Science.gov

Sample records for budding yeast reveals

  1. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E. H.; Naylor, Maria L.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast. PMID:27298372

  2. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E H; Naylor, Maria L; Dephoure, Noah; Ballif, Bryan A; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gygi, Steven P; Elledge, Stephen J

    2016-06-28

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast.

  3. Screening the budding yeast genome reveals unique factors affecting K2 toxin susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Servienė, Elena; Lukša, Juliana; Orentaitė, Irma; Lafontaine, Denis L J; Urbonavičius, Jaunius

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action.

  4. Screening the Budding Yeast Genome Reveals Unique Factors Affecting K2 Toxin Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Servienė, Elena; Lukša, Juliana; Orentaitė, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding how biotoxins kill cells is of prime importance in biomedicine and the food industry. The budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) killers serve as a convenient model to study the activity of biotoxins consistently supplying with significant insights into the basic mechanisms of virus-host cell interactions and toxin entry into eukaryotic target cells. K1 and K2 toxins are active at the cell wall, leading to the disruption of the plasma membrane and subsequent cell death by ion leakage. K28 toxin is active in the cell nucleus, blocking DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression, thereby triggering apoptosis. Genome-wide screens in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae identified several hundred effectors of K1 and K28 toxins. Surprisingly, no such screen had been performed for K2 toxin, the most frequent killer toxin among industrial budding yeasts. Principal Findings We conducted several concurrent genome-wide screens in S. cerevisiae and identified 332 novel K2 toxin effectors. The effectors involved in K2 resistance and hypersensitivity largely map in distinct cellular pathways, including cell wall and plasma membrane structure/biogenesis and mitochondrial function for K2 resistance, and cell wall stress signaling and ion/pH homeostasis for K2 hypersensitivity. 70% of K2 effectors are different from those involved in K1 or K28 susceptibility. Significance Our work demonstrates that despite the fact that K1 and K2 toxins share some aspects of their killing strategies, they largely rely on different sets of effectors. Since the vast majority of the host factors identified here is exclusively active towards K2, we conclude that cells have acquired a specific K2 toxin effectors set. Our work thus indicates that K1 and K2 have elaborated different biological pathways and provides a first step towards the detailed characterization of K2 mode of action. PMID:23227207

  5. Actin cable dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Pon, Liza A.

    2002-01-01

    Actin cables, bundles of actin filaments that align along the long axis of budding yeast, are crucial for establishment of cell polarity. We fused green fluorescent protein (GFP) to actin binding protein 140 (Abp140p) and visualized actin cable dynamics in living yeast. We detected two populations of actin cables: (i) bud-associated cables, which extend from the bud along the mother-bud axis, and (ii) randomly oriented cables, which are relatively short. Time-lapse imaging of Abp140p–GFP revealed an apparent increase in the length of bud-associated actin cables. Analysis of movement of Abp140p–GFP fiduciary marks on bud-associated cables and fluorescence loss in photobleaching experiments revealed that this apparent elongation occurs by assembly of new material at the end of the cable within the bud and movement of the opposite end of the cable toward the tip of the mother cell distal to the bud. The rate of extension of the tip of an elongating actin cable is 0.29 ± 0.08 μm/s. Latrunculin A (Lat-A) treatment completely blocked this process. We also observed movement of randomly oriented cables around the cortex of cells at a rate of 0.59 ± 0.14 μm/s. Mild treatment with Lat-A did not affect the velocity of movement of randomly oriented cables. However, Lat-A treatment did increase the number of randomly oriented, motile cables per cell. Our observations suggest that establishment of bud-associated actin cables during the cell cycle is accomplished not by realignment of existing cables but by assembly of new cables within the bud or bud neck, followed by elongation. PMID:11805329

  6. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, I R; Yang, H C; Pon, L A

    2001-06-01

    During the past decade significant advances were made toward understanding the mechanism of mitochondrial inheritance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A combination of genetics, cell-free assays and microscopy has led to the discovery of a great number of components. These fall into three major categories: cytoskeletal elements, mitochondrial membrane components and regulatory proteins. These proteins mediate activities, including movement of mitochondria from mother cells to buds, segregation of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, and equal distribution of the organelle between mother cells and buds during yeast cell division.

