by behavioral changes such as feeding suppression. We investigated the effects of the egg-laying hormone (ELH) on food intake, the activity patterns of jaw muscles, and the activity of buccal neurons (multi-action neuron [MA1] and jaw-closing motor neuron [JC2]), which are elements of the feeding neural circuits controlling jaw movements in Aplysia kurodai. Injection of ELH into the body cavity inhibited the intake of seaweed. After ELH application, the rhythmic activity of jaw muscles that was induced by preferred taste stimulation elicited fewer ingestion-like responses and increased the number of rejection-like responses. ELH applied to the buccal ganglia increased the firing activity of JC2 during spontaneous rhythmic responses and during the rhythmic feeding-like responses that were evoked by electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerves. In the 2 types of rhythmic responses, the Dn (normalized value of the delay time of JC2 firing onset) decreased after ELH application as compared with the control. Furthermore, ELH decreased the size of MA1-induced inhibitory postsynaptic currents in JC2. These results suggest that ELH changes the buccal motor program from ingestion to rejection on the basis of our previous results, and may contribute to a decrease in food intake during egg laying.

  5. Infusing Motor Learning Research Into Neurorehabilitation Practice: A Historical Perspective With Case Exemplar From the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program

    PubMed Central

    Winstein, Carolee; Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Blanton, Sarah R.; Wolf, Lois B.; Wishart, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    This special interest article provides a historical framework with a contemporary case example that traces the infusion of the science of motor learning into neurorehabilitation practice. The revolution in neuroscience provided the first evidence for learning-dependent neuroplasticity and presaged the role of motor learning as critical for restorative therapies after stroke. The scientific underpinnings of motor learning have continued to evolve from a dominance of cognitive or information processing perspectives to a blend with neural science and contemporary social-cognitive psychological science. Furthermore, advances in the science of behavior change have contributed insights into influences on sustainable and generalizable gains in motor skills and associated behaviors, including physical activity and other recovery-promoting habits. For neurorehabilitation, these insights have tremendous relevance for the therapist–patient interactions and relationships. We describe a principle-based intervention for neurorehabilitation termed the Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program that we developed. This approach emphasizes integration from a broad set of scientific lines of inquiry including the contemporary fields of motor learning, neuroscience, and the psychological science of behavior change. Three overlapping essential elements—skill acquisition, impairment mitigation, and motivational enhancements—are integrated. PMID:24828523

  6. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    PubMed

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  7. NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

  8. Constriction of the buccal branch of the facial nerve produces unilateral craniofacial allodynia.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Susannah S; Grace, Peter M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2016-12-18

    Despite pain being a sensory experience, studies of spinal cord ventral root damage have demonstrated that motor neuron injury can induce neuropathic pain. Whether injury of cranial motor nerves can also produce nociceptive hypersensitivity has not been addressed. Herein, we demonstrate that chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the buccal branch of the facial nerve results in long-lasting, unilateral allodynia in the rat. An anterograde and retrograde tracer (3000MW tetramethylrhodamine-conjugated dextran) was not transported to the trigeminal ganglion when applied to the injury site, but was transported to the facial nucleus, indicating that this nerve branch is not composed of trigeminal sensory neurons. Finally, intracisterna magna injection of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist reversed allodynia, implicating the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 in the maintenance of neuropathic pain induced by facial nerve CCI. These data extend the prior evidence that selective injury to motor axons can enhance pain to supraspinal circuits by demonstrating that injury of a facial nerve with predominantly motor axons is sufficient for neuropathic pain, and that the resultant pain has a neuroimmune component.

  9. Innovative Perceptual-Motor Activities: Programing Techniques that Work--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrell, Howard M.

    1979-01-01

    The article describes tasks that promote perceptual motor coordination in handicapped students. An introductory section provides suggestions for implementation and charts the activities in terms of emphasis on visual tracking, visual discrimination and/or copying of forms, spatial body perception, fine motor coordination, tactile discrimination,…

  10. 40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model year. If you... 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the engine under this...

  11. Space Shuttle: Status of advanced solid rocket motor program. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-11-01

    The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) most expensive and controversial programs. Two reusable solid rocket motors are attached to the Space Shuttle to provide most of the thrust needed to lift it into orbit. The advanced motor is being designed to replace the current motor, which is a redesigned version of the motor that caused the January 1986 Challenger accident. The Chair of the Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, House Committee on Government Operations, requested that GAO review the program's status. The specific objectives were to: (1) assess the extent to which the need for the program has changed; and (2) determine the reasons for cost growth and schedule slippage.

  12. Visuomotor priming of action preparation and motor programming is similar in visually guided and memory-guided actions.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian; Güldenpenning, Iris; Dettling, Julian; Schack, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined whether the planning and execution of a reach-to-grasp movement is susceptible to visuomotor priming, and whether the strength of the priming effect depends on the availability of visual feedback. Participants grasped a target object as quickly as possible with either a whole-hand grip or a precision grip upon hearing an auditory stimulus. Prior to the auditory cue, a prime stimulus was presented. The prime stimulus depicted an object that was either congruent, incongruent, or ambiguous with respect to the required grasp, or it showed no object at all. In addition, participants performed the grasping task in one of three vision conditions: participants' vision was either occluded during both the motor programming and online-control phase (no-vision), participants had vision only during the motor programming phase (partial-vision), or they had vision available throughout task performance (full-vision). Results revealed the presence of two discrete priming effects. First, we found a facilitative effect of congruent compared to incongruent prime-grip combinations that influenced reaction times and kinematic parameters. Second, we found that movements were initiated slower during the no prime compared to all other conditions. However, this effect did not affect movement kinematics. Importantly, the size of both effects was similar regardless of vision. Together, these results suggest that visuomotor priming effects exhibit a similar influence on memory-guided and visually guided actions, indicating the same underlying object representations for those actions, and thus further challenging the real-time view of motor programming. Furthermore, the two different priming effects suggest the presence of functionally distinct, yet related modules or processes related to action preparation and motor programming, and hint towards possible ventrodorsal interactions.

  13. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  14. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  15. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  16. Draft environmental impact statement: Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The proposed action is design, development, testing, and evaluation of Advanced Solid Rocket Motors (ASRM) to replace the motors currently used to launch the Space Shuttle. The proposed action includes design, construction, and operation of new government-owned, contractor-operated facilities for manufacturing and testing the ASRM's. The proposed action also includes transport of propellant-filled rocket motor segments from the manufacturing facility to the testing and launch sites and the return of used and/or refurbished segments to the manufacturing site.

  17. In a complex sequential movement, what component of the motor program is improved with intensive practice, sequence timing or ensemble motor learning?

    PubMed

    Yiou, E; Do, M C

    2001-03-01

    We investigated whether the higher maximum speed of complex athletic movements attained by experts compared with novices might solely be ascribed to the acquisition of a more efficient timing of the initiation of the simple movements that comprise complex sporting gestures. Six novices in fencing and five experts in fencing performed three experimental series: 7 trials of touche, 7 trials of lunge (control series) and 50 trials of lunge + touche (test series), where the touche and lunge were initiated with different chronological sequences imposed by the experimenter. The lunge and the touche can be assimilated to a fast forward step and to a pointing task, respectively. We compared the maximum speed of touche between the two groups, recorded by an accelerometer fixed to the hand guard of the foil, and the speed of the centre of mass obtained from a force plate. The speed of the centre of mass was not statistically different between the two groups in the control and in the test series. The maximum speed of touche was not statistically different between the two groups in the control series. In contrast, in the test series, the maximum speed of touche was higher in the fencers' than in novices' groups, while the timing of initiation of the lunge and the touche was similar. The results of the test series show that the higher maximum speed of touche of fencers compared with novices cannot solely be ascribed to the acquisition of a more efficient initiation timing in motor programming. In a complex fencing gesture, the higher maximum speed of touche following intensive practice is discussed with regard to the inhibition of negative effects linked to the "refractory period" associated with the initiation of two closely spaced motor programs.

  18. Interleaved programming of subthalamic deep brain stimulation to avoid adverse effects and preserve motor benefit in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kahn, Max; Campbell, Joannalee; DeLaCruz, Priscilla; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2015-03-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most common surgical treatment for managing motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ultimately, outcomes depend on a variety of factors including lead location, access and expertize in programming and PD medical management. Nevertheless, achieving ideal programming settings can be difficult in certain patients, leading to suboptimal control of symptoms and stimulation-induced side effects, notably dysarthria and dyskinesia. Interleaved stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that attempts to optimize the stimulation field, improving control of symptoms while minimizing stimulation-induced adverse effects. A retrospective chart review was performed on PD patients receiving STN DBS over the past 12 months. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patients identified as having received ILS. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Nine patients received ILS due to incomplete PD symptom control or stimulation-induced side effects after attempting multiple programming options. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative MRI except in one case. Following ILS, patients reported improvement in symptoms and resolution of side effects, while preserving adequate control in Parkinsonism with a mean improvement in UPDRS-MOTOR scores of 51.2 %. ILS continues to emerge as a safe and effective programming strategy for maximizing symptom control in PD while diminishing stimulation-induced side effects.

  19. Effects of an additional basketball and volleyball program on motor abilities of fifth grade elementary school students.

    PubMed

    Selmanović, Aleksandar; Milanović, Dragan; Custonja, Zrinko

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the transformational effects of an additional weekly PE session based on team sports (basketball and volleyball) on students' motor status. The research was conducted on a sample of 125 eleven-year-old boys divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) which were examined by 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the 9-month period. The tests included evaluation of explosive power dynamic and static strength endurance, co-ordination, flexibility and hand frequency motion. Although all three treatments together, complemented by the natural growth and developmental factors, induced significant quantitative changes, the results showed the highest motor improvements in the basketball experimental group, followed by the volleyball experimental group. While explosive power mainly contributed toward significant difference between the control and experimental groups in the final measurement, univarate test results also showed distinctive improvements in dynamic strength, hand frequency motion and various factors of co-ordination within experimental groups. The general conclusion points to the fact that even one additional PE session per week of the given program is sufficient to produce significant changes in motor abilities of elementary school fifth graders. Therefore the authors' support the legal provisions of mandatory implementation of extra-curricular forms of physical activity in elementary schools.

  20. [Effects of a Four-Week Rehabilitation Program on Motor Performance, Quality of Life and Fatigue in Childhood Cancer Patients and Healthy Siblings].

    PubMed

    Däggelmann, J; Krauth, K A; Mailand, P; Nopper, S; Renniger, M; Bündgen, L; Rustler, V; Bloch, W; Baumann, F T

    2017-04-01

    Aim In Germany all childhood cancer patients and their families are offered the opportunity to participate in a four-week, family-oriented, inpatient rehabilitation program in order to facilitate (re-)integration into everyday life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of this rehabilitation program on motor performance, quality of life (QoL) and fatigue. Methods Motor performance, QoL and fatigue were assessed in 22 childhood cancer patients and 20 healthy siblings at the beginning (t1) and the end (t2) of the four-week rehabilitation program, as well as 6 months later (t3). Results At t1 significant differences between groups were found in motor performance and physical well-being. Improvements in motor performance, QoL and fatigue were found in both groups. Conclusion Different preconditions must be considered. Childhood cancer patients as well as healthy siblings benefit from a family-oriented rehabilitation program.

  1. Five-week sensory motor training program improves functional performance and postural control in young male soccer players - A blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Lucas Rafael; da Silva, Rubens A; Shigaki, Leonardo; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Coelho Candido, Cristiane Regina; Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Frisseli, Ariobaldo; Macedo, Christiane de S Guerino

    2016-11-01

    Sensory motor training programs are used in the rehabilitation and prevention of injuries among soccer players. Inconsistencies are found in the literature regarding the duration of the protocols and the exercises and equipment used.

  2. 75 FR 10873 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is adopting energy conservation standards for small electric motors. DOE has determined that these standards will result in significant conservation of energy, and are technologically feasible and economically...

  3. Enhancing the buccal mucosal uptake and retention of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Reed, Barry L; Finnin, Barrie C

    2005-07-20

    In this study, the buccal mucosal uptake and retention of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) were assessed in the presence of the skin penetration enhancer, Azone (AZ). Porcine buccal mucosa was excised, mounted in modified Ussing chambers, and pretreated with ethanolic solutions of AZ. After 2 h, the rate of TAC disappearance from the donor chamber and TAC appearance in the receptor chamber was monitored, and the mucosal retention of TAC was determined at the completion of the experiment. The permeability and mucosal uptake of TAC was also determined using the TAC-containing proprietary product, Kenalog in Orabase (KO), in the presence and absence of AZ. Pretreatment of the buccal mucosa with AZ increased the TAC disappearance permeability coefficient from 4.78+/-0.31x10(-5) cm/s to 7.12+/-0.53x10(-5) cm/s. While the TAC appearance permeability coefficient was also enhanced 3.8-fold, a 4.4-fold increase in the tissue concentration of TAC was observed. Incorporation of AZ into KO did not result in an enhanced tissue concentration of TAC, however, when the tissue was pretreated with AZ, significantly higher amounts of TAC accumulated in the tissue. Pretreatment of the buccal mucosa with AZ results in increased tissue concentrations of TAC, which may be of clinical benefit in the treatment of oral mucosal inflammatory conditions.

  4. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  5. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... CONTACT: James Raba, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background On March 9, 2010, the DOE's Office of Energy...

  6. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.

  7. Release of a single neurotransmitter from an identified interneuron coherently affects motor output on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Dacks, Andrew M; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2013-05-01

    Neurotransmitters can have diverse effects that occur over multiple time scales often making the consequences of neurotransmission difficult to predict. To explore the consequences of this diversity, we used the buccal ganglion of Aplysia to examine the effects of GABA release by a single interneuron, B40, on the intrinsic properties and motor output of the radula closure neuron B8. B40 induces a picrotoxin-sensitive fast IPSP lasting milliseconds in B8 and a slow EPSP lasting seconds. We found that the excitatory effects of this slow EPSP are also mediated by GABA. Together, these two GABAergic actions structure B8 firing in a pattern characteristic of ingestive programs. Furthermore, we found that repeated B40 stimulation induces a persistent increase in B8 excitability that was occluded in the presence of the GABA B receptor agonist baclofen, suggesting that GABA affects B8 excitability over multiple time scales. The phasing of B8 activity during the feeding motor programs determines the nature of the behavior elicited during that motor program. The persistent increase in B8 excitability induced by B40 biased the activity of B8 during feeding motor programs causing the motor programs to become more ingestive in nature. Thus, a single transmitter released from a single interneuron can have consequences for motor output that are expressed over multiple time scales. Importantly, despite the differences in their signs and temporal characteristics, the three actions of B40 are coherent in that they promote B8 firing patterns that are characteristic of ingestive motor outputs.

  8. Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit IV: Motor Development in Young Children. Module 1: Fostering the Development of Gross Motor Skills in Young Children. Unit Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module enables CDA interns to identify, prescribe, plan and implement activities and lessons which foster the development of gross motor skills in young children. At a satisfactoy level of proficiency the trainee will be able to identify levels of gross motor maturation, select appropriate equipment,…

  9. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  10. Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mallika Bokka Sri Satya; Gour, Shreya; Nallagutta, Nalini; Velidandla, Surekha; Manikya, Sangameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a commonly inherited blood disorder preceded by episodes of pain, chronic haemolytic anaemia and severe infections. The underlying phenomenon which causes this disease is the point mutation in the haemoglobin beta gene (Hbβ) found on chromosome 11 p. Increased oxidative stress leads to DNA damage. DNA damage occurring in such conditions can be studied by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, which is a minimally invasive method for studying chromosomal instability, cell death and regenerative potential of human buccal tissue. Aim To evaluate genomic instability in patients with sickle cell disease by buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Materials and Methods The study included 40 sickle cell anemia patients (Group A) and 40 age and sex matched controls (Group B). Buccal swabs were collected and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP). Number of cells with micronucleus, binuclei, nuclear bud, pyknosis and karyolysis were counted in two groups as parameters for the evaluation of genome stability. Results All the analysis was done using t-test. A p-value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in micronuclei number in SCA patients when compared with controls. Karyolytic (un-nucleated) cell number in Group A was more than to those of the controls. Conclusion The results might suggest that patients with sickle cell anaemia have genome instability which is represented by the presence of micronuclei in the somatic cells. Presence of apoptotic cells might only indicate the bodily damage to the tissue as a result of the disease. PMID:27504413

  11. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  12. Extension of a simplified computer program for analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to develop a computer program for the preliminary design and performance analysis of solid propellant rocket engines is discussed. The following capabilities are included as computer program options: (1) treatment of wagon wheel cross sectional propellant configurations alone or in combination with circular perforated grains, (2) calculation of ignition transients with the igniter treated as a small rocket engine, (3) representation of spherical circular perforated grain ends as an alternative to the conical end surface approximation used in the original program, and (4) graphical presentation of program results using a digital plotter.

  13. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, Volume 3: Program acquisition planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program planning acquisition functions for the development of the solid propellant rocket engine for the space shuttle booster is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) program management, (2) contracts administration, (3) systems engineering, (4) configuration management, and (5) maintenance engineering. The plans for manufacturing, testing, and operations support are included.

  14. Keeping baby safe: a randomized trial of a parent training program for infant and toddler motor vehicle injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Lynne; Glang, Ann; Schwebel, David C; GeigerWolfe, E Gwen; Gau, Jeff; Schroeder, Susan

    2013-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are responsible for much death and disability among infants and toddlers. This study evaluated Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car, a multimedia DVD designed to improve knowledge about car seat installation among parents of infants and toddlers. The randomized controlled trial was conducted with 195 parents of children aged 0-24 months. Effective car seat use was evaluated via a written knowledge quiz and car seat simulation. Results from analyses of covariance models show that posttest scores for the intervention condition were significantly higher than those of the control condition on both knowledge and car seat simulation measures. The results, consistent across outcome measures and regardless of child age, suggest that viewing the Keeping Baby Safe In and Around the Car DVD resulted in significant gains in parents' car seat knowledge and their ability to discriminate the critical elements of correct car seat installation. Dissemination of engaging multimedia DVDs such as this program might reduce motor vehicle crash-related injuries to infants and toddlers.

  15. Design and performance analysis of solid-propellant rocket motors using a simplified computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis and a computer program are presented which represent a compromise between the more sophisticated programs using precise burning geometric relations and the textbook type of solutions. The program requires approximately 900 computer cards including a set of 20 input data cards required for a typical problem. The computer operating time for a single configuration is approximately 1 minute and 30 seconds on the IBM 360 computer. About l minute and l5 seconds of the time is compilation time so that additional configurations input at the same time require approximately 15 seconds each. The program uses approximately 11,000 words on the IBM 360. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is readily adaptable for use on a number of different computers: IBM 7044, IBM 7094, and Univac 1108.

  16. Identification of Streptococcus parasanguinis DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of buccal swabs in clinical and scientific studies is a very popular method of collecting DNA, due to its non-invasive nature of collection. However, contamination of the DNA sample may interfere with analysis. Findings Here we report the finding of Streptococcus parasanguinis bacterial DNA contamination in human buccal DNA samples, which led to preferential amplification of bacterial sequence with PCR primers designed against human sequence. Conclusion Contamination of buccal-derived DNA with bacterial DNA can be significant, and may influence downstream genetic analysis. One needs to be aware of possible bacterial contamination when interpreting abnormal findings following PCR amplification of buccal swab DNA samples. PMID:24266944

  17. Changes in potential difference across the human buccal mucosa with buffered or unbuffered aspirin and salicylate.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, B J; Makki, K A; O'Grady, J

    1981-01-01

    The potential difference (PD) across the gastric mucosa is an index of mucosal integrity, and is lowered by topical application of irritants such as aspirin. There are basic similarities in the PD across the buccal and gastric mucosae, and we have therefore investigated the actions of various salicylates in buffered or un-buffered solution on buccal PD in human subjects. Aspirin (at pH 2) and soluble aspirin (pH 4.4) applied topically reduced buccal PD, but this fall was abolished by buffering to pH 7. Sodium salicylate likewise reduced buccal PD at pH 4 and pH 6, but not when buffered to pH 7. Two other soluble aspirin mixtures also reduced buccal PD, indicating insufficient buffering capacity to prevent topical irritancy. Ingestion of aspirin (600 mg), avoiding topical contact with the buccal mucosa, did not alter buccal PD. Paracetamol applied topically likewise failed to reduce buccal PD. Measurement of buccal PD may be useful in the preliminary assessment of the gastrointestinal irritation provoked by anti-inflammatory and other compounds. PMID:7297912

  18. Creative arts program as an intervention for PTSD: a randomized clinical trial with motor vehicle accident survivors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiuling; Lan, Chao; Chen, Juwu; Wang, Wenying; Zhang, Hua; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the creative arts program (HA) is effective in preventing the onset of Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD develops in 10-20% of motor vehicle accident survivors (MVAs). MVAs in the initial months after the accident were randomly assigned to receive 8-week HA intervention (n = 26) or wait the list (WL, n = 26). The arts program consisted of writing and drawing. PTSD severity was assessed at 2, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, CAPS) and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R). Secondary outcomes were post-traumatic growth (PTG), depression and anxiety symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that both HA and WL group exhibited a significant effect of time (P < 0.01) on CAPS, but no significant group differences over time. There were no group differences on depression or anxiety over time. Pessimists did not benefit more from attending the HA than they did from attending the WL. Our results fail to support the hypothesis that the creative arts program is effect in avoiding MVA-related PTSD symptoms. But it only seems to be a short-term, rather than a long-term effect. PMID:26550298

  19. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness.

  20. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  1. Effects of a training program based on the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on post-stroke motor recovery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Souza; de Sousa e Silva, Emília Márcia Gomes; Sousa Silva, Wagner Henrique; de Alencar Caldas, Vescia Vieira; Silva, Diana Lídice Araújo; Costa Cavalcanti, Fabrícia Azevedo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues

    2014-10-01

    This preliminary study sought to analyze the effects of a training program based on the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) method on motor recovery of individuals with chronic post-stroke hemiparesis. Eleven individuals with chronic hemiparesis (mean lesion time of 19.64 months) after unilateral and non-recurrent stroke underwent training based on PNF method for twelve sessions, being evaluated for motor function - using the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) instrument; functionality, by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM); and gait kinematic (using the Qualisys Motion Capture System), at baseline and post-training. Significant changes in FIM (from median 67 to median 68; P = .043) and STREAM scores (from median 47 to median 55; P = .003) were observed. Data showed significant changes in motor function and functionality after training, suggesting that this program can be useful for rehabilitation of chronic stroke survivors.

  2. Effects of an Oral-Sensory/Oral-Motor Stimulation/Positive Reinforcement Program on the Acceptance of Nonpreferred Foods by Youth with Physical and Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2005-01-01

    This study employed a multiple probe design to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based lunchtime oral-sensory/oral-motor/positive reinforcement program on food acceptance behaviors of three youth with multiple disabilities. Overall dramatic gains in food acceptance behaviors of all participants indicated that trained school personnel were…

  3. Fact Sheet: Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program, EPA is listing HFO-1234yf as an acceptable substitute for ozone depleting substances (ODS) in motor vehicle air conditioning (MVAC) systems in new cars and other light duty-vehicles and is speci

  4. The Effect of a Computerized Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration Training Program on Improving Chinese Handwriting of Children with Handwriting Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, K. W.; Li-Tsang, C. W .P.; Weiss, T. P. L.; Rosenblum, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and…

  5. The effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program on improving Chinese handwriting of children with handwriting difficulties.

    PubMed

    Poon, K W; Li-Tsang, C W P; Weiss, T P L; Rosenblum, S

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program to enhance Chinese handwriting performance among children with learning difficulties, particularly those with handwriting problems. Participants were 26 primary-one children who were assessed by educational psychologists and occupational therapists to have handwriting difficulties. They were matched according to their age and then randomly assigned into either the control group or the experimental group. Subjects in the experimental group (n=13) would receive eight sessions of computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training together with a home training program while those in the control group (n=13) would only receive conventional handwriting training by teachers, which focused mainly on remedial handwriting exercises. Results from repeated measure ANOVA revealed that children in the experimental group showed improvements in their visual perception skills as well as in their handwriting time. Both the "On Paper" time and "In Air" time of this group were improved when compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found in visual-motor integration skill and handwriting legibility between the two groups after the intervention. This computerized training program focusing on visual perception and visual-motor integration training appeared to be effective in enhancing the handwriting time among children with handwriting difficulties. However, the training program did not seem to improve the legibility of children.

  6. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... applicable to motor vehicle diesel fuel at retail outlets and wholesale purchaser-consumer facilities. Except... purchaser-consumer facility. (d) Implementation date for motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500...

  7. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... applicable to motor vehicle diesel fuel at retail outlets and wholesale purchaser-consumer facilities. Except... purchaser-consumer facility. (d) Implementation date for motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500...

  8. Hox Proteins Coordinate Motor Neuron Differentiation and Connectivity Programs through Ret/Gfrα Genes.

    PubMed

    Catela, Catarina; Shin, Maggie M; Lee, David H; Liu, Jeh-Ping; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2016-03-01

    The accuracy of neural circuit assembly relies on the precise spatial and temporal control of synaptic specificity determinants during development. Hox transcription factors govern key aspects of motor neuron (MN) differentiation; however, the terminal effectors of their actions are largely unknown. We show that Hox/Hox cofactor interactions coordinate MN subtype diversification and connectivity through Ret/Gfrα receptor genes. Hox and Meis proteins determine the levels of Ret in MNs and define the intrasegmental profiles of Gfrα1 and Gfrα3 expression. Loss of Ret or Gfrα3 leads to MN specification and innervation defects similar to those observed in Hox mutants, while expression of Ret and Gfrα1 can bypass the requirement for Hox genes during MN pool differentiation. These studies indicate that Hox proteins contribute to neuronal fate and muscle connectivity through controlling the levels and pattern of cell surface receptor expression, consequently gating the ability of MNs to respond to limb-derived instructive cues.

  9. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  10. Motor-Perceptual Movement Patterns: A Program for Establishing Neurological Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dorothy; Olson, Borghild

    This booklet presents a brief description of human neurological development and outlines a program for children designed to establish neurological organization through movement. The patterns of movement are divided into six areas: (1) General Movement Patterns (such as head rolls, crawling, cross-pattern creeping and walking, running, skipping,…

  11. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in Pakistani cotton weavers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cotton workers in small weaving household factories (power looms) in Pakistan are typically exposed to high levels of cotton dusts. Working in the textile manufacturing industry has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The study set out to determine potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to cotton dusts in exfoliated buccal cells of exposed cotton workers. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were evaluated in a representative sample of 51 exposed male cotton weavers and in the same number of age-matched male non-exposed subjects applying the micronucleus cytome assay. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxicity (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis) were significantly elevated in exposed cotton workers. The frequency of micronucleated cells increased significantly with increasing years of work in power looms (odds ratio = 1.043 per year; 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.076, P = 0.007). Results were consistent with the typical inflammatory pattern and injury in epithelia due to unprotected occupational exposure to cotton dusts and other toxic, allergic and infectious substances in the working areas of the cotton industry. Occupational exposure in power looms induces cytotoxic effects and, upon chronic exposure, DNA damage. This may eventually result in typical obstructive patterns of pulmonary symptoms and in a clinical condition called byssinosis in exposed cotton workers. Long exposure may lead to chronic inflammation and cumulative damage of DNA in buccal stem cells that may indicate an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer.

  12. Child Development Associate Training Program. Unit IV: Motor Development in Young Children. Module 2: Fostering the Development of Fine Motor Skills in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Child Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Skills necessary for fostering fine motor development in young children are indicated and discussed in this training module for Child Development Associate (CDA) trainees. Trainees are taught to identify appropriate classroom equipment and materials, plan lessons and activities, assess children's skills, and finally teach a lesson or guide an…

  13. Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets Based on Chitosan/Gelatin Microparticles for Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Cerchiara, Teresa; Bigucci, Federica; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Propranolol administration through buccal route offers some distinct advantages thanks to the easy access to the oral mucosa, fast onset of action, and avoidance of hepatic and intestinal degradation mechanisms. To overcome the effective removal existing in the buccal cavity, mucoadhesive delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact with the buccal mucosa. The aim of this study was to prepare mucoadhesive tablets based on chitosan/gelatin microparticles for buccal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Spray-dried microparticles were prepared with different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios and characterized in terms of yield and morphology. Microparticles were subsequently compressed with the drug to obtain loaded buccal tablets. In vitro water uptake, mucoadhesion, release, and permeation tests were performed to investigate tablet ability to hydrate, to adhere to the mucosa, and to deliver drug through buccal mucosa. Microparticles showed a different morphology based on the different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios. Moreover, buccal tablets based on the prepared microparticles showed different technological and functional characteristics in virtue of their composition. In particular, tablets with an excess of chitosan showed the best mucoadhesive properties, allowed the permeation of the greatest drug amount among all formulations, and could be promising for buccal administration of propranolol hydrochloride.

  14. Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-07-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption.

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    training/ educational program is aimed at ensuring employee protection against potential hazards in the workplace. Facility operators required to issue MSDSs...NASA 1980b). For analysis purposes, it is assumed that each household has 0.9 children (Kehm 1988) (the national average of children under 18 per...the assumption that all in-migrating children are of school age, and therefore probably overstates the potential impact. Some overcrowding in the

  16. A robotic fish caudal fin: effects of stiffness and motor program on locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Christopher J; Tangorra, James L; Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V

    2012-01-01

    We designed a robotic fish caudal fin with six individually moveable fin rays based on the tail of the bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Previous fish robotic tail designs have loosely resembled the caudal fin of fishes, but have not incorporated key biomechanical components such as fin rays that can be controlled to generate complex tail conformations and motion programs similar to those seen in the locomotor repertoire of live fishes. We used this robotic caudal fin to test for the effects of fin ray stiffness, frequency and motion program on the generation of thrust and lift forces. Five different sets of fin rays were constructed to be from 150 to 2000 times the stiffness of biological fin rays, appropriately scaled for the robotic caudal fin, which had linear dimensions approximately four times larger than those of adult bluegill sunfish. Five caudal fin motion programs were identified as kinematic features of swimming behaviors in live bluegill sunfish, and were used to program the kinematic repertoire: flat movement of the entire fin, cupping of the fin, W-shaped fin motion, fin undulation and rolling movements. The robotic fin was flapped at frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 2.4 Hz. All fin motions produced force in the thrust direction, and the cupping motion produced the most thrust in almost all cases. Only the undulatory motion produced lift force of similar magnitude to the thrust force. More compliant fin rays produced lower peak magnitude forces than the stiffer fin rays at the same frequency. Thrust and lift forces increased with increasing flapping frequency; thrust was maximized by the 500× stiffness fin rays and lift was maximized by the 1000× stiffness fin rays.

  17. Improved buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists with bitterless prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J; Koval, C A; Shefter, E

    1988-09-01

    Buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists is a useful way of improving bioavailability relative to the oral route. These compounds taste bitter, however. Various prodrugs of nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxymorphone, butorphanol, and levallorphan, in which the 3-phenolic hydroxyl group was esterified, lacked a bitter taste. This taste difference was not due to differences in water solubility, suggesting that for these compounds the phenolic functional group is important for interaction with the taste receptor. In rats, nalbuphine, naloxone, and naltrexone administered buccally as prodrugs exhibited up to 90% bioavailability. In dogs, the bitter taste of buccally administered nalbuphine and naloxone caused salivation and swallowing, and bioavailability was low. Buccal dosing of the prodrugs of these compounds caused no adverse effects and the bioavailability ranged from 35 to 50%, a significant improvement relative to the oral bioavailability, which is 5% or less. The feasibility of buccal prodrug delivery using an adhesive patch formulation was demonstrated.

