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Sample records for buccal mucosa graft

  1. Autologous buccal mucosa graft augmentation for foreshortened vagina.

    PubMed

    Grimsby, Gwen M; Bradshaw, Karen; Baker, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal foreshortening after pelvic surgery or radiotherapy may lead to dyspareunia and decreased quality of life. Unfortunately, little literature exists regarding treatment options for this debilitating problem. Autologous buccal mucosal grafting has been previously reported for creation of a total neovagina and the repair of postvaginoplasty vaginal stenosis. Autologous buccal mucosa offers several advantages as a replacement material for vaginal reconstruction. Vaginal and oral buccal mucosa are both hairless, moist, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia. Buccal mucosa has a dense layer of elastic fibers, imparting both elasticity and strength, and acquires a robust neovascularity with excellent graft take. The graft material is readily available and donor site scars are hidden in the mouth. A 60-year-old woman had vaginal foreshortening to 4.5 cm 15 years after radical hysterectomy and brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. She was unable to have intercourse despite attempted vaginal dilation. Her foreshortened vagina was successfully augmented with autologous buccal mucosa grafting at the apex, increasing her vaginal length to 8 cm and permitting pain-free intercourse. Even in the face of an altered surgical field after radical hysterectomy and radiation, autologous buccal mucosa is an option for vaginal reconstruction for vaginal foreshortening.

  2. Outcome of buccal mucosa and lingual mucosa graft urethroplasty in the management of urethral strictures: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Sharad; Yadav, Sher Singh; Tomar, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the outcome of buccal and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) augmentation urethroplasty along with donor sites morbidities in anterior urethra stricture. Subjects and Methods: From September 2010 to January 2014, 125 patients underwent single stage augmentation urethroplasty. They were randomly divided into two groups to receive either buccal mucosa graft (BMG) or LMG. The patients were prospectively followed for complications and outcome. Results: Baseline characteristics such as mean age, etiology, stricture length, and location were comparable in both groups. Overall success rate for Group 1 and Group 2 were 69.2% and 80%, respectively. Mean follow-up periods were 28.2 and 25 months in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Conclusions: LMG provides the better outcome with fewer immediate and delayed complications as compared to BMG. The length of stricture and width of graft were main factors affecting the outcome. PMID:26834399

  3. Corporoplasty using buccal mucosa graft in Peyronie disease: is it a first choice?

    PubMed

    Zucchi, Alessandro; Silvani, Mauro; Pastore, Antonio Luigi; Fioretti, Fabrizio; Fabiani, Andrea; Villirillo, Tommaso; Costantini, Elisabetta

    2015-03-01

    To assesses the surgical and functional efficacy of corporoplasty with buccal mucosa graft, patients and partner's satisfaction, and the low cost of this operation. Biocompatible tissues are frequently used during corporoplasty, but they are expensive and often do not match the thickness and elasticity of the tunica albuginea, leading to fibrosis and scar retraction. Buccal mucosa graft is not usually emphasized in many review articles and clinical studies are limited. Thirty-two patients with stable disease and normal erections were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent corporoplasty with plaque incision and buccal mucosa graft. Preoperative International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and penile duplex ultrasonographies with measurement of curvature were conducted. At 6 and 12 months postoperatively, patients answered the IIEF and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement questionnaires. Patient and partner satisfaction were recorded at all subsequent visits. Thirty-two patients underwent corporoplasty between 2006 and 2013, and no major complications developed in any patient. After 1 year, curvature relapse was present in 1 patient (3.5%), and 1 patient had slight erectile dysfunction. IIEF values had significantly improved 1 year after surgery (P = .031). Patient satisfaction was 85% on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement questionnaire. Twenty-five of 28 partners were satisfied (90%). Data analysis confirmed the stability of the IIEF score in 16 patients after 2 years (mean IIEF score, 21.3). Corporoplasty with buccal mucosa graft is easy to perform and represents a good treatment choice for most forms of Peyronie disease with curvature preventing penetration and sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of buccal mucosa in hypospadias repair.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Diaz, Omar; Castellan, Miguel; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Hypospadias is an embryological disorder that results in an abnormal ventral positioning of the urethral meatus. Among multiple surgical techniques described to correct this anomaly, the use of buccal mucosa grafts has gained popularity among pediatric urologists, pediatric surgeons and plastic surgeons. Buccal mucosa grafts have shown favorable histological changes that result in an excellent scaffold for urethral reconstructive surgery. This review describes the evolution of the use of buccal mucosa grafts in hypospadias repair.

  5. A case report on buccal mucosa graft for upper ureteral stricture repair

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Thakur, Naveen; Kankalia, Sharad Kumar; Satav, Vikram Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Management of ureteric stricture especially long length upper one-third poses a challenging job for most urologists. With the successful use of buccal mucosa graft (BMG) for stricture urethra leads the foundation for its use in ureteric stricture also. A 35-year-old male diagnosedcase of left upper ureteric stricture, postureteroscopy with left percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) in situ. Cysto-retrograde pyelography and nephrostogram done simultaneously suggestive of left upper ureteric stricture of 3 cm at L3 level. On exploration, diseased ureteral segment exposed, BMG harvested and sutured as onlay patch graft with supportive omental wrap. The treatment choice for upper ureteric long length stricture is inferior nephropexy, autotransplantation, or bowel interposition. With PCN in situ, inferior nephropexy becomes technically difficult, other two are morbid procedures. Use of BMG in this situation is technically better choice with all the advantages of buccal mucosa. Onlay BMG for ureteral stricture is technically easy, less morbid procedure and can be important choice in future. PMID:28057996

  6. [Urethroplasty with buccal mucosa graft or penile skin graft for anterior urethral stricture?].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Alvaro

    2015-06-04

    Currently the treatment for urethral stricture considers various techniques, including augmentation urethroplasty using tissue from different parts of the body. The more used are the buccal mucosa and penile skin, but are there any differences in success between both tissues? Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified one systematic review including 18 primary studies addressing this question, six of them prospective. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded there is uncertainty about the superiority of one technique over another because the certainty of the evidence is very low. A new systematic review is urgently needed on this topic as randomized studies have been published after the most recent review, which could provide greater certainty.

  7. Fasciocutaneous flap reinforcement of ventral onlay buccal mucosa grafts enables neophallus revision urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stelios C.; Stranix, John T.; Khurana, Kiranpreet; Morrison, Shane D.; Levine, Jamie P.; Zhao, Lee C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urethral strictures or fistulas are common complications after phalloplasty. Neourethral defects pose a difficult reconstructive challenge using standard techniques as there is generally insufficient ventral tissue to support a graft urethroplasty. We report our experience with local fasciocutaneous flaps for support of ventrally-placed buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs) in phalloplasty. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent phalloplasty and subsequently required revision urethroplasty using BMGs between 2011 and 2015 was completed. Techniques, complications, additional procedures, and outcomes were examined. Results: A total of three patients previously underwent phalloplasty with sensate radial forearm free flaps (RFFFs): two female-to-male (FTM) gender reassignment, and one oncologic penectomy. Mean age at revision urethroplasty was 41 years (range 31–47). Indications for surgery were: one meatal stenosis, four urethral strictures (mean length 3.6 ± 2.9 cm), and two urethrocutaneous fistulas. The urethral anastomosis at the base of the neophallus was the predominant location for complications: 3/4 strictures, and 2/2 fistulas. Medial thigh (2) or scrotal (1) fasciocutaneous flaps were used to support the BMG for urethroplasty. One stricture recurrence at 3 years required single-stage ventral BMG urethroplasty supported by a gracilis musculocutaneous flap. All patients were able to void from standing at mean follow up of 8.7 months (range 6–13). A total of two patients (66%) subsequently had successful placement of a penile prosthesis. Conclusions: Our early results indicate that local or regional fasciocutaneous flaps enable ventral placement of BMGs for revision urethroplasty after phalloplasty. PMID:27904649

  8. Osteolipoma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alvimar-Lima; de Castro, Eni-Vaz-Franco-Lima; Felipini, Renata-Callestini; Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina-Prado; Soubhia, Ana-Maria-Pires

    2010-03-01

    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms of soft tissue that can be found in any part of the human body. Conversely, their presence in the oral mucosa is rather uncommon, with approximately 4% of the cases occurring in the oral cavity. In such cases, they are likely to have originated from mature adipose tissue and to be among several described histological variants of lipomas, which are identified according to the predominant type of tissue. There is a rare lipoma, known as an osteolipoma or an ossifying lipoma; however, little has been written this type of lipoma characterized by a classical lipoma with areas of osseous metaplasia. Considering the few cases of oral osteolipomas previously described in the English-related literature and the consequent risk of misdiagnosis and overtreatment, this paper describes an extreme case of an osteolipoma affecting the buccal mucosa of an adult patient. This paper focuses particularly on the pathogenesis of this lesion and the discussion of a correct diagnosis.

  9. Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty using penile skin or buccal mucosa for repair of bulbar urethral stricture: results of a prospective single center study.

    PubMed

    Raber, Marco; Naspro, Richard; Scapaticci, Emanuele; Salonia, Andrea; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Mazzoccoli, Bruno; Guazzoni, Giorgio; Rigatti, Patrizio; Montorsi, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    To compare the outcomes of dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty using penile skin (PS) or buccal mucosa (BM) free grafts in the repair of adult bulbourethral strictures. From January 1998 to March 2003, 30 patients with bulbar urethral strictures underwent urethral reconstruction with PS (17) or with BM free graft (13). Follow-up was done at 6, 12 and 18 months postoperatively, and every year subsequently. Success was defined as normalization of IPSS and a stable Q(max) value >20 ml/s. Any further instrumentation for stricture recurrence was considered a failure. Mean follow-up was 51 months (20-74). The overall success rate was 80% (85% in the BM and 76% in the PS group). Improvement of uroflowmetry, IPSS and QoL did not show a significant difference between the two groups. A significant improvement of the orgasmic function domain of the IIEF was found in patients treated with a PS graft. Post-operative complications were lip hypoesthesia (30%), retraction of the ventral skin of the penis (7%), post-voiding dribbling (8% with BM graft, and 7%, with PS graft). Six patients, 2 with BM (15%) and 4 with PS graft patch (24%) required further treatment due to stricture recurrence. Results of PS or BM graft are comparable at 18 month follow-up, although orgasmic function is significantly improved in patients receiving a PS graft. Nevertheless, with extended follow-up, the use of PS seems to be associated with a higher failure rate.

  10. Case Report: Use of reinforced buccal mucosa graft over gracilis muscle flap in management of post high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) rectourethral fistula

    PubMed Central

    Jai, Shrikant; Ganpule, Arvind; Singh, Abhishek; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar; Bopaiah, Vinod; Sabnis, Ravindra; Desai, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has come forward as alternative treatment for carcinoma of the prostate. Though minimally invasive,HIFUhas potential side effects. Urethrorectal fistula is one such rare side effect. Management of these fistulas has been described by Vanni et al. This case report describes points of technique that will help successful management of resilient rectourethral fistula. Urinary and faecal diversion in the form of suprapubic catheter and colostomy is vital. Adequate time between stoma formation, fistula closure and then finally stoma closure is needed. Lithotomy position and perineal approach gives best exposure to the fistula. The rectum should be dissected 2cm above the fistula; this aids in tension free closure of the rectal defect. Similarly buccal mucosal graft was used on the urethra to achieve tension free closure. A good vascular pedicle gracilis muscle flap is used to interpose between the two repairs. This not only provides a physical barrier but also provides a vascular bed for BMG uptake. Perfect haemostasis is essential, as any collection may become a site of infection thus compromising results.  We strongly recommend rectourethral fistula be directly repaired with gracilis muscle flap with reinforced buccal mucosa graft without attempting any less invasive repairs because the “first chance is the best chance”. PMID:28299181

  11. Active electrolyte transport in mammalian buccal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Orlando, R.C.; Tobey, N.A.; Schreiner, V.J.; Readling, R.D. )

    1988-09-01

    The transmural electrical potential difference (PD) was measured in vivo across the buccal mucosa of humans and experimental animals. Mean PD was {minus}31 {plus minus} 2 mV in humans, {minus}34 {plus minus} 2 mV in dogs, {minus}39 {plus minus} 2 mV in rabbits, and {minus}18 {plus minus} 1 mV in hamsters. The mechanisms responsible for this PD were explored in Ussing chambers using dog buccal mucosa. Fluxes of ({sup 14}C)mannitol, a marker of paracellular permeability, varied directly with tissue conductance. The net fluxes of {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl were +0.21 {plus minus} 0.05 and {minus}0.04 {plus minus} 0.02 {mu}eq/h{center dot}cm{sup 2}, respectively, but only the Na{sup +} flux differed significantly from zero. I{sub sc} was reduced by luminal amiloride, serosal ouabain, or by reducing luminal Na{sup +} below 20 mM. This indicated that the I{sub sc} was determined primarily by active Na{sup +} absorption and that Na{sup +} traverses the apical membrane at least partly through amiloride-sensitive channels and exists across the basolateral membrane through Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity. The authors conclude that buccal mucosa is capable of active electrolyte transport and that this capacity contributes to generation of the buccal PD in vivo.

  12. Oral Neurothekeoma of the Right Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chilagondanahalli, Nandini L.; Bundele, Manish M.; Kanagalingam, Jeevendra

    2016-01-01

    Oral neurothekeoma or nerve sheath myxoma is a rare benign oral tumour of nerve sheath origin. Historically, this tumour has been subclassified as myxoid (classic), mixed, or the cellular type, depending on the amount of myxoid stroma and cellularity. We present a case of oral neurothekeoma (mixed type) of the buccal mucosa. The tumour was completely excised. No recurrence was detected in the last 3 years after local excision. PMID:27672465

  13. A disguised tuberculosis in oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Mehta, Anurag; Marwaha, Mohita; Kalra, Manpreet; Nanda, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a chronic granulomatous disease that can affect any part of the body, including the oral cavity. Oral lesions of tuberculosis, though uncommon, are seen in both the primary and secondary stages of the disease. This article presents a case of tuberculosis of the buccal mucosa, manifesting as non-healing, non-painful ulcer. The diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathology, sputum examination and immunological investigation. The patient underwent anti-tuberculosis therapy and her oral and systemic conditions improved rapidly. Although oral manifestations of tuberculosis are rare, clinicians should include them in the differential diagnosis of various types of oral ulcers. An early diagnosis with prompt treatment can prevent complications and potential contaminations.

  14. Surgical Outcomes of Porcine Acellular Dermis Graft in Anophthalmic Socket: Comparison with Oral Mucosa Graft

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Livia; Woo, Young Jun; Kim, Dong Kyu; Kim, Chang Yeom

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience with the Permacol graft in anophthalmic socket reconstruction, and compare it to the autologous buccal mucosal graft, emphasizing the postoperative vascularization and contraction of each graft. Methods This was a retrospective comparative study. We measured the time necessary for the graft surface to be completely vascularized, as well as the fornix depth of the conjunctival sac in anophthalmic patients. Results Ten patients underwent Permacol graft reconstruction, with 44 undergoing buccal mucosal graft reconstruction. Seven eyelids (70%) in the Permacol group had a good outcome, with improvement in lower eyelid position and prosthesis retention. Nine out of 10 eyelids (90%) in this group showed complete vascularization of the graft at 2.6 ± 1.9 months postoperatively, while the grafted buccal mucosa was fully vascularized at 1.1 ± 0.3 months postoperatively (p < 0.01). Postoperative fornix depth in the Permacol group was 9.1 ± 2.2 mm, compared to 14.9 ± 4.5 mm in the buccal mucosal graft group (p < 0.01). Mean increases in fornix depth were 33.1% and 67.9% of the mean vertical length of the implanted graft. Conclusions The Permacol graft can be useful as spacer graft material in anophthalmic socket patients. It takes longer to vascularize, and undergoes greater graft shrinkage with time, compared to the buccal mucosal graft. PMID:28243018

  15. Nasal Floor Mucosa: New Donor Site for Mucous Membrane Grafts.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Payam V; Suh, Jeffrey D; Hwang, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Mucous membrane grafts are used for various indications in oculoplastics. The authors report the use of nasal floor mucosa as a new donor site for mucous membrane grafts. Following adequate anesthesia and vasoconstriction, the nasal floor is visualized with a 30° endoscope. Next, the interior turbinate is medialized, and the nasolacrimal duct is identified and preserved. Anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral incisions are made through the nasal mucosa to the nasal bone. The mucosa is dissected off the nasal bone with a periosteal elevator. Nasal saline irrigation is used postoperatively to aid healing. Histologic analysis of the harvested graft and mucosa from the inferior and middle turbinates were analyzed histologically for the number of mucin-producing cells per high power field and compared. Nasal floor mucosa provides ample tissue for grafting with little donor site morbidity. The surgery is technically easy to learn and perform. There is less risk for blood loss compared with harvesting tissue from the turbinates and less postoperative discomfort compared with buccal mucosal grafts. The grafts have been used in 9 different patients for a variety of ocular indications. Histologically, the nasal floor mucosa contains statistically more mucin-secreting cells than other nasal site, which can be helpful especially in cases of ocular surface disease. In 1 case, biopsy of the grafted tissue at postoperative year 2 showed survival of the respiratory mucin-secreting cells under histologic examination. Nasal floor mucosa should be considered a donor site when a mucous membrane graft is needed. The surgery is safe, easy to perform, and has less morbidity than either a nasal turbinate graft or a buccal mucosal graft.

  16. Buccal mucosal graft in reconstructive urology: uses beyond urethral stricture.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Abhishek; Dican, Razvan; Beier, Jörn; Keller, Hansjörg

    2014-07-01

    The use of buccal mucosal grafts for the reconstruction of urethral strictures is an established procedure. Because of its robustness, the buccal mucosal graft could also potentially provide an alternative for other indications in reconstructive urology. We report here six consecutive patients who received a buccal mucosal graft for ureteral strictures, glans reconstruction and stoma stenosis. The follow up for all patients ranged from 26 to 50 months. The buccal mucosal graft showed excellent functional results for the ureteral strictures and stenosis from ureterocutaneostomy. For glans reconstructions, the buccal mucosal grafts delivered excellent cosmetic and functional results without causing meatal stenosis. We conclude the buccal mucosal graft can be used in reconstructive surgery beyond the reconstruction of urethral strictures.

  17. Distant Skin Metastases from Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Shashank; Leekha, Nitin; Gupta, Sweety; Mithal, Umang; Arora, Vandana; De, Sudarsan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity makes up approximately 30% of all head and neck region tumors. Skin metastasis is rare with an incidence ranging between 0.7% and 2.4%. Skin metastasis usually occurs in the neck, scalp, and over the skin near the primary site. We report a patient with carcinoma left buccal mucosa who presented with distant skin metastases to the right side chest wall. PMID:27512210

  18. Electrically induced transport of macromolecules through oral buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mangala P; Churchman, Svetla T; Cruchley, Alan T; Braden, Michael; Williams, David M

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of iontophoretic delivery of large molecules across buccal mucosa, and to establish its potential for enhanced drug delivery. Qualitative (6h) and quantitative (8 and 36 h) assessment of porcine buccal mucosa, using a diffusion cell in vitro model, was carried out by fluorescent microscopy and UV/Vis spectroscopy respectively, with four fluorescently-labeled model species (3 and 10 kDa dextrans, 12 kDa parvalbumin and 66 kDa bovine serum albumin, BSA). Passive and iontophoresis parameters were obtained. The experimental iontophoresis data were compared with theoretical predictions. The two dextrans and parvalbumin showed enhanced permeation through buccal mucosa after anodal iontophoresis (1-6h). Passive diffusion and cathodal iontophoresis resulted in minimal permeation. BSA could not be measured by either mode. Iontophoretic delivery profiles compared to passive delivery, had reduced time lags (30-50 versus ~270 min) and increased flux (~37 times faster). Time lag factor/enhancement ratio (TLF/ER) data confirmed that iontophoresis significantly enhanced permeation. The diffusion coefficients (D, passive) for dextrans were significantly higher than for parvalbumin, with the converse obtained for solubility (C0); permeability coefficients (P) were similar for all three species. Potential differences (V) for the two higher kDa species were significantly higher than for the lowest kDa species. Experimental and theoretical data were in reasonable agreement. The experimental and theoretical data, confirming enhanced delivery of the model species via iontophoresis, gave a suitable basis for its potential application in the mouth, in a clinical setting and opens pathways to further research for delivering precious drugs topically and systemically. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ex vivo correlation of the permeability of metoprolol across human and porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Marxen, Eva; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Müllertz, Anette; Hyrup, Birgitte; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-07-01

    The pH partition theory proposes a correlation between fraction of unionized drug substance and permeability. The aim of this study was to compare the permeability of metoprolol and mannitol in ex vivo human and porcine buccal mucosa models at varying pH to validate whether the porcine permeability model is predictive for human buccal absorption. Human (n = 9-10) and porcine (n = 6-7) buccal mucosa were mounted in a modified Ussing chamber, and the kinetics of metoprolol and mannitol transport was assessed for a period of 5.5 h with the pH values of donor medium set at 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0. In addition, hematoxylin-eosin and Alcian blue-van Gieson were used as tissue stains to evaluate the histology and the presence of acidic polysaccharides (e.g., mucins), respectively. The permeability of metoprolol was decreased in human buccal mucosa by almost twofold when compared with porcine buccal mucosa with a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.96) between the permeability assessed in porcine and human buccal mucosa. There was no change in the degree of either epithelial swelling or desquamation when treating with the pH 9.0 donor medium for 5.5 h. These data suggest that buccal mucosa from pigs can be used to predict human buccal absorption.

  1. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa and Lower Lip.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed N; Chehal, Hardeep; Smith, Molly Housley; Islam, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel

    2017-10-04

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon relatively aggressive neuroendocrine dermal neoplasm first described in 1972 as a tumor of the sun exposed skin. Although most MCC affect the skin of the head and neck, rare primarily oral mucosal cases have been documented. Merkel cells are nondendritic neuroendocrine cells that are found not only in the skin but also the oral mucosa and give rise to MCC. Neuroendocrine cells may be found as aggregates in organs or as diffuse or isolated cells within organs and their epithelial lining. They contain peptide hormones and biogenic amines and occur in two forms: dendritic, which are not associated with nerve fibers and non-dendritic, which are associated with nerve fibers. Merkel cells as well as MCC express simple epithelium-type Cytokeratins (8, 18, 19, 20), neurosecretory substances; chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), adhesion molecules, and villin (intermediate filament). Though weakly, they also express neural markers such as S-100 protein. Cytokeratin 20, and Cluster of differentiation 56, are the two key diagnostic markers for Merkel cells and MCC. Etiology includes UV radiation, the recently described Merkel cell polyomavirus, and long term systemic immunosuppression. The cutaneous and mucosal variants of MCC are considered aggressive tumors with a high risk for local recurrence and metastasis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of head and neck mucosal lesions. We present two cases of primary Merkel cell carcinoma, one on the buccal mucosa and the other on the lower lip, and discuss the salient histologic, immunohistochemical and clinical features.

  2. Raman mapping of oral buccal mucosa: a spectral histopathology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Kukreja, Lekha; Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Mamgain, Hitesh; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. One-fifth of the world's oral cancer subjects are from India and other South Asian countries. The present Raman mapping study was carried out to understand biochemical variations in normal and malignant oral buccal mucosa. Data were acquired using WITec alpha 300R instrument from 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained tissue sections. Raman maps of normal sections could resolve the layers of epithelium, i.e. basal, intermediate, and superficial. Inflammatory, tumor, and stromal regions are distinctly depicted on Raman maps of tumor sections. Mean and difference spectra of basal and inflammatory cells suggest abundance of DNA and carotenoids features. Strong cytochrome bands are observed in intermediate layers of normal and stromal regions of tumor. Epithelium and stromal regions of normal cells are classified by principal component analysis. Classification among cellular components of normal and tumor sections is also observed. Thus, the findings of the study further support the applicability of Raman mapping for providing molecular level insights in normal and malignant conditions.

  3. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    S, Vidyalakshmi; R, Aravindhan

    2014-01-01

    Minor salivary gland neoplasms of the buccal mucosa are relatively uncommon. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a well-defined entity, occurs most of the times in the parotid, submandibular glands and palate, as far as the intraoral site is concerned. Adenoid cystic carcinoma tends to have an indolent, extended clinical course with wide local infiltration and late distant metastases. We are presenting a case of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the buccal mucosa in a 48-year-old female patient. PMID:24783155

  4. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa masquerading as a salivary gland neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Ranjini; Nayal, Bhavna; Kantipudi, Swarna; Ray, Satadru

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis to the oral cavity is a rare occurrence with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) being the third most common tumor to metastasize to this location. Buccal mucosa is rarely involved and in the absence of a known primary, such lesions pose a diagnostic challenge to the pathologist. The histomorphological features may mimic a primary salivary gland neoplasm adding to the dilemma. We present one such case of metastatic RCC of the buccal mucosa. PMID:27721630

  5. Changes in potential difference across the human buccal mucosa with buffered or unbuffered aspirin and salicylate.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, B J; Makki, K A; O'Grady, J

    1981-01-01

    The potential difference (PD) across the gastric mucosa is an index of mucosal integrity, and is lowered by topical application of irritants such as aspirin. There are basic similarities in the PD across the buccal and gastric mucosae, and we have therefore investigated the actions of various salicylates in buffered or un-buffered solution on buccal PD in human subjects. Aspirin (at pH 2) and soluble aspirin (pH 4.4) applied topically reduced buccal PD, but this fall was abolished by buffering to pH 7. Sodium salicylate likewise reduced buccal PD at pH 4 and pH 6, but not when buffered to pH 7. Two other soluble aspirin mixtures also reduced buccal PD, indicating insufficient buffering capacity to prevent topical irritancy. Ingestion of aspirin (600 mg), avoiding topical contact with the buccal mucosa, did not alter buccal PD. Paracetamol applied topically likewise failed to reduce buccal PD. Measurement of buccal PD may be useful in the preliminary assessment of the gastrointestinal irritation provoked by anti-inflammatory and other compounds. PMID:7297912

  6. Free Gingival Graft to Increase Keratinized Mucosa after Placing of Mandibular Fixed Implant-Supported Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Elcio

    2017-01-01

    Insufficiently keratinized tissue can be increased surgically by free gingival grafting. The presence or reconstruction of keratinized mucosa around the implant can facilitate restorative procedure and allow the maintenance of an oral hygiene routine without irritation or discomfort to the patient. The aim of this clinical case report is to describe an oral rehabilitation procedure of an edentulous patient with absence of keratinized mucosa in the interforaminal area, using a free gingival graft associated with a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis. The treatment included the manufacturing of a maxillary complete denture and a mandibular fixed implant-supported prosthesis followed by a free gingival graft to increase the width of the mandibular keratinized mucosa. Free gingival graft was obtained from the palate and grafted on the buccal side of interforaminal area. The follow-up of 02 and 12 months after mucogingival surgery showed that the free gingival graft promoted peri-implant health, hygiene, and patient comfort. Clinical Significance. The free gingival graft is an effective treatment in increasing the width of mandibular keratinized mucosa on the buccal side of the interforaminal area and provided an improvement in maintaining the health of peri-implant tissues which allows for better oral hygiene. PMID:28293441

  7. A novel flow through diffusion cell for assessing drug transport across the buccal mucosa in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lestari, Maria L A D; Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Finnin, Barrie C

    2009-12-01

    A novel flow through (FT) diffusion cell for assessing the permeability of compounds across the buccal mucosa was designed. Porcine buccal mucosa was mounted between two chambers with flow through capacity in both the donor and receptor chambers. The permeability of caffeine (CAF), triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), and estradiol (E(2)) was determined over 4 h and flux values were compared to those obtained using a modified Ussing chamber (MUC). No significant differences in the flux of each probe compound were observed using either the MUC or the novel FT cell. The design of the FT cell allowed for monitoring appearance of receptor solution within the donor chamber during the initial equilibration period, allowing for visual inspection of tissue integrity. These permeability studies demonstrate that this FT cell is a suitable alternative model for assessing drug permeability across the buccal mucosa, without the limitations associated with the static MUC. This novel model was then utilized to determine whether salmeterol xinafoate (SX) could permeate the buccal mucosa at concentrations expected in the oral cavity following inhalation. Concentration-dependent studies demonstrated that SX permeates the buccal mucosa via passive diffusion and that oral mucosal absorption may contribute significantly to the overall systemic exposure of inhaled SX.

  8. Epidermoid Cyst Arising in the Buccal Mucosa: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; de Almeida, Stephanie; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Patrocínio, Régia Maria do Socorro Vidal; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are benign subcutaneous lesions, and the large majority of these cysts affect the floor of the mouth; however, the buccal mucosa is not a usual site of occurrence. To date, only 5 articles have been published with 6 cases of epidermoid cysts arising in the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of a case of epidermoid cyst located in the buccal mucosa. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an oral epidermoid cyst describing an intense foreign body gigantocellular inflammatory reaction against epithelial keratin component. Although the usual diagnosis for epidermoid cysts is based on histopathological findings, this case report addresses novel information regarding to the immunohistochemical pattern that may be found in these lesions. PMID:27688388

  9. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  10. A comparative ex vivo drug permeation study of beta-blockers through porcine buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Lauroba, Jacinto; Calpena, Ana; Colom, Helena; Gimeno, Alvaro; Domenech, José

    2014-07-01

    Apparent permeability coefficients (kp) of a series of beta-blockers: acebutolol, atenolol, labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol and propranolol, through porcine buccal mucosa were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the permeation parameters (apparent permeability coefficient, kp; flux, J; and lag time, TL) as a measure of the intrinsic permeability of porcine buccal mucosa to these drugs, in order to predict the efficacy of their possible administration through human buccal mucosa. A positive linear correlation was observed between the apparent permeability coefficient, kpand the partition coefficient, P. Oxprenolol and propranolol are the drugs that presented the highest values of kp: 0.3231×10(2) cm/h and 0.5666×10(2) cm/h, respectively. Multiple linear regression (MLR) using least square estimation was performed on the data set with logkpas dependent variable and the descriptors as predictor variables. The potential systemic capacity after a buccal administration was predicted by estimating the plasma concentrations at steady-stated (Css). Considering the entire process of permeation ex vivo, propranolol and oxprenolol would seem to be the best candidates for administration through the buccal mucosa. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Prelaminated Gracilis Flap with Buccal Mucosal Graft for Salvage of Devastated Urethra

    PubMed Central

    Nikolavsky, Dmitriy

    2015-01-01

    In patients with devastated bulbous urethra, that is, bulbar necrosis, failed fasciocutaneous repairs and “watering can perineum” repair options are limited by paucity of reliable local tissue suitable for reconstruction. In this case report we demonstrate a novel variation of a two-stage technique for reconstruction of a devastated bulbous urethra in a 57-year-old male who suffered penetrating trauma to his previously reconstructed urethra. Because of extensive loss of local tissue from the prior reconstruction and subsequent trauma and infection a 2-stage technique with use of gracilis was employed. This technique involved creation of two independently vascularized urethral hemi-plates prelaminated with buccal mucosa graft (BMG). In the first stage the dorsal plate was created by quilting buccal graft onto corpora cavernosa to create a temporary augmented perineal urethrostomy. In the same stage the future ventral neourethral plate was created by grafting another BMG onto the exposed distal gracilis muscle. Eight weeks later the two prelaminated plates were anastomosed by tunneling the gracilis-BMG composite into the perineum. At 8-month follow-up patient has normal voiding and continence. To our knowledge this is the first report of reconstructing an entire segment of devastated urethra in such a manner. PMID:26257976

  12. An improved cryopreservation method for porcine buccal mucosa in ex vivo drug permeation studies using Franz diffusion cells.

    PubMed

    Amores, Sonia; Domenech, José; Colom, Helena; Calpena, Ana C; Clares, Beatriz; Gimeno, Álvaro; Lauroba, Jacinto

    2014-08-18

    The use of isolated animal models to assess percutaneous absorption of molecules is frequently reported. The porcine buccal mucosa has been proposed as a substitute for the buccal mucosa barrier on ex vivo permeability studies avoiding unnecessary sacrifice of animals. But it is not always easy to obtain fresh buccal mucosa. Consequently, human and porcine buccal mucosa is sometimes frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen, but this procedure is not always feasible. One cheaper and simpler alternative is to freeze the buccal mucosa of freshly slaughtered pigs in a mechanical freezer, using DMSO and albumin as cryoprotective agents. This study compared the ex vivo permeability parameters of propranolol hydrochloride through porcine buccal mucosa using a Franz diffusion cell system and HPLC as detection method. The freezing effects on drug permeability parameters were evaluated. Equally histological studies were performed. Furthermore, the use of the parameter transmucosal water loss (TMWL) as an indicator of the buccal mucosa integrity was evaluated just as transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is utilized for skin integrity. The results showed no difference between fresh and frozen mucosal flux, permeability coefficient or lag time of propranolol. However, statistical significant difference in TMWL between fresh and frozen mucosa was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Foreign Body Granuloma of the Buccal Mucosa Induced by Honeybee Sting

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Yohei; Matsusue, Yumiko; Kurihara, Miyako; Yagyuu, Takahiro; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2017-01-01

    A foreign body granuloma of the buccal mucosa induced by honeybee sting was reported. The patient was an 82-year-old female who presented with a submucous mass at the right buccal mucosa. The mass was 20 mm in diameter, elastically firm, partly mobile without pain or tenderness, and covered with almost normal mucosa. MR image did not delineate the lesion clearly. Under clinical diagnosis of a benign tumor, the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The excised lesion was 14 × 11 × 9 mm in size and solid and yellowish in cut surface. Histologically, the lesion consisted of granulomatous tissue with a few narrow, curved, eosinophilic structures compatible with decomposed fragments of a honeybee sting and was diagnosed as a foreign body granuloma, although the patient did not recall being stung. PMID:28409038

  14. Examining smoking-induced differential gene expression changes in buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gene expression changes resulting from conditions such as disease, environmental stimuli, and drug use, can be monitored in the blood. However, a less invasive method of sample collection is of interest because of the discomfort and specialized personnel necessary for blood sampling especially if multiple samples are being collected. Buccal mucosa cells are easily collected and may be an alternative sample material for biomarker testing. A limited number of studies, primarily in the smoker/oral cancer literature, address this tissue's efficacy as an RNA source for expression analysis. The current study was undertaken to determine if total RNA isolated from buccal mucosa could be used as an alternative tissue source to assay relative gene expression. Methods Total RNA was isolated from swabs, reverse transcribed and amplified. The amplified cDNA was used in RT-qPCR and microarray analyses to evaluate gene expression in buccal cells. Initially, RT-qPCR was used to assess relative transcript levels of four genes from whole blood and buccal cells collected from the same seven individuals, concurrently. Second, buccal cell RNA was used for microarray-based differential gene expression studies by comparing gene expression between a group of female smokers and nonsmokers. Results An amplification protocol allowed use of less buccal cell total RNA (50 ng) than had been reported previously with human microarrays. Total RNA isolated from buccal cells was degraded but was of sufficient quality to be used with RT-qPCR to detect expression of specific genes. We report here the finding of a small number of statistically significant differentially expressed genes between smokers and nonsmokers, using buccal cells as starting material. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis confirmed that these genes had a similar expression pattern to results from another study. Conclusions Our results suggest that despite a high degree of degradation, RNA from buccal cells from cheek mucosa

  15. Formulation of unidirectional release buccal patches of carbamazepine and study of permeation through porcine buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Parthasarathy; Kesavan, Bhaskar Reddy; Narasimha, Jayaveera Korlakunta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To achieve transbuccal release of carbamazepine by loading in unidirectional release mucoadhesive buccal patches. Methods Buccal patches of carbamazepine with unidirectional drug release were prepared using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and ethyl cellulose by solvent casting method. Water impermeable backing layer (Pidilite® Biaxially-oriented polypropylene film) of patches provided unidirectional drug release. They were evaluated for thickness, mass uniformity, surface pH and folding endurance. Six formulations FA2, FA8, FA10, FB1, FB14 and FB16 (folding endurance above 250) were evaluated further for swelling studies, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, accelerated stability studies and FTIR and XRD spectral studies. Results The ex vivo mucoadhesion time of patches ranged between 109 min (FA10) to 126 min (FB14). The ex vivo mucoadhesive force was in the range of 0.278 to 0.479 kg/m/s. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that formulation FA8 released 84% and FB16 released 99.01% of drug in 140 min. Conclusions The prepared unidirectional buccal patches of carbamazepine provided a maximum drug release within specified mucoadhesion period and it indicates a potential alternative drug delivery system for systemic delivery of carbamazepine. PMID:24093793

  16. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands on the buccal mucosa: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Dereci, Omür; Cimen, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is a hyperplastic oral lesion which may be seen on minor salivary gland bearing areas on all oral mucosa, especially on soft and hard palate. This study reports a rare case of buccal adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands and discusses the clinical significance. 48 year old male patient presented with a complaint of a swelling on his left cheek. Clinical examination revealed a bluish mass on the buccal mucosa. A provisional diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasm was made and the lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histological diagnosis was adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. Buccal localization of the adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands is quite uncommon in the literature. There are two cases in the English literature for our knowledge. In the clinical examination, the nodular and protuberated appearance of the lesion resembles buccal minor salivary gland tumors and vascular lesions. Histological analysis is fundamental to achieve correct diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of buccal nodular, exophytic and colored mucosal lesions should include adenomatoid hyperplasia of the minor salivary glands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. An animal model of buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis induced by U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Pang, Liang; Qian, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yong; Wu, Mingyi; Ouyang, Zilan; Gao, Zhi; Qiu, Lihua

    2013-04-01

    The buccal mucosa is the site with the highest risk of contracting a malignancy in habitual betel quid chewers who expose the buccal mucosa to high doses of carcinogens. Of all oral cancers, those of the buccal mucosa are associated with the poorest prognoses. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an animal model to evaluate new treatment modalities for buccal mucosa cancer. In the present study, we evaluated whether the imprinting control region (ICR) mouse animal model could be employed as a cancer model for buccal mucosa cancer. Sixty male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups, a normal group (n=10) and a cancer-induced group (n=50). Each mouse in the cancer group was inoculated with 0.05 ml U14 cancer cell suspension (1×10(7)/ml) on the buccal mucosa. Histological staining and gene expression assays revealed that neck lymph node metastasis animal models were established. After 20 days, the cheek tumor formation rate of the ICR mice reached 100%. Furthermore, the neck lymph node metastasis rate was 53%. We identified that U14 cells produce strong metastasis in ICR mice. Metastasis of the tumor to the lymph node began with carcinoma metastasis encroaching on the marginal sinus. Then it infiltrated to the cortex and medulla and the infiltration continued until the normal lymph node structure was completely damaged. This animal model may be employed in medical research on buccal mucosa cancer and cervical lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that U14 cell-induced mouse buccal mucosa cancer may be a potential cancer model for human buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. An Innovative Technique for Columellar Reconstruction using ‘Flip-Over’ Buccal Mucosa Flap

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Kapil S.; Pabari, Mansi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of columella is a significant deformity and its reconstruction proves to be quite difficult. An 18-year-old lady had loss of columella due to burn while steam inhalation at a young age and required reconstruction for the same. Labial mucosa has been used as a source of tissue for columellar reconstruction since long. We describe a modification of the buccal mucosal flap to manage a difficult case of columellar deficiency. The buccal mucosa flap was used to cover the columellar defect in the usual manner in the first stage and in second stage, along with division of the base, the residual length of the mucosal flap was used to add to the thickness of columella by doubling it on itself. PMID:27630898

  19. Nano-TiO2 penetration of oral mucosa: in vitro analysis using 3D organotypic human buccal mucosa models.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Victoria; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Lie, Stein A; Birkeland, Eivind Salmorin; Neppelberg, Evelyn; Marthinussen, Mihaela Cuida; Costea, Daniela Elena; Cimpan, Mihaela R

    2017-03-01

    Oral cavity is a doorway for a variety of products containing titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) (nano-TiO2 ) such as food additives, oral healthcare products and dental materials. Their potential to penetrate and affect normal human oral mucosa is not yet determined. To evaluate the ability of nano-TiO2 to penetrate the in vitro reconstructed normal human buccal mucosa (RNHBM). RNHBM was generated from primary normal human oral keratinocytes and fibroblasts isolated from buccal oral mucosa of healthy patients (n = 6). The reconstructed tissues were exposed after 10 days to clinically relevant concentrations of spherical or spindle rutile nano-TiO2 in suspension for short (20 min) and longer time (24 h). Ultrahigh-resolution imaging (URI) microscopy (CytoViva(™) , Auburn, AL, USA) was used to assess the depth of penetration into reconstructed tissues. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging microscopy demonstrated the presence of nano-TiO2 mostly in the epithelium of RNHBM at both 20 min and 24-h exposure, and this was shape and doze dependent at 24 h of exposure. The depth of penetration diminished in time at higher concentrations. The exposed epithelium showed increased desquamation but preserved thickness. Nano-TiO2 is able to penetrate RNHBM and to activate its barrier function in a doze- and time-dependent manner. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Oral Mucocele of Unusual Size on the Buccal Mucosa: Clinical Presentation and Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Juliana; Bruno, Ingrid; Artico, Gabriela; Vechio, Aluana dal; Migliari, Dante A

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucoceles are small-size, benign minor salivary gland pathologies. The most frequent localizations of these lesions are the lower lip mucosa. However, in some cases, they grow to an unusual size and hinder the preliminary diagnosis of mucocele. The purpose of this article is to report a case of a large oral mucocele with a diameter of 3.5 cm on the buccal mucosa of a 43-years-old male patient. The surgical procedure was carried out for a complete removal of the lesion. PMID:22550550

  1. Hypoxic regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in human buccal mucosa fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2015-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is regarded as a pre-cancerous condition with fibrosis in oral subepithelial connective tissue. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α regulates a wide variety of profibrogenic genes, which are closely associated with tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to compare HIF-1α expression in normal buccal mucosa tissues and OSF specimens and further explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to the induction of HIF-1α expression. Twenty-five OSF specimens and six normal buccal mucosa were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of HIF-1α from fibroblasts cultured from OSF and normal buccal mucosa was measured by Western blot. Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, was challenged to normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts (BMFs) to elucidate whether HIF-1α expression could affect by arecoline. In addition, the effects of arecoline on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 expression were evaluated in environmental hypoxia. HIF-1α expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens and expressed mainly by fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and inflammatory cells. Fibroblasts derived from OSF were found to exhibit higher HIF-1α protein expression than BMFs (P < 0.05). Arecoline was found to upregulate HIF-1α protein in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Hypoxia increased arecoline-induced PAI-1 protein expression than normoxic conditions (P < 0.05). These results suggest that HIF-1α expression is significantly upregulated in OSF tissues from areca quid chewers, implying a potential role as a biomarker for local tissue hypoxia. The activation of HIF-1α may promote fibrogenesis by an increase of PAI-1 expression and a subsequent elevation of extracellular matrix production in oral submucosa leading to fibrosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of the scatter doses in the direction of the buccal mucosa from dental metals.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Sumida, Iori; Kakimoto, Naoya; Marutani, Keisuke; Okahata, Ryoko; Usami, Ai; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2015-05-08

    The presence of dental metals creates radiation dose perturbation due to scattered radiation during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. The purpose of our study was to compare the scatter doses resulting from various dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa among a single-field technique, three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT), and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) during radiation therapy for the head and neck region. We used nine metal cubes with 10 mm sides, which were placed inside a water phantom. The scatter doses from the cubes in the direction of the buccal mucosa were measured using radiochromic films. The films were placed perpendicularly to the surface of the cubes. The phantom was irradiated with a 4 MV photon energy by a linear accelerator for all techniques. In the single-field technique, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 3.7%-19.3% dose increases, and gold showed the largest dose increase. In 3D CRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed 1.4%-6.9% dose increases, which were within the measurement uncertainty (except for gold). In IMRT, the scatter doses from dental metals showed only 1.4%-4.3% dose increases, which were all within the measurement uncertainty. During radiation therapy for the head and neck region, the scatter doses from the tested dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT or IMRT were lower than those using the single-field technique. However, there were no differences between the scatter doses resulting from particular dental metals in the direction of the buccal mucosa in 3D CRT and those in IMRT, except for gold.

  3. Intrinsic regulation of differentiation markers in human epidermis, hard palate and buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, S; Ponec, M

    2000-02-01

    Different epithelia show extensive variation in differentiation. Epidermis and epithelium from the hard palate are both typical examples of orthokeratinized epithelia whereas buccal mucosa is an example of a non-keratinized epithelium. Each of these tissues can be distinguished morphologically and also by the expression of a number of structural proteins. Tissue explants derived from epidermis, hard palate or buccal mucosa were cultured at the air-liquid interface on collagen gels containing human dermal fibroblasts. Reconstructed epithelia that retained many of the morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the original tissue were formed. Cultures derived from epidermis and the hard palate both had a well-defined stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum and stratum corneum whereas cultures derived from buccal mucosa had no stratum granulosum or corneum and the cells retained their nuclei. Significantly more living cell layers were observed in both types of epithelia obtained from the mouth than in epidermis. The specific localization of proliferation and differentiation markers (Ki67, loricrin, involucrin, SPRR2, SPRR3 and keratin 10) closely resembled that of the tissue from which the cultures were derived. As identical three-dimensional culture models were used here, it is concluded that the differences observed between these epithelia were due to intrinsic properties of the keratinocytes.

  4. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Raja, JV; Khan, M; Ramachandra, VK; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Methods Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. Results The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Conclusion Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression. PMID:22241875

  5. Texture analysis of CT images in the characterization of oral cancers involving buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Raja, J V; Khan, M; Ramachandra, V K; Al-Kadi, O

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of texture analysis in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and to assess its effectiveness in differentiating between the various grades of the tumour. Contrast enhanced CT examination was carried out in 21 patients with carcinoma of the buccal mucosa who had consented to retrospective analysis during a research study that was approved by the institutional review board. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were created, one at the site of the lesion and the other at the contralateral normal side. Texture analysis measures of fractal dimension (FD), lacunarity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were computed for each ROI. The numeric data from the two ROIs were compared and were correlated with the tumour grade as confirmed by biopsy. The difference between the mean FD and GLCM parameters of the lesion vs the normal ROI were statistically significant (p < 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the three grades of tumour for any of the parameters (p > 0.05). Texture analysis on CT images is a potential method in the characterization of oral cancers involving the buccal mucosa and deserves further investigation as a predictor of tumour aggression.

  6. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  7. Assessment of silk fibroin for the repair of buccal mucosa in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ge, Z; Yang, Q; Xiang, X; Liu, K-Z

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of silk fibroin materials for wound repair confined to the buccal mucosa in a rat model by assessing several key clinical parameters and the associated local and systemic immune response. Ninety male SD rats were subjected to microscopic oral surgery to establish a full thickness wound on the buccal mucosa. Rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the treatments received: group A, covered with polyporous silk fibroin scaffold; group B, repaired with crosslinking silk fibroin film; and group C, control. Visual observation of the wounds suggests that wound shrinkage 5 days after the operation was significantly lower in both silk fibroin repaired groups (A and B) than that in the controls. The distribution of inflammatory neutrophils in group A was significantly lower than those in the control group throughout the entire study. The percentage of fibroblasts and capillary endothelia (CD34(+)), and the subgroups of peripheral lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+)) were similar amongst the groups. The results revealed that placement of silk fibroin in an oral buccal defect can reduce the degree of wound shrinkage and enhance the growth of mucosal epithelial cells without any local or systemic immunological incompatibility.

  8. A Solitary Phlebolith in the Buccal Mucosa: Report of a Rare Entity and Clinicopathologic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, A; Kumar, N Govindraj; Kumar, B Jambukeshwar; Naik, Raghavendra M; Sangineedi, Y Jyoti

    2016-08-01

    Pathological conditions can give rise to calcifications within oral mucosa representing either a local or systemic disturbance. Inflammation, trauma, debris acting as nidus and vascular lesions have been attributed as principal causes for occurrence of calcifications within the oral mucosa. Occurrence of multiple calcified thrombi (phleboliths) is considered pathognomonic for hemangiomas and vascular malformations in the oral and maxillofacial region. Isolated occurrence of phlebolith in oral mucosa though very rare, especially without any underlying vascular lesions, can be diagnostically challenging. Either a traumatic association at that site or a hemangioma of childhood that has regressed once the individual became an adult are the possible explanations suggested for the occurrence of these unique solitary phleboliths. Histologically, an "onion-ring"-like concentric lamellar fibrosis around a central core with varying amounts of calcifications and presence of minute vascular channels within or around calcified lamellae is characteristic for phlebolith. There is a high propensity for misdiagnosing solitary phlebolith located in sites like the buccal mucosa where various other pathologic soft-tissue calcifications, such as sialoliths, calcified lymph nodes, traumatic myositis ossificans, etc. can occur and they too appear radiopaque in radiographs. Besides, the absence of any associated underlying vascular lesion adds to the mispercep-tion. In such cases, histopathological examination with routine hematoxylin and eosin staining alone may not be sufficient to determine the accurate diagnosis. Allied clinical history and immunohistochemistry can aid to arrive at the final diagnosis. We report such a case of nonvascular lesion-associated solitary phlebolith in the right buccal mucosa of a healthy 49-year-old male patient and discuss its differential diagnosis with emphasis on histological presentation.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  10. Micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Pacheco-Gutiérrez, Angélica Guadalupe; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Ramos-Ibarra, María Luisa; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of micronucleated cell (MNC) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in the buccal mucosa cells of females with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), compared with healthy women. Individuals with AN and BN have inadequate feeding and compensatory behaviour to avoid weight gain. These behaviours can cause extreme body stress, thereby inducing DNA damage. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed the frequency of MNC and NA in the buccal mucosa cells of female participants with AN or BN. All of these patients had been admitted to a private clinic for the treatment of eating disorders after diagnosis with AN (n = 10) or BN (n = 7) according to the DSM-IV. Age-matched healthy female participants (n = 17) composed the control group. Oral mucosa samples were collected, fixed, stained by aceto-orcein/fast green and microscopically examined. Normal cells, MNC and NAs were counted within a 2000 cell sample. The results were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Differences were observed in the frequency of MNC in healthy females (1.2±0.9) versus that of patients with AN (3.4±1.5) (P < 0.0001) and BN (4.1±2.2) (P < 0.001). No differences were found among these groups in terms of NA. AN and BN are related to the loss of genetic material through chromosomal fractures and/or damage to the mitotic spindle (i.e. possibly a result of a deficiency in DNA precursors). Self-imposed compensatory behaviours in AN and BN, such as severe food restriction, potential malnutrition, vomiting, use of diuretics and laxatives and acute exhaustive exercise, are possible inducers of MNC and genotoxic damage. Of these compensatory behaviours, only vomiting has not been linked to genotoxic damage. This is the first report in women with BN, which should be studied in the future.

  11. Permeation of a myristoylated dipeptide across the buccal mucosa: topological distribution and evaluation of tissue integrity.

    PubMed

    Veuillez, F; Rieg, F Falson; Guy, R H; Deshusses, J; Buri, P

    2002-01-01

    The ex vivo permeation of an acylated model dipeptide, Myristoyl-Tryptophan-Leucine (Myr-Trp-Leu) was studied using pig buccal mucosa. Myr-Trp-Leu, being lipophilic, did not readily penetrate across the membrane. Rather, it accumulated in the epithelial and connective tissue of the mucosal barrier. The topological distribution of Myr-Trp-Leu across the mucosa, following its application in ethanol/phosphate buffer (30/70 pH 7.4), was determinated by thin-sectioning of the tissue, extraction of the peptide, and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The concentration profile depended, of course, on the duration of the experiment and appeared to be dependent upon the presence of sufficient ethanol in order that the peptide could be solubilized. This important role for ethanol then raised the question of the solvent's effect on tissue integrity. Light microscopic examination of the mucosa was, therefore, undertaken, under identical conditions to those used in the permeation experiments, to evaluate any perturbation induced by the ethanolic vehicle. No obvious effects were observed.

  12. Closure versus nonclosure of buccal mucosal graft harvest site: A prospective randomized study on post operative morbidity.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, K; Dubey, Deepak; Gulia, Anil Kumar; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kapoor, Rakesh; Kumar, Anant

    2009-01-01

    To prospectively compare the postoperative morbidity of closure versus non closure of the buccal mucosal graft (BMG) harvest site. Patients who underwent BMG harvest for urethroplasty were randomized into 2 groups; in group 1 donor site was closed and in group 2 it was left open. Self made questionnaires were used to assess post-operative pain, limitation to mouth opening, loss of sensation at graft site. The time to resumption of liquid and solid diet were also noted. Fifty patients were studied, 25 in each group from July 2003 to July 2005. BMG was harvested from single cheek in most of the patients. Mean post operative pain score was 4.20 and 3.08 at day 1 in group 1 and group 2, respectively (P < 0.05). Return to oral intake in terms of liquid and solid diet was comparable between the groups. Difficulty with mouth opening was maximal during the first week with no difference among the two groups. Two patients in group 1 and one in group 2 had persistent peri-oral numbness at 6 months. None of the patients in both the groups had changes in salivation or retention cysts. Pain appears to be worse in the immediate post operative period with suturing of the harvest site. There is no difference in long term morbidity whether the graft site is closed or left open. It may be best to leave buccal mucosa harvest sites unsutured.

  13. Extreme Microstomia in an 8-Month-Old Infant: Bilateral Commissuroplasty Using Rhomboid Buccal Mucosa Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Jaminet, Patrick; Werdin, Frank; Kraus, Armin; Pfau, Matthias; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Becker, Stephan; Sinis, Nektarios

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A case of extreme microstomia in an 8-month-old infant is presented. As a result of caustic acid ingestion at the age of a few weeks, the male infant developed progressive stricture of the perioral region preventing him from normal food intake. Methods: The patient was treated by bilateral commissurotomies and a total of 4 rhomboid flaps based in the buccal mucosa. Results: We were able to enlarge the mouth aperture and subsequently cover the created soft tissue defects, with good esthetic result. The patient learned to suck the feeding bottle and was able to demonstrate oral dynamics, including laughing and crying. Conclusion: We present our surgical technique, the postoperative functional and esthetic outcome, and a brief literature review. Only few publications deal with the same matter and none with a similar life-threatening case. PMID:20076787

  14. Giant Cell Fibroma of the Buccal Mucosa with Laser Excision: Report of Unusual Case.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Somayyeh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Bigom Taheri, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Giant Cell Fibroma (GCF) was described as a new entity of fibrous hyperplastic soft tissue. It seems that stimulus from an unexplained origin can have a role in its etiology. Histopathologically GCF is consisted of multinucleated fibroblasts that have oval shape nuclei within the eosinophilic cytoplasm. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is very rare. Here we report a case of relatively large GCF in a 54-year-old man. Gingiva is the common location of GCF. As in our case, it may be mistaken as irritation fibroma especially if it is on the buccal mucosa, the most common location for fibroma. Correct diagnosis is based on biopsy and clinical examination to see surface texture roughness. To minimize bleeding because of its large size an excisional biopsy with Diod laser was performed under local anesthesia for this patient.

  15. Giant Cell Fibroma of the Buccal Mucosa with Laser Excision: Report of Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Rahmani, Somayyeh; Azimi, Somayyeh; Bigom Taheri, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Giant Cell Fibroma (GCF) was described as a new entity of fibrous hyperplastic soft tissue. It seems that stimulus from an unexplained origin can have a role in its etiology. Histopathologically GCF is consisted of multinucleated fibroblasts that have oval shape nuclei within the eosinophilic cytoplasm. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is very rare. Here we report a case of relatively large GCF in a 54-year-old man. Gingiva is the common location of GCF. As in our case, it may be mistaken as irritation fibroma especially if it is on the buccal mucosa, the most common location for fibroma. Correct diagnosis is based on biopsy and clinical examination to see surface texture roughness. To minimize bleeding because of its large size an excisional biopsy with Diod laser was performed under local anesthesia for this patient. PMID:26351504

  16. Extraneural Sclerosing Perineurioma of the Buccal Mucosa: A Case Report and Clinicopathologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Greene, David J.; Brodsky, Gilbert; Kabani, Sadru P.

    2010-01-01

    The perineurioma is an infrequently encountered benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor composed of a clonal proliferation of perineurial cells. Rare cases of perineurioma have been reported in the oral cavity. An extraneural sclerosing perineurioma arising in the buccal mucosa of a 17-year-old male is presented. Histopathologically, the tumor is composed of a well circumscribed nodular proliferation of spindle cells arranged in a storiform growth pattern, in some areas subtly arranged around vascular channels. The tumor cells reveal positive immunostaining for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), collagen type IV and vimentin, and negative immunostaining for S-100 protein, consistent with a perineurial origin. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of an extraneural sclerosing perineurioma involving the oral cavity. PMID:20364337

  17. Smoking-Associated Site-Specific Differential Methylation in Buccal Mucosa in the COPDGene Study

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Weiliang; Carey, Vincent J.; Morrow, Jarrett; Bacherman, Helene; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hokanson, John E.; Bowler, Russell P.; Crapo, James D.; DeMeo, Dawn L.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a complex, tissue-specific phenomenon that can reflect both endogenous factors and exogenous exposures. Buccal brushings represent an easily accessible source of DNA, which may be an appropriate surrogate tissue in the study of environmental exposures and chronic respiratory diseases. Buccal brushings were obtained from a subset of current and former smokers from the COPDGene study. Genome-wide DNA methylation data were obtained in the discovery cohort (n = 82) using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K array. Empirical Bayes methods were used to test for differential methylation by current smoking status at 468,219 autosomal CpG sites using linear models adjusted for age, sex, and race. Pyrosequencing was performed in a nonoverlapping replication cohort (n = 130). Current smokers were significantly younger than former smokers in both the discovery and replication cohorts. Seven CpG sites were associated with current smoking at a false discovery rate less than 0.05 in the discovery cohort. Six of the seven significant sites were pyrosequenced in the replication cohort; five CpG sites, including sites annotated to CYP1B1 and PARVA, were replicated. Correlations between cumulative smoke exposure and time since smoking cessation were observed in a subset of the significantly associated CpG sites. A significant correlation between reduced lung function and increased radiographic emphysema with methylation at cg02162897 (CYP1B1) was observed among female subjects. Site-specific methylation of DNA isolated from buccal mucosa is associated with exposure to cigarette smoke, and may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying differential susceptibility toward the development of smoking-related chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:25517428

  18. Tetraploidy with double t(11;18) of recurrent MALT lymphoma in buccal mucosa: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mituyoshi; Goto, Kaoru

    2012-03-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of an extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma that accounts for about 5% to 8% of all B-cell lymphomas. It is rare for a recurrent oral MALT lymphoma to have tetraploidy with a double t(11;18) chromosomal abnormality, however. A 66-year-old Japanese woman with a swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. A tumor was excised, and a pathologic diagnosis of MALT lymphoma with a t(11;18) (q21; q21) chromosome translocation was made. Two years later, swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred, which was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma. This tumor did not have a t(11;18) (q21; q21) chromosome translocation, but exhibited tetraploidy with double t(11;18). FISH analysis revealed that the recurrent MALT lymphoma of the buccal mucosa had tetraploidy with double t(11;18). This is the first reported case of a recurrent MALT lymphoma showing tetraploidy with double t(11;18).

  19. Micronucleus assay of buccal mucosa cells in smokers with the history of smoking less and more than 10 years.

    PubMed

    Naderi, Noushin Jalayer; Farhadi, Sareh; Sarshar, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes severe health problems such as cancer. Micronuclei are structures that present after genomic damages to the cells. The present study is aimed at evaluating the micronucleus assay of buccal mucosa cells in smokers who smoked less or more than 10 years. The present study has been a historical cohort study. The smokers were divided into two groups: First group include individuals with a smoking history less than 10 years (14 samples) and second group with the smoking history of more than 10 years (26 samples).The control group consisted of nonsmokers (23 samples). The exfoliated buccal mucosa cells were scrapped using spatula and were spread over the glass slide. Feulgen method was used for micronucleus staining. 500 cells per subjects were counted. The presence of micronucleus in all subjects and the mean percentage of micronucleus in nuclei were determined. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using T-test. The mean number of micronucleus of buccal mucosa cells in nonsmokers, first group (smoking history less than 10 years) and second group (smoking history more than 10 years) was 0.94±0.94, 1.89±0.62 and 2.01±0.93 respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.002). Considering the number of micronuclei of the buccal mucosa cells, the difference between groups 1 and 2 was not significant (P<0.6). The mean percentage of micronucleated cells in nonsmokers, group 1 and group 2 was 2.26±2.17%, 13.9±5.90 and 14.3±7.97, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001).The difference between the percentage of the cells with micronucleus in smokers with a smoking history of less or more than 10 years was not significant (P<0.6). The mean number of micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells of the nonsmokers was significantly lower than that of the smokers. However, the mean number of micronucleus of buccal mucosa cells in smokers who smoked more than 10 years was higher than smokers who smoked less than 10

  20. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  1. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  2. Expression of p75(NGFR), a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-08-29

    We investigated the expression of p75(NGFR), a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75(NGFR), BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (-)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75(NGFR) (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75(NGFR) (-)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75(NGFR) (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75(NGFR) (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium.