  7. Dicentric chromosome stretching during anaphase reveals roles of Sir2/Ku in chromatin compaction in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Thrower, D A; Bloom, K

    2001-09-01

    We have used mitotic spindle forces to examine the role of Sir2 and Ku in chromatin compaction. Escherichia coli lac operator DNA was placed between two centromeres on a conditional dicentric chromosome in budding yeast cells and made visible by expression of a lac repressor-green fluorescent fusion protein. Centromeres on the same chromatid of a dicentric chromosome attach to opposite poles approximately 50% of the time, resulting in chromosome bridges during anaphase. In cells deleted for yKU70, yKU80, or SIR2, a 10-kb region of the dicentric chromosome stretched along the spindle axis to a length of 6 microm during anaphase. On spindle disassembly, stretched chromatin recoiled to the bud neck and was partitioned to mother and daughter cells after cytokinesis and cell separation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Sir2 localizes to the lacO region in response to activation of the dicentric chromosome. These findings indicate that Ku and Sir proteins are required for proper chromatin compaction within regions of a chromosome experiencing tension or DNA damage. The association of Sir2 with the affected region suggests a direct role in this process, which may include the formation of heterochromatic DNA.

  8. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  9. Single-Cell Analysis of Growth in Budding Yeast and Bacteria Reveals a Common Size Regulation Strategy.

    PubMed

    Soifer, Ilya; Robert, Lydia; Amir, Ariel

    2016-02-08

    To maintain a constant cell size, dividing cells have to coordinate cell-cycle events with cell growth. This coordination has long been supposed to rely on the existence of size thresholds determining cell-cycle progression [1]. In budding yeast, size is controlled at the G1/S transition [2]. In agreement with this hypothesis, the size at birth influences the time spent in G1: smaller cells have a longer G1 period [3]. Nevertheless, even though cells born smaller have a longer G1, the compensation is imperfect and they still bud at smaller cell sizes. In bacteria, several recent studies have shown that the incremental model of size control, in which size is controlled by addition of a constant volume (in contrast to a size threshold), is able to quantitatively explain the experimental data on four different bacterial species [4-7]. Here, we report on experimental results for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, finding, surprisingly, that cell size control in this organism is very well described by the incremental model, suggesting a common strategy for cell size control with bacteria. Additionally, we argue that for S. cerevisiae the "volume increment" is not added from birth to division, but rather between two budding events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Link between ORC-origin binding mechanisms and origin activation time revealed in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Timothy; Shor, Erika; Müller, Carolin A; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Fox, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication origins are selected in G1-phase when the origin recognition complex (ORC) binds chromosomal positions and triggers molecular events culminating in the initiation of DNA replication (a.k.a. origin firing) during S-phase. Each chromosome uses multiple origins for its duplication, and each origin fires at a characteristic time during S-phase, creating a cell-type specific genome replication pattern relevant to differentiation and genome stability. It is unclear whether ORC-origin interactions are relevant to origin activation time. We applied a novel genome-wide strategy to classify origins in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on the types of molecular interactions used for ORC-origin binding. Specifically, origins were classified as DNA-dependent when the strength of ORC-origin binding in vivo could be explained by the affinity of ORC for origin DNA in vitro, and, conversely, as 'chromatin-dependent' when the ORC-DNA interaction in vitro was insufficient to explain the strength of ORC-origin binding in vivo. These two origin classes differed in terms of nucleosome architecture and dependence on origin-flanking sequences in plasmid replication assays, consistent with local features of chromatin promoting ORC binding at 'chromatin-dependent' origins. Finally, the 'chromatin-dependent' class was enriched for origins that fire early in S-phase, while the DNA-dependent class was enriched for later firing origins. Conversely, the latest firing origins showed a positive association with the ORC-origin DNA paradigm for normal levels of ORC binding, whereas the earliest firing origins did not. These data reveal a novel association between ORC-origin binding mechanisms and the regulation of origin activation time.