  18. Bioavailability of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone following buccal administration in cats.

    PubMed

    Pypendop, B H; Ilkiw, J E; Shilo-Benjamini, Y

    2014-06-01

    Buccal administration of buprenorphine is commonly used to treat pain in cats. It has been argued that absorption of buprenorphine through the buccal mucosa is high, in part due to its pKa of 8.24. Morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone have a pKa between 8 and 9. This study characterized the bioavailability of these drugs following buccal administration to cats. Six healthy adult female spayed cats were used. Buccal pH was measured prior to drug administration. Morphine sulfate, 0.2 mg/kg IV or 0.5 mg/kg buccal; methadone hydrochloride, 0.3 mg/kg IV or 0.75 mg/kg buccal; hydromorphone hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.25 mg/kg buccal; or oxymorphone hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.25 mg/kg buccal were administered. All cats received all treatments. Arterial blood was sampled immediately prior to drug administration and at various times up to 8 h thereafter. Bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of the area under the time-concentration curve following buccal administration to that following IV administration, each indexed to the administered dose. Mean ± SE (range) bioavailability was 36.6 ± 5.2 (12.7-49.5), 44.2 ± 7.9 (18.7-70.5), 22.4 ± 6.9 (6.4-43.4), and 18.8 ± 2.0 (12.9-23.5)% for buccal administration of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone, respectively. Bioavailability of methadone was significantly higher than that of oxymorphone.

  19. Shuttle Rocket Motor Program: NASA should delay awarding some construction contracts. Report to the Chair, Subcommittee on Government Activities and Transportation, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Even though the executive branch has proposed terminating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program, NASA is proceeding with all construction activity planned for FY 1992 to avoid schedule slippage if the program is reinstated by Congress. However, NASA could delay some construction activities for at least a few months without affecting the current launch data schedule. For example, NASA could delay Yellow Creek's motor storage and dock projects, Stennis' dock project, and Kennedy's rotation processing and surge facility and dock projects. Starting all construction activities as originally planned could result in unnecessarily incurring additional costs and termination liability if the funding for FY 1993 is not provided. If Congress decides to continue the program, construction could still be completed in time to avoid schedule slippage.

  20. Pragmatic and Profound Benefits of Acyclovir Buccal Adhesive Tablets.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ted

    2016-06-01

    The clinician has many options, both systemic and topical, for the management of oro-labial herpes simplex infections due to HSV-1. A recent addition to this armamentarium is Acyclovir 50 mg Buccal Adhesive Tablets (ABT 50mg). While this agent demonstrates the typical modest reduction in time to healing of any given episode of recurrent oro-labial HSV 1, it also was found in pivotal studies to alter the course of this troublesome viral disease. Several case reports are presented which dramatically illustrate that ABT 50mg can reduce the overall number of overt outbreaks and increase the time interval between outbreaks in patients with historical evidence of frequent episodes. This therapeutic intervention is thus: simple, safe, efficacious and cost-effective, even in patients who experience numerous (and therefore disconcerting) oro-labial outbreaks.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):775-777.

  1. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  2. A community-based group upper extremity exercise program improves motor function and performance of functional activities in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco Y C; Harris, Jocelyn E; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a community-based exercise program on motor recovery and functional abilities of the paretic upper extremity in persons with chronic stroke. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation research laboratory and a community hall. Participants A sample of 63 people (≥ 50 years) with chronic deficits resulting from stroke (onset ≥ 1 year). Interventions The arm group underwent an exercise program designed to improve upper extremity function (1 hour per session, 3 sessions per week for 19 weeks). The leg group underwent a lower extremity exercise program. Main outcome measures (1) Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), (2) Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA), (3) hand-held dynamometry (grip strength), and (4) Motor Activity Log. Results Multivariate analysis showed a significant group × time interaction (Wilk’s Lambda=0.726, P=0.017), indicating that overall, the arm group had significantly more improvement than the leg group. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that gains in WMFT (functional ability) (P=0.001) and FMA (P=0.001) were significantly higher in the arm group. The amount of improvement was comparable to other novel treatment approaches such as constraint-induced movement therapy or robot-aided exercise training previously reported in chronic stroke. Participants with moderate arm impairment benefited more from the program. Conclusions The pilot study showed that a community-based exercise program can improve upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. This outcome justifies a larger clinical trial to further assess efficacy and cost-effectiveness. PMID:16401430

  3. Evaluation of a mucoadhesive buccal patch for delivery of peptides: in vitro screening of bioadhesion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1998-10-01

    We have assessed the bioadhesive properties of several different mucoadhesive buccal patches. The patches consisted of custom coformulations of silicone polymers and Carbopol 974P. The contact angle of water was measured for each of the test formulations, using an ophthalmic shadow scope. The corresponding work of adhesion between the water and the patches (W1), and between the patches and freshly-excised rabbit buccal mucosa (W2) was then calculated, using a modification of Dupre's equation. The bioadhesive strength between the patches and excised rabbit buccal mucosa was also assessed. The results of the contact-angle measurements indicated that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the formulation. Additionally, the calculated values of both W1 and W2 increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the buccal-patch formulations. A correlation (r not equal to 0.9808) was found between the measured contact angle and the calculated values for W2. The direct measurement of the force required to separate a buccal patch from excised rabbit buccal mucosa with the INSTRON demonstrated that the adhesive strength increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol. This preliminary study has shown that the measurement of contact angles alone may provide a useful technique for estimating the work of adhesion, and may serve as a convenient and rapid screening procedure to identify potential mucoadhesive buccal-patch formulations.

  4. In-vitro characterization of buccal iontophoresis: the case of sumatriptan succinate.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Tratta, Elena; Guasconi, Barbara; Nicoli, Sara; Pescina, Silvia; Govoni, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Padula, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Buccal administration of sumatriptan succinate might be an interesting alternative to the present administration routes, due to its non-invasiveness and rapid onset of action, but because of its low permeability, a permeation enhancement strategy is required. The aim of this work was then to study, in-vitro, buccal iontophoresis of sumatriptan succinate. Permeation experiments were performed in-vitro across pig esophageal epithelium, a recently proposed model of human buccal mucosa, using vertical diffusion cells. The iontophoretic behavior of the tissue was characterized by measuring its isoelectric point (Na(+) transport number and the electroosmotic flow of acetaminophen determination) and by evaluating tissue integrity after current application. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of pig esophageal epithelium as an in-vitro model membrane for buccal drug delivery. The application of iontophoresis increased sumatriptan transport, proportionally to the current density applied, without tissue damage: electrotransport was the predominant mechanism. Integrating the results of the present work with literature data on the transport of other molecules across the buccal mucosa and across the skin, we can draw a general conclusion: the difference in passive transport across buccal mucosa and across the skin is influenced by permeant lipophilicity and by the penetration pathway. Finally, buccal iontophoretic administration of sumatriptan allows to administer 6mg of the drug in 1h, representing a promising alternative to the current administration routes.

  5. 40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... valid certificate of conformity as a motor vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make... certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86. If you comply with all of the provisions of this section, we consider the certificate issued under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle...

  6. Effect of a Mastery Climate Motor Program on Object Control Skills and Perceived Physical Competence in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental motor skills (e.g., run, jump, catch, and throw) are essential building blocks for more advanced and context-specific skills. Children with these motor skills are able to function independently while learning and exploring their environment. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) "Active Start"…

  7. Development and testing of 11- and 24-inch hybrid motors under the joint government/industry IR&D program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boardman, T. A.; Carpenter, R. L.; Goldberg, B. E.; Shaeffer, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Establishment of a test facility and associated 11-in.-diameter motor for hybrid propulsion technology development at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is discussed in this paper. Results of twenty 11-in.-diameter motor tests with a UTF-29901 (60 percent polycyclopentadiene, 40 percent hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene)/gaseous oxygen propellant system are presented. Tests at this scale have developed fuel regression correlations for comparison with results of yet-to-be-completed, 24-in.-diameter motor tests; demonstrated combustion efficiency levels in the 95 percent range for both single- and multiple-port grain configurations; have shown smooth and stable throttling characteristics over flight-type throttle ranges; and have begun to establish criteria for stable combustion in hybrid motors. The testing of 24-in. motors has not as yet been initiated and is not addressed.

  8. The effect of a motor skills training program in the improvement of practiced and non-practiced tasks performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Hsairi, Ines; Baati, Hamza; Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a group-based task oriented skills training program on motor and physical ability for children with DCD. It was also investigated if there was an effect on fine motor and handwriting tasks that were not specifically practiced during the training program. Forty-one children aged 6-10years took part in this study. Children were assigned to three groups: an experimental training group consisting of 14 children with DCD, a control non-training group consisted of 13 children with DCD and a control non-training group consisting of 14 typically developed children. The measurements included were, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Modified Agility Test (MAT), the Triple Hop Distance (THD), the 5 Jump-test (5JT) and the Handwriting Performance Test. All measures were administered pre and post an 8-week training program. The results showed that 10 children of the DCD training-group improved their performance in MABC test, attaining a score above the 15th percentile after their participation in the training program. DCD training-group showed a significant improvement on all cluster scores (manual dexterity (t (13)=5.3, p<.001), ball skills (t (13)=2.73, p<.05) and balance (t (13)=5.13, p<.001). Significant performance improvements were also found in MAT, THD, 5JT (t (13)=-4.55; p<.01), handwriting quality (t (12)=-2.73; p<.05) and speed (t (12)=-4.2; p<.01) after the training program. In conclusion, improvement in both practiced and non-practiced skills, in the training program, may reflect improvement in motor skill but also transfer to other skills.

  9. Effects of an integrated physical education/music program in changing early childhood perceptual-motor performance.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Sherrill, C; Gench, B

    1981-08-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children, ages 4 to 6 yr., were investigated. The experimental group (n = 15) received 24 sessions of integrated physical education/music instruction based upon concepts of Kodaly and Dalcroze. The control group (n = 15) received 24 sessions of movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Analysis of covariance indicated that significant improvement occurred only in the experimental group, with discharges changes in the motor, auditory, and language aspects of perceptual-motor performance as well as total score.

  10. Testing hypotheses of dietary reconstruction from buccal dental microwear in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M; Galbany, J; Turbón, D; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2009-12-01

    A recent study of occlusal microwear in Australopithecus afarensis described this species as an opportunistic dweller, living in both forested and open environments and greatly relying on fallback resources and using fewer food-processing activities than previously suggested. In the present study, analysis of buccal microwear variability in a sample of A. afarensis specimens (n=75 teeth) showed no significant correlations with the ecological shift that took place around 3.5Ma in Africa. These results are consistent with the occlusal microwear data available. In fact, significant correlations between buccal and occlusal microwear variables were found. However, comparison of the buccal microwear patterns showed clear similarities between A. afarensis and those hominoid species living in somewhat open environments, especially the Cameroon gorillas. A diet based mainly on succulent fruits and seasonal fallback resources would be consistent with the buccal microwear patterns observed.

  11. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  12. Use of buccal swabs for sampling DNA from nestling and adult birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells fromsmall (2‐ to 13‐g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4‐ to 8‐day‐old) black‐capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from6 4‐day‐old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica). We compared DNA from buccal epithelial samples to that fromblood samples from the same individuals. We extracted sufficient quantities of DNA for analysis from all buccalsamples, and samples remained viable even after being stored in original plastic sampling tubes at room temperature for up to 18 months. Yields were equivalent whether extracted using the proprietary quick‐extraction solution provided with buccal swab kits or using a salt‐extraction process with inexpensive reagents. Yields of DNA from buccal samples were consistently lower than those from blood samples, but quantities were sufficient for all analyses. Assignment of sex, based on DNA extracted from paired buccal and blood samples, was identical for all 87 birds. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from buccal and blood samples for 12 individuals tested using 5 microsatellite loci and found perfect concordance in sequencing of an 823‐base‐pair segment within the control region of mitochondrial DNA for 7 individuals tested. Use of buccal swabs is highly recommended as a rapid, noninvasive technique for sampling avian genomic DNA, especially for extremely young altricial nestlings or small‐bodied adults, or for any birds for which blood sampling may be impossible or stressful.

  13. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa. PMID:27721630

  14. Relative Telomere Repeat Mass in Buccal and Leukocyte-Derived DNA

    PubMed Central

    Finnicum, Casey T.; Dolan, Conor V.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Weber, Zachary M.; Petersen, Jason L.; Beck, Jeffrey J.; Codd, Veryan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.

    2017-01-01

    Telomere length has garnered interest due to the potential role it may play as a biomarker for the cellular aging process. Telomere measurements obtained from blood-derived DNA are often used in epidemiological studies. However, the invasive nature of blood draws severely limits sample collection, particularly with children. Buccal cells are commonly sampled for DNA isolation and thus may present a non-invasive alternative for telomere measurement. Buccal and leukocyte derived DNA obtained from samples collected at the same time period were analyzed for telomere repeat mass (TRM). TRM was measured in buccal-derived DNA samples from individuals for whom previous TRM data from blood samples existed. TRM measurement was performed by qPCR and was normalized to the single copy 36B4 gene relative to a reference DNA sample (K562). Correlations between TRM from blood and buccal DNA were obtained and also between the same blood DNA samples measured in separate laboratories. Using the classical twin design, TRM heritability was estimated (N = 1892, MZ = 1044, DZ = 775). Buccal samples measured for TRM showed a significant correlation with the blood-1 (R = 0.39, p < 0.01) and blood-2 (R = 0.36, p < 0.01) samples. Sex and age effects were observed within the buccal samples as is the norm within blood-derived DNA. The buccal, blood-1, and blood-2 measurements generated heritability estimates of 23.3%, 47.6% and 22.2%, respectively. Buccal derived DNA provides a valid source for the determination of TRM, paving the way for non-invasive projects, such as longitudinal studies in children. PMID:28125671

  15. Two cases of prostheses for flap protection after buccal mucosal incision.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Syuntaro; Sato, Toru; Yoshida, Shuji; Saito, Shion; Kamiyama, Isao; Ito, Aki; Tanaka, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe two patients in whom prostheses were applied for flap protection after buccal mucosal incision. In the first case, the patient was a 65-year-old man with a diagnosis of buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (T2N0M0). Left buccal mucosa squamous cell tumor resection and dermoplasty were performed, followed by alveolar ridge augmentation and buccal mucosal graft in the scar area. The carcinoma recurred, however, and left buccal mucosa carcinoma resection was performed, followed by reconstruction surgery using a free forearm flap. After a 12-week healing period, a molar support was constructed on the unaffected side and a protective prosthesis placed on the affected side. Training in ingestion and swallowing were given postoperatively. The patient in the second case was a 62-year-old woman with a diagnosis of buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (T2N1M0). Right buccal mucosa carcinoma resection and supraomohyoid neck dissection were performed, followed by reconstruction surgery using a free forearm flap. A molar support was constructed on the unaffected side and a protective prosthesis placed on the affected side at 5 months postoperatively. Training was given in ingestion and swallowing postoperatively. The prostheses prevented bite wounds to the flaps in the affected areas due to jaw movement during swallowing or speaking. The postoperative courses were uneventful, and the average masticatory score was 92.5 (85, 100), not affecting daily life. The prostheses were placed after reconstruction surgery using free flaps after buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma resection. Dysphasia recovered to the preoperative level by dysphasia and pronunciation training in both cases. The postoperative prognosis was favorable, with the prosthesis preventing damage to the flap.

  16. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  17. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  18. An evaluation of torque (moment) on implant/prosthesis with staggered buccal and lingual offset.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A; Kruger, B

    1996-06-01

    The supposition that staggered buccal and lingual implant offset is biomechanically advantageous was examined mathematically. The method of evaluation utilized a standard hypothetical geometric configuration from which implants could be staggered buccally and/or lingually in both arches. Torque (moment) values were calculated at the gold screw, abutment screw, and 3.5 mm apical to the head of the implant. Comparisons were made in percentages of change from the hypothetical standard to the buccal and/or lingual implant offset. In the maxillary arch, buccal offset decreased the torque (moment) while lingual offset increased it. If more lingually offset implants were present in the maxillary restoration, the total torque would be greater than if they were all in a straight line. Staggered buccolingual implant alignment often requires abutment reangulation. The resultant line of force produced by occlusal anatomy usually results in buccal inclination in the maxillary arch and lingual inclination in the mandibular arch. As a result, mandibular implant/prostheses are greatly favored over similar maxillary configurations because the mandibular resultant line of force usually passes lingually, closer to the components and supporting bone and considerably less torque is produced. Therefore, the concept of staggered offset for multiple implant-supported prostheses can be utilized on the mandible but is not recommended for the maxilla where maximum uniform buccal implant orientation is advised.

  19. Smoking and smokeless tobacco-associated human buccal cell mutations and their association with oral cancer--a review.

    PubMed

    Proia, Nicole K; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Nasca, Maureen A Sullivan; Franke, Gail E; Pauly, John L

    2006-06-01

    Reported herein are the results of a structured literature review that was undertaken to (a) determine if human buccal (mouth) cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless ("chewing") tobacco, (b) tabulate different buccal cell alterations that have been reported, (c) delineate buccal cell assays that have been used successfully, (d) determine whether buccal cell changes correlate with oral cancer as defined in clinicopathologic investigations, and (e) assess the feasibility of developing a high-throughput buccal cell assay for screening smokers for the early detection of oral cancer. The results of the studies reported herein have established that diverse buccal cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco. This review documents also that buccal cells have been collected in a noninvasive manner, and repetitively for serial studies, from different sites of the mouth (e.g., cheek, gum, and tongue) and from normal tissue, preneoplastic lesions (leukoplakia), and malignant tumors. Tobacco-associated genetic mutations and nongenetic changes have been reported; a partial listing includes (a) micronuclei, (b) bacterial adherence, (c) genetic mutations, (d) DNA polymorphisms, (d) carcinogen-DNA adducts, and (e) chromosomal abnormalities. Clinical studies have correlated buccal cell changes with malignant tumors, and some oral oncologists have reported that the buccal cell changes are practical biomarkers. Summarily, the literature has established that buccal cells are useful not only for characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying tobacco-associated oral cancers but also as exfoliative cells that express diverse changes that offer promise as candidate biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer.

  20. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups.

  1. Intentional mixed buccal cell reference sample in a paternity case.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce

    2007-03-01

    We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem.

  2. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  3. Tooth size in dentitions with buccal canine ectopia.

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Stella; Sharabi, Shaltiel; Becker, Adrian

    2003-10-01

    Much interest has been expressed in recent years regarding various features common to dentitions with palatally displaced canines (PDC), particularly in relation to delayed dental development and reduced tooth size. The aims of the present study were to determine whether dentitions with buccally displaced canines (BDC) have features in common, which may be specific for the condition, when compared with PDC dentitions and those with normally erupting canines. Mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions were determined for 41 subjects with BDC (21 females and 20 males) aged between 11 and 15 years, who formed the experimental sample. The PDC sample was made up of 58 individuals (37 females and 21 males) and the control group comprised 40 age-matched and consecutively treated subjects (20 males and 20 females), exhibiting normally erupted and undisplaced maxillary canines. The results revealed marked sexual dimorphism. Larger-than-average teeth were present in BDC females, whereas the teeth in BDC males were normally sized. Unilaterally affected females had smaller teeth than bilaterally affected females. Tooth size in BDC was consistently larger than in PDC subjects, although the reason was different between the sexes. In females the PDC teeth were normally sized versus large BDC teeth, whereas in the males, the PDC teeth were small and the BDC teeth normal. It is concluded that combining male and female subjects into an overall BDC group obscures important differences that exist between the two sexes.

  4. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei.

  5. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  6. Treatment of inadequate lactation with oral sulpiride and buccal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Kivinen, S; Viinikka, L

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six puerperal women with inadequate lactation were treated with 50 mg sulpiride (N = 24) or placebo (N = 12) three times a day for two weeks. These treatments were supplemented with buccal oxytocin (100 IU, 300 IU, or 400 IU) or placebo preceding each breast-feeding on the sixth and 14th and on the seventh and 13th days of oral treatment, respectively. One woman treated with sulpiride and three women treated with placebo discontinued the trial because of the lack of the effect of treatment. The concentration of prolactin in maternal serum was higher (P less than .001) during sulpiride than placebo treatment at one week (380 +/- 43 ng/ml vs 23 +/- 7 ng/ml, mean +/- SE) and two weeks of treatment (381 +/- 38 ng/ml vs 34 +/- 10 ng/ml). Also, the daily breast milk yield, as measured objectively, was greater (P less than .05) during sulpiride than placebo treatment both at one week (628 +/- 51 ml vs 440 +/- 68 ml) and two weeks of treatment (684 +/- 67 ml vs 423 +/- 60 ml). Various doses of oxytocin failed to stimulate the milk secretion in the presence or absence of sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia. Thus, sulpiride improved inadequate lactation, whereas exogenous oxytocin alone or together with sulpiride had no effect on lactation in these mothers whose infants were able to suckle normally.

  7. Tensile bond strength of a polymeric intra-buccal bioadhesive: the mucin role.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzi, V; Lara, E H; Dal Ciampo, J O; Panzeri, H

    2001-01-01

    The intra-bucal polymeric bioadhesive systems that can stay adhered to the oral soft tissues for drug programmed release, with the preventive and/or therapeutic purpose have been employed for large clinical situations. A system based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Carbopol 934TM/magnesium stearate (HPMC/Cp/StMg), was developed with the sodium fluoride as an active principle. This kind of system was evaluated according to its resistance to the removal by means of physical test of tensile strength. Swine buccal mucosa extracted immediately after animals' sacrifice was employed as a substrate for the physical trials to obtain 16 test bodies. Artificial saliva with or without mucin was used to involve the substrate/bioadhesive system sets during the trials. Artificial salivas viscosity were determined by means of Brookfield viscometer, and they showed 10.0 cP artificial saliva with mucin, and 7.5 cP artificial saliva without mucin. The tensile strength assays showed the following averages: 12.89 Pa for the group "artificial saliva with mucin", and 12.35 Pa for the group "without mucin". Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the assays for both artificial salivas, and we can conclude that the variable mucin did not interfere with the bioadhesion process for the polymeric devices.

  8. Could formaldehyde induce mutagenic and cytotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells during anatomy classes?

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Leon-Penido; Nascimento, Haniel-Serpa; Menegardo, Cristiani-Sartorio; Silva, Ronara-Gerhardt; Bautz, Willian-Grassi; Henriques, José-Fernando; Almeida-Coburn, Karla-Loureiro; da Gama-de-Souza, Letícia-Nogueira

    2017-01-01

    Background Due to increased formaldehyde exposure, carcinogenic to humans, several researches have been studying the potential toxicity and the safe levels for human beings. The aim of this study was to investigate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity in buccal epithelial exfoliated cells (BEC) of students subjected to formaldehyde (FA) during anatomy classes. Material and Methods BEC were collected periodically from 17 volunteers of undergraduate programs, who had participated in practical anatomy classes, before and after FA exposure. Cells were stained according to Feulgen method and then micronucleus test was applied. A total of 1,500 cells were assessed per individual in this study for the micronucleus frequency and other parameters of cytotoxicity. Results There was statistically significant increase in number of micronucleated BEC after FA exposure (after 1 month p=.034 and after 3.5 months p=.017). However, FA exposure caused no significant increase in other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity (p≥.05). Conclusions FA induced mutagenicity during anatomy classes. Cell death increased, but it was not statistically significant. Efforts have to be made to improve air quality and reduce exposures during anatomy classes. Key words:Carcinogens, formaldehyde, micronucleus tests, mutagenicity tests. PMID:27918743

  9. Perceptual and Motor Development in Infants and Children. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.

    Motor behavior, motor performance, and motor learning are discussed at length within the context of infant and child development. Individual chapters focus on the following: the sensory-motor behavior of infants; analysis of selected perceptual-motor programs; beginnings of movement in infants; gross motor attributes in early childhood; visual…

  10. Examining smoking-induced differential gene expression changes in buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene expression changes resulting from conditions such as disease, environmental stimuli, and drug use, can be monitored in the blood. However, a less invasive method of sample collection is of interest because of the discomfort and specialized personnel necessary for blood sampling especially if multiple samples are being collected. Buccal mucosa cells are easily collected and may be an alternative sample material for biomarker testing. A limited number of studies, primarily in the smoker/oral cancer literature, address this tissue's efficacy as an RNA source for expression analysis. The current study was undertaken to determine if total RNA isolated from buccal mucosa could be used as an alternative tissue source to assay relative gene expression. Methods Total RNA was isolated from swabs, reverse transcribed and amplified. The amplified cDNA was used in RT-qPCR and microarray analyses to evaluate gene expression in buccal cells. Initially, RT-qPCR was used to assess relative transcript levels of four genes from whole blood and buccal cells collected from the same seven individuals, concurrently. Second, buccal cell RNA was used for microarray-based differential gene expression studies by comparing gene expression between a group of female smokers and nonsmokers. Results An amplification protocol allowed use of less buccal cell total RNA (50 ng) than had been reported previously with human microarrays. Total RNA isolated from buccal cells was degraded but was of sufficient quality to be used with RT-qPCR to detect expression of specific genes. We report here the finding of a small number of statistically significant differentially expressed genes between smokers and nonsmokers, using buccal cells as starting material. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that these genes had a similar expression pattern to results from another study. Conclusions Our results suggest that despite a high degree of degradation, RNA from buccal cells from cheek mucosa

  11. Reversing cognitive-motor impairments in Parkinson's disease patients using a computational modelling approach to deep brain stimulation programming.

    PubMed

    Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Wu, Jennifer; Noecker, Angela M; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Ho, Jason C; Vitek, Jerrold L; McIntyre, Cameron C; Alberts, Jay L

    2010-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus is an effective and safe surgical procedure that has been shown to reduce the motor dysfunction of patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, however, has been associated with declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. It has been hypothesized that spread of current to nonmotor areas of the subthalamic nucleus may be responsible for declines in cognitive and cognitive-motor functioning. The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive-motor performance in advanced Parkinson's disease patients with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation parameters determined clinically (Clinical) to settings derived from a patient-specific computational model (Model). Data were collected from 10 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease bilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation systems. These patients were assessed off medication and under three deep brain stimulation conditions: Off, Clinical or Model based stimulation. Clinical stimulation parameters had been determined based on clinical evaluations and were stable for at least 6 months prior to study participation. Model-based parameters were selected to minimize the spread of current to nonmotor portions of the subthalamic nucleus using Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. For each stimulation condition, participants performed a working memory (n-back task) and motor task (force tracking) under single- and dual-task settings. During the dual-task, participants performed the n-back and force-tracking tasks simultaneously. Clinical and Model parameters were equally effective in improving the Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale III scores relative to Off deep brain stimulation scores. Single-task working memory declines, in the 2-back condition, were significantly less under Model compared with Clinical deep brain stimulation settings. Under dual-task conditions, force

  12. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  13. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  14. 40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle issued under 40 CFR part 86. (2) You must not make any changes to the certified vehicle that we... already certified to the requirements that apply under 40 CFR parts 85 and 86 for the appropriate model... under 40 CFR part 86 for each motor vehicle to also be a valid certificate of conformity for the...

  15. Effects of an Integrated Physical Education/Music Program in Changing Early Childhood Perceptual-Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to facilitating perceptual-motor development in children ages 4-6 were investigated. Fifteen children (the experimental group) received integrated physical education/music instruction based on Kodaly and Dalcroze (Eurhythmics) concepts. The control group received movement exploration and self-testing instruction. Significant…

  16. FY2014 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Progress Report for the Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak

    2014-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) announced in May 2011 a new cooperative research effort comprising DOE, the US Council for Automotive Research (composed of automakers Ford Motor Company, General Motors Company, and Chrysler Group), Tesla Motors, and representatives of the electric utility and petroleum industries. Known as U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability), it represents DOE’s commitment to developing public–private partnerships to fund high-risk–high-reward research into advanced automotive technologies. The new partnership replaces and builds upon the partnership known as FreedomCAR (derived from “Freedom” and “Cooperative Automotive Research”) that ran from 2002 through 2010 and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles initiative that ran from 1993 through 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors (APEEM) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies now under development. Research is focused on developing revolutionary new power electronics (PE), electric motor, and traction drive system (TDS) technologies that will leapfrog current on-the-road technologies, leading to lower cost and better efficiency in transforming battery energy to useful work. The research and development (R&D) is also aimed at achieving a greater understanding of and improvements in the way the various new components of tomorrow’s automobiles will function as a unified system to improve fuel efficiency through research in more efficient TDSs.

  17. New method of assessing the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness by means of a noninvasive and relatively accurate digital registration method. Methods In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomographic images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0–5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. The Friedman test was used to compare buccal bone and gingival thickness for each depth between the 3 tooth types. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness. Results Of the central incisors, 77% of all sites had a buccal thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm, and 23% had a thickness of 1.0–1.5 mm. Of the lateral incisors, 71% of sites demonstrated a buccal bone thickness <1.0 mm, as did 63% of the canine sites. For gingival thickness, the proportion of sites <1.0 mm was 88%, 82%, and 91% for the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Significant differences were observed in gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level (G0) between the central incisors and canines (P=0.032) and between the central incisors and lateral incisors (P=0.013). At 1 mm inferior to the alveolar crest, a difference was found between the central incisors and canines (P=0.025). The lateral incisors and canines showed a significant difference for buccal bone thickness 5 mm under the alveolar crest (P=0.025). Conclusions The gingiva and buccal bone of the anterior maxillary teeth were found to be relatively thin (<1 mm) overall. A tendency was found for gingival thickness to increase and bone thickness to decrease toward the root apex. Differences were found between teeth at some positions, although the correlation between buccal bone thickness and soft tissue thickness was

  18. A novel flow through diffusion cell for assessing drug transport across the buccal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lestari, Maria L A D; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

    2009-12-01

    A novel flow through (FT) diffusion cell for assessing the permeability of compounds across the buccal mucosa was designed. Porcine buccal mucosa was mounted between two chambers with flow through capacity in both the donor and receptor chambers. The permeability of caffeine (CAF), triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), and estradiol (E(2)) was determined over 4 h and flux values were compared to those obtained using a modified Ussing chamber (MUC). No significant differences in the flux of each probe compound were observed using either the MUC or the novel FT cell. The design of the FT cell allowed for monitoring appearance of receptor solution within the donor chamber during the initial equilibration period, allowing for visual inspection of tissue integrity. These permeability studies demonstrate that this FT cell is a suitable alternative model for assessing drug permeability across the buccal mucosa, without the limitations associated with the static MUC. This novel model was then utilized to determine whether salmeterol xinafoate (SX) could permeate the buccal mucosa at concentrations expected in the oral cavity following inhalation. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated that SX permeates the buccal mucosa via passive diffusion and that oral mucosal absorption may contribute significantly to the overall systemic exposure of inhaled SX.

  19. Enhanced bioavailability by buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide from the bioadhesive gels in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shin, S C; Bum, J P; Choi, J S

    2000-11-19

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of triamcinolone acetonide were determined to investigate buccal absorption from the mucoadhesive gels in rabbits. The enhancing effect of sodium deoxycholate as an enhancer on the buccal absorption of triamcinolone acetonide from the mucoadhesive gels was evaluated in rabbits. Thus, 2 mg/kg of triamcinolone acetonide was administered from the mucoadhesive gels containing an enhancer (enhancer group) or not (control group) via the buccal routes and compared with intravenous routes (1 mg/kg, i.v. group). AUC of the control, enhancer and i.v group were 2374+/-915, 3778+/-1721 and 3945+/-2085 h ng/ml, respectively, and the absolutive bioavailability of enhancer or i.v to control group were 159.14 or 332.35%, respectively. The average C(max) of control and enhancer group were 263+/-159 and 362+/-201 ng/ml, and the mean T(max) of the control group and enhancer group were 5.00+/-1.67 and 4.33+/-0.82 h, respectively, but there was no significant difference. As the triamcinolone acetonide gels containing sodium deoxycholate as an enhancer was administered to rabbits via the buccal routes, the relative bioavailability showed about 1.59-fold compared with the control group. Buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide gels containing sodium deoxycholate as an enhancer to rabbits showed a relatively constant, sustained blood concentration with minimal fluctuation.