  3. [Use of new solcoseryl-containing Diplan-denta C film in the treatment of injuries of the buccal mucosa].

    PubMed

    Abakarova, D S

    2004-01-01

    Clinical efficiency of bilayer adhesive dental film Diplan-denta C with solcoseryl in the treatment of postoperative wounds of the buccal mucosa and the effects of this film on the course of wound process were evaluated. The course of wound process in 39 patients with postoperative injuries of the buccal mucosa treated with Diplan-denta XD and Diplan-denta C films and traditional local therapy (0.05% chlorohexidine bigluconate solution and solcoseryl dental adhesive paste) was compared. In the study group Diplan-denta XD film with chlorohexidine was used for local therapy during the first 1-3 days after the injury and Diplan-denta C film with solcoseryl was used in subsequent days until epithelialization; in controls irrigations of the oral cavity with chlorohexidine bigluconate solution (0.05%) were carried out during the first 1-3 days and applications of solcoseryl dental adhesive paste were made during subsequent days until epithelialization. The results indicate that the use of Diplan-denta C film optimized the treatment of the buccal mucosa wounds.

  4. Increased micronucleus frequency in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa in hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Rickes, L N; Alvarengo, M C; Souza, T M; Garcias, G L; Martino-Roth, M G

    2010-09-28

    Hairdressers are exposed daily to chemical substances, such as dyes, chemical straighteners and curling chemicals, which can be absorbed, inhaled or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 50 hairdressers and 50 controls in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC, binucleated cells (BNC), broken egg cells (BEC), budding cells (BC), and the sum of anomalies (SA), in 2000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the Mann-Whitney U-test, α = 0.05. The mean number of anomalies in hairdressers was 2.02 ± 3.60 MNC; 8.50 ± 5.07 BNC; 9.06 ± 3.83 BEC; 0.32 ± 0.62 BC, and 19.90 ± 9.61 SA; in controls it was 0.36 ± 1.06 MNC; 5.20 ± 4.73 BNC; 5.92 ± 2.67 BEC; 0.10 ± 0.36 BC, and 11.58 ± 6.67 SA; the differences for all parameters were significant. The non-occupational factors did not significantly influence the alterations. A significant increase of BEC (P = 0.003) was observed in the hairdressers and SA (P = 0.033) in females. The lowest income level influenced MNC (P = 0.044), and the habit of not smoking influenced SA (P = 0.020). We concluded that exposure to substances used by hairdressers is genotoxic for men.

  5. A comparative study of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty with buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in urethral stricture disease: An institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, Depak Kumar; Ghosh, Bastab; Bera, Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: A prospective study to compare the outcomes of lingual versus buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long segment anterior urethral strictures disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 30 patients for buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty (group I) and 30 patients for lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty (group II) for treatment of long segment (>3 cm) incomplete anterior urethral stricture disease using single-stage dorsal onlay free oral mucosal graft urethroplasty by Barbagli's technique between February 2013 to September 2014. All patients underwent complete evaluation of the stricture including inspection of the oral cavity. Results: The results of urethroplasty in between two group were not significant (P > 0.05) in terms of Qmax (P = 0.63), mean postoperative AUA symptom score (P = 0.83), operative time (P = 0.302) intra operative blood loss (P = 0.708), duration of postoperative hospitalization (P = 0.83), but slurring of speech complications was seen in group II, but not in group I. Long-term complications of salivary disturbance, tightness of the mouth, persistent pain at graft site, perioral numbness, seen only in group I (BMGU). Conclusion: LMG urethroplasty is an excellent alternative to BMG urethroplasty with comparable results of urethroplasty and minimal donor site complications. PMID:27141184

  6. Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    study will determine differences in the primary efficacy measure of increased keratinized mucosa; secondary measures of graft contracture and Wound...palatal oral mucosa (POM) graft (Group 2). The study population will include non-smoking adults (ages 18 and older) in need of additional keratinized ...POM), Keratinized mucosa, graft contracture 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  7. In vitro permeation through porcine buccal mucosa of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) from a topical mucoadhesive gel containing propolis.

    PubMed

    Ceschel, G C; Maffei, P; Sforzini, A; Lombardi Borgia, S; Yasin, A; Ronchi, C

    2002-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that propolis has on the oral cavity appreciable antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral actions, as well as anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and cytostatic properties. In light of these studies, an assessment of the diffusion and permeation of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE) through porcine buccal mucosa was considered useful as a possible application in the stomatological field. To do so, a mucoadhesive topical gel was prepared to apply to the buccal mucosa. The gel was formulated in such a way as to improve the solubility of the propolis, conducting to an increase of the flux. The mucosal permeation of CAPE from the formulation was evaluated using Franz cells, with porcine buccal mucosa as septum between the formulation (donor compartment) and the receptor phase chamber. The diffusion through the membrane was determined by evaluating the amount of CAPE present in the receiving solution, the flux and the permeation coefficient (at the steady state) in the different formulations at set intervals. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were done by HPLC analysis. From the results, CAPE allowed a high permeability coefficient in comparison to the coefficient of other molecules, as expected from its physical-chemical structure. Moreover, the developed gel improved the CAPE flux approximately 35 times more with respect to an ethanol solution formulated at the same gel concentration. The developed gel was also tested in order to evaluate the mucoadhesive behaviour and comfort in vivo on 10 volunteers in a period of 8 h. The in vivo evaluation of mucoadhesive gel revealed adequate comfort and non-irritancy during the period of study and it was well accepted by the volunteers.

  8. [Preliminary study of the frequency of micronuclei in buccal mucosa cells sampled from patients with laryngeal tumors].

    PubMed

    Belowska, Jadwiga; Fraczek, Agnieszka; Rał, Małgorzata; Schmager, Jan; Składzien, Jacek; Strek, Paweł; Scióg, Anna; Trybała, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    The examination of frequency of micronuclei was carried out on two groups of patients with tumors of upper respiratory tract: cancer of larynx (36 individuals) and polyps of larynx (13 persons). Groups of habitants from Katowice, Czestochowa and Nowy Sacz (cities with the different level of air pollution) and separately group of smokers, were considered as the control. It was observed that high frequency of micronuclei in cell of buccal mucosa from individuals exposed on mutagenic substances from the air and cigarette smoke could be a marker of higher risk of carcinogenesis.

  9. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of oral buccal mucosa: a study on malignancy associated changes (MAC)/cancer field effects (CFE).

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Sahu, Aditi; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C Murali

    2013-07-21

    Occurrence of metachronous and synchronous secondary tumors in oral cavities has been associated with poor prognosis and decreased 5-year disease-free survival rates. The origin of secondary tumors in the oral cavity has been primarily attributed to cancer field effects (CFE) or malignancy-associated changes (MAC) in uninvolved areas. Classification of normal, cancerous and pre-cancerous oral lesions by in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS) has already been demonstrated. In the present study, MAC/CFE in oral buccal mucosa were explored. In vivo Raman spectra from 84 subjects (722 spectra) under five categories - cancer and contralateral normal (opposite side of tumor), healthy controls (no tobacco habit, no cancer), habitués healthy controls (tobacco habit, no cancer) and non-habitués contralateral normal (no tobacco habit with cancer) were acquired. Mean and difference spectra suggest that loss of lipids and additional features representing proteins and DNA are characteristics of all pathological conditions, with respect to healthy controls. Spectral data were analyzed by PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. Results suggest that Raman characteristics of mucosa of healthy controls are exclusive, while those of habitués healthy controls are similar to those of contralateral normal mucosa. It was observed that the cluster of non-habitués contralateral normal mucosa is different from habitués healthy controls, suggesting that malignancy associated changes can be identified and also indicating that transformation of uninvolved oral mucosa due to tobacco habit or malignancy is different. The findings of the study demonstrate the potential of RS in identifying early transformation changes in oral mucosa and the efficacy of this approach in oral cancer applications.

  10. A novel approach to enhance the mucoadhesion of lipid drug nanocarriers for improved drug delivery to the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Du, Joanne D; Liu, Qingtao; Salentinig, Stefan; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Boyd, Ben J

    2014-08-25

    Targeted drug delivery to the buccal mucosa offers distinct advantages over oral delivery to the gastrointestinal tract including by-passing hepatic first-pass metabolism. However, the buccal route is often limited by low bioavailability, low drug loading and reduced residence time due to salivary excretion and clearance. To overcome these limitations, a novel mucoadhesive formulation based on liquid crystalline nanoparticles was designed. Utilising a pH induced in situ transition from a stable vesicle formulation to dispersed inverse hexagonal phase nanoparticles (hexosomes) enhanced adsorption onto the mucosal surface was enabled. Firstly, the phase behaviour of the amphiphilic lipid phytantriol (PHY) and oleic acid (OA) was assessed from pH 2-9 using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) to determine the appropriate composition for the vesicle to hexosome transition. The colloidal stability of the formulation was determined using turbidity studies. Dispersions comprising 30% w/w OA in PHY were able to form stable vesicles at pH 8 and transition to hexosomes when exposed to pH<7 (as encountered on the buccal mucosal surface). Subsequent ex vivo studies utilising excised porcine buccal tissue indicated significant retention of the in situ-formed PHY/OA hexosomes when compared to control DOPC vesicles (p<0.005), confirmed independently using confocal fluorescence microscopy, radioactive scintillation counting and HPLC analysis for incorporated drug. Thus, a novel approach providing a stable vesicle formulation, with in situ transformation to mucoadhesive hexosomes has been identified with the potential to enhance drug delivery to mucosal surfaces.

  11. Phase 2 Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    differences in the primary efficacy measure of increased keratinized mucosa; secondary measures of graft contracture and Wound Healing Index; and...per treatment group, will be randomized to receive either the experimental treatment , EVPOME (Group 1), or standard of care, the palatal oral mucosa...Keratinized mucosa, graft contracture 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  12. Secondary Reconstruction of Posttraumatic Enophthalmos with Titanium Mesh and Buccal Fat Pad Graft: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gaffrée, Gustavo; Santos, Roberto; Cupello, Viviane; Polinati, José Emilio; Paredes, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Secondary enophthalmos caused by an untreated orbital blowout fracture can cause esthetic and functional disturbances. The esthetic defect is manifested by sinking of the superior sulcus and the hypophthalmic globe. Functional impairment of the eye can usually be a common complaint with restriction of eye motion and diplopia. Early diagnosis followed by repair of surgically correctable fractures is the most acceptable procedure. Failure in the primary treatment may cause scar contraction and fat atrophy. The aim of this paper is to report a case of a late treatment of blowout orbital floor fracture with secondary enophthalmos using titanium mesh and buccal fat pad graft. PMID:28825031

  13. Pedicled buccal fat pad graft for root coverage in severe gingival recession defect

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Saurav; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Satpathy, Anurag; Das, Abhaya Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a condition resulting in root exposure which leads to root sensitivity, pain, root caries, plaque retention, poor esthetics, and tooth loss. Sites exhibiting Miller Class III and IV GR are not suitable for treatment with surgical root coverage techniques, and their prognosis are very poor with current techniques. In this case report, pedicled buccal fat pad (PBFP) was employed as subepithelial graft technique for root coverage of maxillary tooth with Class III GR defect along with furcation involvement and the absence of keratinized gingiva. PBFP as the subepithelial graft is likely to increase the predictability and outcome of root coverage procedures in the treatment of cases with poor prognosis, owing to its pedicled vascularity. PBFP may be considered as a reliable modality for root coverage of such severe maxillary posterior GR defects, as reported, that could not be repaired by other conventional procedures. PMID:27143839

  14. Robotic Salvage Pyeloplasty with Buccal Mucosal Onlay Graft: Video Demonstration of Technique and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Anna; Nelson, Ryan; Zhang, Jj Haijing; Reese, Jeremy; Angermeier, Kenneth; Haber, Georges-Pascal

    2017-07-27

    OBJECTIVE To present the use of buccal mucosal graft (BMG) in a salvage robotic laparoscopic pyeloplasty as an alternative in the management of recurrent UPJ obstruction. METHODS We present two patients with recurrent UPJ obstruction who had previously undergone two prior open or robotic pyleoplasties, followed by endoscopic management. Preoperative imaging was obtained prior to surgical repair. The UPJ was incised and the incision extended to reveal margins of healthy normal caliber ureteral tissue. Single buccal mucosal graft were harvested from the inner cheek of each patient. The grafts were of sufficient caliber and size to cover the entire defect as an onlay graft, and to maintain a tension free and water tight anastomosis. RESULTS The operative time was between 188 and 284 minutes. Estimated blood loss was 25-50mls. The hospital stay was 2 days for each patient. Foley catheters were removed prior to discharge and the JP drains removed in the immediate post-operative period. The ureteral stents were removed at 6 and 9 weeks, with retrograde pyelograms confirming patency at the UPJ. Lasix renograms were obtained after 4 months and demonstrated either resolution or were equivocal for obstruction, with preservation of renal function. Both patients have been without complication since stent removal. CONCLUSIONS Robotic pyeloplasty with BMG is an alternative in the management of recurrent UPJ obstructions. Short term follow up has demonstrated that it is an effective and attractive approach when compared to more extensive and invasive surgeries such as renal autotransplant and ileal ureter. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Determination of diesel genotoxicity in firebreathers by micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Torres-Bugarín, O; De Anda-Casillas, A; Ramírez-Muñoz, M P; Sánchez-Corona, J; Cantú, J M; Zúñiga, G

    1998-03-30

    Diesel or its derivatives could have aneuploidogenic and/or clastogenic activity. Hence, the genotoxicity of diesel gases has been studied, considering exposure to them as potentially carcinogenic. The results obtained by different authors suggest the need to know the effects of direct and chronic exposure to diesel in humans, as in the case of the street workers called 'firebreathers' who fill their buccal cavity with diesel and then spread it to a burning torch many times during the day in order to give a 'dragon show' for 5 h a day and 6 days a week. The buccal samples of eight firebreathers were collected, processed and scored according to the criterion established by Tolbert et al., 1992 and then compared with positive and negative control groups. The results revealed that diesel was not micronucleogenic although it induces some nuclear abnormalities.

  16. Buccal fat pad versus sandwich graft for treatment of oroantral defects: A comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hariram; Pal, U. S.; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, R. K.; Singh, Gaurav; Malkunje, Laxman R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacy of buccal fat pad (BFP) graft with sandwich graft (hydroxyapatite crystals embedded within collagen sheath) in closure of oroantral defects. Materials and Methods: A 2-year prospective study was conducted; 20 patients were included in the study were divided into two groups having 10 patients in each. Group I patients underwent surgical closure of oroantral fistula with sandwich graft and Group II patients with buccal pad of fat. Results: In Group I, the mean pain scores were 7.60 ± 0.84, 3.90 ± 1.10, 2.30 ± 1.16, 1.10 ± 0.99 and 0.40 ± 0.70 at immediate post-op., 1, 3, 6 and 12 week time intervals, respectively, whereas in Group II these were 7.30 ± 0.67, 3.50 ± 0.53, 1.70 ± 0.48, 1.00 ± 0.47 and 0.30 ± 0.48, respectively, at the corresponding time intervals. In Group I, swelling was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 7 (70%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks, respectively, whereas in Group II, it was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 10 (100%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at the corresponding time intervals. At 1 week, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and 2 (20%) patients of Group II. At 3 and 6 weeks, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and none of the patients of group II. No radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in either group up to 1 week. At 3 week interval, there were 6 (60%) patients in Group I and nil (0%) in Group II showing bone formation, thus showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups. By 6 week time interval, radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in 9 (90%) patients of Group I but in no patients of Group II, thereby showing a statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) difference between the two groups. In Group I, in 1 (10%) patient, graft was rejected by first week; however, no further graft rejection took place. In Group II, no case of graft rejection was reported. Conclusions: The

  17. Buccal fat pad versus sandwich graft for treatment of oroantral defects: A comparison.

    PubMed

    Hariram; Pal, U S; Mohammad, Shadab; Singh, R K; Singh, Gaurav; Malkunje, Laxman R

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of buccal fat pad (BFP) graft with sandwich graft (hydroxyapatite crystals embedded within collagen sheath) in closure of oroantral defects. A 2-year prospective study was conducted; 20 patients were included in the study were divided into two groups having 10 patients in each. Group I patients underwent surgical closure of oroantral fistula with sandwich graft and Group II patients with buccal pad of fat. In Group I, the mean pain scores were 7.60 ± 0.84, 3.90 ± 1.10, 2.30 ± 1.16, 1.10 ± 0.99 and 0.40 ± 0.70 at immediate post-op., 1, 3, 6 and 12 week time intervals, respectively, whereas in Group II these were 7.30 ± 0.67, 3.50 ± 0.53, 1.70 ± 0.48, 1.00 ± 0.47 and 0.30 ± 0.48, respectively, at the corresponding time intervals. In Group I, swelling was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 7 (70%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 weeks, respectively, whereas in Group II, it was seen to be present in 10 (100%), 10 (100%), 2 (20%) and nil (0%) patients at the corresponding time intervals. At 1 week, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and 2 (20%) patients of Group II. At 3 and 6 weeks, infection was seen to be present in 1 (10%) patient of Group I and none of the patients of group II. No radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in either group up to 1 week. At 3 week interval, there were 6 (60%) patients in Group I and nil (0%) in Group II showing bone formation, thus showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups. By 6 week time interval, radiologic evidence of bone formation was seen in 9 (90%) patients of Group I but in no patients of Group II, thereby showing a statistically very highly significant (P < 0.001) difference between the two groups. In Group I, in 1 (10%) patient, graft was rejected by first week; however, no further graft rejection took place. In Group II, no case of graft rejection was reported. The sandwich graft technique yielded a more promising

  18. Novel films for drug delivery via the buccal mucosa using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Antonijevic, Milan D; Boateng, Joshua S

    2012-10-01

    Bioadhesive buccal films are innovative dosage forms with the ability to adhere to the mucosal surface and subsequently hydrate to release and deliver drugs across the buccal membrane. This study aims to formulate and characterize stable carrageenan (CAR) based buccal films with desirable drug loading capacity. The films were prepared using CAR, poloxamer (POL) 407, various grades of PEG (plasticizer) and loaded with paracetamol (PM) and indomethacin (IND) as model soluble and insoluble drugs, respectively. The films were characterized by texture analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), DSC, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and in vitro drug release studies. Optimized films were obtained from aqueous gels comprising 2.5% w/w κ-CAR 911, 4% w/w POL 407 and 6% w/w (PM) and 6.5% w/w (IND) of PEG 600 with maximum drug loading of 1.6% w/w and 0.8 % w/w for PM and IND, respectively. TGA showed residual water content of approximately 5% of films dry weight. DSC revealed a T(g) at 22.25 and 30.77°C for PM and IND, respectively, implying the presence of amorphous forms of both drugs which was confirmed by XRPD. Drug dissolution profiles in simulated saliva showed cumulative percent release of up to 45 and 57% of PM and IND, respectively, within 40 min of contact with dissolution medium simulating saliva.

  19. Soft tissue grafting to improve the attached mucosa at dental implants: A review of the literature and proposal of a decision tree.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Mario; Kaufmann, Regula; Salvi, Giovanni E; Sculean, Anton; Bassetti, Renzo

    2015-06-01

    Scientific data and clinical observations appear to indicate that an adequate width of attached mucosa may facilitate oral hygiene procedures thus preventing peri-implant inflammation and tissue breakdown (eg, biologic complications). Consequently, in order to avoid biologic complications and improve long-term prognosis, soft tissue conditions should be carefully evaluated when implant therapy is planned. At present the necessity and time-point for soft tissue grafting (eg, prior to or during implant placement or after healing) is still controversially discussed while clinical recommendations are vague. To provide a review of the literature on the role of attached mucosa to maintain periimplant health, and to propose a decision tree which may help the clinician to select the appropriate surgical technique for increasing the width of attached mucosa. The available data indicate that ideally, soft tissue conditions should be optimized by various grafting procedures either before or during implant placement or as part of stage-two surgery. In cases, where, despite insufficient peri-implant soft tissue condition (ie, lack of attached mucosa or movements caused by buccal frena), implants have been uncovered and/or loaded, or in cases where biologic complications are already present (eg, mucositis, peri-implantitis), the treatment appears to be more difficult and less predictable. Soft tissue grafting may be important to prevent peri-implant tissue breakdown and should be considered when dental implants are placed. The presented decision tree may help the clinician to select the appropriate grafting technique.

  20. Carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: a 30-year analysis at the Medical Center of Louisiana at New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1997-06-01

    Carcinoma of the buccal mucosa is an uncommon malignancy of the oral cavity which is primarily squamous cell in histologic origin. This study represents the first investigation of this lesion in an indigent population. The purpose of this report is to review survival rates, modalities of treatment, and current management of the disease. A retrospective analysis is performed on all patients with this disease diagnosed and treated from 1965 to 1995. Of 28 patients, 75% were white, advanced stages of disease predominated, and no 5-year Stage IV survivors were recorded. Additional conclusions of this study revealed an overall 5-year determinate survival rate which was lower than other studies (25%), with a statistically significant white predominance of disease.

  1. Cytomorphometric Analysis on the Effects of Components of Orthodontic Appliances on the Epithelial Cells of the Buccal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Francis, P G; Thomas, Mathai; Antony, Vincy; Shaloob, Muhammed; Hassan, K Jubin; Roshan, Gazanafer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. The study group included 30 healthy patients who were advised orthodontic treatment. Applying sterile cement spatula, scrapping of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells was performed from the middle part of the inner cheeks before starting the orthodontic treatment and at 1(st) week, 2(nd) week, 1 month, and 45 days after the treatment, followed by smearing and staining with Papanicolaou stain. Light microscope was used to score micronuclei, and independent two-tailed t-test was used for statistical analysis. Micronuclei were assessed during the various stages of treatment and were recorded accordingly. At 1 week, there was increase in micronuclei number compared to before starting the treatment (day 0) and at 15(th) day; 30(th) day showed decrease in number compared to 1 week but increase compared to day 0. The results of day 45 were almost equal to day 0 with a significant P value (P < 0.001). Fixed orthodontic appliances induce increased micronuclei frequency, especially in the first weeks of treatment, however, these genotoxic effects tend to approach baseline levels in later period.

  2. Cytomorphometric Analysis on the Effects of Components of Orthodontic Appliances on the Epithelial Cells of the Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Francis, P. G.; Thomas, Mathai; Antony, Vincy; Shaloob, Muhammed; Hassan, K. Jubin; Roshan, Gazanafer

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on the epithelial cells of buccal mucosa in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study group included 30 healthy patients who were advised orthodontic treatment. Applying sterile cement spatula, scrapping of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells was performed from the middle part of the inner cheeks before starting the orthodontic treatment and at 1st week, 2nd week, 1 month, and 45 days after the treatment, followed by smearing and staining with Papanicolaou stain. Light microscope was used to score micronuclei, and independent two-tailed t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Micronuclei were assessed during the various stages of treatment and were recorded accordingly. At 1 week, there was increase in micronuclei number compared to before starting the treatment (day 0) and at 15th day; 30th day showed decrease in number compared to 1 week but increase compared to day 0. The results of day 45 were almost equal to day 0 with a significant P value (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Fixed orthodontic appliances induce increased micronuclei frequency, especially in the first weeks of treatment, however, these genotoxic effects tend to approach baseline levels in later period. PMID:28584785

  3. [Habitual abortion and high frequency of low frequent X chromosome monosomy mosaicism: detection by interphase FISH analysis of buccal mucosa cells and lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M; Hidaka, E; Wakui, K; Nakayama, K; Takagi, Y; Fukushima, Y; Katsuyama, T

    2000-10-01

    FISH analysis using X alpha satellite probe was performed to the nuclei of lymphocytes obtained from fourteen women with having a history of habitual abortion for unknown causes(WHA) and from 65 normal control women(NW), in order to determine whether low frequency X monosomy mosaicism is one of the factors of habitual abortion. In parallel, the nuclei of buccal mucosa from 8 of WHA and 65 NW were also examined. Five hundreds of the interphase nuclei in each sample were observed. As results, the frequency of X monosomy in NW found in the lymphocytes or buccal mucosa was ranged from 0-3.2%(mean 1.59%, SD 0.69%) or from 0-3.2%(mean 1.24%, SD 0.85%), respectively. However, the occurrence of X monosomy in WHA was significantly higher compared with that of NW; i.e., 0.8-5.8%(mean 3.21%, SD 1.67) for lymphocytes, and 1.8-7.4%(mean 4.45%, SD 1.73%) for buccal mucosa. These results allowed us to define the reference intervals to discriminate WHA from NW were less than 2.97% or 2.94% for lymphocytes or buccal mucosa, respectively. Based on the reference intervals defined above, the high frequency of X monosomy mosaicism was actually found in 9 of 14 WHA. These results altogether strongly suggested that the low frequency X monosomy mosaicism was one of the factors of habitual abortion.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of human buccal mucosa mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene expression by diet.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Karlic, Heidrun; Rust, Petra; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2009-03-01

    The impact of nutrition on the epigenetic machinery has increasingly attracted interest. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of various diets on methylation and gene expression. The antioxidative enzyme mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was chosen as the model system because epigenetic regulation has been previously shown in cell lines for this gene. Promoter methylation and gene expression of MnSOD in buccal swabs from three sample groups were analysed. The three groups included: (1) forty vegetarians (aged 20-30 years); (2) age-matched omnivores; (3) elderly omnivores (aged>85 years). A 3-fold increase in the expression of the MnSOD gene was associated with decreased CpG methylation of the analysed promoter region in the vegetarian group compared with the age-matched omnivores group. Expression and promoter methylation of the MnSOD gene in elderly omnivores showed no significant differences compared with younger omnivores. In accordance with previous findings in various tissues, DNA global methylation was found to be significantly higher (30 %) in buccal swabs of younger subjects (independent of the diet), than in those of elderly omnivores. In the control experiment which was designed to verify the findings of the human buccal swab studies, the Caco-2 cell line was treated with zebularine. Results of the control study showed a 6-fold increase of MnSOD expression, an approximately 40 % decreased methylation of specified CpG in the MnSOD promoter and a 50 % reduction of global DNA methylation. These results indicate that diet affects the epigenetic regulation of human MnSOD.

  5. The use of buccal fat pad free graft in closure of soft-tissue defects and dehiscence in the hard palate

    PubMed Central

    Kablan, Fares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The integrity of the palatal mucosa can be lost due to congenital, pathological, and iatrogenic conditions. Various surgical techniques have been suggested for the closure of palatal defects. The aim of the current study is to present the free buccal fat pad graft as a novel technique to repair the soft-tissue defects at the palate. Patients and Methods: During a 2-year period, the free fat tissue graft harvested from the buccal fat pad (BFP) (FBFG) and used to reconstruct five soft-tissue defects of the palate in five patients (2 women, 3 men; mean age, 34 years; range, 22–58 years). In two patients, the palatal defect size was 2–3 cm and resulted from the resection of pleomorphic adenoma. In two other patients, the defect was due to odontogenic lesion, and in the last patient, the etiology was an iatrogenic dehiscence during maxillary segmentation surgery. Patients were examined every 2 weeks in the first 3 months and thereafter every 3 months. Results: Five patients were treated with FBFG to reconstruct palatal defects and were followed up for 6–24 months. The healing process of the BFP and the recipient sites were uneventful, with minimal morbidity. At 3 months after the surgery, there was complete epithelialization of the graft at the recipient sites. Conclusions: Harvesting of FBFG is a simple procedure with minor complications; manipulation and handling the graft are easy. The use of FBFG in reconstruction of small and medium palatal defects is encouraging with excellent clinical outcomes.

  6. Effect of a corticosteroid (triamcinolone) and chlorhexidine on chemotherapy-induced oxidative stress in the buccal mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Gümüş, Sami; Yarıktaş, Murat; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Aynali, Giray; Başpınar, Şirin

    2016-12-01

    Oral mucositis manifests as erythematous and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. Among its various causes, cancer treatment (e.g., chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy) is one of the more well known. It has been widely mentioned that oxidative stress parameters such as lipid peroxidation levels increase during the cancer process. Glutathione is one of the major intracellular enzymes used to detoxify oxidant molecules; it exists in both a reduced and oxidized state. Reduced glutathione is used as a substrate to synthesize glutathione peroxidase. We conducted a study to investigate and compare the effects of triamcinolone (a synthetic steroid) and chlorhexidine (a chemical antiseptic) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; a chemotherapeutic agent)-induced oral mucositis in the buccal mucosa of 36 rats. Oral mucositis was induced through a combination of 5-FU treatment and mild abrasion of the cheek pouch with a wire brush. The rats were treated with one of four regimens: saline placebo (group I), 5-FU only (group II), 5-FU plus triamcinolone (group III), and 5-FU plus chlorhexidine (group IV). Three rats in the triamcinolone group died of unknown causes on days 7 and 8, and 3 rats in the chlorhexidine group died on days 7 and 9. On day 9, the remaining 30 rats were sacrificed and examined. Buccal mucosa lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in the 5-FU-only group than in the control group and significantly higher in the control group than in the triamcinolone group (p < 0.05 for both). Levels of reduced glutathione were significantly lower in the 5-FU-only group than in both the triamcinolone group and the chlorhexidine group (p < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the triamcinolone group than in the 5-FU-only group (p < 0.01). Histopathologic analysis revealed that treatment with triamcinolone significantly reduced 5-FU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and ulceration (p < 0.001); no such reduction was seen with

  7. Topical treatment of the buccal mucosa and wounded skin in rats with a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel prepared using an electron beam.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soon Gil; Baek, Eun Jung; Davaa, Enkhzaya; Nho, Young-Chang; Lim, Youn-Mook; Park, Jong-Seok; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Huh, Kang Moo; Park, Jeong-Sook

    2013-04-15

    In this study, a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel was prepared by electron beam irradiation and evaluated for use as a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system. A poloxamer was modified to have vinyl end groups for preparation of the hydrogel via an irradiation cross-linking reaction. Carbopol was introduced to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogel. The in vitro release of triamcinolone acetonide from the hydrogel was examined at 37 °C. To investigate the topical therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide on wounded rat skin and buccal mucosa, the appearance and histological changes were evaluated for 15 days after treatment with saline, triamcinolone acetonide solution, triamcinolone acetonide hydrogel, and blank hydrogel, respectively. Triamcinolone acetonide was released constantly from the gel formulation at 37 °C and reach 100% at about 48 h. After 15 days, in the skin of the group treated with the triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel, the wound was almost completely free of crust and a number of skin appendages, including hair follicles, had formed at the margins of the tissue. Moreover, the inflammatory response in the buccal mucosa was milder than that in the other groups, and the wound surface was completely covered with regenerating, hyperkeratotic, thickened epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the triamcinolone-acetonide hydrogel showed sustained drug release behavior, while causing no significant histopathological changes in buccal and skin tissues. Therefore, this hydrogel system may be a powerful means of drug delivery for buccal administration with controlled release and no tissue irritation.

  8. A Case of Sialolithiasis in a Minor Salivary Gland of the Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Shibata, Akio; Nishiwaki, Shusuke; Umemura, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the major salivary glands. In contrast, Sialolithiasis of Minor Salivary Glands (SMSG) is very rare. Only 2% of all cases of sialolithiasis develop in minor salivary glands and sublingual glands. Furthermore, the clinical and imaging features of SMSG frequently differ from those encountered in major salivary glands thus, hindering proper clinical diagnosis of SMSG. Histologically, SMSG is characterized by ductal ectasia (sometimes with deep cystic dilatation), acinar atrophy and periductal inflammation. Herein, we describe a patient suffering from SMSG in the left buccal region. Based on the clinicopathological findings of this case and a review of the literature, we propose that this entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of intra-mucosal nodules. PMID:28050512

  9. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    PubMed

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  10. Re-epithelialization of the Buccal Mucosa after Alkaline Chemical Injury.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Saneyuki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Katakura, Akira; Yamane, Gen-Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water and bicarbonate toothpaste. However, the effects of an alkaline pH on the oral mucosa had not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate how basal keratinocytes are actively involved in re-epithelialization after alkaline chemical injury. We generated epithelial defects in the oral mucosa of mice by applying an alkaline chemical, and the localization of cytokeratin 13, cytokeratin 14, PCNA and p63 was investigated during the re-epithelialization process. PCNA- and p63-positive staining was seen in basal cells covering the wound surface at 1 day after the chemical injury. Cytokeratin 14-positive and PCNA-negative basal keratinocytes were localized in a few layers of the wound epithelium during epithelial outgrowth. Cytokeratin 14-positive and PCNA-positive basal keratinocytes, indicating proliferation, were localized over the entire layer of the epithelium at the wound margin. These results imply that basal keratinocytes at the wound margin migrate to the wound surface, provoke differentiation and keratinization during epithelial outgrowth and that epithelial cells are supplied from the wound margin to the epithelial outgrowth after alkaline chemical injury.

  11. Nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa cells of patients with type I and II diabetes treated with folic acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zamora-Perez, A L; Muñoz-Magallanes, T; Sánchez-Parada, M G; García Bañuelos, J J; Guerrero-Velázquez, C; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Vera-Cruz, J M; Armendáriz-Borunda, J; Zúñiga-González, G M

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by high blood glucose. Excessive production of free radicals may cause oxidative damage to DNA and other molecules, leading to complications of the disease. It may be possible to delay or reduce such damage by administration of antioxidants such as folic acid (FA). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of FA on nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the oral mucosa of patients with DM. NAs (micronucleated cells, binucleated cells, pyknotic nuclei, karyorrhexis, karyolysis, abnormally condensed chromatin, and nuclear buds) were analyzed in 2000 cells from 45 healthy individuals (control group) and 55 patients with controlled or uncontrolled type I or II DM; 35 patients in the latter group were treated with FA. Samples were taken from the FA group before and after treatment. An increased rate of NAs was found in patients with DM in comparison with that of the control group (P<0.001). FA supplementation in patients with DM reduced the frequency of NAs (20.4 ± 8.0 before treatment vs. 10.5 ± 5.2 after treatment; P<0.001). The type I and type II DM and controlled and uncontrolled DM subgroups were analyzed in terms of sex, age, and smoking habit. The significantly reduced frequencies of buccal mucosa cells with micronuclei, binucleation, pyknosis, karyorrhexis, karyorrhexis+abnormally condensed chromatin, karyolysis, and nuclear buds produced by FA supplementation in DM patients (P<0.02) are consistent with the idea that free radicals are responsible for the increased frequency of NAs in DM patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Penile Circular Fasciocutaneous (McAninch) Flap as an Option for Complex Anterior Urethral Stricture in Case of Non-Viable Buccal Mucosal Graft

    PubMed Central

    Vijayganapathy, Sundaramoorthy; Mallya, Ashwin; Sreenivas, Jayaram

    2016-01-01

    The penile circular fasciocutaneous flap (FCF) is employed in the successful single stage reconstruction of long segment complex anterior urethral strictures especially when buccal mucosa is unavailable due to various reasons. A 65-year-old gentleman, chronic smoker and tobacco chewer, hypertensive on treatment, presented with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms for 8 months. He had no prior urethral catheterization. On examination, he had circumcised penis, with stenosis of the external urethral meatus. Glans had no changes suggesting balanitis xerotica obliterans. Suprapubic cystostomy was done as he developed acute urinary retention during evaluation. Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) showed pan-anterior urethral stricture. He was planned for substitution urethroplasty. On oral cavity examination, he had moderate trismus with oral submucous fibrosis. As buccal mucosal graft was unavailable, he was planned for FCF. A ventral onlay tubularization FCF urethroplasty from meatus to bulbar urethra based on dartos dorsal pedicle was done. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Pericatheter RGU did not show extravastion and he voided well with Qmax 14 ml/second. He is doing well at follow-up. PMID:27630900

  13. A Case of Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma, So-Called Clear Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified, of the Minor Salivary Glands of the Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yamanishi, Takahiro; Kutsuma, Kiwako; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC), so-called clear cell carcinoma, not otherwise specified (CCC (NOS)), of the salivary glands is a rare and low-grade malignant tumor. We report a case of HCCC so-called CCC (NOS) (referred to as HCCC) of the minor salivary gland of the buccal mucosa. A 52-year-old woman had presented with a gradually growing and indolent mass in the right buccal mucosa for about two years. The first biopsy histopathologically suggested the possibility of malignancy derived from the minor salivary glands. A month later, she visited our hospital. The tumor measured approximately 1.5 cm in diameter and was elastic hard, smooth, and well movable. Image examinations demonstrated internal homogeneity of the lesion, which had a smooth margin, in the right buccal mucosa. Complete tumor resection followed by covering with a polyglycolic acid sheet and fibrin glue spray was performed without surgical flap reconstruction. Histopathological findings revealed proliferating tumor cells with clear cytoplasm surrounded by hyalinizing stroma in the submucosal minor salivary glands. Immunohistochemical stains revealed these tumor cells to be positive for epithelial cell markers but negative for myoepithelial ones. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of HCCC. Good wound healing and no evidence of local recurrence and metastasis have been shown since surgery. PMID:26600962

  14. Reconstruction of an amputated glans penis with a buccal mucosal graft: case report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-12-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable.

  15. Reconstruction of an Amputated Glans Penis With a Buccal Mucosal Graft: Case Report of a Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Penis length was 3 cm. Complete penile degloving was performed. The distal part of the remaining penis was prepared by removing fibrous tissue. A buccal mucosal graft was applied to the distal part of the penis associated with meatotomy. The use of a buccal mucosal graft is a successful and simple procedure with acceptable cosmetic and functional results for late reconfiguration of the glans penis after amputation when penile size is suitable. PMID:25512820

  16. Dorsal versus ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for long-segment bulbar urethral stricture: A prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Pawan; Nanda, Biswajit; Kumar, Anup; Kumar, Niraj; Singh, Harbinder; Kumar, Rohit

    2015-10-01

    To compare safety and efficacy of ventral versus dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty in patients with long-segment incomplete bulbar urethral stricture. This was a single center, prospective, randomized trial. Patients with long-segment (>2 cm) incomplete bulbar urethral stricture and meeting eligibility criteria were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into two study groups: group A undergoing dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty and group B undergoing ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. The two groups were compared statistically with regard to International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate, intraoperative parameters and complications. A total of 80 eligible patients were randomized into two equal groups of 40 patients each. The preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, maximum flow rate and intraoperative parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. At 12-month follow up, the mean International Prostate Symptom Score showed 324.95% and 353.59% improvement, whereas the mean maximum flow rate showed 208.43% and 201.93% improvement in group A and B, respectively. There was no significant difference between International Prostate Symptom Score and maximum flow rate data between the two groups at 3- and 12-month follow up. The success rate of surgery was similar between group A and B (92.5% vs 90%) with no significant difference noted between them. Dorsal and ventral onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty have comparable efficacy and complication rates for treatment of long-segment incomplete bulbar urethral strictures. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  17. Determination of deep surgical margin based on anatomical architecture for local control of squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yoshihide; Aoki, Takayuki; Karakida, Kazunari; Otsuru, Mitsunobu; Kurabayashi, Hirotaka; Sasaki, Masashi; Nakamura, Naoya; Kajiwara, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    Of all oral squamous cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas of the buccal mucosa (BSCC) are most associated with poorest prognosis. In particular, patients treated with surgery alone are reported to experience frequent local failures. This is considered to result from the surgeon's determination of the deep surgical margin for resection based on palpation alone when performing BSCC surgery. Therefore, an objective system for classifying the depth of invasion of a tumor appears to be necessary in order to improve the results of BSCC treatment. While current general practice is to treat based on tumor thickness, we would like to emphasize the importance of how far down the cheek wall layer the tumor has invaded. We performed surgery by classifying the depths of tumor invasion in relation to the buccinator. Depth of tumor invasion was assessed mainly using ultrasonography (US). The tumor was defined as D1 when it extended to the mucosal (m) and submucosal layers (sm). In these cases, the tumor was resected, while the buccinator was spared. The tumor was defined as D2 when it extended to the buccinator, but, based on US, muscle continuity was preserved, and the tumor was resected to include the buccinator and its overlying fascia. When the tumor had spread to the buccinator or invaded subcutaneous or cutaneous tissue it was classified as D3 and resection included the skin. The disease-specific survival rate of BSCC when treated based on our classification was 73.7% and the local control rate was 89.5%. These results are superior to those based on surgery alone and this therapeutic modality was considered to be useful.

  18. Phase II Clinical Trial of Intraoral Grafting of Human Tissue-Engineered Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    graft contracture and Wound Healing Index; and ancillary outcome measures of tissue perfusion measured graft color and laser Doppler flowmetry, and...infection, fluid loss, and foreign material contamination and relapse secondary to wound contracture. Oral mucosa is in limited supply for use in...reconstructive procedures in the oral cavity. This is especially prevalent after large avulsed soft tissue wounds involving the mouth and lips seen in

  19. Surgical management of the buccal bifurcation cyst: bone grafting as a treatment adjunct to enucleation and curettage.

    PubMed

    Levarek, Rachel E; Wiltz, Mauricio J; Kelsch, Robert D; Kraut, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The buccal bifurcation cyst (BBC) is a rare inflammatory odontogenic cyst of unknown etiology. It typically develops on the buccal aspect of the permanent mandibular first molar and occasionally on the permanent mandibular second molar in children 4 to 14 years old. Distinct clinical findings of the BBC include involvement of a vital partially or fully erupted mandibular first or second molar, swelling in the affected mandibular molar region, delayed or altered eruption pattern of the involved tooth, and an increase in periodontal pocket depth when the affected tooth is partially erupted. Specific radiographic features include a radiolucent lesion on the buccal aspect of the tooth involving the roots to a variable extent, tilting of the involved molar so that the root apices are toward the lingual cortical plate, an intact periodontal ligament space and lamina dura, a periosteal reaction on the buccal surface, and an intact inferior border of the mandible. The histopathology of the lesion has been described as similar to a radicular or inflammatory odontogenic cyst. Most of the current literature supports simple enucleation and curettage of the cyst without extraction of the involved tooth as the treatment of choice. This report presents 3 cases of BBCs that were treated with enucleation and curettage without extraction of the involved tooth, in addition to a bone graft placed primarily or secondarily as an adjunctive treatment approach to the current therapies. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus.

    PubMed

    Rahamthulla, S A K Uroof; Priya, P Vani; Hussain, S M D Javeed; Nasyam, Fazil Arshad; Akifuddin, Syed; Srinivas, Velpula Sasidhar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus. This was a prospective study of five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of gingivobuccal mucosa of oral cavity with clinically N0 neck, conducted over a period of 2 years from July 2007 to Oct 2009 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital. The study was conducted in patients irrespective of age, sex, size, thickness, and type of differentiation of the lesion. All patients have clinically non-palpable lymphnodes (N0 neck), while patients with palpable lymphnodes, patients with previous surgery, and patients with previous radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Level I was the commonest site of neck metastasis in our study. Among the five patients, two (40%) patients (case 2 and 3) had occult cervical metastasis (level IB nodes are histopathologically positive nodes) and the remaining three patients (60%) had no occult cervical metastasis. The recurrence rate was 20% for patients who received postoperative radiotherapy. There was no morbidity and postoperative dysfunction and the mortality rate was only 20% in our study. Supraomohyoid neck dissection is the therapeutic procedure in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus of mandible. Supraomohyoid neck dissection, when indicated, contributes to the concept of less-invasive surgery and offers functional and aesthetic advantages without compromising the clearance with minimal morbidity.

  1. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Deng, Xiaoxiao; Park, Kun-Young; Qiu, Lihua; Pang, Liang

    2013-02-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional healthy salt known in Korea. The in vitro anticancer effects of the salt were evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in TCA8113 human tongue carcinoma cells. At 1% concentration, the growth inhibitory rate of purple bamboo salt was 61% higher than that of sea salt (27%). Apoptosis analysis of the cancer cells was carried out using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining to investigate the mechanism of the anticancer effects in tongue carcinoma cells. Purple bamboo salt induced a stronger apoptotic effect than sea salt. An Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mouse buccal mucosa cancer model was established by injecting mice with U14 squamous cell carcinoma cells. Following injection, the wound at the injection site was smeared with salt samples. It was observed that the tumor volumes for the group treated with purple bamboo salt were smaller than those from the sea salt treatment and control groups. The sections of buccal mucosa cancer tissue showed that canceration in the purple bamboo salt group was weaker compared with that in the sea salt group. Similar results were observed in the lesion section of the cervical lymph. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting, the purple bamboo salt group demonstrated an increase in Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and a decrease in B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, compared with the sea salt and control groups. The results demonstrated that purple bamboo salt had improved in vivo buccal mucosa cancer preventive activity compared with sea salt in mice.

  2. Beta-carotene isomers in human serum, breast milk and buccal mucosa cells after continuous oral doses of all-trans and 9-cis beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E J; Qin, J; Krinsky, N I; Russell, R M

    1997-10-01

    The concentrations of all-trans beta-carotene (tBC) and 9-cis beta-carotene (9cBC) isomers in serum, breast milk and buccal mucosa cells were determined after continuous oral doses as a simple, non-invasive method to determine whether differences in tissue uptake are important determinants of serum responses. Twelve healthy lactating women were recruited for a nonresidential study. On d 1, blood samples were obtained from fasting subjects for baseline concentrations of beta-carotene isomers. Over a 1-wk period, subjects were given either seven doses of a placebo (n = 4) or seven doses of naturally occurring BC (n = 8) derived from Dunaliella bardawil (64 mg tBC, 69 mg 9cBC). Subjects were instructed to consume a single beta-carotene dose along with a meal containing adequate fat each day for 1 wk. On d 2, 3, 5 and 8, blood samples and breast milk were collected from fasting subjects. On d 1 and 8, buccal mucosa cells were collected. Samples were analyzed for carotenoids by HPLC. In the experimental group, the mean serum concentration of tBC significantly increased to seven times the baseline level by the end of the supplementation period (P < 0.0001). The serum concentration of 9cBC significantly increased to three times the baseline level by the end of the supplementation period (P < 0.0001). The changes in milk and buccal mucosa cells levels of tBC and 9cBC followed a pattern similar to that for serum, showing significant increases at the end of the supplementation period. In the control group, the serum, milk and buccal mucosa cell concentrations of BC isomers did not change. This study confirms the previously reported differences in the serum response curves of tBC and 9cBC and provides evidence that there is no difference in tissue uptake of tBC and 9cBC.

  3. The use of Buccal fat pad free graft in regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis: A new and predictable technique

    PubMed Central

    Kablan, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Peri-implantitis is a common condition, but no particular treatment protocol has shown to be definitively effective. Fat tissue in the oral cavity is widely available and easily accessed. The aim of the current study is to present a novel technique in the treatment of peri-implant lesions, utilizing a free fat tissue graft from the buccal fat pad (BFP). Patients and Methods: Free fat graft (FFG) was harvested from the BFP in eight patients and used with bone substitutes to regenerate 22 peri-implant lesions. Mechanical debridement of the implants surface and the granulation tissue were made with curettes or with Er: YAG laser. Clinical parameters such as plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, gingival recession, and the clinical attachment level were recorded as a baseline during the follow-up period. In addition, radiological evaluation was made preoperative during the follow-up period. Results: The donor site of the free fat graft was healed without cosmetic defect in all patients. Twenty-two peri-implant lesions were followed up for 12 months. Bleeding on probing and the pocket depth were significantly improved, and the clinical attachment level was achieved and maintained during the follow-up period due to the fibrous healing of the free fat graft. Satisfactory esthetic and functional outcomes of the treated implants were achieved and maintained. Conclusions: Free buccal fat graft heals by fibrosis. The fibrotic tissue adheres strongly to the implant surface and with stand the recurrence of the peri-implant lesion and provides stable and predictable outcome. PMID:26981467

  4. A case of extensive genitourinary tuberculosis: combined augmentation ileo-cystoplasty, ureteric ileal replacement and buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh, Onkar; Gupta, Shilpi Singh; Arvind, Nand Kishore

    2013-09-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is the second most common form of extrapulmonary TB after lymph nodes. Advanced GUTB leading to strictures of ureters and urethra, and bladder contracture frequently need surgical management. These are usually treated by ileal replacement of ureter, substitution urethroplasty using buccal mucosal graft (BMG) and augmentation ileo-cystoplasty, respectively. These procedures have been well demonstrated individually but all these three procedures have never been combined as single procedure in the same patient. We report a case of advanced GUTB with ureteric and urethral strictures, and bladder contracture which was treated by the ileal replacement of ureter, augmentation ileo-cystoplasty combined with BMG substitution urethroplasty in a single sitting.

  5. Topical application of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia L. promotes healing of excisional and incisional wounds in rat buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    İlhan, Mert; Bolat, Ismail Eser; Süntar, İpek; Kutluay Köklü, Harika; Uğar Çankal, Dilek A; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2015-12-01

    In Turkish folk medicine Momordica charantia L. is used for wound healing. The aim of the present study is to investigate this folkloric knowledge and confirm the plant's potential effect on buccal mucosa wound in the rat. Wound healing activity of olive oil macerate of Momordica charantia L. was investigated in linear incision and circular excision wound models created in the buccal mucosa of the rat. The tissues were histopathologically evaluated, moreover, hydroxyproline contents of the tissues were determined. The anti-inflammatory activity was also assessed by using Whittle method with some modifications. Olive oil macerate of M. charantia showed significant wound healing activity both in incision (45.1%) and excision (89.8%) wound models and demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity with the inhibition value of 31.3% at the dose of 100mg/kg. The experimental data revealed that M. charantia showed significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Autologous Fat Grafting in the Treatment of Painful Postsurgical Scar of the Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lisa, Andrea; Summo, Valeria; Bandi, Valeria; Maione, Luca; Murolo, Matteo; Klinger, Francesco; Klinger, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background. Persistent pain as a consequence of surgical treatment has been reported for several common surgical procedures and represents a clinical problem of great magnitude. Material and Methods. We describe the case of a 47-year-old female who presented a retractile scar that adhered to deep planes at the upper right of the vestibule due to surgical removal of maxillary exostosis, which determined important pain symptoms extending till the right shoulder during both chewing and rest. We subsequently treated her with autologous fat grafting according to Coleman's technique. Results. Clinical assessments were performed at 5 and 14 days, 1, 3, and 6 months, and 1 year after surgical procedure. We observed a progressive release of scar retraction together with an important improvement of pain symptoms. Conclusion. The case described widens the possible application of autologous fat grafting on a new anatomical site as buccal vestibule and in one specific clinical setting confirming its promising biological effects.

  7. Experimental reconstruction of teat mucosa by vestibular mucosal graft in cows. A histopathologic and radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Molaei, M M; Oloumi, M M; Maleki, M; Abshenas, J

    2002-09-01

    Injuries to the teat in dairy cows can result in partial or complete obstruction of the teat lumen. Different treatment techniques have been used to restore normal function in injured teats, one of which is autogenous mucosal grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vestibular mucosa as a replacement for teat mucosa in severe teat injuries. Sixteen teats of four healthy, mature, non-gravid Jersey cows were randomly divided into two equal groups. Under high epidural analgesia and after surgical preparation a 1 x 1.5 cm piece of teat mucosa was removed. In group 1, the defect was replaced by a 2 x 2.5 cm vestibular mucosa, whereas in group 2, the defect was left open. In both groups, a sterile disposable teat cannula was inserted into the teat cistern following surgery. To evaluate luminal diameter, double contrast radiography with constant air pressure was performed every 25 days till day 125, after which the animals were slaughtered and teats removed for histopathological study (H&E staining). On the basis of radiographic examination, luminal narrowing in group 2 was significantly more severe than in group 1. Histopathologically, the entire mucosal grafts of group 1 were taken and a good adhesion could be seen between the graft and the host epithelium. In group 2, severe submucosal fibrosis and mucosal papilloid hyperplasia resulted in severe narrowing of the teat cistern. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that using vestibular mucosal grafts with temporary insertion of teat cannula can be considered as a method of treating teat mucosal injuries.

  8. Immunohistochemical comparison of CD5, lambda, and kappa expression in primary and recurrent buccal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mituyoshi; Goto, Kaoru

    2011-09-06

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a type of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.Primary MALT lymphomas can also occur in the oral cavity, although their appearance in this location is rare. The neoplastic cells of which MALT lymphomas are composed express B-cell antigens and show monotypic immunoglobulin expression with light-chain restriction.Although neoplastic MALT lymphoma cells do not express CD5, previous studies have shown that CD5 positive MALT lymphomas are more prone to dissemination than those that do not express CD5. Moreover, there are some reports that describe kappa- and lambda- dual light chain expression in B cell malignant neoplasms.A 66-year-old Japanese woman with swelling of the right buccal mucosa was referred to our hospital. The lesion was excised and was pathologically diagnosed as a MALT lymphoma tumor with a t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosome translocation.Swelling of the right buccal mucosa recurred 2 years later. The recurrent tumor was then excised and pathologically diagnosed as MALT lymphoma.Immunohistochemical examination of CD5, lambda, and kappa expressions revealed that the primary tumor was positive for CD5, kappa, and lambda, but the recurrent tumor was weakly positive for CD5 and kappa.With respect to lambda positivity, the recurrent tumor showed negativity.Our study suggests that immunohistochemical expression of CD5, kappa, and lambda in oral MALT lymphoma have the risk of recurrence.We first described the recurrence of CD5 positive MALT lymphoma in the oral cavity and compared the immunohistochemical expressions of CD5, lambda, and kappa between the primary and recurrent tumors.

  9. [Circadian rhythm variation of the clock genes Per1 and cell cycle related genes in different stages of carcinogenesis of buccal mucosa in animal model].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xuemei; Ye, Hua; Yang, Kai; Chen, Dan; Tang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the expression and circadian rhythm variation of biological clock gene Per1 and cell cycle genes p53, CyclinD1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK1), CyclinB1 in different stages of carcinogenesis in buccal mucosa and its relationship with the development of buccal mucosa carcinoma. Ninety golden hamsters were housed under 12 hours light-12 hours dark cycles, and the model of buccal squamous cell carcinoma was established by using the dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) to smear the golden hamster buccal mucosa. Before the DMBA was used and after DMBA was used 6 weeks and 14 weeks respectively, the golden hamsters were sacrificed at 6 different time points (5 rats per time point) within 24 hour, including 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hour after lights onset (HALO), and the normal buccal mucosa, precancerous lesions and cancer tissue were obtained, respectively. HE stained sections were prepared to observe the canceration of each tissue. Real time RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of Per1, p53, CyclinD1, CDK1 and CyclinB1, and a cosine analysis method was applied to determine the circadian rhythm variation of Per1, p53, CyclinD1, CDK1 and CyclinB1 mRNA expression, which were characterized by median, amplitude and acrophase. The expression of Per1, p53, CDK1 and CyclinD1 mRNA in 6 different time points within 24 hours in the tissues of three different stages of carcinogenesis had circadian rhythm, respectively. However, the CyclinB1 mRNA was expressed with circadian rhythm just in normal and cancer tissue (P < 0.05), while in precancerous lesions the circadian rhythm was in disorder (P > 0.05). As the development of carcinoma, the median of Per1 and p53 mRNA expression were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), yet the median of CDK1, CyclinB1 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The amplitude of Per1, p53 and CyclinD1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased as the development of carcinoma (P < 0.05), however the

  10. Buccal bone plate in immediately placed and restored implant with Bio-Oss(®) collagen graft: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Degidi, Marco; Daprile, Giuseppe; Nardi, Diego; Piattelli, Adriano

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to radiographically assess the vertical and horizontal alterations of buccal alveolar bone after the insertion of a post-extractive implant using Bio-Oss(®) Collagen graft. The study was designed as a prospective study. Adult patients were eligible for the study if they needed one or more immediately inserted and immediately restored implant replacing teeth to be extracted within region 15-25. After the insertion, the buccal gap was carefully grafted using Bio-Oss(®) Collagen and the implant immediately restored. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) was performed immediately after surgery and a series of measurements were made to determine the dimension of the buccal bone plate and the void between implant and extraction socket. A second CBCT was taken and the measurements repeated after 12 months. Altogether, 69 patients were included in the study; a total of 69 implants were inserted. The study demonstrated that the extraction of a tooth and the immediate insertion of an implant together with an xenograft resulted in alterations of the vertical and horizontal dimension of the buccal bone plate (respectively, 25.6% and 29.3%). Nevertheless, the vertical and horizontal gap reduction was nearly complete (respectively, 99.3% and 99.1%) and the implant was normally in contact with buccal bone. Implant placement into extraction sockets can result in favorable radiological results even in the presence of evident alterations of the buccal bone wall. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features of the buccal mucosa: a case report with immunohistochemical study and genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Hiroyuki; Nakashiro, Kohichi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral ameloblastoma (PA), a rare and unusual variant of odontogenic tumors, comprises about 1% of all ameloblastomas. PA is an exophytic growth localized to the soft tissues overlying the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, and the initial diagnosis is often fibrous epulis. PA with histologically low-grade malignant features is extremely rare. We report a case of peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features in a 69-year-old woman that presented with a hemorrhage from a tumor on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was surgically removed by blunt dissection, with no evidence of recurrence after two years and six months. After the case presentation, microscopic and genetic findings are discussed. PMID:25973109

  12. Peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features of the buccal mucosa: a case report with immunohistochemical study and genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Goda, Hiroyuki; Nakashiro, Kohichi; Ogawa, Ikuko; Takata, Takashi; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral ameloblastoma (PA), a rare and unusual variant of odontogenic tumors, comprises about 1% of all ameloblastomas. PA is an exophytic growth localized to the soft tissues overlying the tooth-bearing areas of the jaws, and the initial diagnosis is often fibrous epulis. PA with histologically low-grade malignant features is extremely rare. We report a case of peripheral ameloblastoma with histologically low-grade malignant features in a 69-year-old woman that presented with a hemorrhage from a tumor on the right buccal mucosa. The tumor was surgically removed by blunt dissection, with no evidence of recurrence after two years and six months. After the case presentation, microscopic and genetic findings are discussed.

  13. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa grafts for intraoral lining reconstruction of the maxilla and mandible with a fibula flap.

    PubMed

    Sieira Gil, Ramón; Pagés, Carles Martí; Díez, Eloy García; Llames, Sara; Fuertes, Ada Ferrer; Vilagran, Jesús Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Many types of soft tissue grafts have been used for grafting or prelaminating bone flaps for intraoral lining reconstruction. The best results are achieved when prelaminating free flaps with mucosal grafts. We suggest a new approach to obtain keratinized mucosa over a fibula flap using full-thickness, engineered, autologous oral mucosa. We report on a pilot study for grafting fibula flaps for mandibular and maxilla reconstruction with full-thickness tissue-engineered autologous oral mucosa. We describe 2 different techniques: prelaminating the fibula flap and second-stage grafting of the fibula after mandibular reconstruction. Preparation of the full-thickness tissue-engineered oral mucosa is also described. The clinical outcome of the tissue-engineered intraoral lining reconstruction and response after implant placement are reported. A peri-implant granulation tissue response was not observed when prelaminating the fibula, and little response was observed when intraoral grafting was performed. Tissue engineering represents an alternative method by which to obtain sufficient autologous tissue for reconstructing mucosal oral defects. The full-thickness engineered autologous oral mucosa offers definite advantages in terms of reconstruction planning, donor site morbidity, and quality of the intraoral soft tissue reconstruction, thereby restoring native tissue and avoiding peri-implant tissue complications. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Smart, John D

    2005-05-01

    Buccal formulations have been developed to allow prolonged localised therapy and enhanced systemic delivery. The buccal mucosa, however, while avoiding first-pass effects, is a formidable barrier to drug absorption, especially for biopharmaceutical products (proteins and oligonucleotides) arising from the recent advances in genomics and proteomics. The buccal route is typically used for extended drug delivery, so formulations that can be attached to the buccal mucosa are favoured. The bioadhesive polymers used in buccal drug delivery to retain a formulation are typically hydrophilic macro-molecules containing numerous hydrogen bonding groups. Newer second-generation bioadhesives have been developed and these include modified or new polymers that allow enhanced adhesion and/or drug delivery, in addition to site-specific ligands such as lectins. Over the last 20 years a wide range of formulations has been developed for buccal drug delivery (tablet, patch, liquids and semisolids) but comparatively few have found their way onto the market. Currently, this route is restricted to the delivery of a limited number of small lipophilic molecules that readily cross the buccal mucosa. However, this route could become a significant means for the delivery of a range of active agents in the coming years, if the barriers to buccal drug delivery are overcome. In particular, patient acceptability and the successful systemic delivery of large molecules (proteins, oligonucleotides and polysaccharides) via this route remains both a significant opportunity and challenge, and new/improved technologies may be required to address these.