  11. A Link between ORC-Origin Binding Mechanisms and Origin Activation Time Revealed in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hoggard, Timothy; Shor, Erika; Müller, Carolin A.; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Fox, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication origins are selected in G1-phase when the origin recognition complex (ORC) binds chromosomal positions and triggers molecular events culminating in the initiation of DNA replication (a.k.a. origin firing) during S-phase. Each chromosome uses multiple origins for its duplication, and each origin fires at a characteristic time during S-phase, creating a cell-type specific genome replication pattern relevant to differentiation and genome stability. It is unclear whether ORC-origin interactions are relevant to origin activation time. We applied a novel genome-wide strategy to classify origins in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on the types of molecular interactions used for ORC-origin binding. Specifically, origins were classified as DNA-dependent when the strength of ORC-origin binding in vivo could be explained by the affinity of ORC for origin DNA in vitro, and, conversely, as ‘chromatin-dependent’ when the ORC-DNA interaction in vitro was insufficient to explain the strength of ORC-origin binding in vivo. These two origin classes differed in terms of nucleosome architecture and dependence on origin-flanking sequences in plasmid replication assays, consistent with local features of chromatin promoting ORC binding at ‘chromatin-dependent’ origins. Finally, the ‘chromatin-dependent’ class was enriched for origins that fire early in S-phase, while the DNA-dependent class was enriched for later firing origins. Conversely, the latest firing origins showed a positive association with the ORC-origin DNA paradigm for normal levels of ORC binding, whereas the earliest firing origins did not. These data reveal a novel association between ORC-origin binding mechanisms and the regulation of origin activation time. PMID:24068963

  12. The intronome of budding yeasts.

    PubMed

    Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian; Gaillardin, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We took advantage of this plethora of data to compile and assess the intron content of the protein-coding genes of 13 genomes representative of the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. We first observed that intron paucity is a general rule and that the fastest evolving genomes tend to lose their introns more rapidly (e.g. S. cerevisiae versus Yarrowia lipolytica). Noticeable differences were also confirmed for 5' splice sites and branch point sites (BP) as well as for the relative position of the BP. These changes seemed to be correlated with the lineage specific evolution of splicing factors.

  13. Functional Diversity of Silencers in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstrand, Jimmy O. O.; Kegel, Andreas; Åström, Stefan U.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci HMLα and HMRa in the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. A 102-bp minimal silencer fragment was defined that was both necessary and sufficient for silencing of HMLα. Mutagenesis of the silencer revealed three distinct regions (A, B, and C) that were important for silencing. Recombinant K. lactis ribosomal DNA enhancer binding protein 1 (Reb1p) could bind the silencer in vitro, and point mutations in the B box abolished both Reb1p binding and silencer function. Furthermore, strains carrying temperature-sensitive alleles of the REB1 gene derepressed the transcription of the HMLα1 gene at the nonpermissive temperature. A functional silencer element from the K. lactis cryptic HMRa locus was also identified, which contained both Reb1p binding sites and A boxes, strongly suggesting a general role for these sequences in K. lactis silencing. Our data indicate that different proteins bind to Kluyveromyces silencers than to Saccharomyces silencers. We suggest that the evolution of silencers is rapid in budding yeasts and discuss the similarities and differences between silencers in Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces. PMID:12456003

  14. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Fox, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  15. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fox, Catherine A

    2016-04-07

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  16. Energy Landscape Reveals That the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle Is a Robust and Adaptive Multi-stage Process