  20. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery.

  1. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity in human buccal epithelial dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Lin, L M

    1997-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and amount of GST alpha, mu and pi isoforms were measured in 40 patients with histopathologically confirmed oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. The results were compared with those of normal mucosa in an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Mean total GST activities were significantly elevated from normal buccal mucosa for mild OED, moderate OED, severe OED and squamous cell carcinoma. GST activity of value approximating 100 nmol/min/mg distinguished between normal and dysplasia, and of value about 400 nmol/min/mg delineated between dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma were observed. GST pi was the predominant class in both the diseased and normal buccal mucosa examined. This class pi GST was present at an intracellular concentration, which was significantly higher in diseased buccal mucosa than in normal buccal mucosa. These results indicated that pi class GST was the major form of this enzyme in the cytosolic fraction of oral mucosa. The severity of OED related to squamous cell carcinoma development seemed to increase concomitantly with an increase in the level of this enzyme. Further studies will validate the role of GST pi estimation in predicting the potential malignancy of OED.

  2. Buccal delivery of thiocolchicoside: in vitro and in vivo permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Artusi, M; Santi, P; Colombo, P; Junginger, H E

    2003-01-02

    Thiocolchicoside, a muscle-relaxant agent, is administered by the oral, intra-muscular and topical route. After oral administration the extent of bioavailability compared with intra-muscular administration is low, due to a first pass effect. In this paper, the delivery of thiocolchicoside through oral mucosa is studied to improve the bioavailability. Thiocolchicoside in vitro permeation through porcine oral mucosa and in vivo buccal transport in humans were investigated. Two dosage forms, a bioadhesive disc and a fast dissolving disc for buccal and sublingual administration of thiocolchicoside, respectively, were designed. The in vitro permeation of thiocolchicoside through porcine buccal mucosa from these dosage forms was evaluated and compared with in vivo absorption. Results from in vitro studies demonstrated that thiocolchicoside is quite permeable across porcine buccal mucosa and that permeation enhancers, such as sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate, were not able to increase its flux. The in vivo thiocolchicoside absorption experiments, in which the drug loss from oral cavity was measured, indicated that both formulations could be useful for therapeutic application. The fast dissolving (sublingual) form resulted in a quick uptake of 0.5 mg of thiocolchicoside within 15 min whereas with the adhesive buccal form the same dose can be absorbed over an extended period of time.

  3. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon. PMID:25821372

  4. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  5. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  6. PADDLEFISH BUCCAL FLOW VELOCITY DURING RAM SUSPENSION FEEDING AND RAM VENTILATION

    PubMed

    Cech; Cheer

    1994-01-01

    A micro-thermistor probe was inserted into the buccal cavity of freely swimming paddlefish to measure flow velocity during ram ventilation, ram suspension feeding and prey processing. Swimming speed was measured from videotapes recorded simultaneously with the buccal flow velocity measurements. Both swimming velocity and buccal flow velocity were significantly higher during suspension feeding than during ram ventilation. As the paddlefish shifted from ventilation to feeding, buccal flow velocity increased to approximately 60 % of the swimming velocity. During prey processing, buccal flow velocity was significantly higher than the swimming velocity, indicating that prey processing involves the generation of suction. The Reynolds number (Re) for flow at the level of the paddlefish gill rakers during feeding is about 30, an order of magnitude lower than the Re calculated previously for pump suspension-feeding blackfish. These data, combined with data available from the literature, indicate that the gill rakers of ram suspension-feeding teleost fishes may operate at a substantially lower Re than the rakers of pump suspension feeders.

  7. Molecular Motors from DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turberfield, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    DNA is a wonderful material for nanoscale construction: its self-assembly can be programmed by making use of its information-carrying capability and its hybridization or hydrolysis can be used as to provide energy for synthetic molecular machinery. With DNA it is possible to design and build three-dimensional scaffolds, to attach molecular components to them with sub-nanometre precision-and then to make them move. I shall describe our work on autonomous, biomimetic molecular motors powered by chemical fuels and the use of synthetic molecular machinery to control covalent chemical synthesis. I shall demonstrate bipedal motors whose operation depends on the coordination of the chemomechanical cycles of two separate catalytic centres and burnt bridges motors that can be programmed to navigate networks of tracks. I shall also discuss the use of kinesin motor proteins to power synthetic devices.

  8. Motor training programs of arm and hand in patients with MS according to different levels of the ICF: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The upper extremity plays an important role in daily functioning of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and strongly influences their quality of life. However, an explicit overview of arm-hand training programs is lacking. The present review aims to investigate the training components and the outcome of motor training programs for arm and hand in MS. Methods A computerized systematic literature search in 5 databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane) was performed using the following Mesh terms: Multiple Sclerosis, Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Training, Exercise, Patient-Centered Care, Upper Extremity, Activities of Daily Living, Motor Skills, Motor Activity, Intervention Studies and Clinical Trial. The methodological quality of the selected articles was scored with the Van Tulder Checklist. A descriptive analyses was performed using the PICO principle, including scoring of training components with the calculation of Hedges’g effect sizes. Results Eleven studies were eligible (mean Van Tulder-score = 10.82(SD2.96)). Most studies reported a specific improvement in arm hand performance at the ICF level that was trained at. The mean number of training components was 5.5(SD2.8) and a significant correlation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05) between the number of training components and effect sizes was found. The components ‘client-centered’ and ‘functional movement’ were most frequently used, whereas ‘distribution based practice’, ‘feedback’ and ‘random practice’ were never used. The component ‘exercise progression’ was only used in studies with single ICF body function training, with the exception of 1 study with activity level training. Studies including the component ‘client-centred’ demonstrated moderate to high effect sizes. Conclusion Motor training programs (both at the ICF body function and activity level) have shown to improve arm and hand performance in MS in which the value of the training

  9. Expression of diverse neuropeptide cotransmitters by identified motor neurons in Aplysia

    SciTech Connect

    Church, P.J.; Lloyd, P.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuropeptide synthesis was determined for individual identified ventral-cluster neurons in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia. Each of these cells was shown to be a motor neuron that innervates buccal muscles that generate biting and swallowing movements during feeding. Individual neurons were identified by a battery of physiological criteria and stained with intracellular injection of a vital dye, and the ganglia were incubated in 35S-methionine. Peptide synthesis was determined by measuring labeled peptides in extracts from individually dissected neuronal cell bodies analyzed by HPLC. Previously characterized peptides found to be synthesized included buccalin, FMRFamide, myomodulin, and the 2 small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). Each of these neuropeptides has been shown to modulate buccal muscle responses to motor neuron stimulation. Two other peptides were found to be synthesized in individual motor neurons. One peptide, which was consistently observed in neurons that also synthesized myomodulin, is likely to be the recently sequenced myomodulin B. The other peptide was observed in a subset of the neurons that synthesize FMRFamide. While identified motor neurons consistently synthesized the same peptide(s), neurons that innervate the same muscle often express different peptides. Neurons that synthesized the SCPs also contained SCP-like activity, as determined by snail heart bioassay. Our results indicate that every identified motor neuron synthesizes a subset of these methionine-containing peptides, and that several neurons consistently synthesize peptides that are likely to be processed from multiple precursors.

  10. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions. PMID:27688388

  11. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  12. Evaluation of methyl methacrylate monomer cytotoxicity in dental lab technicians using buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Dawasaz Ali; Syed, Sadatullah; Luqman, Master; Ali, Assiry A

    2013-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, a primary component of dental resins, is known to induce cytotoxicity, dermatitis, and neuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of dental technicians exposed to MMA using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay. The Risk Group (RG=13) consisted of all the technicians working in the prosthetic production laboratory of KKU-College of Dentistry. The Control Group (CG=14) consisted of healthy students and doctors matching the age of RG subjects. Buccal mucosa scrapes obtained from all the 27 RG and CG subjects were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (100×) for the presence of MN. There were no significant differences in the incidence of MN between RG and CG (p>0.05).

  13. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  14. The course of the buccal nerve: relationships with the temporalis muscle during the prenatal period

    PubMed Central

    MÉRIDA-VELASCO, J. R.; RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ, J. F.; CUADRA, C.; MÉRIDA-VELASCO, J. A.; JIMÉNEZ-COLLADO, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the course of the buccal nerve and its relationships with the temporalis muscle during the prenatal period. Serial sections of 90 human fetal specimens ranging from 9 to 17 wk development were studied by light microscopy. Each fetal specimen was studied on both right and left sides, making a total of 180 cases for study. A 3-D reconstruction of the region analysed in one of the specimens was made. In 89 cases the buccal nerve was located medial to the temporalis muscle; in 73 cases it penetrated the muscle; in 15 cases it lay in a canal formed by the muscle fibres and was covered by fascia, and finally, in 3 cases it was a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The study has revealed that in a large number of cases the buccal nerve maintains an intimate association with the temporalis muscle. PMID:11327204

  15. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  16. Preventing Internalizing Problems in Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Feelings and Friends (Year 3) Program with a Motor Skills Component

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Ruhamah G.; Martin, Katie K.; Rooney, Rosanna; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are common mental health problems experienced by children in Australia. The impact of these internalizing disorders is pervasive, affecting many areas of life. By the time problems have been detected in children they can be severe in nature and harder to treat. Hence, early intervention is of utmost importance. Despite the existence of numerous prevention programs for children, there is limited empirical evidence for a program that has an impact on symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Physical activity and improved motor coordination have been indicated as having positive effects on children's mental health, although the impact of including these in a program targeting internalizing disorders has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Feelings and Friends (Year 3) program (FFY3), revised to include activities to build motor-coordination and encourage physical activity. Participants were 24 children from the Perth metropolitan area alongside one of each of their parents. Results indicated significant short-term intervention effects on one of the primary outcome variables; intervention group parents reported significant pre-post improvement in child depressive symptoms, which were maintained at 3-month follow-up (ηp2 = 0.10). There were also intervention effects observed for parent-reported separation anxiety (ηp2 = 0.10), externalizing symptoms (ηp2 = 0.19), and conduct problems (ηp2 = 0.16). An additional finding indicated the intervention students reported significant improvement from session one to session two in global distress (ηp2 = 0.22). No other significant intervention effects were evident. Findings from this study indicate that FFY3 is a promising intervention to address internalizing and externalizing symptoms in 8–9 year-old children. PMID:28326047

  17. Gene-environment interaction signatures by quantitative mRNA profiling in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Simon D; Hurteau, Gregory J; Jain, Ritu; Kumar, Shalini V; Aldous, Kenneth M; Gierthy, John F; Kaminsky, Laurence S

    2004-09-15

    Exfoliated cytologic specimens from mouth (buccal) epithelium may contain viable cells, permitting assay of gene expression for direct and noninvasive measurement of gene-environment interactions, such as for inhalation (e.g., tobacco smoke) exposures. We determined specific mRNA levels in exfoliated buccal cells collected by cytologic brush, using a recently developed RNA-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR strategy. In a pilot study, metabolic activity of exfoliated buccal cells was verified by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium assay in vitro. Transcriptional activity was observed, after timed in vivo exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke resulted in induction of CYP1B1 in serially collected buccal samples from the one subject examined. For a set of 11 subjects, mRNA expression of nine genes encoding carcinogen- and oxidant-metabolizing enzymes qualitatively detected in buccal cells was then shown to correlate with that in laser-microdissected lung from the same individuals (Chi2 = 52.91, P < 0.001). Finally, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for seven target gene (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, and GSTT1) and three reference gene [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, and 36B4] transcripts were performed on buccal specimens from 42 subjects. In multivariate analyses, gender, tobacco smoke exposure, and other factors were associated with the level of expression of CYP1B1, GSTP1, and other transcripts on a gene-specific basis, but substantial interindividual variability in mRNA expression remained unexplained. Within the power limits of this pilot study, gene expression signature was not clearly predictive of lung cancer case or control status. This noninvasive and quantitative method may be incorporated into high-throughput human applications for probing gene-environment interactions associated with cancer.

  18. S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins as biomarkers of exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Reyes, Leticia; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidation of cellular nucleophiles, particularly cysteines in proteins. Commercial mouthwashes containing H2O2 provide the opportunity to determine clinically whether changes in S-glutathionylation of susceptible proteins in buccal mucosa cells can be used as biomarkers of ROS exposure. Methods Using an exploratory clinical protocol, 18 disease-free volunteers rinsed with a mouthwash containing 1.5% H2O2 (442 mM) over four consecutive days. Exfoliated buccal cell samples were collected prior and post-treatment and proteomics were used to identify S-glutathionylated proteins. Results Four consecutive daily treatments with the H2O2-containing mouthwash induced significant dose and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins, stable for at least 30 min following treatments. Elevated levels of S-glutathionylation were maintained with subsequent daily exposure. Increased S-glutathionylation preceded and correlated with transcriptional activation of ROS sensitive genes, such as ATF3, and with the presence of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine. Data from a human buccal cell line TR146 were consistent with the trial results. We identified twelve proteins that were S-glutathionylated following H2O2 exposure. Conclusions Buccal cells can predict exposure to ROS through increased levels of S-glutathionylation of proteins. These post-translationally modified proteins serve as biomarkers for the effects of H2O2 in the oral cavity and in the future, may be adaptable as extrapolated pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the impact of other systemic drugs that cause ROS and/or impact redox homeostasis. General significance S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins can be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to ROS. PMID:26673080

  19. Investigating the effect of Aloe vera gel on the buccal permeability of didanosine.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, Elizabeth; Mackraj, Irene; Akhundov, Kamil; Hamman, Josias; Viljoen, Alvaro; Olivier, Eugene; Wesley-Smith, James; Govender, Thirumala

    2012-03-01

    The buccal mucosal route offers several advantages but the delivery of certain drugs can be limited by low membrane permeability. This study investigated the buccal permeability properties of didanosine (ddI) and assessed the potential of Aloe vera gel (AVgel) as a novel buccal permeation enhancer. Permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells, and the drug was quantified by UV spectroscopy. Histomorphological evaluations were undertaken using light and transmission electron microscopy. The permeability of ddI was concentration-dependent, and it did not have any adverse effects on the buccal mucosae. A linear relationship (R² = 0.9557) between the concentrations and flux indicated passive diffusion as the mechanism of drug transport. AVgel at concentrations of 0.25 to 2 %w/v enhanced ddI permeability with enhancement ratios from 5.09 (0.25 %w/v) to 11.78 (2 %w/v) but decreased permeability at 4 and 6 %w/v. Ultrastructural analysis of the buccal mucosae treated with phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 (PBS), ddI/PBS, and ddI/PBS/AVgel 0.5 %w/v showed cells with normal plasmalemma, well-developed cristae, and nuclei with regular nuclear envelopes. However, cells from 1, 2, and 6 %w/v AVgel-treated mucosae showed irregular nuclear outlines, increased intercellular spacing, and plasmalemma crenulations. This study demonstrates the potential of AVgel as a buccal permeation enhancer for ddI to improve anti-HIV and AIDS therapy.

  20. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  1. Extracellularly identifying motor neurons for a muscle motor pool in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; McManus, Jeffrey M; Chiel, Hillel J

    2013-03-25

    In animals with large identified neurons (e.g. mollusks), analysis of motor pools is done using intracellular techniques. Recently, we developed a technique to extracellularly stimulate and record individual neurons in Aplysia californica. We now describe a protocol for using this technique to uniquely identify and characterize motor neurons within a motor pool. This extracellular technique has advantages. First, extracellular electrodes can stimulate and record neurons through the sheath, so it does not need to be removed. Thus, neurons will be healthier in extracellular experiments than in intracellular ones. Second, if ganglia are rotated by appropriate pinning of the sheath, extracellular electrodes can access neurons on both sides of the ganglion, which makes it easier and more efficient to identify multiple neurons in the same preparation. Third, extracellular electrodes do not need to penetrate cells, and thus can be easily moved back and forth among neurons, causing less damage to them. This is especially useful when one tries to record multiple neurons during repeating motor patterns that may only persist for minutes. Fourth, extracellular electrodes are more flexible than intracellular ones during muscle movements. Intracellular electrodes may pull out and damage neurons during muscle contractions. In contrast, since extracellular electrodes are gently pressed onto the sheath above neurons, they usually stay above the same neuron during muscle contractions, and thus can be used in more intact preparations. To uniquely identify motor neurons for a motor pool (in particular, the I1/I3 muscle in Aplysia) using extracellular electrodes, one can use features that do not require intracellular measurements as criteria: soma size and location, axonal projection, and muscle innervation. For the particular motor pool used to illustrate the technique, we recorded from buccal nerves 2 and 3 to measure axonal projections, and measured the contraction forces of the I1

  2. Advanced Motor and Motor Control Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for

  3. The Effectiveness of Articaine and Lidocaine Single Buccal Infiltration versus Conventional Buccal and Palatal Injection Using Lidocaine during Primary Maxillary Molar Extraction: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kolli, Naveen Kumar Reddy; Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the advent of modern injection techniques, palatal injection continues to be a painful experience for children. Aims: To compare the pain experienced during extraction of maxillary primary molars with conventional lignocaine anesthesia versus lignocaine and articaine buccal infiltration in children aged 6–14 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized triple blinded study was conducted with ninety children (n = 90), randomly allocated to receive lignocaine conventional anesthesia (Group I [control group]), and buccal infiltration using articaine (Group II [articaine group]) or lignocaine (Group III [lignocaine group]). A composite score of self-report (faces pain scale-revised), behavioral measure (face legs activity cry consolability scale), and a physiological response (pulse rate) was measured following maxillary primary molar extraction. Statistical Analysis Used: To test the mean difference between two groups, Students’ t-test was used and among the three groups, one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was used. Results: Articaine group had significantly lower pain scores for self-report (P < 000.1) and behavioral measures (P < 000.1) while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between articaine and control groups during primary maxillary molar extraction. Conclusion: Maxillary primary molar extraction procedure can be successfully accomplished by bypassing the palatal injection. Articaine buccal infiltration can be considered as an alternative to conventional local anesthesia for the extraction of maxillary primary molars. PMID:28298777

  4. Particle size reduction to the nanometer range: a promising approach to improve buccal absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Shasha; Song, Yunmei; Peddie, Frank; Evans, Allan M

    2011-01-01

    Poorly water-soluble drugs, such as phenylephrine, offer challenging problems for buccal drug delivery. In order to overcome these problems, particle size reduction (to the nanometer range) and cyclodextrin complexation were investigated for permeability enhancement. The apparent solubility in water and the buccal permeation of the original phenylephrine coarse powder, a phenylephrine–cyclodextrin complex and phenylephrine nanosuspensions were characterized. The particle size and particle surface properties of phenylephrine nanosuspensions were used to optimize the size reduction process. The optimized phenylephrine nanosuspension was then freeze dried and incorporated into a multi-layered buccal patch, consisting of a small tablet adhered to a mucoadhesive film, yielding a phenylephrine buccal product with good dosage accuracy and improved mucosal permeability. The design of the buccal patch allows for drug incorporation without the need to change the mucoadhesive component, and is potentially suited to a range of poorly water-soluble compounds. PMID:21753876

  5. Program for the improvement of downhole drilling motor bearings and seals. Phase IV. Semi-annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbitts, G.A.; DeLafosse, P.H.; Black, A.; Green, S.J.

    1980-07-01

    Four main areas of development for the project are covered: design and fabrication of a dynamometer and a mud cooling system for the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility; modification of the Bearing-Seal Package Test Facility based on test results; testing of new lubricant samples from Pacer Lubricants, Inc., in the Terra Tek High Temperature Lubricant Tester; and testing of new seal types in the Terra Tek Sea Tester. The Maurer Engineering Report, Semi-Annual Progress Report on Improvement of Downhole Motor Bearings and Seals by Jeff L. Barnwell, has been included as Appendix B.

  6. Neural control mechanisms of the pheromone-triggered programmed behavior in male silkmoths revealed by double-labeling of descending interneurons and a motor neuron.

    PubMed

    Wada, Satoshi; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2005-04-04

    Male silkmoths, Bombyx mori, exhibit a characteristic zigzagging behavior consisting of straight-line walking, zigzagging turns, and looping. The timing for shifting the turning direction is synchronized to the sideways head movements controlled by neck motor neurons (NMNs) including a cervical ventral NMN (cv1-NMN). It has been suggested that this programmed behavior is instructed by two types of activity patterns descending from the brain and the thoracic ganglion: one is a phasic excitation and the other is a state-dependent activity similar to the flipflop in electric memory circuits. These activities are shown by certain descending interneurons contained in two subsets of DNs, Group-I and -II DNs. However, it is not yet well understood which DNs are directly related to instructing this behavior. In order to understand neural control mechanisms of this programmed behavior, we investigated the morphological relationship between these DNs and the cv1-NMN, which is an index of this programmed behavior. We applied a double-labeling technique combining backfilling of the cv1-NMN and intracellular staining of single DNs. 3D confocal images revealed overlapping regions between the Group-I, -II DNs and the cv1-NMN. Group-IIA and -IID, which showed typical flipflop activities, Group-IIC DNs, which showed phasic excitation, and Group-IB DNs, which showed long-lasting inhibition had many overlapping regions on the cv1-NMNs. Our results indicate that the programmed behavior is instructed by these types of DNs.

  7. An In-School-Based Program of Combined Fine Motor Exercise and Educational Activities for Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Szturm, Tony; Polyzoi, Eleoussa; Marotta, Jonathan; Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces a game-based rehabilitation platform designed to integrate training of fine motor skills and cognitive functions. A novel computer interface device was developed that can effectively replace a standard computer mouse when doing exercises to rehabilitate hand function. This smart device converts signals from miniature motion sensors to signals equivalent to that of a computer mouse. In this way, nearly any object or utensil can be changed to function exactly as a computer mouse, simply by attaching the motion sensor. Multiple objects with varied sizes, shapes, weights, and functional demands for precision can be used for exercise and to practice a variety of gross or fine motor skills, and, importantly, while playing fun computer games. The platform was designed to work with modern and common computer games, which have a broad range of movement speeds and accuracy levels, cognitive activities (puzzles, choices, distractors), and educational content. The platform includes a designed assessment game with advanced data logging for electronic monitoring. Data analysis methods have been developed to quantify performance metrics that provide insights into the quality, efficiency, and skill of a child and thus mean to conduct trend analyses that indicate how the child is performing over time.

  8. Motor Vehicle Repairs and Inspection Personnel--Manpower Development Program. Final Report, 1 July, 1968-31 December, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, R. W.; And Others

    A perennial problem facing vocational educators is the need to correlate required on-the-job skills and knowledge with the instruction in the corresponding vocational education program. Using this as an objective, data were gathered on current automotive mechanic training programs by reviewing selected government reports and related literature and…

  9. Testing Dietary Hypotheses of East African Hominines Using Buccal Dental Microwear Data.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Laura Mónica; Estebaranz-Sánchez, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines. We provide evidence from buccal dental microwear data that supports softer dietary habits than expected for P. aethiopicus and P. boisei based both on masticatory apomorphies and isotopic analyses. On one hand, striation densities on the buccal enamel surfaces of paranthropines teeth are low, resembling those of H. habilis and clearly differing from those observed on H. ergaster, which display higher scratch densities indicative of the consumption of a wide assortment of highly abrasive foodstuffs. Buccal dental microwear patterns are consistent with those previously described for occlusal enamel surfaces, suggesting that Paranthropus consumed much softer diets than previously presumed and thus calling into question a strict interpretation of isotopic evidence. On the other hand, the significantly high buccal scratch densities observed in the H. ergaster specimens are not consistent with a highly specialized, mostly carnivorous diet; instead, they support the consumption of a wide range of highly abrasive food items.

  10. Rapidly-growing buccal mass in a 6-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Brierley, D; Hunter, K D; Lee, N

    2015-11-01

    Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign tumours of fetal-embryonal adipocytes that usually present in young children, which is why they are not often included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue lesions in infants. We describe a case of a 6-month-old infant with an intraoral buccal lipoblastoma.

  11. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; AL Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer.

  12. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  13. Testing Dietary Hypotheses of East African Hominines Using Buccal Dental Microwear Data

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Laura Mónica; Estebaranz-Sánchez, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines. We provide evidence from buccal dental microwear data that supports softer dietary habits than expected for P. aethiopicus and P. boisei based both on masticatory apomorphies and isotopic analyses. On one hand, striation densities on the buccal enamel surfaces of paranthropines teeth are low, resembling those of H. habilis and clearly differing from those observed on H. ergaster, which display higher scratch densities indicative of the consumption of a wide assortment of highly abrasive foodstuffs. Buccal dental microwear patterns are consistent with those previously described for occlusal enamel surfaces, suggesting that Paranthropus consumed much softer diets than previously presumed and thus calling into question a strict interpretation of isotopic evidence. On the other hand, the significantly high buccal scratch densities observed in the H. ergaster specimens are not consistent with a highly specialized, mostly carnivorous diet; instead, they support the consumption of a wide range of highly abrasive food items. PMID:27851745

  14. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  15. Statistical optimization of insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for buccal delivery of basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2012-01-01

    The principle of statistical optimization was employed to fabricate insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin. A two-level resolution III fractional factorial design was applied to simultaneously evaluate five independent formulation variables: PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, sodium sulfate concentration, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) concentration, and presence of sodium glycocholate. The amount of insulin released and permeated from gels as well as gelation time and mucoadhesion force of gels were measured and used as dependent response variables for formulation optimization. Optimization of a gel formulation was achieved by applying constrained optimization via regression analysis. In vitro permeation flux of insulin from the optimized formulation through procine buccal mucosa was 93.17 (±0.058, n = 3) μg/cm(2). Plasma insulin levels following buccal administration of the optimized formulation at 10, 25 and 50 IU/kg to healthy rats were found to be dose dependent and basal insulin levels were maintained at least for 8 h. Furthermore, continuous hypoglycemia for at least 8 h was observed with 89%, 51% and 25% of blood glucose reduction, respectively, for these three doses. The results of this investigation conclude the feasibility of development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for basal insulin delivery.

  16. In vitro characterization of chitosan gels for buccal delivery of celecoxib: influence of a penetration enhancer.

    PubMed

    Cid, Yara Peluso; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma

    2012-03-01

    Celecoxib (Cx) shows high efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as a result of its high specificity for COX-2, without gastrolesivity or interference with platelet function at therapeutic concentrations. Besides of anti-inflammatory effects, Cx also has a potential role for oral cancer chemoprevention. For these conditions, oral administration in long-term treatment is a concern due to its systemic side effects. However, local application at the site of injury (e.g., buccal inflammation conditions or chemoprevention of oral cancer) is a promising way to reduce its toxicity. In this study, the in vitro characterization of mucoadhesive chitosan (CHT) gels associated to Azone® was assessed to explore the potential buccal mucosal administration of Cx in this tissue. Rheological properties of gels were analyzed by a rheometer with cone-plate geometry. In vitro Cx release and permeability studies used artificial membranes and pig cheek mucosa, respectively. Mucoadhesion were measured with a universal test machine. CHT gels (3.0%) containing 2.0% or 3.0% Az showed more appropriate characteristics compared to the others: pH values, rheology, higher amount of Cx retained in the mucosa, and minimal permeation through mucosa, besides the highest mucoadhesion values, ideal for buccal application. Moreover, the flux (J) and amounts of drug released decreased with increased CHT and Az concentrations. CHT gels (3.0%) associated with 2.0% or 3.0% Az may be considered potential delivery systems for buccal administration of Cx.

  17. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and

  18. In vitro release and permeation of oxytocin from a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1996-12-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive patch was evaluated for potential use in the delivery of peptides. The model peptide oxytocin was incorporated into the polymeric patch matrix and the diffusion of oxytocin across excised rabbit buccal epithelium was studied following patch application. Penetration of oxytocin across excised mucosa from an applied patch did not exhibit a characteristic lag time for diffusion, with the steady-state flux of oxytocin being 0.062 +/- 0.019 microgram/cm2/hr. However, when finite-dose diffusion studies were conducted to quantitate transport of oxytocin across rabbit buccal mucosa, the mean apparent permeability coefficient (P), diffusion coefficient (D), partition coefficient (K), and lag time (tlag) were (1.94 +/- 0.74) x 10(-7) cm/sec, (9.20 +/- 1.65) x 10(-8) cm2/sec, 0.13 +/- 0.05 and 1.86 +/- 0.31 hr, respectively. The release of oxytocin from the mucoadhesive buccal patches in vitro proceeded very rapidly during the first 2 hr, with 72% of the amount initially incorporated into the patches released at 24 hr. The disappearance rate of intact, parent oxytocin when an oxytocin solution was placed in direct contact with the serosal and mucosal sides of freshly excised rabbit buccal mucosa was 0.74 +/- 0.34 microgram/cm2/hr and 3.38 +/- 1.07 micrograms/cm2/hr, respectively. Thus, the buccal patch evaluated in these studies appears to be suitable for transmucosal delivery of peptides.

  19. Buccal Corridors: A Fact or a Myth in the Eyes of Laymen?

    PubMed Central

    Elhiny, Omnia A.; Harhash, Asmaa Y.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to investigate laymen knowledge of the existence of the buccal corridor and whether it was an important factor for them in judging smile attractiveness and the effect of introducing the knowledge to them on their further judgment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine subjects were randomly selected with variable buccal corridor percentages. They were coached to smile in a posed fashion and full face smile photographs were taken from a standardised distance. The photographs were randomly arranged in a power point presentation and displayed to a panel of thirty-nine randomly selected laymen judges. The judges made their beauty judgment on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and filled a questionnaire. After their education about the buccal corridor, they were asked to make a second judgment on a second sheet with VAS and with a different random sequence of the photographs. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation agreement for all the judges between the first and second scores was 0.713. The Spearman’s rho Correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation for all the photos. For the male judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.839, and the correlation was positive for all the photos. For the female judges, the agreement between the ratings was 0.510, and the correlation was positive for all the photographs. Hundred percent of the judges were not familiar with the buccal corridor. Eighty percent of the female judges and 44.4% of the male judges mentioned that it would affect their further judgment. CONCLUSION: Laymen build their esthetic judgments on what we teach them, and modifying treatment plans to include corrections of buccal corridors for esthetic reasons only is a myth. PMID:28028418

  20. Revisiting the reticulum: feedforward and feedback contributions to motor program parameters in the crab cardiac ganglion microcircuit

    PubMed Central

    García-Crescioni, Keyla

    2011-01-01

    The neurogenic heartbeat of crustaceans is controlled by the cardiac ganglion (CG), a central pattern generator (CPG) microcircuit composed of nine neurons. In most decapods, five “large” motor neurons (MNs) project from the CG to the myocardium, where their excitatory synaptic signals generate the rhythmic heartbeat. The processes of four “small” premotor neurons (PMNs) are confined to the CG, where they provide excitatory drive to the MNs via impulse-mediated chemical signals and electrotonic coupling. This study explored feedforward and feedback interactions between the PMNs and the MNs in the CG of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Three methods were used to compare the activity of the MNs and the PMNs in the integrated CG to their autonomous firing patterns: 1) ligatures were tightened on the ganglion trunk that connects the PMNs and MNs; 2) TTX was applied focally to suppress selectively PMN or MN activity; and 3) sucrose pools were devised to block reversibly PMN or MN impulse conduction. With all treatments, the PMNs and MNs continued to produce autonomous rhythmic bursting following disengagement. Removal of PMN influence resulted in a significantly reduced MN duty cycle that was mainly attributable to a lower autonomous burst frequency. Conversely, after removal of MN feedback, the PMN duty cycle was increased, primarily due to a prolonged burst duration. Application of sucrose to block impulse conduction without eliminating PMN oscillations disclosed significant contributions of spike-mediated PMN-to-MN signals to the initiation and prolongation of the MN burst. Together, these observations support a view of the Callinectes CG composed of two classes of spontaneously bursting neurons with distinct endogenous rhythms. Compartmentalized feedforward and feedback signaling endow this microcircuit with syncytial properties such that the intrinsic attributes of the PMNs and MNs both contribute to shaping all parameters of the motor patterns

  1. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  2. Dental microwear variability on buccal tooth enamel surfaces of extant Catarrhini and the Miocene fossil Dryopithecus laietanus (Hominoidea).