  15. Treatment for long bulbar urethral strictures with membranous involvement using urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft.

    PubMed

    Gimbernat, H; Arance, I; Redondo, C; Meilán, E; Andrés, G; Angulo, J C

    2014-10-01

    Urethroplasty with oral mucosa grafting is the most popular technique for treating nontraumatic bulbar urethral strictures; however, cases involving the membranous portion are usually treated using progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty. We assessed the feasibility of performing dorsal (or ventral) graft urethroplasty on bulbar urethral strictures with mainly membranous involvement using a modified Barbagli technique. This was a prospective study of 14 patients with bulbomembranous urethral strictures who underwent dilation urethroplasty with oral mucosa graft between 2005 and 2013, performed using a modified technique Barbagli, with proximal anchoring of the graft and securing of the graft to the tunica cavernosa in 12 cases (85.7%) and ventrally in 2 (14.3%). The minimum follow-up time was 1 year. We evaluated the subjective (patient satisfaction) and objective (maximum flow [Qmax] and postvoid residual volume [PVRV], preoperative and postoperative) results and complications. Failure was defined as the need for any postoperative instrumentation. A total of 14 patients (median age, 64+13 years) underwent surgery. The main antecedent of note was transurethral resection of the prostate in 9 cases (64.3%). The median length of the stenosis was 45+26.5mm. Prior to surgery, 50% of the patients had been subjected to dilatations and 4% to endoscopic urethrotomy. The mean surgical time and hospital stay were was 177+76min and 1.5+1 day, respectively. The preoperative Qmax and PVRV values were 4.5+4.45mL/sec and 212.5+130 cc, respectively. The postoperative values were 15.15+7.2mL/sec and 6+21.5cc, respectively (P<.01 for both comparisons). Surgery was successful in 13 cases (92.9%). None of the patients had major complications. There were minor complications in 1 (7.1%) patient, but reintervention was no required. The repair of long bulbar urethral strictures with membranous involvement using urethroplasty with free oral mucosa grafts represents a viable

  16. Cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft for the surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease.

    PubMed

    Molina-Escudero, R; Álvarez-Ardura, M; Redón-Gálvez, L; Crespo-Martínez, L; Otaola-Arca, H; Páez-Borda, A

    2016-06-01

    Peyronie's disease is a disorder of the tunica albuginea and causes penile curvature, requiring surgical correction when the deformity impedes penetration. Retrospective analysis of the short-term results (penile length, angle of curvature and erectile function) of treating Peyronie's disease in 10 patients through cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft. Essentially, the treatment included the incision of the fibrotic plaque with electrical scalpel and the subsequent coating of the cavernous defect using a patch of oral mucosa. At month 6, we measured the penile length and curvature and recorded the erectile function using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Finally, the patients were asked "Would you undergo the same operation again?". The mean age was 53.4 years. The average and median follow-up was 22.7 months and 24 months, respectively. The mean preoperative curvature was 68.5° (50°-90°), the mean penile length was 11.2cm (9-15) and the mean IIEF-5 score was 16.1 (8-25). The mean postoperative penile length was 10.7cm, and the mean IIEF-5 score was 18.9. The differences between the preoperative and postoperative values were not statistically significant (P=ns). One patient developed erectile dysfunction. In all cases, the residual curvature was <20°. Nine patients (90%) stated that they would undergo the same operation. The short-term results suggest that cavernoplasty with oral mucosa graft can be an alternative to traditional grafts for surgically correcting Peyronie's disease. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-Pedicled Buccal Fat Pad Grafts to Treatment for Class I and II Gingival Recessions: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Trevisani, Claudia Tenório; Storrer, Carmen Lucia Mueller; Santos, Felipe Rychuv; Zielak, João César; de Souza Filho, Celso Bernardo; Alfredo, Edson; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the transplant efficiency of non-pedicled buccal fat pad graft (BFPG) for the treatment of Miller Class I or II gingival recessions (GRs) and to compare these results with those of subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), which is considered the gold standard. Twelve patients with Miller Class I or II (≥2 mm) bilateral recessions in maxillary premolars or canines were selected. Recessions were randomly assigned to receive SCTG or BFPG. The clinical parameters evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively included gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, GR, clinical attachment level, width of keratinized tissue, thickness of keratinized tissue and gingival margin to the acrylic guide. None of the evaluated clinical parameters differed significantly between the groups. At all evaluated postoperative time-points, both groups exhibited statistically significant differences in GR and gingival margin to the acrylic guide compared to baseline. Six months after surgery, the mean percentages of root coverage were 67.5% and 87.5% in the BFPG and SCTG groups respectively. In both groups, complete root coverage was observed in 50% of cases 6 months after surgery. The results presented herein indicate that the use of BFPG transplant has clinical similarities with SCTG and both may be considered as clinically successful methods for treating Miller Class I and II GRs.

  18. Two cases of prostheses for flap protection after buccal mucosal incision.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Syuntaro; Sato, Toru; Yoshida, Shuji; Saito, Shion; Kamiyama, Isao; Ito, Aki; Tanaka, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe two patients in whom prostheses were applied for flap protection after buccal mucosal incision. In the first case, the patient was a 65-year-old man with a diagnosis of buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (T2N0M0). Left buccal mucosa squamous cell tumor resection and dermoplasty were performed, followed by alveolar ridge augmentation and buccal mucosal graft in the scar area. The carcinoma recurred, however, and left buccal mucosa carcinoma resection was performed, followed by reconstruction surgery using a free forearm flap. After a 12-week healing period, a molar support was constructed on the unaffected side and a protective prosthesis placed on the affected side. Training in ingestion and swallowing were given postoperatively. The patient in the second case was a 62-year-old woman with a diagnosis of buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (T2N1M0). Right buccal mucosa carcinoma resection and supraomohyoid neck dissection were performed, followed by reconstruction surgery using a free forearm flap. A molar support was constructed on the unaffected side and a protective prosthesis placed on the affected side at 5 months postoperatively. Training was given in ingestion and swallowing postoperatively. The prostheses prevented bite wounds to the flaps in the affected areas due to jaw movement during swallowing or speaking. The postoperative courses were uneventful, and the average masticatory score was 92.5 (85, 100), not affecting daily life. The prostheses were placed after reconstruction surgery using free flaps after buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma resection. Dysphasia recovered to the preoperative level by dysphasia and pronunciation training in both cases. The postoperative prognosis was favorable, with the prosthesis preventing damage to the flap.

  19. The In Vivo Effect of Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser on Rat Buccal Mucosa as a Simulation of Its Effect on the Urinary Tract: A Preclinical Histopathological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to perform a histological analysis of the effect of a ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF) laser on oral buccal mucosa tissue in vivo to simulate its effect on the mucosa of the lower urinary tract. Methods A total of 90 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethrane (1.2 g/kg intraperitoneally). A prespecified inner buccal mucosal site was irradiated with a YDF master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system for 60 seconds, with output power settings of 0.5, 1, and 2 W, respectively, in 3 treatment groups. Specimens of irradiated tissue were harvested at 2 hours, 24 hours, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after irradiation. The tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. Results In the group treated with 0.5 W, basal cell elongation and vacuolization were observed at 2 hours and 24 hours after treatment, respectively. No evident injury was observed after 2 or 4 weeks. The group treated with 1 W presented partial basal layer separation, and even complete epidermal ablation, within 2 hours. At 24 hours after laser treatment, new capillaries on an edematous background of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, as well as profuse infiltration of the neutrophils to the basal layer, were observed. Collagen deposition and reepithelization were observed in specimens taken 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. The group treated with 2 W presented bigger and deeper injuries at 2 hours after irradiation. Meanwhile, subepidermal bullae with full-thickness epidermal necrosis and underlying inflammatory infiltrate were observed 24 hours after treatment. The presence of fibrous connective tissue and collagen deposition were observed 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the treatment. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the effect of a YDF laser on living tissue. Our study demonstrated that the typical histological findings of the tissue reaction to the YDF MOPA apparatus were very similar to those

  20. Permanent implantation of a reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft for treatment of artificial defects of the teat cistern mucosa in cows.

    PubMed

    Metzger, L; Hirsbrunner, G; Waldvogel, A; Eicher, R; Schällibaum, M; Steiner, A

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate use of a reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft for treatment of an artificial defect of mucosa of the teat cistern in lactating cows. Prospective study. 9 clinically normal lactating dairy cows. A 20-mm wide circumferential area of mucosa was sharply excised from the cistern of 1 teat on each cow 10 days after spontaneous calving, and the lesion was covered by a graft. After 14 days of passive milk drainage, routine milking was resumed. Follow-up examinations were performed during the next 2 lactation periods and included evaluation of wound healing, location and sonographic appearance of the implant, milk flow and yield, and somatic cell counts. Cows were slaughtered, and teats and mammary glands were examined microscopically. Implants had partially to totally collapsed within 30 to 90 days. Milk flow was significantly increased by day 15 of the first lactation, but decreased significantly by day 300 of lactation 1. At the end of lactation 1, milk flow had ceased in 3 out of 7 quarters. Only 3 of 9 quarters drained through grafted teats were milkable at the end of the study. Somatic cell counts of these quarters were significantly increased in the first lactation period. At necropsy, 2 grafts were in the teat cistern, but only 1 was incorporated into the mucosa by connective tissue. The mucosa was thickened in all teats with grafts, and there was epithelial metaplasia and granulation tissue proliferation. Use of a polytetrafluoroethylene graft can preserve patency in the first lactation period. However, the graft may not be sufficiently incorporated into the mucosa if routine machine milking is resumed 2 weeks after implantation. )

  1. Palatal mucosa derived fibroblasts present an adaptive behavior regarding cytokine secretion when grafted onto the gingival margin.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Fabíola Pontes; Morandini, Ana Carolina Faria; Sipert, Carla Renata; Dionísio, Thiago José; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Damante, Carla Andreotti; de Rezende, Maria Lúcia Rubo; Sant'ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar

    2014-03-20

    Considering that grafted gingival tissue might have to be adapted to the receptor area and that fibroblasts have the ability to respond to bacterial stimuli through the release of various cytokines, this study investigated whether fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa behave differently when grafted onto the gingival margin regarding cytokine secretion. Biopsies from the palatal mucosa were collected at the time of free gingival graft surgery, and after four months re-collection was performed upon surgery for root coverage. Fibroblasts were isolated by the explant technique, cultured and stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Escherichia coli (Ec) LPS for 24 or 48 h for comparative evaluation of the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, MIP-1α/CCL3, TGF-β, VEGF and CXCL16. Unstimulated cells were used as the control group. Cells were tested for viability through MTT assay, and secretion of cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in the cell supernatants by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa maintained the same secretion pattern of IL-6 when grafted onto the gingival margin. On the contrary, fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft showed increased secretion of IL-8/CXCL8 even in the absence of stimulation. Interestingly, MIP-1α/CCL3 secretion by fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft was significantly increased after 48 hours of stimulation with Pg LPS and after 24 h with Ec LPS. Only fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft showed secretion of TGF-β. VEGF and CXCL16 secretion were not detected by both subsets of fibroblasts. Fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa seem to be adapted to local conditions of the site microenvironment when grafted onto the gingival marginal area. This evidence supports the effective participation of fibroblasts in the homeostasis of the marginal periodontium through secretion modulation of important inflammatory mediators.

  2. Palatal mucosa derived fibroblasts present an adaptive behavior regarding cytokine secretion when grafted onto the gingival margin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Considering that grafted gingival tissue might have to be adapted to the receptor area and that fibroblasts have the ability to respond to bacterial stimuli through the release of various cytokines, this study investigated whether fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa behave differently when grafted onto the gingival margin regarding cytokine secretion. Methods Biopsies from the palatal mucosa were collected at the time of free gingival graft surgery, and after four months re-collection was performed upon surgery for root coverage. Fibroblasts were isolated by the explant technique, cultured and stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Escherichia coli (Ec) LPS for 24 or 48 h for comparative evaluation of the secretion of cytokines and chemokines, such as IL-6, IL-8/CXCL8, MIP-1α/CCL3, TGF-β, VEGF and CXCL16. Unstimulated cells were used as the control group. Cells were tested for viability through MTT assay, and secretion of cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in the cell supernatants by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results Fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa maintained the same secretion pattern of IL-6 when grafted onto the gingival margin. On the contrary, fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft showed increased secretion of IL-8/CXCL8 even in the absence of stimulation. Interestingly, MIP-1α/CCL3 secretion by fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft was significantly increased after 48 hours of stimulation with Pg LPS and after 24 h with Ec LPS. Only fibroblasts from the marginal gingival graft showed secretion of TGF-β. VEGF and CXCL16 secretion were not detected by both subsets of fibroblasts. Conclusion Fibroblasts from the palatal mucosa seem to be adapted to local conditions of the site microenvironment when grafted onto the gingival marginal area. This evidence supports the effective participation of fibroblasts in the homeostasis of the marginal periodontium through secretion modulation of important

  3. Comparison of Extended Nasolabial Flap Versus Buccal Fat Pad Graft in the Surgical Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep B; Durairaj, D; Suresh Kumar, G; Karthikeyan, D; Pradeep, D

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the application of extended nasolabial flap versus buccal fat pad graft in the surgical management of oral submucous fibrosis. This prospective study was carried out in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai. A total of 8 patients (6 men and 2 women) with age range from 21 to 65 years were selected for study. These 8 patients were randomly divided into two groups of four namely group 1 and group 2. In group 1 patients, reconstruction was planned with extended nasolabial flaps and in group 2 patients, reconstruction was planned with buccal fat pad graft respectively. Paired t test, Independent sample t test, ANOVA test. The mean preoperative mouth opening in group 1 was 8.5 mm and in group 2 was 11.75 mm. The mean increase in group 1 after one year of postoperative period was 21.50 mm and in group 2 was 24.75 mm. In the present study, buccal fat pad graft proved to give better results as the interposition material as it has good patient acceptance, rapid epithelization, minimal donor site morbidity and minimal intra and postoperative complications.

  4. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of passive smoking and urban air pollutants in buccal mucosa cells of children enrolled in public school.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Deborah Navit de Carvalho; Sposito, Juliana Caroline Vivian; Crispim, Bruno do Amaral; Nascimento, André Vieira do; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear abnormalities (micronuclei and meta-nuclear changes) have been used as biomarkers to identify cell damages. As children are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of pollution when compared to adults, assessing genetic damage caused by environmental influences is of great interest. As such, the objective was to determine metanuclear (karyolysis, pycnosis, karyorrhexis, binucleated cells, chromosome bridges and micronuclei) in cells from the oral mucosa of children associated with the school environment, gender, exposure to cigarette smoke and vehicular traffic. Analyses of nuclear abnormalities were performed in exfoliated buccal cells of children from two public schools located in Dourados - MS. The data were analyzed through Kruskal-Wallis test considering a significance level of 5% (p < .05). The results showed that children exposed to cigarette smoke presented higher levels of nuclear abnormalities than children who were not usually exposed to this type of mutagenic and genotoxic agent, suggesting that such contaminants are related to clastogenic and aneugenic effects on DNA. Moreover, female children had higher amounts of nuclear abnormalities when compared to male children. With regards to the school environment, the study results indicated statistical differences in of term chromosomal abnormalities for schools A and B. Thus, it was possible to determine that children exposed to cigarette smoke are susceptible to further genetic damage than unexposed children, and female children may be more susceptible to genotoxic and mutagenic agents. This study contributes to the current knowledge on the mutagenic characteristics of human cells, supporting the adoption of preventive Public Health measures.

  5. Histological study of hamster buccal mucosa following topical application of DMBA and exposition to low-power 337-nm laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Rego, Christmas M. V.; Munin, Egberto; Redigolo, Marcela L.; Salgado, Miguel C.; de Souza, Hanriete P.; Colombo, C. E. D.; Nicolau, Renata A.; Alves, Leandro P.; Zangaro, Renato A.

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to analyze the histological changes on hamster buccal mucosa caused by the topical use of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and exposition to a 220 ´J/pulse nitrogen laser light (@ 337 nm) at an average power of 2,3 mW. Twenty-one hamsters divided into two experimental groups were treated six times with DMBA. One hamster was kept as control. Group I was composed by ten hamsters and was submitted only to DMBA. Group II, also with ten hamsters, received the same treatment as group I and was exposed to the laser radiation. The time duration of each irradiation section was 10 seconds. All the treatment happened in alternated days. The histological analysis took place twice, after the end of the treatment and after sixty days. Both experimental groups presented dilatation of vessels, thickening of the epithelial tissue and the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. The preliminary results indicates that in group II the number of dilated vessels and its new area are much more significant than in group I.

  6. Comparative evaluation of genotoxicity by micronucleus assay in the buccal mucosa over comet assay in peripheral blood in oral precancer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Katarkar, Atul; Mukherjee, Sanjit; Khan, Masood H; Ray, Jay G; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2014-09-01

    Early detection and quantification of DNA damage in oral premalignancy or malignancy may help in management of the disease and improve survival rates. The comet assay has been successfully utilised to detect DNA damage in oral premalignant or malignancy. However, due to the invasive nature of collecting blood, it may be painful for many unwilling patients. This study compares the micronucleus (MN) assay in oral buccal mucosa cells with the comet assay in peripheral blood cells in a subset of oral habit-induced precancer and cancer patients. For this, MN assay of exfoliated epithelial cells was compared with comet assay of peripheral blood leucocytes among 260 participants, including those with oral lichen planus (OLP; n = 52), leukoplakia (LPK; n = 51), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF; n = 51), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; n = 54) and normal volunteers (n = 52). Among the precancer groups, LPK patients showed significantly higher levels of DNA damage as reflected by both comet tail length (P < 0.0001) and micronuclei (MNi) frequency (P = 0.0009). The DNA damage pattern in precancer and cancer patients was OLP < OSF < LPK < OSCC, and with respective oral habits, it was multiple habits > cigarette + khaini > cigarette smokers > areca + khaini > areca. There was no significant difference in the comet length and MNi frequency between males and females who had oral chewing habits. An overall significant correlation was observed between MNi frequency and comet tail length with r = 0.844 and P < 0.0001. Thus, the extent of DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay in peripheral blood cells is perfectly reflected by the MN assay on oral exfoliated epithelial cells, and MNi frequency can be used with the same effectiveness and greater efficiency in early detection of oral premalignant conditions.

  7. Areca nut-induced buccal mucosa fibroblast contraction and its signaling: a potential role in oral submucous fibrosis--a precancer condition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Li-Deh; Wu, Hui-Lin; Ho, Yuan-Soon; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2013-05-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an oral habit that increases the risk of oral cancer and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a precancerous condition showing epithelial atrophy and tissue fibrosis. Persistent fibroblast contraction may induce the fibrotic contracture of tissue. In this study, we found that areca nut extract (ANE) (200-1200 µg/ml) stimulated buccal mucosa fibroblast (OMF)-populated collagen gel contraction. Arecoline but not arecaidine-two areca alkaloids, slightly induced the OMF contraction. Exogenous addition of carboxylesterase (2U/ml) prevented the arecoline- but not ANE-induced OMF contraction. OMF expressed inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors. ANE-induced OMF (800 µg/ml) contraction was inhibited by U73122 [phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor] and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (IP3 receptor antagonist), respectively. Ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid and verapamil, two calcium mobilization modulators, also suppressed the ANE-induced OMF contraction. ANE induced calcium/calmodulin kinase II and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in OMF. Moreover, W7 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibitor), HA1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), ML-7 (MLC kinase inhibitor) and cytochalasin B (actin filament polymerization inhibitor) inhibited the ANE-induced OMF contraction. Although ANE elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in OMF, catalase, superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine showed no obvious effect on ANE-elicited OMF contraction. These results indicate that BQ chewing may affect the wound healing and fibrotic processes in OSF via inducing OMF contraction by ANE and areca alkaloids. AN components-induced OMF contraction was related to PLC/IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin and Rho signaling pathway as well as actin filament polymerization, but not solely due to ROS production.

  8. Dendritic cell chimerism in oral mucosa of transplanted patients affected by graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudio A; Rabanales, Ramón; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Larrondo, Milton; Escobar, Alejandro F; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Alfaro, Jorge I; González, Fermín E

    2016-02-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the main complications after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clinical features of GVHD include either an acute (aGVHD) or a chronic (cGVHD) condition that affects locations such as the oral mucosa. While the involvement of the host's dendritic cells (DCs) has been demonstrated in aGVHD, the origin (donor/host) and mechanisms underlying oral cGVHD have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we intend to determine the origin of DCs present in mucosal tissue biopsies from the oral cavity of transplanted patients affected by cGVHD. We purified DCs, from oral biopsies of three patients with cGVHD, through immunobeads and subsequently performed DNA extraction. The origin of the obtained DCs was determined by PCR amplification of 13 informative short tandem repeat (STR) alleles. We also characterised the DCs phenotype and the inflammatory infiltrate from biopsies of two patients by immunohistochemistry. Clinical and histological features of the biopsies were concordant with oral cGVHD. We identified CD11c-, CD207- and CD1a-positive cells in the epithelium and beneath the basal layer. Purification of DCs from the mucosa of patients affected by post-transplantation cGVHD was >95%. PCR-STR data analysis of DCs DNA showed that 100% of analysed cells were of donor origin in all of the evaluated patients. Our results demonstrate that resident DCs isolated from the oral tissue of allotransplanted patients affected by cGVHD are originated from the donor. Further research will clarify the role of DCs in the development and/or severity of oral cGVHD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Choice of an optimal free graft for replacement urethroplasty in extensive urethral strictures].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Veliev, E I; Kotov, S V; Belomyttsev, S V

    2011-01-01

    Irrespective of the type and properties of a free graft in urethroplasty, survival of the graft depends on blood circulation in the nutrient bed. We made an experimental trial to study engraftment of free grafts of buccal and lingual mucosa on different types of the nutrient bed. Free flaps (78 buccal and 86 lingual mucosa samples) were taken from 52 male Wistar rats (300 to 470 body mass). Grafting was made on different types of nutrient bed - skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat and penile tunica albuginea. Histological examination of the grafts was made 2, 4, 7 and 14 days after transplantation. The process of engraftment followed all the stages of nonspecific inflammation. The alteration stage (48 hours) is characterized by marked epithelial atrophy, necrosis of most of the cross-striate muscular fibers of the graft, necrotic alterations of the nutrient bed, primarily in the suture area. Excudation and emigration (2-4 days)--by continued necrotic changes with infiltration of the graft with neutrophilic leukocytes, edema of the upper layer stroma and infiltrate extention on the nutrient bed. Proliferation (day 7)--by attenuation of necroinflammatory processes, decline of leukocyte infiltration, formation of blood vessels in the subepithelial base of the graft. Regeneration (day7-14)--by recovery of the epithelial graft layer, development of granulation tissue in the submucosal base. The best engraftment was registered on transplantation on penile tunica albuginea (buccal graft--93.4%, lingual one--88.9%). Successful implantation on the muscle occurred in 90.7% for buccal and 87.9% for lingual grafts. On fat tissue buccal transplant failed in 19, lingua--in 23.89% transplantations. Thus, staging in interaction between different grafts and types of nutrient bed do not depend on characteristics of the bed and graft. Necroinflammatory changes in the buccal graft change for proliferative processes earlier than in the lingual one. Proliferative and regenerative processes

  10. New frontiers in urethral reconstruction: injectables and alternative grafts

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary management of anterior urethral strictures requires both endoscopic as well as complex substitution urethroplasty, depending on the nature of the urethral stricture. Recent clinical and experimental studies have explored the possibility of augmenting traditional endoscopic urethral stricture management with anti-fibrotic injectable medications. Additionally, although buccal mucosa remains the gold standard graft for substitution urethroplasty, alternative grafts are necessary for reconstructing particularly complex urethral strictures in which there is insufficient buccal mucosa or in cases where it may be contraindicated. This review summarizes the data of the most promising injectable adjuncts to endoscopic stricture management and explores the alternative grafts available for reconstructing the most challenging urethral strictures. Further research is needed to define which injectable medications and alternative grafts may be best suited for urethral reconstruction in the future. PMID:26813260

  11. [A simple and reliable technique for the treatment of rhinoliquorrhoea from small defects: Free nasal mucosa overlay graft].

    PubMed

    Armengot, Miguel; Gómez-Gómez, M José; García-Lliberós, Ainhoa

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid leaks to the sinonasal cavities (rhinoliquorrhoea) represent a process with diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The endoscopic transnasal approach is the method of choice, but with many possible variants. The purpose of this paper was to make a critical review of our diagnostic and therapeutic protocol used for 11years. We operated on 31patients. The diagnosis was based on the biochemical analysis of rhinorrhoea, CT and MRI. endoscopic nasal surgery after preoperative intrathecal injection of 5% fluorescein (2cc). Closure was performed using a free overlay graft from middle turbinate mucosa. Two patients had meningitis as the first sign. All patients were diagnosed by biochemical analysis of rhinorrhoea. CT and MRI gave clear evidence of the leakage location. The skull base defect was always less than 1cm. Fluorescein allowed clear visualisation of the fistulous area without other instruments and produced no side effects. One patient had a postoperative frontal abscess, which evolved favourably. All fistulas were closed and there was only one recurrence at 10years, which debuted as pneumococcal meningitis. Our surgical protocol, based on the use of intrathecal fluorescein and free grafting of middle turbinate mucosa overlay onto the fistulous area, achieves successful long-term results in the management of rhinoliquorrhoea secondary to small skull base defects. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Buccal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... done to get cells for chromosome or DNA analysis, most often for genetic testing. This test may also help establish sexual identity. When the test is used in this way, ... Buccal smear - illustration References Chernecky CC, ...

  13. Urethral reconstruction using autologous vein grafts for the management of urethral strictures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Soo; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Urethral strictures may be caused by infections, trauma, or iatrogenic injuries. However, urethral reconstruction as a means of managing the long-segment urethral strictures can prove problematic. Various graft materials have been developed for use during urethroplasty. Although some graft techniques--including those using the buccal mucosa, bladder mucosa, colonic mucosa, and skin--have yielded good results, risks of surgical failure and donor site complications remain. Moreover, no graft material has yet been accepted as the clinical standard within the field of urology. This article provides a brief, updated review of both urethral strictures and clinically available graft materials for urethral reconstruction. In addition, we review previous studies involving autologous vein grafts for urethroplasty and discuss potential advances in the clinical use of these grafts.

  14. Soft-tissue grafting for peri-implantitis-a treatment option in case of unsuitable skeletal basic morphology of the alveolar bone and lack of keratinized mucosa: a retrospective clinical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Michael; Mengel, Rainer; Becher, Sebastian; Brinkmann, Bernhard; Peleska, Barbara; Kluk, Esther

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated soft-tissue grafting as a surgical treatment option for peri-implantitis in case of unsuitable basic skeletal morphology of the alveolar bone and lack of keratinized mucosa. Twenty-eight patients (21 females, 7 males, at a mean age 59.4 years) were included with a total of 54 implants. All implants showed peri-implantitis and attached keratinized buccal mucosa of ≤2 mm. A surgical procedure of soft-tissue grafting (STG) was made by inserting an inlay and inlay-onlay transplant. Clinical investigations were made prior to the STG (baseline) and after 9-180 months (Ø 43 months) including the following parameters: soft-tissue biotype, skeletal basic morphology of the alveolar bone, width of the peri-implant keratinized mucosa (KM), mobility of the KM, pocket probing depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Nearly all patients showed a thin soft-tissue biotype. The analysis of the skeletal basic morphology of the alveolar bone revealed a narrow apical base in 18 patients, middle base in 7 patients, and broad base in 3 patients. Width of the KM increased significantly (p < 0.01) from 0.4 ± 0,5 mm to 4.3 ± 1.5 mm after STG and PPD was significantly (p < 0,01) reduced from 6.3 ± 2,3 mm to 4.1 ± 1.9 mm. A significant reduction (p < 0.01) in BOP was recorded. All patients reported a clinical improvement of the inflammatory symptoms at follow-up. The results of this study showed that the STG can be applied successfully as a surgical treatment of peri-implantitis. It remains unclear whether soft-tissue biotype or the skeletal basic morphology of the alveolar bone affects the outcome of this surgical treatment.

  15. [Enlargement of keratinized peri-implant mucosa at the time of second stage surgery (re-entry)].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Regula; Bassetti, Renzo; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Enkling, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    A tightly attached keratinized mucosa around endosseous dental implants is believed to be protective against peri-implant bone loss. Tension caused by buccal frena and mobile non keratinized mucosa is to avoid. This case report documents the optimization of peri-implant mucosal conditions in the upper and lower jaw. At the time of second stage surgery (re-entry) at submucosally osseointegrated dental implants an enlargement of keratinized mucosa and a thickening of soft tissue was obtained administrating a vestibuloplasty combined by a free gingival graft or a vestibuloplasty combined by an apically moved flap.

  16. Buccal hemineglect.

    PubMed

    André, J M; Beis, J M; Morin, N; Paysant, J

    2000-12-01

    To determine whether the peripersonal and intrapersonal buccal space can be affected by a hemispheric stroke and to evaluate the clinical signs resulting from buccal neglect. A prospective study comparing 2 groups of patients with hemiplegia, 1 with a right hemispheric lesion and the other with a left hemispheric lesion. Patients were selected consecutively on the basis of specific criteria at least 1 month after stroke. Buccal hemineglect was usually concomitant with other hemineglect phenomena resulting from lesions of the right hemisphere (10 of 12 in right lesions and 1 of 12 in left lesions). Clinical signs associated with this condition consisted of impaired swallowing (retention, defective insalivation, presence of food debris in the left hemibuccal space, loss of saliva from the left side of the mouth, and choking); loss of the ability to perceive salty, sweet, or acid tastes; and impaired buccal representation. These problems were usually incorrectly diagnosed initially. Outcome was usually favorable, but functional disorders persisted in some patients for more than 18 months. The underlying attention and representation mechanisms are discussed with reference to experimental lesions of the postarcuate (area 6) cortex in rhesus monkeys. The area around the mouth may be considered to be, as in monkeys, a peripersonal space, ie, probably of little functional importance. The lesion may involve area 6 or its projections to the thalamus or posterior parietal cortex. Buccal hemineglect, which is likely to cause social embarrassment, should be considered whenever the oral phase of swallowing is impaired in a context of neglect syndromes. Prophylactic measures and rehabilitation can reduce the impact and complications of the condition (food bolus).

  17. Can a graft be placed over a flap in complex hypospadias surgery? An experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Ricardo Marcondes; de Araújo, Sérgio R.R.; Quitzan, Juliany Gomes; Leslie, Bruno; Bacelar, Herick; Parizi, João Luiz Gomes; Caetano Martins, Gustavo Marconi; da Cruz, Marcela Leal; Macedo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To develop a rabbit experimental study to test the hypothesis that surgical repair of hypospadias with severe ventral curvatures might be completed in one stage, if a graft, such as buccal mucosa, could be placed over the tunica vaginalis flap used in corporoplasty for ventral lengthening, with the addition of an onlay preputial island flap to complete the urethroplasty. Materials and methods: The experimental procedure with rabbits included a tunica vaginalis flap for reconstruction of the corpora after corporotomy, simulating a ventral lengthening operation. A buccal mucosa graft was placed directly on top of the flap, and the urethroplasty was completed with an onlay preputial island flap. Eight rabbits were divided into 4 groups, sacrificed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively, and submitted to histological evaluation. Results: We observed a large number of complications, such as fistula (75%), urinary retention (50%) and stenosis (50%). There were two deaths related to the procedure. Histological evaluation demonstrated a severe and persistent inflammatory reaction. No viable tunica vaginalis or buccal mucosa was identified. Conclusions: In this animal model, the association of a buccal mucosa graft over the tunica vaginalis flap was not successful, and resulted in complete loss of both tissues. PMID:27649106

  18. Raman microspectroscopic study of oral buccal mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, Isha; Mamgain, Hitesh; Deshmukh, Atul; Kukreja, Lekha; Hole, Arti R.; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among Indian males, with 5-year- survival-rates of less than 50%. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopic methods in non-invasive and objective diagnosis of oral cancers and confounding factors has already been demonstrated. The present Raman microspectroscopic study was undertaken for in-depth and site-specific analysis of normal and tumor tissues. 10 normal and 10 tumors unstained sections from 20 tissues were accrued. Raman data of 160 x 60 μm and 140 x 140 μm in normal and tumor sections, respectively, were acquired using WITec alpha 300R equipped with 532 nm laser, 50X objective and 600 gr/mm grating. Spectral data were corrected for CCDresponse, background. First-derivitized and vector-normalized data were then subjected to K-mean cluster analysis to generate Raman maps and correlated with their respective histopathology. In normal sections, stratification among epithelial layers i.e. basal, intermediate, superficial was observed. Tumor, stromal and inflammatory regions were identified in case of tumor section. Extracted spectra of the pathologically annotated regions were subjected to Principal component analysis. Findings suggest that all three layers of normal epithelium can be differentiated against tumor cells. In epithelium, basal and superficial layers can be separated while intermediate layer show misclassifications. In tumors, discrimination of inflammatory regions from tumor cells and tumor-stroma regions were observed. Finding of the study indicate Raman mapping can lead to molecular level insights of normal and pathological states.

  19. Differential expression and distribution of cytokeratins and vimentin in buccal pouch mucosal cells during real-time cell proliferation: research based on a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Bryja, A; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Chachuła, A; Ciesiółka, S; Kranc, W; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, buccal pouch oral mucosa cells were used as a source of potential biological grafting material in advanced tissue engineering. However, there are several limitations in the process of graft fabrication: donor and recipient patient availability as well as an incomplete knowledge of in vitro procedures related to tissue surgical recovery, in vitro cell culture (IVC) and/or tissue processing in “human somatic cell therapy.” Therefore, the animal model for oral mucosa grafting is still recognized as a source for xenografts and a useful model for biomedical research. In this study, the porcine buccal pouch oral mucosa cells were used in analysis of the stromalization/epithelialization process during short-term, in vitro real-time cell proliferation. We evaluated cytokeratin 18 (CK18), cytokeratin 8 + 18 + 19 (panCK), and vimentin (Vim) expression as epithelial and stromal cell markers, respectively. The porcine buccal pouch oral mucosa cells were cultured in vitro for 168 h, and the protein expression/ distribution was analyzed every 24 h during real-time cell proliferation. In our analysis of protein expression using fluorescence intensity (FI), followed by confocal microscopic observations, we found the highest expression of CK18 occurred after 24 h of IVC, panCK after 72 h, and Vim after 48 h of IVC, as compared to other cultivation periods. We also found a substantial increase in Vim expression (3-4 fold) as compared to CK18 and panCK, and all of the investigated proteins were distributed in the cellular cytoplasm. The lag phase of cell proliferation occurred during the first 24 h of IVC, whereas the log phase was observed between 24 h-120 h of IVC. Throughout 7 days of IVC, statistically significant differences were found in Cell Index (CI) of the analyzed cells. Increased Vim expression in buccal pouch oral mucosa cells, as compared to CK18 and panCK, suggested that the stromal cells substantially predominated during in vitro cell cultivation

  20. Dimensional changes in soft tissues around dental implants following free gingival grafting: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bengazi, Franco; Lang, Niklaus P; Caroprese, Marino; Urbizo Velez, Joaquin; Favero, Vittorio; Botticelli, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    To study the buccal dimensional tissue changes at oral implants following free gingival grafting, with or without including the keratin layer, performed at the time of implant installation into alveolar mucosa. The mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally in six Beagle dogs. In the right side of the mandible (Test), flaps were first elevated, and the buccal as well as part of the lingual masticatory mucosa was removed. An incision of the periosteum at the buccal aspect was performed to allow the flap to be coronally repositioned. Primary wound closure was obtained. In the left side, the masticatory (keratinized) mucosa was left in situ, and no sutures were applied (Control). After 3 months of healing, absence of keratinized mucosa was confirmed at the test sites. Two recipient sites were prepared at each side of the mandible in the region of the third and fourth premolars. All implants were installed with the shoulder placed flush with the buccal alveolar bony crest, and abutments were connected to allow a non-submerged healing. Two free gingival mucosal grafts were harvested from the buccal region of the maxillary canines. One graft was left intact (gingival mucosal graft), while for the second, the epithelial layer was removed (gingival connective tissue graft). Subsequently, the grafts were fixed around the test implants in position of the third and fourth premolars, respectively. After 3 months, the animals were euthanized and ground sections obtained. Similar bony crest resorption and coronal extension of osseointegration were found at test and control sites. Moreover, similar dimensions of the peri-implant soft tissues were obtained at test and control sites. The increase in the alveolar mucosal thickness by means of a gingival graft affected the peri-implant marginal bone resorption and soft tissue recession around implants. This resulted in outcomes that were similar to those at implants surrounded by masticatory mucosa, indicating

  1. Assessment of Thickness of Palatal Masticatory Mucosa and Maximum Graft Dimensions at Palatal Vault Associated with Age and Gender – A Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    P, Swetha; V, Krishnan; R, Mythili; Alla, Rama Krishna; D, Manikandan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease which leads to alveolar bone loss, followed by exposure of root surfaces, which results in an unaesthetic appearance. Palatal masticatory mucosa is widely used as a donor tissue for root coverage procedures, to achieve an aesthetic appearance and to meet patient’s needs. Obtaining sufficient volume of tissue without injuring the vessels is necessary. Aim: Purpose of this study was to determine thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa in association with age and gender in healthy subjects who were aged 14–59 years. Materials and Methods: Thirtysix healthy subjects were included under two groups (aged 14-29 years and 30-59 years). Each group consisted of 9 males and nine females. Transgingival probing was done by using a UNC-15 (University of North Carolina) periodontal probe under LA (local anaesthesia) and measurements were taken from 15 different sites on palatal masticatory mucosa. Maximum available length and height of the palatal vault were also measured. All measurements were made by using a Boley gauge to the nearest millimetre. Results: Students t-test was used to determine the difference in mucosal thickness between two groups. Two–way ANOVA test was used to measure the height of palatal vault between the groups. The results showed that younger age group had thinner palatal masticatory mucosa of thickness which was between 2.3 mm to 2.65 mm and that younger females had thinner mucosa than males. The mean height which was measured from second premolar area to the second molar area was significantly greater in men (14.03 mm) than in women (13.25 mm). Conclusion: Palatal masticatory mucosa was thicker in older age group than in younger age group and it was thin in females as compared to that in males. The most appropriate donor site for carrying out grafting procedures is distal canine to mid palatal aspect of 1st molar area, with minimum height of 5 mm to 8 mm in the premolar area in all

  2. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue.

    PubMed

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist.

  3. Conservative Socket Regeneration with Buccal Wall Defect Using Guided Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Al-Juboori, Mohammed Jasim

    2016-01-01

    Progressive alveolar bone resorption after tooth extraction may lead to surgical and prosthetic-driven difficulties, especially when deciding to use a dental implant to replace the extracted tooth. This case report discusses an irreparable lower left second premolar tooth with a periodontal lesion on the buccal side. A preservative tooth extraction was performed. Then, the socket was grafted with bovine bone, a collagen membrane was placed between the buccal bone and the attached gingiva, covering the bone dehiscence buccally, and the socket without a flap was raised. After a 6-month healing period, there was minimal socket width resorption and a shallow buccal vestibule. The implant was placed with high primary stability and sufficient buccal plate thickness. In conclusion, this guided tissue regeneration technique can minimize alveolar bone resorption in a socket with buccal dehiscence, but technical difficulties and shallowing of the buccal vestibule still exist. PMID:27857817

  4. Buprenorphine Buccal (chronic pain)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the yellow side facing up. Immediately place the yellow side of the buccal film against the inside of your moistened cheek. Press and hold the buccal film in place for 5 seconds and then take your finger away. The ...

  5. Dynamic changes in cell-surface expression of mannose in the oral epithelium during the development of graft-versus-host disease of the oral mucosa in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of cell-surface glycoconjugates in oral mucosal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still unclear, even though molecular changes in the oral epithelium are essential for the pathogenesis of these lesions. In this study, we investigated changes in the binding of mannose (Man)-specific Lens culinaris lectin (LCA) in the oral mucosa of rats with GVHD. Methods Lewis rat spleen cells were injected into (Lewis x Brown Norway) F1 rats to induce systemic GVHD, including oral mucosal lesions. Tongue and spleen samples were evaluated using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, transwell migration assays and Stamper-Woodruff binding assays. Results Binding of Man-specific LCA expanded to the epithelial layers of the tongue in GVHD-rats. An expansion of LCA binding was related to the increased expression of mannosyltransferase in the oral mucosa. CD8+ cells, effector cells of oral mucosal GVHD, expressed mannose-binding protein (MBP) and migrated to the medium containing Man in the transwell migration assay. Adherence of CD8+ cells to the oral epithelium could be inhibited by pretreating CD8+ cells with MBP antibody and/or by pretreating sections with Man-specific LCA. Conclusions Increased expression of Man on keratinocytes leads to the migration and/or adhesion of CD8+ cells in the surface epithelium, which is mediated in part by the MBP/Man-binding pathway during the development of oral mucosal GVHD. PMID:24433462

  6. The use of buccal fat pad in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis: a newer method.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, K; Narayanan, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3-18 mm (mean 14 mm). As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25-38 mm (mean 33.25 mm). The patients were discharged 5-7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25-36 mm (mean 30.63 mm). The results were evaluated using student's t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull.

  7. The Use of Buccal Fat Pad in the Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Newer Method

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, K.; Narayanan, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study. This study was to evaluate the use of buccal fat pad as an interpositioning material in surgical management of oral sub mucous fibrosis. Materials and methods. A series of 8 cases with proven oral sub mucous fibrosis, with mouth opening less than 20 mm, involving the buccal mucosa were treated surgically in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Surgery, Saveetha University, Chennai. Pedicled buccal fat pad was used as an interpositioning material to cover the raw areas in the oral cavity after incision and release of fibrous bands. Results. In 8 patients, the range of pre operative mouth opening was 3–18 mm (mean 14 mm). As the result of the successful surgical procedure, the size of the intra operative mouth opening was ranged from 25–38 mm (mean 33.25 mm). The patients were discharged 5–7 days after the operation. The range of the mouth opening at this time was 25–36 mm (mean 30.63 mm). The results were evaluated using student's t test and found to be statistically significant. The pedicled grafts took up uneventfull. PMID:22666254

  8. A clinical perspective on mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Gilhotra, Ritu M; Ikram, Mohd; Srivastava, Sunny; Gilhotra, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin, are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces. Among the various transmucosal routes, buccal mucosa has excellent accessibility and relatively immobile mucosa, hence suitable for administration of retentive dosage form. The objective of this paper is to review the works done so far in the field of mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems (MBDDS), with a clinical perspective. Starting with a brief introduction of the mucoadhesive drug delivery systems, oral mucosa, and the theories of mucoadhesion, this article then proceeds to cover the works done so far in the field of MBDDS, categorizing them on the basis of ailments they are meant to cure. Additionally, we focus on the various patents, recent advancements, and challenges as well as the future prospects for mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems. PMID:24683406

  9. Factors and strategies for improving buccal absorption of peptides.

    PubMed

    Veuillez, F; Kalia, Y N; Jacques, Y; Deshusses, J; Buri, P

    2001-03-01

    Peptides and polypeptides have important pharmacological properties but only a limited number (e.g. insulin, oxytocin, vasopressin) have been exploited as therapeutics because of problems related to their delivery. The buccal mucosa offers an alternative route to conventional, parenteral administration. Peptides are generally not well absorbed through mucosae because of their molecular size, hydrophilicity and the low permeability of the membrane. Peptide transport across buccal mucosa occurs via passive diffusion and is often accompanied by varying degrees of metabolism. This review describes various approaches to improve the buccal absorption of peptides including the use of penetration enhancers to increase membrane permeability and/or the addition of enzyme inhibitors to increase their stability. Other strategies including molecular modification with bioreversible chemical groups or specific formulations such as bioadhesive delivery systems are also discussed.

  10. Enhancing the buccal mucosal delivery of peptide and protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Jin, Liang; Simões, Cláudia M O; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    With continuing advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering, there has been a dramatic increase in the availability of new biomacromolecules, such as peptides and proteins that have the potential to ameliorate the symptoms of many poorly-treated diseases. Although most of these macromolecular therapeutics exhibit high potency, their large molecular mass, susceptibility to enzymatic degradation, immunogenicity and tendency to undergo aggregation, adsorption, and denaturation have limited their ability to be administered via the traditional oral route. As a result, alternative noninvasive routes have been investigated for the systemic delivery of these macromolecules, one of which is the buccal mucosa. The buccal mucosa offers a number of advantages over the oral route, making it attractive for the delivery of peptides and proteins. However, the buccal mucosa still exhibits some permeability-limiting properties, and therefore various methods have been explored to enhance the delivery of macromolecules via this route, including the use of chemical penetration enhancers, physical methods, particulate systems and mucoadhesive formulations. The incorporation of anti-aggregating agents in buccal formulations also appears to show promise in other mucosal delivery systems, but has not yet been considered for buccal mucosal drug delivery. This review provides an update on recent approaches that have shown promise in enhancing the buccal mucosal transport of macromolecules, with a major focus on proteins and peptides.

  11. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present. PMID:20180965

  12. The comparison of two techniques to increase the amount of peri-implant attached mucosa: free gingival grafts versus vestibuloplasty. One-year results from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Basegmez, Cansu; Ersanli, Selim; Demirel, Korkud; Bölükbasi, Nilüfer; Yalcin, Serdar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this randomised controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of two techniques for increasing the amount of keratinised mucosa around implants: free gingival grafts versus classic vestibuloplasty. Sixty-four patients with 64 implants presenting keratinised mucosa <1.5 mm and showing signs of peri-implant mucositis were randomly assigned to two groups. Thirty-two implants received free gingival grafts (FGG group) while 32 implants were treated via vestibuloplasty (VP group). Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), probing depth (PD) and the width of attached mucosa (WAM) were measured at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months following surgery. WAM in the FGG group was significantly greater than the VP group at 3, 6 and 12 months (P = 0.000). In the FGG group, the final gain in WAM was greater (2.36 mm in FGG group, 1.15 mm in VP group) (P = 0.000) and the postoperative relapse was smaller (2.00 mm in FGG group, 3.06 mm in VP group) (P = 0.000). The VP group had higher PD values at 3, 6 and 12 months (P = 0.02, P = 0.024, P = 0.000, respectively). The application of FGG is a more predictable method for enhancing the width of attached mucosa in the vicinity of implants compared with classic vestibuloplasty.

  13. Mucoadhesive Buccal Tablets Based on Chitosan/Gelatin Microparticles for Delivery of Propranolol Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Abruzzo, Angela; Cerchiara, Teresa; Bigucci, Federica; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Luppi, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Propranolol administration through buccal route offers some distinct advantages thanks to the easy access to the oral mucosa, fast onset of action, and avoidance of hepatic and intestinal degradation mechanisms. To overcome the effective removal existing in the buccal cavity, mucoadhesive delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact with the buccal mucosa. The aim of this study was to prepare mucoadhesive tablets based on chitosan/gelatin microparticles for buccal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Spray-dried microparticles were prepared with different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios and characterized in terms of yield and morphology. Microparticles were subsequently compressed with the drug to obtain loaded buccal tablets. In vitro water uptake, mucoadhesion, release, and permeation tests were performed to investigate tablet ability to hydrate, to adhere to the mucosa, and to deliver drug through buccal mucosa. Microparticles showed a different morphology based on the different chitosan-gelatin weight ratios. Moreover, buccal tablets based on the prepared microparticles showed different technological and functional characteristics in virtue of their composition. In particular, tablets with an excess of chitosan showed the best mucoadhesive properties, allowed the permeation of the greatest drug amount among all formulations, and could be promising for buccal administration of propranolol hydrochloride. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Comparison of Nasal Septum and Ear Cartilage as a Graft for Lower Eyelid Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hirotaka; Ozaki, Mine; Narita, Keigo; Kurita, Masakazu; Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Ohura, Norihiko; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2016-03-01

    In lower eyelid reconstruction, several types of grafts from the nasal septum, ear cartilage, buccal mucosa, and hard palate mucosa have been used for an inner layer of the lower eyelid, but there have been no studies comparing these grafts. The authors retrospectively reviewed our cases of lower eyelid reconstruction, and compared chondromucosal grafts from the nasal septum (N = 8) and ear cartilage grafts (N = 10) for an inner layer of the lower eyelid. The authors observed no significant difference in operative time, blood loss, or length of hospital stay between the "nasal septum" and "ear cartilage" groups. The final results were aesthetically and functionally satisfactory in both groups. In the nasal septum group, 1 patient suffered from perforation of the nasal septum and another patient suffered from nasal bleeding postoperatively. There were no donor site complications in the ear cartilage group. These findings indicate that both a chondromucosal graft from the nasal septum and an ear cartilage graft are good grafts for an inner layer of the lower eyelid. Regarding the donor site, however, an ear cartilage graft has the advantage of a lower complication rate.

  15. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity in human buccal epithelial dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Lin, L M

    1997-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and amount of GST alpha, mu and pi isoforms were measured in 40 patients with histopathologically confirmed oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa. The results were compared with those of normal mucosa in an equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Mean total GST activities were significantly elevated from normal buccal mucosa for mild OED, moderate OED, severe OED and squamous cell carcinoma. GST activity of value approximating 100 nmol/min/mg distinguished between normal and dysplasia, and of value about 400 nmol/min/mg delineated between dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma were observed. GST pi was the predominant class in both the diseased and normal buccal mucosa examined. This class pi GST was present at an intracellular concentration, which was significantly higher in diseased buccal mucosa than in normal buccal mucosa. These results indicated that pi class GST was the major form of this enzyme in the cytosolic fraction of oral mucosa. The severity of OED related to squamous cell carcinoma development seemed to increase concomitantly with an increase in the level of this enzyme. Further studies will validate the role of GST pi estimation in predicting the potential malignancy of OED.

  16. Enhancing the buccal mucosal uptake and retention of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Nicolazzo, Joseph A; Reed, Barry L; Finnin, Barrie C

    2005-07-20

    In this study, the buccal mucosal uptake and retention of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) were assessed in the presence of the skin penetration enhancer, Azone (AZ). Porcine buccal mucosa was excised, mounted in modified Ussing chambers, and pretreated with ethanolic solutions of AZ. After 2 h, the rate of TAC disappearance from the donor chamber and TAC appearance in the receptor chamber was monitored, and the mucosal retention of TAC was determined at the completion of the experiment. The permeability and mucosal uptake of TAC was also determined using the TAC-containing proprietary product, Kenalog in Orabase (KO), in the presence and absence of AZ. Pretreatment of the buccal mucosa with AZ increased the TAC disappearance permeability coefficient from 4.78+/-0.31x10(-5) cm/s to 7.12+/-0.53x10(-5) cm/s. While the TAC appearance permeability coefficient was also enhanced 3.8-fold, a 4.4-fold increase in the tissue concentration of TAC was observed. Incorporation of AZ into KO did not result in an enhanced tissue concentration of TAC, however, when the tissue was pretreated with AZ, significantly higher amounts of TAC accumulated in the tissue. Pretreatment of the buccal mucosa with AZ results in increased tissue concentrations of TAC, which may be of clinical benefit in the treatment of oral mucosal inflammatory conditions.

  17. Collagen fibril arrangement and size distribution in monkey oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    OTTANI, V.; FRANCHI, M.; DE PASQUALE, V.; LEONARDI, L.; MOROCUTTI, M.; RUGGERI, A.

    1998-01-01

    Collagen fibre organisation and fibril size were studied in the buccal gingival and hard palate mucosa of Macacus rhesus monkey. Light and electron microscopy analysis showed connective papillae exhibiting a similar inner structure in the different areas examined, but varying in distribution, shape and size. Moving from the deep to surface layers of the buccal gingival mucosa (free and attached portions), large collagen fibril bundles became smaller and progressively more wavy with decreasing collagen fibril diameter. This gradual diameter decrease did not occur in the hard palate mucosa (free portion, rugae and interrugal regions) where the fibril diameter remained constant. A link between collagen fibril diameter and mechanical function is discussed. PMID:9688498

  18. Fentanyl Buccal Soluble Film: A Review in Breakthrough Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2016-05-01

    Fentanyl buccal soluble film (Onsolis(®), Breakyl(®), Painkyl™) comprises two layers: a mucoadhesive layer containing the active drug, and an inactive layer with the aim of preventing the diffusion of fentanyl into the oral cavity. It is approved in several countries worldwide, including the USA and those of the EU, for the management of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant, adult patients with cancer. This article reviews the pharmacological properties of fentanyl buccal soluble film and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in these patients. Fentanyl buccal soluble film provides an additional option for transmucosal delivery of fentanyl, with approximately half of the dose undergoing an initial, rapid absorption via the buccal mucosa (accounting for its high bioavailability). In clinical trials, fentanyl buccal soluble film was associated with significant improvements in pain intensity scores versus placebo and was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were typical opioid-associated adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting. Fentanyl buccal soluble film is a useful option for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain in opioid-tolerant patients.

  19. The Role of E-Cadherin in Maintaining the Barrier Function of Corneal Epithelium after Treatment with Cultured Autologous Oral Mucosa Epithelial Cell Sheet Grafts for Limbal Stem Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, Richard H.; Wood, Andrew; Oliva, Joan; Niihara, Hope; Makalinao, Andrew; Thropay, Jacquelyn; Pan, Derek; Tiger, Kumar; Garcia, Julio; Laporte, Amanda; French, Samuel W.; Niihara, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of E-cadherin in epithelial barrier function of cultured autologous oral mucosa epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) grafts was examined. CAOMECS were cultured on a temperature-responsive surface and grafted onto rabbit corneas with Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD). E-cadherin levels were significantly higher in CAOMECS compared to normal and LSCD epithelium. Beta-catenin colocalized with E-cadherin in CAOMECS cell membranes while phosphorylated beta-catenin was significantly increased. ZO-1, occludin, and Cnx43 were also strongly expressed in CAOMECS. E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization at the cell membrane was reduced in LSCD corneas, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a restoration of E-cadherin and beta-catenin expression. LSCD corneas did not show continuous staining for ZO-1 or for Cnx43, while CAOMECS-grafted corneas showed a positive expression of ZO-1 and Cnx43. Cascade Blue® hydrazide did not pass through CAOMECS. Because E-cadherin interactions are calcium-dependent, EGTA was used to chelate calcium and disrupt cell adhesion. EGTA-treated CAOMECS completely detached from cell culture surface, and E-cadherin levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, E cadherin high expression contributed to CAOMECS tight and gap junction protein recruitment at the cell membrane, thus promoting cellular adhesion and a functional barrier to protect the ocular surface. PMID:27777792

  20. In-vitro characterization of buccal iontophoresis: the case of sumatriptan succinate.

    PubMed

    Telò, Isabella; Tratta, Elena; Guasconi, Barbara; Nicoli, Sara; Pescina, Silvia; Govoni, Paolo; Santi, Patrizia; Padula, Cristina

    2016-06-15

    Buccal administration of sumatriptan succinate might be an interesting alternative to the present administration routes, due to its non-invasiveness and rapid onset of action, but because of its low permeability, a permeation enhancement strategy is required. The aim of this work was then to study, in-vitro, buccal iontophoresis of sumatriptan succinate. Permeation experiments were performed in-vitro across pig esophageal epithelium, a recently proposed model of human buccal mucosa, using vertical diffusion cells. The iontophoretic behavior of the tissue was characterized by measuring its isoelectric point (Na(+) transport number and the electroosmotic flow of acetaminophen determination) and by evaluating tissue integrity after current application. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of pig esophageal epithelium as an in-vitro model membrane for buccal drug delivery. The application of iontophoresis increased sumatriptan transport, proportionally to the current density applied, without tissue damage: electrotransport was the predominant mechanism. Integrating the results of the present work with literature data on the transport of other molecules across the buccal mucosa and across the skin, we can draw a general conclusion: the difference in passive transport across buccal mucosa and across the skin is influenced by permeant lipophilicity and by the penetration pathway. Finally, buccal iontophoretic administration of sumatriptan allows to administer 6mg of the drug in 1h, representing a promising alternative to the current administration routes.

  1. Evaluation of a mucoadhesive buccal patch for delivery of peptides: in vitro screening of bioadhesion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1998-10-01

    We have assessed the bioadhesive properties of several different mucoadhesive buccal patches. The patches consisted of custom coformulations of silicone polymers and Carbopol 974P. The contact angle of water was measured for each of the test formulations, using an ophthalmic shadow scope. The corresponding work of adhesion between the water and the patches (W1), and between the patches and freshly-excised rabbit buccal mucosa (W2) was then calculated, using a modification of Dupre's equation. The bioadhesive strength between the patches and excised rabbit buccal mucosa was also assessed. The results of the contact-angle measurements indicated that the contact angle decreased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the formulation. Additionally, the calculated values of both W1 and W2 increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol in the buccal-patch formulations. A correlation (r not equal to 0.9808) was found between the measured contact angle and the calculated values for W2. The direct measurement of the force required to separate a buccal patch from excised rabbit buccal mucosa with the INSTRON demonstrated that the adhesive strength increased with an increase in the amount of Carbopol. This preliminary study has shown that the measurement of contact angles alone may provide a useful technique for estimating the work of adhesion, and may serve as a convenient and rapid screening procedure to identify potential mucoadhesive buccal-patch formulations.

  2. Preprosthetic mandibular vestibuloplasty with split-skin graft. A 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hillerup, S

    1987-06-01

    17 patients with lower denture malfunction problems related to insufficient residual ridges had a vestibuloplasty with split-skin graft performed in the mandible under local analgesia on an out-patient basis. The patients were followed-up for 2 years and records of vestibular extension showed a maximum of relapse at the 1-month control (24%). Most of the lost extension was regained at the 6-month check, and the 2-year outcome was 92% of the surgically-created vestibular sulcus extension as a mean value of records obtained at the midline and canine regions. A comparison with a previous study on buccal mucosal graft vestibuloplasty led to the conclusion that free grafts of skin and buccal mucosa prevent a relapse equally well under the same circumstances. 13 patients were satisfied with the improvement achieved, 3 reported fair, and 1 was dissatisfied with the result of the operation. The split-skin graft underwent a change of appearance in 5 cases interpreted as a skin graft candidosis. Indication of this condition accelerating the residual ridge resorption is discussed.

  3. Influence of periodontal tissue thickness on buccal plate remodelling on immediate implants with xenograft.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luciana P; Reino, Danilo M; Muglia, Valdir A; Almeida, Adriana L G; Nanci, Antonio; Wazen, Rima M; de Oliveira, Paulo T; Palioto, Daniela B; Novaes, Arthur B

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of gingival thickness and bone grafting on buccal bone plate remodelling after immediate implant placement in sockets with thin buccal bone, using a flapless approach. The gingiva of eight dogs was thinned at one side of the mandible, mandibular premolars were extracted without flaps, and four implants were installed on each side at 1.5 mm from the buccal bone. The sites were randomly assigned into: TG (test group) = thin gingiva; TG + GM (TG with grafting material); CG (control group) = normal gingiva; and CG + GM (CG with grafting material). After 12 weeks the dogs were sacrificed and the samples were processed for histological analysis. All animals exhibited a thin buccal bone initially. In all the experimental groups the buccal gap was filled with newly formed bone and the buccal bone level was slightly apical to the implant shoulder. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups for the histomorphometric parameters. The thickness of the buccal bone was a fundamental factor in buccal bone plate resorption, even with flapless implantation. The gingival thickness or the addition of a biomaterial in the gap did not influence the results. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Laser Treatment of Oral Mucosa Tattoo

    PubMed Central

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-01-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit. PMID:23408182

  5. Laser treatment of oral mucosa tattoo.

    PubMed

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Pasic, Enes

    2011-12-01

    The most common oral solitary pigmented lesion is the dental amalgam tattoo. It occurs as a result of colouring of the tissue by alien pigment which was administered intra or subepidermaly either intentionally or accidentally. The most common material used for the colouring of the oral mucosa is amalgam from amalgam fillings and metal particles from prosthetic restorations which are absorbed accidentally. The oral mucosa tattoos are most often found in the area of the marginal gingiva or the buccal mucosa. The metal particles may accidentally reach the area of the oral mucosa during various dentistry interventions. The therapy most often involves surgical intervention with excisional biopsy while in the recent period the low power laser therapy has provided exceptional results. The aim of the paper was to present the successful removal of the oral mucosa tattoo in a single visit.