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems. PMID:25794282

  17. Multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rebecca L; Okamoto, Koji; Shaw, Janet M

    2008-02-01

    Yeast mitochondria form a branched tubular network. Mitochondrial inheritance is tightly coupled with bud emergence, ensuring that daughter cells receive mitochondria from mother cells during division. Proteins reported to influence mitochondrial inheritance include the mitochondrial rho (Miro) GTPase Gem1p, Mmr1p, and Ypt11p. A synthetic genetic array (SGA) screen revealed interactions between gem1Delta and deletions of genes that affect mitochondrial function or inheritance, including mmr1Delta. Synthetic sickness of gem1Delta mmr1Delta double mutants correlated with defective mitochondrial inheritance by large buds. Additional studies demonstrated that GEM1, MMR1, and YPT11 each contribute to mitochondrial inheritance. Mitochondrial accumulation in buds caused by overexpression of either Mmr1p or Ypt11p did not depend on Gem1p, indicating these three proteins function independently. Physical linkage of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has led to speculation that distribution of these two organelles is coordinated. We show that yeast mitochondrial inheritance is not required for inheritance or spreading of cortical ER in the bud. Moreover, Ypt11p overexpression, but not Mmr1p overexpression, caused ER accumulation in the bud, revealing a potential role for Ypt11p in ER distribution. This study demonstrates that multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and that Miro GTPases have conserved roles in mitochondrial distribution.

  18. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  19. Interaction between bud-site selection and polarity-establishment machineries in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Fang; Savage, Natasha S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells polarize in order to form a single bud in each cell cycle. Distinct patterns of bud-site selection are observed in haploid and diploid cells. Genetic approaches have identified the molecular machinery responsible for positioning the bud site: during bud formation, specific locations are marked with immobile landmark proteins. In the next cell cycle, landmarks act through the Ras-family GTPase Rsr1 to promote local activation of the conserved Rho-family GTPase, Cdc42. Additional Cdc42 accumulates by positive feedback, creating a concentrated patch of GTP-Cdc42, which polarizes the cytoskeleton to promote bud emergence. Using time-lapse imaging and mathematical modelling, we examined the process of bud-site establishment. Imaging reveals unexpected effects of the bud-site-selection system on the dynamics of polarity establishment, raising new questions about how that system may operate. We found that polarity factors sometimes accumulate at more than one site among the landmark-specified locations, and we suggest that competition between clusters of polarity factors determines the final location of the Cdc42 cluster. Modelling indicated that temporally constant landmark-localized Rsr1 would weaken or block competition, yielding more than one polarity site. Instead, we suggest that polarity factors recruit Rsr1, effectively sequestering it from other locations and thereby terminating landmark activity. PMID:24062579

  20. Mitochondrial movement and inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, Istvan R; Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Pon, Liza A

    2005-07-18

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that perform fundamental cellular functions including aerobic energy mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid metabolism, heme biosynthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondria cannot be synthesized de novo. Therefore, the inheritance of this organelle is an essential part of the cell cycle; that is, daughter cells that do not inherit mitochondria will not survive. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a facultative aerobe that can tolerate mitochondrial mutations that would be lethal in other organisms. Therefore, yeast has been used extensively to study inheritance and segregation of mitochondria. As a result, much of what we know regarding mitochondrial inheritance has been uncovered using yeast as a model system. Here, we describe the latest developments in mitochondrial motility and inheritance.

  1. Cell polarization in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sophie G; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2014-03-01