    PubMed

    Galbany, J; Moyà-Solà, S; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of buccal tooth microwear have been used to trace dietary habits of modern hunter-gatherer populations. In these populations, the average density and length of striations on the buccal surfaces of teeth are significantly cor-related with the abrasive potential of food items consumed. In non-human pri-mates, tooth microwear patterns on both occlusal and buccal wear facets have been thoroughly studied and the results applied to the characterization of dietary habits of fossil species. In this paper, we present inter- and intra-specific buccal microwear variability analyses in extant Cercopithecoidea (Cercopithecus mitis, C. neglectus, Chlorocebus aethiops, Colobus spp., Papio anubis) and Hominoidea (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus). The results are tentatively compared to buccal microwear patterns of the Miocene fossils Dryopithecus and Oreopithecus. Significant differences in striation density and length are found among the fossil taxa studied and the extant primates, suggesting that buccal microwear can be used to identify dietary differences among taxa. The Dryopithecus buccal microwear pattern most closely resembles that of abrasive, tough plant foods consumers, such as the gorilla, in contrast to stud-ies of dental morphology that suggest a softer, frugivorous diet. Results for Oreopithecus were equivocal, but suggest a more abrasive diet than that previously thought.

  3. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  5. Using an Extended Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program to Assist People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Control to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Ability through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Software technology is adopted by the current research to improve the Drag-and-Drop abilities of two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor control. This goal was realized through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP) in which the complex dragging process is replaced by simply poking the mouse wheel and clicking. However,…

  6. Meaningfulness of mean group results for determining the optimal motor rehabilitation program for an individual child with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    DAMIANO, DIANE L.

    2014-01-01

    As research on the efficacy or effectiveness of interventions to improve motor functioning in cerebral palsy (CP) has accumulated and been incorporated into systematic reviews, the foundation for evidence-based practice in CP is growing. To determine whether an intervention is effective, clinical trials report mean group differences. However, even if a statistically significant mean group effect is found, this does not imply that this intervention was effective for each study participant or ensure positive outcomes for all with CP. A personalized approach to medical care is currently being advocated based primarily on increasingly recognized genetic variations in individual responses to medications and other therapies. A similar approach is also warranted, and perhaps more justifiable, in CP which includes a heterogeneous group of disorders. Even interventions deemed highly effective in CP demonstrate a range of individual responses along a continuum from a negative or negligible response to a strong positive effect, the bases for which remain incompletely understood. This narrative review recommends that the next critical step in advancing evidence-based practice is to implement research strategies to identify patient factors that predict treatment responses so we can not only answer the question ‘what works’, but also ‘what works best, for whom’. PMID:24919877

  7. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  8. Motor Development: Manual of Alternative Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    The manual of alternative procedures for teaching handicapped children focuses on programming, planning, and implementing training in the gross motor (posture, limb control, locomotion) and fine motor (facial, digital) skills. The manual consists of the following sections: specific teaching tactics commonly used in motor training stiuations…

  9. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yohei; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Yagyuu, Takahiro; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2017-01-01

    A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14 × 11 × 9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung.

  10. Determination of diesel genotoxicity in firebreathers by micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, O; De Anda-Casillas, A; Ramírez-Muñoz, M P; Sánchez-Corona, J; Cantú, J M; Zúñiga, G

    1998-03-30

    Diesel or its derivatives could have aneuploidogenic and/or clastogenic activity. Hence, the genotoxicity of diesel gases has been studied, considering exposure to them as potentially carcinogenic. The results obtained by different authors suggest the need to know the effects of direct and chronic exposure to diesel in humans, as in the case of the street workers called 'firebreathers' who fill their buccal cavity with diesel and then spread it to a burning torch many times during the day in order to give a 'dragon show' for 5 h a day and 6 days a week. The buccal samples of eight firebreathers were collected, processed and scored according to the criterion established by Tolbert et al., 1992 and then compared with positive and negative control groups. The results revealed that diesel was not micronucleogenic although it induces some nuclear abnormalities.

  11. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself. PMID:27630898

  12. Development of an ANN optimized mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen and lidocaine for dental pain.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Amjad; Syed, Muhammad Ali; Abbas, Nasir; Hanif, Sana; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Hussain, Khalid; Akhlaq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2016-06-01

    A novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing flurbiprofen (FLB) and lidocaine HCl (LID) was prepared to relieve dental pain. Tablet formulations (F1-F9) were prepared using variable quantities of mucoadhesive agents, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate (SA). The formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time, swellability index and in vitro release of active agents. Release of both drugs depended on the relative ratio of HPMC:SA. However, mucoadhesive strength and mucoadhesion time were better in formulations, containing higher proportions of HPMC compared to SA. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach was applied to optimise formulations based on known effective parameters (i.e., mucoadhesive strength, mucoadhesion time and drug release), which proved valuable. This study indicates that an effective buccal tablet formulation of flurbiprofen and lidocaine can be prepared via an optimized ANN approach.

  13. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  14. Workers exposed to wood dust have an increased micronucleus frequency in nasal and buccal cells: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Hopf, Nancy B; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Hor, Maryam; Charriere, Nicole; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    Wood dust is recognised as a human carcinogen, based on the strong association of wood dust exposure and the elevated risk of malignant tumours of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses [sino-nasal cancer (SNC)]. The study aimed to assess genetic damage in workers exposed to wood dust using biomarkers in both buccal and nasal cells that reflect genome instability events, cellular proliferation and cell death frequencies. Nasal and buccal epithelial cells were collected from 31 parquet layers, installers, carpenters and furniture workers (exposed group) and 19 non-exposed workers located in Switzerland. Micronucleus (MN) frequencies were scored in nasal and buccal cells collected among woodworkers. Other nuclear anomalies in buccal cells were measured through the use of the buccal micronucleus cytome assay. MN frequencies in nasal and buccal cells were significantly higher in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group; odds ratio for nasal cells 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-5.1] and buccal cells 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4). The exposed group had higher frequencies of cells with nuclear buds, karyorrhectic, pyknotic, karyolytic cells and a decrease in the frequency of basal, binucleated and condensed cells compared to the non-exposed group. Our study confirms that woodworkers have an elevated risk for chromosomal instability in cells of the aerodigestive tract. The MN assay in nasal cells may become a relevant biomonitoring tool in the future for early detection of SNC risk. Future studies should seek to standardise the protocol for MN frequency in nasal cells similar to that for MN in buccal cells.

  15. Transmucosal delivery of oxytocin to rabbits using a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1997-08-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive buccal patch was evaluated in rabbits for transmucosal delivery of peptides. Oxytocin (OT) was incorporated into custom coformulations of Carbopol 974P and silicone polymer and the resulting plasma OT concentration versus time profiles determined following patch application. For comparative purposes, the mean values determined for the elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution (Vd), and the total body clearance (CL) following intravenous injection of OT were 2.9 +/- 0.2 min, 85.3 +/- 6.7 ml, and 20.4 +/- 2.03 ml/min, respectively. Following application of oxytocin-loaded mucoadhesive patches, plasma OT concentrations remained 20- to 28-fold greater from 0.5 to 3.0 hr than control animals administered placebo patches. The steady-state plasma OT concentration (Css) following application of the buccal patches was 80.6 +/- 15.9 pg/ml. The lag-time associated with attainment of the Css was 0.45 +/- 0.18 hr. Steady-state flux (Jss) of oxytocin in vivo was 139 +/- 36.8 ng/hr/cm2. Based on the amount of OT remaining in the patches following removal, the average dose of OT released in vivo was 0.27 +/- 0.024 mg with a bioavailability of 0.1%. No significant alterations in mucosal histology were observed when underlying mucosa to which OT patches had been applied were compared to either control (no patch) mucosa or mucosa underneath placebo patches. The mucoadhesive buccal patches were easy to apply and remove, nonirritating to tissue, and able to continuously deliver a nonapeptide over 3 hr. Based on these preliminary studies, the mucoadhesive buccal patches evaluated may represent an improved transmucosal drug delivery system for peptides and conventional drug substances.

  16. Synergistic effects of nicotine on arecoline-induced cytotoxicity in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Hu, C C; Tseng, T H; Tai, K W; Lii, C K; Chou, M Y

    2001-09-01

    Areca quid chewing has been linked to oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, is considered to be the most important etiologic factor in the areca nut. In order to elucidate the pathobiological effects of arecoline, cytotoxicity assays, cellular glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation assay were employed to investigate cultured human buccal mucosal fibroblasts. To date, there is a large proportion of areca quid chewers who are also smokers. Furthermore, nicotine, the major product of cigarette smoking, was added to test how it modulated the cytotoxicity of arecoline. At a concentration higher than 50 microg/ml, arecoline was shown to be cytotoxic to human buccal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner by the alamar blue dye colorimetric assay (P<0.05). In addition, arecoline significantly decreased GST activity in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). At concentrations of 100 microg/ml and 400 microg/ml, arecoline reduced GST activity about 21% and 46%, respectively, during a 24 h incubation period. However, arecoline at any test dose did not increase lipid peroxidation in the present human buccal fibroblast test system. The addition of extracellular nicotine acted synergistically on the arecoline-induced cytotoxicity. Arecoline at a concentration of 50 microg/ml caused about 30% of cell death over the 24 h incubation period. However, 2.5 mM nicotine enhanced the cytotoxic response and caused about 50% of cell death on 50 microg/ml arecoline-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, arecoline may render human buccal mucosal fibroblasts more vulnerable to other reactive agents in cigarettes via GST reduction. The compounds of tobacco products may act synergistically in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal lesions in areca quid chewers. The data presented here may partly explain why patients who combined the habits of areca quid chewing and cigarette smoking are at greater risk of contracting oral cancer.

  17. Development and in vitro evaluation of a buccal drug delivery system based on preactivated thiolated pectin.

    PubMed

    Hauptstein, Sabine; Hintzen, Fabian; Müller, Christiane; Ohm, Moritz; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of preactivated thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys-MNA) for buccal drug delivery. Therefore, a gel formulation containing this novel polymer and the model drug lidocaine was prepared and investigated in vitro in terms of rheology, mucoadhesion, swelling behavior and drug release in comparison to formulations based on pectin (Pec) and thiolated pectin (Pec-Cys). Both pectin derivatives showed gel formation without addition of any other excipient due to self-crosslinking thiol groups. Under same conditions, pectin did not show gel formation. Viscosity of Pec-Cys-based formulation increased 92-fold and viscosity of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulations by 4958-fold compared to pectin-based formulation. Gels did not dissolve in aqueous environment during several hours and were able to take up water. Mucoadhesion of pectin on buccal tissue could be improved significantly, value of total work of adhesion increased in the following rank order: Pec-Cys-MNA > Pec-Cys > Pec. The retention time of a model drug incorporated in gel formulations on buccal mucosa under continuous rinsing with phosphate-buffered saline was prolonged, after 1.5 h 3-fold higher amount of a model drug was to be found on tissue after application of Pec-Cys-MNA-based formulation compared to pectin-based and 2-fold compared to Pec-Cys-based formulation. The Pec-Cys-MNA-based gel showed a more sustained release of lidocaine than Pec-Cys-based gel, whereas pectin solution revealed an immediate release. According to these results, the self-crosslinking pectin-derivative is a promising tool for buccal application.

  18. Evaluation of the scatter doses in the direction of the buccal mucosa from dental metals.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Sumida, Iori; Kakimoto, Naoya; Marutani, Keisuke; Okahata, Ryoko; Usami, Ai; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-05-08

    The presence of dental metals creates radiation dose perturbation due to scattered radiation during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. The purpose of our study was to compare the scatter doses resulting from various dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa among a single-field technique, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. We used nine metal cubes with 10 mm sides, which were placed inside a water phantom. The scatter doses from the cubes in the direction of the buccal mucosa were measured using radiochromic films. The films were placed perpendicularly to the surface of the cubes. The phantom was irradiated with a 4 MV photon energy by a linear accelerator for all techniques. In the single-field technique, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 3.7%-19.3% dose increases, and gold showed the largest dose increase. In 3D CRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 1.4%-6.9% dose increases, which were within the measurement uncertainty (except for gold). In IMRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed only 1.4%-4.3% dose increases, which were all within the measurement uncertainty. During radiation therapy for the head and neck region, the scatter doses from the tested dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT or IMRT were lower than those using the single-field technique. However, there were no differences between the scatter doses resulting from particular dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT and those in IMRT, except for gold.

  19. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary First Premolar with Type IV Buccal Root Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Khalilak, Zohreh; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2009-01-01

    The maxillary first premolar may present large number of anatomic variations. The clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system. Maxillary first premolars usually have two canals. The incidence of three canals in these teeth is quite rare. This case report presents the diagnosis and clinical management of a maxillary first premolar with two distinct canals in the apical third of buccal root (type IV), drawing particular attention to tactile examination of all the canal walls. PMID:23864875

  20. Buccal pumping mechanics of Xenopus laevis tadpoles: effects of biotic and abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Ryerson, William G; Deban, Stephen M

    2010-07-15

    Biotic factors such as body size and shape have long been known to influence kinematics in vertebrates. Movement in aquatic organisms can also be strongly affected by abiotic factors such as the viscosity of the medium. We examined the effects of both biotic factors and abiotic factors on buccal pumping kinematics in Xenopus tadpoles using high-speed imaging of an ontogenetic series of tadpoles combined with experimental manipulation of the medium over a 10-fold range of viscosity. We found influences of both biotic and abiotic factors on tadpole movements; absolute velocities and excursions of the jaws and hyoid were greater in higher viscosity fluid but durations of movements were unaffected. Smaller tadpoles have relatively wider heads and more robust hyoid muscles used in buccal expansion and compression. Lever arm ratios were found to be constant at all sizes; therefore, smaller tadpoles have relatively higher resolved muscle forces and, like tadpoles in more viscous medium, displayed higher absolute velocities of jaw and hyoid movements. Nonetheless, small tadpoles drew in water at lower Reynolds numbers (Re) than predicted by kinematics, due to negative allometry of the buccal pump. Finally, tadpoles transitioned from a flow regime dominated by viscous forces (Re=2) to an intermediate regime (Re=106).

  1. Buccal Injection of 2% Lidocaine With Epinephrine for the Removal of Maxillary Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sunil; Verma, Ajay; Sachdeva, Akash

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate if 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine could provide palatal anesthesia in maxillary tooth removal with a single buccal injection. The subjects included in the clinical study were those requiring extraction of the maxillary third molar of either side. For the purpose of comparison, the sample was randomly divided into 2 main groups: group 1 (study group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single injection before extraction, and group 2 (control group) included 100 subjects who were to receive a single buccal injection and a single palatal injection before extraction. After 5 minutes the extraction was performed. All patients were observed for Faces Pain Scale during extraction and asked for the same on a 100-mm visual analog scale after extraction. According to visual analog scale and Faces Pain Scale scores, when maxillary third molar removal without palatal injection (study group) and with palatal injection (control group) were compared the difference was not statistically significant (P > .05). Removal of maxillary third molars without palatal injection is possible by depositing 2 mL of 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine to the buccal vestibule of the tooth. PMID:24010986

  2. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants.

    PubMed

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose.

  3. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression. PMID:22241875

  4. Buccal dental microwear analyses support greater specialization in consumption of hard foodstuffs for Australopithecus anamensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, Ferran; Galbany, Jordi; Martínez, Laura; Turbón, Daniel; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Molar occlusal microwear texture and anisotropy analyses of 3 Australopithecus anamensis fossil specimens have shown complexity values similar to those of Au. afarensis, indicating that neither of these hominin species had a diet dominated by hard food. However, many researchers have suggested that these were some of the earliest hominins to have such diets. Here we examine buccal microwear patterns of 5 Au. anamensis, 26 Au. afarensis, 48 Hominoidea and 80 Cercopithecoidea primate specimens for independent evidence of dietary adaptations of Au. anamensis. The buccal microwear results obtained suggest that the diet of Au. anamensis relied heavily on hard, brittle food, at least seasonally. This is similar to the diet of the extant Cercopithecoidea primates, including Papio anubis and Chlorocebus aethiops, both of which live in wooded, seasonal savannah environments and have diets that include fruit and grasses, but also underground storage organs (USOs), such as corms or blades, as well as leaves and seeds, and also Mandrillus and Cercocebus, from forested environments with frugivorous-granivorous diets. Furthermore, the buccal microwear patterns of Au. anamensis and Au. afarensis clearly differed - in clear contrast to occlusal enamel texture observations-, which support previous dietary interpretations based on both anatomical and palaeocological reconstructions.

  5. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w κ-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40 min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva.

  6. Buccal Micronuclei Assay as a Tool For Biomonitoring DNA Damage in Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Vidyalakshmi, S.; Nirmal, R. Madhavan; Veeravarmal, V.; Santhadevy, A.; Sumathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The malignant transformation rate of Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is between 0% and 5.8%. Oral lesions of lichen planus clinically presents itself multifocally, simulating the process of field cancerization in high risk malignancies. The Buccal MicroNucleus Cytome Assay (BMN Assay) provides a platform to identify the high risk individuals by evaluating the markers of nuclear damage at an earliest micro invasive phase. Aim To evaluate DNA damage in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells in individuals with oral lichen planus lesions and thereby to delineate the high risk group. Materials and Methods Buccal smears from 22 OLP and 10 control samples were stained in modified Feulgen-Rossenback reaction for micronuclei assay. Cytological evaluation of number of MicroNucleated cells (CMN), Total Number of Micronuclei (TMN) in micronucleated cells was done in both groups. Results Frequency of micronucleated cells (CMN) when compared among the study and control group, a mean value of 4.27 ± 1.80 and 0.90 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. On comparing the total number of micronuclei in the micronucleated cells (TMN) between the study and control groups, a mean value of 5.38 ± 2.42 and 1.5 ± 0.88 were obtained respectively. Conclusion There was a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei and the micronucleated cells in the oral lichen planus as compared to normal individuals. PMID:27630941

  7. Development of polymer-bound fast-dissolving metformin buccal film with disintegrants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shaikh Ershadul; Sheela, Angappan

    2015-01-01

    Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems are considered advantageous over the existing conventional oral dosage forms like tablets, capsules, and syrups for being patient friendly. Buccal films are one such system responsible for systemic drug delivery at the desired site of action by avoiding hepatic first-pass metabolism. Metformin hydrochloride (Met), an antidiabetic drug, has poor bioavailability due to its high solubility and low permeability. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a polymer-bound fast-dissolving buccal film of metformin to exploit these unique properties. In the study, metformin fast-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method using chitosan, a bioadhesive polymer. Further, starch, sodium starch glycolate, and microcrystalline cellulose were the disintegrants added to different ratios, forming various formulations (F1 to F7). The buccal films were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, surface pH, content uniformity, tensile strength, and percentage of elongation. The films were also subjected to in vitro dissolution study, and the disintegration time was found to be less than 30 minutes for all formulations, which was attributed to the effect of disintegrants. Formulation F6 showed 92.2% drug release within 6 minutes due to the combined effect of sodium starch glycolate and microcrystalline cellulose. PMID:26491321

  8. Preparation and evaluation of ritodrine buccal tablets for rational therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku; Yumoto, Kei; Sakata, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Ritodrine hydrochloride (RD-HCl) tablets containing alginate (AL) and lactose (LC) with or without microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients were produced as a buccal dosage form. The RD-HCl (2 mg) tablets with AL/LC but no MC swelled and dissolved gradually in the in vitro dissolution test. The tablet showing the fastest dissolution and highest drug release rate, called Tablet A1, was selected as a tablet to show rapid and prolonged absorption. However, in the in vivo buccal absorption test using rats, it could not give a plasma concentration over the human minimal effective level (15 ng/mL). The modified tablet containing AL, LC, MC and RD-HCl (4 mg), named Tablet B/MC, showed better hardness and faster drug release. Tablet B/MC gave a plasma concentration over the human effective level within 15 min, and the plasma concentration was maintained at >15 ng/mL over 4 h. Moreover, the deconvolution analyses demonstrated that a prolonged high absorption rate could be achieved in vivo best with Tablet B/MC. Tablet B/MC improved the pharmacokinetic profile in comparison with Tablet A1 and the solution dosage form. The RD-HCl buccal tablets with AL, LC and MC as excipients are suggested to be possibly useful for the treatment of premature labor.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of nano based drug delivery system for the buccal delivery of acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Attimarad, Mahesh; Harsha, Sree

    2015-12-01

    Oral bioavailability of acyclovir is limited, primarily because of low permeability across the gastrointestinal membrane. The purpose of this study is the prospective evaluation of buccal films impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres as a drug delivery system to improve systemic bioavailability. Acyclovir polymeric nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Nanospheres were embedded into buccoadhesive films (A1-A4) comprising of different concentrations of polymers (Eudragit RL 100, HPMC K15 and carbopol 974P). Films were characterized for physico-mechanical properties, mucoadhesive strength, hydration, drug release and ex vivo permeation. In vivo studies were carried out on rabbits to assess the pharmacokinetic profile of buccal film (A3) as compared to oral therapy. The prepared films demonstrated excellent physical properties, adequate hydration and buccoadhesive strength. In vitro drug release data inferred that the drug release was dependent on the composition of film. Ex vivo permeation studies indicated greater flux in film A3. In vivo studies revealed a significant enhancement in absorption of acyclovir (P<0.0001) with Cmax (~3 folds) and AUC0-α (~8 folds, P<0.0001) when compared to oral dosing. Moreover, the extended Tmax value (6h) signifies the potential of the prepared film to prolong acyclovir delivery. Given the promising results, the study concludes that the developed buccal film (A3) impregnated with acyclovir loaded nanospheres could be a promising approach for effective delivery of acyclovir.

  10. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura.

  11. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  12. Development and in vitro evaluation of insulin-loaded buccal Pluronic F-127 gels.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2010-01-01

    Insulin-loaded buccal Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations were fabricated to study the effect of PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, presence of salt, addition of polymer, and permeation enhancer on their gelation time, mucoadhesion force, release and permeation characteristics of insulin from the gels. Thereafter, the principle of statistical optimization to prepare a gel formulation having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin in diabetic patients was employed. The gelation time decreased as the concentration of PF-127 increased. Presence of salts as well as addition of polymer, such as methyl cellulose (MC) and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) decreased the gelation time. An increase in PF-127 concentration and addition of MC and HPMC increased the mucoadhesion force of the gel formulations. Release and permeation of insulin from the gel formulations decreased with increased concentration of PF-127, presence of salts, and addition of MC and HPMC. Permeation of insulin from the optimized gel formulation was 93.17 (+/- 0.058, n = 3) microg/cm(2) which was not only found in close agreement with predicted results from the model equations used for the formulation optimization but also considered comparable to clinical setting. Therefore, the development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels using a statistical experimental design is feasible.

  13. Cytogenetic Biomonitoring in Buccal Mucosal Cells from Municipal Solid Waste Collectors.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Mariana Carvalho; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patricia Ramos; Flygare, Ana Carolina Correa; Claudio, Samuel Rangel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2017-02-01

    Waste collectors collect, transport, and process the garbage produced by people living in the city. Nowadays, this activity requires special attention due to the environmental impact of garbage and its potential consequences on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of garbage collection on waste collectors. For this purpose, a total of 47 male waste collectors aged from 24 to 53 years were included in the experimental group. A total of 30 men matched by age were used as the control group. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were analyzed by micronucleus test in buccal mucosaI cells. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the frequency of micronuclei was detected in the waste collectors when compared to controls. Nevertheless, higher frequencies of karyolysis and pyknosis (p<0.05) were detected in buccal mucosaI cells from waste collectors when compared to matched controls. Taken together, our results indicate that waste collectors comprise an at-risk group as a result of increased cytotoxicity apparent from buccal mucosa cells.

  14. Temperature rise and shear bond strength of bondable buccal tubes bonded by various light sources.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Cagri; Irmak, Ozgür; Bagis, Yildirim Hakan; Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke Atasoy

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to determine the intrapulpal temperature changes and to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of bondable buccal tubes bonded by high-intensity light sources. Ninety caries-free human first molar teeth extracted for periodontal reasons were used. For the temperature measurement test, 30 teeth were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) whereas 60 teeth were used in three groups (n = 20) for SBS testing. Three light sources, high-intensity halogen, blue light-emitting diode (LED), and xenon plasma arc (PAC), were used for polymerization of Transbond XT. Temperature variations (Delta T) were recorded by a K-type thermocouple wire connected to a data logger. For SBS testing, a universal testing machine was used at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until buccal tube bonding failure occurred. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The high-intensity halogen light resulted in significantly (P < 0.01) higher intrapulpal temperature changes than the LED or PAC. The results of the shear bond test revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences only between the halogen and LED groups. The findings of the present investigation showed that high-intensity curing devices can safely be used in bonding buccal tubes to molar teeth without causing a deleterious effect on the dental pulp.

  15. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  16. Mississippi Perceptual Motor Symposium Proceedings (Jackson, April 20-21, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert; And Others

    Presented are the proceedings of the Mississippi Perceptual-Motor Symposium, April 20-21, 1973. Included are papers on motor development, models for perceptual motor programming, children with minimal brain damage, effects of learning games or academic abilities, research on perceptual motor measures, and programs for motor development. (JB)

  17. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  18. Contained rocket motor burn demonstrations in X-tunnel: Final report for the DoD/DOE Joint Demilitarization Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; B. W. Bellow; R. f. Boehm

    2000-05-01

    Three low-pressure rocket motor propellant burn tests were performed in a large, sealed test chamber located at the X-tunnel complex on the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site in the period May--June 1997. NIKE rocket motors containing double base propellant were used in two tests (two and four motors, respectively), and the third test used two improved HAWK rocket motors containing composite propellant. The preliminary containment safety calculations, the crack and burn procedures used in each test, and the results of various measurements made during and after each test are all summarized and collected in this document.

  19. The presence of teleost-type angiotensin components in lamprey buccal gland suggests a role in endocrine mimicry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty K S; Sower, Stacia A; Takei, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Previous characterization of a native lamprey angiotensin II (LpAng II) that possesses a different sequence and function than teleost-type angiotensin II (Ang II) has raised a question as to the role of teleost-type angiotensin peptides in lampreys. In this study, teleost-type angiotensin like-peptides were identified in the buccal gland of lampreys by immunoassays and immunohistochemistry. The possible sources of angiotensin like-peptides were investigated in lampreys by manipulating their choice of host and food. Ang II immunoreactivity (irAng II) was detected in the buccal gland and plasma of feeding phase sea lampreys exposed to Atlantic cod, but was mostly absent in fasting lamprey. Qualitatively, the HPLC profiles of irAng II observed in the plasma, when present, were highly similar to those in buccal gland, implying that the buccal gland could be a source of plasma Ang II. Japanese lampreys force-fed with dogfish blood had significantly elevated concentrations of irAng II in their buccal glands when compared to unfed individuals, suggesting that feeding stimuli may have enhanced buccal gland activity. Teleost-type Ang II-containing proteins, other than angiotensinogen, are present in the buccal gland as trypsinization generated Ang II in vitro, and the HPLC profile of these irAng II was highly comparable to those naturally present in the buccal gland. [Asn(1), Val(5), Thr(9)]-Ang I that was identified in the buccal gland of Japanese lampreys has the same amino acid sequence to those previously isolated from the incubation of plasma and kidney extract, providing an alternative explanation for the previous isolation of teleost-type Ang I in lampreys. irAng I and irAng II were localized in the granule-like structures in the apical region of the secretory epithelia, suggesting that these peptides may be active components of lamphredin. The teleost-type angiotensin peptides in the buccal gland secretion suggested that these host-specific peptides could be part

  20. The frontal assessment battery (FAB) reveals neurocognitive dysfunction in substance-dependent individuals in distinct executive domains: Abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Nicastri, Sergio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Bolla, Karen I

    2010-10-01

    Substance-dependence is highly associated with executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments. However, considering that it is difficult to assess ECF clinically, the aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility of a brief neuropsychological tool (the Frontal Assessment Battery - FAB) to detect specific ECF impairments in a sample of substance-dependent individuals (SDI). Sixty-two subjects participated in this study. Thirty DSM-IV-diagnosed SDI, after 2weeks of abstinence, and 32 healthy individuals (control group) were evaluated with FAB and other ECF-related tasks: digits forward (DF), digits backward (DB), Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT), and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SDI did not differ from the control group on sociodemographic variables or IQ. However, SDI performed below the controls in DF, DB, and FAB. The SDI were cognitively impaired in 3 of the 6 cognitive domains assessed by the FAB: abstract reasoning, motor programming, and cognitive flexibility. The FAB correlated with DF, SCWT, and WCST. In addition, some neuropsychological measures were correlated with the amount of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use. In conclusion, SDI performed more poorly than the comparison group on the FAB and the FAB's results were associated with other ECF-related tasks. The results suggested a negative impact of alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use on the ECF. The FAB may be useful in assisting professionals as an instrument to screen for ECF-related deficits in SDI.

  1. [Analysis of motor performance associated with the nutritional status of the elderly enrolled in the Family Health Program in the municipality of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco].

    PubMed

    Soares, Lisandra Delfino de Albuquerque; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Câmara e Siqueira; Araújo, Maria das Graças Rodrigues de; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares; Lima, Bruna Rafaela Dornelas de Andrade; Siqueira, Danielle Ferreira de; Fittipaldi, Etiene Oliveira da Silva; Arruda, Silvana Gonçalves Brito de; Faro, Zelyta Pinheiro de

    2012-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to investigate the relationship between the nutritional status and the motor skills of the elderly registered in the Family Health Program in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão in the State of Pernambuco, by means of a transversal epistemological descriptive-analytical field study. The participants of this survey were 235 elders, both male and female of 60-years-old and over registered in the family health program in the urban area of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index and the circumference of the calf. Four motor tests were used to evaluate motor performance: Time Up&Go, Tinetti's Index, Functional Reach and Unipodal Support. The associations were checked using Spearman's correlation. The association of the nutritional status with the motor tests was statistically significant among males* or females**: (Time Up&Go rho = 0.290* / 350**; Functional Reach rho = 0.232* / 352**; Tinetti's Index rho = 243* / 363** and Unipodal Support rho = 221* / 475**. The evaluation of the results revealed an association between nutritional status and functional capacity of the elders no matter what gender; with obesity being a limiting nutritional condition to adequate performance in the tests.

  2. Motor-Cognitive Stimulation of the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ana Rey; Lacruz, Inmaculada Canales; Pais, Maria Ines Taboas

    2011-01-01

    This article shows the cognitive and motor-perceptive effects of the application of a cognitive stimulating program through motor function on 234 elderly people. The assessment was carried out prior to and after the program. Significant improvements in the experimental group were observed (p [less than or equal to] 0.05) in six of the eight…

  3. Perceptual Motor Activities in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinning, Dorothy; And Others

    Designed for parents, the guide offers instructions for home activities to supplement the school program for children with perceptual motor disturbances. An individual program sheet is provided; behavioral characteristics and the child's need for structure are explained. Activities detailed include motor planning, body image, fine motor…

  4. A Program of Visual-Motor-Perceptual Training to Determine Its Effects upon Primary Level Children with Reading and Learning Deficiencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Ticknor B.