  6. New absorption promoter for the buccal delivery: preparation and characterization of lysalbinic acid.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, P L; Dubey, I Ya

    2006-02-03

    Drug delivery across the buccal mucosa is convenient and safe transport method. The efficiency of the buccal system of peptide delivery is, however, not yet satisfactory. To improve the buccal transport new absorption promoters should be developed to be sufficiently active and at the same time causing no side effects like irritation or unpleasant taste. We have found that lysalbinic acid, a product of the alkaline hydrolysis of egg albumin and a mild detergent, meets those requirements. The preparation and some physicochemical properties of lysalbinic acid are described. Hamster cheek pouch was used as a model for the penetration process studies lysalbinic acid was shown to increase significantly an oral mucosa permeability for alpha-interferon and insulin. So this substance of the natural origin can be applied as an absorption enhancer for the buccal delivery of peptide drugs.

  7. Buccal Fat Pad: An Effective Option for Facial Reconstruction and Aesthetic Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Tae; Sasidaran, Ramesh

    2017-08-28

    Autogenous grafting with lipoaspirate and dermo-fat grafting are popular techniques employed by plastic surgeons for correcting small volume facial defects and contour deformities. These techniques however present certain disadvantages. In this article, we present the use of the buccal fat pad graft as an alternative method of correcting such facial deformities. Free buccal fat pad grafting was carried out in 15 patients in our institution. All were harvested using an intraoral approach. The buccal fat pad graft was used to correct periorbital contour depressions, nasal tip deformities, as a camouflage graft over exposed silicon nasal implants and as a filler in the depression deformity after mass excision. All 15 patients demonstrated good contour deformity correction without a significant graft resorption up to 3 years of follow-up. There were no donor site complications. The amount used ranged from 1 to 5 cc in volume as a spacer or barrier for the moderate-sized volume defect or depression, even though more than 5 cc of fat graft could be harvested if required. In conclusion, the buccal fat pad graft represents an easy, expedient and exceptional tool for the correction of contour deformities, volume replacement or for aesthetic augmentation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. Buccal delivery of thiocolchicoside: in vitro and in vivo permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Artusi, M; Santi, P; Colombo, P; Junginger, H E

    2003-01-02

    Thiocolchicoside, a muscle-relaxant agent, is administered by the oral, intra-muscular and topical route. After oral administration the extent of bioavailability compared with intra-muscular administration is low, due to a first pass effect. In this paper, the delivery of thiocolchicoside through oral mucosa is studied to improve the bioavailability. Thiocolchicoside in vitro permeation through porcine oral mucosa and in vivo buccal transport in humans were investigated. Two dosage forms, a bioadhesive disc and a fast dissolving disc for buccal and sublingual administration of thiocolchicoside, respectively, were designed. The in vitro permeation of thiocolchicoside through porcine buccal mucosa from these dosage forms was evaluated and compared with in vivo absorption. Results from in vitro studies demonstrated that thiocolchicoside is quite permeable across porcine buccal mucosa and that permeation enhancers, such as sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate, were not able to increase its flux. The in vivo thiocolchicoside absorption experiments, in which the drug loss from oral cavity was measured, indicated that both formulations could be useful for therapeutic application. The fast dissolving (sublingual) form resulted in a quick uptake of 0.5 mg of thiocolchicoside within 15 min whereas with the adhesive buccal form the same dose can be absorbed over an extended period of time.

  9. In vitro evaluation of novel mucoadhesive buccal tablet of oxytocin prepared with Diospyros peregrina fruit mucilages.

    PubMed

    Metia, Pulak Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Amal Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBTs) of oxytocin were prepared as cores in cup fashion to release and permeate the drug unidirectionally toward the buccal mucosa to reach the systemic circulation directly. Adhesive cups for NMBTs were prepared with mucilage (DPM) isolated from edible Diospyros peregrina fruit. Mucoadhesive properties like shear and tensile and peel strengths of the adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using two penetration enhancers, sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBTs were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 ml of phosphate buffer, pH 6.6, at 37+/-0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa, and the amount of drug permeated was estimated at 220 nm on reverse-phase HPLC using a BDS Hypersil C(8) column with acetonitrile and potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer 0.05 M, pH 6.6, (20 : 80 v/v) as the mobile phase, at flow rate of 1.25 ml/m. The NMBTs containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 26% permeability without damaging the histology of the buccal mucosa. The results suggest that this formulation may be a suitable alternative to oxytocin injections.

  10. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  11. Mucoadhesive system formed by liquid crystals for buccal administration of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carla; Watanabe, Evandro; Borgheti-Cardoso, Livia Neves; De Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Lara, Marilisa Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial approaches are valuable in controlling the development of buccal diseases, but some antibacterial agents have a short duration of activity. Therefore, the development of prolonged delivery systems would be advantageous. Liquid crystalline systems comprising monoolein (GMO)/water have been considered to be a potential vehicle to deliver drugs to the buccal mucosa because of the phase properties that allow for controlled drug release as well as its mucoadhesive properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a GMO/water system for the slow release of poly(hexamethylene biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) on the buccal mucosa and test the properties of this system with regard to swelling, release profile, antimicrobial activity, and strength of mucoadhesion, with the overall goal of treating buccal infections. The tested systems were capable of modulating drug release, which is controlled by diffusion of the drug throughout the system. Furthermore, PHMB appeared to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the system and may synergistically act with the drug to promote antimicrobial activity against S. mutas and C. albicans, indicating that liquid crystals may be suitable for the administration of PHMB on the buccal mucosa. Therefore, this system could be proposed as a novel system for mucoadhesive drug delivery.

  12. A review on bioadhesive buccal drug delivery systems: current status of formulation and evaluation methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinna Reddy, P; Chaitanya, K.S.C.; Madhusudan Rao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the ease of the administration, the oral cavity is an attractive site for the delivery of drugs. Through this route it is possible to realize mucosal (local effect) and transmucosal (systemic effect) drug administration. In the first case, the aim is to achieve a site-specific release of the drug on the mucosa, whereas the second case involves drug absorption through the mucosal barrier to reach the systemic circulation. The main obstacles that drugs meet when administered via the buccal route derive from the limited absorption area and the barrier properties of the mucosa. The effective physiological removal mechanisms of the oral cavity that take the formulation away from the absorption site are the other obstacles that have to be considered. The strategies studied to overcome such obstacles include the employment of new materials that, possibly, combine mucoadhesive, enzyme inhibitory and penetration enhancer properties and the design of innovative drug delivery systems which, besides improving patient compliance, favor a more intimate contact of the drug with the absorption mucosa. This presents a brief description of advantages and limitations of buccal drug delivery and the anatomical structure of oral mucosa, mechanisms of drug permeation followed by current formulation design in line with developments in buccal delivery systems and methodology in evaluating buccal formulations. PMID:23008684

  13. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Müller-Richter, Urs D A; Weyandt, Gerhard H; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results.

  14. Vermilion Reconstruction with Genital Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Gerhard H.; Woeckel, Achim; Kübler, Alexander C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Functional and aesthetical reconstruction, especially of the upper lip after ablative tumor surgery, can be very challenging. The skin of the lip might be sufficiently reconstructed by transpositional flaps from the nasolabial or facial area. Large defects of the lip mucosa, including the vestibule, are even more challenging due to the fact that flaps from the inner lining of the oral cavity often lead to functional impairments. We present a case of multiple vermilion and skin resections of the upper lip. At the last step, we had to resect even the whole vermilion mucosa, including parts of the oral mucosa of the vestibule, leaving a bare orbicularis oris muscle. To reconstruct the mucosal layer, we used a mucosal graft from the labia minora and placed it on the compromised lip and the former transpositional flaps for the reconstructed skin of the upper lip with very good functional and aesthetic results. PMID:27579226

  15. Buccal midazolam spray as an alternative to intranasal route for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Radhika; Mittal, Meenu; Bansal, Kalpana; Chaudhuri, Payal

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptance of midazolam spray through buccal route as compared to intranasal route and compare the efficacy of the drug through both the routes. 30 patients aged 2-8 years with Grade I or II Frankl's Behaviour Rating Scale were selected who required similar treatment under local anesthesia on two teeth. Midazolam spray was administered randomly through buccal or intranasal routes for the two appointments. Scoring was done for the acceptance of drug and Houpt's score was recorded for the behaviour of patients during the treatment. Acceptance of drug through buccal route was significantly better than the intranasal route (p < 0.05) but no statistically significant difference was found in the behaviour scores for the two routes of administration (p > 0.05). Midazolam spray can be effectively used through the buccal mucosa in children who give poor compliance with the intranasal administration.

  16. Bioavailability of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone following buccal administration in cats.

    PubMed

    Pypendop, B H; Ilkiw, J E; Shilo-Benjamini, Y

    2014-06-01

    Buccal administration of buprenorphine is commonly used to treat pain in cats. It has been argued that absorption of buprenorphine through the buccal mucosa is high, in part due to its pKa of 8.24. Morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone have a pKa between 8 and 9. This study characterized the bioavailability of these drugs following buccal administration to cats. Six healthy adult female spayed cats were used. Buccal pH was measured prior to drug administration. Morphine sulfate, 0.2 mg/kg IV or 0.5 mg/kg buccal; methadone hydrochloride, 0.3 mg/kg IV or 0.75 mg/kg buccal; hydromorphone hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.25 mg/kg buccal; or oxymorphone hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg IV or 0.25 mg/kg buccal were administered. All cats received all treatments. Arterial blood was sampled immediately prior to drug administration and at various times up to 8 h thereafter. Bioavailability was calculated as the ratio of the area under the time-concentration curve following buccal administration to that following IV administration, each indexed to the administered dose. Mean ± SE (range) bioavailability was 36.6 ± 5.2 (12.7-49.5), 44.2 ± 7.9 (18.7-70.5), 22.4 ± 6.9 (6.4-43.4), and 18.8 ± 2.0 (12.9-23.5)% for buccal administration of morphine, methadone, hydromorphone, and oxymorphone, respectively. Bioavailability of methadone was significantly higher than that of oxymorphone.

  17. Delivery of macromolecules across oral mucosa from polymeric hydrogels is enhanced by electrophoresis (iontophoresis).

    PubMed

    Patel, Mangala P; Churchman, Svetla T; Cruchley, Alan T; Braden, Michael; Williams, David M

    2013-11-01

    To develop polymeric hydrogel delivery systems for iontophorseis transfer of large molecules across buccal (porcine) mucosa. Three hydrogels (PVA, HPMC and PVA/HPMC) were prepared as stable gels (7 mm diameter/1.5 mm thick). Quantitative (8 and 36 h) assessment of porcine buccal mucosa and the three hydrogel delivery systems, using a diffusion cell in vitro model, was carried out by UV/vis spectroscopy with three model agents (3 and 10 kDa dextrans and 12 kDa parvalbumin). Passive and iontophoresis parameters were obtained. Experimental and theoretical data were compared. Iontophoresis (30 min, 1-8 h) significantly enhanced the delivery of all model agents across four single systems (hydrogels and buccal mucosa) and three sandwich systems (hydrogels on top of buccal mucosa), as confirmed by time lag factor/enhancement ratio (TLF/ER) data. The diffusion coefficients of model agents across buccal mucosa (×10(-13) m(2) s(-1)) were ~100 times lower than across single hydrogels (2.97-4.80×10(-11) m(2) s(-1)). Solubility values of all agents across hydrogels were similar, but lower across buccal mucosa. Permeability of parvalbumin was highest across PVA, and for both dextrans across PVA/HPMC. In sandwich systems TLFs were similar for all hydrogels, but significantly lower, and ERs significantly higher, than tissue alone. Experimental and theoretical TLF data were in reasonable agreement. The in vitro data show that iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of large molecules across polymeric hydrogel systems and buccal mucosa. This creates the opportunity of new approaches to drug delivery and opens pathways to further research for delivering therapeutic agents topically and systemically. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A sustained release dosage form of acyclovir for buccal application: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Değim, Tuncer; Eğlen, Bilgen; Ocak, Omer

    2006-01-01

    Acyclovir is an antiviral agent and it has been particularly used for the treatment of herpes simplex infections. The treatment of infection in the oral cavity is often difficult, because of insufficient drug concentration in saliva when acyclovir is administered via the oral route in conventional tablet form for systemic uptake. Therefore, it was aimed to prepare a tablet for buccal administration and to investigate its effectiveness by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments.The solubility (1.559-4.584) and octanol/water partition coefficients ( - 2.176 to - 1.625) of the acyclovir were investigated at different pH conditions. A series of tablet formulations were prepared for buccal application and their dissolution properties were determined in artificial saliva medium. The effect of tablet ingredients on the release rate and mucoadhesion force was investigated. The dissolution properties of commercially available acyclovir tablets were also determined in the artificial gastric juice. Franz type diffusion cells were used to determine acyclovir penetration through buccal mucosa from prepared buccal tablets. Selected buccal tablets, commercial tablets and intravenous acyclovir solutions were administered to mongrel dogs and drug levels in the blood determined by HPLC.A pharmacokinetic model for buccal application was also developed and blood concentrations were calculated theoretically and compared with the experimental results. Prepared buccal tablets were found to be effective for the treatment of viral infections locally within the oral cavity and also for systemic treatment.

  19. AB057. Intravesical laparoscopic harvest of bladder mucosa for urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Son Fat; Lao, Hio Fai

    2015-01-01

    Background It is difficult to perform urethroplasty for recurrent hypospadia and/or urethral stricture. In the case of not enough prepuce, traditionally, the most often use free graft is “buccal mucosa” and “bladder mucosa”. The bladder mucosa for urethroplasty is harvested by means of open surgery. That is quite traumatic, and causes post-operation abdominal wall pain, big scar, and is difficult to repeat the procedure due to scaring. We harvested the bladder mucosa by means of intravesical laparoscopy for urethroplasty. This is minimal invasive, cause minimal post-operation abdominal wall pain and small scar, and the procedure is repeatable. And the result of the urethroplasty is good. Methods The 7 years old boy was admitted in to our ward in September, 2007, due to recurrent peno-scrotal junction urethral severe stricture about 5 mm in length, the fistula was proximal to the severe stricture, and the urethra distal to the severe stricture was mild stricture (can but not easy to put a 10 Fr catheter). There was no prepuce available the repair. We removed the 5 mm severe stricture, the fistula and repair the urethra with bladder mucosa harvested by means of intravesical laparoscopy, and put a 10 Fr silicon urethral catheter as a stent for 10 days. After operation, the urethra distal to the repaired zone became more stricture (can but difficult to put an 8 Fr catheter). So we repair the distal urethral stricture with bladder mucosa harvested by means of intravesical laparoscopy in July, 2008. And put a 12 Fr catheter as a stent. The intravesical laparoscopy procedure as the follow: general anesthesia, supine position. Open the distal narrow urethra with a longitudinal midline incision. Put a 12 Fr Foley catheter. Full fill the bladder with NS via the catheter. US confirm that no intestine between the abdominal wall and the bladder wall in the position of the cephalic end of bladder dome in the midline. Put a 5 mm trocar in this position for the lens. Then

  20. [Successful treatment of subglottic tracheal stenosis with a mucosa-lined radial forearm fascia flap].

    PubMed

    Mandapathil, M; Hoffmann, T K; Freitag, L; Reddy, N; Lang, S; Delaere, P

    2012-12-01

    Short-segment tracheal stenosis is often treated by segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Longer-segment stenosis can sometimes be treated using dilation, laser therapy, bronchoscopic stent insertion and segmental resection and reconstruction. Long-segment restenosis with a buildup of scar tissue due to successful resection surgery in the past represents a particular therapeutic challenge and a sufficiently vascularized transplant may be the only option. We describe the case of a 37-year-old patient who underwent a tracheal reconstruction using a mucosa-lined radial forearm flap. Subsequent to a traumatic laryngotracheal fracture, long-term ventilation and multiple surgical interventions, the patient had developed a functionally relevant subglottic stenosis (5.5 cm). Following longitudinal anterior resection of the trachea 1 cm above and below the stenosis, a Dumon® stent was inserted. Simultaneously, a radial forearm fascia flap was harvested, as were two full-thickness buccal mucosa grafts, which were sutured onto the subcutaneous tissue and fascia of the forearm flap. Beginning caudally, the mucosa-lined flap was then sutured, air-tight, into the anterior tracheal defect with the mucosa facing the lumen. Finally, end-to-end anastomosis connected the blood vessels of the radial forearm flap to the recipient blood vessels in the neck. The patient was successfully extubated after 24 h and discharged after 5 days. A postoperative CT scan revealed optimal placement of the stent and the patient's speech and breathing were sufficiently re-established. The stent was removed bronchoscopically 6 weeks after surgery. Examinations during the 6-month follow-up period showed that the diameter of the reconstructed airway was retained and the patient remained symptom-free.

  1. Development and characterization of mucoadhesive buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajesh Singh; Poddar, S S

    2009-01-01

    Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches for the controlled systemic delivery of Salbutamol sulphate to avoid first pass hepatic metabolism. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The patches showed desired mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug to the oral mucosa for a period of 7 h. the patches exhibited adequate stability when tested under accelerated conditions.

  2. Combined bony closure of oroantral fistula and sinus lift with mandibular bone grafts for subsequent dental implant placement.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mamdouh S; Askar, Niveen A

    2011-04-01

    Sinus lifting and reconstruction of localized alveolar defects are often required after closure of a large oroantral fistula (OAF) to allow for subsequent implant installation. This study describes a combined surgical technique that involves sinus lifting, bony closure, and reconstruction of the alveolar defect at the site of an OAF. The sinus membrane was reconstructed as a continuous layer by combining the residual sinus membrane with a rotated part of oral mucosa around the OAF. Autogenous bone from the chin and/or ramus was grafted into the prepared sinus space and alveolar defect, and the graft was covered by a buccal advancement flap. This technique was used to treat 8 patients who had large OAFs in the posterior maxillary region. The treatment was successful in all cases, and the technique appears to be suitable for large OAFs where implants are subsequently desired. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro characterization of chitosan gels for buccal delivery of celecoxib: influence of a penetration enhancer.

    PubMed

    Cid, Yara Peluso; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; de Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma

    2012-03-01

    Celecoxib (Cx) shows high efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis as a result of its high specificity for COX-2, without gastrolesivity or interference with platelet function at therapeutic concentrations. Besides of anti-inflammatory effects, Cx also has a potential role for oral cancer chemoprevention. For these conditions, oral administration in long-term treatment is a concern due to its systemic side effects. However, local application at the site of injury (e.g., buccal inflammation conditions or chemoprevention of oral cancer) is a promising way to reduce its toxicity. In this study, the in vitro characterization of mucoadhesive chitosan (CHT) gels associated to Azone® was assessed to explore the potential buccal mucosal administration of Cx in this tissue. Rheological properties of gels were analyzed by a rheometer with cone-plate geometry. In vitro Cx release and permeability studies used artificial membranes and pig cheek mucosa, respectively. Mucoadhesion were measured with a universal test machine. CHT gels (3.0%) containing 2.0% or 3.0% Az showed more appropriate characteristics compared to the others: pH values, rheology, higher amount of Cx retained in the mucosa, and minimal permeation through mucosa, besides the highest mucoadhesion values, ideal for buccal application. Moreover, the flux (J) and amounts of drug released decreased with increased CHT and Az concentrations. CHT gels (3.0%) associated with 2.0% or 3.0% Az may be considered potential delivery systems for buccal administration of Cx.

  4. Characterization of oral involvement in acute graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Ion, Daniela; Stevenson, Kristen; Woo, Sook-Bin; Ho, Vincent T; Soiffer, Robert; Antin, Joseph H; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2014-11-01

    Acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral features associated with aGVHD in patients who underwent HSCT between 1995 and 2010 and developed prominent oral aGVHD. Data was collected from patient medical records and analyzed descriptively. Twenty-one cases were identified, of which 5 (24%) demonstrated only oral features; the remaining 16 had variable involvement of skin (n = 14), liver (n = 7), and gut (n = 5). The median time to onset of any sign of aGVHD was 22 days (range, 8 to 154 days), and that for onset of oral aGVHD was 35 days (range, 11 to 159 days). Sites affected by nonspecific erythema and ulcerations included buccal mucosa (19 of 21; 90%) tongue (18 of 21; 86%; dorsum in 8), labial mucosa (16 of 21; 76%), palatal mucosa (15 of 21; 71%; hard palate in 7), and floor of mouth (7 of 21; 33%). Eight cases (38%) presented with lip ulceration and crusting. In addition to systemic therapies, topical solutions of dexamethasone, tacrolimus, and morphine were used for ancillary support. Oral features of aGVHD may be the initial manifestation and include nonspecific erythema and ulcerations of keratinized and nonkeratinized mucosa and lips. Intensive topical therapies may help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

  5. Investigating the effect of Aloe vera gel on the buccal permeability of didanosine.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, Elizabeth; Mackraj, Irene; Akhundov, Kamil; Hamman, Josias; Viljoen, Alvaro; Olivier, Eugene; Wesley-Smith, James; Govender, Thirumala

    2012-03-01

    The buccal mucosal route offers several advantages but the delivery of certain drugs can be limited by low membrane permeability. This study investigated the buccal permeability properties of didanosine (ddI) and assessed the potential of Aloe vera gel (AVgel) as a novel buccal permeation enhancer. Permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells, and the drug was quantified by UV spectroscopy. Histomorphological evaluations were undertaken using light and transmission electron microscopy. The permeability of ddI was concentration-dependent, and it did not have any adverse effects on the buccal mucosae. A linear relationship (R² = 0.9557) between the concentrations and flux indicated passive diffusion as the mechanism of drug transport. AVgel at concentrations of 0.25 to 2 %w/v enhanced ddI permeability with enhancement ratios from 5.09 (0.25 %w/v) to 11.78 (2 %w/v) but decreased permeability at 4 and 6 %w/v. Ultrastructural analysis of the buccal mucosae treated with phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4 (PBS), ddI/PBS, and ddI/PBS/AVgel 0.5 %w/v showed cells with normal plasmalemma, well-developed cristae, and nuclei with regular nuclear envelopes. However, cells from 1, 2, and 6 %w/v AVgel-treated mucosae showed irregular nuclear outlines, increased intercellular spacing, and plasmalemma crenulations. This study demonstrates the potential of AVgel as a buccal permeation enhancer for ddI to improve anti-HIV and AIDS therapy.

  6. [Mucoadhesive buccal films of tramadol for effective pain management].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Jian-Bing; Fan, Cai-Rong; Pan, Ai-Wu; Li, Cong; Zhang, Ren-Bing

    Tramadol hydrochloride is a centrally-acting synthetic opioid analgesic binding to specific opioid receptors. It is used in the management of chronic pain and is recommended as first line drug in the treatment of postoperative or orthopedic injury induced acute pain. The present work is designed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive buccal film of tramadol hydrochloride as a novel form of prolonged analgesia for patients with orthopedic injuries. Buccal films of tramadol hydrochloride were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared films were evaluated for the various evaluation parameters like thickness, surface pH, weight uniformity, content uniformity, folding endurance, swelling index, in vitro drug release study, in vitro test for mucoadhesion and in vivo studies (primary mucosal irritancy test and analgesic activity). All the formulations exhibited good results for physicochemical characterizations. In in vitro drug release study the films exhibited controlled release more than 12hours. The formulation BFT2 (containing chitosan and PVP K-90) showed no irritant effect on buccal mucosa and elicit the significant in vivo analgesic activity with 57.14% analgesia against that of standard (61.04%). It was concluded that the mucoadhesive films of tramadol hydrochloride can be effectively used to alleviate the severe pain of orthopedic injuries with prompt onset and prolonged action. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Mucoadhesive bilayered tablets for buccal sustained release of flurbiprofen.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Ambrogi, Valeria; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Blasi, Paolo; Rossi, Carlo

    2007-07-13

    The aim of this work was the design of sustained-release mucoadhesive bilayered tablets, using mixtures of mucoadhesive polymers and an inorganic matrix (hydrotalcite), for the topical administration of flurbiprofen in the oral cavity. The first layer, responsible for the tablet retention on the mucosa, was prepared by compression of a cellulose derivative and polyacrylic derivative blend. The second layer, responsible for buccal drug delivery, was obtained by compression of a mixture of the same (first layer) mucoadhesive polymers and hydrotalcite containing flurbiprofen. Nonmedicated tablets were evaluated in terms of swelling, mucosal adhesion, and organoleptic characteristics; in vitro and in vivo release studies of flurbiprofen-loaded tablets were performed as well. The best results were obtained from the tablets containing 20 mg of flurbiprofen, which allowed a good anti-inflammatory sustained release in the buccal cavity for 12 hours, ensuring efficacious salivary concentrations, and led to no irritation. This mucoadhesive formulation offers many advantages over buccal lozenges because it allows for reduction in daily administrations and daily drug dosage and is suitable for the treatment of irritation, pain, and discomfort associated with gingivitis, sore throats, laryngopharyngitis, cold, and periodontal surgery. Moreover, it adheres well to the gum and is simple to apply, which means that patient compliance is improved.

  8. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive buccal oxytocin tablet prepared with Dillenia indica fruit mucilage.

    PubMed

    Metia, P K; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2008-04-01

    Novel mucoadhesive buccal tablets (NMBT) of oxytocin were prepared as core in cup fashion to release the drug unidirectionally towards the buccal mucosa. Adhesive cups were prepared with a mucilage isolated from edible Dillenia indica fruits (DIM). Shear, tensile and peel strengths of prepared adhesive cups were estimated on freshly excised bovine buccal mucosa. Core tablets were formulated with oxytocin using permeation enhancers viz. sodium taurocholate and sodium thioglycollate. In vitro permeability studies of NMBT were conducted in a Franz diffusion cell containing 50 mL of phosphate buffer pH 6.6 at 37 +/- 0.2 degrees C through excised bovine buccal mucosa. In vivo studies on anaesthetized New Zealand albino male rabbits were conducted and drug levels in plasma were estimated at 220 nm by reverse phase HPLC using BDS Hypersil C8 column using acetonitrile and 0.05 M potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer pH 6.6 (20:80 v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.25 mL/ min. Optimized formulation showed C(max), T(max), t1/2 and AUC(total), 688 pg/mL, 2 h, 0.079 h, and 1999.72 h x pg/mL respectively. The NMBT containing 0.75% w/w sodium taurocholate showed 27% bioavailability without damaging the buccal mucosasuggesting its suitability as an alternative to noninvasive administration of oxytocin.

  9. Evaluation of methyl methacrylate monomer cytotoxicity in dental lab technicians using buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Dawasaz Ali; Syed, Sadatullah; Luqman, Master; Ali, Assiry A

    2013-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer, a primary component of dental resins, is known to induce cytotoxicity, dermatitis, and neuropathy. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of micronuclei (MN) in buccal mucosal cells of dental technicians exposed to MMA using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay. The Risk Group (RG=13) consisted of all the technicians working in the prosthetic production laboratory of KKU-College of Dentistry. The Control Group (CG=14) consisted of healthy students and doctors matching the age of RG subjects. Buccal mucosa scrapes obtained from all the 27 RG and CG subjects were stained with Papanicolaou stain and observed under oil immersion lens (100×) for the presence of MN. There were no significant differences in the incidence of MN between RG and CG (p>0.05).

  10. Preparation of fluconazole buccal tablet and influence of formulation expedients on its properties.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saifulla P; Muzzammil, Shariff; Pramod, Kumar T M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of present study was to prepare buccal tablets of fluconazole for oral candidiasis. The dosage forms were designed to release the drug above the minimum inhibitory concentration for prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration and to overcome the side effects of systemic treatment. The buccal tablets were prepared by using Carbopol 71G and Noveon AA-1 by direct compression method. Microcrystalline cellulose was used as the filler and its effect was also studied. The prepared dosage forms were evaluated for physicochemical properties, in vitro release studies and mucoadhesive properties using sheep buccal mucosa as a model tissue. Tablets containing 50% of polymers (Carbopol & Noveon) were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that drug released for 8 h, which in turn may reduce dosing frequency and improved patient compliance in oral candidiasis patients.

  11. In vitro release and permeation of oxytocin from a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1996-12-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive patch was evaluated for potential use in the delivery of peptides. The model peptide oxytocin was incorporated into the polymeric patch matrix and the diffusion of oxytocin across excised rabbit buccal epithelium was studied following patch application. Penetration of oxytocin across excised mucosa from an applied patch did not exhibit a characteristic lag time for diffusion, with the steady-state flux of oxytocin being 0.062 +/- 0.019 microgram/cm2/hr. However, when finite-dose diffusion studies were conducted to quantitate transport of oxytocin across rabbit buccal mucosa, the mean apparent permeability coefficient (P), diffusion coefficient (D), partition coefficient (K), and lag time (tlag) were (1.94 +/- 0.74) x 10(-7) cm/sec, (9.20 +/- 1.65) x 10(-8) cm2/sec, 0.13 +/- 0.05 and 1.86 +/- 0.31 hr, respectively. The release of oxytocin from the mucoadhesive buccal patches in vitro proceeded very rapidly during the first 2 hr, with 72% of the amount initially incorporated into the patches released at 24 hr. The disappearance rate of intact, parent oxytocin when an oxytocin solution was placed in direct contact with the serosal and mucosal sides of freshly excised rabbit buccal mucosa was 0.74 +/- 0.34 microgram/cm2/hr and 3.38 +/- 1.07 micrograms/cm2/hr, respectively. Thus, the buccal patch evaluated in these studies appears to be suitable for transmucosal delivery of peptides.

  12. Prelamination of Neourethra with Uterine Mucosa in Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty in the Female-to-Male Transgender Patient.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Christopher J; Fein, Lydia A; Chim, Jimmy; Medina, Carlos A; Demaso, Stephanie; Gomez, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Radial forearm free flap phalloplasty is the most commonly performed flap for neophallus construction in the female-to-male (FtM) transgender patient. Urological complications, however, can arise quite frequently and can prevent the patient from urinating in the standing position, an important postsurgical goal for many. Using mucosa to construct the fixed urethra and to prelaminate the penile urethra has been successful in reducing urologic complications, particularly strictures and fistulas. Until now, only buccal, vaginal, colonic, and bladder sites have been described as sources for these mucosal grafts. We present the successful use of uterine mucosa for prelamination of the neourethra in an FtM patient who underwent hysterectomy and vaginectomy at the prelamination stage of a radial forearm phalloplasty. Three months postoperatively, the patient was able to void while standing and showed no evidence of stricture or fistula on retrograde cystogram. These results suggest that uterine mucosa may be used for prelamination of the penile neourethra in patients undergoing phalloplasty.

  13. Prelamination of Neourethra with Uterine Mucosa in Radial Forearm Osteocutaneous Free Flap Phalloplasty in the Female-to-Male Transgender Patient

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Jimmy; Medina, Carlos A.; Demaso, Stephanie; Gomez, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Radial forearm free flap phalloplasty is the most commonly performed flap for neophallus construction in the female-to-male (FtM) transgender patient. Urological complications, however, can arise quite frequently and can prevent the patient from urinating in the standing position, an important postsurgical goal for many. Using mucosa to construct the fixed urethra and to prelaminate the penile urethra has been successful in reducing urologic complications, particularly strictures and fistulas. Until now, only buccal, vaginal, colonic, and bladder sites have been described as sources for these mucosal grafts. We present the successful use of uterine mucosa for prelamination of the neourethra in an FtM patient who underwent hysterectomy and vaginectomy at the prelamination stage of a radial forearm phalloplasty. Three months postoperatively, the patient was able to void while standing and showed no evidence of stricture or fistula on retrograde cystogram. These results suggest that uterine mucosa may be used for prelamination of the penile neourethra in patients undergoing phalloplasty. PMID:27069708

  14. Surgical approach to oral lichen planus by submucosal autologous fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Francesco; Stellin, Livia; Gatti, Alessandro; Benech, Arnaldo

    2013-05-01

    Oral lichen planus is a chronic autoinflammatory mucositis. Oral lesions are predominantly white; they tend to be bilateral while involving the buccal mucosa especially cheek, tongue, gums, lips, and palate. Many topical and systemic agents are currently used with unpredictable results. Fat grafting is characterized by the placement of multiple parcels of purified fat with blunt cannulas; at the beginning, it was introduced to improve facial aesthetics. Recently, it has been translated to other surgical cases such as posttraumatic deformities and craniofacial anomalies and as ancillary reconstructive procedure after tumor resections. The successful results of this procedure encouraged us to use this approach to a clinical case of oral lichen planus refractory to conventional therapy.

  15. Cytogenetic Biomonitoring in Buccal Mucosal Cells from Municipal Solid Waste Collectors.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Mariana Carvalho; Dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Cury, Patricia Ramos; Flygare, Ana Carolina Correa; Claudio, Samuel Rangel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2017-02-01

    Waste collectors collect, transport, and process the garbage produced by people living in the city. Nowadays, this activity requires special attention due to the environmental impact of garbage and its potential consequences on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of garbage collection on waste collectors. For this purpose, a total of 47 male waste collectors aged from 24 to 53 years were included in the experimental group. A total of 30 men matched by age were used as the control group. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were analyzed by micronucleus test in buccal mucosaI cells. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the frequency of micronuclei was detected in the waste collectors when compared to controls. Nevertheless, higher frequencies of karyolysis and pyknosis (p<0.05) were detected in buccal mucosaI cells from waste collectors when compared to matched controls. Taken together, our results indicate that waste collectors comprise an at-risk group as a result of increased cytotoxicity apparent from buccal mucosa cells.

  16. Buccally Administered Intranasal Desmopressin Acetate for the Treatment of Neurogenic Diabetes Insipidus in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Smego, Allison R; Backeljauw, Philippe; Gutmark-Little, Iris

    2016-05-01

    The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus (DI) in infancy is challenging and complicated by fluid overload and dehydration. Therapy with subcutaneous (SC), intranasal (IN), or oral tablet desmopressin acetate (1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin [DDAVP]) remains difficult to titrate in infants. Assess the efficacy and safety of buccally administered IN DDAVP for the management of infants with neurogenic DI. Retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 15 infants (mean age, 4.5 mo) with neurogenic DI treated at a tertiary care center. Treatment was with diluted IN DDAVP formulation (10 mcg/mL) administered buccally via a tuberculin syringe to the buccal mucosa. After initial DDAVP titration of 2-3 days, IN DDAVP doses ranged from 1 to 5 mcg twice daily given buccally. Mean serum sodium concentration at DI diagnosis was 159 ± 6.6 mmol/L (range, 151-178) and improved to 142 ± 3.5 mmol/L (range, 137-147) with the buccally administered IN DDAVP. Normal sodium concentrations were established without major fluctuations. Serum sodium was then maintained in the outpatient setting at a mean of 145.7 ± 4.8 mmol/L (mean duration of follow-up, 11 mo). Buccally administered IN formulation of DDAVP provides a practical and safe treatment alternative for neurogenic DI in infancy. Our approach avoided severe hypo- and hypernatremia during DDAVP titration and ongoing outpatient management of DI. The possibility for smaller dosage increments and ease of administration make IN DDAVP administered buccally preferable over other DDAVP treatment options in infants.

  17. Genipin-crosslinked catechol-chitosan mucoadhesive hydrogels for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinke; Strandman, Satu; Zhu, Julian X X; Barralet, Jake; Cerruti, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Drug administration via buccal mucosa is an attractive drug delivery strategy due to good patient compliance, prolonged localized drug effect, and avoidance of gastrointestinal drug metabolism and first-pass elimination. Buccal drug delivery systems need to maintain an intimate contact with the mucosa lining in the wet conditions of the oral cavity for long enough to allow drug release and absorption. For decades, mucoadhesive polymers such as chitosan (CS) and its derivatives have been explored to achieve this. In this study, inspired by the excellent wet adhesion of marine mussel adhesive protein, we developed a buccal drug delivery system using a novel catechol-functionalized CS (Cat-CS) hydrogel. We covalently bonded catechol functional groups to the backbone of CS, and crosslinked the polymer with a non-toxic crosslinker genipin (GP). We achieved two degrees of catechol conjugation (9% and 19%), forming Cat9-CS/GP and Cat19-CS/GP hydrogels, respectively. We confirmed covalent bond formation during the catechol functionalization and GP crosslinking during the gel formation. The gelation time and the mechanical properties of Cat-CS hydrogels are similar to those of CS only hydrogels. Catechol groups significantly enhanced mucoadhesion in vitro (7 out of the 10 Cat19-CS hydrogels were still in contact with porcine mucosal membrane after 6 h, whereas all of the CS hydrogels lost contact after 1.5 h). The new hydrogel systems sustained the release of lidocaine for about 3 h. In-vivo, we compared buccal patches made of Cat19-CS/GP and CS/GP adhered to rabbit buccal mucosa. We were able to detect lidocaine in the rabbit's serum at concentration about 1 ng/ml only from the Cat19-CS patch, most likely due to the intimate contact provided by mucoadhesive Cat19-CS/GP systems. No inflammation was observed on the buccal tissue in contact with any of the patches tested. These results show that the proposed catechol-modified CS hydrogel is a promising mucoadhesive and

  18. Buccal attachment loss in Swedish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Källestål, C; Uhlin, S

    1992-08-01

    A case referent study was performed to identify factors connected with loss of buccal attachment in adolescents. The study group was identified among 18-year-olds who had participated 2 years earlier in a study of periodontal conditions in adolescents. The criterion for inclusion in the case group was buccal attachment loss (greater than or equal to 1 mm) in one or more sites. Information on 28 variables, identified earlier as being related to recessions, was collected in a clinical examination, interview and observation. The referent group consisted of 66 subjects and the case group of 71 subjects. The case group comprised 2 subgroups, one identified as having buccal attachment loss in 1987 and the other with attachment loss occurring in the years 1987-89. Statistical analyses, using the chi 2 test, logistic regression and a variance component model, were performed to detect factors related to buccal attachment loss. These factors were thin alveolar tissue, narrow width of the attached gingiva and presence of teeth with buccal displacement. The results indicate that the anatomy of the buccal alveolar process is related to the presence of buccal attachment loss in populations with a high level of oral hygiene. To evaluate the importance of possible risk factors or etiological factors for development of buccal loss of tooth support, prospective epidemiological or experimental studies are needed.

  19. Transmucosal delivery of oxytocin to rabbits using a mucoadhesive buccal patch.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Bhatt, P P; Johnston, T P

    1997-08-01

    A biocompatible, mucoadhesive buccal patch was evaluated in rabbits for transmucosal delivery of peptides. Oxytocin (OT) was incorporated into custom coformulations of Carbopol 974P and silicone polymer and the resulting plasma OT concentration versus time profiles determined following patch application. For comparative purposes, the mean values determined for the elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution (Vd), and the total body clearance (CL) following intravenous injection of OT were 2.9 +/- 0.2 min, 85.3 +/- 6.7 ml, and 20.4 +/- 2.03 ml/min, respectively. Following application of oxytocin-loaded mucoadhesive patches, plasma OT concentrations remained 20- to 28-fold greater from 0.5 to 3.0 hr than control animals administered placebo patches. The steady-state plasma OT concentration (Css) following application of the buccal patches was 80.6 +/- 15.9 pg/ml. The lag-time associated with attainment of the Css was 0.45 +/- 0.18 hr. Steady-state flux (Jss) of oxytocin in vivo was 139 +/- 36.8 ng/hr/cm2. Based on the amount of OT remaining in the patches following removal, the average dose of OT released in vivo was 0.27 +/- 0.024 mg with a bioavailability of 0.1%. No significant alterations in mucosal histology were observed when underlying mucosa to which OT patches had been applied were compared to either control (no patch) mucosa or mucosa underneath placebo patches. The mucoadhesive buccal patches were easy to apply and remove, nonirritating to tissue, and able to continuously deliver a nonapeptide over 3 hr. Based on these preliminary studies, the mucoadhesive buccal patches evaluated may represent an improved transmucosal drug delivery system for peptides and conventional drug substances.

  20. Conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs as an in-vivo model for buccal absorption - pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from bioadhesive tablets.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Morten B; Jespersen, Mads L; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Garmer, Mats; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2014-05-01

    The potential of buccal mucosa as a site for systemic absorption has attracted increased attention in recent years creating a need for new predictive in-vivo models. The aim of this study was to evaluate anaesthetised and conscious Göttingen mini-pigs as a model for buccal drug absorption by testing pH-dependent absorption of metoprolol from a solid dosage form. Buccal tablets buffered to pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, oral liquid and intravenous injection were tested in four conscious and anaesthetised Göttingen mini-pigs in a non-randomised cross-over study. Blood samples were collected and processed before analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. An ex-vivo flow retention model was applied to study release and retention of the bioadhesive buccal tablets. The Tmax obtained from the two buccal conscious groups (55 ± 5 and 35 ± 5 min) were significantly different to the buccal anaesthetised groups (120 ± 0 and 165 ± 15 min) for buccal tablet pH 6.2 and pH 8.9, respectively. Also, the absolute bioavailability from the anaesthetised buccal tablet pH 8.9 (20.7 ± 4.0%) had a significant increase compared to all other buccal tablet groups. In conclusion, this study showed a pH-dependent absolute bioavailability of metoprolol when administrated as bioadhesive buccal tablets to anaesthetised mini-pigs. The anaesthesia was found to delay the time to reach maximal plasma concentration of metoprolol as compared to the conscious pig model when administrated as buccal tablets.

  1. Ovarian and Uterine Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Cheval, Max

    1934-01-01

    Recent experience has convinced the author of the value of ovarian grafting. He gives the histories of a number of women upon whom he made implants of their own ovarian tissue in the course of operations for double oöphorectomy. The subsequent state of these patients is contrasted with that of women after castration without grafting. When the uterus was left in position menstruation was re-established in over 80% of the grafted cases. The author and his co-workers maintain that the vitality of autogenous grafts of ovarian substance is enhanced by hormones produced by the uterine mucosa. He therefore advocates that grafts of uterus be made in conjunction with ovarian implants whenever possible. Experiments carried out on animals have proved the correctness of this opinion. The results of a series of cases of combined ovarian and uterine graftings are recorded, and the technique of uterine mucosa implants is described. ImagesFig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:19989930

  2. Bioengineered vocal fold mucosa for voice restoration.

    PubMed

    Ling, Changying; Li, Qiyao; Brown, Matthew E; Kishimoto, Yo; Toya, Yutaka; Devine, Erin E; Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Nishimoto, Kohei; Norman, Ian G; Tsegyal, Tenzin; Jiang, Jack J; Burlingham, William J; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Smith, Lloyd M; Frey, Brian L; Welham, Nathan V

    2015-11-18

    Patients with voice impairment caused by advanced vocal fold (VF) fibrosis or tissue loss have few treatment options. A transplantable, bioengineered VF mucosa would address the individual and societal costs of voice-related communication loss. Such a tissue must be biomechanically capable of aerodynamic-to-acoustic energy transfer and high-frequency vibration and physiologically capable of maintaining a barrier against the airway lumen. We isolated primary human VF fibroblasts and epithelial cells and cocultured them under organotypic conditions. The resulting engineered mucosae showed morphologic features of native tissue, proteome-level evidence of mucosal morphogenesis and emerging extracellular matrix complexity, and rudimentary barrier function in vitro. When grafted into canine larynges ex vivo, the mucosae generated vibratory behavior and acoustic output that were indistinguishable from those of native VF tissue. When grafted into humanized mice in vivo, the mucosae survived and were well tolerated by the human adaptive immune system. This tissue engineering approach has the potential to restore voice function in patients with otherwise untreatable VF mucosal disease.

  3. Age and the architecture of oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Abu Eid, Rasha; Sawair, Faleh; Landini, Gabriel; Saku, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Age changes affect the oral mucosa (the protective lining of the oral cavity), but few of these have been studied objectively. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyse a number of morphometric parameters of the ageing oral mucosa. The fractal dimension of the epithelial connective tissue interface (ECTI) was estimated in 42 samples of normal buccal mucosa to correlate any changes in their irregularity to the age of the individuals. Morphometric parameters extracted from theoretical cell areas computed programatically were also analysed. Results showed no significant change in ECTI complexity associated with age; however, there was indication that epithelial cells tended to become larger and flatter with age. Interestingly, while some parameters did not show significant differences case wise, cluster analysis showed that the data clustered the cases into three main age groups: one representing the first two decades of life, another group represents adult life (21-50 years) and the last group representing the ageing population (50-90 years).

  4. [Bullous autoimmune diseases of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, L

    1999-10-01

    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBD) are characterized by autoantibodies targeted against adhesion molecules, impairing their formation. According to localization criteria, pemphigus (intraepidermal blister and desmosomal involvement) and pemphigoid (subepidermal blister and dermoepidermal junction involvement) can be distinguished. In two-thirds of the cases, pemphigus vulgaris begins with oral lesions (mainly the buccal mucosa and palate, rarely the gingiva). Skin lesions are usual. Excepting paraneoplastic pemphigus (a recently individualized entity), oral lesions are uncommon in other types of pemphigus. Cicatricial pemphigoid mainly involves oral mucosa, frequently other mucous membranes, and rarely the skin. Gingival involvement is frequent. In case of desquamative gingivitis, the clip sign gives the diagnosis of cicatricial pemphigoid. Ocular involvement is frequent and causes blindness. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and IgA linear dermatosis are rare. Bullous pemphigoid and bullous lupus rarely involve the oral mucosa. Diagnosis of AIBD requires a biopsy within the mucosal membrane lesion for pathology examination and another biopsy in a lesion-free area for direct immunofluorescence detection of antibody fixation. Immunoelectron microscopy or immunoblast transfer may be needed for positive diagnosis. Corticosteroids are used to treat pemphigus and dapsone is used for cicatricial pemphigoid. Immunosuppressive therapy is rarely needed.

  5. S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins as biomarkers of exposure to hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Reyes, Leticia; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exogenous or endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can lead to oxidation of cellular nucleophiles, particularly cysteines in proteins. Commercial mouthwashes containing H2O2 provide the opportunity to determine clinically whether changes in S-glutathionylation of susceptible proteins in buccal mucosa cells can be used as biomarkers of ROS exposure. Methods Using an exploratory clinical protocol, 18 disease-free volunteers rinsed with a mouthwash containing 1.5% H2O2 (442 mM) over four consecutive days. Exfoliated buccal cell samples were collected prior and post-treatment and proteomics were used to identify S-glutathionylated proteins. Results Four consecutive daily treatments with the H2O2-containing mouthwash induced significant dose and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins, stable for at least 30 min following treatments. Elevated levels of S-glutathionylation were maintained with subsequent daily exposure. Increased S-glutathionylation preceded and correlated with transcriptional activation of ROS sensitive genes, such as ATF3, and with the presence of 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine. Data from a human buccal cell line TR146 were consistent with the trial results. We identified twelve proteins that were S-glutathionylated following H2O2 exposure. Conclusions Buccal cells can predict exposure to ROS through increased levels of S-glutathionylation of proteins. These post-translationally modified proteins serve as biomarkers for the effects of H2O2 in the oral cavity and in the future, may be adaptable as extrapolated pharmacodynamic biomarkers for assessing the impact of other systemic drugs that cause ROS and/or impact redox homeostasis. General significance S-glutathionylation of buccal cell proteins can be used as a quantitative measure of exposure to ROS. PMID:26673080

  6. ORGANIZATION, BARRIER FUNCTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL LIPIDS OF THE ORAL MUCOSA

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah V.; Drake, David R.; Hill, Jennifer R.; Brogden, Kim A.; Fischer, Carol L.; Wertz, Philip W.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis As one moves from the skin across the vermilion region of the lip and into the oral cavity the oral mucosa is encountered. The oral mucosa consists of connective tissue known as the lamina propria covered by a stratified squamous epithelium. In the regions of the hard palate and gingiva the epithelium is keratinized like the epidermis. In the buccal region, the floor of the mouth and the underside of the tongue the epithelium is nonkeratinized. The epithelium on the dorsum of the tongue is a specialized epithelium but can be approximated as a mosaic of keratinized and nonkeratinized epithelia. The nonkeratinized epithelial regions do not produce a stratum corneum. Nuclei with intact DNA are retained in the superficial cells. In all regions the outer portions of the epithelium provides a protective permeability barrier, which varies regionally. Antimicrobial lipids at the surfaces of the oral mucosa are an integral part of innate immunity. PMID:23320785

  7. Clinical and Radiographic Comparative Evaluation of Buccal and Palatal Corticotomy with Buccal Corticotomy in Periodontally Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics with Surgical Bur.

    PubMed

    Addanki, Pavankumar; Gooty, Jagadish Reddy; Palaparthy, Rajababu

    2017-01-01

    Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a clinical procedure that combines selective corticotomy, particulate grafting, and application of orthodontics. It reduces treatment time, increases stability of teeth, and prevents relapse of orthodontic tooth moment. The present study was aimed to explore the clinical and radiographic comparison of bone density changes, retraction time differences in buccal and palatal corticotomy with buccal corticotomy which was done by surgical bur. A split-mouth was designed in 16 patients and divided into right (buccal and palatal corticotomy) (Group I), left (buccal corticotomy) (Group II) sides. In both groups, decortication was done with surgical bur. Clinical parameters such as gingival bleeding index and probing pocket depth were recorded at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Bone density changes were measured by computed tomography at baseline and after 6 months after surgery and also used for evaluating differences in bone density changes between two groups. Retraction time differences were also measured in both groups. In both groups, there was significant difference between bone density changes at baseline and 6 months after surgery. However, the difference between two groups was not significant. The difference in clinical parameters between two groups was not significant. The difference in retraction time differences was not significant. Within limits of the study, it may be concluded that there was difference between bone density changes before and 6 months after surgery. Difference in total treatment time found to be no significant between two groups.

  8. Regulation of protease-activated receptor-1 expression in human buccal fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Huang, Fu-Mei; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the major thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce PAR-1 expression. Thirty OSF and 10 normal buccal mucosa specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry. Buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were challenged with arecoline by using Western blot analysis. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), LY294002, herbimycin A, NS-398, and PD98059 were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. PAR-1 expression was significantly higher in OSF specimens (p < .05). Arecoline was found to elevate PAR-1 expression in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner (p < .05). The addition of NAC, LY294002, herbimycin A, NS398, and PD98059 markedly inhibited the arecoline-induced PAR-1 expression (p < .05). PAR-1 expression is significantly upregulated in areca quid chewing-associated OSF. Arecoline-induced PAR-1 expression was downregulated by NAC, LY294002, herbimycin A, NS398, and PD98059. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Composite Buccal Flap for Alar Based Defect Reconstruction: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Pourdanesh, F.; Khojasteh, A.

    2011-01-01

    It is difficult to reconstruct an alar defect with cartilage involvement. Here in the authors report a case of traumatic alar loss during childhood in which an alar reconstruction was carried out with a composite auricular graft put over the pedicle buccal flap which was rotated and passed through the intraoral side. The lining skin and auricular cartilage for the flap was obtained from the auricular region which was acceptable for the patient. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. One year follow up revealed satisfactory results with minimal contracture of the graft. PMID:22509460

  10. Physicochemical characterization and evaluation of buccal adhesive patches containing propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Patel, V M; Prajapati, B G; Patel, J K; Patel, M M

    2006-07-01

    Buccal adhesive patches containing 20 mg of propranolol hydrochloride were prepared using solvent casting method. Chitosan was used as a natural bioadhesive polymer. Patches were prepared at different ratios of PVP K-30 and evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics such as weight variation, drug content uniformity, folding endurance, surface pH, ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex-vivo residence time, in vitro drug release and in vitro buccal permeation study. Patches exhibited sustained release over a period of 7 hours. The mechanism of drug release was found to be Non-Fickian diffusion. Addition of PVP K-30 generally enhanced the releasing rate. The ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength was performed using sheep buccal mucosa on modified physical balance. Optimized patches (batch F4) showed satisfactory bioadhesive strength (9.6 degrees 2.0 gram) and ex vivo residence time (272 degrees 0.25 minutes). Swelling index was proportional to PVP K-30. The surface pH of all batches was within satisfactory limit (7.0+/-1.5) and hence patches would not cause irritation in the buccal cavity. Good correlation was observed between in vitro drug release and in vitro drug permeation with correlation coefficient of 0.9364. Stability of optimized patches was performed in natural human saliva showed that both drug and dosage forms were stable in human saliva.

  11. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; AL Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer.

  12. Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease Risk in Peripheral Tissues; Focus on Buccal Cells

    PubMed Central

    François, Maxime; Leifert, Wayne; Martins, Ralph; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder of the brain and is the most common form of dementia. To-date no simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive procedure is available to confirm with certainty the early diagnosis of AD prior to the manifestations of symptoms characteristic of the disease. Therefore, if population screening of individuals is to be performed, more suitable, easily accessible tissues would need to be used for a diagnostic test that would identify those who exhibit cellular pathology indicative of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD risk so that they can be prioritized for primary prevention. This need for minimally invasive tests could be achieved by targeting surrogate tissues, since it is now well recognized that AD is not only a disorder restricted to pathology and biomarkers within the brain. Human buccal cells for instance are accessible in a minimally invasive manner, and exhibit cytological and nuclear morphologies that may be indicative of accelerated ageing or neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. However, to our knowledge there is no review available in the literature covering the biology of buccal cells and their applications in AD biomarker research. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some of the main findings of biomarkers reported for AD in peripheral tissues, with a further focus on the rationale for the use of the buccal mucosa (BM) for biomarkers of AD and the evidence to date of changes exhibited in buccal cells with AD. PMID:24938500

  13. Effects of Tobacco Smoking on the Dorsum of the Tongue and Buccal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Al Shammari, Abdullah Faraj; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Khalil AL; Alaauldeen, Amjad Ibrahim; Merza, Randa Fouad; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of tobacco smoking on the dorsum of the tongue and buccal epithelium. Methodology: This case control cross-sectional study was conducted with 174 smoking and non-smoking volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern KSA. Cytological Materials were obtained from buccal mucosa and dorsum of the tongue, and assessed using cytopathological methods. Results: In buccal smears, cytological atypia was observed in 17 out of 101 (16.8%) smoker cases but only 3/73(4.1%) of the controls. For cytological atypia in buccal and tongue smears, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were found to be 4.7 (1.3-16.8), P < 0.016)) and 4.3 (0.93- 20.2), P <0.06)), respectively, in the two sites. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for occurrence of cytological atypia, which might subsequently develop into oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. Oral exfoliative cytology is an easy and cheap non-invasive procedure which appears highly suitable for screening populations at risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:27893201

  14. Statistical optimization of insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for buccal delivery of basal insulin.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjana; Madan, Parshotam; Lin, Senshang

    2012-01-01

    The principle of statistical optimization was employed to fabricate insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) gel formulations having the potential for buccal delivery of basal insulin. A two-level resolution III fractional factorial design was applied to simultaneously evaluate five independent formulation variables: PF-127 concentration, insulin concentration, sodium sulfate concentration, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) concentration, and presence of sodium glycocholate. The amount of insulin released and permeated from gels as well as gelation time and mucoadhesion force of gels were measured and used as dependent response variables for formulation optimization. Optimization of a gel formulation was achieved by applying constrained optimization via regression analysis. In vitro permeation flux of insulin from the optimized formulation through procine buccal mucosa was 93.17 (±0.058, n = 3) μg/cm(2). Plasma insulin levels following buccal administration of the optimized formulation at 10, 25 and 50 IU/kg to healthy rats were found to be dose dependent and basal insulin levels were maintained at least for 8 h. Furthermore, continuous hypoglycemia for at least 8 h was observed with 89%, 51% and 25% of blood glucose reduction, respectively, for these three doses. The results of this investigation conclude the feasibility of development of optimized buccal insulin-loaded Pluronic F-127 gels for basal insulin delivery.

  15. Novel buccal adhesive tablets using Aloe vera L and Sinapis alba--a promising option for improved bioavailability of diltiazem hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Yajaman; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2008-01-01

    In the current investigation, white mustard mucilage from whole seeds of Sinapis alba was evaluated for its physical properties and compared with the other mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxy propyl methylcellulose 5Cps and Carbopol 934P. Further, methanol precipitable solids from whole leaves of Aloe Vera L were used as permeation enhancer. To achieve improved bioavailability of diltiazem, novel buccal adhesive tablets (NBATs) in cup and core fashion designed to achieve unidirectional release towards mucosa were prepared in a three-stage process using specially fabricated punches. The adhesive cups were studied for its shear, tensile, and peel strengths by specially designed apparatus using excised ruminant and porcine buccal mucosa as model substrates. Ex vivo permeation studies in a Franz diffusion cell were conducted through porcine buccal mucosa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies and differential scanning calorimetry thermographs showed no remarkable interactions. Histopathological studies showed no remarkable damage of buccal mucosa by the NBATs. In vivo studies were conducted on anaesthetized male New Zealand albino rabbits, estimated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the pharmacokinetics were compared with the oral and intravenous bolus injection. NBATs exhibited a Cmax 74.6 ng/mL, Tmax 3.5 h, t(1/2) 4.36 h. The NBATs prevented salivary scavenging effect and exhibited 82.1% bioavailability.

  16. Ex vivo comparative study on three sinus lift tools for transcrestal detaching maxillary sinus mucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfeng; Hu, Pin; Han, Yishi; Fan, Jiadong; Dong, Xinming; Ren, Huan; Yang, Chunhao; Shi, Tingting; Xia, Dong

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate 3 different sinus lift tools, namely umbrella-shaped sinus lift curette YSL-04, our recently designed probe-improved sinus lift curettes, and our newly invented elevator 014, using our previous developed goat ex vivo models for direct visualizing the effectiveness of detaching sinus mucosa in real time. Goat ex vivo models for direct visualizing the effectiveness of detaching sinus mucosa in real time were generated according to our previously developed protocol. The effectiveness for each tool was evaluated through the length of sinus mucosa detached in mesial and distal directions or buccal and palatal directions, and the space volume created by detaching maxillary sinus mucosa in mesial, distal, buccal and palatal directions. The results showed that all 3 sinus lift tools could transcrestally detach the maxillary sinus mucosa and create extra space under the elevated sinus floor on the goat ex vivo sinus models. Moreover, our newly invented elevator 014 had advantages over the other 2 in term of the capability to detach the sinus mucosa. Our newly invented elevator 014 might be a promising tool for detaching maxillary sinus mucosa in transcrestal maxillary sinus floor elevation.

  17. Midazolam pharmacokinetics following intravenous and buccal administration

    PubMed Central

    Schwagmeier, R; Alincic, S; Striebel, H W

    1998-01-01

    Aims Midazolam has good anxiolytic qualities and is a well established premedication agent before anaesthesia or short surgical procedures. The objective of the present study was to determine pharmacokinetic data from individual plasma concentration profiles obtained following intravenous and buccal administration of midazolam. Methods Eight young healthy volunteers received single doses of 5 mg midazolam i.v. and after a period of 1 week buccally in a cross over manner. Blood samples were obtained up to 480 min. The measurement of plasma midazolam concentrations was by gas-chromatography. Results The maximum plasma concentration was 55.9 ng ml−1 (range 35.6–77.9 ng ml−1 ) at 30 min (range 15–90 min) following buccal administration. AUC was calculated to be 15 016 ng ml−1 min (s.d. 3778 ng ml−1 min) following i.v. and 11191 ng ml−1 min (s.d. 1777 ng ml−1 min) following buccal midazolam. This gave a mean midazolam bioavailabilty of 74.5%. Conclusions The pharmacokinetic data presented in this study demonstrate a high bioavailability and reliable plasma concentrations following buccal midazolam. The clinical benefit of buccal midazolam may be in particular patient controlled premedication or sedation in adults. PMID:9764959

  18. [Oral mucosa analog allografts in non-consanguineous rats].

    PubMed

    González, Luis; Padrón, Karla; Salmen, Siham; Jerez, Elsy; Dávila, Lorena; Solórzano, Eduvigis

    2017-01-24

    Although there are therapeutic options for the treatment of oral mucosa defects, the need for functional, anatomical and aesthetically similar substitutes persists, as well as for solutions to reduce autologous grafts morbidity. To determine clinical and histological compatibility of equivalent oral mucosa allografts generated through tissue engineering in non-consanguineous rats. We used a sample of oral mucosa from Sprague Dawley rats to obtain a fibroblast culture and a keratinocytes and fibroblasts co-culture. In both cases, we used a commercial collagen membrane as "scaffold". After ten weeks of culture, we grafted the resulting membranes into four Wistar rats. The first phase of the study was the development of the oral mucosa equivalents generated by tissue engineering. Then, we implanted them in immunocompetent Wistar rats, and finallywe evaluated the clinical and histological features of the allografts. In vivo evaluation of mucosal substitutes showed a correct integration of artificial oral mucosa in immunocompetent hosts, with an increase in periodontal biotype and the creation of a zone with increased keratinization. Histologically, the tissue was similar to the control oral mucosa sample with no inflammatory reaction nor clinical or histological rejection signs. The equivalent oral mucosa allografts generated by tissue engineering showed clinical and histological compatibility.