    Polarization is a fundamental cellular property, which is essential for the function of numerous cell types. Over the past three to four decades, research using the best-established yeast systems in cell biological research, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (or budding yeast) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (or fission yeast), has brought to light fundamental principles governing the establishment and maintenance of a polarized, asymmetric state. These two organisms, though both ascomycetes, are evolutionarily very distant and exhibit distinct shapes and modes of growth. In this review, we compare and contrast the two systems. We first highlight common cell polarization pathways, detailing the contribution of Rho GTPases, the cytoskeleton, membrane trafficking, lipids, and protein scaffolds. We then contrast the major differences between the two organisms, describing their distinct strategies in growth site selection and growth zone dimensions and compartmentalization, which may be the basis for their distinct shapes. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytokinesis Depends on the Motor Domains of Myosin-II in Fission Yeast but Not in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Matthew; Laves, Ellen; Pollard, Thomas D.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast possesses one myosin-II, Myo1p, whereas fission yeast has two, Myo2p and Myp2p, all of which contribute to cytokinesis. We find that chimeras consisting of Myo2p or Myp2p motor domains fused to the tail of Myo1p are fully functional in supporting budding yeast cytokinesis. Remarkably, the tail alone of budding yeast Myo1p localizes to the contractile ring, supporting both its constriction and cytokinesis. In contrast, fission yeast Myo2p and Myp2p require both the catalytic head domain as well as tail domains for function, with the tails providing distinct functions (Bezanilla and Pollard, 2000). Myo1p is the first example of a myosin whose cellular function does not require a catalytic motor domain revealing a novel mechanism of action for budding yeast myosin-II independent of actin binding and ATPase activity. PMID:16148042

  3. Cell Polarization and Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Erfei; Park, Hay-Oak

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, which includes cell polarization and cytokinesis, is essential for generating cell diversity during development. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reproduces by asymmetric cell division, and has thus served as an attractive model for unraveling the general principles of eukaryotic cell polarization and cytokinesis. Polarity development requires G-protein signaling, cytoskeletal polarization, and exocytosis, whereas cytokinesis requires concerted actions of a contractile actomyosin ring and targeted membrane deposition. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanics and spatial control of polarity development and cytokinesis, emphasizing the key concepts, mechanisms, and emerging questions in the field. PMID:22701052

  4. Combined Transcriptomics and Chemical-Genetics Reveal Molecular Mode of Action of Valproic acid, an Anticancer Molecule using Budding Yeast Model

    PubMed Central

    Golla, Upendarrao; Joseph, Deepthi; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VA) is a pharmacologically important histone deacetylase inhibitor that recently garnered attention as an anticancer agent. Since the molecular mechanisms behind the multiple effects of VA are unclear, this study was aimed to unravel the comprehensive cellular processes affected by VA and its molecular targets in vivo using budding yeast as a model organism. Interestingly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with VA showed differential regulation of 30% of the genome. Functional enrichment analysis of VA transcriptome evidenced alteration of various cellular processes including cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, DNA repair, ion homeostasis, metabolism, stress response, transport and ribosomal biogenesis, etc. Moreover, our genetic screening analysis revealed VA molecular targets belonging to oxidative and osmotic stress, DNA repair, cell wall integrity, and iron homeostasis. Further, our results demonstrated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Hog1 (p38) and Slt2 (p44/42) upon VA treatment. Our results also exhibited that VA acts through alteration of mitochondrial, ER architecture and functions. Especially, VA effects were neutralized in cells lacking lipid particles. Altogether, our results deciphered the novel molecular insights and mechanistic links to strengthen our knowledge on diverse cellular effects of VA along with its probable therapeutic targets and detoxification approaches. PMID:27734932

  5. High resolution microscopy reveals the nuclear shape of budding yeast during cell cycle and in various biological states

    PubMed Central

    Kamgoue, Alain; Normand, Christophe; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Mangeat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT How spatial organization of the genome depends on nuclear shape is unknown, mostly because accurate nuclear size and shape measurement is technically challenging. In large cell populations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we assessed the geometry (size and shape) of nuclei in three dimensions with a resolution of 30 nm. We improved an automated fluorescence localization method by implementing a post-acquisition correction of the spherical microscopic aberration along the z-axis, to detect the three dimensional (3D) positions of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope. Here, we used a method called NucQuant to accurately estimate the geometry of nuclei in 3D throughout the cell cycle. To increase the robustness of the statistics, we aggregated thousands of detected NPCs from a cell population in a single representation using the nucleolus or the spindle pole body (SPB) as references to align nuclei along the same axis. We could detect asymmetric changes of the nucleus associated with modification of nucleolar size. Stereotypical modification of the nucleus toward the nucleolus further confirmed the asymmetric properties of the nuclear envelope. PMID:27831493