    The purpose of the project was to determine to what extent visual, motor, and perceptual training would improve the reading and general achievement of children with visual, motor, and perceptual deficiencies. Eighty first, second, and third graders, identified as having such handicaps by gross and fine screening instruments, were randomly divided…

  5. 49 CFR 1.86 - The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., development, and technology transfer activities to promote safety of operation and equipment of motor vehicles for the motor carrier transportation program; and (f) Carrying out an effective communications...

  6. [Motor rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Doménech, J; García-Aymerich, V; Juste, J; Ortiz, A

    2002-02-01

    The child's rehabilitation objectives are the same of the early intervention. The early intervention include motor approaches to facilitate the unique way of the newborn's expression: the movement and with it his holistic development. The motor approach is a classic aspect of early intervention but it is not itself early intervention. When the treatment objective is a term or preterm newborn or neonate the motor approach may be the principal method to facilitate perceptions experiences and basic habits. This intervention is not made with a specific physiotherapeutic technique. It is a sequential stimulation or development, without forget that the child must be taken as a whole. This point of view has special importance the first days of life and must be included in perinatal approach routines. In this paper we expose the work method of a Child Rehabilitation Team liked to a Newborn Unit.

  7. Ct Anatomy of Buccal Fat Pad and its Role in Volumetric Alterations of Face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanov, R. A.; Guryanov, A. S.

    2015-05-01

    The aim of our study is the revision of the anatomy of buccal fat pad and its role in a volumetric pattern of face. Bichat fat pad is a fatty anatomical structure with body and numerous process enclosed between the bony and muscular structures in temporal, pterygopalatine fossae and extents to the cheek area. Nevertheless, the opinion about its structure and role in forming of volume pattern of face sometimes could be controversial. The Bichat fat pad consists on predominately hormone insensitive fat tissue with underdeveloped stroma, this leads to the stability of the fat pad volume and lesser radiodensity in contrast to the subcutaneous fat. Moreover, the buccal fat pad is delimited from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area by the strong capsule. This feature allows us to use CT to divide the Bichat fat pad from the surrounding tissues. The thorough embryological data provide the distinction of Bichat fat pad from the subcutaneous fat of cheek area even at the stage of development. On the other hand, the border between the masticatory muscles and the processes of the fat pad is not evident and resembles cellular spaces in the other anatomical areas. To elicit the role of the buccal fat pad in volume pattern of face and its function we have performed the several experiments, analyzed the postoperative results after Bichat fat pad resection using surface scanner and CT data. At first, we have performed the gravity test: the patient's face photogrammetry scanning in horizontal and vertical position of head and it revealed the excess of volume in temporal area in horizontal position. To exclude mechanism of overflowing of the skin and subcutaneous fat over the zygomatic arch we have placed the markers on the skin surface at the different areas of face including the projection of ligaments and found out that the migration of soft tissue over the zygomatic arch is about 3-5 mm and almost the same in temporal area. However, the acquired result was unsatisfying because

  8. High efficiency motor rewind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, A. K.; Spee, R.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of performing this work was to evaluate a new technology used for rewinding electric motors. Motor performance evaluation was conducted at the motor test facility at Oregon State University. The test program consisted of comparing new high efficiency motor technology and standard rewind technology with the Unity-Plus system. The Unity-Plus configuration exhibited reduced efficiency over the complete load range compared to the other motors. Appropriately sized capacitors connected to the terminals of the conventional induction motor produced the same power factor improvement as the Unity-Plus system. Torque production and torque pulsation were very similar for all systems. The Unity-Plus configuration drew lower starting currents but the duration of the starting transient was increased. Motor temperature rise was about the same for all systems. Noise levels were about the same in all systems. Although determination of time to failure was not undertaken, the expected lifetime of the Unit-Plus system is probably less due to higher capacitor stress and higher insulation stress. The investigation concludes that a conventional induction motor with terminal capacitors is the most acceptable way of obtaining good efficiency and power factor and the Unity-Plus system cannot be recommended on the basis of any of the evaluation criteria used in this study.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of human buccal mucosa mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene expression by diet.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Karlic, Heidrun; Rust, Petra; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    The impact of nutrition on the epigenetic machinery has increasingly attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of various diets on methylation and gene expression. The antioxidative enzyme mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was chosen as the model system because epigenetic regulation has been previously shown in cell lines for this gene. Promoter methylation and gene expression of MnSOD in buccal swabs from three sample groups were analysed. The three groups included: (1) forty vegetarians (aged 20-30 years); (2) age-matched omnivores; (3) elderly omnivores (aged>85 years). A 3-fold increase in the expression of the MnSOD gene was associated with decreased CpG methylation of the analysed promoter region in the vegetarian group compared with the age-matched omnivores group. Expression and promoter methylation of the MnSOD gene in elderly omnivores showed no significant differences compared with younger omnivores. In accordance with previous findings in various tissues, DNA global methylation was found to be significantly higher (30 %) in buccal swabs of younger subjects (independent of the diet), than in those of elderly omnivores. In the control experiment which was designed to verify the findings of the human buccal swab studies, the Caco-2 cell line was treated with zebularine. Results of the control study showed a 6-fold increase of MnSOD expression, an approximately 40 % decreased methylation of specified CpG in the MnSOD promoter and a 50 % reduction of global DNA methylation. These results indicate that diet affects the epigenetic regulation of human MnSOD.

  10. Layered nanoemulsions as mucoadhesive buccal systems for controlled delivery of oral cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amy; Pham, Jimmy TH; Wang, Dawei; Brownlow, Bill; Elbayoumi, Tamer A

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are considered the eighth most common cancer worldwide, with relatively poor prognosis (62% of patients surviving 5 years, after diagnosis). The aim of this study was to develop a proof-of-concept mucoadhesive lozenge/buccal tablet, as a potential platform for direct sustained delivery of therapeutic antimitotic nanomedicines. Our system would serve as an adjuvant therapy for oral cancer patients undergoing full-scale diagnostic and operative treatment plans. We utilized lipid-based nanocarriers, namely nanoemulsions (NEs), containing mixed-polyethoxylated emulsifiers and a tocopheryl moiety–enriched oil phase. Prototype NEs, loaded with the proapoptotic lipophilic drug genistein (Gen), were further processed into buccal tablet formulations. The chitosan polyelectrolyte solution overcoat rendered NE droplets cationic, by acting as a mucoadhesive interfacial NE layer. With approximate size of 110 nm, the positively charged chitosan-layered NE (+25 mV) vs negatively charged chitosan-free/primary aqueous NE (−28 mV) exhibited a controlled-release profile and effective mucoadhesion for liquid oral spray prototypes. When punch-pressed, porous NE-based buccal tablets were physically evaluated for hardness, friability, and swelling in addition to ex vivo tissue mucoadhesion force and retention time measurements. Chitosan-containing NE tablets were found equivalent to primary NE and placebo tablets in compression tests, yet significantly superior in all ex vivo adhesion and in vitro release assays (P≤0.05). Following biocompatibility screening of prototype chitosan-layered NEs, substantial anticancer activity of selected cationic Gen-loaded NE formulations, against two oropahryngeal carcinomas, was observed. The data strongly indicate the potential of such nanomucoadhesive systems as maintenance therapy for oral cancer patients awaiting surgical removal, or postresection of identified cancerous lesions. PMID:25759580

  11. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  12. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

    2011-07-01

    Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 - 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K30, a hydrophilic polymer, significantly reduced the bioadhesive strength and in vitro mucoadhesion time of the films, although the degree of swelling increased. In vitro drug release studies in simulated saliva showed a prolonged release of over five to six hours for all formulations, except C4, with 99.98% release in 1.5 hours. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated that the best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient for all formulations was the Peppas model. In vivo studies, on selected films in rabbits, were conducted, to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters such as C(max), T(max), and AUC(0-∞), using model-independent methods with nonlinear least-squares regression analysis. The AUC and values of C(max) of ondansetron hydrochloride were found to be significantly greater (P < 0.005) than the selected films C2 and C3, as compared to those from the oral solution, thereby confirming improved bioavailability via the buccal route. The T(max) values were also significantly greater (P < 0.005), indicating the slower release of the drug from buccal films, thereby, providing prolonged effects. Good in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed with R(2) values exceeding 0.98, when the percentage of drug released was correlated with the percentage of drug absorbed.

  14. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  15. Comparison of the zygoma anchorage system with cervical headgear in buccal segment distalization.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Burçak; Arman, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina; Yazici, Ayşe Canan

    2009-08-01

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the effects of the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) in buccal segment distalization in comparison with cervical headgear (CH). Thirty patients with Class II dental malocclusions were included in the study and were divided into two equal groups: the first group (10 females and 5 males, mean age 14.74 years at T1) received buccal segment distalization with ZAS and the second group (8 females and 7 males, mean age 15.26 years at T1) with CH. The skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes were measured on cephalograms obtained before (T1) and after (T2) distalization, and these changes were statistically evaluated using a repeated measures analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Wilcoxon test. The Class II buccal segment relationship was corrected to a Class I in an average period of 9.03 +/- 0.62 months in the ZAS group and 9.00 +/- 0.76 months in the CH group. Significant distalization was observed for the posterior teeth in both groups (P < 0.001). Distal tipping of all posterior teeth occurred in the CH group (P < 0.001), but only for the molars in the ZAS group (P < 0.001). The upper incisors retroclined, overjet decreased, and the upper and lower lips retruded in both groups. The ZAS provided absolute anchorage for distalization of the maxillary posterior teeth and can be used as an aesthetic and non-compliant alternative to extraoral traction in the treatment of Class II malocclusions.

  16. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluations of buccal tablet formulations of ritodrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hiraku; Sakata, Osamu; Yumoto, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Buccal tablets of ritodrine (RD) hydrochloride (HCl), called RD-HCl, were prepared using the direct compression method with alginate (AL), lactose (LC), magnesium stearate (ST), and microcrystalline cellulose (MC) as excipients. The tablets were evaluated based on hardness, and tablets weighing 80 mg and with hardness of greater than 30 N were chosen as appropriate ones. As a result, tablets composed of RD-HCl (4 mg)/LC (38.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg) and RD-HCl (4 mg)/AL(7 mg)/LC (28.5 mg)/ST (0.5 mg)/MC (37 mg), called D9 and D10, respectively, were selected. These tablets were further evaluated based on in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies in rats. D9 rapidly released RD, achieved an effective plasma concentration from 15 min to 7 h after its buccal administration, and did not exceed the toxic plasma level of 80 ng/mL. D10 gradually released RD, and maintained an effective concentration from 1 h to 7 h after its buccal administration, without exceeding the toxic plasma level. The absorption was more prolonged in D10 than D9. Their in vivo release was considered to be caused gradually from the amount of RD remaining in the oral cavity at 7 h, in particular D10. The superior retention of D10 in plasma and oral cavity appeared to be related to its higher mucoadhesive properties. Although these results were obtained using rats, they suggest that the chosen tablets should have adequate characteristics from the viewpoints of plasma levels.

  18. Smoking-Associated Site-Specific Differential Methylation in Buccal Mucosa in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent J.; Morrow, Jarrett; Bacherman, Helene; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; DeMeo, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a complex, tissue-specific phenomenon that can reflect both endogenous factors and exogenous exposures. Buccal brushings represent an easily accessible source of DNA, which may be an appropriate surrogate tissue in the study of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory diseases. Buccal brushings were obtained from a subset of current and former smokers from the COPDGene study. Genome-wide DNA methylation data were obtained in the discovery cohort (n = 82) using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K array. Empirical Bayes methods were used to test for differential methylation by current smoking status at 468,219 autosomal CpG sites using linear models adjusted for age, sex, and race. Pyrosequencing was performed in a nonoverlapping replication cohort (n = 130). Current smokers were significantly younger than former smokers in both the discovery and replication cohorts. Seven CpG sites were associated with current smoking at a false discovery rate less than 0.05 in the discovery cohort. Six of the seven significant sites were pyrosequenced in the replication cohort; five CpG sites, including sites annotated to CYP1B1 and PARVA, were replicated. Correlations between cumulative smoke exposure and time since smoking cessation were observed in a subset of the significantly associated CpG sites. A significant correlation between reduced lung function and increased radiographic emphysema with methylation at cg02162897 (CYP1B1) was observed among female subjects. Site-specific methylation of DNA isolated from buccal mucosa is associated with exposure to cigarette smoke, and may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility toward the development of smoking-related chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:25517428

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan buccal films of ondansetron hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Koland, Marina; Charyulu, R Narayana; Vijayanarayana, K; Prabhu, Prabhakara

    2011-01-01

    Buccal films of ondanstron hydrochloride were fabricated from mucoadhesive polymer, chitosan, and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP K30) for the purpose of prolonging drug release and improving its bioavailability. All fabricated film formulations prepared were smooth and translucent, with good flexibility. The weight and thickness of all the formulations were found to be uniform. Drug content in the films ranged from 98 – 99%, indicating favorable drug loading and uniformity. The inclusion of PVP K30, a hydrophilic polymer, significantly reduced the bioadhesive strength and in vitro mucoadhesion time of the films, although the degree of swelling increased. In vitro drug release studies in simulated saliva showed a prolonged release of over five to six hours for all formulations, except C4, with 99.98% release in 1.5 hours. Kinetic analysis of the release data indicated that the best fit model with the highest correlation coefficient for all formulations was the Peppas model. In vivo studies, on selected films in rabbits, were conducted, to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, Tmax, and AUC0-∞, using model-independent methods with nonlinear least-squares regression analysis. The AUC and values of Cmax of ondansetron hydrochloride were found to be significantly greater (P < 0.005) than the selected films C2 and C3, as compared to those from the oral solution, thereby confirming improved bioavailability via the buccal route. The Tmax values were also significantly greater (P < 0.005), indicating the slower release of the drug from buccal films, thereby, providing prolonged effects. Good in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed with R2 values exceeding 0.98, when the percentage of drug released was correlated with the percentage of drug absorbed. PMID:23071939

  20. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations.

  1. Buccal Cell Cytokeratin 14 Correlates with Multiple Blood Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease Risk.

    PubMed

    Leifert, Wayne R; Nguyen, Tori; Rembach, Alan; Martins, Ralph; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie; Masters, Colin L; Ames, David; Rowe, Christopher C; Macaulay, S Lance; François, Maxime; Fenech, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may reflect early stages of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our hypothesis was that cytokeratin 14 (CK14) expression could be used with blood-based biomarkers such as homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate to identify individuals with MCI or AD from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) flagship study of aging. Buccal cells from 54 individuals were analyzed by a newly developed method that is rapid, automated, and quantitative for buccal cell CK14 expression levels. CK14 was negatively correlated with plasma Mg²⁺ and LDL, while positively correlated with vitamin B12, red cell hematocrit/volume, and basophils in the MCI group and positively correlated with insulin and vitamin B12 in the AD group. The combined biomarker panel (CK14 expression, plasma vitamin B12, and homocysteine) was significantly lower in the MCI (p = 0.003) and AD (p = 0.0001) groups compared with controls. Receiver-operating characteristic curves yielded area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.829 for the MCI (p = 0.002) group and 0.856 for the AD (p = 0.0003) group. These complex associations of multiple related parameters highlight the differences between the MCI and AD cohorts and possibly an underlying metabolic pathology associated with the development of early memory impairment. The changes in buccal cell CK14 expression observed in this pilot study supports previous results suggesting the peripheral biomarkers and metabolic changes are not restricted to brain pathology alone in MCI and AD and could prove useful as a potential biomarker in identifying individuals with an increased risk of developing MCI and eventually AD.

  2. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  3. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  4. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  5. "Fan-Tip-Drive" High-Power-Density, Permanent Magnet Electric Motor and Test Rig Designed for a Nonpolluting Aircraft Propulsion Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2004-01-01

    A scaled blade-tip-drive test rig was designed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The rig is a scaled version of a direct-current brushless motor that would be located in the shroud of a thrust fan. This geometry is very attractive since the allowable speed of the armature is approximately the speed of the blade tips (Mach 1 or 1100 ft/s). The magnetic pressure generated in the motor acts over a large area and, thus, produces a large force or torque. This large force multiplied by the large velocity results in a high-power-density motor.

  6. Factitious buccal lesion secondary to bruxism in a child with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D

    2006-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy are at greater risk of a whole range of oral conditions than their peers. These include bruxism (tooth grinding), oral skill dysfunction, gross malocclusion due to effects of the abnormal orofacial muscle tone on tooth eruption, drooling of saliva, and poor oral hygiene.1 A challenging case of a painful buccal lesion in a 2 year old girl with cerebral palsy (CP) that did not respond to antifungal, antiviral or antibiotic treatment is presented as a factitious lesion. The recognition and significance of self‐injurious behaviour and factitious lesions in children are discussed. PMID:16373789

  7. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, H; Viswanathan, P; Cherkezyan, L; Iyengar, R; Rozhok, S; Verleye, M; Derbas, J; Czarnecki, J; Roy, H K; Backman, V

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians' office.

  8. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  10. In vitro inhibitory effect of onion extract on hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Niukian, K; Schwartz, J; Shklar, G

    1987-01-01

    In vitro studies were performed that used varying concentrations of onion extract added to cell cultures of an epidermoid carcinoma cell line derived from hamster buccal pouch carcinoma (HCPC-1). The studies demonstrated tumor growth inhibition beginning after 24 hours of incubation at an onion extract concentration of 25% and above in culture media. After 4 days and 10 days of incubation, there was a noted decrease in tumor proliferation. The plating efficiency for 24 hours was observed to produce a 54-89% inhibition in plating density. The results indicated here provide in vitro evidence of the inhibitory and cytotoxic activity on an oral carcinoma cell line.

  11. Procedures for risk-stratification of lung cancer using buccal nanocytology

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, H.; Viswanathan, P.; Cherkezyan, L.; Iyengar, R.; Rozhok, S.; Verleye, M.; Derbas, J.; Czarnecki, J.; Roy, H. K.; Backman, V.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. with survival dramatically depending on stage at diagnosis. We had earlier reported that nanocytology of buccal cells can accurately risk-stratify smokers for the presence of early and late-stage lung cancer. To translate the technique into clinical practice, standardization of operating procedures is necessary to consistently yield precise and repeatable results. Here, we develop and validate simple, robust, and easily implementable procedures for specimen collection, processing, etc. in addition to a commercially-viable instrument prototype. Results of this work enable translation of the technology from academic lab to physicians’ office. PMID:27699138

  12. Buccal anomalies, cephalometric analysis and genetic study of two sisters with orofaciodigital syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Romero, Martín; Franco, Brunella; del Pozo, Jaime Sánchez; Romance, Ana

    2007-11-01

    Orofaciodigital syndromes have many clinical and cephalometric anomalies, including facial irregularities, oral cavity abnormalities, and malformations of fingers and toes. In this case of twin girls, buccal exploration, cephalometric examination, and genetic analysis were performed to diagnose Orofaciodigital I or Orofaciodigital II syndrome. Clinically, the twins had several dental and skeletal irregularities. Genetic analysis revealed a DNA segment abnormality corresponding to exon 3 and presence of nucleotide change, 243C>G, leading to the missense mutation H81Q. This causative mutation associated with the OFD1 gene has not been reported previously. Both patients were diagnosed as having Orofaciodigital I syndrome.

  13. Clark's rule vis à vis the buccal object rule: its evolution & application in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, James L; Endo, Cert

    2011-01-01

    Originally, Clark's rule was used to identify the position of unerupted or supernumerary teeth (a concept known as oral localization) prior to orthodontic tooth movement or surgical removal. However, the versatility of this rule's principles and concepts are also highly applicable to endodontic diagnosis and treatment. While contemporarily known by many different names, such as the "buccal object rule" and the "cone beam-shift technique," the importance of this rule in endodontics was not recognized in the literature until late in the 20th century, despite historical evidence demonstrating its incorporation into root canal procedures almost 100 years ago.

  14. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  15. Motor Recovery of the Affected Hand in Subacute Stroke Correlates with Changes of Contralesional Cortical Hand Motor Representation

    PubMed Central

    Bösl, Kathrin; Nowak, Dennis Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between changes of cortical hand motor representation and motor recovery of the affected hand in subacute stroke. Methods. 17 patients with motor impairment of the affected hand were enrolled in an in-patient neurological rehabilitation program. Hand motor function tests (Wolf Motor Function Test, Action Research Arm Test) and neurophysiological evaluations (resting motor threshold, motor evoked potentials, motor map area size, motor map area volume, and motor map area location) were obtained from both hands and hemispheres at baseline and two, four, and six weeks of in-patient rehabilitation. Results. There was a wide spectrum of hand motor impairment at baseline and hand motor recovery over time. Hand motor function and recovery correlated significantly with (i) reduction of cortical excitability, (ii) reduction in size and volume of cortical hand motor representation, and (iii) a medial and anterior shift of the center of gravity of cortical hand motor representation within the contralesional hemisphere. Conclusion. Recovery of motor function of the affected hand after stroke is accompanied by definite changes in excitability, size, volume, and location of hand motor representation over the contralesional primary motor cortex. These measures may serve as surrogate markers for the outcome of hand motor rehabilitation after stroke. PMID:28286677

  16. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55 ± 5 and 35 ± 5 min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets.

  17. Application of High-Throughput Next-Generation Sequencing for HLA Typing on Buccal Extracted DNA: Results from over 10,000 Donor Recruitment Samples

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, David; Valenzuela, Nicole; Takemura, Ping; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Springer, Brianna; Saito, Katsuyuki; Zheng, Ying; Hague, Tim; Pasztor, Agnes; Horvath, Gyorgy; Rigo, Krisztina; Reed, Elaine F.; Zhang, Qiuheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Unambiguous HLA typing is important in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), HLA disease association studies, and solid organ transplantation. However, current molecular typing methods only interrogate the antigen recognition site (ARS) of HLA genes, resulting in many cis-trans ambiguities that require additional typing methods to resolve. Here we report high-resolution HLA typing of 10,063 National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) registry donors using long-range PCR by next generation sequencing (NGS) approach on buccal swab DNA. Methods Multiplex long-range PCR primers amplified the full-length of HLA class I genes (A, B, C) from promotor to 3’ UTR. Class II genes (DRB1, DQB1) were amplified from exon 2 through part of exon 4. PCR amplicons were pooled and sheared using Covaris fragmentation. Library preparation was performed using the Illumina TruSeq Nano kit on the Beckman FX automated platform. Each sample was tagged with a unique barcode, followed by 2×250 bp paired-end sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq. HLA typing was assigned using Omixon Twin software that combines two independent computational algorithms to ensure high confidence in allele calling. Consensus sequence and typing results were reported in Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) format. All homozygous alleles were confirmed by Luminex SSO typing and exon novelties were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results Using this automated workflow, over 10,063 NMDP registry donors were successfully typed under high-resolution by NGS. Despite known challenges of nucleic acid degradation and low DNA concentration commonly associated with buccal-based specimens, 97.8% of samples were successfully amplified using long-range PCR. Among these, 98.2% were successfully reported by NGS, with an accuracy rate of 99.84% in an independent blind Quality Control audit performed by the NDMP. In this study, NGS-HLA typing identified 23 null alleles (0.023%), 92 rare alleles (0.091%) and 42 exon

  18. Alignment of a buccally displaced maxillary canine in the late mixed dentition with a modified utility arch: a patient report.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Licciardello, Valeria; Greco, Mariagrazia; Rossetti, Bruno; Barbato, Ersilia

    2010-01-01

    Maxillary canines and first molars are the most common ectopic teeth in young people. Ectopic buccal eruption of maxillary canines is strongly associated with lack of space or crowding in the dental arch. This report demonstrates the management of a buccally erupted maxillary canine in an 11-year, 8-month-old boy without sufficient space. The patient had a mostly dental Class II occlusion and was in the late mixed dentition, and the root development of his canines was consistent with his dental age. To correct the distal occlusion and gain space in the maxillary arch for the eruption of both canines, the patient received cervical headgear. To guide the maxillary left canine into occlusion, it was surgically exposed and a modified utility arch inserted. The result of this approach proves that a custom-designed utility arch allows the distal movement of a buccally displaced canine, while at the same time increasing the maxillary arch length.

  19. Genotoxicity of occupational exposure to wood dust: Micronucleus frequency and nuclear changes in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ayla; Kanik, Arzu

    2006-12-01

    Occupational exposure to wood dust is associated with the occurrence of nasal cancer. In this study, we investigated micronuclei and nuclear changes (NCs: binucleates, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, and the "broken egg" effect) in exfoliated buccal cells of 20 workers exposed to wood dust and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Micronucleus frequency and the frequency of each of the NCs were significantly higher for wood workers than controls (P < 0.01). Cigarette smoking was associated with increased frequencies of micronuclei and NCs in the buccal mucosa epithelium cells of both the control and exposed groups. Our findings indicate that buccal cells of wood workers display increased levels of genotoxicity and toxicity, and that these biomarker responses may be related to the increased cancer risk among wood workers.

  20. Combined Regenerative and Mucogingival Treatment of Deep Intrabony Defects Associated with Buccal Gingival Recession: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giacomo; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Gherlone, Enrico

    The case reports presented in this article describe a surgical approach for improving root coverage and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with buccal gingival recession. A mandibular canine and a maxillary premolar were treated. The surgical technique consisted of a connective tissue graft (CTG) that was placed and sutured at the inner surface of a coronally advanced envelope flap (CAF), thickening the buccal soft tissue wall of the most coronal extension of the intrabony defect and treated with biomaterials as scaffold. No palatal/lingual flap was elevated. Two years after the surgery, clinically significant root coverage, increased buccal keratinized tissue height and thickness, some minor improvement in the position of the interdental papilla, and clinical attachment level gain were achieved. The radiographs showed bone fill of the intrabony components of the defects. This report encourages a novel application of CAF + CTG + biomaterials to improve both esthetic and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with gingival recessions.

  1. Motor Vehicle Inspection: A New Course in the Automotive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, William H.; Anglin, Donald L.

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the importance of proper motor vehicle inspection, the controversy about the effectiveness of inspection programs, and the topics that a motor vehicle inspection course should cover. (MF)

  2. Buccal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... done to get cells for chromosome or DNA analysis, most often for genetic testing. This test may also help establish sexual identity. When the test is used in this way, it's called the sex chromatin test.

  3. Brazil's alcohol motor fuel program

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This is a status report on the production and use of ethanol as automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol, called in Portuguese Proalcool, will supply at least one-third of Brazil's expected fuel demand for transportation in the year 2000. In total energy terms, it should contribute on the same level as coal and twice the combined level of nuclear, solar and geothermal energies. 2 refs.

  4. Proximity of the mandibular molar root apex from the buccal bone surface: a cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyung; Jin, Myoung-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximity of the mandibular molar apex to the buccal bone surface in order to provide anatomic information for apical surgery. Materials and Methods Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 127 mandibular first molars and 153 mandibular second molars were analyzed from 160 patients' records. The distance was measured from the buccal bone surface to the root apex and the apical 3.0 mm on the cross-sectional view of CBCT. Results The second molar apex and apical 3 mm were located significantly deeper relative to the buccal bone surface compared with the first molar (p < 0.01). For the mandibular second molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the root apex was significantly shorter in patients over 70 years of age (p < 0.05). Furthermore, this distance was significantly shorter when the first molar was missing compared to nonmissing cases (p < 0.05). For the mandibular first molars, the distance to the distal root apex of one distal-rooted tooth was significantly greater than the distance to the disto-buccal root apex (p < 0.01). In mandibular second molar, the distance to the apex of C-shaped roots was significantly greater than the distance to the mesial root apex of non-C-shaped roots (p < 0.01). Conclusions For apical surgery in mandibular molars, the distance from the buccal bone surface to the apex and apical 3 mm is significantly affected by the location, patient age, an adjacent missing anterior tooth, and root configuration. PMID:27508159

  5. Development of a buccal mucoadhesive film for fast dissolution: mathematical rationale, production and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Vila, Marta M D C; Tardelli, Edgard R; Chaud, Marco V; Tubino, Matthieu; Balcão, Victor M

    2014-11-01

    The validity of a mathematical rationale for preparation of a fast-dissolving buccal mucoadhesive was tested. A buccal mucoadhesive biopolymeric formulation has been developed having pullulan as the main component. The formulation was duly evaluated physicochemically, via assays for intrinsic viscosity (resulting in 71.61 cm3 g(-1)), differential scanning calorimetry analysis (resulting in a Tg = 63 °C), thermogravimetric analysis (244-341 °C), moisture content determinations (14%, w/w), dissolution timeframe (41.6 s), mucoadhesion force (40 kg/cm2), scanning electron microscopy analyses (critical ray under 1.0 μm), mechanic strength (tensile strength = 58 N/mm2, deformation = 4.4%). The mucoadhesive formulation exhibited important characteristics for a drug carrier, that is, a 6 cm2 area, a fast dissolution timeframe, an adequate mucoadhesivity, resistance to both oxygen and water vapor penetration, increased viscosity in solution (ranging from 33.2 cm3/g to 71.61 cm3/g), easy molding, suitable water solubility and transparency.

  6. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of losartan potassium by using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ikram, Md.; Gilhotra, Neeraj; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was undertaken with an aim to systematically design a model of factors that would yield an optimized sustained release dosage form of an anti-hypertensive agent, losartan potassium, using response surface methodology (RSM) by employing 32 full factorial design. Materials and Methods: Mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K4M and K100M) and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 by solvent casting method. The amount of the release retardant polymers – HPMC K4M (X1) and HPMC K100M (X2) was taken as an independent variable. The dependent variables were the burst release in 30 min (Y1), cumulative percentage release of drug after 8 h (Y2) and swelling index (Y3) of the patches. In vitro release and swelling studies were carried out and the data were fitted to kinetic equations. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of patches were found to vary significantly depending on the viscosity of the polymers and their combination. Patches showed an initial burst release preceding a more gradual sustained release phase following a nonfickian diffusion process. Discussion: The results indicate that suitable bioadhesive buccal patches with desired permeability could be prepared, facilitated with the RSM. PMID:26682205

  7. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of areca nut-related compounds in cultured human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, K; Liu, Y; Nair, J; Bartsch, H; Arvidson, K; Grafström, R C

    1989-10-01

    Because betel quid chewing has been linked to the development of oral cancer, pathobiological effects of an aqueous areca nut extract, four areca nut alkaloids (arecoline, guvacoline, guvacine, and arecaidine), and four nitrosated derivatives [N-nitrosoguvacoline, N-nitrosoguvacine, 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde and 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile] have been investigated using cultured human buccal epithelial cells. Areca nut extract in a dose-dependent manner decreases cell survival, vital dye accumulation, and membrane integrity, and it causes formation of both DNA single strand breaks and DNA protein cross-links. Depletion of cellular free low-molecular-weight thiols also occurs, albeit at quite toxic concentrations. Comparisons of the areca nut-related N-nitroso compounds and their precursor alkaloids, at concentrations up to 5 mM, indicate that 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde is the most potent on a molar basis to decrease both survival and thiol content and to cause significant formation of DNA single strand breaks. Arecoline, guvacoline, or N-nitrosoguvacoline decreases survival and cellular thiols, whereas arecaidine, guvacine, N-nitrosoguvacine, and 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile have only minor effects on these variables. Taken together, the present studies indicate that aqueous extract and, in particular, one N-nitroso compound related to areca nut, i.e., 3-(N-nitrosomethylamino)propionaldehyde, are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic to cultured human buccal epithelial cells, of potential importance in the induction of tumors in betel quid chewers.