  19. Role of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Xianhuayin on the Reversal of Premalignant Mucosal Lesions in the Golden Hamster Buccal Pouch

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-zhi; Qiu, Yong-le; An, Zhi-guang; Yang, Feng-ying

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of the Chinese herbal medicine Xianhuayin on the reversal of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced premalignant mucosal lesions in the oral buccal pouch of golden hamsters. Methodology The animals were randomly divided into a non-diseased control group (n=5) and an experimental group including 50 animals in which the buccal mucosa had been painted with DMBA (0.5% in acetone) to generate an oral mucosa premalignant lesion. Animals in the experimental group were further divided into Xianhuayin-treated group (n=30), untreated premalignant lesion group (n=10) and normal saline (NS)-treated group (n=10). The cheek (buccal) pouch mucosa of the golden hamsters in each group was observed with light and electron microscopy eight weeks after intragastric administration with NS or Xianhuayin. Results In the non-diseased control group, the buccal mucosa was keratinized and stratified squamous epithelium under a light microscope. In the untreated premalignant lesion group, variable degrees of epithelial dysplasia was observed. The irregular epithelial mucosa gradually became distinct in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis showed that surface of the cells exhibited honeycomb structures in the hamster of untreated-group. The cells were morphologically irregular, overlapped and loosened in the untreated premalignant lesion group. Most of the cell surface exhibited honeycomb structure in the Xianhuayin-treated group. Transmission electronic microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that buccal mucosal epithelial cells were morphologically regular in the non-diseased control group. Desmosomes and tonofibrils were reduced and the nucleus was morphologically irregular in the untreated premalignant lesion group. In the Xianhuayin-treated group, the widening intercellular gap was gradually reduced, desmosomes and the cells becoming morphologically regular. No significant difference was observed between the hamsters in

  20. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... that need skin grafts to heal Venous ulcers, pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that do not heal Very ... graft; Full thickness skin graft Patient Instructions Preventing pressure ulcers Surgical wound care - open Images Skin graft Skin ...

  1. Autofluorescence spectroscopy of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, S. K.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    1998-06-01

    We report the results of an in-vitro study on autofluorescence from pathologically characterized normal and malignant squamous tissues from the oral cavity. The study involved biopsy samples from 47 patients with oral cancer of which 11 patients had cancer of tongue, 17 of buccal mucosa and 19 of alveolus. The results of excitation and emission spectroscopy at several wavelengths (280 nm less than or equal to (lambda) exless than or equal to 460 nm; 340 nm less than or equal to (lambda) em less than or equal to 520 nm) showed that at (lambda) ex equals 337 nm and 400 nm the mean value for the spectrally integrated fluorescence intensity [(Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) )] from the normal tissue sites was about a factor of 2 larger than that from the malignant tissue sites. At other excitation wavelengths the difference in (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) was not statistically significant. Similarly, for (lambda) em equals 390 nm and 460 nm, the intensity of the 340 nm band of the excitation spectra from normal tissues was observed to be a factor of 2 larger than that from malignant tissues. Analysis of these results suggests that NADH concentration is higher in normal oral tissues compared to the malignant. This contrasts with our earlier observation of an reduced NADH concentration in normal sites of breast tissues vis a vis malignant sites. For the 337 nm excited emission spectra a 10-variable MVLR score (using (Sigma) (lambda ) IF((lambda) ) and normalized intensities at nine wavelengths as input parameters) provided a sensitivity and specificity of 95.7% and 93.1% over the sample size investigated.

  2. Periodontal Responses to Augmented Corticotomy with Collagen Membrane Application during Orthodontic Buccal Tipping in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Yeek; Kwon, Young-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to examine the effects of absorbable collagen membrane (ACM) application in augmented corticotomy using deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), during orthodontic buccal tipping movement in the dog. After buccal circumscribing corticotomy and DBBM grafting into the decorticated area, flaps were repositioned and sutured on control sides. ACM was overlaid and secured with membrane tacks, on test sides only, and the flaps were repositioned and sutured. Closed coil springs were used to apply 200 g orthodontic force in the buccolingual direction on the second and third premolars, immediately after primary flap closure. The buccal tipping angles were 31.19 ± 14.60° and 28.12 ± 11.48° on the control and test sides, respectively. A mean of 79.5 ± 16.0% of the buccal bone wall was replaced by new bone on the control side, and on the test side 78.9 ± 19.5% was replaced. ACM application promoted an even bone surface. In conclusion, ACM application in augmented corticotomy using DBBM might stimulate periodontal tissue reestablishment, which is useful for rapid orthodontic treatment or guided bone regeneration. In particular, ACM could control the formation of mesenchymal matrix, facilitating an even bone surface. PMID:25276824

  3. Clinical application of tissue-engineered transplants. Part I: mucosa.

    PubMed

    Sauerbier, Sebastian; Gutwald, Ralf; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Lauer, Günter; Schmelzeisen, Rainer

    2006-12-01

    The study series aims at testing the feasibility of the clinical application of tissue-engineered oral mucosa. The preliminary results were gathered over a period varying from 6 months to 12 years depending on the surgical method. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa was used to cover defects in various surgical procedures like vestibuloplasty (n=42), freeing of the tongue (n=10), prelaminating the radial flap (n=5) and reconstruction of the urethra (n=16). In all interventions small samples of oral mucosa were harvested, cut into small pieces, resuspended in culture medium and seeded into a culture flask. Cultured keratinocytes were transferred onto membranes which then were used to cover mucosal defects in the oral cavity. To gain a graft of 15 cm(2) size a mucosa biopsy of 4-8 mm(2) and 40 ml autologous patients serum is needed. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa was applied successfully in all four surgical methods. Six months after transplantation a regular epithelial layering with a histological delimitation of the stratum, epithelial crest and a strong basal membrane appeared. According to the reception site the tissue engineered oral mucosa differentiated in several ways. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa fulfils the requirements for clinical routine. With view to healing time and outcome it does not appear to be superior to regular harvested oral mucosa transplants. Because of a smaller harvesting defect and primary wound closure at the actual operation site the patients' convenience is increased. Thus this method reduces morbidity and advances the quality of life.

  4. Microbial Contamination of Orthodontic Buccal Tubes from Manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Chin, Shenyang; Pinto, John; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to test the sterility of new unused orthodontic buccal tubes received from manufacturers. Four different types of buccal tubes were used straight from the manufactures package without any additional sterilizing step. Of these buccal tubes tested, three genera of bacteria, implicated as opportunistic pathogens, namely Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were recovered from these buccal tubes. Our data showing microbial contamination on buccal tubes highlights the need of sterilization before clinical use. We also suggest that manufacturers should list the sterility state of orthodontic buccal tubes on their packaging or instructions stating the need for sterilization. PMID:20957099

  5. Combined Regenerative and Mucogingival Treatment of Deep Intrabony Defects Associated with Buccal Gingival Recession: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giacomo; Zucchelli, Giovanni; Gherlone, Enrico

    The case reports presented in this article describe a surgical approach for improving root coverage and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with buccal gingival recession. A mandibular canine and a maxillary premolar were treated. The surgical technique consisted of a connective tissue graft (CTG) that was placed and sutured at the inner surface of a coronally advanced envelope flap (CAF), thickening the buccal soft tissue wall of the most coronal extension of the intrabony defect and treated with biomaterials as scaffold. No palatal/lingual flap was elevated. Two years after the surgery, clinically significant root coverage, increased buccal keratinized tissue height and thickness, some minor improvement in the position of the interdental papilla, and clinical attachment level gain were achieved. The radiographs showed bone fill of the intrabony components of the defects. This report encourages a novel application of CAF + CTG + biomaterials to improve both esthetic and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with gingival recessions.

  6. Reconstruction of the Alveolar Buccal Bone Plate in Compromised Fresh Socket after Immediate Implant Placement Followed by Immediate Provisionalization.

    PubMed

    de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; de Barros-Filho, Luiz Antonio Borelli; Ricci, Weber Adad; Tetradis, Sotirios; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Borelli de Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report was to reestablish the buccal bone wall after immediate implant placement. The socket defect was corrected with autogenous bone, and a connective tissue graft was removed from the maxillary tuberosity to increase the thickness, height, and width of the buccal bone and gingival tissue followed by immediate provisionalization of the crown during the same operation. A 66-year-old patient presented with a hopeless maxillary left central incisor with loss of the buccal bone wall. Atraumatic, flapless extraction was performed, and an immediate implant was placed in the extraction socket followed by preparation of an immediate provisional restoration. Subsequently, immediate reconstruction of the buccal bone plate was performed, using the tuberosity as the donor site, to obtain block bone and connective tissue grafts, as well as particulate bone. Finally, immediate provisionalization of the crown followed by simple sutures was performed. Cone-beam computed tomography and periapical radiographs were taken before and after surgery. After 4 months, the final prosthetic crown was made. After a 2-year follow-up, a satisfactory aesthetic result was achieved with lower treatment time and morbidity. This case demonstrates the effective use of immediate reconstruction of the buccal bone wall for the treatment of a hopeless tooth in the maxillary aesthetic area. This procedure efficiently promoted harmonious gingival and bone architecture, recovered lost anatomical structures with sufficient width and thickness, and maintained the stability of the alveolar bone crest in a single procedure. If appropriate clinical conditions exist, immediate dentoalveolar restoration may be the most conservative means of reconstructing the buccal bone wall after immediate implant placement followed by immediate provisionalization with predictable healing and lower treatment time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of EMLA cream 5% application to oral mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, E. R.; Marzbani, N.; Gerzina, T. M.; McLean, C.; Punnia-Moorthy, A.; Mather, L.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine were measured following the application of a 5% eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream to the oral mucosa of twelve subjects. For each subject, a total of 8 g of EMLA was occluded to 18 cm2 of buccal mucosa for 30 min. Analysis was carried out by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and results showed peak concentrations at 40 min for lidocaine and prilocaine. The maximum concentration measured in any subject was 418 ng/ml for lidocaine and 223 ng/ml for prilocaine, well below known toxic levels. No adverse local effects were observed from a 30-min application of EMLA. A follow-up pilot study assessing the clinical efficacy of EMLA for achieving sufficient analgesia for restorative procedures showed that the cream was successful in 75% of subjects tested. PMID:9481979

  8. Buccal mucosal delivery of a potent peptide leads to therapeutically-relevant plasma concentrations for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Boyd, Ben J; White, Paul J; Pennington, Michael W; Norton, Raymond S; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2015-02-10

    Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin (ShK) is an immunomodulatory peptide currently under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis by parenteral administration. To overcome the low patient compliance of conventional self-injections, we have investigated the potential of the buccal mucosa as an alternative delivery route for ShK both in vitro and in vivo. After application of fluorescent 5-Fam-ShK to untreated porcine buccal mucosa, there was no detectable peptide in the receptor chamber using an in vitro Ussing chamber model. However, the addition of the surfactants sodium taurodeoxycholate hydrate or cetrimide, and formulation of ShK in a chitosan mucoadhesive gel, led to 0.05-0.13% and 1.1% of the applied dose, respectively, appearing in the receptor chamber over 5h. Moreover, confocal microscopic studies demonstrated significantly enhanced buccal mucosal retention of the peptide (measured by mucosal fluorescence associated with 5-Fam-ShK) when enhancement strategies were employed. Administration of 5-Fam-ShK to mice (10mg/kg in a mucoadhesive chitosan-based gel (3%, w/v) with or without cetrimide (5%, w/w)) resulted in average plasma concentrations of 2.6-16.2nM between 2 and 6h, which were substantially higher than the pM concentrations required for therapeutic activity. This study demonstrated that the buccal mucosa is a promising administration route for the systemic delivery of ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  9. Hemangioma of the buccal fat pad

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Ali; Saadat, Sarang; Moshiri, Roya; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas are benign vascular neoplasms characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood vessels. Buccal fat pad (BFP) is a rare place for hemangioma. In this report, clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings are described in a rare case of hemangioma with phleboliths involving the BFP, and a review is made of the international literature on this subject. PMID:24963256

  10. Composite HPMC and sodium alginate based buccal formulations for nicotine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Obinna C; Boateng, Joshua S

    2016-10-01

    Smoking cessation is of current topical interest due to the significant negative health and economic impact in many countries. This study aimed to develop buccal films and wafers comprising HPMC and sodium alginate (SA) for potential use in nicotine replacement therapy via the buccal mucosa, as a cheap but effective alternative to currently used nicotine patch and chewing gum. The formulations were characterised using texture analyser (tensile and hardness, mucoadhesion), scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and swelling capacity. Drug loaded films and wafers were characterised for content uniformity (HPLC) whilst the drug loaded wafers only were further characterised for in vitro drug dissolution. SA modified and improved the functional properties of HPMC at optimum ratio of HPMC: SA of 1.25: 0.75. Generally, both films and wafers (blank and drug loaded) were amorphous in nature which impacted on swelling and mucoadhesive performance. HPMC-SA composite wafers showed a porous internal morphology with higher mucoadhesion, swelling index and drug loading capacity compared to the HPMC-SA composite films which were non-porous. The study demonstrates the potential use of composite HPMC-SA wafers in the buccal delivery nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone graft

    MedlinePlus

    Autograft - bone; Allograft - bone; Fracture - bone graft; Surgery - bone graft; Autologous bone graft ... Fuse joints to prevent movement Repair broken bones (fractures) that have bone loss Repair injured bone that ...

  12. Buccal dental microwear texture and catarrhine diets.

    PubMed

    Aliaga-Martínez, Andrés; Romero, Alejandro; Galbany, Jordi; Hernández-Aguilar, R Adriana; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional dental microwear analyses on occlusal and nonocclusal enamel surfaces have been widely applied to reconstruct the feeding behaviors of extant primates and to infer ecological adaptations in fossil hominins. To date, analyses of dental microwear texture, using three-dimensional, Scale-Sensitive Fractal Analysis approaches has only been applied to occlusal surfaces. Here, for the first time, we apply this 3D proxy to buccal enamel surfaces of catarrhine primates of known feeding ecologies to assess the utility of nonocclusal microwear texture variables as indicators of dietary habits. Buccal microwear texture attributes were collected from high-resolution second molar casts in a sample of seven extant African catarrhine taxa with differing dietary behaviors. A white-light confocal microscope with a 100× objective lens was used to record six microwear texture variables that assess complexity, anisotropy, heterogeneity, and textural fill volume. The physical properties and variation in hardness of ingested foods is reflected by significant differences in the microwear variables on buccal enamel surfaces between species, which is in agreement with early reports using 2D microwear signatures of the same samples. Species that consume hard brittle items showed high buccal enamel complexity and low anisotropy values, while folivorous species that consume tough foods revealed high anisotropy and low complexity enamel patterns. Buccal microwear texture analysis on enamel surfaces clearly reflects diet-related variation in nonhuman primates. Our findings indicate that microwear texture attributes on nonworking enamel surfaces provide an alternative procedure for reconstructing dietary behavior when wear facets on occlusal surfaces are lacking. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reference values and repeatability of buccal mucosal bleeding time in healthy sedated cats.

    PubMed

    Alatzas, Dimitrios G; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Kazakos, Giorgos M; Kostoulas, Polychronis; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2014-02-01

    Bleeding time is a screening test for the evaluation of primary haemostasis. As there is currently limited information on the reference interval (RI) and repeatability of the test in the cat compared with the dog, the purpose of the study was to establish the RI of buccal mucosa bleeding time (BMBT) in healthy cats and to investigate the intra-observer repeatability of the test. Fifty-six cats were prospectively enrolled in the study. The animals were deemed to be healthy based on history, physical examination, complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and negative serological testing for feline leukaemia and immunodeficiency viruses. All cats were sedated with ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine, and the BMBT was sequentially measured in the left and right exposed buccal mucosa following a standardised incision made by a commercially available, disposable, bleeding time device. The mean BMBT was 58.6 s and the RIs ranged from 34 to 105 s (Bootstrap estimation). The intra-observer repeatability was up to 87 s (Bland-Altman plot). The results of this study imply that the combination of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and morphine is a safe and useful sedative protocol allowing for the reliable measurement of BMBT in the cat. The RI of feline BMBT may range from 34 to 105 s and the BMBT may differ by up to 87 s for any two consecutive readings for an individual cat.

  14. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  15. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sumita; Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity. The genotoxicity can be avoided to some extent by the

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Nitrendipine Buccal Films

    PubMed Central

    Nappinnai, M.; Chandanbala, R.; Balaijirajan, R.

    2008-01-01

    A mucoadhesive drug delivery system for systemic delivery of nitrendipine, a calcium channel blocker through buccal route was formulated. Mucoadhesive polymers like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K-100, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 and carbopol-934P were used for film fabrication. The films were evaluated for their weight, thickness, percentage moisture absorbed and lost, surface pH, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, In vitro residence time, In vitro release and ex vivo permeation. Based on the evaluation of these results, it was concluded that buccal films made of hydroxylpropylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5±2% w/v; F-4), which showed moderate drug release (50% w/w at the end of 2 h) and satisfactory film characteristics could be selected as the best among the formulations studied. PMID:21394260

  17. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  18. Examining Smoking-Induced Differential Gene Expression Changes in Buccal Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    samples for nicotine and cotinine testing were collected in urine cups without preservative and refrigerated until shipping to a clinical lab...Diagnostic Laboratory of Oklahoma; Oklahoma City, OK). All nonsmokers were below the level of detection for both nicotine (10 ng/ml) and cotinine (40...ng/ml). All smokers were greater than 500 ng/ml for nicotine and 900 ng/ml for cotinine. The expected levels for smokers are a concentration greater

  19. Raman spectroscopy of normal oral buccal mucosa tissues: study on intact and incised biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Atul; Singh, S. P.; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2011-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of among the top 10 malignancies. Optical spectroscopy, including Raman, is being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant, and malignant oral ex vivo tissues. Spectral features showed predominance of lipids and proteins in normal and cancer conditions, respectively, which were attributed to membrane lipids and surface proteins. In view of recent developments in deep tissue Raman spectroscopy, we have recorded Raman spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of 10 normal oral tissues on intact, as well as incised, biopsies after separation of epithelium from connective tissue. Spectral variations and similarities among different groups were explored by unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (linear discriminant analysis, factorial discriminant analysis) methodologies. Clusters of spectra from superior and inferior surfaces of intact tissues show a high overlap; whereas spectra from separated epithelium and connective tissue sections yielded clear clusters, though they also overlap on clusters of intact tissues. Spectra of all four groups of normal tissues gave exclusive clusters when tested against malignant spectra. Thus, this study demonstrates that spectra recorded from the superior surface of an intact tissue may have contributions from deeper layers but has no bearing from the classification of a malignant tissues point of view.

  20. Lyophilized wafers comprising carrageenan and pluronic acid for buccal drug delivery using model soluble and insoluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Kianfar, Farnoosh; Antonijevic, Milan; Chowdhry, Babur; Boateng, Joshua S

    2013-03-01

    Lyophilized muco-adhesive wafers with optimum drug loading for potential buccal delivery have been developed. A freeze-annealing cycle was used to obtain optimized wafers from aqueous gels containing 2% κ-carrageenan (CAR 911), 4% pluronic acid (F127), 4.4% (w/w) polyethylene glycol with 1.8% (w/w) paracetamol or 0.8% (w/w) ibuprofen. Thermogravimetric analysis showed acceptable water content between 0.9 and 1.5%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed amorphous conversion for both drugs. Texture analysis showed ideal mechanical and mucoadhesion characteristics whilst both drugs remained stable over 6 months and drug dissolution at a salivary pH showed gradual release within 2h. The results show the potential of CAR 911 and F127 based wafers for buccal mucosa drug delivery.

  1. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers.

  2. Prognosis of closure of large sinus membrane perforations using pedicled buccal fat pads and a resorbable collagen membrane: case series study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Yun, Pil-Young; Oh, Ji-Su

    2014-01-01

    For large membrane perforations that develop during sinus-bone grafting, we performed repairs using a pedicled buccal fat pad and a resorbable collagen membrane simultaneously with the bone graft. This study included eight patients. Postoperative maxillary sinusitis developed in two patients, which we managed with incision and drainage, and antibiotics. Ultimately, six patients received 12 implants, three of which failed (75% success). Implant replacement was performed after the removal of the failed replacement, at which point the prosthetic treatment was considered complete. In all of the six cases that we were able to follow-up with, the sinus-bone graft was healing favorably. We observed that the sinus bone height decreased gradually with time. Based on these case series, we conclude that our procedure of repairing large sinus-membrane perforations with a pedicled buccal fat pad and a collagen membrane is a reliable technique. PMID:25247149

  3. Bio-Oss collagen in the buccal gap at immediate implants: a 6-month study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Linder, Elena; Lindhe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    following tooth extraction and immediate implant installation, the edentulous site of the alveolar process undergoes substantial bone modeling and the ridge dimensions are reduced. objective: the objective of the present experiment was to determine whether the process of bone modeling following tooth extraction and immediate implant placement was influenced by the placement of a xenogenic graft in the void that occurred between the implant and the walls of the fresh extraction socket. five beagle dogs about 1 year old were used. The 4th premolar in both quadrants of the mandible ((4) P(4) ) were selected and used as experimental sites. The premolars were hemi-sected and the distal roots removed and, subsequently, implants were inserted in the distal sockets. In one side of the jaw, the marginal buccal-approximal void that consistently occurred between the implant and the socket walls was grafted with Bio-Oss Collagen while no grafting was performed in the contra-lateral sites. After 6 months of healing, biopsies from each experimental site were obtained and prepared for histological analyses. the outline of the marginal hard tissue of the control sites was markedly different from that of the grafted sites. Thus, while the buccal bone crest in the grafted sites was comparatively thick and located at or close to the SLA border, the corresponding crest at the control sites was thinner and located a varying distance below SLA border. it was demonstrated that the placement of Bio-Oss Collagen in the void between the implant and the buccal-approximal bone walls of fresh extraction sockets modified the process of hard tissue healing, provided additional amounts of hard tissue at the entrance of the previous socket and improved the level of marginal bone-to-implant contact.

  4. Nuclear morphometric and morphological analysis of exfoliated buccal and tongue dorsum cells in type-1 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Oz, Zehra Safi; Bektas, Sibel; Battal, Fatih; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ermis, Bahri

    2014-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 that results from immunologically mediated damage to the β-cells in the pancreas. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can be associated with salivary gland dysfunction and alterations in the oral epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative changes in buccal and tongue dorsum epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method in type 1 diabetic patients. We performed light microscopic analysis of the buccal and tongue dorsum smears in thirty type 1 diabetic patients and thirty healthy individuals. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou method for cytological examination and nuclear morphometric analysis. In each case, the mean nuclear area, perimeter, length, breadth, and roundness factor were evaluated in each smear using the image analysis software (Q Win, Leica™). The nuclear area, length, breadth, and perimeters were significantly higher in the diabetic group from tongue dorsum smear than that of the control group (P < 0.05). In the cytological examination, karyorrhexis-karyolysis-karyopyknosis, binucleation, nuclear membrane irregularity, cytoplasmic polymorphism, perinuclear halo were observed in oral smears with type 1 diabetic patients. Binucleation (P = 0.002) and nuclear membrane irregularity (P = 0.024) were significantly more common in buccal smears of diabetic group. Furthermore, the sensitivity of buccal mucosa was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P = 0.006). The light microscopic and nuclear morphometric study indicates that type 1 diabetes can produce morphological and nuclear morphometric changes in the oral mucosa that are noticeable with exfoliative cytology.

  5. Transbuccal delivery of chlorpheniramine maleate from mucoadhesive buccal patches.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, K Chandra; Naidu, K V S; Vishnu, Y Vamshi; Gannu, Ramesh; Kishan, V; Rao, Y Madhusudan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes buccal permeation of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) and its transbuccal delivery using mucoadhesive buccal patches. Permeation of CPM was calculated in vitro using porcine buccal membrane and in vivo in healthy humans. Buccal formulations were developed with hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and evaluated for in vitro release, moisture absorption, mechanical properties, and bioadhesion, and optimized formulation was subjected for bioavailability studies in healthy human volunteers. In vitro flux of CPM was calculated to be 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg.h(-1).cm(-2) and buccal absorption also was demonstrated in vivo in human volunteers. In vitro drug release and moisture absorbed were governed by HEC content and formulations exhibited good tensile and mucoadhesive properties. Bioavailability from optimized buccal patch was 1.46 times higher than the oral dosage form and the results showed statistically significant difference.

  6. Cellular death but not genetic damage in oral mucosa cells after exposure to digital lateral radiography.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Sannomiya, Eduardo K; Pozzi, Renan; Miranda, Sandra R; Angelieri, Fernanda

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from individuals following digital lateral radiography. A total of 30 healthy patients (15 men and 15 women) indicated to the orthodontic therapy were submitted to digital lateral X-ray. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells were collected immediately before the X-ray exposure and after 10 days. The results pointed out no significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells. On the other hand, X-ray was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and karyolysis. In summary, these data indicate that exposure to digital lateral radiography may not be a factor that induced chromosomal damage, but it is able to promote cytotoxicity.

  7. Treatment of a large postextraction buccal wall defect with mineralized allograft, β-TCP, and rhPDGF-BB: a growth factor-mediated bone regenerative approach.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Buccal wall defects following tooth removal are frequent in the anterior portions of the mandible and maxilla. Common reasons for such defects include thin buccal bone, preexisting periodontal disease, bundle bone resorption, difficult orthodontic movement, and traumatic extractions. Regeneration of the postextraction defect with vital, well-vascularized, dense bone is critical to a successful implant-supported restoration. This case report examines the effectiveness of using a composite graft of freeze-dried bone allograft and β-tricalcium phosphate plus recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB to regenerate healthy, dense bone in a large mandibular anterior buccal wall defect. The importance of access to the overlying periosteum as a readily available source of osteogenic cells in growth factor-mediated bone regenerative procedures is emphasized.

  8. [Micronucleus test of human oral buccal epithelium: problems, progress and prospects].

    PubMed

    Kalaev, V N; Artiukhov, V G; Nechaeva, M S

    2014-01-01

    The articles by russian and foreign authors for the period from 2000 to 2012, devoted to the problems of application, analysis and interpretation of the results of micronucleus test in human buccal epithelium has been analyzed in the review. Nuclear abnormality founding in the cells of the oral mucosa has been described. The paper summarizes works devoted to the analysis of the influence of the micronucleus test methods (painting, taking scrapings) to its results. Modern opinions about the factors of different etiology (sex, age, genotype, psycho-physiological characteristics, immune status, diseases of different etiology, man-made pollution, climatic and geographical conditions, ionizing and nonionizing radiation, chemical compounds (drugs, dietary supplements, androgenic steroids, etc.), dental fillings, occupational exposures, alcohol, using tobacco blends) inducing the estimation of nuclear aberration has been summarized as a scheme. The problems and unresolved issues related to the peculiarities of micronucleus test has been noted.

  9. Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae.

    PubMed

    Vago, Bernadette; Hausser, Ingrid; Hennies, Hans Christian; Enk, Alexander; Jappe, Uta

    2007-05-01

    Hyalinosis cutis et mucosae is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which is characterized by deposition of hyaline material around the basement membrane of the skin and mucous membranes. Typical clinical symptoms are hoarseness, infiltration of the mucous membranes and papular verrucous skin changes. Mutations within the extracellular matrix protein gene (ECM-1) are the underlying defect. We report on a 24-year-old man, who had first been seen in our department at the age of seven and had undergone the necessary diagnostic procedures and who revisited 17 years later with hoarseness and extensive verrucous skin changes at elbows and knees which were removed by excision. A new mutation of the ECM1 gene was identified.

  10. Clinical application of micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells: A systematic review and metanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Bonassi, Stefano; Knasmueller, Siegfried; Fenech, Michael; Bruzzone, Marco; Lando, Cecilia; Ceppi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The micronucleus assay in uncultured exfoliated buccal mucosa cells, involving minimally invasive sampling, was successfully applied to evaluate inhalation and local exposure to genotoxic agents, impact of nutrition and lifestyle factors. The potential use of the assay in clinics to monitor the development of local oral lesions and as an early biomarker for tumors and different chronic disorders was also investigated. A systematic review of the literature was carried out focusing on the clinical application of the assay. The literature search updated to January 2015 allowed to retrieve 42 eligible articles. Fifty three percent of investigations are related to oral, head and neck cancer, and premalignant oral diseases. Our analysis evidences a potential usefulness of the MN assay applied in buccal exfoliated cells in the prescreening and in the follow up of precancerous oral lesions. A significant excess of MN, in patients compared with matched controls was observed for subgroups of oral and neck cancer (meta-MR of 2.40, 95% CI: 2.02-2.85) and leukoplakia (meta-MR 1.88, 95% CI: 1.51-2.35). The meta-analysis of studies available on other tumors (meta-MR 2.00; 95% CI:1.66-2.41) indicates that the MN frequency in buccal cells could reflect the chromosomal instability of other organs. Increased MN frequency was also observed in small size studies on patients with chronic diseases, with Alzheimer's disease and with Down syndrome. The application of the cytome approach providing information of genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects is suggestive of the possibility of an improvement in the predictive value of the assay and this deserves further investigations.

  11. Liposomal buccal mucoadhesive film for improved delivery and permeation of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Abd El Azim, Heba; Nafee, Noha; Ramadan, Alyaa; Khalafallah, Nawal

    2015-07-05

    This study aims at improving the buccal delivery of vitamin B6 (VB6) as a model highly water-soluble, low permeable vitamin. Two main strategies were combined; first VB6 was entrapped in liposomes, which were then formulated as mucoadhesive film. Both plain and VB6-loaded liposomes (LPs) containing Lipoid S100 and propylene glycol (∼ 200 nm) were then incorporated into mucoadhesive film composed of SCMC and HPMC. Results showed prolonged release of VB6 (72.65%, T50% diss 105 min) after 6h from LP-film compared to control film containing free VB6 (96.37%, T50% diss 30 min). Mucoadhesion was assessed both ex vivo on chicken pouch and in vivo in human. Mucoadhesive force of 0.2N and residence time of 4.4h were recorded. Ex vivo permeation of VB6, across chicken pouch mucosa indicated increased permeation from LP-systems compared to corresponding controls. Interestingly, incorporation of the vesicles in mucoadhesive film reduced the flux by 36.89% relative to LP-dispersion. Meanwhile, both films provided faster initial permeation than the liquid forms. Correlating the cumulative percent permeated ex vivo with the cumulative percent released in vitro indicated that LPs retarded VB6 release but improved permeation. These promising results represent a step forward in the field of buccal delivery of water-soluble vitamins.

  12. Design and evaluation of buccal films as paediatric dosage form for transmucosal delivery of ondansetron.

    PubMed

    Trastullo, Ramona; Abruzzo, Angela; Saladini, Bruno; Gallucci, Maria Caterina; Cerchiara, Teresa; Luppi, Barbara; Bigucci, Federica

    2016-08-01

    In the process of implementation and innovation of paediatric dosage forms, buccal films for transmucosal administration of drug represent one of the most interesting approach. In fact, films are able to provide an extended duration of activity allowing minimal dosage and frequency and offer an exact and flexible dose, associated with ease of handling. The objective of the present study was to develop polymeric films for the sustained release of ondansetron hydrochloride, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors indicated in paediatrics for the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy and postoperatively. Films were prepared by casting and drying of aqueous solutions containing different weight ratios of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) with chitosan (CH) or sodium hyaluronate (HA) or gelatin (GEL) and characterized for their physico-chemical and functional properties. The presence of HA, GEL and CH did not improve the mucoadhesive properties of HPMC film. The inclusion of GEL and CH in HPMC film increased in vitro drug release with respect to the inclusion of HA, although films containing HA showed the highest water uptake. Moreover in agreement with the release behaviour, the inclusion of CH and GEL provided higher drug permeation through porcine buccal mucosa with respect to HPMC film and ensured linear permeation profiles of drug.

  13. Rheological and functional characterization of new antiinflammatory delivery systems designed for buccal administration.

    PubMed

    Perioli, Luana; Pagano, Cinzia; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Rossi, Carlo; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2008-05-22

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the influence of different formulation parameters on the rheological and functional properties of emulgels (gelified emulsions), intended for the buccal administration of the antiinflammatory drug flurbiprofen. The influence of formulation parameters, such as (a) the amount of gelling polymeric emulsifier (Pemulen 1621 TR-1) used, (b) the oil to water ratio present in the O/W emulgel and finally (c) the pH of the formulation, was studied by a experimental design (DoE) approach. Formulations were analyzed in term of size and morphology of the internal semi-solid oil droplets as well as in term of rheological properties in the presence or in the absence of flurbiprofen by "shear stress vs. shear rate tests" and "frequency sweep tests". Emulgels were also characterized in vitro both by bioadhesion tests and release studies. In particular release studies demonstrated that flurbiprofen is released by the emulgels in a controlled manner, the drug release efficacy within the first 100min was comprised between 50 and 80% of the total amount of the drug. Finally, in vivo tests on healthy volunteers have demonstrated that emulgels were able to remain on buccal mucosa for an average period of 1h, moreover emulgels did not have bad taste and volunteers referred that were agreeable and pleasant.

  14. Sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Dhiwakar, Muthuswamy; Khan, Zubair A

    2016-12-01

    The need for and consequence of sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy is unknown. We sought to determine the indication, frequency, and functional outcome of buccal branch sacrifice. We conducted a prospective study of all cases of parotidectomy at a tertiary referral center. Of 100 consecutive cases of parotidectomy, the buccal branch was sacrificed in 23 cases. This subgroup was more likely to have anterior or deep lesions (p < .001), retrograde facial nerve dissection (p = .037), and immediate postoperative upper and lower facial weakness (p = .051 and .002, respectively). However, if the temporozygomatic and cervicomandibular branches were anatomically preserved, full facial (including buccal) function was restored. Deep or anterior lesions may warrant sacrifice of the buccal branch for adequate access and excision. However, this does not result in long-term impairment of facial function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1821-1825, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of Buccal Cell Samples for Studies of Oral Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guoqin; Phillips, Steve; Gail, Mitchell H; Goedert, James J; Humphrys, Michael; Ravel, Jacques; Ren, Yanfang; Caporaso, Neil E

    2017-02-01

    The human microbiota is postulated to affect cancer risk, but collecting microbiota specimens with prospective follow-up for diseases will take time. Buccal cell samples have been obtained from mouthwash for the study of human genomic DNA in many cohort studies. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of using buccal cell samples to examine associations of human microbiota and disease risk. We obtained buccal cells from mouthwash in 41 healthy participants using a protocol that is widely employed to obtain buccal cells for the study of human DNA. We compared oral microbiota from buccal cells with that from eight other oral sample types collected by following the protocols of the Human Microbiome Project. Microbiota profiles were determined by sequencing 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region. Compared with each of the eight other oral samples, the buccal cell samples had significantly more observed species (P < 0.002) and higher alpha diversity (Shannon index, P < 0.02). The microbial communities were more similar (smaller beta diversity) among buccal cells samples than in the other samples (P < 0.001 for 12 of 16 weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance comparisons). Buccal cell microbial profiles closely resembled saliva but were distinct from dental plaque and tongue dorsum. Stored buccal cell samples in prospective cohort studies are a promising resource to study associations of oral microbiota with disease. The feasibility of using existing buccal cell collections in large prospective cohorts allows investigations of the role of oral microbiota in chronic disease etiology in large population studies possible today. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 249-53. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  17. Lugol's test reexamined again: buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edwin L; Leon, Julie A

    2004-01-01

    Lugol's iodine staining technique was used to examine oral samples from 10 men and 10 women. Examination of saliva samples before and after extraction with water shows that the low levels (49 positive cells and 3,951 negative cells) of glycogen in buccal epithelial cells become even lower after water extraction (0 positive cells and 4,000 negative cells). In addition to the 20 samples used in this paper, 40 oral swabs extracted with water were examined under classroom conditions with much less than 1% of the epithelial cells being positive for glycogen. Furthermore, 119 saliva samples from chewed gauze in sexual assault kits were extracted with water and all of them yielded less than 1% glycogen positive cells. This paper proposes that when more than 1% of the nucleated squamous epithelial cells are glycogen positive with Lugol's test after extraction in water, it is reasonable to eliminate the mouth as a source of these glycogen positive cells.

  18. Functional physico-chemical, ex vivo permeation and cell viability characterization of omeprazole loaded buccal films for paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Boateng, Joshua

    2016-03-16

    Buccal films were prepared from aqueous and ethanolic Metolose gels using the solvent casting approach (40°C). The hydration (PBS and simulated saliva), mucoadhesion, physical stability (20°C, 40°C), in vitro drug (omeprazole) dissolution (PBS and simulated saliva), ex vivo permeation (pig buccal mucosa) in the presence of simulated saliva, ex vivo bioadhesion and cell viability using MTT of films were investigated. Hydration and mucoadhesion results showed that swelling capacity and adhesion was higher in the presence of PBS than simulated saliva (SS) due to differences in ionic strength. Omeprazole was more stable at 20°C than 40°C whilst omeprazole release reached a plateau within 1h and faster in PBS than in SS. Fitting release data to kinetic models showed that Korsmeyer-Peppas equation best fit the dissolution data. Drug release in PBS was best described by zero order via non-Fickian diffusion but followed super case II transport in SS attributed to drug diffusion and polymer erosion. The amount of omeprazole permeating over 2h was 275 ug/cm(2) whilst the formulations and starting materials showed cell viability values greater than 95%, confirming their safety for potential use in paediatric buccal delivery.

  19. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Åsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50 = 12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  20. Towards a noninvasive approach to malaria diagnosis: detection of parasite DNA in body secretions and surface mucosa.

    PubMed

    A-Elgayoum, Salwa M E; El-Rayah, El-Amin; Giha, Hayder A

    2010-01-01

    Invasive procedures for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes bear a relative risk of transmission of serious blood-borne infectious disease. In this study, a noninvasive approach to malaria diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of parasite DNA in saliva, buccal mucosa and urine (alternative samples) was examined. Saliva, buccal mucosa and urine samples were collected simultaneously with blood samples from 93 patients with microscopically confirmed Plasmodium falciparum infection. Species-specific primers detected the parasite DNA only in blood samples. However, when the PCR analysis was repeated using MSP1 and MSP2 primers in a subgroup of 21 complete sets of samples, the parasite DNA was detected in all except 3 samples, which were found to be negative with the MSP2 primers. Parasite density, body temperature or patient age did not influence the PCR results. In conclusion, P. falciparum parasite DNA was detected equally in saliva, buccal mucosa and urine of malaria patients, regardless of their ages, body temperatures or parasite density. Surprisingly, the parasite DNA was not amplified by species-specific primers in the alternative samples whereas it was in the blood samples.

  1. Bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Matthew J W

    2002-09-01

    Bone grafts are used in musculoskeletal surgery to restore structural integrity and enhance osteogenic potential. The demand for bone graft for skeletal reconstruction in bone tumor, revision arthroplasty, and trauma surgery, couple with recent advances in understanding and application of the biology of bone transplantation, has resulted in an exponential increase in the number of bone-grafting procedures performed over the last decade. It is estimated that 1.5 million bone-grafting procedures are currently performed worldwide each year, compared to a fraction of that number 20 years ago. Major developments also have resulted in the harvesting, storage, and use of bone grafts and production of graft derivatives, substitutes, and bone-inducing agents.

  2. Long-term outcomes after vestibuloplasty with a porcine collagen matrix (Mucograft(®) ) versus the free gingival graft: a comparative prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christian M; Moest, Tobias; Lutz, Rainer; Wehrhan, Falk; Neukam, Friedrich W; Schlegel, Karl Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Porcine collagen matrices are proclaimed being a sufficient alternative to autologous free gingival grafts (FGG) in terms of augmenting the keratinized mucosa. The collagen matrix Mucograft(®) (CM) already showed a comparable clinical performance in the early healing phase, similar histological appearance, and even a more natural appearance of augmented regions. Predictability for long-term stability does not yet exist due to missing studies reporting of a follow-up >6 months. The study included 48 patients with atrophic edentulous or partially edentulous lower jaw situations that had undergone an implant treatment. In the context of implant exposure, a vestibuloplasty was either performed with two FGGs from the palate (n = 21 patients) or with the CM (n = 27 patients). Surgery time was recorded from the first incision to the last suture. Follow-up examinations were performed at the following time points: 10, 30, 90, and 180 days and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after surgery. The width of keratinized mucosa was measured at the buccal aspect of each implant, and augmented sites were evaluated in terms of their clinical appearances (texture and color). The groups showed similar healing with increased peri-implant keratinized mucosa after surgery (FGG: 13.06 mm ± 2.26 mm and CM: 12.96 mm ± 2.86 mm). The maximum follow-up was 5 years (5 patients per group). After 180 days, the width of keratinized mucosa had decreased to 67.08 ± 13.85% in the FGG group and 58.88 ± 14.62% in the CM group with no statistically significant difference. The total loss of the width of keratinized mucosa after 5 years was significant between the FGG (40.65%) and the CM group (52.89%). The CM group had significantly shorter operation times than the FGG group. Augmented soft tissues had a comparable clinical appearance to adjacent native gingiva in the CM group. FGGs could still be defined after 5 years. The FGG and the CM are both suitable for the regeneration of the

  3. Concanavalin A and ricinus communis receptor sites in normal human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Dabelsteen, E; Fejerskov, O; Norén, O; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-01-01

    Fluorescein conjugates of concanavalin A (Con-A) and Ricinus communis fraction 120 (RCA120) were shown to bind to the cell surfaces of basal and spinous cell layers in oral buccal mucosa. Palatal epithelium showed distinct binding to basal and spinous cells; cell membranes in the granular layer occasionally bound Con-A and always RCA120. The ultrastructural localization of Con-A binding sites on exfoliated buccal cells was detected by the Con-A peroxidase staining method. The Con-A receptors were seen on the cell surface in association with the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The reaction products appeared as a homogeneous, electron-dense layer containing irregularly distributed globules.

  4. [Wound healing effect of Eludril in a model of human gingival mucosa].

    PubMed

    Boisnic, S; Ben Slama, L; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Watts, M; d'Arros, G

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the potential for wound healing of the buccal mucosa with the use of two mouth rinses; one containing 0.10% chlorhexidine with alcohol, the second containing 0.12% chlorhexidine without alcohol. Using a model of human buccal mucosa kept alive ex vivo, an immunohistochemical assessment of the mitotic potential of epithelial cells and a biochemical evaluation of the capacity of the fibroblasts of the gingival mucosa to synthesize collagen was performed. A mouth rinse containing 0.10% chlorhexidine with alcohol (Eludril) did not alter the potential for epithelial proliferation and for collagen synthesis within the gingival chorion grown in survival conditions. The results revealed a significant difference between the two mouth rinses for each of the parameters studied. The most favourable results were obtained with the mouth rinse containing alcohol. The presence of alcohol in a mouth rinse containing 0.10% chlorhexidine has no deleterious effects on healing capacity. On the contrary, it helps stimulate wound healing. The combination of chlorhexidine plus alcohol is superior for healing, chlorhexidine alone does not show any significant difference compared with the control.

  5. Elevation of S100A4 expression in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: involvement in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Hsu, Hsin-I; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding proteins, is dramatically elevated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. Areca quid chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). OSF has been considered as a pre-cancerous condition of oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the critical role of S100A4 expression in the pathogenesis of OSF both in vitro and in vivo. Thirty OSF tissues from areca quid chewers and ten normal buccal mucosa samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry for S100A4 expression in vivo. Collagen gel contraction capability and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1)/MMP9 in arecoline-stimulated BMFs with S100A4 knockdown was presented in vitro. Initially, S100A4 expression was higher in areca quid chewing-associated OSF specimens than normal buccal mucosa specimens (p = 0.001). Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, led to dose- and time-dependent elevation of S100A4 expression in normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts BMFs (p<0.05). The additions of pharmacological agents rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), and Bay117082 (NF-κB inhibitor) were found to inhibit arecoline-induced S100A4 expression (p<0.05) in BMFs. Down-regulation of S100A4 by lentiviral infection significantly reversed arecoline-induced collagen gel contraction and TIMP1/MMP9 expression. These results suggest that S100A4 expression is significantly up-regulated in OSF specimens. Arecoline-induced S100A4 expression was down-regulated by rapamycin, PD98059, and Bay117082. Targeting S100A4 might be a potential therapeutic target for OSF through TIMP1/MMP9 down-regulation.

  6. Elevation of S100A4 Expression in Buccal Mucosal Fibroblasts by Arecoline: Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Hsu, Hsin-I; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2013-01-01

    Background S100A4, a member of the calcium-binding proteins, is dramatically elevated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. Areca quid chewing is the most important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). OSF has been considered as a pre-cancerous condition of oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the critical role of S100A4 expression in the pathogenesis of OSF both in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Finding Thirty OSF tissues from areca quid chewers and ten normal buccal mucosa samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry for S100A4 expression in vivo. Collagen gel contraction capability and expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP1)/MMP9 in arecoline-stimulated BMFs with S100A4 knockdown was presented in vitro. Initially, S100A4 expression was higher in areca quid chewing-associated OSF specimens than normal buccal mucosa specimens (p = 0.001). Arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, led to dose- and time-dependent elevation of S100A4 expression in normal buccal mucosa fibroblasts BMFs (p<0.05). The additions of pharmacological agents rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor), PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), and Bay117082 (NF-κB inhibitor) were found to inhibit arecoline-induced S100A4 expression (p<0.05) in BMFs. Down-regulation of S100A4 by lentiviral infection significantly reversed arecoline-induced collagen gel contraction and TIMP1/MMP9 expression. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that S100A4 expression is significantly up-regulated in OSF specimens. Arecoline-induced S100A4 expression was down-regulated by rapamycin, PD98059, and Bay117082. Targeting S100A4 might be a potential therapeutic target for OSF through TIMP1/MMP9 down-regulation. PMID:23383075

  7. Analysis of the Genotoxic Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation using Buccal Micronucleus Assay: A Comparative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Sreedhar, Gadiputi; Mukherjee, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Micronucleus (MN) is considered to be a reliable marker for genotoxic damage and it determines the presence and the extent of the chromosomal damage. The MN is formed due to DNA damage or chromosomal disarrangements. The MN has a close association with cancer incidences. In the new era, mobile phones are constantly gaining popularity specifically in the young generation, but this device uses radiofrequency radiation that may have a possible carcinogenic effect. The available reports related to the carcinogenic effect of mobile radiation on oral mucosa are contradictory. Aim To explore the effects of mobile phone radiation on the MN frequency in oral mucosal cells. Materials and Methods The subjects were divided into two major groups: low mobile phone users and high mobile phone users. Subjects who used their mobile phone since less than five years and less than three hours a week comprised of the first group and those who used their mobile since more than five years and more than 10 hours a week comprised of the second group. Net surfing and text messaging was not considered in this study. Exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were collected from both the groups and the cells were stained with DNA-specific stain acridine orange. Thousand exfoliated buccal mucosal cells were screened and the cells which were positive for micronuclei were counted. The micronucleus frequency was represented as mean±SD, and unpaired Student t-test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The number of micronucleated cells/ 1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells was found to be significantly increased in high mobile phone users group than the low mobile phone users group. The use of mobile phone with the associated complaint of warmth around the ear showed a maximum increase in the number of micronucleated cells /1000 exfoliated buccal mucosal cells. Conclusion Mobile phone radiation even in the permissible range when used for longer duration causes significant genotoxicity

  8. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). Results: The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). Interpretation and Conclusion: The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:25374837

  9. Exfoliative cytology of buccal squames: A quantitative cytomorphometric analysis of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sankhla, Bharat; Sharma, Abhishek; Shetty, Raju Singam; Bolla, Sheetal Chowdary; Gantha, Naga Sribala; Reddy, Prasun

    2014-09-01

    Diabetes is a third leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Oral exfoliative cytology may be a more appropriate adjunctive diagnostic tool in conditions like diabetes mellitus, where the invasive techniques lose viability. The purpose of this study is to analyze the cytomorphometric changes in the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, as an adjunct to the diagnosis of diabetes. Smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of 30 diabetes patients (study group) and 30 healthy individuals (control group). All the smears were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain (PAP). In the PAP smears, the nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CA), and cytoplasmic-to-nuclear ratio (CNR) were evaluated for 50 cells in each smear, using the Image Analysis Software (Magnus Pro™) and research microscope (Lawrence and Mayo™). The results showed that the mean NA was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the study group, whereas, the mean CA did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P > 0.001). The mean CNR was significantly lower in the study group (P < 0.001). The results associated with the clinical observations suggest that diabetes can produce morphological and functional alterations in the oral epithelial cells, detectable by microscopic and cytomorphometric analysis using exfoliative cytology, which can be used in the diagnosis of the disease.

  10. Loratadine bioavailability via buccal transferosomal gel: formulation, statistical optimization, in vitro/in vivo characterization, and pharmacokinetics in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Elkomy, Mohammed H; El Menshawe, Shahira F; Abou-Taleb, Heba A; Elkarmalawy, Marwa H

    2017-11-01

    Loratadine (LTD) is an antihistaminic drug that suffers limited solubility, poor oral bioavailability (owing to extensive first-pass metabolism), and highly variable oral absorption. This study was undertaken to develop and statistically optimize transfersomal gel for transbuccal delivery of LTD. Transfersomes bearing LTD were prepared by conventional thin film hydration method and optimized using sequential Quality-by-Design approach that involved Placket-Burman design for screening followed by constrained simplex-centroid design for optimization of a Tween-80/Span-60/Span-80 mixture. The transferosomes were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size, and shape. Optimized transferosomes were incorporated in a mucoadhesive gel. The gel was characterized for rheology, ex vivo permeation across chicken pouch buccal mucosa, in vitro release, and mucoadhesion. Pharmacokinetic behavior of LTD formulations was investigated in healthy volunteers following administration of a single 10-mg dose. Optimal transferosomes characterized by submicron size (380 nm), spherical shape and adequate loading capacity (60%) were obtained by using quasi-equal ratio surfactant mixture. In terms of amount permeated, percentage released, and mucoadhesion time, the transferosomal gel proved superior to control, transferosome-free gel. Bioavailability of the transferosomal gel was comparable to Claritin® oral tablets. However, inter-individual variability in Cmax and AUC was reduced by 76 and 90%, respectively, when the buccal gel was used. Linear Correlation of in vitro release with in vivo buccal absorption fractions was established with excellent correlation coefficient (R(2)>0.97). In summary, a novel buccal delivery system for LTD was developed. However, further clinical investigation is warranted to evaluate its therapeutic effectiveness and utility.

  11. Reconstruction of partial maxillectomy defect with a buccal fat pad flap and application of 4-hexylresorcinol: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common type of malignant neoplasm in the minor salivary gland. The hard palate is a frequently involved site of MEC. The treatment of low-grade MEC on the hard palate is wide local resection with a tumor-free margin. In the present case, the maxillary defect was reconstructed using a buccal fat pad (BFP) flap, followed by application of 4-hexylresorcinol (4HR) ointment for 2 weeks. The grafted BFP successfully covered the tumor resection defect without tension and demonstrated complete re-epithelialization without any complications. PMID:28053908

  12. Single stage: dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using perineal route

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Vikram; Devaraju, Shishir; Vernekar, Ritesh; Hiremath, Murigendra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the outcome of single stage dorsolateral onlay buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures (>4cm long) using a perineal incision. Materials and Methods From August 2010 to August 2013, 20 patients underwent BMG urethroplasty. The cause of stricture was Lichen sclerosis in 12 cases (60%), Instrumentation in 5 cases (25%), and unknown in 3 cases (15%). Strictures were approached through a perineal skin incision and penis was invaginated into it to access the entire urethra. All the grafts were placed dorsolaterally, preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle, central tendon of perineum and one-sided attachement of corpus spongiosum. Procedure was considered to be failure if the patient required instrumentation postoperatively. Results Mean stricture length was 8.5cm (range 4 to 12cm). Mean follow-up was 22.7 months (range 12 to 36 months). Overall success rate was 85%. There were 3 failures (meatal stenosis in 1, proximal stricture in 1 and whole length recurrent stricture in 1). Other complications included wound infection, urethrocutaneous fistula, brownish discharge per urethra and scrotal oedema. Conclusion Dorsolateral buccal mucosal urethroplasty for long anterior urethral strictures using a single perineal incision is simple, safe and easily reproducible by urologists with a good outcome. PMID:27286122

  13. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A.; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision. PMID:26451366

  14. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells from car painters.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Victor Hugo; Gomes de Moura, Carolina Foot; Spadari-Bratfisch, Regina Célia; Araki Ribeiro, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate genomic damage and cellular death in exfoliated oral mucosa cells and peripheral blood from car painters. A total of 24 car painters and 19 healthy controls (non-exposed individuals) were included in this setting. Individuals had epithelial cells from cheek mucosa (left and right side) mechanically exfoliated, placed in fixative and dropped in clean slides which were checked for the specific nuclear phenotypes. A total of 5 μL from peripheral blood was collected for the single cell gel (comet) assay. The results pointed out statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells from car painters. In addition, DNA damage was detected in peripheral blood cells by single cell gel (comet) assay. Nevertheless, exposure to car paints did not cause increases other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karrhyorexis, pyknosis and karyolysis in buccal mucosa cells. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that car painters comprise a high risk group since paints can induce genotoxic and mutagenic effects in peripheral blood and oral mucosa cells, respectively.

  15. Entrainment control in the Aplysia buccal ganglion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John D.; Milton, John G.

    2000-03-01

    Many dynamical systems, such as neural networks, can be pushed into or out of an entrained state by varying a system parameter. However, implementing this control strategy in a real biological system remains a difficult problem since many biological effectors have multiple effects. An example is an inhibitory interneuron that generates a postsynaptic current with a constant component, which alters the firing rate of its target, and a time-varying component, which can have a variety of effects. Here we explore the effects of an inhibitory interneuron on the ability of a regularly spiking Aplysia buccal motoneuron to synchronize to an external periodic input. After measuring the Arnold tongue structure of the motoneuron's response to sinusoidal input, we drive the motoneuron to and from an entrained state (onto and off of a tongue) by using the interneuron as a rate controller. These observations indicate that rate control of synchronization is robust even in the case when effectors have multiple actions. Moreover, these results provide direct evidence that inhibitory interneurons can serve as a sensitive mechanism to control the synchronization of neural populations by producing only slight changes in neural firing rate.

  16. Human buccal plate extraction socket regeneration with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB or enamel matrix derivative.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Marc L; Camelo, Marcelo; Schupbach, Peter; Nevins, Myron; Kim, Soo-Woo; Kim, David M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the osseous healing of buccal plate extraction socket defects. There were four cohorts: group A (mineral collagen bone substitute [MCBS] scaffold alone), group B (MCBS with recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB [rhPDGF-BB; 0.3 mg/mL]), group C (MCBS with enamel matrix derivative [EMD]), and group D (combination of EMD with bone ceramic). The primary outcome of bone quality was evaluated using light microscopy, backscatter scanning electron microscopy, and histomorphometrics. Reentry surgery provided an opportunity for clinical observation of the healed ridge morphology. Sixteen patients with buccal wall extraction socket defects were randomized into four treatment groups of equal size. Grafting was provided at the time of extraction with advancement of the buccal flap for primary closure. A trephine core biopsy of the implant site preparation was performed after 5 months for implant placement. Histologic examination identified new bone healing around the biomaterial scaffolds. Statistically significant differences in new bone formation were not observed among the treatment groups. There was a histomorphometric trend toward more new bone for the rhPDGF-BB-treated group (group B). This group had the most favorable ridge morphology for optimal implant placement.

  17. Use of buccal fat pad to repair post-extraction peri-implant bone defects in the posterior maxilla. A preliminary prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Alonso-González, Rocío; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Camacho, Fabio; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background Extensive literature exists about the use of the BFP in the treatment of oral defects but, to our knowledge, no article refers to the use of the BFP as a substitute of the membrane barriers for treatment of peri-implant bone defects. The aim was to evaluate the use of the buccal fat pad as a coating material for bone grafting in the peri-implant bone defect regeneration of immediate implants placed in the posterior maxilla. Material and Methods A preliminary prospective study of patients involving immediate implants in which the buccal fat pad was used as a coating material to peri-implant bone defects was carried out. The outcome measures assessed were: postoperative pain and swelling, complications related to buccal fat pad surgery, implant survival and success rates and peri-implant marginal bone loss at 12 months of prosthetic loading. Results Twenty-seven patients (17 women and 10 men) with a mean age of 55.3 ± 8.9 years, and a total of 43 implants were included. Two-thirds of the patients reported either no pain or only mild intensity pain and moderate inflammation, two days after surgery. Post-operative period was well tolerated by the patients and no serious complications occurred. None wound dehiscence occurred. Implant survival and success rates were 97.6% and the average marginal bone loss 1 year after loading was 0.58 ± 0.27 mm. Conclusions Within the limits of this preliminary study, the use of the buccal fat pad as a coating material for bone grafting in peri-implant bone defects placed in the upper posterior maxilla was a well-tolerated technique by patients; high implant success rate was achieved with a minimal peri-implant marginal bone loss at 12 months of prosthetic loading. Key words:Buccal fat pad, immediate implant, peri-implant bone defect. PMID:26241450

  18. Spontaneous adenocarcinoma immunoreactive to cyclooxygenase-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 in the buccal salivary gland of a Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii).

    PubMed

    Yamate, Jyoji; Yamamoto, Emi; Nabe, Mikoto; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Fujita, Daisuke; Sasai, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    The ground squirrel is used as an experimental animal because of its unique biological nature. A 3-year-old female Richardson's ground squirrel developed a mass, 1.5 cm in diameter, in the buccal mucosa. The mass consisted of neoplastic epithelial cells showing acinar, ductular, intraductal papillary, solid, and lobular growth patterns; the cells were immunoreactive to cytokeratin, cyclooxygenase-2 (a marker of malignancy) and TGF-beta1. After resection, the tumor recurred with increased area having a solid or lobular pattern with little differentiation. This tumor was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma arising from the buccal gland, the first case reported in the ground squirrel. A prominent desmoplastic reaction was present. The interstitial cells reacted to alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, indicating a myofibroblastic nature, presumably induced by epithelial TGF-beta1.

  19. Dimensions of the healthy gingiva and peri-implant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Parpaiola, Andrea; Cecchinato, Denis; Toia, Marco; Bressan, Eriberto; Speroni, Stefano; Lindhe, Jan

    2015-06-01

    To determine the dimensions of the soft tissue cuff present at various aspects of teeth and to compare these dimensions to those of the mucosa surrounding single implants. Fifty volunteers were recruited that were ≥25 years of age and exhibited no signs of (i) untreated caries; (ii) loss of periodontal tissue support in the incisor, canine, and premolar regions; (iii) systemic or local disease. Furthermore, among the 50 patients recruited (iV), 27 had one single implant in the maxilla with teeth present mesial and/or distal to the implant. Probing pocket depth (PPD) and transmucosal sounding depth (TS) were assessed by five experienced, carefully calibrated examiners and with the use of a periodontal probe at the proximal (mesial, distal) and flat (facial, buccal and palatal/lingual) surfaces of all teeth/implants. The width of the keratinized mucosa (KM) was also determined. It was demonstrated that (i) PPD and TS were greater at proximal than at flat surfaces at both tooth and implant sites. In addition, both PPD and TS were deeper at implant than at tooth sites. The TS values documented that the cuff of healthy soft tissue that surrounded a tooth varied between 2 mm at flat surfaces and 4 mm at proximal surfaces, while at implant sites, the mucosa at proximal as well as flat surfaces was 1-1.5 mm greater. The probing pocket depth (PPD) and the transmucosal sounding depth (TS) values were greater at proximal than at flat, that is, facial/palatal (lingual) surfaces at tooth sites and frequently also at implant sites. Furthermore, the PPD and the TS dimensions were greater at implant than at adjacent tooth sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Do you mind if I vape? Immediate effects of electronic cigarettes on perfusion in buccal mucosal tissue--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reuther, William J; Hale, Beverley; Matharu, Jas; Blythe, John N; Brennan, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    The association between smoking and postoperative complications is compounded in patients who have oral and maxillofacial operations by an additional local effect, and patients often continue to smoke after operation despite advice to stop. Recent studies have suggested that nicotine may reduce inflammation and improve angiogenesis, so topical application may be beneficial for smokers. The electronic cigarette is increasing in popularity and more patients ask whether they can vape after operation. We investigated the effect of electronic cigarettes (of which half contained nicotine and half did not) on blood flow in the buccal mucosa in 10 volunteers immediately after vaping. Smokers were excluded as this was considered an additional variable in a small pilot study and our Trust has a no-smoking policy. After vaping for 5 minutes, capillary blood flow was measured in the buccal mucosa at 5-minute intervals using a laser Doppler probe, and the results were expressed as arbitrary perfusion units. There was a wide variation in results and a small but significant rise (p=0.008) as a result of nicotine vaping, but these fell to the same levels as before within 30 minutes. Electronic cigarettes may have an effect on blood flow to the oral mucosa, although further studies are needed to show whether they improve healing time after operation. Additional work is also needed to compare them with cigarettes.