  6. High resolution microscopy reveals the nuclear shape of budding yeast during cell cycle and in various biological states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Kamgoue, Alain; Normand, Christophe; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Mangeat, Thomas; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-12-15

    How spatial organization of the genome depends on nuclear shape is unknown, mostly because accurate nuclear size and shape measurement is technically challenging. In large cell populations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we assessed the geometry (size and shape) of nuclei in three dimensions with a resolution of 30 nm. We improved an automated fluorescence localization method by implementing a post-acquisition correction of the spherical microscopic aberration along the z-axis, to detect the three dimensional (3D) positions of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope. Here, we used a method called NucQuant to accurately estimate the geometry of nuclei in 3D throughout the cell cycle. To increase the robustness of the statistics, we aggregated thousands of detected NPCs from a cell population in a single representation using the nucleolus or the spindle pole body (SPB) as references to align nuclei along the same axis. We could detect asymmetric changes of the nucleus associated with modification of nucleolar size. Stereotypical modification of the nucleus toward the nucleolus further confirmed the asymmetric properties of the nuclear envelope. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, David E.; Nakanishi, Kotaro; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Bartel, David P.

    2011-09-20

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  8. The Inside-Out Mechanism of Dicers from Budding Yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    D Weinberg; K Nakanishi; D Patel; D Bartel

    2011-12-31

    The Dicer ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes process long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that direct RNA interference. Here, we describe the structure and activity of a catalytically active fragment of Kluyveromyces polysporus Dcr1, which represents the noncanonical Dicers found in budding yeasts. The crystal structure revealed a homodimer resembling that of bacterial RNase III but extended by a unique N-terminal domain, and it identified additional catalytic residues conserved throughout eukaryotic RNase III enzymes. Biochemical analyses showed that Dcr1 dimers bind cooperatively along the dsRNA substrate such that the distance between consecutive active sites determines the length of the siRNA products. Thus, unlike canonical Dicers, which successively remove siRNA duplexes from the dsRNA termini, budding-yeast Dicers initiate processing in the interior and work outward. The distinct mechanism of budding-yeast Dicers establishes a paradigm for natural molecular rulers and imparts substrate preferences with ramifications for biological function.

  9. Biofilm/Mat assays for budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Paul J

    2015-02-02

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucin-like flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species.

  10. Systematic definition of protein constituents along the major polarization axis reveals an adaptive reuse of the polarization machinery in pheromone-treated budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Rammohan; Moradi, Emily K; Niu, Wei; Hart, G Traver; Davis, Matthew; McGary, Kriston L; Ellington, Andrew D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2009-01-01

    Polarizing cells extensively restructure cellular components in a spatially and temporally coupled manner along the major axis of cellular extension. Budding yeast are a useful model of polarized growth, helping to define many molecular components of this conserved process. Besides budding, yeast cells also differentiate upon treatment with pheromone from the opposite mating type, forming a mating projection (the 'shmoo') by directional restructuring of the cytoskeleton, localized vesicular transport and overall reorganization of the cytosol. To characterize the proteomic localization changes accompanying polarized growth, we developed and implemented a novel cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring the spatial redistribution of a large fraction of the yeast proteome, and applied this assay to identify proteins localized along the mating projection following pheromone treatment. We further trained a machine learning algorithm to refine the cell imaging screen, identifying additional shmoo-localized proteins. In all, we identified 74 proteins that specifically localize to the mating projection, including previously uncharacterized proteins (Ycr043c, Ydr348c, Yer071c, Ymr295c, and Yor304c-a) and known polarization complexes such as the exocyst. Functional analysis of these proteins, coupled with quantitative analysis of individual organelle movements during shmoo formation, suggests a model in which the basic machinery for cell polarization is generally conserved between processes forming the bud and the shmoo, with a distinct subset of proteins used only for shmoo formation. The net effect is a defined ordering of major organelles along the polarization axis, with specific proteins implicated at the proximal growth tip.