  8. A case report on buccal mucosa graft for upper ureteral stricture repair

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Thakur, Naveen; Kankalia, Sharad Kumar; Satav, Vikram Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Management of ureteric stricture especially long length upper one-third poses a challenging job for most urologists. With the successful use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG) for stricture urethra leads the foundation for its use in ureteric stricture also. A 35-year-old male diagnosedcase of left upper ureteric stricture, postureteroscopy with left percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) in situ. Cysto-retrograde pyelography and nephrostogram done simultaneously suggestive of left upper ureteric stricture of 3 cm at L3 level. On exploration, diseased ureteral segment exposed, BMG harvested and sutured as onlay patch graft with supportive omental wrap. The treatment choice for upper ureteric long length stricture is inferior nephropexy, autotransplantation, or bowel interposition. With PCN in situ, inferior nephropexy becomes technically difficult, other two are morbid procedures. Use of BMG in this situation is technically better choice with all the advantages of buccal mucosa. Onlay BMG for ureteral stricture is technically easy, less morbid procedure and can be important choice in future. PMID:28057996

  9. Hydrotalcite composites for an effective fluoride buccal administration: a new technological approach.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Nocchetti, Morena; Giannelli, Paola; Pagano, Cinzia; Bastianini, Maria

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this work was to develop new mucoadhesive buccal patches containing an inorganic fluorinated compound, MgAl-F, intended for decay prevention. Firstly MgAl-F was synthesized and characterized, then the patches were prepared starting from a physical blend of mucoadhesive polymers (NaCMC and polycarbophil) in which MgAl-F was dispersed in different amounts in order to obtain the films. The prepared mucoadhesive patches were characterized in terms of swelling capacity, mucoadhesion force and time, surface morphology and in vitro release studies. Moreover, the organoleptic properties and acceptability have been evaluated by in vivo application. The performed studies demonstrated that the proposed formulations are practical, manageable, flexible and adaptable to the biological substrate showing, at the same time, good organoleptic properties. Moreover, the presence of the MgAl-F is able to decrease the strong adhesion of the employed polymers, reducing pain and irritations resulting in a high patient acceptability. Data obtained from release studies revealed that the application of small patch portions is enough able to release, for a prolonged time, an amount of fluoride ions able to reach the efficacious dose. These observations suggest the applicability of such formulations for buccal administration of different active ingredients.

  10. Sunitinib Improves Some Clinical Aspects and Reverts DMBA-Induced Hyperplasic Lesions in Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Mariana; Nunes, Marianne Brochado; Serafim, Lucas Horstmann; Azambuja, Alan Arrieira; Braga, Luisa Maria G. de M.; Saur, Lisiani; de Souza, Maria Antonieta Lopes; Xavier, Léder Leal

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a public health problem. The hamster buccal pouch model is ideal for analyzing the development of OSCC. This research analysed the effects of sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in precancerous lesions induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in this model. Thirty-four male hamsters, divided into six groups: control—C (n = 7), acetone—A (n = 12), carbamide peroxide—CP (n = 5 ), acetone and CP—A+CP (n = 8), 1% DMBA in acetone and CP—DA+CP (n = 6), and 1% DMBA in acetone and CP and 4-week treatment with sunitinib—DA+CP+S (n = 7). The aspects evaluated were anatomopathological features (peribuccal area, paws, nose, and fur), histological sections of the hamster buccal pouches (qualitatively analyzed), epithelium thickness, and the rete ridge density (estimated). Sunitinib was unable to attenuate the decrease in weight gain induced by DMBA; no increase in volume was detected in the pouch and/or ulceration, observed in 43% of the animals in the DA+CP group. DA+CP groups presented a significant increase in rete ridge density compared to the control groups (P < 0.01) which was reverted by sunitinib in the DA+CP+S group. Sunitinib seems to have important benefits in early stage carcinogenesis and may be useful in chemoprevention. PMID:24693453

  11. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    PubMed

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug.

  12. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  13. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vikram; Devaraju, Shishir; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long) using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%), Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%), and unknown in 3 cases (15%). Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm). Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months). Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1). Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome. PMID:27286122

  14. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-05

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins.

  15. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    PubMed

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat.

  16. The value of the 'buccal pad of fat' in the reconstruction of oral defects following removal of intraoral tumours--a clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Stassen, L; Khosa, A D; Israr, M

    2013-01-01

    The buccal pad of fat (BPF) is an important structure found in the orofacial region of humans. It is larger in infants and gradually becomes smaller in adults. We present twenty seven (27) cases with an average age of 60 years, with a variety of pathological lesions in which we have used the BPF to reconstruct the defects following resection of tumours. Twenty (74%) patients were diagnosed with Squamous Cell Carcinma. The commonest surgical sites were the soft palate and maxilla (46%). A clinical analysis of the value of BPF in reconstruction was made by using assessment criteria, mouth opening, cosmesis, fistula formation, approved by the ethical committee of the Hospital. Our findings show that the BPF is an excellent pedicled graft for the reconstruction of defects up to 10x5.5x1.1 cm in size. The donor site had no morbidity in terms of fuctions including, mouth opening (normal), masticatory movement, deglution, motor / sensory loss and patients were unaffected cosmetically (no temporal hollwing). There was no abnormal finding e.g. fistula, Frey's syndrome, speech and movement of the soft palate was unaffected. Salivary function was not affected (parotid duct). Speech outcomes were normal. We used a pre-surgery constructed blow--down soft or a preformed acrylic plate to support the fat pad in 13 (50%) patients, secured with mini screws. The use of a splint to support and protect the flap allowed early feeding.

  17. A Cadaveric Study of the Communication Patterns Between the Buccal Trunks of the Facial Nerve and the Infraorbital Nerve in the Midface.

    PubMed

    Tansatit, Tanvaa; Phanchart, Piyaporn; Chinnawong, Dawinee; Apinuntrum, Prawit; Phetudom, Thavorn; Sahraoui, Yasmina M E

    2016-01-01

    Most nerve communications reported in the literature were found between the terminal branches. This study aimed to clarify and classify patterns of proximal communications between the buccal branches (BN) of the facial nerve and the infraorbital nerve (ION).The superficial musculoaponeurotic system protects any communication sites from conventional dissections. Based on this limitation, the soft tissues of each face were peeled off the facial skull and the facial turn-down flap specimens were dissected from the periosteal view. Dissection was performed in 40 hemifaces to classify the communications in the sublevator space. Communication site was measured from the ala of nose.A double communication was the most common type found in 62.5% of hemifaces. Triple and single communications existed in 25% and 10% of 40 hemiface specimens, respectively. One hemiface had no communication. The most common type of communication occurred between the lower trunk of the BN of the facial nerve and the lateral labial (fourth) branch of the ION (70% in 40 hemifaces). Communication site was deep to the levator labii superioris muscle at 16.2 mm from the nasal ala. Communications between the motor and the sensory nerves in the midface may be important to increase nerve endurance and to compensate functional loss from injury.Proximal communications between the main trunks of the facial nerve and the ION in the midface exist in every face. This implies some specific functions in normal individuals. Awareness of these nerves is essential in surgical procedure in the midface.

  18. Pathogen and host differences in bacterial adherence to human buccal epithelial cells in a northeast Brazilian community.

    PubMed Central

    Walser, B L; Newman, R D; Lima, A A; Guerrant, R L

    1992-01-01

    The adherence of several strains of Escherichia coli to human buccal epithelial cells was studied, using cells obtained from five groups: healthy adults, healthy children, children with acute diarrhea, children with persistent diarrhea associated with cryptosporidial parasites, and children with noncryptosporidial persistent diarrhea. All groups lived or worked in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil. Samples of buccal epithelial cells from subjects in each of these groups were incubated with wild-type E. coli K-12 (strain C600), the enteroaggregative E. coli strains 17-2 and PDAS 30-5, CFA/II-positive E. coli 1392+ and its plasmid-cured derivative 1392-, and hydrophobic E. coli 132-3. Samples were evaluated microscopically to determine background contamination and the percentage of cells with more than 15% of their surface area obscured by adherent bacteria after incubation and washing. The assay was tested under field conditions and was shown to produce reliable and consistent results. Both enteroaggregative strains of E. coli were shown to adhere to a significantly higher percentage of all groups of human buccal epithelial cells than any of the other tested strains. In addition, buccal epithelial cells from children with nonparasitic persistent diarrhea showed substantially more bacterial adherence in both the native state and with all tested strains of E. coli than did cells from children with persistent cryptosporidial diarrhea or acute diarrhea or from healthy controls. This study provides evidence that enteroaggregative strains of E. coli demonstrate increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells (as well as to cultured HEp-2 cells) and that buccal epithelial cells from children with noncryptosporidial persistent diarrhea appear to be more susceptible to bacterial adherence and colonization than buccal epithelial cells from control groups. These findings suggest that host differences as well as pathogen differences are important in the pathogenesis of

  19. IMPACT OF SMOKING HABITS ON THE STATE OF CHROMATIN AND MORPHOLOGY OF BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    PubMed

    Volkova, O; Ryabokon, E; Magda, I; Shckorbatov, Y

    2017-01-01

    The cells of buccal epithelium were investigated in groups of smoking and non-smoking students. Cell samples were collected by scraping with blunt sterile spatula, stained with orcein and photographed. The smoking of cigarettes and hookah induces significant decrease in nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area in cells of buccal epithelium. Smoking of hookah induces, besides, the heterochromatization in cell nuclei and the decrease of nuclear area. The data obtained indicate stress reaction in cells (heterochromatinization) and apoptosis-related changes in cells (decrease of nuclear and cell perimeter and cell area). These data show unfavorable effects of smoking cigarettes and even more harmful effect of hookah smoking.

  20. Bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis. In this study, we report two cases where bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were used to resurface two separate buccal defects. PMID:27619322

  1. Energy-Efficient Electric Motor Selection Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  2. Filament overwrapped motor case technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, Joel P.

    1993-11-01

    Atlantic Research Corporation (ARC) joined with the French Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP) to develop and deliver to the U.S. Navy a small quantity of composite filament wound rocket motors to demonstrate a manufacturing technique that was being applied at the two companies. It was perceived that the manufacturing technique could produce motors that would be light in weight, inexpensive to produce, and that had a good chance of meeting insensitive munitions (IM) requirements that were being formulated by the Navy in the early 1980s. Under subcontract to ARC, SEP designed, tested, and delivered 2.75-inch rocket motors to the U.S. Navy for IM tests that were conducted in 1989 at China Lake, California. The program was one of the first to be founded by Nunn Amendment money. The Government-to-Government program was sponsored by the Naval Air Systems Command and was monitored by the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head (NSWC-IH), Maryland. The motor propellant that was employed was a new, extruded composite formulation that was under development at the Naval Surface Warfare Center. The following paper describes the highlights of the program and gives the results of structural and ballistic static tests and insensitive munitions tests that were conducted on demonstration motors.

  3. Determination of efficiencies, loss mechanisms, and performance degradation factors in chopper controlled dc vehical motors. Section 1: Test program results and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.; Strangas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional series motor model is discussed as well as procedures for obtaining, by test, the parameters necessary for calculating performance and losses. The calculated results for operation from ripple free DC are compared with observed test results, indicating approximately 5% or less error. Experimental data indicating the influence of brush shift and chopper frequency are also presented. Both factors have a significant effect on the speed and torque relationships. The losses and loss mechanisms present in a DC series motor are examined and an attempt is made to evaluate the added losses due to harmonic currents and fluxes. Findings with respect to these losses is summarized.

  4. Strength Development and Motor-Sports Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This document examines the effects of strength-development programs on the improvement of motor skills and sports competencies. Part one defines various terms used throughout the development studies. Part two discusses the mixed results of experiments involving speed of movement as the motor item indicative of strength development. Part three…

  5. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  6. Expression of p75(NGFR), a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-08-29

    We investigated the expression of p75(NGFR), a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75(NGFR), BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (-)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75(NGFR) (-)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75(NGFR) (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75(NGFR) (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium.

  7. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. [Urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft or penile skin graft for anterior urethral stricture?].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Alvaro

    2015-06-04

    Currently the treatment for urethral stricture considers various techniques, including augmentation urethroplasty using tissue from different parts of the body. The more used are the buccal mucosa and penile skin, but are there any differences in success between both tissues? Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including 18 primary studies addressing this question, six of them prospective. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded there is uncertainty about the superiority of one technique over another because the certainty of the evidence is very low. A new systematic review is urgently needed on this topic as randomized studies have been published after the most recent review, which could provide greater certainty.

  9. Giant Cell Fibroma of the Buccal Mucosa with Laser Excision: Report of Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Somayyeh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Bigom Taheri, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Giant Cell Fibroma (GCF) was described as a new entity of fibrous hyperplastic soft tissue. It seems that stimulus from an unexplained origin can have a role in its etiology. Histopathologically GCF is consisted of multinucleated fibroblasts that have oval shape nuclei within the eosinophilic cytoplasm. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is very rare. Here we report a case of relatively large GCF in a 54-year-old man. Gingiva is the common location of GCF. As in our case, it may be mistaken as irritation fibroma especially if it is on the buccal mucosa, the most common location for fibroma. Correct diagnosis is based on biopsy and clinical examination to see surface texture roughness. To minimize bleeding because of its large size an excisional biopsy with Diod laser was performed under local anesthesia for this patient. PMID:26351504

  10. Fentanyl buccal tablet for the treatment of cancer-related breakthrough pain.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) (FENTORA) is indicated for the management of breakthrough pain (BTP) in patients with cancer pain and who are tolerant to ≥60 mg of oral morphine equivalents, at least with the current availability of the minimal strength of 100 μg. FBT uses the OraVescent technology to further increase the rate and extent of absorption of fentanyl. Short-term, randomized, controlled, clinical studies of FBT in patients with cancer pain have shown the efficacy of FBT in the management of breakthrough cancer pain. The efficacy was also confirmed in long-term studies on the safety and tolerability of FBT. It has been recommended that administration should be tailored to the patient's individual requirement, through dose titration starting from the lowest dose to find the effective dose. However, recent studies have demonstrated that predictable doses calculated from the basal opioid regimen are safe and more effective than doses achieved after dose titration.

  11. Extraneural Sclerosing Perineurioma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Clinicopathologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Greene, David J.; Brodsky, Gilbert; Kabani, Sadru P.

    2010-01-01

    The perineurioma is an infrequently encountered benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of a clonal proliferation of perineurial cells. Rare cases of perineurioma have been reported in the oral cavity. An extraneural sclerosing perineurioma arising in the buccal mucosa of a 17-year-old male is presented. Histopathologically, the tumor is composed of a well circumscribed nodular proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a storiform growth pattern, in some areas subtly arranged around vascular channels. The tumor cells reveal positive immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), collagen type IV and vimentin, and negative immunostaining for S-100 protein, consistent with a perineurial origin. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of an extraneural sclerosing perineurioma involving the oral cavity. PMID:20364337

  12. Combination chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by bovine milk lactoferrin and black tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Mohan, K V P Chandra; Letchoumy, P Vidjaya; Hara, Y; Nagini, S

    2008-03-01

    Combination chemoprevention is a promising approach for oral cancer prevention. The authors evaluated the combined chemopreventive effects of bovine milk lactoferrin (bLF) and black tea polyphenols (Polyphenon-B) in a clinically relevant in vivo model of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Although dietary administration of bLF and Polyphenon-B alone significantly reduced the tumor incidence, combined administration of bLF and polyphenon-B was more effective in inhibiting DMBA-induced genotoxicity and development of HBP carcinomas by modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and cellular redox status. These results suggest that a "designer item" approach will be useful for human oral cancer prevention strategies.

  13. [Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].

    PubMed

    Kalaev, V N; Artiukhov, V G; Nechaeva, M S

    2014-01-01

    The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted.

  14. Interdisciplinary Management of Maxillary Canine Buccal Ectopia Associated with Peg Shaped Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Sawhny, Asheesh

    2016-01-01

    Aligning a displaced maxillary canine into the dental arch is one of the most complicated problems in orthodontics. In cases of extremely high displacement, the tooth is frequently removed surgically. Because of the upper canines' significance to dental esthetics and functional occlusion, such a decision is a very serious one. The purpose of this report is to illustrate an interdisciplinary approach involving both orthodontic management and conservative tooth restoration. The case was treated through an orthodontic nonextraction fixed appliance mechanotherapy for successful alignment of buccally ectopic upper left canine followed by a conservative direct composite tooth buildup of peg lateral incisor associated with the upper left ectopic canine in a 16-year-old adolescent North Indian female. Posttreatment records demonstrated good alignment of the displaced tooth and restoration of normal anatomy of the peg shaped lateral incisor. PMID:27725890

  15. Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

  16. A Case of Sialolithiasis in a Minor Salivary Gland of the Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Shibata, Akio; Nishiwaki, Shusuke; Umemura, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the major salivary glands. In contrast, Sialolithiasis of Minor Salivary Glands (SMSG) is very rare. Only 2% of all cases of sialolithiasis develop in minor salivary glands and sublingual glands. Furthermore, the clinical and imaging features of SMSG frequently differ from those encountered in major salivary glands thus, hindering proper clinical diagnosis of SMSG. Histologically, SMSG is characterized by ductal ectasia (sometimes with deep cystic dilatation), acinar atrophy and periductal inflammation. Herein, we describe a patient suffering from SMSG in the left buccal region. Based on the clinicopathological findings of this case and a review of the literature, we propose that this entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of intra-mucosal nodules. PMID:28050512

  17. The Effect of a Sensory Integration Program on Academic Achievement, Motor Performance, and Self-Esteem in Children Identified as Learning Disabled: Results of a Clinical Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polatajko, Helene J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study assigned children aged 6-8 with sensory integration (SI) dysfunction to 3 groups: 35 used sensory modalities, 32 received psychomotor (PM) training, and 13 no intervention. SI and PM administered one hour per week for six months proved equally effective in improving academic and motor performance but had little effect on self-esteem. (SK)

  18. Evaluation of the Tolerability of Switching Patients on Chronic Full μ-Opioid Agonist Therapy to Buccal Buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Gruener, Daniel; Kirby, Todd; Xiang, Qinfang; Tzanis, Evan; Finn, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assess whether patients with chronic pain receiving 80 to 220 mg oral morphine sulfate equivalent of a full μ-opioid agonist could be transitioned to buccal buprenorphine at approximately 50% of their full dose without inducing opioid withdrawal or sacrificing analgesic efficacy. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, two-period crossover study in adult patients receiving around-the-clock full opioid agonist therapy and confirmed to be opioid dependent by naloxone challenge. Study doses were substituted at the time of the regular dose schedule for each patient. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a maximum Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale score ≥ 13 (moderate withdrawal) or use of rescue medication. Results. 35 subjects on ≥ 80 mg morphine sulfate equivalent per day were evaluable for opioid withdrawal. One patient during buccal buprenorphine treatment and two during 50% full μ-opioid agonist treatment experienced opioid withdrawal of at least moderate intensity. The mean maximum Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale scores were similar, and numerically lower on buccal buprenorphine. There were no significant differences in pain ratings between treatments. The most frequent adverse events with buccal buprenorphine were headache (19%), vomiting (13%), nausea, diarrhea, and drug withdrawal syndrome (each 9%), and with full μ-opioid agonist were headache (16%), drug withdrawal syndrome (13%), and nausea (6%). Conclusions. Chronic pain patients treated with around-the-clock full μ-opioid agonist therapy can be switched to buccal buprenorphine (a partial μ-opioid agonist) at approximately 50% of the full μ-opioid agonist dose without an increased risk of opioid withdrawal or loss of pain control. PMID:26917621

  19. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of nano-based films for buccal delivery of zolpidem.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar Essa

    2016-11-28

    Insomnia is becoming increasingly prevalent in the world general population. Therapies used by patients include over-the-counter therapies, herbal and dietary supplements, and pharmacological or nonpharmacological treatments. Among these, zolpidem is a pharmacological treatment popularly used for insomnia. Zolpidem is well tolerated and especially efficacious for initiation of sleep, and therefore is effective for the treatment of sleep-onset insomnia. The purpose of the present study was to design and evaluate zolpidem nanoparticle-impregnated buccal films to prolong the duration of its action. Zolpidem nanospheres were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation and then loaded into buccoadhesive films (Z1-Z4) comprised of different concentrations of HPMC K100, Eudragit® RL 100, and carbopol 974P. The prepared films were characterized for physicomechanical properties, mucoadhesion, percent hydration, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, and in vivo studies. In vitro drug release was found to depend upon film composition. Ex vivo studies showed that film Z4 had the highest flux. In vivo studies revealed that administration of zolpidem nanosphere-impregnated film enhanced absorption of the drug (p < 0.0001), with a higher peak plasma concentration (52.54 ± 8.22 ng/mL) and area under the curve from time 0 to α (236.00 ± 39.51 ng.h/mL) than oral administration. The increase in time taken to reach the maximum drug concentration (1.5 h) further signifies the potential of these films to provide prolonged drug release. Given these promising results, we concluded that these buccal films could be an alternative route for effective zolpidem delivery.

  1. In vitro effects of ethanol and mouthrinse on permeability in an oral buccal mucosal tissue construct.

    PubMed

    Koschier, Francis; Kostrubsky, Vsevolod; Toole, Colleen; Gallo, Michael A

    2011-10-01

    The current study investigated the influence of ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinses on model chemical permeability in an in vitro oral buccal mucosal construct (EpiOral, ORL-200, MatTek). Innate ethanol transport and metabolism in the tissue construct was also studied. Caffeine flux in buccal tissue was measured after pre-treatment with < 26.9% ethanol or Listerine(®) products under conditions modeling a typical mouthwash rinsing. Specifically, a 30s exposure to alcohol products followed by a 10h non-treatment phase and then a second 30s exposure prior to addition of caffeine. At 10min specific intervals, media was collected from the basal part of the tissue insert for HPLC analysis of caffeine. The results demonstrated no increase in caffeine flux due to prior exposure to either ethanol or Listerine(®), and the flux and permeability constants were derived from the linear phase. No cytotoxicity or histopathological effects were observed in these tissues. We also studied the transepithelial transport and metabolism of ethanol in these tissues. Transport of ethanol was concentration-dependent with rate of diffusion proportional to the concentration gradient across the membrane. The potential metabolism of ethanol in the EpiOral construct was addressed by analyzing the remaining level of ethanol after incubation and de novo accumulation of acetaldehyde or acetic acid in culture media. Incubation for 30min incubation resulted in no change in ethanol level up to 2000mM, the highest concentration tested. No acetaldehyde or acetic acid was detected in culture media. In conclusion, ethanol and ethanol-containing mouthrinse treatment modeled after a typical daily mouthrinse pattern had no apparent effect on the permeability of the standard model chemical, caffeine. This exposure also had no effect on the viability of the tissue construct or histopathology, and uptake of ethanol was rapid into the tissue construct.

  2. Effects of dietary boron on cervical cytopathology and on micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Uzgören, Engin; Bakirdere, Sezgin; Aydin, Firat; Ataman, O Yavuz

    2007-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that boron and borates may have anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have investigated the incidence of adverse cytological findings in cervical smears and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in women living in boron-rich and boron-poor regions. Cervical smears were prepared from 1059 women with low socioeconomic status; 472 of the women lived in relatively boron-rich rural areas, while 587 lived in relatively boron-poor regions. The average and standard deviation values for the age of the women screened with the cervical Pap smear test were 41.55 +/- 8.38. The mean dietary intake of boron was 8.41 mg/day for women from the boron-rich regions, and 1.26 mg/day for women living in the boron-poor regions (P < 0.0001). Women from the boron-rich regions had no cytopathological indications of cervical cancer, while there were cytopathological findings for 15 women from the boron-poor areas (chi(2) = 10.473, P < 0.05). Sixty women, 30 from each region, were chosen for evaluating MN frequencies in exfoliated buccal cells. MN frequencies for women from the boron-rich and boron-poor regions were not significantly different (t = -0.294, P > 0.05). Also, there were no significant correlations between age and MN frequency for women from both the boron-rich (r = 0.133, P = 0.48, P > 0.05) and boron-poor (r = -0.033, P = 0.861, P > 0.05) regions. The results suggest that ingestion of boron in the drinking water decreases the incidence of cervical cancer-related histopathological findings. There was no correlation between the pathological findings from the cervical smears and buccal cell MN frequency suggesting that the two study populations were exposed equally to gentotoxic agents. Nonetheless, cervical cancer-related histopathological findings should be validated by other researchers.

  3. Oral mucosal pellicle. Adsorption and transpeptidation of salivary components to buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bradway, S D; Bergey, E J; Jones, P C; Levine, M J

    1989-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the mechanism(s) whereby salivary molecules interact with human buccal epithelial cells. By utilizing antiserum against human parotid saliva, selected salivary components were detected by electrophoretic-transfer analysis of 1.5% SDS extracts of epithelial cells. Incubation of the cells and their aqueous cell-free extracts with 125I-labelled parotid saliva resulted in the formation of an iodinated high-molecular-mass complex which was not present in 125I-labelled saline alone. Formation of this complex was time-dependent and was inhibited by treating the buccal epithelial cells or their cell-free extracts with EGTA, iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide or by heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. The epithelial cells also promoted incorporation of [14C]putrescine into high-molecular-mass complexes whose formation was inhibited by iodoacetamide, unlabelled putrescine and EGTA. Cell extracts mediated cross-linking of monodansylcadaverine into alpha-casein, and this interaction was inhibited by iodoacetamide. Significant amounts of radioactivity were recovered with the epithelial-cell envelopes after exhaustive extraction of 125I-saliva- or [14C]putrescine-treated epithelial cells with 4% (w/v) SDS/10% (v/v) beta-mercaptoethanol. The incorporation of radioactivity into epithelial-cell envelopes was inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with putrescine, EGTA, iodoacetamide, or heating at 100 degrees C for 15 min. These data suggest that: (1) oral mucosal pellicle is formed by the selective adsorption of saliva to the epithelial-cell plasma membrane and its associated cytoskeleton; and (2) the adsorbed salivary components may be cross-linked to each other or the epithelial cytoskeleton by epithelial transglutaminases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2572218

  4. A miniature solid propellant rocket motor

    SciTech Connect

    Grubelich, M.C.; Hagan, M.; Mulligan, E.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature solid-propellant rocket motor has been developed to impart a specific motion to an object deployed in space. This rocket motor effectively eliminated the need for a cold-gas thruster system or mechanical spin-up system. A low-energy igniter, an XMC4397, employing a semiconductor bridge was used to ignite the rocket motor. The rocket motor was ground-tested in a vacuum tank to verify predicted space performance and successfully flown in a Sandia National Laboratories flight vehicle program.

  5. Leadership DNA: The Ford Motor Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Stewart D.

    2001-01-01

    The Ford Motor Company invested in transformational leadership to change itself. Programs center around core principles: adopt a transformational mindset, use action learning, leverage the power of electronic tools, integrate work and life, and generate business impact. (JOW)

  6. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  7. Starting motor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Hamano, I

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a starting motor having a housing, planetary reduction gears including an internal gear in the housing. The improvement consists of an elastic member having a first annular portion mounted in engagement with a fixed annular member of the housing and a plurality of protruding axially extending elastic portions providing a corrugated surface pressed into engagement with an end portion of the internal gear, the elastic member being sandwiched between the internal gear and the housing member, the protruding axially extending elastic portions providing resilient means which flex and incline circumferentially under turning force from the internal gear and exert reactive thrust on the internal gear elastically so that the frictional force at the abutting surfaces of the protruding portions holds the internal gear in resilient engagement with the elastic member and the resilient means acts as a buffer to absorb rotary impact force developing in the planetary reduction gears.

  8. Triton College and General Motors: The Partnership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard; Magnesen, Vernon

    1983-01-01

    The cooperative training program between Illinois's Triton College and General Motors is described. Illustrates the mutual benefits of this problem and recommends that other colleges follow suit. (NJ)

  9. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  10. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  11. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  12. 28 CFR 29.8 - Motor vehicle owner participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle owner participation. 29.8 Section 29.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION ACT REGULATIONS § 29.8 Motor vehicle owner participation. In order to participate in this program, the owner(s) of...

  13. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  14. Early Motor Stimulation and Personal Development. A Study of Four- to Six-Year-Old German Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Liselott

    1982-01-01

    A study of 165 West German preschool children participating in a motor program which included swimming as an important activity showed that early motor stimulation affected the children's motor, social, and individual development. (CJ)

  15. Role of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Xianhuayin on the Reversal of Premalignant Mucosal Lesions in the Golden Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-zhi; Qiu, Yong-le; An, Zhi-guang; Yang, Feng-ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters. Methodology The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin. Results In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in

  16. Simulation and Performance of Brushless DC Motor Actuators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    AD-RI63 725 SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF IRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA A GERDA DEC 85 NPS69-85-628 M...California Progress Report SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS IN SUPPORT OF THE PROGRAM "ADVANCED MISSILE CONTROL DEVICES"I of...34.’ SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR ACTUATORS SUMMARY The simulation model for a Brushless D.C. Motor and the associated * commutation power

  17. Wind motor

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L. I.

    1985-07-09

    A spider-like carrier having at least three generally horizontal arms has a hub mounted to the vertical, rotary-axis input shaft of a load. Each arm has at least one horizontal cross-arm secured to it near its radially outer end, which is supported from the ground by a low-friction support device such as a wheel or set of wheels. Mounted on each arm at the cross-arm or cross-arms is at least one sail, vane, airfoil or similar working member which is erected or spread generally normally to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be blown downwind and is feathered or headed to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be driven upwind. Horizontal axis and vertical axis journalling options for the working members and various sail shapes are shown, including a concave/convex sail and motor-oriented airfoil shape which provides lift when being driven upwind are shown.

  18. Interaction of calcium sulfate with xanthan gum: effect on in vitro bioadhesion and drug release behavior from xanthan gum based buccal discs of buspirone.

    PubMed

    Jaipal, A; Pandey, M M; Abhishek, A; Vinay, S; Charde, S Y

    2013-11-01

    Bioadhesive polymers in buccal drug delivery systems play an important role in delivery of therapeutic drug molecules for local and systemic action. Xanthan gum, a GRAS listed natural polymer was used to design buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride by direct compression method. Effect of calcium sulfate on bioadhesive and drug release behavior of xanthan gum buccal discs was studied. Varying amount of calcium sulfate (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, w/w) in combination with xanthan gum was used to prepare buccal bioadhesive discs. Increase in calcium sulfate concentration resulted in faster drug release and decreased the bioadhesive strength of the designed discs. Further, in rheological evaluation it was observed that viscosity of xanthan gum gel reduces with increasing concentration of calcium sulfate. Compatibility of drug with various excipients was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques.