  1. Karyometry of the colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Alberts, David S; Einspahr, Janine G; Krouse, Robert S; Prasad, Anil; Ranger-Moore, James; Hamilton, Peter; Ismail, Ayaaz; Lance, Peter; Goldschmid, Steven; Hess, Lisa M; Yozwiak, Michael; Bartels, Hubert G; Bartels, Peter H

    2007-12-01

    The study summarizes results of karyometric measurements in epithelial cells of the colorectal mucosa to document evidence of a field effect of preneoplastic development among patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma or adenoma. Karyometric analyses were done on high-resolution images of histologic sections from 48 patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas and 44 patients with adenomas and on images from matching normal-appearing mucosa directly adjacent to such lesions, at a 1-cm and 10-cm distance from the lesions or from the rectal mucosa of adenoma patients, as well as from 24 healthy normal controls with no family history of colonic disease. The nuclei recorded in the histologically normal-appearing mucosa of patients with either colorectal adenoma or adenocarcinoma exhibited differences in karyometric features in comparison with nuclei recorded in rectal mucosa from patients who were free of a colonic lesion. These differences were expressed to the same extent in tissue adjacent to the lesions and in normal-appearing tissue as distant as the rectum. The nuclear chromatin pattern may serve as an integrating biomarker for a preneoplastic development. The field effect might provide an end point in chemopreventive intervention trials.

  2. Bone healing dynamics at buccal peri-implant sites.

    PubMed

    Qahash, Mohammed; Susin, Cristiano; Polimeni, Giuseppe; Hall, Jan; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2008-02-01

    It is common belief that immediate implant placement into extraction sites may act to preserve the alveolar process. The objective of this study was to evaluate healing dynamics at buccal peri-implant sites in relation to the dimensions of the alveolar ridge. Bilateral, critical-size, supraalveolar, peri-implant defects were created in 12 male Hound Labrador mongrel dogs following surgical horizontal cut-down of the alveolar ridge. Each jaw quadrant received three 10-mm titanium implants placed 5 mm into extraction sites of the third and fourth premolar teeth leaving 5 mm in a supraalveolar position. The mucoperiosteal flaps were advanced, adapted, and sutured for primary intention healing. Bone fluorescent markers were administered at weeks 3 and 4 postsurgery, and pre-euthanasia. Incandescent, polarized, and fluorescent light microscopies were used to assess the width of the buccal wall of the alveolar ridge and local bone remodeling over the 8-week healing interval. There was a significant association between the width of the buccal alveolar ridge and extent of bone resorption evaluated by incandescent and fluorescent light microscopy. A non-linear association was observed between the buccal ridge width and resorption of the alveolar ridge. A 2-mm threshold was established to account for this non-linearity. The strength of this association was two times greater in specimens with a buccal ridge width <2 mm compared with a wider ridge (beta=1.62 vs. 0.80) observed by fluorescent light microscopy. Accordingly, mean buccal resorption was significantly greater when the ridge width was <2 mm. Fluorescent light microscopy consistently showed greater buccal resorption compared with incandescent light microscopy (P<0.05). Agreement between the examination techniques was low (concordance correlation coefficient=0.49), especially for higher values of buccal resorption. When implants are placed into extraction sites, proximity to the buccal alveolar crest appears a major

  3. The upregulation of heat shock protein 47 expression in human buccal fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-04-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. HSP47 is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. The mRNA levels of HSP47 from fibroblasts cultured from 20 OSF and 10 normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effect of arecoline, the major areca nut alkaloid, was added to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Furthermore, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, p38 inhibitor SB203580, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, and glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine were added to find the possible mechanisms. OSF demonstrated significantly higher HSP47 mRNA expression than BMFs (P < 0.001). Arecoline was also found to elevate HSP47 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The amount of HSP47 was about 3.7-fold at a concentration level of 80 microg/ml arecoline when compared with control (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-treatment with pharmacologic agents markedly inhibited the arecoline-induced HSP47 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Taken together, HSP47 is significantly upregulated in OSF from areca quid chewers and HSP47 expression induced by arecoline in fibroblasts may be mediated by MEK, PI3K, and COX-2 signal transduction pathways.

  4. Buccal delivery of acyclovir from films based on chitosan and polyacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Silvia; Sandri, Giuseppina; Ferrari, Franca; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Caramella, Carla

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the possibility of achieving buccal delivery of a problematic drug, acyclovir, from films based on chitosan hydrochloride (HCS) and polyacrylic acid sodium salt (PAA). At first, the ionic interaction between HCS and PAA in distilled water was investigated by means of rheological and turbidimetric analysis. Films containing 1 mg/cm2 of acyclovir and based on pure HCS and on HCS and PAA mixed in different ratios were prepared by casting technique. The films were subjected to hydration, rheological, mucoadhesion, drug release, "wash away," and permeation/penetration measurements. A commercial cream containing acyclovir and an aqueousacyclovir suspension were used as references. The addition of PAA to HCS produced a decrease in film hydration. Films based on HCS/PAA weight ratio close to interaction productstoichiometry were characterized by higher rigidity and better "wash away" properties with respect to the other films and the reference formulation. The worst mucoadhesive properties were shown by films based on mixing ratios close to interaction product stoichiometry. The addition of PAA to HCS produced a lowering in drug release profile. All the films examined promoted the permeation of acyclovir across porcine cheek epithelium when compared with acyclovir suspension and the commercial cream. The penetration enhancement properties were affected by the mixing ratio of the two polymers. The film based on 1/1.3 HCS/PAA weight ratio, besides possessing the best resilience properties on the mucosa, was also characterized by the highest permeation profile and, therefore, represents a promising formulation for buccal delivery of acyclovir.

  5. Development and clinical evaluation of a new sensor design for buccal pulse oximetry in horses.

    PubMed

    Reiners, J K; Rossdeutscher, W; Hopster, K; Kästner, S B R

    2017-08-18

    The use of pulse oximetry in horses is limited due to inadequate readings with conventional transmission sensor probes. The objectives of this study were 1) to develop an improved sensor design for horses to be used at an appropriate anatomical site and 2) to evaluate this design in an experimental study. In vivo experiment. A new sensor design for reflectance pulse oximetry at the buccal mucosa was developed. A conventional Nonin 2000SL sensor for transmission pulse oximetry was included into this design. Three different prototypes (N1, N2a, N2b) were constructed and used with the Nonin 2500A Vet pulse oximetry monitor. Thirteen anaesthetised warmblood horses were included into a desaturation protocol (100 - 70% SaO2 ). SpO2 and pulse frequency values were recorded, using SaO2 calculated from blood gas analysis and invasive pulse frequency measurements as reference methods. Bias and precision were evaluated by calculations of the root mean square deviation (Arms ). The agreement of the methods was tested with Bland-Altman analysis. The quality of the pulse frequency readings determined the quality of the SpO2 -readings. Good pulse signal strength resulted in a SpO2 -accuracy comparable to that of the original sensor (Nonin 2000SL: Arms = 3%; N1: Arms = 3.60%; N2b: Arms = 3.46%). Especially at heart rates ≤30 bpm, pulse rate readings that were about twice as high as the reference value occurred. Their exclusion from the dataset resulted in a pulse rate accuracy similar to that of the original sensor. Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement typical of pulse oximeters. The pulse frequency accuracy requires further improvement. The usability in clinical cases needs to be tested. The new sensor design has been shown to be suitable for buccal pulse oximetry in horses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of equivalent doses of fentanyl buccal tablets and arteriovenous differences in fentanyl pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2006-01-01

    The fentanyl buccal tablet (FBT) is designed to enhance the rate and extent of fentanyl absorption through the buccal mucosa. To evaluate the bioequivalence of microg-equivalent doses of FBT administered as single and multiple tablets and assess differences in the arterial and venous pharmacokinetics of FBT in healthy volunteers. Twenty-seven healthy adults, aged 19-45 years, participated in the randomised, open-label, three-period, crossover study. In the first two periods, FBT was administered as four 100 microg tablets simultaneously or one FBT 400 microg to assess bioequivalence. Venous blood samples were obtained over a 72-hour period to measure plasma fentanyl concentrations. In the third period, arterial and venous blood samples were obtained simultaneously from before administration of one FBT 400 microg through 4 hours after administration to evaluate the impact of arterial versus venous sampling on the pharmacokinetic profile. As subjects were not opioid tolerant, naltrexone was administered to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl. Adverse events were recorded throughout. Maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(infinity)) on average were approximately 12% and 13% higher, respectively, for FBT administered as four 100 microg tablets simultaneously compared with one FBT 400 microg. Maximum plasma concentrations in the arterial circulation were approximately 60% higher and occurred 15 minutes earlier than those measured from the venous circulation. No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Despite small differences in C(max) and AUC(infinity) (on average 12% and 13%, respectively), FBT administered as four 100 microg tablets simultaneously compared with one 400 microg tablet did not meet the criteria for bioequivalence. An increased surface area exposure with four tablets compared with one tablet may account for the slightly higher maximum

  7. Novel strategies for the buccal delivery of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Morales, Javier O; McConville, Jason T

    2014-05-01

    For years now, the delivery of small molecules through the buccal mucosal route has been described in the literature, but it has only been over the past decade that investigations into macromolecule delivery via the buccal route have sharply increased. The administration of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides, antibodies, or nucleic acids by buccal administration would be greatly enhanced due to the avoidance of the gastrointestinal conditions, rapid uptake into systemic circulation, as well as the potential for controlled drug delivery. Since macromolecules are faced with a number of specific challenges related to permeation through the epithelium, several strategies have been employed historically to improve their buccal absorption and subsequent bioavailability. Several conventional strategies to improve macromolecule penetration include the use of chemical permeation enhancers, enzyme inhibitors and the use of mucoadhesive materials acting as carriers. More recent approaches include the incorporation of the macromolecule as part of nanostructured delivery systems to further enhance targeting and delivery. This review focuses on the different permeation enhancing strategies as well as formulation design that are tailored to meet the challenges of active macromolecule delivery using the buccal mucosal route of administration.

  8. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW <5 kDa were obtained. All ultrafiltrates had antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris. NCM ultrafiltrates revealed the highest antibacterial activity in respect to negative control: for the fraction with MW >30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  9. Vestibuloplasty after secondary alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Iino, M; Fukuda, M; Murakami, K; Horiuchi, T; Niitsu, K; Seto, K

    2001-11-01

    This paper introduces a surgical technique for vestibuloplasty after secondary alveolar bone grafting of patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). This paper also reports on the patients who underwent this modified vestibuloplasty. The vestibuloplasty technique described in this paper consists of: (1) reduction of submucosal scar tissue of the upper lip, (2) V-Y plasty of the superficial mucosa, (3) placement of horizontal mattress sutures between nostril floor skin and freed marginal mucosa, (4) application of artificial skin to cover the exposed periosteal surface, and (5) use of a removable retention splint. This surgical procedure appears to be very useful for patients with CLP. The technique enables the surgeon to obtain an adequate sulcus depth around the graft area. In addition, this technique releases the mucosal scar contraction and improves the shape and mobility of the upper lip.

  10. Mapping, profiling and clustering of pressure pain threshold (PPT) in edentulous oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Tanaka, M; Ogimoto, T; Okushi, N; Koyano, K; Takeuchi, K

    2004-03-01

    Edentulous oral mucosa involves different tissue types, various innervation and wound healing process. We hypothesized that pressure pain threshold (PPT) of edentulous oral mucosa varies significantly among different regions. The objective of this study is to examine regional differences and correlations of PPT in edentulous oral mucosa. Pain threshold (PPT) was measured at 112 sites in 15 edentulous patients using an electric-controlled pressure algometer. PPT mapping was created by the level of PPT, and PPT clustering was undertaken based on the inter-site correlation of PPT. PPT increased from the anterior to posterior alveolus in both maxilla and mandible, but decreased from the anterior palate to the posterior palate. PPT decreased from the ridge crest to the buccal vestibule. The inter-site difference was four fold within the maxilla and 2.4 fold within the mandible. Principal component analysis applied on PPT inter-site correlation matrix revealed that the maxilla and mandible could be differentiated statistically. The maxilla and mandible were divided into three and four clusters, respectively. These results demonstrate that different areas of edentulous oral mucosa have different PPT and that the PPT varies proportionally in selected areas, providing useful diagnostic and therapeutic information in removable prosthodontics and a new opportunity for understanding pain underneath the denture.

  11. Buccal bioadhesive drug delivery--a promising option for orally less efficient drugs.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Yajaman; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo; Bandyopadhyay, A K

    2006-08-10

    Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of these drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Parenteral route of administration is the only established route that overcomes all these drawbacks associated with these orally less/inefficient drugs. But, these formulations are costly, have least patient compliance, require repeated administration, in addition to the other hazardous effects associated with this route. Over the last few decades' pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore transdermal and transmucosal routes as an alternative to injections. Among the various transmucosal sites available, mucosa of the buccal cavity was found to be the most convenient and easily accessible site for the delivery of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic delivery as retentive dosage forms, because it has expanse of smooth muscle which is relatively immobile, abundant vascularization, rapid recovery time after exposure to stress and the near absence of langerhans cells. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. Further, these dosage forms are self-administrable, cheap and have superior patient compliance. Developing a dosage form with the optimum pharmacokinetics is a promising area for continued research as it is enormously important and intellectually challenging. With the right dosage form design, local environment of the mucosa can be controlled and manipulated in order to

  12. Use of cultured mucosal grafts to cover defects caused by vestibuloplasty: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Raghoebar, G M; Tomson, A M; Scholma, J; Blaauw, E H; Witjes, M J; Vissink, A

    1995-08-01

    In oral and maxillofacial surgery palatal mucosal grafts are routinely used to cover mucosal defects caused by vestibuloplasty. However, the quantity of palatal mucosa is a limiting factor in more extensive operations. This study investigated whether autologous cultured sheets of mucosa can serve as a dressing for these wounds. Punch biopsies (diameter, 4 mm) were taken from the hard palate of eight patients (five men, three women; mean age 43 years). Epithelial cells were enzymatically dissociated from these tissue specimens and grown in vitro in the presence of a fibroblast feeder layer. Within 3 weeks, a transplantable epithelial sheet of about 20 cm2 was obtained. The sheet was detached from the culture flask by enzyme treatment and fixed to a carrier of Vaseline (Cheeseborough Ponds Inc, Greenwich, CT) gauze. Using a split-mouth technique, the sheet was placed on half of a mucosal defect created by vestibuloplasty, while the other half of the defect was covered by a conventional split-thickness palatal graft. Both the cultured and conventional graft were held in place by the patient's relined denture fixed with perimandibular sutures. One week postsurgery, the denture and Vaseline gauze were removed. Three months after vestibuloplasty, biopsy specimens of each grafted site were taken and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy (LM, TEM). Three months postsurgery, the grafted mucosa of both sites bore close resemblance to palatal mucosa. Both the cultured and split-thickness grafts were vascularized, did not evoke a homograft reaction, and showed a smooth graft/lip mucosal junction and minimal wound contraction. LM and TEM revealed that both types of grafts formed a fully differentiated keratinizing mucosa with a well-developed basement membrane and rete ridges, comparable with the histology and ultrastructure of palatal mucosa in situ. It was concluded from this study that cultured mucosa can serve as a proper dressing for mucosal defects

  13. Closure of a Tracheocutaneous Fistula With a Local Turnover Flap Combined With Pregrafted Palatal Mucosa: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: A method of closing a large tracheocutaneous fistula by a combination of a palatal mucosal graft with a turnover adiposal flap is presented. Methods: Mucosa of the same size as the tracheal defect was harvested from the hard palate and grafted just caudal to the fistula. After the mucosal graft had taken, a local flap containing the mucosal graft was turned over the tracheal defect facing the mucosa inward of the tracheal lumen. The defect caused by harvesting the flap was closed horizontally. Results: The fistula was closed successfully, and 1 year after the operation, the patient had no airway compromise and the operative scar was inconspicuous. Conclusions: Although the described method is a 2-stage procedure, it can be used to simply and reliably reconstruct the mucosal layer of the tracheal lumen and overlying skin. PMID:27980701

  14. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  15. Treatment of motion sickness in parabolic flight with buccal scopolamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norfleet, William T.; Degioanni, Joseph J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Kutyna, Frank A.; Homick, Jerry L.; Calkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of acute motion sickness induced by parabolic flight with a preparation of scopolamine placed in the buccal pouch was investigated. Twenty-one subjects flew aboard a KC-135 aircraft operated by NASA which performed parabolic maneuvers resulting in periods of 0-g, 1-g, and 1.8-g. Each subject flew once with a tablet containing scopolamine and once with a placebo in a random order, crossover design. Signs and symptoms of motion sickness were systematically recorded during each parabola by an investigator who was blind to the content of the tablet. Compared with flights using placebo, flights with buccal scopolamine resulted in significantly lower scores for nausea (31-35 percent reduction) and vomiting (50 percent reduction in number of parabolas with vomiting). Side effects of the drug during flight were negligible. It is concluded that buccal scopolamine is more effective than a placebo in treating ongoing motion sickness.

  16. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  17. Accidental debondings: Buccal vs fully individualized lingual multibracket appliances.

    PubMed

    Ziebura, Thomas; Hohoff, Ariane; Flieger, Stefanie; Stamm, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the frequency and localizations of bond failures (BFs) in patients treated with either lingual (TOP-Service für Lingualtechnik GmbH, a 3M Company, Bad Essen, Germany) or buccal (Mini Diamond brackets/Accent molar tubes; Ormco, Orange, Calif) full multibracket appliances in both dental arches. Data were acquired by an independent investigator from the patient records of 3 practitioners. To establish a standardized observation period, the first year of treatment was analyzed for each patient. Statistical analysis comprised the Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. The significance level was set at P <0.05. The mean number of BFs per patient in the first year of treatment did not differ significantly between the lingual group (n = 59; mean age, 31.1 years; mean BFs per patient, 2.63; SD, 2.77; minimum, 0; maximum, 13) and the buccal group (n = 44; mean age, 15.14 years; mean BFs per patient, 2.61; SD, 3.41; minimum, 0; maximum, 14) (P = 0.428) or with respect to sex (lingual group, P = 0.251; buccal group, P = 0.414) or practitioner (lingual group, P = 0.755; buccal group, P = 0.060), but molar attachments were more prone to BFs than were premolar brackets (lingual group, P = 0.015; buccal group, P = 0.049), and premolar brackets were more prone to BF than anterior brackets (lingual group, P = 0.005; buccal group, P = 0.004). With both appliances, a mean of 2.62 BFs per patient in the first year of treatment can be expected; this benchmark provides a reference for patient briefing, which is very important considering the large interindividual variances and budgeting considerations. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Morgado de Abreu, M A M; Roselino, A M; Enokihara, M; Nonogaki, S; Prestes-Carneiro, L E; Weckx, L L M; Alchorne, M M A

    2014-01-01

    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M. leprae in the oral mucosa of 50 untreated leprosy patients, including 21 paucibacillary (PB) and 29 multibacillary (MB) patients, using immunohistochemistry (IHC), with antibodies against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and phenolic glycolipid antigen-1 (PGL-1), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with MntH-specific primers for M. leprae, and to compare the results. The material was represented by 163 paraffin blocks containing biopsy samples obtained from clinically normal sites (including the tongue, buccal mucosa and soft palate) and visible lesions anywhere in the oral mucosa. All patients and 158 available samples were included for IHC study. Among the 161 available samples for PCR, 110 had viable DNA. There was viable DNA in at least one area of the oral mucosa for 47 patients. M. leprae was detected in 70% and 78% of patients using IHC and PCR, respectively, and in 94% of the patients by at least one of the two diagnostic methods. There were no differences in detection of M. leprae between MB and PB patients. Similar results were obtained using anti-BCG and anti-PGL-1 antibodies, and immunoreactivity occurred predominantly on free-living bacteria on the epithelial surface, with a predilection for the tongue. Conversely, there was no area of predilection according to the PCR results. M. leprae is present in the oral mucosa at a high frequency, implicating this site as a potential means of leprosy transmission.

  19. Preparation and characterization of laminated thiolated chitosan-based freeze-dried wafers for potential buccal delivery of macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua S; Ayensu, Isaac

    2014-05-01

    This study involves the development and functional characterization of a thiolated chitosan (CS) system for potential buccal delivery of proteins. Thiolated CS was synthesized by conjugating pure CS with thioglycolic acid and dialyzed to remove excess acid. Amount of thiol groups immobilized on CS was determined using L-cysteine calibration curve. The weight average molecular weights of CS and thiolated CS were monitored using gel permeation chromatography. Laminated wafers were obtained by pouring gels (containing bovine serum albumin; BSA, different amounts of glutathione as enzyme inhibitor and mucin to mimic salivary conditions) of the thiolated CS into moulds previously lined with impervious ethylcellulose (EC) films and freeze-dried. The resulting formulations were analyzed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formulations were further characterized for functional buccal mucosa performance using hydration, swelling, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug dissolution studies. FTIR showed successful thiolation of CS's amine functionality, CD confirmed that BSA conformation remained unchanged throughout the gel formulation and freeze-drying process, whilst SEM showed a porous microstructure of the wafers and a uniform EC film laminate with no visible pores or cracks. The functional characterization studies showed that glutathione had significant effects on hydration, mucoadhesion and subsequently drug dissolution and release characteristics, whilst mucin affected the mucoadhesive properties of the wafers. It was concluded that BSA-loaded wafers containing 10% w/w glutathione as enzyme inhibitor was the formulation choice for potential buccal delivery and should be selected for further investigations.

  20. Genotoxic risk assessment in professionals working hairdressers area using buccal micronucleus assay, in Aydın City, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aslantürk, Özlem Sultan; Aşkin Çelik, Tülay

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxic risk of professional hairdressers in Aydın City, Turkey, through investigating the micronucleus frequencies in buccal mucosa epithelial cells. All the hairdresser working hairdresser area were included in the genotoxic risk group (GRG = 20) in Aydın City, Turkey. The control group (CG = 20) comprised healthy individuals matching the gender and age of the GRG. Buccal mucosal scraping from all the 40 subjects of GRG (10 women and 10 men) and CG (10 women and 10 men) was stained with Giemsa stain and observed under light microscope (×40) for the presence of micronuclei (M 10 N) and karyolysis, pyknosis, condensed chromatin, karyorrhexis, nuclear bud, and binucleates in the exfoliated epithelial cells. There are significance between the incidence of MN in GRG and CG (P = <0.005) using one-way ANOVA, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z test, and Spearman Rank Correlation Tests.

  1. Nine-year experience with extended use of the commissure-based buccal musculomucosal flap.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin A; Kovács, Adorján F

    2003-03-01

    This study reports on the extended use of the commissure-based buccal musculomucosal (CBMM) flap. Large lip defects and medium-size intraoral defects have the general problem of being too large for primary closure to avoid a major functional and aesthetic impairment. Elaborate free flaps, such as axial flaps, although excellent in large defects, may not provide mucosa-equivalent sensitivity, motility, volume, and texture to replace lost tissue with a similar kind of tissue. A total of 60 flap procedures were performed with bilateral and unilateral flaps up to 7.5 x 4 cm in size. The partial and total upper and lower vermilion, gingivobuccal sulcus, floor of the mouth, lateral tongue margin, oropharynx, and hard and soft palates were reconstructed. Partial necrosis was seen in four flaps; all patients recovered with good oral function in speech and swallowing, good aesthetics, and prosthetic rehabilitation if necessary. The donor site could be closed primarily. In flaps with dorsal advancement, the mucosal excess above and below was closed, creating two small dog-ears. Facial expression and mouth opening returned to normal after less than 2 months. The parotid duct had to be marsupialized in large flap preparations, but this did never provoke stasis or infection. The two-point sensitivity of the flaps was, on average, equal to that of the nonoperated mucosa in intraindividual correlation, and the flaps lost, on average, 15 percent of their original size. In the authors' estimation, the results indicate a reliable and technically easy option for intraoral, medium-size defect reconstruction that yields sensitivity and facilitates the rehabilitation of oral function in speaking and ingestion.

  2. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay of populations under chronic heavy metal and other metal exposure along the Santiago River, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Meda, B C; Zúñiga-González, G M; Sánchez-Orozco, L V; Zamora-Perez, A L; Rojas-Ramírez, J P; Rocha-Muñoz, A D; Sobrevilla-Navarro, A A; Arellano-Avelar, M A; Guerrero-de León, A A; Armendáriz-Borunda, J S; Sánchez-Parada, M G

    2017-09-26

    The Santiago River is one of the most contaminated rivers in Mexico, with heavy metal levels above the allowed limits. Scientific evidence indicates that chronic heavy metal exposure leads to cytogenotoxic effects. The aims of this study were to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of such exposure in buccal mucosa cells by micronucleus (MN) assay and to identify other nuclear abnormalities (NAs), such as nuclear buds (NBUDs), binucleated cells (BNs), pyknotic nuclei (PNs), karyorrhexis (KX), karyolysis (KL), and abnormally condensed chromatin (CC). Assays were performed on samples from four populations located alongside the Santiago River that are under chronic exposure to heavy metals and other metals (HMMs), and the results were compared with those of a population without exposure to HMMs. The exposed group showed increased frequencies of NAs (KX, CC, and KL), which are associated with cytotoxic damage, and NBUDs, which are associated with genotoxic damage. Increased frequencies of NBUDs and CC were observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán, Ocotlán, and Paso de Guadalupe, and an increase in KX frequency was observed in subjects from El Salto/Juanacatlán. Significant differences in KL frequency were observed in subjects from La Barca, El Salto/Juanacatlán, Paso de Guadalupe, and Ocotlán. Predictors for increased development of MNs and NBUDs were high concentrations of Al, Zn, and Cu. In conclusion, chronic exposure to HMMs, especially Al, Cu, and Zn, in the studied population could be related to increased frequencies of NAs, such as NBUDs, KX, CC, and KL, in the buccal mucosa cells.

  3. In vivo bioavailability studies of sumatriptan succinate buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Shivanand, K; Raju, SA; Nizamuddin, S; Jayakar, B

    2011-01-01

    Back ground and the purpose of study Sumatriptan succinate is a Serotonin 5- HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability of about 15%. The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate to improve its bioavailability. Methods Mucoadhesive polymers carbopol 934 (Carbopol), HPMC K4M, HPMC K15M along with ethyl cellulose as an impermeable backing layer were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. In vivo bioavailability studies was also conducted in rabbits for optimized formulation using oral solution of sumatriptan succinate as standard. Results Bilayered buccal tablets (BBT) containing the mixture of Carbopol and HPMC K4M in the ratio 1:1 (T1) had the maximum percentage of in vitro drug release within 6 hrs. The optimized formulation (T1) followed non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets (T1) was found to be 140.78%. Conclusions Bilayered buccal tablets of sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared with improved bioavailability. PMID:22615661

  4. Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Melissa J; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-07-01

    To summarize clinical outcomes and adverse effects of medical abortion regimens consisting of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol in pregnancies through 70 days of gestation. We used PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists from published reports to identify relevant studies published between November 2005 and January 2015 using the search terms "mifepristone and medical abortion" and "buccal and misoprostol." Studies were included if they presented clinical outcomes of medical abortion using mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 70 days of gestation. Studies with duplicate data were excluded. We included 20 studies with a total of 33,846 women through 70 days of gestation. We abstracted efficacy and ongoing pregnancy rates as an overall rate and by gestational age in days in reference to completed weeks (eg, 49 days or less, 50-56 days, 57-63 days, 64-70 days) and adverse effects when reported. The overall efficacy of mifepristone followed by buccal misoprostol is 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96.5-96.8%) and the continuing pregnancy rate is 0.8% (95% CI 0.7-0.9%) in approximately 33,000 pregnancies through 63 days of gestation. Only 332 women with pregnancies between 64 and 70 days of gestation are reported in the literature with an overall efficacy of 93.1% (95% CI 89.6-95.5%) and a continuing pregnancy rate of 2.9% (95% CI 1.4-5.7%). Currently available data suggest that regimens with a 24-hour time interval between mifepristone and buccal misoprostol administration are slightly less effective than those with a 24- to 48-hour interval. Rates of surgical evacuation for reasons other than ongoing pregnancy range from 1.8% to 4.2%. Severe adverse events like blood transfusion (0.03-0.6%) and hospitalization (0.04-0.9%) are uncommon. Outpatient medical abortion regimens with mifepristone followed in 24-48 hours by buccal misoprostol are highly effective for pregnancy termination through 63 days of gestation. More data are needed to

  5. Buccal absorption of diazepam is improved when administered in bioadhesive tablets-An in vivo study in conscious Göttingen mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Jacobsen, Jette; Müllertz, Anette; Jørgensen, Erling B; Holm, René

    2016-12-30

    Buccal delivery may be clinically beneficial for compounds with a high gastrointestinal and hepatic first pass metabolism or in situations where a fast systemic absorption is desired. The delivery of a crystalline low soluble compounds, e.g. diazepam, may be limited due to the low volume of saliva available to facilitate solvation in order to drive the permeation of drug through the buccal mucosa. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential benefits of administering diazepam either as an amorphous or as a crystalline form in mucoadhesive tablets to conscious Göttingen mini-pigs. Presentation of the compound in the amorphous form lead to a very fast absorption, however, the obtained bioavailability was at the same level observed following buccal administration of a commercially immediate release tablet. Addition of chitosan, as a mucoadhesive excipient, resulted in a higher absolute bioavailability compared to tablets without chitosan. The absorption rate for the chitosan-based tablets was significant slower, probably due to the slower diffusion of the compound out of the tablet. In vitro release data was able to predict the variations in tmax, but otherwise no correlation could be found between in vitro and in vivo data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery: effect of chemical enhancers and electrical assistance on in vitro sCT buccal permeation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Ho; Chun, Kyeung-Hwa; Jeon, Sang-Ok; Kang, Jeong-Won; Lee, Sangkil

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the combined effect of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance on transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery, using fresh swine buccal tissue. We placed 200 IU (40 μg/mL) of each sCT formulation--containing various concentrations of ethanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and sodium deoxyglycocholate (SDGC)--onto the donor part of a Franz diffusion cell. Then, 0.5 mA/cm(2) of fixed anodal current was applied alone or combined with chemical enhancers. The amount of permeated sCT was analyzed using an ELISA kit, and biophysical changes of the buccal mucosa were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy, and hematoxylin-eosin staining methods were used to evaluate histological alteration of the buccal tissues. The flux (J(s)) of sCT increased with the addition of absorption enhancer groups, but it was significantly enhanced by the application of anodal iontophoresis (ITP). FT-IR study revealed that all groups caused an increase in lipid fluidity but only the groups containing SDGC showed statistically significant difference. Although the histological data of SDGC groups showed a possibility for tissue damage, the present enhancing methods appear to be safe. In conclusion, the combination of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transbuccal sCT delivery.

  7. In vitro and in silico investigation of electrospun terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded buccal nanofibrous sheets.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter; Daróczi, Tünde Beáta; Tóth, Gergő; Zelkó, Romána

    2016-11-30

    Terbinafine hydrochloride-loaded nanofibrous buccal films were formulated with the aim to improve the solubility and dissolution behavior; thus, the local effectiveness of the antifungal agent. Poly(vinyl alcohol) and chitosan polymer composites were selected as delivery base in order to enhance the mucoadhesion of the fibrous films. The dissolution of terbinafine hydrochloride was carried out applying a stainless steel disc assembly and the terbinafine concentration was determined by HPLC-MS in selective ion monitoring mode. The prediction of the absorption behavior of the prepared fibrous samples in the human oral cavity was modeled using GastroPlus™ software. The result indicates that the fibrous films enabled fast and complete dissolution of the active agent. The drug absorption from the oral cavity could be minimized by the employment of the proper oral transit model. Because of the limited absorption of terbinafine hydrochloride from the oral mucosa the formulation can be beneficial in local administration in the case of hold and expectorate administration mode.

  8. Cytogenetic damage in the buccal epithelium of Brazilian aviators occupationally exposed to agrochemicals.

    PubMed

    Minasi, L B; Costa, E O A; Silva, D M; Melo, C O A; de Almeida, J G; Vieira, T C; Silva Júnior, R L; Ribeiro, C L; da Silva, C C; da Cruz, A D

    2011-12-12

    The frequency of micronuclei in both buccal cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes is extensively used as a biomarker of chromosomal damage and genome stability in human populations. We examined whether prolonged exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides leads to an increase in cytogenetic damage. The exposed group comprised 50 agricultural aviators, mainly from Central and Southeast regions of Brazil, who had inhaled agrochemicals for more than 10 years without personal protection equipment; the control group consisted of 17 men from the same regions, without indication of exposure to pesticides, There were three times higher frequencies of micronuclei (P < 0.05) and 2.5 times higher frequencies of binucleated cells in the aviators when compared to controls. However, cytotoxic alterations such as broken eggs and karyorrhexis did not present statistically significant differences between the exposed and control groups. Therefore, diverse agrochemicals used to combat pests in agriculture possess genotoxic effects in the oral mucosa of the agricultural pilots, as showed in this study.

  9. Tensile bond strength of a polymeric intra-buccal bioadhesive: the mucin role.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzi, V; Lara, E H; Dal Ciampo, J O; Panzeri, H

    2001-01-01

    The intra-bucal polymeric bioadhesive systems that can stay adhered to the oral soft tissues for drug programmed release, with the preventive and/or therapeutic purpose have been employed for large clinical situations. A system based on hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Carbopol 934TM/magnesium stearate (HPMC/Cp/StMg), was developed with the sodium fluoride as an active principle. This kind of system was evaluated according to its resistance to the removal by means of physical test of tensile strength. Swine buccal mucosa extracted immediately after animals' sacrifice was employed as a substrate for the physical trials to obtain 16 test bodies. Artificial saliva with or without mucin was used to involve the substrate/bioadhesive system sets during the trials. Artificial salivas viscosity were determined by means of Brookfield viscometer, and they showed 10.0 cP artificial saliva with mucin, and 7.5 cP artificial saliva without mucin. The tensile strength assays showed the following averages: 12.89 Pa for the group "artificial saliva with mucin", and 12.35 Pa for the group "without mucin". Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the assays for both artificial salivas, and we can conclude that the variable mucin did not interfere with the bioadhesion process for the polymeric devices.

  10. Genetic damage in coal miners evaluated by buccal micronucleus cytome assay.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Quintana, Milton; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny; Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Hartmann, Andreas; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Da Silva, Juliana

    2014-09-01

    During coal mining activities, large quantities of coal dust, ashes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are released into the environment. This complex mixture presents one of the most important occupational hazards for health of workers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genetic damage together with the presence of inorganic elements, in an exposed workers population to coal mining residues of Guajira-Colombia. Thus, 100 exposed workers and 100 non-exposed control individuals were included in this study. To determine genetic damage we assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequencies and nuclear buds in buccal mucosa samples (BMCyt) assay, which were significantly higher in the exposed group than non-exposed control group. In addition, karyorrhectic and karyolytic cells were also significantly higher in the exposed group (cell death). No significant difference was observed between the exposed groups engaged in different mining activities. No correlation between age, alcohol consumption, time of service and MN assay data were found in this study. However, the content of inorganic elements in blood samples analyzed by a Particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE) showed higher values of silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al) in the exposed group. In this study we discuss the possibility of DNA damage observed in the mine workers cells be a consequence of oxidative damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of cellulosic polymer based gel of novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate for buccal delivery.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Sinha, Priyam; Mishra, Nidhi; Luqman, Suaib; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2014-03-15

    Aim of the present investigation was to develop cellulosic polymer based mucoadhesive antifungal gel comprising novel ternary mixture of miconazole nitrate (MN) for buccal delivery. Crosslinking of gel was made by adjusting pH with triethanolamine (TEA) and gel formulation was optimized on the basis of flux of MN (0.562-1.751 mg/cm(2)/h) calculated from ex vivo permeation study. Based on statistically validated polynomial equation and plotted response surfaces, B17 was found to be the optimum batch. Texture profile in terms of adhesiveness (3.24 ± 0.012 g), firmness (10.83 ± 0.067 g), spreadability (3.63 ± 0.033 mJ) and extrudability (35.6 ± 0.1 mJ) of B17 was evaluated using a novel instrumental approach. The texture parameters were found to be consistent over 90 days. Ternary mixture containing gel showed broader zone of growth inhibition (32.67-47.33 mm) in comparison to marketed formulation containing pure MN (17.50-40.33 mm) against selected strains of fungi. In conclusion, consistent and effective mucoadhesive antifungal gel of MN with extended residence time in oral mucosa was developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  13. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health. PMID:26981119

  14. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  15. Preservation of anal function after total excision of the anal mucosa for Bowen's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, V H; Madden, J J; Franklin, J D; Burnett, L S; Jones, H W; Lynch, J B

    1984-01-01

    Six women with Bowen's disease of the anogenital area were treated by total excision of the anal mucosa, perianal skin and, in some cases, partial vulvectomy. Two patients had foci of microinvasive squamous carcinoma. Adequate tumor margins were determined by frozen sections. The resulting mucosal and cutaneous defects were grafted with medium split-thickness skin grafts applied to the anal canal and sutured circumferentially to the rectal mucosa. Grafts were held in place by a finger cot inserted in the anal canal and stuffed with cotton balls. Patients were constipated five or six days with codeine. The skin grafts healed per primam. One additional patient was similarly treated for a chronic herpetic ulceration of the anus and healed. Contrary to dire predictions, all patients were able to distinguish between gaseous and solid rectal contents and sphincter function was preserved. In one patient, Bowen's disease has recurred in the grafted perianal skin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:6372711

  16. Differential expression of p53, p63 and p73 protein and mRNA for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Huse, Shue-Sang; Lin, Li-Min

    2004-01-01

    Abnormalities in the p53 gene are regarded as the most consistent of the genetic abnormalities associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Two related members of the p53 gene family, p73 and p63, have shown remarkable structural similarity to p53, suggesting possible functional and biological interactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression of p73, p63 and p53 genes for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis for protein expression and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression were performed for 40 samples of hamster buccal pouches, the total being separated into one experimental group (15-week DMBA-treated; 20 animals) and two control groups (untreated and mineral oil-treated; 10 animals each). Using immunohistochemical techniques, nuclear staining of p53 and p73 proteins was detected in a subset of hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for a period of 15 weeks, whereas p63 proteins were noted for all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks as well as for all of the untreated and mineral oil-treated hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens. Differential expression of p63, p73 and p53 protein for the experimental group was as follows: p63+/p73+/p53+ (n = 14; 70%); p63+/p73+/p53− (n = 2; 10%); p63+/p73−/p53− (n = 4; 20%) and p63+/p73−/p53− (untreated [n = 10] and mineral oil-treated mucosa [n = 10]; 100% each). Upon RT-PCR, ΔNp63mRNA was detected within all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas expression of TAp63 was not detected. Furthermore, p73 mRNA was identified for 16 of the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas p53 mRNA was noted for 14 15-week DMBA-treated pouches. The proportional (percentage) expression of ΔNp63, p73 and p53 mRNA for the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens

  17. [Fundamentals and principles of grafts and flaps].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Navarro, Natalio; León-Dueñas, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery of large urethral stenosis and the management of congenital anomalies such as hypospadias and epispadias require covering large cutaneous and mucosal defects with different techniques. The objective of this work is to define the main differences between tissues to be transferred and to study the principles that must govern the management of the various flaps and grafts used for these techniques. We analyze the anatomical and physiological features that may be key to understand the success and possible failures of these procedures, and we review technical details that must accompany in every case, not only during the operation, but also during the preoperative and postoperative period. We conclude stating that grafts (mainly oral and preputial mucosa) and flaps are increasingly used for the repair of urethral stenosis. Grafts must be prepared adequately in the back table and thinned to the maximum, and also be fixed properly, to guarantee their immobility until neovascularization is assured.

  18. Regional quantitative histological variations in human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ciano, Joseph; Beatty, Brian Lee

    2015-03-01

    Oral mucosa demonstrates regional variations that reflect contact with food during mastication. Though known qualitatively, our aim was to quantitatively assess regions to establish a measurable baseline from which one could compare in pathological and comparative studies, in which the abrasiveness of diets may differ. We assessed variations in the epithelial-connective tissue junction (rete ridges counts), collagen organization within the lamina propria, and elastin composition of the lamina propria of 15 regions of the labial (buccal) gingiva, lingual gingiva, vestibule, and palate. All characteristics varied more between regions within the same individual than between individuals. Lingual gingiva had high rete ridges counts, high level of collagen organization, and moderate elastin composition compared to other regions. The labial gingiva had few rete ridges, high collagen organization, and low elastin. The vestibule had the fewest average of rete ridges, least organized collagen, and high elastin. The hard palate had the highest average of rete ridges, high collagen organization, and the lowest elastin content. The soft palate conversely had the smallest average of rete ridges, moderate collagen organization, and the highest elastin composition. Our results indicate that comparison of these quantitative histological differences is warranted only for collagen organization and elastin composition. Differences in rete ridges counts were not statistically significant. Most histological characteristics observed were not significantly different between dentulous and edentulous cadavers, and the group containing all individuals. An exception was the level of collagen fiber organization within the lamina propria, which was higher in most regions when teeth were present.

  19. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  20. [Infections of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Reibel, Jesper; Kragelund, Camilla

    2010-11-01

    The most common infections of the oral mucosa are those caused by Candida albicans and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Candidosis occurs as pseudomembraneous, erythematous and hyperplastic types with varying symptoms from no to a burning sensation. Treatment most importantly includes elimination of any predisposing factors such as smoking, sub-optimal denture hygiene and hyposalivation. A primary HSV infection results in a life-long latent infection recurring in some infected persons either intraorally or on the lip. If treatment is indicated, topical or systemic aciclovir and related drugs can be used.

  1. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: A report of clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Adaki, Raghavendra; Raikar, Sarvesh; Shigli, Kamal; Gali, Sivaranjani

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to highlight the rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with an orofacial cheek defect by an extraoral silicone prosthesis. Methodology: Structured extra- and intra-oral examination of tissues coupled with a justified choice of impression materials, techniques, and prosthetic rehabilitation with a high-temperature vulcanizing silicone was done. Results: The presence of compressible tissues, static appearance of the prosthesis during patient's facial movements, variability in complexion of the skin around the defect, and manipulating heat-vulcanized silicone were the challenges faced during clinical procedures. Rehabilitation of orofacial defects is a challenge to the maxillofacial prosthodontist due to limited material properties, soft-tissue mobility, compromised retention of prostheses, and poor patient acceptance. The fabrication of a facial prosthesis is as much an art as it is science. Prosthetic form, coloration, and texture of the prosthesis must be indiscernible from the surrounding tissues. Prosthetic reconstruction helps in restoring functional disability and aids in raising the morale of the patient. Prosthetic options of rehabilitation include interim and definitive conventional adhesive-retained or implant-retained prostheses. Initially, vulcanite rubber and acrylic resins were used for reconstruction. Conclusion: We report clinical challenges during extraoral rehabilitation of orofacial tissues with a silicone cheek prosthesis such as impression making and shade matching during restoration in a geriatric patient. The use of silicone maxillofacial elastomers allowed intrinsic, extrinsic coloring and ease of construction. PMID:28929054

  2. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa: A report of clinical challenges.

    PubMed

    Adaki, Raghavendra; Raikar, Sarvesh; Shigli, Kamal; Gali, Sivaranjani

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the rehabilitation of a geriatric patient with an orofacial cheek defect by an extraoral silicone prosthesis. Structured extra- and intra-oral examination of tissues coupled with a justified choice of impression materials, techniques, and prosthetic rehabilitation with a high-temperature vulcanizing silicone was done. The presence of compressible tissues, static appearance of the prosthesis during patient's facial movements, variability in complexion of the skin around the defect, and manipulating heat-vulcanized silicone were the challenges faced during clinical procedures. Rehabilitation of orofacial defects is a challenge to the maxillofacial prosthodontist due to limited material properties, soft-tissue mobility, compromised retention of prostheses, and poor patient acceptance. The fabrication of a facial prosthesis is as much an art as it is science. Prosthetic form, coloration, and texture of the prosthesis must be indiscernible from the surrounding tissues. Prosthetic reconstruction helps in restoring functional disability and aids in raising the morale of the patient. Prosthetic options of rehabilitation include interim and definitive conventional adhesive-retained or implant-retained prostheses. Initially, vulcanite rubber and acrylic resins were used for reconstruction. We report clinical challenges during extraoral rehabilitation of orofacial tissues with a silicone cheek prosthesis such as impression making and shade matching during restoration in a geriatric patient. The use of silicone maxillofacial elastomers allowed intrinsic, extrinsic coloring and ease of construction.

  3. Ex vivo and in vivo modulatory effects of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells on human oral mucosa stroma substitutes.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; González-Andrades, E; Jaimes-Parra, B D; Fernández-Valadés, R; Campos, A; Sánchez-Quevedo, M C; Alaminos, M; Garzón, I

    2015-11-01

    Novel oral mucosa substitutes have been developed in the laboratory using human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells -HWJSC- as an alternative cell source. In the present work, we have generated human oral mucosa substitutes with oral mucosa keratinocytes and HWJSC to determine the influence of these cell sources on stromal differentiation. First, acellular and cellular stroma substitutes and bilayered oral mucosa substitutes with an epithelial layer consisting of oral mucosa keratinocytes -OM samples- or HWJSC -hOM- were generated. Then, tissues were analyzed by light and electron microscopy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to quantify all major extracellular matrix components after 1, 2 and 3 weeks of ex vivo development, and OM and hOM were also analyzed after in vivo grafting. The results showed that bioengineered oral mucosa stromas displayed an adequate fibrillar mesh. Synthesis of abundant collagen fibers was detected in OM and hOM after 3 weeks, and in vivo grafting resulted in an increased collagen synthesis. No elastic or reticular fibers were found. Glycoprotein synthesis was found at the epithelial-stromal layer when samples were grafted in vivo. Finally, proteoglycans, decorin, versican and aggrecan were strongly dependent on the in vivo environment and the presence of a well-structured epithelium on top. The use of HWJSC was associated to an increased synthesis of versican. These results confirm the usefulness of fibrin-agarose biomaterials for the generation of an efficient human oral mucosa stroma substitute and the importance of the in vivo environment and the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction for the adequate differentiation of the bioengineered stroma.

  4. In vivo study of different ointments for drug delivery into oral mucosa by EPR oximetry.

    PubMed

    Petelin, Milan; Pavlica, Zlatko; Bizimoska, Saska; Sentjurc, Marjeta

    2004-02-11

    The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of transport and long-term effect of a drug applied to the oral mucosa in different ointments. Three ointments with bioadhesive properties: Orabase, Carbopol 935P, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMM) and the ointment Miglyol without such properties were used. Benzyl nicotinate (BN) was used as an active ingredient that causes hyperemia. The kinetics of drug action was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry in vivo using the paramagnetic probe (Lithium phthalocyanine) implanted beneath the epithelium of the buccal mucosa in rats. EPR spectra line-width was proportional to local changes of partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) in tissue and was monitored for 90 min after the application of ointments mixed with BN. The greatest increase in pO(2) and the highest efficiency of drug action was observed after the application of 2% BN in PMM (P<0.01). Additionally in PMM the drug effect increased linearly with BN concentration up to 3%, at higher concentrations (3.5 and 4% BN) no further effect was observed. The results demonstrated that the greatest and the longest effect caused by a hyperemic drug in PMM. By increasing the concentration of the drug in PMM higher pO(2) in the oral mucosa can be established but only until the saturation is reached.

  5. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  6. DNA damage and cellular death in oral mucosa cells of children who have undergone panoramic dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Gabriela R; Sannomiya, Eduardo K; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2007-06-01

    Despite wide use as a diagnostic tool in medical and dental practice, radiography can induce cytotoxic effects and genetic damage. To evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells taken from healthy children following exposure to radiation during dental radiography. A total of 17 children who had undergone panoramic dental radiography were included. We found no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between micronucleated oral mucosa cells in children before and after exposure to radiation. On the other hand, radiation did cause other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity including karyorrhexis, pyknosis and karyolysis. Taken together, these results indicate that panoramic dental radiography might not induce chromosomal damage, but may be cytotoxic. Overall, the results reinforce the importance of evaluating the health side effects of radiography and contribute to the micronucleus database, which will improve our understanding and practice of this methodology in children.

  7. Buccal Micronucleus Cytome Assay in Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Mallika Bokka Sri Satya; Gour, Shreya; Nallagutta, Nalini; Velidandla, Surekha; Manikya, Sangameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sickle Cell Anaemia (SCA) is a commonly inherited blood disorder preceded by episodes of pain, chronic haemolytic anaemia and severe infections. The underlying phenomenon which causes this disease is the point mutation in the haemoglobin beta gene (Hbβ) found on chromosome 11 p. Increased oxidative stress leads to DNA damage. DNA damage occurring in such conditions can be studied by the buccal micronucleus cytome assay, which is a minimally invasive method for studying chromosomal instability, cell death and regenerative potential of human buccal tissue. Aim To evaluate genomic instability in patients with sickle cell disease by buccal micronucleus cytome assay. Materials and Methods The study included 40 sickle cell anemia patients (Group A) and 40 age and sex matched controls (Group B). Buccal swabs were collected and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP). Number of cells with micronucleus, binuclei, nuclear bud, pyknosis and karyolysis were counted in two groups as parameters for the evaluation of genome stability. Results All the analysis was done using t-test. A p-value of <0.001 was considered statistically significant. There was a statistically significant increase in micronuclei number in SCA patients when compared with controls. Karyolytic (un-nucleated) cell number in Group A was more than to those of the controls. Conclusion The results might suggest that patients with sickle cell anaemia have genome instability which is represented by the presence of micronuclei in the somatic cells. Presence of apoptotic cells might only indicate the bodily damage to the tissue as a result of the disease. PMID:27504413

  8. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  9. Preservation of keratinized mucosa around implants using a prefabricated implant-retained stent: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to clinically assess the impact of a prefabricated implant-retained stent clipped over healing abutments on the preservation of keratinized mucosa around implants after implant surgery, and to compare it with horizontal external mattress sutures. Methods A total of 50 patients were enrolled in this study. In the test group, a prefabricated implant-retained stent was clipped on the healing abutment after implant surgery to replace the keratinized tissue bucco-apically. In the control group, horizontal external mattress sutures were applied instead of using a stent. After the surgical procedure, the width of the buccal keratinized mucosa was measured at the mesial, middle, and distal aspects of the healing abutment. The change in the width of the buccal keratinized mucosa was assessed at 1 and 3 months. Results Healing was uneventful in both groups. The difference of width between baseline and 1 month was −0.26±0.85 mm in the test group, without any statistical significance (P=0.137). Meanwhile, the corresponding difference in the control group was −0.74±0.73 mm and it showed statistical significance (P<0.001). The difference of width between baseline and 3 months was −0.57±0.97 mm in the test group and −0.86±0.71 mm in the control group. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.05); however, there was no difference between the 2 groups. Conclusions Using a prefabricated implant-retained stent was shown to be effective in the preservation of the keratinized mucosa around implants and it was simple and straightforward in comparison to the horizontal external mattress suture technique. PMID:27800215

  10. Obliteration of Recurrent Large Dentigerous Cyst Using Bilateral Buccal Fat Pad Sling Flaps.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Lee, Jun Beom

    2016-07-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC), also known as follicular cyst, is an odontogenic cyst with fluid accumulation between the crown and enamel organ of an unerupted tooth, pushing the crown away from the alveolar bone. The patients with DC in the maxillary sinus should be evaluated thoroughly by extraoral and intraoral examinations, proper diagnostic imaging procedures, and pathologic examination to avoid misdiagnosis of maxillary sinusitis. The standard treatment for DC in the maxillary sinus is often removed by Caldwell-Luc approach. Furthermore, marsupialization or functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be performed because of the size, location of the cysts, or the age of the patients. Sometimes, DC recurred and it made contour deformity. The buccal fat pad (BFP) was mentioned for the first time by Heister in 1732 and better described by Bichat in 1802. Egyedi was the first to report use of the BFP in oral reconstruction for the closure of oroantral and oronasal communications, and Tideman et al showed there was no need to cover BFP by a skin graft when used for defects of oral cavity. So, the authors report our experience with the bilateral pedicled sling BFP flap for intraoral reconstruction after larger recurrent DC removal and describe advantages, operative procedure, and possible complications of the DC.

  11. Tripaddled anterolateral thigh flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects after buccal cancer ablation and severe oral submucous fibrosis release: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Canhua; Guo, Feng; Li, Ning; Huang, Pengxin; Jian, Xinchun; Munnee, Krishna

    2013-11-01

    For buccal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients accompanied with severe oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), it is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects created from cancer resection and contralateral OSF release to improve postoperative mouth opening. Herein, we present a case of reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects in a 46-year-old patient who had left buccal SCC accompanied with severe OSF. Extensive ablation involved the left full-thickness cheek as well as part of mandible and a release of right OSF tissue were performed. A tripaddled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with three independent sets of perforators was harvested for reconstruction. The flap survived in its entirety. No donor or recipient site complication occurred. The preoperative inter-incisor distance (IID) was 1 mm, while the postoperative IID was 23 mm. This is the first report on the use of one tripaddled ALT flap for reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects created from cancer ablation and severe contralateral OSF release.

  12. Warty dyskeratoma of the oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Laskaris, G; Sklavounou, A

    1985-10-01

    A case of oral warty dyskeratoma is presented and the literature is reviewed in brief. While warty dyskeratoma of the oral mucosa is rare, it appears to exhibit a variability of clinical appearance and to have a special predilection for keratinised mucosae exposed to friction and mechanical stress.

  13. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Umbilicus

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Young Soo; Jeong, Se Yeong; Son, Sang Wook; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopia refers to the finding of normal tissue in foreign sites, entirely separate from the main organ. Heterotopic gastric mucosa has been observed throughout the alimentary tract, everywhere from the oral cavity to the rectum. However, occurrences in the umbilicus are an extremely rare and peculiar phenomena. We report the case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the umbilicus. PMID:20548921

  14. [Alveolar ridge augmentation with hip corticocancellous allogenic block graft prior to implant placement].

    PubMed

    Dori, S; Peleg, M; Barnea, E

    2008-07-01

    The use of autogenous block bone grafts in bone regeneration procedures for alveolar ridge augmentation can be limited by donor-site morbidity and complications. In this study, allogeneic block grafts were used for ridge augmentation prior to implant placement. Thirty six patients with severe ridge width and height deficiency underwent augmentation using an allogeneic corticocancellous iliac block bone graft. After rigid fixation of the graft, the site was covered with a freeze dried allogeneic dura mater membrane or restorable collagen membrane and then tension-free closure was performed. Implants were placed three to four months after surgery. Three to six months after implant placement, panoramic radiographs were taken and implants were uncovered for prosthetic restoration. Out of the 70 implants placed, one implant failed to integrate. Out of the 49 grafts placed one graft showed three millimeters of bone resorbtion at the superior buccal aspect of the graft. No other clinical problems were observed. The block grafts were clinically well integrated into the recipient site. The augmented bone remained stable throughout implant placement procedures. Clinical outcome evidence demonstrates that allogeneic block bone grafts in conjunction with G.B.R principles might be a viable alternative to autogenous grafts in selected patients with alveolar ridge deficiencies.

  15. Blood flow and epithelial thickness in different regions of feline oral mucosa and skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Squier, C A; Johnson, W T; Todd, G L

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between epithelial thickness and blood flow was examined in 6 mucosal and 3 skin regions of the cat. Blood flow to these tissues was determined using the radiolabelled microsphere method. From histologic sections the proportion of the tissue biopsy occupied by epithelium and the average epithelial thickness were calculated. The oral tissues had a significantly higher blood flow than the skin regions (p less than 0.05). In terms of epithelial thickness, the tissues could be divided into 4 groups (p less than 0.05). These were: a) palate; b) gingival regions and dorsum of the tongue; c) lip and buccal mucosa; d) all skin regions. When epithelial thickness was related to blood flow there was a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.005) indicating that a thicker epithelium is associated with a higher blood flow. This finding may reflect the greater metabolic demands of the thicker epithelia.

  16. [Infralesional injections with triamcinolone-acetonide in the treatment of lichen rubber of the mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Capusan, I; Lazar, V; Weingart, F

    1983-09-15

    Lichen planus of the buccal mucosa with its various clinical manifestations has proved to be much more resistant to general therapeutical means than the cutaneous lesions. Repeated infralesional (sub-mucosal) injections of triamcinolon-acetonid (Kenalon Volon in a 10 per cent suspension applied to 12 patients, 4 of them with erosive lesions, have revealed particular efficiency if given at 7 oder 14 day's intervals. After 2 to 6 injections, we could already observe positive results occurring faster with papular of reticular than with erosive forms of the disease. Slight relapses may occur after 4 to 6 months disappearing, however, after 1 to 2 injections. Provided that antiseptic measures are maintained, tamponade of the salivary orifices is applied and intravascular injection by aspiration control avoided, unexpected local and general sequelae will not occur. Most of the patients have been in ambulatory care.

  17. Use of archived biopsy specimens to study gene expression in oral mucosa from chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mougeot, Jean-Luc C; Mougeot, Farah K B; Peterson, Douglas E; Padilla, Ricardo J; Brennan, Michael T; Lockhart, Peter B

    2013-05-01

    Oral mucositis caused by cancer chemotherapy can result in significant clinical complications. There is a strategic need to accelerate the delineation of the pathobiology. This proof-of-principle study was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of studying archived oral mucosal specimens to further delineate oral mucositis pathobiology. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 25-year-old oral mucosa autopsy specimens from cancer chemotherapy patients were studied. Standardized technology was utilized, including RNA isolation and amplification, array hybridization, and gene expression analysis. A predominance of DNA damage in buccal mucosal basal keratinocytes was observed. Data comparing basal cells from buccal vs. gingival mucosa identified differential gene expression of host responses in relation to pathways relevant to oral mucositis pathogenesis, including responses to cancer-associated inflammation. This proof-of-principle study demonstrated that archived oral mucosal specimens may be a potentially valuable resource for the study of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin on healing of extraction sockets with buccal dehiscence in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Ichiro; Marukawa, Eriko; Takahashi, Yukinobu; Omura, Ken

    2014-02-01

    Alveolar bone resorption generally occurs during healing after tooth extraction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of platelet-poor plasma (PPP), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on healing in a ridge-augmentation model of the canine socket with dehiscence of the buccal wall. The third mandibular premolars of 12 beagle dogs were extracted and a 3 mm buccal dehiscence from the alveolar crest to the buccal wall of the extraction socket was created. These sockets were then divided into four groups on the basis of the material used to fill the sockets: PPP, PRP, PRF, and control (no graft material) groups. Results were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. The ultrastructural morphology and constructs of each blood product were studied by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) or calculating concentrations of platelets, fibrinogen, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β. A total of five microcomputed tomography images of specimens were selected for measurement, and the area occupied by the newly formed bone as well as the horizontal bone width were measured. Moreover, decalcified tissue specimens from each defect were analyzed histologically. The median area of new bone at 4 and 8 weeks and median horizontal bone width at 8 weeks were the highest in the PPP group. However, bone maturation in the PRF and the PRP groups was more progressed than that in the PPP and control groups. By SEM findings, the PRF group showed a more highly condensed fibrin fiber network that was regularly arranged when compared with the PPP and PRP groups. The growth factors released from platelets in PRP indicated higher concentrations than that in PRF. Under more severe conditions for bone formation, as in this experiment, the growth factors released from platelets had a negative effect on bone formation. This study showed that PPP is an effective material for the preservation of sockets with buccal dehiscence.