  11. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  12. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  13. Estimation of population effects in synchronized budding yeast experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemistoe, Antti; Aho, Tommi; Thesleff, Henna; Tiainen, Mikko; Marjanen, Kalle; Linne, Marja-Leena; Yli-Harja, Olli P.

    2003-05-01

    An approach for estimating the distribution of a synchronized budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell population is discussed. This involves estimation of the phase of the cell cycle for each cell. The approach is based on counting the number of buds of different sizes in budding yeast images. An image processing procedure is presented for the bud-counting task. The procedure employs clustering of the local mean-variance space for segmentation of the images. The subsequent bud-detection step is based on an object separation method which utilizes the chain code representation of objects as well as labeling of connected components. The procedure is tested with microscopic images that were obtained in a time-series experiment of a synchronized budding yeast cell population. The use of the distribution estimate of the cell population for inverse filtering of signals that are obtained in time-series microarray measurements is discussed as well.

  14. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  16. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  17. Identification of an Amphipathic Helix Important for the Formation of Ectopic Septin Spirals and Axial Budding in Yeast Axial Landmark Protein Bud3p

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (∼1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1–858, 850–1220, and 1221–1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1–858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850–858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850–1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1–858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes. PMID:21408200

  18. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  19. Singularity in polarization: rewiring yeast cells to make two buds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Audrey S; Savage, Natasha S; Johnson, Sam A; Bose, Indrani; Wagner, Allison W; Zyla, Trevin R; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Goryachev, Andrew B; Lew, Daniel J

    2009-11-13

    For budding yeast to ensure formation of only one bud, cells must polarize toward one, and only one, site. Polarity establishment involves the Rho family GTPase Cdc42, which concentrates at polarization sites via a positive feedback loop. To assess whether singularity is linked to the specific Cdc42 feedback loop, we disabled the yeast cell's endogenous amplification mechanism and synthetically rewired the cells to employ a different positive feedback loop. Rewired cells violated singularity, occasionally making two buds. Even cells that made only one bud sometimes initiated two clusters of Cdc42, but then one cluster became dominant. Mathematical modeling indicated that, given sufficient time, competition between clusters would promote singularity. In rewired cells, competition occurred slowly and sometimes failed to develop a single "winning" cluster before budding. Slowing competition in normal cells also allowed occasional formation of two buds, suggesting that singularity is enforced by rapid competition between Cdc42 clusters.

  20. Aging and senescence of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jazwinski, S M

    1990-03-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a limited life span, defined by the number of times an individual cell divides. Longevity in this organism involves a genetic component. Several morphological and physiological changes are associated with yeast aging and senescence. One of these, an increase in generation time with age, provides a 'biomarker' for the aging process. This increase in generation time has revealed the operation of a 'senescence factor(s)', which is likely to be a product of age-specific gene expression. The Cell Spiral Model indicates coordination of successive cell cycles to be inherent in the determination of life span. It is proposed that life expectancy depends on the function of a stochastic trigger during aging that sets in motion a programme leading to cell senescence and death.

  1. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  2. Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Soifer, Ilya; Barkai, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Cell size is determined by a complex interplay between growth and division, involving multiple cellular pathways. To identify systematically processes affecting size control in G1 in budding yeast, we imaged and analyzed the cell cycle of millions of individual cells representing 591 mutants implicated in size control. Quantitative metric distinguished mutants affecting the mechanism of size control from the majority of mutants that have a perturbed size due to indirect effects modulating cell growth. Overall, we identified 17 negative and dozens positive size control regulators, with the negative regulators forming a small network centered on elements of mitotic exit network. Some elements of the translation machinery affected size control with a notable distinction between the deletions of parts of small and large ribosomal subunit: parts of small ribosomal subunit tended to regulate size control, while parts of the large subunit affected cell growth. Analysis of small cells revealed additional size control mechanism that functions in G2/M, complementing the primary size control in G1. Our study provides new insights about size control mechanisms in budding yeast. PMID:25411401