  19. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  20. Buccal fat pad versus sandwich graft for treatment of oroantral defects: A comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hariram; Pal, U. S.; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, R. K.; Singh, Gaurav; Malkunje, Laxman R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of buccal fat pad (BFP) graft with sandwich graft (hydroxyapatite crystals embedded within collagen sheath) in closure of oroantral defects. Materials and Methods: A 2-year prospective study was conducted; 20 patients were included in the study were divided into two groups having 10 patients in each. Group I patients underwent surgical closure of oroantral fistula with sandwich graft and Group II patients with buccal pad of fat. Results: In Group I, the mean pain scores were 7.60 ± 0.84, 3.90 ± 1.10, 2.30 ± 1.16, 1.10 ± 0.99 and 0.40 ± 0.70 at immediate post-op., 1, 3, 6 and 12 week time intervals, respectively, whereas in Group II these were 7.30 ± 0.67, 3.50 ± 0.53, 1.70 ± 0.48, 1.00 ± 0.47 and 0.30 ± 0.48, respectively, at the corresponding time intervals. In Group I, swelling was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 7 (70%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks, respectively, whereas in Group II, it was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 10 (100%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at the corresponding time intervals. At 1 week, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and 2 (20%) patients of Group II. At 3 and 6 weeks, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and none of the patients of group II. No radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in either group up to 1 week. At 3 week interval, there were 6 (60%) patients in Group I and nil (0%) in Group II showing bone formation, thus showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups. By 6 week time interval, radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in 9 (90%) patients of Group I but in no patients of Group II, thereby showing a statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) difference between the two groups. In Group I, in 1 (10%) patient, graft was rejected by first week; however, no further graft rejection took place. In Group II, no case of graft rejection was reported. Conclusions: The

  1. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  2. Experimental evidence for the role of lipids in adherence of Candida spp. to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, M A; Burns, G R; Elteen, K A; Radwan, S S

    1986-01-01

    Lipids extracted from Candida albicans and C. tropicalis, but not from the weakly adherent C. pseudotropicalis, significantly blocked in vitro adherence of the respective yeast cells to buccal epithelial cells. The percentage of reduction from control values ranged between 16.4 and 42.1%, depending on the species, the strain, and the solvent used for lipid extraction. The constituent lipid classes of both the acetone and chloroform-methanol extracts of C. albicans ATCC 10231 were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The individual classes were isolated by preparative thin-layer chromatography and then tested for their effects on the adherence of this strain to buccal epithelial cells. Individual phospholipids, sterols, and steryl esters blocked adherence significantly (between 15.5 and 55.7% reduction). Triacylglycerols and free fatty acids showed no effect whatsoever. The same results were obtained when standard lipid samples were investigated. Images PMID:3759234

  3. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  4. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  5. Lyophilized wafers comprising carrageenan and pluronic acid for buccal drug delivery using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Antonijevic, Milan; Chowdhry, Babur; Boateng, Joshua S

    2013-03-01

    Lyophilized muco-adhesive wafers with optimum drug loading for potential buccal delivery have been developed. A freeze-annealing cycle was used to obtain optimized wafers from aqueous gels containing 2% κ-carrageenan (CAR 911), 4% pluronic acid (F127), 4.4% (w/w) polyethylene glycol with 1.8% (w/w) paracetamol or 0.8% (w/w) ibuprofen. Thermogravimetric analysis showed acceptable water content between 0.9 and 1.5%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed amorphous conversion for both drugs. Texture analysis showed ideal mechanical and mucoadhesion characteristics whilst both drugs remained stable over 6 months and drug dissolution at a salivary pH showed gradual release within 2h. The results show the potential of CAR 911 and F127 based wafers for buccal mucosa drug delivery.

  6. Three-dimensional quantitative imaging of telomeres in buccal cells identifies mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shubha; Glogowska, Aleksandra; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Righolt, Christiaan; Rutherford, Jaclyn; Willing, Cornelia; Banik, Upama; Ruthirakuhan, Myuri; Mai, Sabine; Garcia, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis of buccal cells of 82 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and cognitively normal age and gender-matched controls, we have for the first time examined changes in the 3D nuclear telomeric architecture of buccal cells among levels of AD severity based on five 3D parameters: i) telomere length, ii) telomere number, iii) telomere aggregation, iv) nuclear volume, and v) a/c ratio, a measure of spatial telomere distribution. Our data indicate that matched controls have significantly different 3D telomere profiles compared to mild, moderate, and severe AD patients (p < 0.0001). Distinct profiles were also evident for each AD severity group. An increase in telomere number and aggregation concomitant with a decrease in telomere length from normal to severe AD defines the individual stages of the disease (p < 0.0001).

  7. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  8. Sensory disturbances of buccal and lingual nerve by muscle compression: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-González, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies on cadavers dissection have shown that collateral branches of the trigeminal nerve cross muscle bundles on their way, being a possible etiological factor of some nerve disturbances. Case Report A 45-year-old man attended to the Temporomandibular Joint and Orofacial Pain Unit of the Master of Oral Surgery and Implantology in Hospital Odontològic of Barcelona University, referring tingling in the left hemifacial región and ipsilateral lingual side for one year, with discomfort when shaving or skin compression. Discussion Several branches of the trigeminal nerve follow a path through the masticatory muscles, being the lingual nerve and buccal nerve the most involved. The hyperactivity of the muscle bundles that are crossed by nerve structures generates a compression that could explain certain orofacial neuropathies (numbness and / or pain) in which a clear etiologic factor can not be identified. Key words:Buccal nerve, paresthesia, idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy. PMID:26855715

  9. Articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltration in securing mandibular first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine inferior alveolar nerve block: A randomized, double-blind crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, Giath; Alharbi, Abdullah Muteb; Al-Samadani, Khalid HidayatAllah; Kanaa, Mohammad Dib

    2015-01-01

    Aims: A crossover double-blind, randomized study was designed to explore the efficacy of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration and 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline buccal infiltration following 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) for testing pulp anesthesia of mandibular first molar teeth in adult volunteers. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 healthy adult volunteers received two regimens with at least 1-week apart; one with 4% articaine buccal infiltration and 2% mepivacaine IANB (articaine regimen) and another with 2% mepivacaine buccal infiltration supplemented to 2% mepivacaine IANB (mepivacaine regimen). Pulp testing of first molar tooth was electronically measured twice at baseline, then at intervals of 2 min for the first 10 min, then every 5 min until 45 min postinjection. Anesthetic success was considered when two consecutive maximal stimulation on pulp testing readings without sensation were obtained within 10 min and continuously sustained for 45 min postinjection. Results: In total, the number of no sensations to maximum pulp testing for first molar teeth were significantly higher after articaine regimen than mepivacaine during 45 min postinjection (267 vs. 250 episodes, respectively, P < 0.001), however, both articaine and mepivacaine buccal infiltrations are equally effective in securing anesthetic success for first molar pulp anesthesia when supplemented to mepivacaine IANB injections (P > 0.05). Interestingly, volunteers in the articaine regimen provided faster onset and longer duration (means 2.78 min, 42.22 min, respectively) than mepivacaine regimen (means 4.26 min, 40.74 min, respectively) for first molar pulp anesthesia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Supplementary mepivacaine and articaine buccal infiltrations produced similar successful first molar pulp anesthesia following mepivacaine IANB injections in volunteers. Articaine buccal infiltration produced faster onset and

  10. Role of specific determinants in mannan of Candida albicans serotype A in adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Y; Kuribayashi, T; Kagaya, K; Suzuki, M; Nakase, T; Fukazawa, Y

    1992-01-01

    Candida albicans serotype A (C. albicans A) possesses a specific antigen, designated antigen 6, which resides in mannans on the cell surface. To determine the role of the mannan moiety of the C. albicans cell wall in adherence to buccal epithelial cells, we used antigen 6-deficient mutants which had been isolated by screening with an agglutinating monoclonal antibody against antigen 6 (MAb-6). 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis of the purified mannans from the mutants showed a loss of the signals related to that beta-linkage of the side chains. Moreover, acetolyzed fragments of the mutant mannans showed a decreased amount of mannohexaose and mannopentaose. The mutant yeast cells exhibited significantly reduced ability to adhere both to exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and to a human buccal cell line. A number of strains of C. albicans A, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, all of which bear antigen 6, showed significantly higher adherence to the cell line than did those of C. albicans serotype B, which lack antigen 6. The whole mannan from the C. albicans A parent inhibited the adherence of C. albicans A to epithelial cells dose dependently, whereas mannan from a mutant strains did not. Moreover, C. albicans A treated with MAb-6 or polyclonal factor 6 serum showed reduced adherence. A close correlation was found between adhesive ability and agglutinability with MAb-6 in the C. albicans A parent, the antigenic mutants, and their spontaneous revertants. These results suggest that so far as mannan adhesion is concerned, serotype A-specific determinants are largely involved in the mechanisms of adherence of C. albicans A to human buccal epithelial cells. PMID:1375200

  11. Development and characterization of chitosan-polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex-based 5-fluorouracil formulations for buccal, vaginal and rectal application

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background of the study The present investigation was designed with the intention to formulate versatile 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) matrix tablet that fulfills the therapeutic needs that are lacking in current cancer treatment and aimed at minimizing toxic effect, enhancing efficacy and increasing patient compliance. The manuscript presents the critical issues of 5-FU associate with cancer and surpasses issues by engineering novel 5-FU matrix tablets utilizing chitosan- polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC). Methods Precipitation method is employed for preparation of chitosan and polycarbophil interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). 5-FU tablets were prepared by direct compression using IPEC. Six formulations were prepared with IPEC alone and in combination with chitosan, polycarbophil and Sodium deoxycholate. The formulations were tested for drug content, hardness, friability, weight variation, thickness, swelling studies, in vitro drug release (buccal, vaginal and rectal pH), ex vivo permeation studies, mucoadhesive strength and in vivo studies. Results FT-IR studies represent the change in spectra for the IPEC than single polymers.DSC study represents the different thermo gram for chitosan, polycarbophil and IPEC whereas in X-ray diffraction, crystal size alteration was observed. Formulations containing IPEC showed pH independent controlled 5-FU without an initial burst release effect in buccal, vaginal and rectal pH. Furthermore, F4 formulations showed controlled release 5-FU with highest bioadhesive property and satisfactory residence in both buccal and vaginal cavity of rabbit. 3% of SDC in formulation F6 exhibited maximum permeation of 5-FU. Conclusion The suitable combination of IPEC, chitosan and polycarbophil demonstrated potential candidate for controlled release of 5-FU in buccal, vaginal and rectal p

  12. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from Buccal Epithelial Cells, Small Amounts of Serum, and Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Halfon, Philippe; Ouzan, Denis; Khiri, Hacène; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Castellani, Paul; Oulès, Valerie; Kahloun, Asma; Amrani, Nolwenn; Fanteria, Lise; Martineau, Agnès; Naldi, Lou; Bourlière, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860) have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC), dried blood spots (DBS), and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. Methods Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL). Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days) Results There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies) as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies). These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. Conclusion We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:22412970

  13. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premaligant lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Chen, Jian Wen; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lee, Jeng-Woei

    2010-02-01

    One of the best strategies to prevent the occurrence of oral cancer is to eliminate oral precancers and block their further malignant transformation. Previous studies showed that photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy (photosan-PDT) is very effective for human head and neck cancers. To avoid the systemic photodynamic toxicity of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. Twelve 10-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were used in this study. DMBA was applied to the left buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks and mineral oil was painted on the right buccal pouches thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks as the normal controls. Six hamsters were euthanized for tissue harvest. Precancerous lesions of moderate to severe dysplasia were consistently induced and proven by histological examination. These induced precancerous lesions in the remaining 6 hamsters were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan-gel. We found that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan-gel. The precancerous lesions in 4 hamsters were treated with topical photosan-PDT using the 635-nm LED light once or twice a week. Complete regression of the precancerous lesions was found after 2-4 PDT treatments by visual and histological examination. Our findings indicate that topical photosan-PDT is a very effective treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  14. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  15. A novel approach to enhance the mucoadhesion of lipid drug nanocarriers for improved drug delivery to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Joanne D; Liu, Qingtao; Salentinig, Stefan; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J

    2014-08-25

    Targeted drug delivery to the buccal mucosa offers distinct advantages over oral delivery to the gastrointestinal tract including by-passing hepatic first-pass metabolism. However, the buccal route is often limited by low bioavailability, low drug loading and reduced residence time due to salivary excretion and clearance. To overcome these limitations, a novel mucoadhesive formulation based on liquid crystalline nanoparticles was designed. Utilising a pH induced in situ transition from a stable vesicle formulation to dispersed inverse hexagonal phase nanoparticles (hexosomes) enhanced adsorption onto the mucosal surface was enabled. Firstly, the phase behaviour of the amphiphilic lipid phytantriol (PHY) and oleic acid (OA) was assessed from pH 2-9 using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to determine the appropriate composition for the vesicle to hexosome transition. The colloidal stability of the formulation was determined using turbidity studies. Dispersions comprising 30% w/w OA in PHY were able to form stable vesicles at pH 8 and transition to hexosomes when exposed to pH<7 (as encountered on the buccal mucosal surface). Subsequent ex vivo studies utilising excised porcine buccal tissue indicated significant retention of the in situ-formed PHY/OA hexosomes when compared to control DOPC vesicles (p<0.005), confirmed independently using confocal fluorescence microscopy, radioactive scintillation counting and HPLC analysis for incorporated drug. Thus, a novel approach providing a stable vesicle formulation, with in situ transformation to mucoadhesive hexosomes has been identified with the potential to enhance drug delivery to mucosal surfaces.

  16. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  17. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  18. Tetraploidy with double t(11;18) of recurrent MALT lymphoma in buccal mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mituyoshi; Goto, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma that accounts for about 5% to 8% of all B-cell lymphomas. It is rare for a recurrent oral MALT lymphoma to have tetraploidy with a double t(11;18) chromosomal abnormality, however. A 66-year-old Japanese woman with a swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. A tumor was excised, and a pathologic diagnosis of MALT lymphoma with a t(11;18) (q21; q21) chromosome translocation was made. Two years later, swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred, which was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma. This tumor did not have a t(11;18) (q21; q21) chromosome translocation, but exhibited tetraploidy with double t(11;18). FISH analysis revealed that the recurrent MALT lymphoma of the buccal mucosa had tetraploidy with double t(11;18). This is the first reported case of a recurrent MALT lymphoma showing tetraploidy with double t(11;18).

  19. Articaine for supplemental buccal mandibular infiltration anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis when the inferior alveolar nerve block fails.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Rachel; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental buccal infiltration injection of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis when the conventional inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block failed. Fifty-five emergency patients, diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth, received an IAN block and had moderate to severe pain on endodontic access. An infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was administered buccal to the tooth requiring endodontic treatment. Success of the infiltration injection was defined as no pain or mild pain on endodontic access or instrumentation. The results showed that anesthetic success was obtained in 58% of the mandibular posterior teeth. We can conclude that when the IAN block fails to provide profound pulpal anesthesia, the supplemental buccal infiltration injection of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine would be successful 58% of the time for mandibular posterior teeth in patients presenting with irreversible pulpitis. Unfortunately, the modest success rate would not provide predictable pulpal anesthesia for all patients requiring profound anesthesia.

  20. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  1. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  2. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275 ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery.

  3. Adapting the buccal micronucleus cytome assay for use in wild birds: age and sex affect background frequency in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, G L; Somers, C M

    2012-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) formation has been used extensively as a biomarker of damage from genotoxic exposures. The Buccal MN Cytome (BMCyt) assay provides a noninvasive means of quantifying MN frequency in humans, but it has not been developed for use in wildlife. We adapted the BMCyt assay for use in wild birds, with a focus on feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a potential indicator species. Five of six urban bird species sampled using oral cavity swabs produced sufficient buccal cells for the BMCyt assay. The body size of species sampled ranged almost 100-fold (~60 to 5,000 g), but was a not major factor influencing the number of buccal cells collected. Pigeon cells were stained and scored following published BMCyt assay protocols for humans, but with a modified fixation approach using heat and methanol. Pigeons had the same common nuclear abnormalities reported in human studies, and a similar background MN formation frequency of 0.88 MN/1,000 cells. Adult pigeons had on average a threefold higher rate of MN formation than juveniles, and males had a 1.4- to 2.2-fold higher frequency than females. Domestic and feral pigeons did not differ in overall MN frequency. Our results indicate that the BMCyt assay can be used on wild birds, and could provide a means of assessing environmental genotoxicity in pigeons, a useful indicator species. However, bird age and sex are important factors affecting background MN frequency, and thereby the design of environmental studies.

  4. Effect of the color of intraradicular posts on the color of buccal gingiva: a clinical spectophotometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Wolleb, Karin; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test whether intraradicular posts of different colors induce different amounts of color change of the buccal gingiva. Twentythree patients in need of a post-and-core buildup at one endodontically treated incisor, canine, or premolar were included. Titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zi), and glass fiber (Gf) posts were consecutively inserted in each test tooth. Spectrophotometric color measurement of the buccal gingiva was performed prior to post bed preparation and after insertion of Ti, Zi, and Gf posts. For control purposes, the gingival color at the contralateral vital tooth was assessed. The differences of color components ΔL, Δa, and Δb and the total color difference (ΔE) between different experimental conditions were obtained. ΔE value of 3.7 was considered the threshold value for intraoral color distinction. The gingival thickness at test teeth was measured. No difference occurred with regard to the amount of gingival discoloration induced by different posts. In the majority of cases, posts did not exhibit a visible influence on the color of buccal gingiva. The gingiva at endodontically treated teeth presented a visible discoloration compared to the gingiva at vital teeth. The degree of gingival discoloration at endodontically treated teeth was correlated with the gingival thickness, with more pronounced discolorations in cases of thinner soft tissue.

  5. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds.

  6. The Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad: Anatomical Study of the New Flap for Skull Base Defect Reconstruction After Endoscopic Endonasal Transpterygoid Surgery.

    PubMed

    Golbin, Denis A; Lasunin, Nikolay V; Cherekaev, Vasily A; Polev, Georgiy A

    2017-02-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants: 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures: Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results: Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space.

  7. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25374837

  8. New Saliva DNA Collection Method Compared to Buccal Cell Collection Techniques for Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, NIKKI L.; COLE, SHELLEY A.; LAN, HAO-CHANG; CROSSA, ALDO; DEMERATH, ELLEN W.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene™ DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean ± SD = 154.9 ± 103.05 μg, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 ± 41.72 μg, 36.56; swab = 11.44 ± 7.39 μg, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 ± 6.19, 13.22 μg) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD260/OD280 and OD260/OD230 ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques. PMID:17421001

  9. New saliva DNA collection method compared to buccal cell collection techniques for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nikki L; Cole, Shelley A; Lan, Hao-Chang; Crossa, Aldo; Demerath, Ellen W

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies may require noninvasive methods for off-site DNA collection. We compared the DNA yield and quality obtained using a whole-saliva collection device (Oragene DNA collection kit) to those from three established noninvasive methods (cytobrush, foam swab, and oral rinse). Each method was tested on 17 adult volunteers from our center, using a random crossover collection design and analyzed using repeated-measures statistics. DNA yield and quality were assessed via gel electrophoresis, spectophotometry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification rate. The whole-saliva method provided a significantly greater DNA yield (mean +/- SD = 154.9 +/- 103.05 microg, median = 181.88) than the other methods (oral rinse = 54.74 +/- 41.72 microg, 36.56; swab = 11.44 +/- 7.39 microg, 10.72; cytobrush = 12.66 +/- 6.19, 13.22 microg) (all pairwise P < 0.05). Oral-rinse and whole-saliva samples provided the best DNA quality, whereas cytobrush and swab samples provided poorer quality DNA, as shown by lower OD(260)/OD(280) and OD(260)/OD(230) ratios. We conclude that both a 10-ml oral-rinse sample and 2-ml whole-saliva sample provide sufficient DNA quantity and better quality DNA for genetic epidemiological studies than do the commonly used buccal swab and brush techniques.

  10. Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales

    PubMed Central

    Goldbogen, Jeremy A.; Potvin, Jean; Shadwick, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae) represent not only some of the largest animals of all time, but also exhibit a wide range in intraspecific and interspecific body size. Balaenopterids are characterized by their extreme lunge-feeding behaviour, a dynamic process that involves the engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water at a high energetic cost. To investigate the consequences of scale and morphology on lunge-feeding performance, we determined allometric equations for fin whale body dimensions and engulfment capacity. Our analysis demonstrates that larger fin whales have larger skulls and larger buccal cavities relative to body size. Together, these data suggest that engulfment volume is also allometric, increasing with body length as . The positive allometry of the skull is accompanied by negative allometry in the tail region. The relative shortening of the tail may represent a trade-off for investing all growth-related resources in the anterior region of the body. Although enhanced engulfment volume will increase foraging efficiency, the work (energy) required to accelerate the engulfed water mass during engulfment will be relatively higher in larger rorquals. If the mass-specific energetic cost of a lunge increases with body size, it will have major consequences for rorqual foraging ecology and evolution. PMID:19939846

  11. Novel neutrophil inhibitory factor homologue in the buccal gland secretion of Lampetra japonica.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Bai, Jie; Sun, Jing; Wu, Yu; Yu, Shui Yan; Guo, Ren Yong; Liu, Xin; Li, Qing Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract To identify the functional gene fragment, a neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) like protein was found in the buccal gland of Lampetra japonica, suggesting that this related lamprey protein represents a novel class of integrin receptor antagonists. The recombinant Lampetra japonica-NIF like (rLj-NIF) was identified by SDS-PAGE and purified by using His·Bind affinity chromatography. Effect of rLj-NIF on neutrophil migration suggested that rLj-NIF can act as a neutrophil inhibitory factor. Besides that, oxidative burst activity of neutriphil was tested by flow cytometry using dihydrorhodamine (DHR123) as a fluorogenic substrate, and the data suggested that the mean fluorescence intensity significantly decreased compared with positive controls (p<0.01). All above results indicated that rLj-NIF could also prevent the binding of β2 integrins to the surface of PMN and its FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies (p<0.05). These data suggest that Lampetra japonica-NIF like protein is secreted by the stage of the parasite at the site of attachment. rLj-NIF plays an essential role in physiological reaction of neutrophil by a novel class of β2 integrin receptor antagonists. The activity of immunosuppressant of L. japonica-NIF could have potential medicinal value in anti-inflammation and therapy of autoimmune diseases.

  12. A Case of Buccal Abscess from an Impacted Wisdom Tooth in an Elderly Person with Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuki; Kojima, Mizuha; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiro; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of buccal abscess caused by an impacted wisdom tooth in an extremely elderly person with malnutrition. The patient was a 94-year-old man, who complained that he had found it hard to open his mouth and that his cheek had been swollen for the previous 2 weeks. He had a shallow oral wound caused by an improperly fitting denture; however, the wound became infected. We performed incisional drainage of the abscess under local anesthesia. The swelling disappeared and he was able to open his mouth 55 mm. The elderly have a high risk of healing failure of injuries and it has been reported that infection in a host in a compromised state is severely intractable. This elderly patient was in a compromised state because of malnutrition. Cases such as this one will increase as the elderly population increases. Dentists need to consider the quality of life of patients with a longer life expectancy and should offer patients several treatment options before their general condition deteriorates.

  13. Potential uses, limitations, and basic procedures of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique.

  14. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage.

  15. Arecoline-stimulated connective tissue growth factor production in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts: Modulation by curcumin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping

    2009-09-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is associated with the onset and progression of fibrosis in many human tissues. Areca nut (AN) chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). We immunohistochemically examined the expression of CTGF protein in 20 cases of OSF and found positive CTGF staining in fibroblasts and endothelial cells in all cases. Western blot analysis showed that arecoline, a main alkaloid found in AN, stimulated CTGF synthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in buccal mucosal fibroblasts. Constitutive overexpression of CTGF during AN chewing may enhance the fibrotic activity in OSF and play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. Pretreatment with NF-kappaB inhibitor Bay 11-7082, JNK inhibitor SP600125, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine, but not ERK inhibitor PD98059, significantly reduced arecoline-induced CTGF synthesis. Furthermore, curcumin completely inhibited arecoline-induced CTGF synthesis and the inhibition is dose-dependent. These results indicated that arecoline-induced CTGF synthesis was mediated by ROS, NF-kappaB, JNK, P38 MAPK pathways and curcumin could be a useful agent in controlling OSF.

  16. Alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate films for buccal delivery of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Suksri, Hatairat

    2009-11-01

    Sodium alginate-magnesium aluminum silicate (SA-MAS) dispersions with nicotine (NCT) were prepared at different pHs and characterized for the particle size and zeta potential, NCT adsorbed by MAS, and flow behavior before film casting. The physicochemical properties, NCT content, in vitro bioadhesive property, and NCT release and permeation of the NCT-loaded SA-MAS films were investigated. This study showed that incorporation of NCT into the SA-MAS dispersions caused a change in particle size and flow behavior and that NCT could be adsorbed by MAS. The formation of protonated NCT at acidic and neutral pHs could interact with negatively charged MAS via an electrostatic force, resulting in the formation of NCT-MAS flocculates/complexes that could act as microreservoirs in the films. The NCT-loaded SA-MAS films prepared at pH 5 yielded the highest NCT content due to non-significant loss of NCT during drying. Moreover, pH of the preparation also affected the crystallinity and thermal properties of the films. The NCT release and permeation across the mucosal membrane of the films could be described using a matrix diffusion controlled mechanism. In addition, the NCT-loaded SA-MAS films also possessed a bioadhesive property for adhesion to the mucosal membrane. This finding suggests that the NCT-loaded SA-MAS films composed of numerous NCT-MAS complexes as microreservoirs demonstrated a strong potential for use as a buccal delivery system.

  17. Vinyl acetate induces intracellular acidification in mouse oral buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Wagner, Mark; Melvin, James E; Bogdanffy, Matthew S

    2005-08-14

    Vinyl acetate exposure in drinking water has been associated with tumor formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. One potential mechanism for inducing carcinogenesis involves acidification of the intracellular environment due to the metabolism of vinyl acetate to acetic acid. Prolonged intracellular acidification is thought to produce cytotoxic and/or mitogenic responses that are the sentinel pharmacodynamic steps toward cancer. To determine whether exposure to vinyl acetate affects the intracellular pH of intact oral cavity tissue, isolated mouse oral buccal epithelium was loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then exposed to vinyl acetate concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 microM for up to 4 min. Extracellular vinyl acetate exposure induced a progressive intracellular acidification that was reversible upon removal of the vinyl acetate. The rate of the acidification was concentration-dependent and increased exponentially within the concentration range tested. The magnitude of the vinyl acetate-induced acidification was inhibited by pretreatment with the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vinyl acetate contributes to the generation and progression of oral cavity tumors via a process of intracellular acidification. Such a process has been proposed to have practical dose-response thresholds below which the intracellular environment can be maintained within homeostatic bounds and the contribution of exposure to carcinogenic risk is negligible.

  18. Application of hydrogel polymers for development of thyrotropin releasing hormone-loaded adhesive buccal patches.

    PubMed

    Chinwala, Maimoona G; Lin, Senshang

    2010-06-01

    To utilize hydrogels for fabricating thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) adhesive buccal patches, type of hydrogels such as polyacrylic acids (Polycarbophil AA1, Carbopols 934P, 974P and 971P), celluloses (HPMC K4M, K4MCR and K15M), polysaccharide (sodium alginate) and polyacrylic acid combinations with either cellulose or polysaccharide were evaluated for adhesion force, water uptake and swelling capacity. Upon the characterization of hydrogel polymers, TRH-loading of patches fabricated from these hydrogels was evaluated at various polymer concentrations, combinations and ratios and then in vitro release kinetics of TRH from these patches were studied. Results indicated that maximum adhesion force was shown by polyacrylic acids. Adhesive force of polymer combination mainly resulted from combination of adhesive force, according to ratio proportion used, of each polymer without any superimposed effect of polymer combination. Polycarbophil AA1 showed highest water uptake and swelling capacity. Maximum TRH-loading was obtained with sodium alginate and Polycarbophil AA1 and sodium alginate combination. TRH release profiles revealed that release was sustained from Polycarbophil AA1 and its combination with celluloses or polysaccharide at 2:1 level of polymer ratio. Based on adhesion, loading and release characteristics, patches of Polycarbophil AA1 with K4M, K4MCR and sodium alginate were concluded to be suitable for further development.

  19. Stafne's bone cavity: An unusual case with involvement of the buccal and lingual mandibular plates.

    PubMed

    Herranz-Aparicio, Judit; Figueiredo, Rui; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2014-02-01

    Lingual mandibular bone defects, also known as Stafne bone cavity (SC), are unilateral asymptomatic radiolucencies, generally seen in the mandibular angle, below the inferior alveolar canal. Although panoramic radiographies normally offer enough information to make a correct diagnosis, additional studies are often required, especially in atypical cases. The present report describes an atypical presentation of a Stafne's bone cavity in a 78 years-old male patient. In this particular case, an asymptomatic and radiolucid lesion was observed during a routine dental examination. The computed tomography (CT) showed an involvement of both lingual and buccal mandibular plates producing a tunnel-like lesion. No history of mandibular trauma or surgery was refered. An additional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was made to discard submandibular gland pathology and to confirm the diagnosis. Since SC is asymptomatic and nonprogressive, a conservative approach based in clinical and radiological follow-ups was considered to be the most suitable treatment option. Key words:Stafne bone cavity, lingual mandibular bone defect, case report.

  20. In vitro and in silico investigation of electrospun terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded buccal nanofibrous sheets.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Daróczi, Tünde Beáta; Tóth, Gergő; Zelkó, Romána

    2016-11-30

    Terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded nanofibrous buccal films were formulated with the aim to improve the solubility and dissolution behavior; thus, the local effectiveness of the antifungal agent. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan polymer composites were selected as delivery base in order to enhance the mucoadhesion of the fibrous films. The dissolution of terbinafine hydrochloride was carried out applying a stainless steel disc assembly and the terbinafine concentration was determined by HPLC-MS in selective ion monitoring mode. The prediction of the absorption behavior of the prepared fibrous samples in the human oral cavity was modeled using GastroPlus™ software. The result indicates that the fibrous films enabled fast and complete dissolution of the active agent. The drug absorption from the oral cavity could be minimized by the employment of the proper oral transit model. Because of the limited absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride from the oral mucosa the formulation can be beneficial in local administration in the case of hold and expectorate administration mode.

  1. Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Minasi, L B; Costa, E O A; Silva, D M; Melo, C O A; de Almeida, J G; Vieira, T C; Silva Júnior, R L; Ribeiro, C L; da Silva, C C; da Cruz, A D

    2011-12-12

    The frequency of micronuclei in both buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used as a biomarker of chromosomal damage and genome stability in human populations. We examined whether prolonged exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides leads to an increase in cytogenetic damage. The exposed group comprised 50 agricultural aviators, mainly from Central and Southeast regions of Brazil, who had inhaled agrochemicals for more than 10 years without personal protection equipment; the control group consisted of 17 men from the same regions, without indication of exposure to pesticides, There were three times higher frequencies of micronuclei (P < 0.05) and 2.5 times higher frequencies of binucleated cells in the aviators when compared to controls. However, cytotoxic alterations such as broken eggs and karyorrhexis did not present statistically significant differences between the exposed and control groups. Therefore, diverse agrochemicals used to combat pests in agriculture possess genotoxic effects in the oral mucosa of the agricultural pilots, as showed in this study.

  2. Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Nava, Arnulfo; Flores-García, Aurelio; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers as tools to evaluate genotoxicity is increasing recently. Methods that have been used previously to evaluate genomic instability are frequently expensive, complicated, and invasive. The micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) technique in buccal cells offers a great opportunity to evaluate in a clear and precise way the appearance of genetic damage whether it is present as a consequence of occupational or environmental risk. This technique is reliable, fast, relatively simple, cheap, and minimally invasive and causes no pain. So, it is well accepted by patients; it can also be used to assess the genotoxic effect derived from drug use or as a result of having a chronic disease. Furthermore the beneficial effects derived from changes in life style or taking additional supplements can also be evaluated. In the present paper, we aim to focus on the explanation of MN test and its usefulness as a biomarker; we further give details about procedures to perform and interpret the results of the test and review some factors that could have an influence on the results of the technique. PMID:24778463

  3. A Case of Buccal Abscess from an Impacted Wisdom Tooth in an Elderly Person with Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Mizuha; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiro; Sakaguchi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of buccal abscess caused by an impacted wisdom tooth in an extremely elderly person with malnutrition. The patient was a 94-year-old man, who complained that he had found it hard to open his mouth and that his cheek had been swollen for the previous 2 weeks. He had a shallow oral wound caused by an improperly fitting denture; however, the wound became infected. We performed incisional drainage of the abscess under local anesthesia. The swelling disappeared and he was able to open his mouth 55 mm. The elderly have a high risk of healing failure of injuries and it has been reported that infection in a host in a compromised state is severely intractable. This elderly patient was in a compromised state because of malnutrition. Cases such as this one will increase as the elderly population increases. Dentists need to consider the quality of life of patients with a longer life expectancy and should offer patients several treatment options before their general condition deteriorates. PMID:27957349

  4. 76 FR 65610 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2009 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009. The... reducing motor vehicle theft. The central feature of this program is the Federal Motor Vehicle...