  19. Thickness of Palatal Masticatory Mucosa and Its Relationship with Different Parameters in Turkish Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Duygu; Aksu, Seden; Dişçi, Rian; Demirel, Korkud

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to clinically investigate the mucosal variations in different parts of hard palate subject to soft tissue harvesting and its relationship with selected parameters in patients with gingival recessions. Materials & Methods: Fifty periodontally healthy, dentate subjects (13 males) with gingival recessions were enrolled into the study. After initial periodontal therapy they were scheduled for surgical procedures. Palatal masticatory mucosa of five teeth was evaluated at five different points from the gingival margin and two points on the buccal gingival mucosa were evaluated on the day of surgical intervention via bone sounding method. Totally 27 assessments were performed for each patient. Results: The overall mean thickness of palatal masticatory mucosa (PMM) was 2.55±0.49mm. The mean mid-facial gingival thickness was 1.11±0.39mm. The PMM showed an increase towards the posterior and raphe palatina. No difference was observed between genders, and no association of body mass index (BMI) and age with PMM was determined. An association was observed between the thicknesses of mid-facial gingival and palatal masticatory mucosa. Conclusion: The thickness of PMM in this study seems to be less than other reports possibly due to ethnicity or measurement design. Canine and premolar region reveals higher thickness values, and the increase in the tissue thickness towards the midline should also been taken into consideration. Clinicians planning soft tissue harvesting from the palate should take this variation into consideration. In this regard transmucosal probing of the donor site may provide valuable information where considerable variation exists. PMID:25076847

  20. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    PubMed

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity.

  1. Arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from human buccal mucosal fibroblasts is mediated by ZEB1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lai, You-Liang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chi, Wan-Yu; Li, Jung Jung; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is considered as a pre-cancerous condition of the oral mucosa and is highly associated with habitual areca quid chewing. Arecoline is the major alkaloid in areca quid and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. Our previous studies have demonstrated that arecoline could induce epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Therefore, we investigated the expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which is a well-known transcriptional factor in EMT, in OSF tissues and its role in arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. The expression of ZEB1, as well as the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was significantly increased in OSF tissues, respectively. With immunofluorescence analysis, arecoline induced the formation of α-SMA-positive stress fibres in BMFs expressing nuclear ZEB1. Arecoline also induced collagen contraction of BMFs in vitro. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, the binding of ZEB1 to the α-SMA promoter in BMFs was increased by arecoline. The promoter activity of α-SMA in BMFs was also induced by arecoline, while knockdown of ZEB1 abolished arecoline-induced α-SMA promoter activity and collagen contraction of BMFs. Long-term exposure of BMFs to arecoline induced the expression of fibrogenic genes and ZEB1. Silencing of ZEB1 in fibrotic BMFs from an OSF patient also suppressed the expression of α-SMA and myofibroblast activity. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 could suppress arecoline-induced ZEB1 activation in BMFs. Our data suggest that ZEB1 may participate in the pathogenesis of areca quid–associated OSF by activating the α-SMA promoter and inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. PMID:24400868

  2. Arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from human buccal mucosal fibroblasts is mediated by ZEB1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Lai, You-Liang; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chi, Wan-Yu; Li, Jung Jung; Chang, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is considered as a pre-cancerous condition of the oral mucosa and is highly associated with habitual areca quid chewing. Arecoline is the major alkaloid in areca quid and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of OSF. Our previous studies have demonstrated that arecoline could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in primary human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Therefore, we investigated the expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which is a well-known transcriptional factor in EMT, in OSF tissues and its role in arecoline-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. The expression of ZEB1, as well as the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), was significantly increased in OSF tissues, respectively. With immunofluorescence analysis, arecoline induced the formation of α-SMA-positive stress fibres in BMFs expressing nuclear ZEB1. Arecoline also induced collagen contraction of BMFs in vitro. By chromatin immunoprecipitation, the binding of ZEB1 to the α-SMA promoter in BMFs was increased by arecoline. The promoter activity of α-SMA in BMFs was also induced by arecoline, while knockdown of ZEB1 abolished arecoline-induced α-SMA promoter activity and collagen contraction of BMFs. Long-term exposure of BMFs to arecoline induced the expression of fibrogenic genes and ZEB1. Silencing of ZEB1 in fibrotic BMFs from an OSF patient also suppressed the expression of α-SMA and myofibroblast activity. Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 could suppress arecoline-induced ZEB1 activation in BMFs. Our data suggest that ZEB1 may participate in the pathogenesis of areca quid-associated OSF by activating the α-SMA promoter and inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation from BMFs. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  3. Shear bond strength of orthodontic buccal tubes to porcelain

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Kathiravan; Alam, Mohammad K.; Sukumaran, Prema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bonding of molar tubes is becoming more popular in orthodontics. Occasionally, these bonding are done on posterior porcelain crowns or bridges. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of buccal tubes on feldspathic porcelain crowns with two different methods. Materials and Methods: Forty porcelain right molar crowns were fabricated for this study. The crowns were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the crowns were etched with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In group 2, the crowns were etched with phosphoric acid 37%, silane coupling agent applied, coated with bonding primer and bonded with Transbond XT. All the crowns were stored for 24 hours at 37°C and thermo-cycled before the shear bond test. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether significant difference were present between the groups. Results: The results of the analysis of variance (F = 0.23) indicated the shear bond strength of group 1 (3.57 ± 0.87 MPa) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from group 2 (3.46 ± 0.65 Mpa). Fisher's exact test for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) revealed significant difference between both groups (P < 0.05). Eighty percent of group 1 buccal tubes failed at buccal tube/resin interface and eighty percent of group 2 mostly failed at porcelain/resin interface. Conclusion: Etching with phosphoric acid with the use of silane coupling agent would be safer and should make it easier for clinicians to clean the adhesive on the porcelain surface after debonding. PMID:23878568

  4. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla; Madelung, Peter; Jacobsen, Jette

    2014-01-30

    Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery systems can enhance rapid drug absorption by providing an increased retention time at the site of absorption and a steep concentration gradient. An understanding of the mechanisms behind mucoadhesion of polymers, e.g. chitosan, is necessary for improving the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.3 and that the interactions were entropy driven. The TDM showed a significantly increase in strength of adhesion between chitosan discs and an artificial mucosal surface at pH 5.2 compared to pH 6.8, addition of PGM increased the total work of adhesion by a factor of 10 as compared to the wetted surface without PGM. These findings suggest that chitosan and PGM are able to interact by electrostatic interactions and by improving the conditions for electrostatic interactions, the adhesion between chitosan and PGM becomes stronger. Also, the three complementary methods were utilized to conclude the pH dependency on mucoadhesiveness.

  5. Evaluation of micronuclear frequencies in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid contact reactions.

    PubMed

    Saruhanoğlu, A; Ergun, S; Kaya, M; Warnakulasuriya, S; Erbağcı, M; Öztürk, Ş; Deniz, E; Özel, S; Çefle, K; Palanduz, Ş; Tanyeri, H

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei (MNs) in both circulating lymphocytes and buccal epithelial cells of patients with oral lichenoid contact reactions (OLCRs) or with oral lichen planus (OLP) and compare their MN scores with those of healthy controls (HCs). The study group included 21 patients (mean age 51.3 ± 12.4; 6 males, 15 females) with OLCRs and 22 patients (mean age 47.6 ± 14.4; 4 males, 18 females) with OLP who were clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed according to WHO diagnostic criteria (WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Precancerous Lesions, 1978). All patients with OLCR demonstrated contact allergy to tested dental materials when evaluated by skin patch testing according to International Contact Dermatitis Research Group (ICDRG), while all OLP patients tested negative to patch testing. Seventeen individuals with no oral mucosal disorders (mean age 51.7 ± 11.3; 8 males, 9 females) were recruited to constitute the healthy control group. [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: the term, 'mean age' has been added to the text in parenthesis throughout the Material and Methods section.] Clinical features including type of OLP, location, disease severity, presence of skin lesions, presence of systemic disease including any allergies and dental (periodontal) status were recorded. MN analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes and on smears of buccal epithelial cells of all three study groups. Most OLP and OLCR lesions were of reticular type (83%), and OLP lesions were distributed bilaterally on the buccal mucosa (90.5%). The medians of MN frequencies in buccal epithelial cells in OLP and OLCR groups were significantly higher when compared with HC group (P < 0.001). [Correction added on 30 May 2014, after first online publication: in the results, 2nd sentence, the word 'lymphocytes' has been removed.] There was no significant difference between OLP group (14

  6. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  7. [Pimecrolimus (Elidel) for therapy of lichen ruber mucosae].

    PubMed

    Scheer, M; Kawari-Mahmoodi, N; Neugebauer, J; Kübler, A C

    2006-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic inflammatory disorder with criteria of auto-reactive disease. Treatment consists on topical application of corticosteroids, vitamin A derivates or cyclosporin. Calcineurin inhibitors as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus decrease the production of cytokines and inhibit T-cell proliferation. These substances have recently been introduced for local therapy of chronic inflammatory skin disorders. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of local pimecrolimus in OLP. A group of five patients with histological proven OLP were treated with topical pimecrolimus 1% ointment twice daily to the affected area. Prior to treatment and after 7, 14, 28 and 42 days the lesions were assessed clinically and by photographs. The discomfort scores were evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) weekly. All five patients (median age 65.6 years) were female and showed involvement of the buccal mucosa. All lesions showed a reduction of inflammation activity during the treating period. The VAS scores decreased significantly under treatment (p=0,0014). Pimecrolimus ointment was tolerated well with no signs of itching or burning. However, 4 out of 5 patients complained about the reduced adherence properties of the cream. Although no complete remission of OLP has been observed in our series, signs of inflammatory activity of OLP as redness and burning sensations were reduced by topical pimecrolimus. Further controlled randomized studies have to be conducted to compare topical pimecrolimus with topical corticosteroid as standard therapy. The adherence properties of pimecrolimus 1% cream should be improved for intra-oral application.

  8. N-succinyl chitosan as buccal penetration enhancer for delivery of herbal agents in treatment of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Neha; Kumar, Krishan; Kalia, A N; Arora, Saahil

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the major side effects of cancer chemotherapy (30-76%) and radiotherapy (over 50%). Current palliative treatments of oral mucositis include specialized agents like pelifermin, platelet derived factors etc. or oral hygienic agents which suffered from various drawbacks like systemic side effect, least effect owing to fast wash out of buccal mucosa, patient unfriendly delivery systems, and mere symptomatic relief. In this research work, N-succinyl chitosan gel delivery system of microemulsified eugenol, honey and sodium hyaluronate was prepared to explore their multiple and synergistic effects on various pathological factors of oral mucositis. N-succinyl chitosan was synthesized in our laboratory and loaded with microemulsified eugenol (10% v/v), honey (10% v/v) and sodium hyaluronate (0.2% w/v) to prepare orogel with optimum pH, spreadability, mucoadhesion strength, and viscosity. In vitro eugenol release from N-succinyl chitosan gel after 8 hours in PBS (pH-6.4) was found to be 87.45±0.14%, which was better in comparison to that released from chitosan gel. Ex vivo penetration studies using rat buccal mucosal tissue also suggested better J-efflux of eugenol through N-succinyl chitosan in comparison to chitosan gel with enhancement ratio (ER) of 1.71. The antimicrobial effect of N-succinyl chitosan based orogel against S. aureus and C. albicans efficacy was found to be statistically high in comparison to chitosan based orogel as well as marketed formulation of chlorhexidine (p<0.05). The N-succinyl chitosan orogel in 5-fluoro uracil induced oral mucositis animal (Wistar rats) model showed enhanced survival ratio, weight gain and high tissue regeneration activity than chitosan gel formulation within 15 days. The formulation was successful in elevating the survival and reducing the inflammation in the oral mucosa of animals compared to disease control (p<0.05) and hence suggesting the potential of N-succinyl chitosan orogel in the treatment of

  9. Electrostrictive Graft Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An electrostrictive graft elastomer has a backbone molecule which is a non-crystallizable, flexible macromolecular chain and a grafted polymer forming polar graft moieties with backbone molecules. The polar graft moieties have been rotated by an applied electric field, e.g., into substantial polar alignment. The rotation is sustained until the electric field is removed. In another embodiment, a process for producing strain in an elastomer includes: (a) providing a graft elastomer having a backbone molecule which is a non-crystallizable, flexible macromolecular chain and a grafted polymer forming polar graft moieties with backbone molecules; and (b) applying an electric field to the graft elastomer to rotate the polar graft moieties, e.g., into substantial polar alignment.

  10. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    PubMed

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  11. Normal keratinized mucosa transplants in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstrup, P; Dabelsteen, E; Reibel, J; Harder, F

    1981-01-01

    Two types of normal keratinized mucosa were transplanted to subcutaneous sites of nude mice of two different strains. 24 intact specimens of clinically normal human palatal mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu NC. The transplants were recovered after 42 d with a recovery rate of 96%. Moreover, 22 intact specimens of normal rat forestomach mucosa were transplanted to nude mice of the strain nu/nu BALB/c/BOM. These transplants were recovered after 21 d with a recovery rate of 63%. The histologic features of the transplants were essentially the same as those of the original tissues. However, epithelial outgrowths from the transplants differed with respect to the pattern of keratinization. The outgrowths of human palatal mucosa transplants were essentially unkeratinized, while the outgrowths of the rat forestomach transplants showed continued keratinization.

  12. Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal cells in Pakistani cotton weavers.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cotton workers in small weaving household factories (power looms) in Pakistan are typically exposed to high levels of cotton dusts. Working in the textile manufacturing industry has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The study set out to determine potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to cotton dusts in exfoliated buccal cells of exposed cotton workers. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were evaluated in a representative sample of 51 exposed male cotton weavers and in the same number of age-matched male non-exposed subjects applying the micronucleus cytome assay. Nuclear anomalies reflecting cytotoxicity (karyolysis, karyorrhexis, condensed chromatin and pyknosis) were significantly elevated in exposed cotton workers. The frequency of micronucleated cells increased significantly with increasing years of work in power looms (odds ratio = 1.043 per year; 95% confidence interval: 1.012-1.076, P = 0.007). Results were consistent with the typical inflammatory pattern and injury in epithelia due to unprotected occupational exposure to cotton dusts and other toxic, allergic and infectious substances in the working areas of the cotton industry. Occupational exposure in power looms induces cytotoxic effects and, upon chronic exposure, DNA damage. This may eventually result in typical obstructive patterns of pulmonary symptoms and in a clinical condition called byssinosis in exposed cotton workers. Long exposure may lead to chronic inflammation and cumulative damage of DNA in buccal stem cells that may indicate an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer.

  13. Mandibular vestibuloplasty and gingival grafts using impacted posts.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, P; Montal, S; Gibert, P

    1997-01-01

    In the presence of an atrophic endentulous mandible, the stability of the mandibular denture is related to the quality of the osteomucosal support and the muscles surrounding it. A new procedure for vestibuloplasty is described that combines a periosteal flap and a gingival graft. Titanium impacted posts are used for fixation and the stabilization of the flap and graft. This clinical report presents the results for 12 patients. Clinical appraisal indicates that the technique appears to improve the anteroposterior stability of the mandibular denture, increasing the attached mucosa and offering better long-term results. The management of the gingival and muscular environment can improve the peri-implant area.

  14. Expression of endothelial adhesion molecules in the alveolar ridge mucosa, gingiva and periimplant mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zitzmann, N U; Berglundh, T; Marinello, C P; Lindhe, J

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells in the alveolar ridge mucosa, the gingiva and the periimplant mucosa in humans. Twelve partially edentulous subjects were included in the study. In each subject, one soft tissue biopsy was harvested from the edentulous alveolar ridge mucosa, one from a tooth site and one from an implant site. After 3 weeks of undisturbed plaque accumulation, an additional biopsy was obtained from one tooth and one implant site in each subject. The tissue samples were snap frozen and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis. In the alveolar ridge mucosa, smaller proportions of endothelial cells expressing ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed than in the gingiva. ELAM-1-positive cells occurred in lower numbers than in periimplant mucosa. After 21 days of plaque accumulation, ELAM-1 was increased in tooth sites, but decreased in periimplant mucosa. The results of the present study indicated that the proportions of activated endothelial cells and the extravasation of leukocytes is larger in gingiva and periimplant mucosa than in alveolar ridge mucosa. This might be due to the less permeable keratinized epithelial layer in the edentulous ridge mucosa, which offers proper protection against microbial pathogens. The greater expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules during experimental gingivitis, compared to periimplant mucositis, may reflect its longer history of repeated antigenic assaults.

  15. Effects of preoperative administration of meloxicam on whole blood platelet aggregation, buccal mucosal bleeding time, and haematological indices in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Fresno, Laura; Moll, Javier; Peñalba, Begoña; Espada, Yvonne; Andaluz, Anna; Prandi, David; Ruiz de Gopegui, Rafael; García, Félix

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative administration of meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for pain control, on primary haemostasis in dogs. Twenty healthy female dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were enrolled in the study. Sixty minutes before pre-anaesthesia, a single dose of meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg) was randomly administered intravenously (IV) to 10 dogs (treatment group) while control dogs received an equivalent volume of saline solution IV. Platelet aggregation, buccal mucosa bleeding time, platelet count and haematological indices were measured at 0, 1, 6 and 24 h after administration of meloxicam. Since significant differences between groups were not observed for any of the measured parameters, preoperative administration of meloxicam may be used for pain control before elective ovariohysterectomy in healthy dogs, without compromising primary haemostasis.

  16. The efficacy of infiltration anaesthesia for adult mandibular incisors: a randomised double-blind cross-over trial comparing articaine and lidocaine buccal and buccal plus lingual infiltrations.

    PubMed

    Jaber, A; Whitworth, J M; Corbett, I P; Al-Baqshi, B; Kanaa, M D; Meechan, J G

    2010-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine both with 1:100,000 adrenaline in anaesthetising the pulps of mandibular incisors. Thirty-one healthy adult volunteers received the following local anaesthetic regimens adjacent to a mandibular central incisor: 1) buccal infiltration of 1.8 mL lidocaine plus dummy lingual injection (LB), 2) buccal plus lingual infiltrations of 0.9 mL lidocaine (LBL), 3) buccal infiltration of 1.8 mL articaine plus dummy lingual injection (AB), 4) buccal plus lingual infiltrations of 0.9 mL articaine (ABL). Pulp sensitivities of the central incisor and contralateral lateral incisor were assessed electronically. Anaesthetic efficacy was determined by two methods: 1) Recording the number of episodes with no responses to maximal electronic pulp tester stimulation during the course of the study period, 2) recording the number of volunteers with no response to maximal pulp tester stimulation within 15 min and maintained for 45 min (defined as sustained anaesthesia). Data were analysed by McNemar, chi-square, Mann-Whitney and paired t-tests. For both test teeth, the number of episodes of no sensation on maximal stimulation was significantly greater after articaine than lidocaine for both techniques. The split buccal plus lingual dose was more effective than the buccal injection alone for both solutions (p <0.001). 4% articaine was more effective than 2% lidocaine when comparing sustained anaesthesia in both teeth for each technique (p <0.001), however, there was no difference in sustained anaesthesia between techniques for either tooth or solution. 4% articaine was more effective than 2% lidocaine (both with 1:100,000 adrenaline) in anaesthetising the pulps of lower incisor teeth after buccal or buccal plus lingual infiltrations.

  17. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures

    PubMed Central

    Schlage, Walter K.; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air–liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products. PMID:25046638

  18. In vitro systems toxicology approach to investigate the effects of repeated cigarette smoke exposure on human buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Schlage, Walter K; Iskandar, Anita R; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Talikka, Marja; Geertz, Marcel; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-10-01

    Smoking has been associated with diseases of the lung, pulmonary airways and oral cavity. Cytologic, genomic and transcriptomic changes in oral mucosa correlate with oral pre-neoplasia, cancer and inflammation (e.g. periodontitis). Alteration of smoking-related gene expression changes in oral epithelial cells is similar to that in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. Using a systems toxicology approach, we have previously assessed the impact of cigarette smoke (CS) seen as perturbations of biological processes in human nasal and bronchial organotypic epithelial culture models. Here, we report our further assessment using in vitro human oral organotypic epithelium models. We exposed the buccal and gingival organotypic epithelial tissue cultures to CS at the air-liquid interface. CS exposure was associated with increased secretion of inflammatory mediators, induction of cytochrome P450s activity and overall weak toxicity in both tissues. Using microarray technology, gene-set analysis and a novel computational modeling approach leveraging causal biological network models, we identified CS impact on xenobiotic metabolism-related pathways accompanied by a more subtle alteration in inflammatory processes. Gene-set analysis further indicated that the CS-induced pathways in the in vitro buccal tissue models resembled those in the in vivo buccal biopsies of smokers from a published dataset. These findings support the translatability of systems responses from in vitro to in vivo and demonstrate the applicability of oral organotypical tissue models for an impact assessment of CS on various tissues exposed during smoking, as well as for impact assessment of reduced-risk products.

  19. The role of autofluorescence diagnostics in the diseases of oral mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosciarz-Grzesiok, A.; Waskowska, J.; Kawczyk-Krupka, A.; Ledwon, A.; Misiak, A.; Latos, W.; Koszowski, R.; Sieron-Stoltny, K.; Sieron, A.

    2008-02-01

    Introduction. Life induced fluorescence (LIFE) diagnostics can be used as an imaging system of precancerous and neoplastic lesions of the oral mucosa. Neoplastic lesions are visible in pseudo colours, healthy tissue in green colour and abnormal tissue in red colour. All the observed colours present different intensity. Colour intensity is relevant to the grade of dysplasia, carcinoma progress and is called Numerological Value of Color Index (NCV). The aim of our study was to find correlation between autofluorescence diagnostics combined with NCV assessment and histopathological findings of taken specimen biopsies. Patients and methods. 10 patients participated in our study. Lesions affected a variety of intraoral sites. The most common location was: buccal, gingival and mandibular mucosa. Patients were examined using Life Induced Fluorescence diagnosis (400 - 750 nm wavelength) with Numerological Value of Color index (NCV) using Onco LIFE system. Afterwards the specimen biopsies from the lesions were taken and histopathological examination was performed. Results. Different NCV and dependence of NCV on the histopathological findings were observed. Conclusion. Diagnostic procedures with the application of white-light imaging with LIFE imaging is not only a significantly faster method and a better diagnostic tool of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions, but there exist also correlations between measured NCV and histopathological diagnosis. The farther investigations are necessary in order to prove these preliminary findings.

  20. Improved buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists with bitterless prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M A; Aungst, B J; Koval, C A; Shefter, E

    1988-09-01

    Buccal delivery of opioid analgesics and antagonists is a useful way of improving bioavailability relative to the oral route. These compounds taste bitter, however. Various prodrugs of nalbuphine, naloxone, naltrexone, oxymorphone, butorphanol, and levallorphan, in which the 3-phenolic hydroxyl group was esterified, lacked a bitter taste. This taste difference was not due to differences in water solubility, suggesting that for these compounds the phenolic functional group is important for interaction with the taste receptor. In rats, nalbuphine, naloxone, and naltrexone administered buccally as prodrugs exhibited up to 90% bioavailability. In dogs, the bitter taste of buccally administered nalbuphine and naloxone caused salivation and swallowing, and bioavailability was low. Buccal dosing of the prodrugs of these compounds caused no adverse effects and the bioavailability ranged from 35 to 50%, a significant improvement relative to the oral bioavailability, which is 5% or less. The feasibility of buccal prodrug delivery using an adhesive patch formulation was demonstrated.

  1. Endodontic retreatment of a maxillary second molar with three separate buccal roots.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Javidi, Maryam; Zarei, Mina

    2006-12-01

    A rare case of a four-rooted maxillary second molar in a 39-year-old male patient is reported. After clinical and radiographic examination, two separate mesio-buccal roots were detected, and a treatment plan consisting treatment of the mesio-buccal roots and retreatment of the disto-buccal and palatal roots was made to resolve the previous treatment failure. The tooth was treated by orthograde endodontic retreatment in two visits. Mesio-buccal canals that were located in the separate mesio-buccal roots (which were missed in previous treatment) were found and treated. The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with full clinical and radiographic examination, in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases.

  2. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    PubMed

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P < .001). After case matching, the differences between OS and DSS for buccal cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Surgical coverage of exposed hydroxyapatite implant with retroauricular myoperiosteal graft

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S L; Kao, S C S; Tseng, J H S; Lin, L L-K

    2005-01-01

    Background: With the increasing use of hydroxyapatite orbital implants, the complication of exposure has become apparent to oculoplastic surgeons. Many kinds of patch grafts, such as sclera, dermis, and hard palate mucosa, have been used to cover exposed hydroxyapatite implants with inconsistent results. In this study, the authors use a newly developed technique, autogenous retroauricular myoperiosteal graft, and the results are reported. Methods: A piece of retroauricular muscle together with its underlying periosteum was carefully harvested. This myoperiosteal graft was patched to the debrided hydroxyapatite exposure area with the periosteal surface facing outward. The margin of periosteal surface was secured with conjunctiva and left uncovered for the surrounding conjunctiva to epithelialise. Results: Nine eyes with hydroxyapatite exposure more than 3 mm were managed with autogenous retroauricular myoperiosteal grafts. Seven cases were successfully treated with single graft surgery. The other two cases needed an additional graft surgery, and there was no re-exposure noted thereafter. Five patients received a successful insertion of the motility peg. All nine patients have been fitted with prosthesis with reasonable motility. There were no complication noted during more than 1 year of follow up. Conclusion: The thick composite nature of the myoperiosteal graft provides a durable and vascularised coverage for exposed hydroxyapatite implants. This technique offers an encouraging alternative for the management of exposed hydroxyapatite implants. PMID:15615754

  4. Pragmatic and Profound Benefits of Acyclovir Buccal Adhesive Tablets.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Ted

    2016-06-01

    The clinician has many options, both systemic and topical, for the management of oro-labial herpes simplex infections due to HSV-1. A recent addition to this armamentarium is Acyclovir 50 mg Buccal Adhesive Tablets (ABT 50mg). While this agent demonstrates the typical modest reduction in time to healing of any given episode of recurrent oro-labial HSV 1, it also was found in pivotal studies to alter the course of this troublesome viral disease. Several case reports are presented which dramatically illustrate that ABT 50mg can reduce the overall number of overt outbreaks and increase the time interval between outbreaks in patients with historical evidence of frequent episodes. This therapeutic intervention is thus: simple, safe, efficacious and cost-effective, even in patients who experience numerous (and therefore disconcerting) oro-labial outbreaks.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):775-777.

  5. Comparison of buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 and 1 : 200,000 epinephrine for extraction of maxillary third molars with pericoronitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima, José Lacet; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Ferreira-Rocha, Julierme; Soares, Ramon; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Fan, Song; Sant'ana, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We compared the buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 or 1 : 200,000 epinephrine without a palatal injection for the extraction of impacted maxillary third molars with chronic pericoronitis. This prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial involved 30 patients between the ages of 15 and 46 years who desired extraction of a partially impacted upper third molar with pericoronitis. Group 1 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and group 2 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration. None of the patients in group 1 reported pain, but 3 patients in group 2 reported pain, which indicated a need for a supplementary palatal injection. The palatal injections were all successful in eliminating the pain. Two additional patients in group 2 experienced pain when the suture needle penetrated their palatal mucosa. Based on these results, 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine was found to be more effective for the removal of upper third molars in the presence of pericoronitis than 4% articaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine when only a buccal infiltration was used.

  6. Comparison of Buccal Infiltration of 4% Articaine With 1 : 100,000 and 1 : 200,000 Epinephrine for Extraction of Maxillary Third Molars With Pericoronitis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Lacet; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Ferreira-Rocha, Julierme; Soares, Ramon; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Fan, Song; Sant'ana, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    We compared the buccal infiltration of 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 or 1 : 200,000 epinephrine without a palatal injection for the extraction of impacted maxillary third molars with chronic pericoronitis. This prospective, double-blind, controlled clinical trial involved 30 patients between the ages of 15 and 46 years who desired extraction of a partially impacted upper third molar with pericoronitis. Group 1 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine and group 2 (15 patients) received 4% articaine with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine by buccal infiltration. None of the patients in group 1 reported pain, but 3 patients in group 2 reported pain, which indicated a need for a supplementary palatal injection. The palatal injections were all successful in eliminating the pain. Two additional patients in group 2 experienced pain when the suture needle penetrated their palatal mucosa. Based on these results, 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine was found to be more effective for the removal of upper third molars in the presence of pericoronitis than 4% articaine hydrochloride with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine when only a buccal infiltration was used. PMID:23763558

  7. [Treatment of severe scrotal hypospadias with onlay-type urethroplasty using mouth mucosa].

    PubMed

    Castañón, M; Grande, C; Muñoz, M E; García, A; Morales, L

    1999-07-01

    Failure in repairing severe hypospadias complicated with fistula and cutaneous retraction is often associated with lack of subcutaneous tissue and skin providing protection to the neourethra. We report the results of treatment in 6 patients with scrotal hypospadias with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. A neourethra was created by the onlay technique applying an oral mucosa graft and preserving in all cases the dorsal preputial skin for the island cutaneous flap. All patients had hypospadias without previous repairs excepting one of them, who had had one first time hypospadias repair in other hospital. Patients age ranged between 2 years and 3 months, and 4 years (mean: 2 years and 9 months). In all cases, hypospadias was scrotal type with severe deviation and scarce dorsal prepuce. All patients had prior hormone stimulation with dehydrotestosterone 3%. Surgical repair was performed in one-stage. Urethroplasty included preservation of the urethral plate, oral mucosa graft to provide ventral coverage, and island cutaneous flap with the dorsal preputial skin. In all cases, the chord was dissected behind the urethral plate. In 3 patients a dorsal Nesbit plication was necessary to obtain a complete straighten penis. Results in all 6 cases were satisfactory. Only one patient had a small leakage at the previous neomeatus. The other five patients are asymptomatic. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 2 years. We conclude that urethroplasty in association with a well vascularized island flap of dorsal preputial skin decrease the incidence of fistulae. In patients with severe hypospadias with scarce dorsal prepuce urethroplasty should be completed with oral mucosa grafts preserving dorsal preputial skin for the ventral cutaneous plasty.

  8. Lack of usefulness of ureteral reconstruction with free bladder mucosa flap in dogs confirmed by microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Kuzaka, Bolesław; Borkowski, Tomasz; Kuzaka, Piotr; Szostek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data addressing the blood supply in the surgically reconstructed ureter, and complete lack of microangiographic studies of the reconstructed ureter with the use of a free bladder mucosa flap. The present study evaluated the blood supply in the reconstructed dog ureter after a 5-centimeter segment resection, supplemented by a tube constructed from a free bladder mucosa flap. Material/Methods Female mongrel dogs (n=29) were used in this study. Under general anaesthesia, a 5-centimeter autologous free bladder mucosa flap was used to construct a tube, which was afterwards grafted to replace a 5-centimeter ureter resection. After a period of 3 months (n=2) and after 1 year (n=2), microangiography was performed to assess the revascularization of the grafted ureter. Results In our study, we observed the continuity of the ureter, but the grafted reconstruction was narrowed by the cicatrization in about 86% (n=25) of cases. This resulted in the development of hydronephrosis, as described in previous publications. The ureteral wall was covered by a normal urothelium, but consisted of fibrous connective tissue, which failed to restore a regular (normal) coat. The reconstructed segment showed no smooth muscle cells. A few smooth monocytes were found only at the border with intact portions of the ureter. The microangiography performed at the end of the experiments showed no vascularization of the restored segment of the ureter. Conclusions The experiments showed a whole regeneration of urothelium in the transected and reanastomosed ureters. However, there was no regeneration of the muscular coat and a complete lack of revascularization. PMID:24980521

  9. Overgrowth of oral mucosa and facial skin, a novel feature of aspartylglucosaminuria

    PubMed Central

    Arvio, P.; Arvio, M.; Kero, M.; Pirinen, S.; Lukinmaa, P.

    1999-01-01

    Aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA). The main symptom is progressive mental retardation. A spectrum of different mutations has been reported in this disease, one missense mutation (Cys163Ser) being responsible for the majority of Finnish cases. We were able to examine 66 Finnish AGU patients for changes in the oral mucosa and 44 of these for changes in facial skin. Biopsy specimens of 16 oral lesions, 12 of them associated with the teeth, plus two facial lesions were studied histologically. Immunohistochemical staining for AGA was performed on 15 oral specimens.
  Skin was seborrhoeic in adolescent and adult patients, with erythema of the facial skin already common in childhood. Of 44 patients, nine (20%) had facial angiofibromas, tumours primarily occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis. Oedemic buccal mucosa (leucoedema) and gingival overgrowths were more frequent in AGU patients than in controls (p<0.001).
  Of 16 oral mucosal lesions studied histologically, 15 represented fibroepithelial or epithelial hyperplasias and were reactive in nature. Cytoplasmic vacuolisation was evident in four. Immunohistochemically, expression of AGA in AGU patients' mucosal lesions did not differ from that seen in corresponding lesions of normal subjects. Thus, the high frequency of mucosal overgrowth in AGU patients does not appear to be directly associated with lysosomal storage or with alterations in the level of AGA expression.


Keywords: aspartylglucosaminidase; lysosomal storage disease; oral mucosa; skin tumours PMID:10353787

  10. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  11. Comparison of buccal and intramuscular dexmedetomidine premedication for arthroscopic knee surgery.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Dilek; Peker, Tulay Tuncer; Alaca, Adnan; Ozmen, Sadik; Kirdemir, Pakize; Yorgancigil, Huseyin; Baydar, Metin Lutfi

    2006-12-01

    To compare the sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects of buccal dexmedetomidine with intramuscular (IM) dexmedetomidine for premedication in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery during spinal anesthesia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. University medical center. 75 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery with spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomized to one of three groups for premedication: group B, buccal dexmedetomidine 2.5 microg kg(-1); group IM, IM dexmedetomidine 2.5 microg kg(-1); and group P, buccal 0.9% and NaCl 2 mL. Noninvasive blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation were recorded. Sedation and anxiety levels were consecutively assessed with Ramsay sedation scores and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of anxiety before premedication, before spinal anesthesia, during surgery, and at the end of surgery. Two, 4, and 8 hours after surgery, sedation levels, postoperative VAS pain scores, and consumption of analgesics (diclofenac sodium) were recorded. Before spinal anesthesia, during surgery, and at the end of surgery, sedation and anxiety scores of the patients receiving buccal or IM dexmedetomidine were, respectively, higher and lower than in group P. Patients receiving buccal dexmedetomidine (group B) had lower requirement of diclofenac sodium than group P and lower pain scores than groups P and IM. Mild hypotension and bradycardia were observed in the buccal and IM dexmedetomidine patients. Buccal dexmedetomidine for premedication in arthroscopic knee surgery provided equal levels of sedation and anxiolysis, and more evident analgesia compared with IM dexmedetomidine.

  12. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Mona; Kirby, Mary; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward; Jiang, John G

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg in healthy adult volunteers. After receiving naltrexone 50 mg to block opioid receptor-mediated effects of fentanyl, subjects received fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1, then every 6 hours from day 4 to day 9 (21 doses). Naltrexone 50 mg was administered every 12 hours throughout the study. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were determined for 72 hours after administration of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 1 and the last dose of fentanyl buccal tablet 400 microg on day 9. Following single- and multiple-dose administration of fentanyl buccal tablet, the median time to maximum concentration (tmax) was 52.2 and 49.8 minutes, respectively. Peak plasma concentration of fentanyl (Cmax) was 0.88 ng/mL for the single-dose regimen and 1.77 ng/mL for the multiple-dose regimen. Steady state was reached within 5 days, consistent with the observed median half-life of approximately 22 hours following multiple doses. Observed accumulation of fentanyl after multiple doses of fentanyl buccal tablet was slightly greater than would be expected based on the single-dose data. This was attributed to the redistribution of fentanyl from a deep tissue compartment into the plasma. This study indicates that fentanyl buccal tablet has predictable pharmacokinetics following multiple-dose administration.

  13. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  14. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  15. Effects of palatine bone denudation repair with periosteal graft on maxillary growth: an experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Barutca, Seda Asfuroğlu; Aksan, Tolga; Usçetin, Ilker; Sahin, Davut; Akan, Mithat

    2014-01-01

    The long-term goal of cleft palate repair is to provide normal maxillary growth and speech capacity. However, most surgical repairs of cleft palate result in areas of bone denudation on lateral aspects of the hard palate. It is widely acknowledged that palatal bone denudation and subsequent scar contracture resulting from cleft palate surgery can inhibit maxillary growth. This study is designed to investigate the effect of the periosteum on growth patterns of the maxilla. A total of 32 three-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group and three experimental groups: a mucosa excision group, a mucosa-periosteum excision group and a periosteal graft group. Nine weeks postoperatively the skulls were prepared for study and palatal widths and lengths were determined. The experimental groups were investigated for various histological changes. There was no statistically significant difference for the maxillary measurements (palatal width and length) between the mucosa excision group and the periosteal graft group when compared with the control group. However, the mucosa-periosteum excision group compared to the control indicated a statistically significant decrease in the same measurements. There was also a statistically significant difference for the maxillary measurements between the periosteal graft group and the mucosa-periosteum excision group. It was demonstrated histologically that the density of the Sharpey's fibres and periodontal scar tissue showed a slight increase in the mucosa excision group and the periosteal graft group compared with the control group. In the mucosa-periosteum excision group, the density increased significantly as expected. All of these findings testify that retaining the periosteum or replacement with a periosteum graft after surgery can prevent the inhibition of maxillary growth. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy for oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-treated hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingyue; Xu, Qing; Li, Pingping; Zhou, Guoyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of krypton laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) with PsD-007 for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-treated hamsters. A DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch model of precancerous lesions was created and the resultant 25 hamsters were divided into five groups. The right side was treated with PDT and the left side was used as the positive control. Following systemic anesthesia, an incision was made in the groin area to expose the femoral vein. PsD-007 was administered intravenously through the femoral vein. Various doses of photosensitizer were used to treat groups A-E. Subsequent to closing the incision, the right side of the buccal mucosa was irradiated with light using the krypton laser at a wavelength of 413 nm, a power density of 150 mW/cm(2) and an irradiation time of 20 min. At six weeks post-surgery, the response was analyzed using histological examinations of the buccal pouch mucosa. A total of 24 hamsters completed the six-week observation period, as one hamster from group C died in the second week following the PDT. Of all 24 irradiated sides, 15 formed normal mucosal tissues and nine demonstrated mild dysplasia. Of the total control sides, six developed moderate dysplasia, five developed severe dysplasia and 13 progressed to carcinoma in situ or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The results revealed a significant difference between the two sides (P<0.01) and the various doses of the PsD-007 groups. When the PsD-007 dose was >10 mg/kg, there was no statistical difference (P>0.05). PsD-007-mediated krypton laser PDT is effective for the treatment of oral mucosa dysplasia in hamsters.

  17. Socket grafting with the use of autologous bone: an experimental study in the dog.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Lindhe, Jan

    2011-01-01

    studies in humans and animals have shown that following tooth removal (loss), the alveolar ridge becomes markedly reduced. Attempts made to counteract such ridge diminution by installing implants in the fresh extraction sockets were not successful, while socket grafting with anorganic bovine bone mineral prevented ridge contraction. to examine whether grafting of the alveolar socket with the use of chips of autologous bone may allow ridge preservation following tooth extraction. in five beagle dogs, the distal roots of the third and fourth mandibular premolars were removed. The sockets in the right or the left jaw quadrant were grafted with either anorganic bovine bone or with chips of autologous bone harvested from the buccal bone plate. After 3 months of healing, biopsies of the experimental sites were sampled, prepared for buccal-lingual ground sections and examined with respect to size and composition. it was observed that the majority of the autologous bone chips during healing had been resorbed and that the graft apparently did not interfere with socket healing or processes that resulted in ridge resorption. autologous bone chips placed in the fresh extraction socket will (i) neither stimulate nor retard new bone formation and (ii) not prevent ridge resorption that occurs during healing following tooth extraction.

  18. Maxillary antral bone grafts for repair of orbital fractures.

    PubMed

    Copeland, M; Meisner, J

    1991-04-01

    Use of bone from the maxillary antrum to repair defects in the orbital floor was described more than 20 years ago but has not been reported for correction of orbital rim fractures. The method is appealing because the source is contiguous with the recipient site; enhanced exposure might allow better fracture reduction and evacuation of debris and hematoma from the maxillary sinus. The intraoral approach also avoids an external incision and scar, prevents such complications as pneumothorax or dural perforation, and reduces postoperative pain. In 60 cases of orbital and zygomatic complex fractures seen between 1985 and 1990, less than 8% required more extensive graft material than the maxillary antra could provide. To assess the potential advantages of local over extraanatomical bone grafts, we evaluated maxillary antral bone grafts obtained through buccal sulcus incisions in 14 patients for restoration following fractures of the orbit. Several of these patients are described. Bone union was complete in all patients and there was no morbidity related to infection, oroantral fistula formation, dehiscence, or disfigurement. Sufficient bone was available from the uninvolved contralateral side to repair even severely comminuted fractures. In zygomatic complex fractures, maxillary antral grafts appeared to provide additional strength in the region of the fractured maxillary buttress. The success of the procedure in our experience, coupled with the safety of bone harvesting from this source, and the avoidance of an external scar make maxillary antral bone well suited to reconstruction of all areas of the orbit.

  19. Multi-layered nanofibrous mucoadhesive films for buccal and sublingual administration of drug-delivery and vaccination nanoparticles - important step towards effective mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mašek, Josef; Lubasová, Daniela; Lukáč, Róbert; Turánek-Knotigová, Pavlína; Kulich, Pavel; Plocková, Jana; Mašková, Eliška; Procházka, Lubomír; Koudelka, Štěpán; Sasithorn, Nongnut; Gombos, Jozsef; Bartheldyová, Eliška; Hubatka, František; Raška, Milan; Miller, Andrew D; Turánek, Jaroslav

    2017-03-10

    Nanofibre-based mucoadhesive films were invented for oromucosal administration of nanocarriers used for delivery of drugs and vaccines. The mucoadhesive film consists of an electrospun nanofibrous reservoir layer, a mucoadhesive film layer and a protective backing layer. The mucoadhesive layer is responsible for tight adhesion of the whole system to the oral mucosa after application. The electrospun nanofibrous reservoir layer is intended to act as a reservoir for polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, liposomes, virosomes, virus-like particles, dendrimers and the like, plus macromolecular drugs, antigens and/or allergens. The extremely large surface area of nanofibrous reservoir layers allows high levels of nanoparticle loading. Nanoparticles can either be reversibly adsorbed to the surface of nanofibres or they can be deposited in the pores between the nanofibres. After mucosal application, nanofibrous reservoir layers are intended to promote prolonged release of nanoparticles into the submucosal tissue. Reversible adsorption of model nanoparticles as well as sufficient mucoadhesive properties were demonstrated. This novel system appears appropriate for the use in oral mucosa, especially for sublingual and buccal tissues. To prove this concept, trans-/intramucosal and lymph-node delivery of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles was demonstrated in a porcine model. This system can mainly be used for sublingual immunization and the development of "printed vaccine technology".

  20. An assessment of grafts in the posterior cricoid lamina.

    PubMed

    Strome, M; Norris, C M; Joseph, M P; Brodsky, G; Eavey, R D

    1982-10-01

    Subglottic stenosis is a recognized complication of prolonged intubation. To date, there is no uniformly successful operative procedure for severe subglottic stenosis, fulfilling the criteria of decannulation and a serviceable voice. The surgical ideals for such a procedure should include the use of autogenous grafting material, avoidance of internal stenting, and limited manipulation of the mucosa. This study was intended to assess the fate of isolated hyoid and thyroid alar grafts interposed in the posterior cricoid lamina. Additionally, anterior/posterior splits with and without anterior grafting were evaluated. Seventeen dogs were used in the determinate animal model. Vocal cord mobility was evaluated by direct laryngoscopy prior to sacrifice. Graphic gross anatomical specimens depict the effects of anterior/posterior splitting on the cricoid cartilage. Clinical correlations are suggested.

  1. Bacterial-killing effect of atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet and oral mucosa response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexi; Xiong, Zilan; Du, Tianfeng; Zhou, Xincai; Cao, Yingguang; Lu, Xinpei

    2011-12-01

    Recently, plasma sterilization has attracted increasing attention in dental community for the atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma jet (APNPs), which is driven by a kilohertz pulsed DC power, may be applied to the dental and oral diseases. However, it is still in doubt whether APNPs can effectively kill pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity and produce no harmful effects on normal oral tissues, especially on normal mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial-killing effect of APNPs in the biofilms containing a single breed of bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, P.g.), and the pathological changes of the oral mucosa after treatment by APNPs. P.g. was incubated to form the biofilms in vitro, and the samples were divided into three groups randomly: group A (blank control); group B in which the biofilms were treated by APNPs (the setting of the equipment: 10 kHz, 1600 ns and 8 kV); group C in which the biofilms were exposed only to a gas jet without ignition of the plasma. Each group had three samples and each sample was processed for up to 5 min. The biofilms were then fluorescently stained, observed and photographed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. In the animal experiment, six male Japanese white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly (n=3 in each group) in terms of the different post-treatment time (1-day group and 5-day group). The buccal mucosa of the left side and the mucosa of the ventral surface of the tongue were treated by APNPs for 10 min in the same way as the bacterial biofilm experiment in each rabbit, and the corresponding mucosa of the other sides served as normal control. The clinical manifestations of the oral mucosa were observed and recorded every day. The rabbits were sacrificed one or five day(s) after APNPs treatment. The oral mucosa were harvested and prepared to haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Clinical observation and histopathological scores were used to assess mucosal changes. The results

  2. Ridge alterations following grafting of fresh extraction sockets in man. A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Mauricio G; da Silva, João Carlos Costa; de Mendonça, Arthur Furtado; Lindhe, Jan

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate dimensional alterations of the alveolar ridge that occurred following tooth extraction at sites grafted with Bio-Oss(®) Collagen. Twenty-eight subjects with maxillary incisors, canines, and premolars scheduled for extraction were included. The tooth was carefully removed. The patients were randomly assigned to a test or a control group. In the test group patients, Bio-Oss(®) Collagen was placed in the fresh extraction socket while in the controls no grafting was performed. Radiographic examination (cone beam computed tomograms, CBCT) was performed immediately after tooth extraction and socket treatment. Four months later, a new CBCT was obtained. In the radiographs, (i) the distance (mm) between base of the alveolar process (apex) and the buccal and palatal crests was determined, (ii) the outer profile of alveolar process of the experimental sites was outlined, and the cross section of the area (mm(2) ) determined. After 4 months of healing, the buccal and to a less extent also the palatal bone plate had become markedly reduced in height. The placement of a biomaterial in the socket failed to prevent resorption of the buccal and palatal bone walls. The cross-sectional area of the control ridge was reduced about 25% and of the test ridge with 3%. The placement of a xenograft in fresh extraction sockets markedly counteracted the reduction in the hard tissue component of the edentulous sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Alveolar Ridge Contouring with Free Connective Tissue Graft at Implant Placement: A 5-Year Consecutive Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Thomas; Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated volume stability after alveolar ridge contouring with free connective tissue grafts at implant placement in single-tooth gaps. A total of 52 single-tooth gaps with labial volume deficiencies in the maxilla (incisors, canines, and premolars) were consecutively treated with implants and concomitant free palatal connective tissue grafts in 46 patients between 2006 and 2009. Implants had to be covered with at least 2 mm peri-implant local bone after insertion. At implant placement, a free connective tissue graft from the palate was fixed inside a labial split-thickness flap to form an existing concave buccal alveolar ridge contour due to tissue volume deficiency into a convex shape. Standardized volumetric measurements of the labial alveolar contour using a template were evaluated before connective tissue grafting and at 2 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after implantprosthetic incorporation. Tissue volume had increased significantly (P < .05) in all six reference points representing the outer alveolar soft tissue contour of the implant before connective tissue grafting to baseline (2 weeks after implant-prosthetic incorporation). Statistically, 50% of the reference points (P > .05) kept their volume from baseline to 1 year after prosthetic incorporation and from baseline to 5 years after prosthetic incorporation, respectively, whereas reference points located within the area of the implant sulcus showed a significant (P < .05) decrease in volume. Clinically, 5 years after prosthetic incorporation the originally concave buccal alveolar contour was still convex in all implants, leading to a continuous favorable anatomical shape and improved esthetic situation. Intraoral radiographs confirmed osseointegration and stable peri-implant parameters with a survival rate of 100% after a follow-up of approximately 5 years. Implant placement with concomitant free connective tissue grafting appears to be an appropriate long-term means to contour preexisting buccal

  4. Interforaminal implant therapy using a split skin graft--treatment outcome after 13 years.

    PubMed

    Karl, Matthias; Fenner, Matthias; Amann, Kerstin; Heckmann, Josef G; Wichmann, Manfred G; Heckmann, Siegfried M

    2009-03-01

    In implant patients who have extended soft tissue deficiencies, split skin grafts have been performed for the prevention of peri-implant inflammation. The aim of this investigation was to assess a patient who received 2 interforaminal implants and a split skin graft 13 years prior. In addition to clinical, mycologic, and radiographic examinations, the condition of the split skin graft was evaluated using histologic analysis of 3 punch biopsies taken from the mucosa, grafted area, and border between both areas. The implants were found to have an overall good clinical condition. Fungal infection was not present. The histologic analysis revealed inflammation-free mucosal and submucosal tissue in all samples. In the area of the skin graft, the mucosa was not keratinized and showed an increased thickness of the submucosal connective tissue. For the patient under examination, an acceptable level of oral rehabilitation was achieved using a split skin graft. The follow-up investigation showed stable conditions for both the implants and the graft.

  5. Distribution of fibronectin in the rectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scott, D L; Morris, C J; Blake, A E; Low-Beer, T S; Walton, K W

    1981-07-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight present in tissues, plasma, and tissue fluids. Its distribution in the rectal mucosa was studied by immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques using a monospecific antiserum. Immunofluorescent reactivity for fibronectin was present in the normal rectal mucosa of control subjects in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and as a loose cribriform network of extracellular reactivity in the lamina propria that codistributed with histochemically demonstrable reticulin. Fibronectin was demonstrated immunoelectromicroscopically on collagen fibres, on smooth muscle cells and within and between columnar epithelial cells. In the rectal mucosa of patients with colitis with marked inflammatory changes, fibronectin appeared thickened and more prominent when present on basement membranes and as sparse strands between inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria. In patients with longstanding colitis and less inflammatory cell infiltration there was a diffuse increase in fibronectin which was densely and uniformly present throughout the lamina propria. Fibronectin is a structural component of the rectal mucosa and changes in its distribution may form an important part of the local reaction to inflammatory bowel disease.

  6. Testing hypotheses of dietary reconstruction from buccal dental microwear in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Estebaranz, F; Martínez, L M; Galbany, J; Turbón, D; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2009-12-01

    A recent study of occlusal microwear in Australopithecus afarensis described this species as an opportunistic dweller, living in both forested and open environments and greatly relying on fallback resources and using fewer food-processing activities than previously suggested. In the present study, analysis of buccal microwear variability in a sample of A. afarensis specimens (n=75 teeth) showed no significant correlations with the ecological shift that took place around 3.5Ma in Africa. These results are consistent with the occlusal microwear data available. In fact, significant correlations between buccal and occlusal microwear variables were found. However, comparison of the buccal microwear patterns showed clear similarities between A. afarensis and those hominoid species living in somewhat open environments, especially the Cameroon gorillas. A diet based mainly on succulent fruits and seasonal fallback resources would be consistent with the buccal microwear patterns observed.

  7. Effect of ethanol on lipid metabolism and epithelial permeability barrier of skin and oral mucosa in the rat.

    PubMed

    Squier, Christopher A; Kremer, Mary J; Wertz, Philip W

    2003-11-01

    Ethanol consumption induces changes in lipid metabolism. This might be reflected locally as an alteration in the epithelial lipid barrier. Rats were fed with an isocaloric liquid diet with, or without, ethanol (6.7%) and were sacrificed at 60 or 120 days. Plasma and liver triglycerides, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGTP) levels, and permeability (Kp) of skin and buccal mucosa to tritiated water and the tobacco carcinogen, nitrosonornicotine, were determined. Significant elevation of GGTP at 120 days and triglycerides at both 60 and 120 days was observed for rats fed with ethanol diet. For this diet, Kp values to both penetrants increased significantly for skin in rats after 120 days compared to all other groups. The parallel between changes in lipid metabolism and permeability suggests that one effect of ingested alcohol is to alter the lipid-containing permeability barrier of stratified squamous epithelium.

  8. Oral mucosa as a source of Mycobacterium leprae infection and transmission, and implications of bacterial DNA detection and the immunological status.

    PubMed

    Martinez, T S; Figueira, M M N R; Costa, A V; Gonçalves, M A; Goulart, L R; Goulart, I M B

    2011-11-01

    Leprosy is an important health problem in Brazil despite extensive use of multidrug therapy. The nasal mucosa is the preferential site of entry and exit of Mycobacterium leprae, and although lesions have been found in the oral mucosa, its potential involvement in the transmission of leprosy bacilli has never been investigated. We investigated the presence of the M. leprae DNA in buccal swabs of leprosy patients (334) and household contacts (1288) through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and correlated this with clinical and laboratorial evaluations. The overall positivity for patients and contacts was 18.26% and 6.83%, respectively. Subclinical infection among contacts was considered when PCR and anti-PGL-1 ELISA presented positive results. This study provides evidence that the oral mucosa may be a secondary site of M. leprae transmission and infection, and contacts with bacillary DNA may be actively involved in transmission. We have also shown that bacilli DNA is more frequently found in the oral mucosa of PB patients. Our findings have great epidemiological relevance and indicate an additional strategy for leprosy control programmes and dental clinics.

  9. Use of buccal swabs for sampling DNA from nestling and adult birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Pajot, Lisa; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency of using swabs to collect buccal epithelial cells fromsmall (2‐ to 13‐g) birds as a source of DNA for genetic studies. We used commercially available buccal swab kits to collect samples from 42 adult and 39 nestling (4‐ to 8‐day‐old) black‐capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and from6 4‐day‐old nestling boreal chickadees (P. hudsonica). We compared DNA from buccal epithelial samples to that fromblood samples from the same individuals. We extracted sufficient quantities of DNA for analysis from all buccalsamples, and samples remained viable even after being stored in original plastic sampling tubes at room temperature for up to 18 months. Yields were equivalent whether extracted using the proprietary quick‐extraction solution provided with buccal swab kits or using a salt‐extraction process with inexpensive reagents. Yields of DNA from buccal samples were consistently lower than those from blood samples, but quantities were sufficient for all analyses. Assignment of sex, based on DNA extracted from paired buccal and blood samples, was identical for all 87 birds. We found no difference in the genotypes obtained from buccal and blood samples for 12 individuals tested using 5 microsatellite loci and found perfect concordance in sequencing of an 823‐base‐pair segment within the control region of mitochondrial DNA for 7 individuals tested. Use of buccal swabs is highly recommended as a rapid, noninvasive technique for sampling avian genomic DNA, especially for extremely young altricial nestlings or small‐bodied adults, or for any birds for which blood sampling may be impossible or stressful.

  10. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichat´s buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Alonso-González, Rocío; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichat´s ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichat's fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication.

  11. Relative Telomere Repeat Mass in Buccal and Leukocyte-Derived DNA

    PubMed Central

    Finnicum, Casey T.; Dolan, Conor V.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Weber, Zachary M.; Petersen, Jason L.; Beck, Jeffrey J.; Codd, Veryan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Davies, Gareth E.; Ehli, Erik A.

    2017-01-01

    Telomere length has garnered interest due to the potential role it may play as a biomarker for the cellular aging process. Telomere measurements obtained from blood-derived DNA are often used in epidemiological studies. However, the invasive nature of blood draws severely limits sample collection, particularly with children. Buccal cells are commonly sampled for DNA isolation and thus may present a non-invasive alternative for telomere measurement. Buccal and leukocyte derived DNA obtained from samples collected at the same time period were analyzed for telomere repeat mass (TRM). TRM was measured in buccal-derived DNA samples from individuals for whom previous TRM data from blood samples existed. TRM measurement was performed by qPCR and was normalized to the single copy 36B4 gene relative to a reference DNA sample (K562). Correlations between TRM from blood and buccal DNA were obtained and also between the same blood DNA samples measured in separate laboratories. Using the classical twin design, TRM heritability was estimated (N = 1892, MZ = 1044, DZ = 775). Buccal samples measured for TRM showed a significant correlation with the blood-1 (R = 0.39, p < 0.01) and blood-2 (R = 0.36, p < 0.01) samples. Sex and age effects were observed within the buccal samples as is the norm within blood-derived DNA. The buccal, blood-1, and blood-2 measurements generated heritability estimates of 23.3%, 47.6% and 22.2%, respectively. Buccal derived DNA provides a valid source for the determination of TRM, paving the way for non-invasive projects, such as longitudinal studies in children. PMID:28125671

  12. Closure of oroantral communications with Bichat´s buccal fat pad. Level of patient satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-González, Rocío; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To report the closure of oroantral communications with the pedicled buccal fat pad in a series of patients, and to determine the level of patient satisfaction after the surgery. Study Design: A prospective study of patients diagnosed of unilateral or bilateral oroantral communication (OAC) closed using the buccal fat pad between May 2012 and January 2013 was performed. Data analysis extended to: age, sex, and cause, location and size of oroantral communication. Complications and success related to buccal fat pad surgery were evaluated. Also, patient satisfaction was assessed after six months of surgery. Results: Nine patients (3 men and 6 women) with a mean age of 50.5 years and 11 OAC treated with buccal fat pads were included. The most common cause of oroantral communication was the extraction of molars. The average widest diameter of the oroantral communication was 7.1 mm. One week after the surgeries no complications were found. One month after surgery, one patient presented persistence of the oroantral communication; in this patient, the buccal fat pad technique was considered a failure, and a second intervention was performed using a buccal mucoperiosteal flap to achieve primary closure of soft tissues. After six months, patient showed closure of the communication and complete healing. All the other communications had been solved with Bichat´s ball technique, yielding a success rate of 90.9%. Mean patient overall satisfaction was 9.1 out of 10; patients were satisfied with phonetics (9.4), aesthetics (9) and chewing (9). Conclusions: The buccal fat pad technique was successful in closing 10 out of 11 oroantral communications and few complications were found. Patients were highly satisfied in overall with the treatment and with phonetics, aesthetics and chewing. Key words:Bichat’s fat pad, buccal fat pad, oroantral communication. PMID:25810838

  13. Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap for Bone Graft Coverage: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most important step in bone graft management is soft tissue coverage. Dehiscence of the wound leads to graft exposure and subsequent problems. Purpose: This study introduces an axial pattern flap for bone graft coverage in anterior maxilla. Patients and Methods: Use of Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap is presented by the authors. It is a mucoperiosteal flap with axial pattern blood supply, based on nasopalatine artery. It is easy to raise and predictable. Results: Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap was effective in bone graft coverage in premaxillary edentulous area. Conclusion: It can be used as an aid for bone graft coverage of premaxillary edentulous ridge, where the need for mucosa is small in width but long in length. PMID:27512552

  14. Prelaminating the fascial radial forearm flap by using tissue-engineered mucosa: improvement of donor and recipient sites.

    PubMed

    Lauer, G; Schimming, R; Gellrich, N C; Schmelzeisen, R

    2001-11-01

    In reconstructive surgery, prelamination of free flaps using split-thickness skin is an established technique to avoid the creation of a considerable defect at the donor site, for example, in the case of a radial forearm flap. For oral and maxillofacial surgery, this technique is less than optimal for the recipient site because the transferred skin is inadequate to form a lining in the oral cavity. To create mucosa-lined free flaps, prelamination using pieces of split-thickness mucosa has been performed. However, the availability of donor sites for harvesting mucosa is limited. The present study combines a tissue-engineering technique with free flap surgery to create mucosa-lined flaps with the intention of improving the tissue quality at the recipient site and decreasing donor-site morbidity. On five patients undergoing resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the radial forearm flap was prelaminated with a tissue-engineered mucosa graft to reconstruct intraoral defects. Using 10 x 5 mm biopsies of healthy mucosa, keratinocytes were cultured for 12 days and seeded onto collagen membranes (4.5 x 9 cm). After 3 days, the mucosal keratinocyte collagen membrane was implanted subcutaneously at the left or right lower forearm to prelaminate the fascial radial forearm flap. One week later, resection of the squamous cell carcinoma was performed, and the free fascial radial forearm flap pre- laminated with tissue-engineered mucosa was transplanted into the defect and was microvascularly anastomosed. Resection defects up to a size of 5 x 8 cm were covered. In four patients, the graft healed without complications. In one patient, an abscess developed in the resection cavity without jeopardizing the flap. During the postoperative healing period, the membrane detached and a vulnerable pale-pink, glassy hyperproliferative wound surface was observed. This surface developed into normal-appearing healthy mucosa after 3 to 4 weeks. In the postoperative follow

  15. Optical detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa: autofluorescence characteristics of healthy mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Veld, Diana C. G.; Witjes, Max; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Star, Willem M.; Sterenborg, Hericus J. C. M.

    2001-10-01

    Previous clinical results demonstrate the potential of in vivo autofluorescence spectroscopy for early detection of (pre-)malignant lesions of the oral mucosa. For reliable diagnosis, it is necessary to study autofluorescence spectra of healthy mucosa first. We measured excitation-emission maps in healthy subjects and subjects with a history of cancer in the head -neck region. Our results show that different anatomical locations produce distinct autofluorescence spectra. Influences of, among others, smoking and drinking habits require further investigation.

  16. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    PubMed

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells.

  17. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIFFERENT INTRACANAL MEDICATIONS IN RAT BUCCAL SUBMUCOSA TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the buccal tissue responses of Wistar rats to 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and the association of both products. For this purpose, 30 specimens were randomly implanted in the filtrum of the four upper and lower hemiarches with a polyethylene tube containing one of the following substances: 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine solution (test groups); calcium hydroxide and distilled water and distilled water (control groups). Ten rats each were distributed according to time interval of evaluation at 7, 15 and 30 days. The histological sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Analysis was performed with an optical microscope at x100, x200 and x400 magnifications by an expert examiner blinded to the materials. The sections were classified by scores attributed to inflammatory events and by a ranking determined according to the severity of the inflammation. The results of the inflammatory events and severity ranking were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant difference occurred among the tested materials; however, all materials showed a decreased of severity with respect to longer time intervals. PMID:19089283

  18. Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups.

  19. Tooth size in dentitions with buccal canine ectopia.

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Stella; Sharabi, Shaltiel; Becker, Adrian

    2003-10-01

    Much interest has been expressed in recent years regarding various features common to dentitions with palatally displaced canines (PDC), particularly in relation to delayed dental development and reduced tooth size. The aims of the present study were to determine whether dentitions with buccally displaced canines (BDC) have features in common, which may be specific for the condition, when compared with PDC dentitions and those with normally erupting canines. Mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions were determined for 41 subjects with BDC (21 females and 20 males) aged between 11 and 15 years, who formed the experimental sample. The PDC sample was made up of 58 individuals (37 females and 21 males) and the control group comprised 40 age-matched and consecutively treated subjects (20 males and 20 females), exhibiting normally erupted and undisplaced maxillary canines. The results revealed marked sexual dimorphism. Larger-than-average teeth were present in BDC females, whereas the teeth in BDC males were normally sized. Unilaterally affected females had smaller teeth than bilaterally affected females. Tooth size in BDC was consistently larger than in PDC subjects, although the reason was different between the sexes. In females the PDC teeth were normally sized versus large BDC teeth, whereas in the males, the PDC teeth were small and the BDC teeth normal. It is concluded that combining male and female subjects into an overall BDC group obscures important differences that exist between the two sexes.

  20. Intentional mixed buccal cell reference sample in a paternity case.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce

    2007-03-01

    We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem.

  1. Treatment of inadequate lactation with oral sulpiride and buccal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Ylikorkala, O; Kauppila, A; Kivinen, S; Viinikka, L

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six puerperal women with inadequate lactation were treated with 50 mg sulpiride (N = 24) or placebo (N = 12) three times a day for two weeks. These treatments were supplemented with buccal oxytocin (100 IU, 300 IU, or 400 IU) or placebo preceding each breast-feeding on the sixth and 14th and on the seventh and 13th days of oral treatment, respectively. One woman treated with sulpiride and three women treated with placebo discontinued the trial because of the lack of the effect of treatment. The concentration of prolactin in maternal serum was higher (P less than .001) during sulpiride than placebo treatment at one week (380 +/- 43 ng/ml vs 23 +/- 7 ng/ml, mean +/- SE) and two weeks of treatment (381 +/- 38 ng/ml vs 34 +/- 10 ng/ml). Also, the daily breast milk yield, as measured objectively, was greater (P less than .05) during sulpiride than placebo treatment both at one week (628 +/- 51 ml vs 440 +/- 68 ml) and two weeks of treatment (684 +/- 67 ml vs 423 +/- 60 ml). Various doses of oxytocin failed to stimulate the milk secretion in the presence or absence of sulpiride-induced hyperprolactinemia. Thus, sulpiride improved inadequate lactation, whereas exogenous oxytocin alone or together with sulpiride had no effect on lactation in these mothers whose infants were able to suckle normally.

  2. An evaluation of torque (moment) on implant/prosthesis with staggered buccal and lingual offset.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, L A; Kruger, B

    1996-06-01

    The supposition that staggered buccal and lingual implant offset is biomechanically advantageous was examined mathematically. The method of evaluation utilized a standard hypothetical geometric configuration from which implants could be staggered buccally and/or lingually in both arches. Torque (moment) values were calculated at the gold screw, abutment screw, and 3.5 mm apical to the head of the implant. Comparisons were made in percentages of change from the hypothetical standard to the buccal and/or lingual implant offset. In the maxillary arch, buccal offset decreased the torque (moment) while lingual offset increased it. If more lingually offset implants were present in the maxillary restoration, the total torque would be greater than if they were all in a straight line. Staggered buccolingual implant alignment often requires abutment reangulation. The resultant line of force produced by occlusal anatomy usually results in buccal inclination in the maxillary arch and lingual inclination in the mandibular arch. As a result, mandibular implant/prostheses are greatly favored over similar maxillary configurations because the mandibular resultant line of force usually passes lingually, closer to the components and supporting bone and considerably less torque is produced. Therefore, the concept of staggered offset for multiple implant-supported prostheses can be utilized on the mandible but is not recommended for the maxilla where maximum uniform buccal implant orientation is advised.

  3. Formulation, evaluation, and comparison of bilayered and multilayered mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vishnu M; Prajapati, Bhupendra G; Patel, Madhabhai M

    2007-03-16

    The purpose of this research work was to establish mucoadhesive buccal devices of propranolol hydrochloride (PRH) in the forms of bilayered and multilayered tablets. The tablets were prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and Carbopol-934 (CP) as bioadhesive polymers to impart mucoadhesion and ethyl cellulose (EC) to act as an impermeable backing layer. Buccal devices were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, content uniformity, thickness, hardness, surface pH, swelling index, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, in vitro drug release, and in vitro drug permeation. As compared with bilayered tablets, multilayered tablets showed slow release rate of drug with improved ex vivo bioadhesive strength and enhanced ex vivo mucoadhesion time. The mechanism of drug release was found to be non-Fickian diffusion (value of n between 0.5 and 1.0) for both the buccal devices. The stability of drug in both the optimized buccal devices was tested for 6 hours in natural human saliva; both the buccal devices were found to be stable in natural human saliva. The present study concludes that mucoadhesive buccal devices of PRH can be a good way to bypass the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism and to improve the bioavailability of PRH.

  4. Role of buccal corridor in smile esthetics and its correlation with underlying skeletal and dental structures.

    PubMed

    Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, R P; Ahmad, Nabeel

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the buccal corridor in smile esthetics and to correlate it with underlying hard tissues. Posed smiling frontal photographs, digital posterior-anterior (PA) cephalograms, and study models of 25 males and 25 females in age range of 18-25 years were taken. Photographs were evaluated for smile esthetics by eight orthodontists, eight plastic surgeons, eight beauticians and eight lay people to group them into three groups with least attractive, average and attractive smile and buccal corridor width was measured. Digital PA cephalograms were transferred on Nemo-tech software for frontal facial analysis. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on upper study model with the help of a digital calliper. The buccal corridor width was least in attractive smile group and maximum in least attractive smile group. The buccal corridor width had a negligible correlation with hard tissues and a mild to moderate inverse correlation with intercanine and intermolar widths within the groups. As the amount of buccal corridor display was increased, smiling images were scored less attractive by the evaluators. The buccal corridor is not influenced by underlying skeletal hard tissues but have mild to moderate inverse correlation with the intercanine and intermolar width.

  5. Onset of Buccal Pumping in Catshark Embryos: How Breathing Develops in the Egg Capsule

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the “internal gills.” The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the “internal gills,” (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening. PMID:25329313

  6. Onset of buccal pumping in catshark embryos: how breathing develops in the egg capsule.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Nakamura, Masaru; Sato, Keiichi; Takaoka, Hiroko; Toda, Minoru; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Respiration in fishes involves buccal pumping, which is characterized by the generation of nearly continuous water flow over the gills because of the rhythmic expansion/compression of the pharyngeal cavity. This mechanism is achieved by the functions of the vascular, skeletal, and muscular systems. However, the process by which the embryo establishes the mechanism remains a mystery. Morphological and kinematical observations on captive cloudy catsharks, Scyliorhinus torazame, have suggested that the embryo starts buccal pumping just before the respiratory slits open on the egg capsule. During the pre-opening period, the embryo acquires oxygen mainly via the external gill filaments. After slit opening, respiration of the embryo involves buccal pumping to pass water over the "internal gills." The onset of buccal pumping accompanies four morphological changes: (1) regression of the external gill filaments, (2) development of blood vessels within the "internal gills," (3) completion of the development of hyoid skeletal and muscular elements, and (4) development of the oral valve. A previous study showed that buccal pumping allows the embryo to actively regulate oxygen intake by changing the pumping frequency. Thus, establishment of buccal pumping in the egg capsule is probably important for embryo survival in the unstable oxygen environment of the egg capsule after slit opening.

  7. Immediate implant placement: the fate of the buccal crest. A retrospective cone beam computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Groenendijk, E; Staas, T A; Graauwmans, F E J; Bronkhorst, E; Verhamme, L; Maal, T; Meijer, G J

    2017-07-19

    This retrospective study aimed to analyse the fate of the buccal crest after immediate implant placement (IIP) through the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In 16 consecutive patients, an implant was placed in a more palatal position after extraction, thereby creating a gap of at least 2mm between the implant and the buccal crest. Subsequently, this gap was filled with a bone substitute. Preoperatively, immediate postoperatively, and late postoperatively, a CBCT was made to measure the thickness of the buccal crest. After application of the bone substitute, the buccal crest increased in thickness from 0.9mm to 2.4mm (mean). At a mean of 103 weeks after IIP, late postoperative CBCT scans showed that the thickness of the buccal crest was compacted to 1.8mm. In the same period, the height of the buccal crest increased by 1.6mm (mean) to, on average, 1.2mm above the implant shoulder. The aesthetic outcome was analysed using the White and Pink Esthetic Score (WES and PES). Both scored high: 8.4 and 11.8, respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the results of this IIP protocol are promising. Long-term prospective research on this topic on a large number of patients is necessary. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0059 TITLE: Educating normal breast mucosa to prevent breast cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Keith L Knutson...SUBTITLE Educating Normal Breast Mucosa to Prevent Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0059 5c...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Breast cancer develops from breast mucosa and breast mucosa has intact immune system to

  9. Smoking and smokeless tobacco-associated human buccal cell mutations and their association with oral cancer--a review.

    PubMed

    Proia, Nicole K; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Nasca, Maureen A Sullivan; Franke, Gail E; Pauly, John L

    2006-06-01

    Reported herein are the results of a structured literature review that was undertaken to (a) determine if human buccal (mouth) cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless ("chewing") tobacco, (b) tabulate different buccal cell alterations that have been reported, (c) delineate buccal cell assays that have been used successfully, (d) determine whether buccal cell changes correlate with oral cancer as defined in clinicopathologic investigations, and (e) assess the feasibility of developing a high-throughput buccal cell assay for screening smokers for the early detection of oral cancer. The results of the studies reported herein have established that diverse buccal cell changes are associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco. This review documents also that buccal cells have been collected in a noninvasive manner, and repetitively for serial studies, from different sites of the mouth (e.g., cheek, gum, and tongue) and from normal tissue, preneoplastic lesions (leukoplakia), and malignant tumors. Tobacco-associated genetic mutations and nongenetic changes have been reported; a partial listing includes (a) micronuclei, (b) bacterial adherence, (c) genetic mutations, (d) DNA polymorphisms, (d) carcinogen-DNA adducts, and (e) chromosomal abnormalities. Clinical studies have correlated buccal cell changes with malignant tumors, and some oral oncologists have reported that the buccal cell changes are practical biomarkers. Summarily, the literature has established that buccal cells are useful not only for characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying tobacco-associated oral cancers but also as exfoliative cells that express diverse changes that offer promise as candidate biomarkers for the early detection of oral cancer.

  10. The effect of an alendronate-eluting titanium system to induce osteogenic differentiation in human buccal fat cells (HBFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Su-Young; Yun, Young-Pil; Lee, Jae Yong; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Deok-Won; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop alendronate (Aln)-eluting Ti substrates to induce osteogenic differentiation of human buccal fat cells (HBFCs). The surface of pristine Ti was modified by dopamine (DOPA) and then heparin was grafted onto the aminated Ti surfaces to achieve the Aln-eluting Ti system. Aln was subsequently immobilized on the surface of heparinized Ti (Hep-Ti). Pristine Ti and surface-modified-Ti were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle. Osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs on the surface of pristine-Ti, Hep-Ti, Aln (1 mg)/Hep-Ti, and Aln (5 mg)/Hep-Ti was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. Successful immobilization of Aln on Hep-Ti was confirmed by XPS and contact angle. Aln/Hep-Ti showed the sustained release for up to 28 days. Additionally, HBFCs cultured on Aln/Hep-Ti substrates showed significantly induced ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and osteopontin mRNA expression. These results suggest that Aln-eluting Ti substrates have a potential effect on osteogenic differentiation of HBFCs and will be a promising material for bone regeneration.

  11. Meniscal allograft transplantation. Part 1: systematic review of graft biology, graft shrinkage, graft extrusion, graft sizing, and graft fixation.

    PubMed

    Samitier, Gonzalo; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Taylor, Dean C; Rill, Brian; Lock, Terrence; Moutzouros, Vasilius; Kolowich, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    To provide a systematic review of the literature regarding five topics in meniscal allograft transplantation: graft biology, shrinkage, extrusion, sizing, and fixation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed (MEDLINE), ScienceDirect, and EBSCO-CINAHL databases. Articles were classified only in one topic, but information contained could be reported into other topics. Information was classified according to type of study (animal, in vitro human, and in vivo human) and level of evidence (for in vivo human studies). Sixty-two studies were finally included: 30 biology, 3 graft shrinkage, 11 graft extrusion, 17 graft size, and 6 graft fixation (some studies were categorized in more than one topic). These studies corresponded to 22 animal studies, 22 in vitro human studies, and 23 in vivo human studies (7 level II, 10 level III, and 6 level IV). The principal conclusions were as follows: (a) Donor cells decrease after MAT and grafts are repopulated with host cells form synovium; (b) graft preservation alters collagen network (deep freezing) and causes cell apoptosis with loss of viable cells (cryopreservation); (c) graft shrinkage occurs mainly in lyophilized and gamma-irradiated grafts (less with cryopreservation); (d) graft extrusion is common but has no clinical/functional implications; (e) overall, MRI is not superior to plain radiograph for graft sizing; (f) graft width size matching is more important than length size matching; (g) height appears to be the most important factor influencing meniscal size; (h) bone fixation better restores contact mechanics than suture fixation, but there are no differences for pullout strength or functional results; and (i) suture fixation has more risk of graft extrusion compared to bone fixation. Systematic review of level II-IV studies, Level IV.

  12. Calcar bone graft

    SciTech Connect

    Bargar, W.L.; Paul, H.A.; Merritt, K.; Sharkey, N.

    1986-01-01

    A canine model was developed to investigate the use of an autogeneic iliac bone graft to treat the calcar deficiency commonly found at the time of revision surgery for femoral component loosening. Five large male mixed-breed dogs had bilateral total hip arthroplasty staged at three-month intervals, and were sacrificed at six months. Prior to cementing the femoral component, an experimental calcar defect was made, and a bicortical iliac bone graft was fashioned to fill the defect. Serial roentgenograms showed the grafts had united with no resorption. Technetium-99 bone scans showed more uptake at three months than at six months in the graft region. Disulfine blue injection indicated all grafts were perfused at both three and six months. Thin section histology, fluorochromes, and microradiographs confirmed graft viability in all dogs. Semiquantitative grading of the fluorochromes indicated new bone deposition in 20%-50% of each graft at three months and 50%-80% at six months. Although the calcar bone graft was uniformly successful in this canine study, the clinical application of this technique should be evaluated by long-term results in humans.

  13. Grafts in "closed" rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Scattolin, A; D'Ascanio, L

    2013-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is a fascinating and complex surgical procedure aiming at attaining a well-functioning and aesthetically pleasant nose. The use of grafts is of the utmost importance for the nasal surgeon to achieve such results. However, the philosophy and technical use of nasal grafts are different in "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. The aim of this paper is not detailed description of the numerous grafts reported in the literature; we will describe the main principles of grafts use in "closed" rhinoplasty derived from our experience, with special reference to the philosophical and technical differences in their employment between "closed" and "open" rhinoplasty. Some cases are reported as an example of graft use in "endonasal" approach rhinoplasty.

  14. [Optimizing biopsies of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Raybaud, H; Voha, C; Cardot-Leccia, N; Monteil, R A

    2012-11-01

    We had for aim to describe and illustrate the artefacts observed in biopsies of the oral mucosa, as well as the impact of sending non-representative histological material to a laboratory. This article was based on an international literature review, as well as on our experience. We analysed the problems raised, for the pathologists and the histology lab-technicians, by these artefacts as well as their impact on the pathology report patient management. We suggest simple solutions.

  15. Rare tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Monika; Swanson, Paul E

    2016-10-01

    In spite of increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the last few decades, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) still remains the dominant subtype of esophageal cancer worldwide. Apart from conventional SCC, some rare unconventional tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa are also well known. This study provides an introduction to these and presents a brief review of the literature, including the diagnostic and prognostic importance of each variant.

  16. Azithromycin buccal patch in treatment of chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Sajith Abdul; Vandana, K. L.; Thimmashetty, J.; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to explore the clinical, microbiological, and biochemical impact of azithromycin (AZM) buccal patch in chronic generalized patients as a monotherapy as well as an adjunct to nonsurgical therapy. Materials and Methods: A parallel design was used forty periodontitis patients were randomly allocated into five groups, namely Group 1 scaling root planing (SRP) alone, Group 2 (SRP + AZM patch group), Group 3 (SRP + AZM tablet group), Group 4 (AZM patch monotherapy), and Group 5 (AZM tablet as monotherapy). Plaque index, gingival bleeding index, modified gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline and 21 and 90 days. Subgingival pooled plaque sample was collected to assess periodontopathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) by anaerobic culture method. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was also evaluated at baseline and 21 days. Periodontal maintenance was performed in Group 1 until 90th day, and clinical parameter was assessed at the end of 90th day. Results: SRP + AZM tablets showed greater reduction in clinical parameters (P < 0.05) AZM as monotherapy did not offer clinical benefits over SRP. Baseline data were compared at the end, i.e., 90th day a significant reduction in plaque scores, gingival bleeding, and PPD was observed however no significant gain in the clinical attachment was observed. Conclusion: The monotherapy resulted in no improvement of periodontal parameters, microbial parameters, and TNF-α level. It is safe to use AZM + SRP as a mode of nonsurgical treatment in periodontitis patients. PMID:27127325

  17. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  18. Correlation analysis of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces in rats.

    PubMed

    Azambuja, Carolina Barrera de; Cavagni, Juliano; Wagner, Marcius Comparsi; Gaio, Eduardo José; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to correlate alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal and the mesial/distal surfaces of upper molars in rats. Thirty-three, 60-day-old, male Wistar rats were divided in two groups, one treated with alcohol and the other not treated with alcohol. All rats received silk ligatures on the right upper second molars for 4 weeks. The rats were then euthanized and their maxillae were split and defleshed with sodium hypochlorite (9%). The cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) was stained with 1% methylene blue and the alveolar bone loss in the buccal/palatal surfaces was measured linearly in 5 points on standardized digital photographs. Measurement of the proximal sites was performed by sectioning the hemimaxillae, restaining the CEJ and measuring the alveolar bone loss linearly in 3 points. A calibrated and blinded examiner performed all the measurements. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient revealed values of 0.96 and 0.89 for buccal/lingual and proximal surfaces, respectively. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient (r) between measurements in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces was 0.35 and 0.05 for the group treated with alcohol, with and without ligatures, respectively. The best correlations between buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces were observed in animals not treated with alcohol, in sites both with and without ligatures (r = 0.59 and 0.65, respectively). A positive correlation was found between alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces. The correlation is stronger in animals that were not treated with alcohol, in sites without ligatures. Areas with and without ligature-induced periodontal destruction allow detection of alveolar bone loss in buccal/palatal and proximal surfaces.

  19. Bone response to buccal tooth movements-with and without flapless alveolar decortication.

    PubMed

    Ruso, Stephen; Campbell, Phillip M; Rossmann, Jeffrey; Opperman, Lynne A; Taylor, Reginald W; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the biological response of alveolar bone surrounding maxillary second premolars to flapless alveolar decortication and moderate, continuous forces in a buccal direction. Using a randomized split-mouth experimental design, unilateral alveolar decortication was performed with a piezosurgery unit around the maxillary second premolars of six female dogs. The contralateral side received a sham surgery. The maxillary second premolars were moved buccally with archwires (initial 163.9 cN expansive force) for 9 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of consolidation. Intraoral, radiographic, and model measurements were performed to evaluate tooth movements; the amount and quality of surrounding bone were quantified using micro-CT; bone formation was evaluated histologically. The experimental premolars were expanded and tipped significantly (P < 0.05) more than the control premolars (1.35 times and 2.05 times as much, respectively). Peak rates of tooth movement occurred around 5 weeks. Dehiscenses were observed on both the experimental and control sides, with no statistically significant side differences in buccal bone height (BBH). Micro-CT analyses showed less mature bone in the apico-buccal and cervico-lingual regions around the experimental teeth. Hematoxylin and eosin sections demonstrated fenestrations on the cervico-buccal bone on both sides. The experimental side showed substantially more new bone formation and modeling of apico-buccal, cervico-lingual, and buccal bone than the control side. Archwire expansion resulted in reductions in BBH. Piezosurgical flapless alveolar decortication, in combination with archwire expansion, increased tooth movements and tipping and produced less bone, less dense bone, and less mature bone. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Effectiveness of perichondrial cutaneous graft of dorsal auricle for repairing facial melanocytic nevus excision defect].

    PubMed

    Duan, Weiqiang; Cen, Ying

    2013-11-01

    To investigate and compare the effectiveness of perichondrial cutaneous graft (PCCG) of dorsal auricle for repairing defect after excision of melanocytic nevus in different parts of the face. Between February 2008 and October 2012, 29 cases of facial melanocytic nevus were admitted. There were 11 males and 18 females, aged 3-25 years (median, 11 years). The locations were the upper eyelid in 5 cases, the nose in 15 cases, and the buccal region in 9 cases. The size of the nevi ranged from 1.2 cm x 1.0 cm to 4.0 cm x 2.2 cm. Defects after excision of nevi were repaired by PCCG of the dorsal auricle, which size ranged from 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm to 4.2 cm x 2.5 cm. The postoperative effectiveness was scored by patients according to color match, scar formation, and flatness of the reception site. The satisfaction evaluations were compared by the score among different parts. All the PCCG survived. All the patients were followed up 7-15 months (mean, 10 months). All the reception site had good color match and acceptable scar formation. The nasal part had good flatness, and the upper eyelid had poor flatness. Score comparison showed no significant difference in color match between 3 parts (P > 0.05). Nasal part had significantly less scar formation than buccal region and upper eyelid (P < 0.05), but no significant difference between buccal region and upper eyelid (P > 0.05). Nasal part and buccal region both had significantly better flatness than upper eyelid (P < 0.05), but no significant difference between nasal part and buccal region (P > 0.05). The overall evaluation score of nasal part and buccal region was significantly higher than that of the upper eyelid group (P < 0.05), and the score of the nasal part was significantly higher than that of the buccal region (P < 0.05). PCCG of dorsal auricle has a good color match in repair of facial defect, especially in repair of nasal defect with good flatness and no obvious scar formation.

  1. New method of assessing the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness by means of a noninvasive and relatively accurate digital registration method. Methods In 20 periodontally healthy subjects, cone-beam computed tomographic images and intraoral scanned files were obtained. Measurements of buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness at the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were performed at points 0–5 mm from the alveolar crest on the superimposed images. The Friedman test was used to compare buccal bone and gingival thickness for each depth between the 3 tooth types. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between buccal bone thickness and gingival thickness. Results Of the central incisors, 77% of all sites had a buccal thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm, and 23% had a thickness of 1.0–1.5 mm. Of the lateral incisors, 71% of sites demonstrated a buccal bone thickness <1.0 mm, as did 63% of the canine sites. For gingival thickness, the proportion of sites <1.0 mm was 88%, 82%, and 91% for the central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines, respectively. Significant differences were observed in gingival thickness at the alveolar crest level (G0) between the central incisors and canines (P=0.032) and between the central incisors and lateral incisors (P=0.013). At 1 mm inferior to the alveolar crest, a difference was found between the central incisors and canines (P=0.025). The lateral incisors and canines showed a significant difference for buccal bone thickness 5 mm under the alveolar crest (P=0.025). Conclusions The gingiva and buccal bone of the anterior maxillary teeth were found to be relatively thin (<1 mm) overall. A tendency was found for gingival thickness to increase and bone thickness to decrease toward the root apex. Differences were found between teeth at some positions, although the correlation between buccal bone thickness and soft tissue thickness was

  2. Assessment of buccal bone thickness of aesthetic maxillary region: a cone-beam computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Tania; Navarro, Pablo; Salamanca, Carlos; Beltrán, Víctor; Borie, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical dimensions of the buccal bone walls of the aesthetic maxillary region for immediate implant placement, based upon cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in a sample of adult patients. Methods Two calibrated examiners analyzed a sample of 50 CBCT scans, performing morphometric analyses of both incisors and canines on the left and right sides. Subsequently, in the sagittal view, a line was traced through the major axis of the selected tooth. Then, a second line (E) was traced from the buccal to the palatal wall at the level of the observed bone ridges. The heights of the buccal and palatal bone ridges were determined at the major axis of the tooth. The buccal bone thickness was measured across five lines. The first was at the level of line E. The second was at the most apical point of the tooth, and the other three lines were equidistant between the apical and the cervical lines, and parallel to them. Statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of P≤0.05 for the bone thickness means and standard deviations per tooth and patient for the five lines at varying depths. Results The means of the buccal wall thicknesses in the central incisors, lateral incisors and canines were 1.14±0.65 mm, 0.95±0.67 mm and 1.15±0.68 mm, respectively. Additionally, only on the left side were significant differences in some measurements of buccal bone thickness observed according to age and gender. However, age and gender did not show significant differences in heights between the palatal and buccal plates. In a few cases, the buccal wall had a greater height than the palatal wall. Conclusions Less than 10% of sites showed more than a 2-mm thickness of the buccal bone wall, with the exception of the central incisor region, wherein 14.4% of cases were ≥2 mm. PMID:26550524

  3. Buccal sulcus versus intranasal approach for postoperative periorbital oedema and ecchymosis in lateral nasal osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Ghazipour, Ali; Alani, Nadereh; Ghavami Lahiji, Shervin; Akbari Dilmaghani, Nader

    2014-10-01

    Lateral osteotomies are used in rhinoplasty to narrow the nasal bones, close the open roof deformity after hump removal, and achieve symmetry of an asymmetrical framework. But this procedure causes periorbital oedema & ecchymosis. Different techniques have been described for lateral osteotomy. To compare the postoperative ecchymosis and oedema after buccal sulcus lateral osteotomy versus intranasal lateral osteotomy. In a prospective experimental study, buccal sulcus approach was performed on the right side and an intranasal approach performed on the left side of patients randomly. Then blind analysis of postoperative photographs was performed to determine the incidence of oedema and ecchymosis on each side. Fifty patients were enrolled in the study after exclusion of unfit patients. On the right side (buccal approach osteotomies), a significantly lower incidence of upper and lower eyelid oedema and upper eyelid ecchymosis was seen on both the 2nd day and after 7th day (P < 0.05). The odds ratio of progression of ecchymosis was 2.66 (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.09-5.52, p = 0.048) in intranasal group compare to buccal sulcus group. No significant complication observed. The buccal sulcus approach is a safe method for lateral osteotomy with a lower rate of postoperative oedema and ecchymosis and no significant complications. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of buccal myomucosal flap for palatal lengthening in cleft palate patient: Experience of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Don; Datta, Shubharanjan; Varghese, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of the buccal myomucosal flap in secondary repairs of cleft palate in 20 patients. Patients and Methods: Totally, 20 patients, who underwent secondary palatoplasty between 5 years and 8 years in which a buccal myomucosal flap was used, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had undergone at least one previous attempted repair at other institutions. Indications for the secondary repair included velopharyngeal incompetence and/or oronasal fistula. Patients were evaluated preoperatively for oronasal fistula status, velopharyngeal competence, nasal resonance, speech quality, and nasal escape. Results: The buccal myomucosal flap was used in all 20 patients, and there was marked increase in the quality of speech as well as nasal regurgitation decreased. In patients with levator dysfunction due to poor primary surgery and glottal speech the results were inconclusive Conclusion: Palate re-repair combined with a buccal myomucosal flap, occasionally in conjunction with other techniques, is an effective method for correcting failed cleft palate repairs. Minimum donor site morbidity and complication makes the buccal flap a useful armamentarium of a cleft surgeon. PMID:25821372

  5. In vivo absorption study of ritodrine hydrochloride in the buccal administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Osamu; Onishi, Hiraku

    2013-09-01

    Although ritodrine (RD)-hydrochloride (HCl), named RD-HCl, is widely used in the treatment of premature labor by intravenous prolonged infusion or frequent oral dosing of tablets, those administrations often lower patients' quality of life (QOL) or cause undesirable side effects, such as tachycardia; therefore, in this study, the potential usefulness of buccal administration as a novel administration method was examined in vivo. First, the HPLC method was assessed for the determination of plasma RD concentration. Then, after RD-HCl solution in saline was administered intravenously (1 mg/kg), intragastrically (10 mg/kg) or buccally (10 mg/kg) in rats, the plasma concentration-time profiles were investigated, and the absorption extent and rate compared. The present modified determination method by HPLC with fluorescence detection (Ex. 278 nm, Em. 306 nm) was suitable to analyze the plasma level at 8-200 ng/mL. Buccal administration gave the best plasma concentration-time profile for maintenance of an effective plasma level and fewer side effects. Absorption rates calculated by deconvolution also supported better sustained absorption in buccal dosing. Buccal application of RD-HCl was demonstrated to be a potentially useful dosing method in the treatment of premature labor with RD-HCl.

  6. Enhanced bioavailability by buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide from the bioadhesive gels in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shin, S C; Bum, J P; Choi, J S

    2000-11-19

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of triamcinolone acetonide were determined to investigate buccal absorption from the mucoadhesive gels in rabbits. The enhancing effect of sodium deoxycholate as an enhancer on the buccal absorption of triamcinolone acetonide from the mucoadhesive gels was evaluated in rabbits. Thus, 2 mg/kg of triamcinolone acetonide was administered from the mucoadhesive gels containing an enhancer (enhancer group) or not (control group) via the buccal routes and compared with intravenous routes (1 mg/kg, i.v. group). AUC of the control, enhancer and i.v group were 2374+/-915, 3778+/-1721 and 3945+/-2085 h ng/ml, respectively, and the absolutive bioavailability of enhancer or i.v to control group were 159.14 or 332.35%, respectively. The average C(max) of control and enhancer group were 263+/-159 and 362+/-201 ng/ml, and the mean T(max) of the control group and enhancer group were 5.00+/-1.67 and 4.33+/-0.82 h, respectively, but there was no significant difference. As the triamcinolone acetonide gels containing sodium deoxycholate as an enhancer was administered to rabbits via the buccal routes, the relative bioavailability showed about 1.59-fold compared with the control group. Buccal administration of triamcinolone acetonide gels containing sodium deoxycholate as an enhancer to rabbits showed a relatively constant, sustained blood concentration with minimal fluctuation.

  7. Influence of Smile Arc and Buccal Corridors on Facial Attractiveness: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Shashank; Vaz, Anna C; Singh, Baldeep; Taneja, Lavina; Vinod, KS; Verma, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Two aspects of the smile: the Smile Arc (SA) and Buccal Corridors (BC) have been the interest of the orthodontist in recent years. Aim The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the smile arc and buccal corridors on facial attractiveness as evaluated by orthodontists, general dentists and laymen. Materials and Methods Two subjects (one male & one female) were selected from the regional population fulfilling the criteria of an ideal smile arc and ideal buccal corridors. Frontal smile view photographs of these subjects were taken and modified by using adobe photoshop 7.0 to create combination of three smile arc variance and three buccal corridors variations respectively which were shown to 25 orthodontists, 25 general dentists & 25 laymen, to rate the facial attractiveness of each image on a rating scale. Results All the three groups (laypersons, dentists and orthodontists) showed significant difference in ratings, indicating that they had different perceptions on the facial attractiveness. Conclusion Orthodontists were more precise in discerning the smile arc and buccal corridors compared to dentists and laypersons. PMID:27790573

  8. PADDLEFISH BUCCAL FLOW VELOCITY DURING RAM SUSPENSION FEEDING AND RAM VENTILATION

    PubMed

    Cech; Cheer

    1994-01-01

    A micro-thermistor probe was inserted into the buccal cavity of freely swimming paddlefish to measure flow velocity during ram ventilation, ram suspension feeding and prey processing. Swimming speed was measured from videotapes recorded simultaneously with the buccal flow velocity measurements. Both swimming velocity and buccal flow velocity were significantly higher during suspension feeding than during ram ventilation. As the paddlefish shifted from ventilation to feeding, buccal flow velocity increased to approximately 60 % of the swimming velocity. During prey processing, buccal flow velocity was significantly higher than the swimming velocity, indicating that prey processing involves the generation of suction. The Reynolds number (Re) for flow at the level of the paddlefish gill rakers during feeding is about 30, an order of magnitude lower than the Re calculated previously for pump suspension-feeding blackfish. These data, combined with data available from the literature, indicate that the gill rakers of ram suspension-feeding teleost fishes may operate at a substantially lower Re than the rakers of pump suspension feeders.

  9. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  10. Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Desai, Mina; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Sloan, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Fifty healthy volunteers were studied to assess the potential applications of oral brush sampling using liquid-based cytology. Three specimens from the buccal mucosa and lateral border of tongue were collected from each subject by using cervical brushes and brooms. The brush was immersed in a preservative fluid. The sample in the preservative fluid was processed according to the manufacturer's directions (SurePath, UK). Slides were stained by the Papanicolaou method and assessed for squamous cell adequacy by the same criteria used for cervical cytology screening. Immunocytochemical staining for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad) was applied in liquid-based preparations following the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene) and the PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test. LBC preparation slides showed good sample preservation, specimen adequacy and visualization of cell morphology. Interestingly, nine cases showed borderline cytological abnormalities from apparently normal oral mucosa. All cases showed good quality positive FHIT immunoreactivity staining. All studied cases were high-risk HPV negative using HC2 assay method. However, the AMPLICOR Roche Test detected four samples with positive results for high-risk HPVs. Liquid-based cytology has potential as a screening tool for oral cancer and precancer. The method may also have applications for research and practice in the field of oral cancer and precancer. However a special custom-designed oral cytobrush is required.

  11. Evaluation of oral mucosa epithelium in type II diabetic patients by an exfoliative cytology method.

    PubMed

    Jajarm, Hassan Hosseinpour; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Rangiani, Afsaneh

    2008-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disease that causes chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Although diabetes can cause considerable cellular changes, this field has attracted little research. We therefore decided to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative changes in oral epithelial cells using an exfoliative cytology method. In 30 control individuals and 30 patients with type II diabetes, smears were obtained from two distinct oral sites: the buccal mucosa and tongue dorsum. The oral smears were stained using Papanicolaou solution. Quantitative and qualitative changes were evaluated in each slide. For this purpose, 50 clearly defined cells in each slide were microscopically evaluated, and photographs were subjected to computerized morphometric analysis. Cytoplasmic and nuclear areas in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. The cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio was lower in the control group. At both smear sites, the proportion of cells with nuclear changes was higher in the diabetic group. Diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in the oral epithelium that are detectable with this exfoliative cytology method. The method may be viable in evaluating this disease.

  12. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  13. Collecting and paramuscular venules in glandular mucosa of rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Biernacka-Wawrzonek, Dorota; Klimkiewicz, Justyna; Zdun, Rafal

    2002-03-01

    Blood from the rat gastric mucosa is drained by collecting venules running from the subepithelial layer towards the lamina muscularis mucosae. Details of their structure were studied in translucent, flat strips of the glandular stomach, in thick sections of glandular mucosa cleared in mineral oil and in semi-thin plastic sections. The number and dimensions of collecting venule outlets revealed in flat strips of gastric mucosa increased after administration of atropine and papaverine and intravital ligation of the portal vein in comparison with that of intact animals or animals with intravitally ligated portal vein but without administration of relaxing agents. In hyperemic mucosa short venules running parallel to the lamina muscularis mucosae (paramuscular venules) and draining collecting venules were distinctly visible. Saccular outlets equipped with triangular protrusions usually intervened between these vessels, probably directing blood flow. Collecting venules were straight, curved, extended or two-armed. Furthermore, numerous collecting venules contained circumscribed dilatations (sacculi) connected with the lumen of the collecting venule. Connection of paramuscular and submucosal veins occurred within the muscularis mucosae. Thus, contraction of the muscularis mucosae might control the outflow of venous blood from the gastric mucosa. Conceivably, alternate contraction and relaxation of muscularis mucosae could cause expansion and collapse of collecting venules which, in turn, would facilitate the movement of glandular content to the surface of the stomach and/or movement of interstitial fluid between cells.

  14. Skin graft - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... 2017 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  15. Vein graft failure

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christopher D.; Gasper, Warren J.; Rahman, Amreen S.; Conte, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Following the creation of an autogenous lower extremity bypass graft, the vein must undergo a series of dynamic structural changes to stabilize the arterial hemodynamic forces. These changes, commonly referred to as remodeling, include an inflammatory response, the development of a neointima, matrix turnover, and cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The sum total of these processes results in dramatic alterations in the physical and biomechanical attributes of the arterialized vein. The most clinically obvious and easily measured of these is lumen remodeling of the graft. However, though somewhat less precise, wall thickness, matrix composition, and endothelial changes can be measured in vivo within the healing vein graft. Recent translational work has demonstrated the clinical relevance of remodeling as it relates to vein graft patency and the systemic factors influencing it. By correlating histologic and molecular changes in the vein, insights into potential therapeutic strategies to prevent bypass failure and areas for future investigation are explored. PMID:24095042

  16. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites: a RCT.

    PubMed

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2017-09-23

    To assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial esthetic zone. Sixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and provisionalized implant. During implant placement, patients randomly received either a connective tissue graft from the maxillary tuberosity (n=30, test group) or no graft (n=30, control group). Follow-up visits were at one (T1 ) and twelve months (T12 ) after final crown placement. The primary outcome measure was any change in MBML compared to the pre-operative situation. In addition, gingival biotype, esthetics (using the Pink Esthetic Score-White Esthetic Score), marginal bone level, soft tissue peri-implant parameters and patient satisfaction were assessed. The mean MBML change at T12 was -0.5±1.1mm in the control group and 0.1±0.8mm in the test group (p=0.03). No significant differences regarding other outcome variables were observed, neither was gingival biotype associated with a gain or loss in MBML. This one-year study shows that connective tissue grafting in single, immediately placed and provisionalized implants leads to less recession of the peri-implant soft tissue at the mid-buccal aspect, irrespective of the gingival biotype (www.trialregister.nl: TC3815). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. The course of the buccal nerve: relationships with the temporalis muscle during the prenatal period

    PubMed Central

    MÉRIDA-VELASCO, J. R.; RODRÍGUEZ-VÁZQUEZ, J. F.; CUADRA, C.; MÉRIDA-VELASCO, J. A.; JIMÉNEZ-COLLADO, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the course of the buccal nerve and its relationships with the temporalis muscle during the prenatal period. Serial sections of 90 human fetal specimens ranging from 9 to 17 wk development were studied by light microscopy. Each fetal specimen was studied on both right and left sides, making a total of 180 cases for study. A 3-D reconstruction of the region analysed in one of the specimens was made. In 89 cases the buccal nerve was located medial to the temporalis muscle; in 73 cases it penetrated the muscle; in 15 cases it lay in a canal formed by the muscle fibres and was covered by fascia, and finally, in 3 cases it was a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The study has revealed that in a large number of cases the buccal nerve maintains an intimate association with the temporalis muscle. PMID:11327204

  18. Rheumatoid nodule presenting as a buccal submucosal nodule: A rare presentation of a common disease.

    PubMed

    Tay, Gerald Ci-An; Sauer, David A; Andersen, Peter E

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid nodules are a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis but buccal rheumatoid nodules are extremely rare. The purpose of this study was to report a rare case of a rheumatoid buccal nodule and a review of the literature. This case is about a 79-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis who was taking methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine, presenting with an enlarging left buccal submucosal mass. An incisional biopsy showed features consistent with that of a rheumatoid nodule. The mass was managed expectantly and the patient was taken off methotrexate with a marked reduction in the size of the nodule. Submucosal rheumatoid nodules of the oral cavity are an extremely rare manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis but should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a history of rheumatoid arthritis presenting with submucosal masses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Head Neck 39: E12-E14, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prosthetic improvement of pronounced buccally positioned zygomatic implants: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Ataís; Santos, Mateus Bertolini Fernandes dos; Pimentel, Marcele Jardim; Nóbilo, Mauro Antonio de Arruda; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek

    2014-08-01

    This report presents a prosthetic technique for the improvement of surgically positioned, buccally placed zygomatic implants with the use of custom abutments for improved retention screw position and an esthetic implant reconstruction. The patient presented four zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. The anterior implants were inclined toward the location where the anterior artificial teeth should be placed during rehabilitation. As the manufacturer does not provide angulated abutments, we attempted the waxing and overcasting of a prosthetic abutment, repositioning the access holes of the prosthetic screws to a more palatal position. This clinical report demonstrates that abutment customization could be an interesting way to relocate the access holes of the prosthetic screws in cases of zygomatic implants with pronounced buccal inclination. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) in buccal cells.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, E I; Dávila-Rodríguez, M I; Fernández, J L; López-Fernández, C; Gosálvez, J

    2012-12-28

    DNA breakage detection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (DBD-FISH) is a recently developed technique that allows cell-by-cell detection and quantification of DNA breakage in the whole genome or within specific DNA sequences. The present investigation was conducted to adapt the methodology of DBD-FISH to the visualization and evaluation of DNA damage in buccal epithelial cells. DBD-FISH revealed that DNA damage increased significantly according to H2O2 concentration (r2=0.91). In conclusion, the DBD-FISH technique is easy to apply in buccal cells and provides prompt results that are easy to interpret. Future studies are needed to investigate the potential applicability of a buccal cell DBD-FISH model to human biomonitoring and nutritional work.

  1. Alveolar bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Semb, Gunvor

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s, Boyne and Sands published reports on a new technique for alveolar bone grafting. They recommended that only cancellous bone be used and that the procedure be undertaken in the mixed dentition prior to canine eruption. Alveolar bone grafting prior to canine eruption soon became a routine part of the protocol for 90% of European and North American cleft teams. Several uncertainties remain however, such as the specifics of the surgical and orthodontic procedures, type of bone and donor site, and the best way to manage the space in the dental arch. Probably the commonest timing of the bone graft falls between 8 and 11 years, however there has been a trend in some centres to graft earlier in the hope of better outcome for the unerupted incisors. The influence on maxillary growth of earlier grafting has not been ascertained. A wide range of donor sites has been use but iliac crest remains the most popular. Many teams perform orthodontics prior to grafting to correct severe segment displacement or align incisors to improve surgical access. Following grafting, absence of the lateral incisor may be managed with orthodontic space closure, placement of an implant or bridgework. The introduction of alveolar bone grafting probably represents one of the most significant clinical innovations in cleft care. Hopefully, advances in tissue engineering will replace the need for transplantation of autogenous bone, or will provide an in-situ biological solution to the generation of a continuous bone fill across the alveolar cleft. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Behaviour of the buccal crestal bone levels after immediate placement of implants subjected to immediate loading.

    PubMed

    Lemes, H deP; Sartori, I A deM; Cardoso, L C; Ponzoni, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes in buccal alveolar crestal bone levels after immediate placement and loading of dental implants with Morse taper prosthetic abutments after tooth extraction. This study followed the STROBE guidelines regarding prospective cohort studies. The sample comprised 12 patients with a mean age of 45 years, in whom a central or upper lateral incisor was indicated for extraction. Prior to extraction, computed tomography (CT) analysis was carried out to assess the presence of the buccal bone crest. CT scans were performed at 24 h and at 6 months after immediate implant placement and immediate loading. The distance from the most apical point of the implant platform to the buccal bone crest was assessed at the two time points. The buccal bone crest height was evaluated at three points in the mesio-distal direction: (1) the centre point of the alveolus, (2) 1mm mesial to the centre point, and (3) 1 mm distal to the centre point. The values obtained were subjected to statistical analysis, comparing the distances from the bone crest to the implant platform for the two time points. After 6 months there was a statistically significant, non-uniform reduction in height at the level of the crest of the buccal bone in the cervical direction. It is concluded that the buccal bone crest of the immediate implants that replaced the maxillary incisors underwent apical resorption when subjected to immediate loading. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development and evaluation of buccal films impregnated with selegiline-loaded nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Al-Dhubiab, Bandar E; Nair, Anroop B; Kumria, Rachna; Attimarad, Mahesh; Harsha, Sree

    2016-09-01

    Poor peroral therapeutic efficiency of selegiline is primarily due to the extensive hepatic metabolism and hence the need for an alternative route of administration. The present study is based on evaluation of a buccal film which is impregnated with selegiline nanospheres to enhance the systemic bioavailability. Selegiline-loaded nanospheres prepared using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) was embedded into buccal films (F1-F4) with varying polymer composition [hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and eudragit]. The developed films were evaluated for their physicomechanical properties, hydration, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release and ex vivo permeation in order to identify the ideal system suitable for further development. In vivo studies were carried out on rabbits to assess the comparative pharmacokinetics profile of the selected buccal film with oral solution. Preliminary studies indicated that the prepared films exhibited excellent physical properties, adequate mucoadhesive strength and moderate hydration. In vitro drug release data of the buccal films (F1, F2 and F3) showed distinct profiles. Permeation studies indicated higher steady-state flux from film F3 (p < 0.0001) when compared to film F2. In-vivo results of film (F3) demonstrated significant increase in absorption (p < 0.0001), Cmax (∼1.6-fold), Tmax, AUC0-α (∼3-fold, p < 0.0001) and improved bioavailability, when compared to control. This study concludes that the buccal delivery of selegiline using the developed buccal film (F3) would be a promising alternative approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Gene-environment interaction signatures by quantitative mRNA profiling in exfoliated buccal mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Spivack, Simon D; Hurteau, Gregory J; Jain, Ritu; Kumar, Shalini V; Aldous, Kenneth M; Gierthy, John F; Kaminsky, Laurence S

    2004-09-15

    Exfoliated cytologic specimens from mouth (buccal) epithelium may contain viable cells, permitting assay of gene expression for direct and noninvasive measurement of gene-environment interactions, such as for inhalation (e.g., tobacco smoke) exposures. We determined specific mRNA levels in exfoliated buccal cells collected by cytologic brush, using a recently developed RNA-specific real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR strategy. In a pilot study, metabolic activity of exfoliated buccal cells was verified by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium assay in vitro. Transcriptional activity was observed, after timed in vivo exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke resulted in induction of CYP1B1 in serially collected buccal samples from the one subject examined. For a set of 11 subjects, mRNA expression of nine genes encoding carcinogen- and oxidant-metabolizing enzymes qualitatively detected in buccal cells was then shown to correlate with that in laser-microdissected lung from the same individuals (Chi2 = 52.91, P < 0.001). Finally, quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays for seven target gene (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, and GSTT1) and three reference gene [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta-actin, and 36B4] transcripts were performed on buccal specimens from 42 subjects. In multivariate analyses, gender, tobacco smoke exposure, and other factors were associated with the level of expression of CYP1B1, GSTP1, and other transcripts on a gene-specific basis, but substantial interindividual variability in mRNA expression remained unexplained. Within the power limits of this pilot study, gene expression signature was not clearly predictive of lung cancer case or control status. This noninvasive and quantitative method may be incorporated into high-throughput human applications for probing gene-environment interactions associated with cancer.

  5. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L.; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A.; Lee, Damian J.; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (p<0.007). Nearly all implant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (p<0.046) although the difference was not significant for the Ti implant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  6. [T-L mucosa to mucosa pancreatojejunal anastomosis for pancreatic reconstruction following a duodenopancreatectomy].

    PubMed

    Targarona, J; Garatea, R; Rosas, J; Romero, C; Rosamedina, J; Lora, A; Montoya, E

    2006-01-01

    The pancreatojejunal anastomosis is considered the weak spot when carrying out a duodenopancreatectomy, because it causes most of the complications following a Whipple surgery. Here we present a series of cases using a single technique for performing this anastomosis. During the period between October 2002 and August 2005, 49 duodenopancreatectomies were performed at the 3AII Department of the National Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins - H.N.E.R.M., in 31 of these cases a lateral mucosa to mucosa pancreatojejunal anastomosis was carried out by the same surgeon. The most frequent complication was infection of the operating wound followed by pancreatic fistula and intra-abdominal hemorrhage and the overall morbidity was 29%. Pancreatic fistula developed in 13% of the cases; however, no patient required additional treatment and the fistula closed maximum twenty days after the surgery. On average, patients resumed oral food intake after 6 days and remained hospitalized for 16 days. Mortality was 3%, because a patient developed a pseudo-aneurism of the hepatic artery, which ruptured 17 days after the operation. The mucosa to mucosa pancreatojejunal anastomosis is a safe technique with a low index of pancreatic fistula and mortality.

  7. Site-specific regulation of oral mucosa-recruiting CD8(+) T cells in a mouse contact allergy model.

    PubMed

    Hirunwidchayarat, Worawalun; Furusawa, Emi; Kang, Siwen; Ohno, Tatsukuni; Takeuchi, Shunsuke; Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Azuma, Miyuki

    2017-09-02

    Contact allergy is a T cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity generated by contact exposure of an allergen to the skin and mucosal surface. The clinical manifestations of allergic responses between the skin and oral mucosa vary and the differences in immunopathology have not been clarified. We generated hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity (CH) of the buccal mucosa (BM) in parallel studies with ear skin (ES) CH, and observed several characteristic findings of BM CH. The BM challenge induced more rapid and more severe inflammation than the ES challenge, with abundant granulocyte and CD8(+) T cell infiltration. However, these inflammatory responses diminished quickly. Recruiting CD8(+) T cells in the BM had higher ratios of CD62L(-)CD44(low-hi) memory-type cells, and showed impaired IFN-γ, greater PD-1, and comparable Ki-67 expression, suggesting that the recruiting-proliferating CD8(+) T cells were unable to differentiate into effector T cells and converted into exhausted T cells at the local site. This finding may explain the rapid recovery of the BM from severe inflammation. Preferentially greater expression of PD-1 ligand (B7-H1), was observed in the BM epithelium under the peak inflammation, and the absence of B7-H1 further accelerated CH responses, suggesting the occurrence of PD-1:B7-H1-mediated immune regulation at the local site. Our results may facilitate the understanding of the unique features of contact allergies in the oral mucosa, and guide the development of new strategies for control of contact allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput sequencing of forensic genetic samples using punches of FTA cards with buccal swabs.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Buchard, Anders; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that punches from buccal swab samples preserved on FTA cards can be used for high-throughput DNA sequencing, also known as massively parallel sequencing (MPS). We typed 44 reference samples with the HID-Ion AmpliSeq Identity Panel using washed 1.2 mm punches from FTA cards with buccal swabs and compared the results with those obtained with DNA extracted using the EZ1 DNA Investigator Kit. Concordant profiles were obtained for all samples. Our protocol includes simple punch, wash, and PCR steps, reducing cost and hands-on time in the laboratory. Furthermore, it facilitates automation of DNA sequencing.

  9. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1–4) (TRPV1–4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1–4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1–4 expression. Materials and Methods Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1–4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1–4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1–4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. Results The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1–4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Conclusion Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention. PMID:28081185

  10. Proteome Analysis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Gut Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Ellingsen, Torkell; Glerup, Henning; Bonderup, Ole Kristian; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Meyer, Michael Kruse; Bøgsted, Martin; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend; Andersen, Vibeke; Stensballe, Allan

    2017-01-06

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease leading to cartilage damage and ultimately impaired joint function. To gain new insight into the systemic immune manifestations of RA, we characterized the colon mucosa proteome from 11 RA-patients and 10 healthy controls. The biopsies were extracted by colonoscopy and analyzed by label-free quantitative proteomics, enabling the quantitation of 5366 proteins. The abundance of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) was statistically significantly increased in RA-patient biopsies compared with controls and correlated with the administered dosage of methotrexate (MTX), the most frequently prescribed immunosuppressive drug for RA. Additionally, our data suggest that treatment with Leflunomide, a common alternative to MTX, increases DHFR. The findings were supported by immunohistochemistry with confocal microscopy, which furthermore demonstrated that DHFR was located in the cytosol of the intestinal epithelial and interstitial cells. Finally, we identified 223 citrullinated peptides from 121 proteins. Three of the peptides were unique to RA. The list of citrullinated proteins was enriched in extracellular and membrane proteins and included known targets of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs). Our findings support that the colon mucosa could trigger the production of ACPAs, which could contribute to the onset of RA. The MS data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001608 and PXD003082.

  11. Portal hypertensive gastric mucosa: an endoscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Papazian, A; Braillon, A; Dupas, J L; Sevenet, F; Capron, J P

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100 patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis, and 300 control patients without signs of liver disease or portal hypertension. This endoscopic pattern was observed in 94 of the patients with cirrhosis, whereas oesophageal varices were seen in 78 only. In contrast, only one patient of the control group had this aspect. Moreover, this sign was also found in seven of eight patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension, but was seen neither in 100 patients with chronic alcoholism but without liver disease, nor in 10 cirrhotic patients with end-to-side portacaval shunts. These endoscopic changes might be because of mucosal and/or submucosal oedema and congestion highlighting the normal areae gastricae pattern and related to raised portal pressure. We conclude that the mosaic pattern of the gastric mucosa is a sensible and specific sign for diagnosis of portal hypertension, whatever the cause. Images Figure PMID:3781334

  12. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  13. DNA DAMAGE IN BUCCAL EPITHELIAL CELLS FROM INDIVIDUALS CHRONICALLY EXPOSED TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess DNA damage in buccal cells from individuals chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Buccal cells were collected from 19 Ba Men residents exposed to arsenic at 527.5 ? 23.7 g/L (mean ? SEM) and ...

  14. Use of Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) for the Treatment of Parotid Sialocele and Fistula After Extirpation of Buccal Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Immediate Reconstruction Using Microvascular Free Flap: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Melville, James C; Stackowicz, Daniel J; Jundt, Jonathon S; Shum, Jonathan W

    2016-08-01

    Buccal squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive form of oral carcinoma with a high recurrence rate. Injury to the parotid duct is often unavoidable when surgically treating buccal squamous cell carcinoma because of the intimate anatomic relation among the buccal mucosa, Stensen duct, and parotid gland. It is often difficult to achieve negative margins and preserve the integrity of the parotid duct. Sialocele formation is a frequent and untoward complication owing to extravasation of saliva into the surgical defect, which delays healing, creates fistulas, and produces painful facial swelling. Currently, no consensus exists regarding the management of a parotid sialocele. Multiple investigators have described different modalities of treatment, such as repeated percutaneous needle aspiration, pressure dressings, antisialagogue therapy, radiotherapy, botulinum toxin, and surgical techniques, including duct repair, diversion, ligation, drain placement, and parotidectomy. With approval from the institutional review board of the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, 3 cases of parotid sialocele and nonhealing fistulas successfully treated with Botox (onabotulinumtoxinA) after tumor extirpation, neck dissection, and reconstruction with a microvascular free flap are presented. At the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at Houston, the radiation oncologist prefers not to start adjunctive radiation treatment with a nonhealing wound or a drain in the field of radiation. Ideally, a standard timing of adjuvant radiotherapy is 6 to 8 weeks after surgery and 60 cGy should be completed before 7 months. With the use of Botox, the nonhealing wound resolved and the drain was removed at least 2 weeks before the initiation of adjunctive radiotherapy, thus minimizing the delay in adjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effectiveness of Articaine and Lidocaine Single Buccal Infiltration versus Conventional Buccal and Palatal Injection Using Lidocaine during Primary Maxillary Molar Extraction: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kolli, Naveen Kumar Reddy; Nirmala, S. V. S. G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the advent of modern injection techniques, palatal injection continues to be a painful experience for children. Aims: To compare the pain experienced during extraction of maxillary primary molars with conventional lignocaine anesthesia versus lignocaine and articaine buccal infiltration in children aged 6–14 years. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomized triple blinded study was conducted with ninety children (n = 90), randomly allocated to receive lignocaine conventional anesthesia (Group I [control group]), and buccal infiltration using articaine (Group II [articaine group]) or lignocaine (Group III [lignocaine group]). A composite score of self-report (faces pain scale-revised), behavioral measure (face legs activity cry consolability scale), and a physiological response (pulse rate) was measured following maxillary primary molar extraction. Statistical Analysis Used: To test the mean difference between two groups, Students’ t-test was used and among the three groups, one-way ANOVA with post hoc test was used. Results: Articaine group had significantly lower pain scores for self-report (P < 000.1) and behavioral measures (P < 000.1) while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between articaine and control groups during primary maxillary molar extraction. Conclusion: Maxillary primary molar extraction procedure can be successfully accomplished by bypassing the palatal injection. Articaine buccal infiltration can be considered as an alternative to conventional local anesthesia for the extraction of maxillary primary molars. PMID:28298777

  16. Mucoadhesion dependence of pharmaceutical polymers on mucosa characteristics.

    PubMed

    Accili, Daniela; Menghi, Giovanna; Bonacucina, Giulia; Martino, Piera Di; Palmieri, Giovanni F

    2004-07-01

    Well known mucoadhesive polymers such as Carbopol 974P and Pharmacoat 606 and three different mucosas (sublingual, oesophageal and duodenal bovine) were used to verify how the mucoadhesive properties of materials may depend on the mucosa characteristics and if a polymer may reveal more mucoadhesive than another and vice versa by changing the type of interacting mucosa. So, tablets of Carbopol 974P and Pharmacoat 606 were prepared and their mucoadhesion on the three mucosas was set in terms of maximum load and work of detachment, using a texture analyzer. At the same time, mucosas were characterized by immunohistochemical techniques and lectin histochemistry. Results obtained from the Tensile test analyses show that the adhesive power of the two polymers is different in the three mucosas. Particularly, in the sublingual mucosa, Carbopol was more mucoadhesive than Pharmacoat. On the contrary, Pharmacoat was more mucoadhesive than Carbopol in duodenal mucosa. The significantly different behavior of polymers was correlated with the desquamation layer thickness and the differential sialic acid and fucose exposition in the targeted mucosas.

  17. Reduction of mandibular residual ridge after vestibuloplasty. A two-year follow-up study comparing the Edlan flap, mucosal and skin graft operations.

    PubMed

    Hillerup, S; Eriksen, E; Solow, B

    1989-10-01

    Mandibular residual ridge reduction (RRR) after Edlan flap vestibuloplasty, buccal mucosal graft, and split skin graft vestibuloplasty was measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postsurgery in 50 patients. The ridge reduction was most severe during the immediate postoperative period. The different operation methods did not give rise to significant variations in the reduction pattern, neither did the sex of the patient appear to be an important factor. The temporary increase of mandibular resorption after vestibuloplasty surgery is of a magnitude comparable to the average RRR during 1 year in full denture wearers with a long denture experience.

  18. Laminated sponges as challenging solid hydrophilic matrices for the buccal delivery of carvedilol microemulsion systems: Development and proof of concept via mucoadhesion and pharmacokinetic assessments in healthy human vo