  5. 77 FR 58500 - Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Final Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... thefts of model year (MY) 2010 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2010. The... reducing motor vehicle theft. The central feature of this program is the Federal Motor Vehicle...

  6. Teacher Manual in Visual-Motor-Perceptual Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramapo Central School District 1, Suffern, NY.

    The experimental program in visual-motor-perceptual training in Ramapo Central School District No. 1, Suffern, New York, was used as a guideline to prepare a detailed description of specific activities and exercises to be used by administrators and teachers. In the program, 80 visual-motor-perceptual handicapped children in first, second, and…

  7. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  8. GDE2 regulates subtype-specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-09-22

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non-cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons.

  9. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  10. Advanced motor-controller development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesster, L. E.; Zeitlin, D. B.; Hall, W. B.

    1983-06-01

    The purpose of this development program was to investigate a promising alternative technique for control of a squirrel cage induction motor for subsea propulsion or hydraulic power applications. The technique uses microprocessor based generation of the pulse width modulation waveforms, which in turn permits use of a true integral volt-second pulse width control for the generation of low harmonic content sine waves from a 3 phase Graetz transistor power bridge.

  11. Initiation system for low thrust motor igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Davis, D. P.; Shafer, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A test program was carried out to demonstrate an igniter motor initiation system utilizing the bimetallic material Pyrofuze for a solid propellant rocket with controlled low rate of thrust buildup. The program consisted of a series of vacuum ignition tests using a slab burning window motor that simulated the principal initial ballistic parameters of the full scale igniter motor. A Pyrofuze/pyrotechnic igniter system was demonstrated that uses a relatively low electrical current level for initiation and that eliminates the necessity of a pyrotechnic squib, with its accompanying accidental firing hazards and the typical basket of pyrotechnic pellets. The Pyrofuze ignition system does require an initial constraining of the igniter motor nozzle flow, and at the low initiating electrical current level the ignition delay time of this system was found to be quite sensitive to factors affecting local heat generation or loss rates.

  12. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  13. Thinking, Walking, Talking: Integratory Motor and Cognitive Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937

  14. Blood group antigen expression is involved in C. albicans interaction with buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Kolarich, Daniel; Pascovici, Dana; Packer, Nicolle H

    2017-02-01

    Human blood group polymorphisms are known to be determined by the expression of A, B or H antigens and the Lewis antigens. Protection against microbial infections has been associated with inheritance of polymorphisms in genes encoding and regulating the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in bodily secretions and epithelial tissue surfaces, subsequently resulting in the presentation of different glycosylated terminal antigens on the cell surface. We investigated the role of blood group antigens in diversifying the glycosylation of buccal epithelial cells (BEC) that line the oral cavity. Specifically, we characterized and statistically evaluated the expression of histo-blood group (A, B, O) antigens on N-and O-linked glycans from BEC membrane proteins of various individuals that represented different blood group type and secretor status using a porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PGC-LC-ESI-MS) based glycomics approach. From these BEC membrane proteins a total of 77 N-glycan and 96 O-glycan structures were structurally characterized from 19 individuals and relatively quantitated. The N-glycans from the secretor individuals did not express any A/B blood group determinants, but contained several terminal H-antigens. Apart from the non-secretors, the N-glycan profiles of BEC from all blood groups displayed similar glycan types, while varying in their relative intensities between individuals. However, multivariate analysis of the O-glycans from individuals displayed segregation patterns clearly associated with their blood group type and secretor status. In adhesion assays the oral pathogen Candida albicans showed a significantly higher interaction to blood group O type BECs relative to other blood groups.

  15. Nine-year experience with extended use of the commissure-based buccal musculomucosal flap.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin A; Kovács, Adorján F

    2003-03-01

    This study reports on the extended use of the commissure-based buccal musculomucosal (CBMM) flap. Large lip defects and medium-size intraoral defects have the general problem of being too large for primary closure to avoid a major functional and aesthetic impairment. Elaborate free flaps, such as axial flaps, although excellent in large defects, may not provide mucosa-equivalent sensitivity, motility, volume, and texture to replace lost tissue with a similar kind of tissue. A total of 60 flap procedures were performed with bilateral and unilateral flaps up to 7.5 x 4 cm in size. The partial and total upper and lower vermilion, gingivobuccal sulcus, floor of the mouth, lateral tongue margin, oropharynx, and hard and soft palates were reconstructed. Partial necrosis was seen in four flaps; all patients recovered with good oral function in speech and swallowing, good aesthetics, and prosthetic rehabilitation if necessary. The donor site could be closed primarily. In flaps with dorsal advancement, the mucosal excess above and below was closed, creating two small dog-ears. Facial expression and mouth opening returned to normal after less than 2 months. The parotid duct had to be marsupialized in large flap preparations, but this did never provoke stasis or infection. The two-point sensitivity of the flaps was, on average, equal to that of the nonoperated mucosa in intraindividual correlation, and the flaps lost, on average, 15 percent of their original size. In the authors' estimation, the results indicate a reliable and technically easy option for intraoral, medium-size defect reconstruction that yields sensitivity and facilitates the rehabilitation of oral function in speaking and ingestion.

  16. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity.

  17. Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive sol-gel composites of paclitaxel/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon Gil; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4 °C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37 °C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel.

  18. Impact of exposure to wood dust on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in exfoliated buccal and nasal cells.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Georg; Nersesyan, Armen; Kundi, Michael; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Ferk, Franziska; Jakse, Robert; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    Wood dust was classified by the IARC as a human carcinogen which causes sinonasal tumours. However, the exposure in different industries varies strongly and the risks of workers depend on the specific situation which can be assessed by the use of biomonitoring methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers who are exposed to low dust levels (below the permitted concentrations) with cytogenetic and biochemical methods. Micronuclei (MNi) which are indicative for genomic damage, nuclear buds which reflect gene amplification, binucleated cells which are caused by mitotic disturbances and acute cytotoxicity parameters (pyknosis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin, karyolysis) were monitored in buccal and nasal cells of workers of a veneer factory (n = 51) who are exposed to volatile wood-derived compounds, in carpenters of a furniture factory which use no synthetic chemicals (n=38) and in a control group (n = 65). Additionally, markers were measured in blood plasma which reflect inflammations (C-reactive protein, CRP) and the redox status, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidised low density proteins (oxLDL). No induction of micronucleated cells was observed in both epithelia in the two exposure groups while all other nuclear anomalies except pyknosis were increased; also one health-related biochemical marker (MDA) was significantly elevated in the workers. Taken together, the results of our study show that exposure to low levels of wood dust does not cause formation of MNi indicating that the cancer risks of the workers are not increased as a consequence of genetic damage while positive results were obtained in earlier studies with workers who are exposed to high dust levels. However, our findings indicate that wood dust causes cytotoxic effects which may lead to inflammations.

  19. Fasciocutaneous flap reinforcement of ventral onlay buccal mucosa grafts enables neophallus revision urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stelios C.; Stranix, John T.; Khurana, Kiranpreet; Morrison, Shane D.; Levine, Jamie P.; Zhao, Lee C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urethral strictures or fistulas are common complications after phalloplasty. Neourethral defects pose a difficult reconstructive challenge using standard techniques as there is generally insufficient ventral tissue to support a graft urethroplasty. We report our experience with local fasciocutaneous flaps for support of ventrally-placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in phalloplasty. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent phalloplasty and subsequently required revision urethroplasty using BMGs between 2011 and 2015 was completed. Techniques, complications, additional procedures, and outcomes were examined. Results: A total of three patients previously underwent phalloplasty with sensate radial forearm free flaps (RFFFs): two female-to-male (FTM) gender reassignment, and one oncologic penectomy. Mean age at revision urethroplasty was 41 years (range 31–47). Indications for surgery were: one meatal stenosis, four urethral strictures (mean length 3.6 ± 2.9 cm), and two urethrocutaneous fistulas. The urethral anastomosis at the base of the neophallus was the predominant location for complications: 3/4 strictures, and 2/2 fistulas. Medial thigh (2) or scrotal (1) fasciocutaneous flaps were used to support the BMG for urethroplasty. One stricture recurrence at 3 years required single-stage ventral BMG urethroplasty supported by a gracilis musculocutaneous flap. All patients were able to void from standing at mean follow up of 8.7 months (range 6–13). A total of two patients (66%) subsequently had successful placement of a penile prosthesis. Conclusions: Our early results indicate that local or regional fasciocutaneous flaps enable ventral placement of BMGs for revision urethroplasty after phalloplasty. PMID:27904649

  20. Energy efficient motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    This TechData Sheet is intended to help activity personnel identify cost effective energy projects for energy efficient motors. With this guide an energy manager can identify when an energy efficient induction motor should be used.

  1. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  2. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purchase of new motor... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501 Purchase of new motor vehicles. (a) It shall be the policy to procure commercially available motor vehicles, unless other vehicles...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.501 - Purchase of new motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Purchase of new motor... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.501 Purchase of new motor vehicles. (a) It shall be the policy to procure commercially available motor vehicles, unless other vehicles...

  5. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  6. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Wallaschek, J.

    1994-12-31

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors are a new type of actuator. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. They also provide a high holding torque even if no power is applied. Compared to electromagnetic actuators the torque per volume ratio of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors can be higher by an order of magnitude. Recently various types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors have been developed for industrial applications. This paper describes several types of piezoelectric ultrasonic motors.

  7. New insights into sucking, swallowing and breathing central generators: A complexity analysis of rhythmic motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul; Quenet, Brigitte; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian

    2017-01-18

    Sucking, swallowing and breathing are dynamic motor behaviors. Breathing displays features of chaos-like dynamics, in particular nonlinearity and complexity, which take their source in the automatic command of breathing. In contrast, buccal/gill ventilation in amphibians is one of the rare motor behaviors that do not display nonlinear complexity. This study aimed at assessing whether sucking and swallowing would also follow nonlinear complex dynamics in the newborn lamb. Breathing movements were recorded before, during and after bottle-feeding. Sucking pressure and the integrated EMG of the thyroartenoid muscle, as an index of swallowing, were recorded during bottle-feeding. Nonlinear complexity of the whole signals was assessed through the calculation of the noise limit value (NL). Breathing and swallowing always exhibited chaos-like dynamics. The NL of breathing did not change significantly before, during or after bottle-feeding. On the other hand, sucking inconsistently and significantly less frequently than breathing exhibited a chaos-like dynamics. Therefore, the central pattern generator (CPG) that drives sucking may be functionally different from the breathing CPG. Furthermore, the analogy between buccal/gill ventilation and sucking suggests that the latter may take its phylogenetic origin in the gill ventilation CPG of the common ancestor of extant amphibians and mammals.

  8. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  9. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2011-06-07

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  10. System and method to determine electric motor efficiency using an equivalent circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Habetler, Thomas G.

    2015-10-27

    A system and method for determining electric motor efficiency includes a monitoring system having a processor programmed to determine efficiency of an electric motor under load while the electric motor is online. The determination of motor efficiency is independent of a rotor speed measurement. Further, the efficiency is based on a determination of stator winding resistance, an input voltage, and an input current. The determination of the stator winding resistance occurs while the electric motor under load is online.

  11. Auditory-Motor Interactions in Pediatric Motor Speech Disorders: Neurocomputational Modeling of Disordered Development

    PubMed Central

    Terband, H.; Maassen, B.; Guenther, F.H.; Brumberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Differentiating the symptom complex due to phonological-level disorders, speech delay and pediatric motor speech disorders is a controversial issue in the field of pediatric speech and language pathology. The present study investigated the developmental interaction between neurological deficits in auditory and motor processes using computational modeling with the DIVA model. Method In a series of computer simulations, we investigated the effect of a motor processing deficit alone (MPD), and the effect of a motor processing deficit in combination with an auditory processing deficit (MPD+APD) on the trajectory and endpoint of speech motor development in the DIVA model. Results Simulation results showed that a motor programming deficit predominantly leads to deterioration on the phonological level (phonemic mappings) when auditory self-monitoring is intact, and on the systemic level (systemic mapping) if auditory self-monitoring is impaired. Conclusions These findings suggest a close relation between quality of auditory self-monitoring and the involvement of phonological vs. motor processes in children with pediatric motor speech disorders. It is suggested that MPD+APD might be involved in typically apraxic speech output disorders and MPD in pediatric motor speech disorders that also have a phonological component. Possibilities to verify these hypotheses using empirical data collected from human subjects are discussed. PMID:24491630

  12. Topical treatment of the buccal mucosa and wounded skin in rats with a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel prepared using an electron beam.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon Gil; Baek, Eun Jung; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Nho, Young-Chang; Lim, Youn-Mook; Park, Jong-Seok; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Huh, Kang Moo; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2013-04-15

    In this study, a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel was prepared by electron beam irradiation and evaluated for use as a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system. A poloxamer was modified to have vinyl end groups for preparation of the hydrogel via an irradiation cross-linking reaction. Carbopol was introduced to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogel. The in vitro release of triamcinolone acetonide from the hydrogel was examined at 37 °C. To investigate the topical therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide on wounded rat skin and buccal mucosa, the appearance and histological changes were evaluated for 15 days after treatment with saline, triamcinolone acetonide solution, triamcinolone acetonide hydrogel, and blank hydrogel, respectively. Triamcinolone acetonide was released constantly from the gel formulation at 37 °C and reach 100% at about 48 h. After 15 days, in the skin of the group treated with the triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel, the wound was almost completely free of crust and a number of skin appendages, including hair follicles, had formed at the margins of the tissue. Moreover, the inflammatory response in the buccal mucosa was milder than that in the other groups, and the wound surface was completely covered with regenerating, hyperkeratotic, thickened epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the triamcinolone-acetonide hydrogel showed sustained drug release behavior, while causing no significant histopathological changes in buccal and skin tissues. Therefore, this hydrogel system may be a powerful means of drug delivery for buccal administration with controlled release and no tissue irritation.

  13. Effect of HPMC and mannitol on drug release and bioadhesion behavior of buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride: In-vitro and in-vivo pharmacokinetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Jaipal, A.; Pandey, M.M.; Charde, S.Y.; Raut, P.P.; Prasanth, K.V.; Prasad, R.G.

    2014-01-01

    Delivery of orally compromised therapeutic drug molecules to the systemic circulation via buccal route has gained a significant interest in recent past. Bioadhesive polymers play a major role in designing such buccal dosage forms, as they help in adhesion of designed delivery system to mucosal membrane and also prolong release of drug from delivery system. In the present study, HPMC (release retarding polymer) and mannitol (diluent and pore former) were used to prepare bioadhesive and controlled release buccal discs of buspirone hydrochloride (BS) by direct compression method. Compatibility of BS with various excipients used during the study was assessed using DSC and FTIR techniques. Effect of mannitol and HPMC on drug release and bioadhesive strength was studied using a 32 factorial design. The drug release rate from delivery system decreased with increasing levels of HPMC in formulations. However, bioadhesive strength of formulations increased with increasing proportion of HPMC in buccal discs. Increased levels of mannitol resulted in faster rate of drug release and rapid in vitro uptake of water due to the formation of channels in the matrix. Pharmacokinetic studies of designed bioadhesive buccal discs in rabbits demonstrated a 10-fold increase in bioavailability in comparison with oral bioavailability of buspirone reported. PMID:26106280

  14. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  15. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  16. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  17. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model

    PubMed Central

    Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; Mohan, Kurapathy Venkata Poorna Chandra; Prathiba, Duvuru; Hara, Yukihiko; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relative chemopreventive efficacy of two black tea polyphenols, Polyphenon-B [P-B] and BTF-35 on 7,12-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Methods Hamsters were divided into 6 groups. The right buccal pouches of animals in groups 1–3 were painted with 0.5% of DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. While hamsters in group 1 received no further treatment, animals in groups 2 and 3 received diet containing 0.05% P-B and BTF-35 respectively, four weeks before DMBA painting that was continued until the end of the experiments. Animals in groups 4 and 5 were given P-B and BTF-35 alone respectively as in groups 2 and 3. Group 6 animals served as the untreated control. All the animals were sacrificed after 18 weeks. The expression of p21, cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-P), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), cytokeratins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was analysed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Results DMBA treated animals developed buccal pouch carcinomas that displayed increased expression of p21, cyclin D1, GST-P, NF-κB, cytokeratins, VEGF and Bcl-2 with decreased expression of Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP. Dietary administration of both P-B and BTF-35 reduced the incidence of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by modulating markers of cell proliferation, cell survival, tumour infiltration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Conclusion The results of the present study provide a mechanistic basis for the chemopreventive potential of black tea polyphenols. The greater efficacy of BTF-35 in inhibiting HBP carcinogenesis and modulating multiple molecular targets may have a potential role in the prevention of oral cancer. PMID:18053169

  18. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Teresa W.; Vermeulen, Roel C.H.; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S.; Silverman, Debra T.; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In China’s rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P < 0.005), including the 2-fold increase of proinflammatory IL8 and decrease of proapoptotic CASP3. This signature was more correlated with carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Benzo[a]pyrene; r = 0.41) than with non-carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Fluorene; r = 0.08) or PM2.5 (r = 0.05). Genes altered with smoky coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q < 0.05). This is the first study to identify a signature of buccal epithelial gene-expression that is associated with smoky coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk. PMID:26468118

  19. Buccal Swabbing as a Noninvasive Method To Determine Bacterial, Archaeal, and Eukaryotic Microbial Community Structures in the Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Michelle R.; Jonker, Arjan; McCulloch, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of rumen microbial community structure based on small-subunit rRNA marker genes in metagenomic DNA samples provides important insights into the dominant taxa present in the rumen and allows assessment of community differences between individuals or in response to treatments applied to ruminants. However, natural animal-to-animal variation in rumen microbial community composition can limit the power of a study considerably, especially when only subtle differences are expected between treatment groups. Thus, trials with large numbers of animals may be necessary to overcome this variation. Because ruminants pass large amounts of rumen material to their oral cavities when they chew their cud, oral samples may contain good representations of the rumen microbiota and be useful in lieu of rumen samples to study rumen microbial communities. We compared bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic community structures in DNAs extracted from buccal swabs to those in DNAs from samples collected directly from the rumen by use of a stomach tube for sheep on four different diets. After bioinformatic depletion of potential oral taxa from libraries of samples collected via buccal swabs, bacterial communities showed significant clustering by diet (R = 0.37; analysis of similarity [ANOSIM]) rather than by sampling method (R = 0.07). Archaeal, ciliate protozoal, and anaerobic fungal communities also showed significant clustering by diet rather than by sampling method, even without adjustment for potentially orally associated microorganisms. These findings indicate that buccal swabs may in future allow quick and noninvasive sampling for analysis of rumen microbial communities in large numbers of ruminants. PMID:26276109

  20. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) from a topical mucoadhesive gel containing propolis.

    PubMed

    Ceschel, G C; Maffei, P; Sforzini, A; Lombardi Borgia, S; Yasin, A; Ronchi, C

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that propolis has on the oral cavity appreciable antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions, as well as anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and cytostatic properties. In light of these studies, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful as a possible application in the stomatological field. To do so, a mucoadhesive topical gel was prepared to apply to the buccal mucosa. The gel was formulated in such a way as to improve the solubility of the propolis, conducting to an increase of the flux. The mucosal permeation of CAPE from the formulation was evaluated using Franz cells, with porcine buccal mucosa as septum between the formulation (donor compartment) and the receptor phase chamber. The diffusion through the membrane was determined by evaluating the amount of CAPE present in the receiving solution, the flux and the permeation coefficient (at the steady state) in the different formulations at set intervals. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were done by HPLC analysis. From the results, CAPE allowed a high permeability coefficient in comparison to the coefficient of other molecules, as expected from its physical-chemical structure. Moreover, the developed gel improved the CAPE flux approximately 35 times more with respect to an ethanol solution formulated at the same gel concentration. The developed gel was also tested in order to evaluate the mucoadhesive behaviour and comfort in vivo on 10 volunteers in a period of 8 h. The in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive gel revealed adequate comfort and non-irritancy during the period of study and it was well accepted by the volunteers.

  1. Urinary cyclophosphamide excretion and micronuclei frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes and in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of nurses handling antineoplastics.

    PubMed

    Burgaz, S; Karahalil, B; Bayrak, P; Taşkin, L; Yavuzaslan, F; Bökesoy, I; Anzion, R B; Bos, R P; Platin, N

    1999-02-02

    In this study, urinary cyclophosphamide (CP) excretion rate, as well as micronuclei (MN) in peripheral lymphocytes and in buccal epithelial cells were determined for 26 nurses handling antineoplastics and 14 referents matched for age and sex. In urine samples of 20 out of 25 exposed nurses CP excretion rate was found in a range of 0.02-9.14 microg CP/24 h. Our results of the analyses of CP in urine demonstrates that when the nurses were handling CP (and other antineoplastic drugs) this particular compound was observed in urine. The mean values (+/-SD) of MN frequencies (%) in peripheral lymphocytes from the nurses and controls were 0.61 (+/-0. 32) and 0.28 (+/-0.16), respectively (p<0.01). The mean value (+/-SD) of MN frequency (%) in buccal epithelial cells of nurses was 0.16 (+/-0.19) and also mean MN frequency in buccal epithelial cells for controls was found to be as 0.08 (+/-0.08), (p>0.05). Age, sex and smoking habits have not influenced the parameters analyzed in this study. Handling time of antineoplastics, use of protective equipment and handling frequency of drugs have no effect on urinary and cytogenetic parameters analyzed. No correlation was found between the urinary CP excretion and the cytogenetic findings in nurses. Neither could we find any relationship between two cytogenetic endpoints. Our results have identified the possible genotoxic damage of oncology nurses related to occupational exposure to at least one antineoplastic agent, which is used as a marker for drug handling. As a whole, there is concern that the present handling practices of antineoplastic drugs used in the several hospitals in Ankara will not be sufficient to prevent exposure.

  2. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-12-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P < 0.005), including the 2-fold increase of proinflammatory IL8 and decrease of proapoptotic CASP3. This signature was more correlated with carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Benzo[a]pyrene; r = 0.41) than with non-carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Fluorene; r = 0.08) or PM2.5 (r = 0.05). Genes altered with smoky coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q < 0.05). This is the first study to identify a signature of buccal epithelial gene-expression that is associated with smoky coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk.

  3. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  4. Development of Ulta-Efficient Electric Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Shoykhet, B.; Schiferl, R.; Duckworth, R.; Rey, C.M.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Gouge, M.J.

    2008-05-01

    . Between the HTS field winding and the physical air gap is a series of concentric cylinders that act as vacuum insulation space walls as well as conducting paths for induced currents to flow in order to shield the HTS winding and the rotor cold space from time dependent fields. These time dependent fields may be caused by rotor hunting, during a change in motor load, or by non-fundamental component voltages and currents applied by the inverter. These motors are variable speed controlled by the inverter. Common large motor utility and industrial applications are pump and fan drives that are best suited by a variable speed motor. Inverter control of the HTS motor eliminates the need to design the rotor for line starting, which would dump a large amount of heat into the rotor that would then heavily tax the cryogenic cooling system. The field winding is fed by a brushless exciter that provides DC current to the HTS rotor winding. The stator winding is air or water cooled. Technical and commercial hurdles to industrial HTS motor product introduction and customer acceptance include (1) the high cost of HTS wire and the cryogenic cooling system components, (2) customer concerns about reliability of HTS motors, and (3) the ability to attain the loss reduction potential of large HTS motors. Reliance Electric has demonstrated a number of HTS based electric motors up to a 1000 hp, variable speed synchronous motor with an HTS field winding in the year 2000. In 2001 this motor was tested to 1600 hp with a sinusoidal (constant frequency) supply. Figure 1-2 shows the HTS motor on the dynamometer test stand in the Reliance Electric test lab. The extensive test program of the 1000 hp motor successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of large HTS motors and the basic technologies involved, however the test results did indicate the need for design refinements. In addition, test results served to identify other more fundamental critical technology issues, and revealed the need to

  5. Piezoceramic Ultrasonic Motor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.S.

    1999-02-24

    The objective of this project was to team Aerotech and AlliedSignal FM and T (AS) to develop a cost-efficient process for small-batch, high performance PZT motor production. Aerotech would acquire the basic process expertise in motor fabrication, assembly, and testing from AS. Together, Aerotech and AS were to identify appropriate process improvements, focusing on raw material quality, manufacturing processes, and durability assessment. Aerotech would then design and build a motor in consultation with AS. Aerotech engineering observed motor manufacturing in the AS piezo lab and worked side by side with AS personnel to build and test a prototype motor to facilitate learning the technology. Using information from AS and hands-on experience with the AS motor drive system enabled Aerotech to design and build its own laboratory drive system to operate motors. The team compiled information to establish a potential piezo motor users' list, and an intellectual property search was conducted to understand current patent and IP (intellectual property) status of motor design. Work was initiated to identify and develop an American source for piezo motor elements; however, due to manpower restraints created by the resignation of the AS Ph.D. ceramist responsible for these tasks, the project schedule slipped. The project was subsequently terminated before significant activities were accomplished. AS did, however, provide Aerotech with contacts in Japanese industry that are willing and capable of supplying them with special design motor elements.

  6. A case of extensive genitourinary tuberculosis: combined augmentation ileo-cystoplasty, ureteric ileal replacement and buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh, Onkar; Gupta, Shilpi Singh; Arvind, Nand Kishore

    2013-09-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is the second most common form of extrapulmonary TB after lymph nodes. Advanced GUTB leading to strictures of ureters and urethra, and bladder contracture frequently need surgical management. These are usually treated by ileal replacement of ureter, substitution urethroplasty using buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and augmentation ileo-cystoplasty, respectively. These procedures have been well demonstrated individually but all these three procedures have never been combined as single procedure in the same patient. We report a case of advanced GUTB with ureteric and urethral strictures, and bladder contracture which was treated by the ileal replacement of ureter, augmentation ileo-cystoplasty combined with BMG substitution urethroplasty in a single sitting.

  7. Reconstruction of partial maxillectomy defect with a buccal fat pad flap and application of 4-hexylresorcinol: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common type of malignant neoplasm in the minor salivary gland. The hard palate is a frequently involved site of MEC. The treatment of low-grade MEC on the hard palate is wide local resection with a tumor-free margin. In the present case, the maxillary defect was reconstructed using a buccal fat pad (BFP) flap, followed by application of 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) ointment for 2 weeks. The grafted BFP successfully covered the tumor resection defect without tension and demonstrated complete re-epithelialization without any complications. PMID:28053908

  8. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  9. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  10. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  11. Development and characterization of Eudragit based mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Vasantha, Prasanth Viswanadhan; Puratchikody, Ayarivan; Mathew, Sam Thomarayil; Balaraman, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is ∼40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using Eudragit L-100, HPMC, PVA and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using PEG-400/PG as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.23 ± 0.008 and 0.59 ± 0.007 mm and mass varied between 65.23 ± 3.3 and 117.92 ± 4.2 mg. Patches showed an increase in mass and swelling index with PEG-400 when compared with PG. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. Formulations E7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PEG-400), E12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PEG-400), F7 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 15 mL HPMC K4M, 7.5 mL PVA and 2 mL PG), and F12 (7.5 mL Eudragit L-100, 7.5 mL PVA, 15 mL Carbopol and 2 mL PG) showed high folding endurance. Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 101 and 110 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 99.93% over a period of 120 min for formulation F12. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations E7 and F7 were best fitted to the non-Fickian, where as formulations E12 and F12 showed Fickian/anomalous drug release. Stability studies indicated that there was no change in the chemical and physical characteristics during the test period. PMID:23960761

  12. Thermosensitive and Mucoadhesive Sol-Gel Composites of Paclitaxel/Dimethyl-β-Cyclodextrin for Buccal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Bong-Seok; Ng, Choon Lian; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DMβCD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4°C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37°C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel. PMID:25275485

  13. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy Jean

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  14. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  15. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology. PMID:23429761

  16. Treatment of a large postextraction buccal wall defect with mineralized allograft, β-TCP, and rhPDGF-BB: a growth factor-mediated bone regenerative approach.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Buccal wall defects following tooth removal are frequent in the anterior portions of the mandible and maxilla. Common reasons for such defects include thin buccal bone, preexisting periodontal disease, bundle bone resorption, difficult orthodontic movement, and traumatic extractions. Regeneration of the postextraction defect with vital, well-vascularized, dense bone is critical to a successful implant-supported restoration. This case report examines the effectiveness of using a composite graft of freeze-dried bone allograft and β-tricalcium phosphate plus recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB to regenerate healthy, dense bone in a large mandibular anterior buccal wall defect. The importance of access to the overlying periosteum as a readily available source of osteogenic cells in growth factor-mediated bone regenerative procedures is emphasized.

  17. A finite element code for electric motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, C. Warren

    1994-01-01

    FEMOT is a finite element program for solving the nonlinear magnetostatic problem. This version uses nonlinear, Newton first order elements. The code can be used for electric motor design and analysis. FEMOT can be embedded within an optimization code that will vary nodal coordinates to optimize the motor design. The output from FEMOT can be used to determine motor back EMF, torque, cogging, and magnet saturation. It will run on a PC and will be available to anyone who wants to use it.

  18. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  19. Electronically commutated dc motors for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, E. A.

    A motor development program to explore the feasibility of electronically commutated dc motors (also known as brushless) for electric cars is described. Two different design concepts and a number of design variations based on these concepts are discussed. One design concept is based on a permanent magnet, medium speed, machine rated at 7000 to 9000 rpm, and powered via a transistor inverter power conditioner. The other concept is based on a permanent magnet, high speed, machine rated at 22,000 to 26,000 rpm, and powered via a thyristor inverter power conditioner. Test results are presented for a medium speed motor and a high speed motor each of which have been fabricated using samarium cobalt permanent magnet material.

  20. Time-dependent reduction of structural complexity of the buccal epithelial cell nuclei after treatment with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pantic, I; Paunovic, J; Perovic, M; Cattani, C; Pantic, S; Suzic, S; Nesic, D; Basta-Jovanovic, G

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) may affect cell DNA structure in in vitro conditions. In this paper, we present the results indicating that AgNPs change nuclear complexity properties in isolated human epithelial buccal cells in a time-dependent manner. Epithelial buccal cells were plated in special tissue culture chamber / slides and were kept at 37°C in an RPMI 1640 cell culture medium supplemented with L-glutamine. The cells were treated with colloidal silver nanoparticles suspended in RPMI 1640 medium at the concentration 15 mg L⁻¹. Digital micrographs of the cell nuclei in a sample of 30 cells were created at five different time steps: before the treatment (controls), immediately after the treatment, as well as 15 , 30 and 60 min after the treatment with AgNPs. For each nuclear structure, values of fractal dimension, lacunarity, circularity, as well as parameters of grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture, were determined. The results indicate time-dependent reduction of structural complexity in the cell nuclei after the contact with AgNPs. These findings further suggest that AgNPs, at concentrations present in today's over-the-counter drug products, might have significant effects on the cell genetic material.