  3. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  4. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    PubMed

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  5. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  6. Distinct Domains of Yeast Cortical Tag Proteins Bud8p and Bud9p Confer Polar Localization and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Krappmann, Anne-Brit; Taheri, Naimeh; Heinrich, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, diploid yeast cells follow a bipolar budding program, which depends on the two transmembrane glycoproteins Bud8p and Bud9p that potentially act as cortical tags to mark the cell poles. Here, we have performed systematic structure-function analyses of Bud8p and Bud9p to identify functional domains. We find that polar transport of Bud8p and Bud9p does not depend on N-terminal sequences but instead on sequences in the median part of the proteins and on the C-terminal parts that contain the transmembrane domains. We show that the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factor Bud5p, which is essential for bud site selection and physically interacts with Bud8p, also interacts with Bud9p. Regions of Bud8p and Bud9p predicted to reside in the extracellular space are likely to confer interaction with the N-terminal region of Bud5p, implicating indirect interactions between the cortical tags and the GDP/GTP exchange factor. Finally, we have identified regions of Bud8p and Bud9p that are required for interaction with the cortical tag protein Rax1p. In summary, our study suggests that Bud8p and Bud9p carry distinct domains for delivery of the proteins to the cell poles, for interaction with the general budding machinery and for association with other cortical tag proteins. PMID:17581861

  7. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  8. Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

    We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

  9. How to halve ploidy: lessons from budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Gary William; Sarkar, Sourav; Arumugam, Prakash

    2012-09-01

    Maintenance of ploidy in sexually reproducing organisms requires a specialized form of cell division called meiosis that generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Meiotic cells halve their ploidy by undergoing two rounds of nuclear division (meiosis I and II) after a single round of DNA replication. Research in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has shown that four major deviations from the mitotic cell cycle during meiosis are essential for halving ploidy. The deviations are (1) formation of a link between homologous chromosomes by crossover, (2) monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I, (3) protection of centromeric cohesion during meiosis I, and (4) suppression of DNA replication following exit from meiosis I. In this review we present the current understanding of the above four processes in budding yeast and examine the possible conservation of molecular mechanisms from yeast to humans.

  10. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  11. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  12. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  13. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeasts: towards an integrated understanding.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in yeast mitogenomics have significantly contributed to our understanding of the diversity of organization, structure and topology in the mitochondrial genome of budding yeasts. In parallel, new insights on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae highlighted an integrated scenario where recombination, replication and segregation of mtDNA are intricately linked to mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure and organelle sorting. In addition to this, recent discoveries of bifunctional roles of some mitochondrial proteins have interesting implications on mito-nuclear genome interactions and the relationship between mtDNA inheritance, yeast fitness and speciation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on yeast mitogenomics, mtDNA inheritance with regard to mt-nucleoid structure and organelle dynamics, and mito-nuclear genome interactions.

  14. Mathematical model of the morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ciliberto, Andrea; Novak, Bela; Tyson, John J.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast delays progression through the cell cycle in response to stimuli that prevent bud formation. Central to the checkpoint mechanism is Swe1 kinase: normally inactive, its activation halts cell cycle progression in G2. We propose a molecular network for Swe1 control, based on published observations of budding yeast and analogous control signals in fission yeast. The proposed Swe1 network is merged with a model of cyclin-dependent kinase regulation, converted into a set of differential equations and studied by numerical simulation. The simulations accurately reproduce the phenotypes of a dozen checkpoint mutants. Among other predictions, the model attributes a new role to Hsl1, a kinase known to play a role in Swe1 degradation: Hsl1 must also be indirectly responsible for potent inhibition of Swe1 activity. The model supports the idea that the morphogenesis checkpoint, like other checkpoints, raises the cell size threshold for progression from one phase of the cell cycle to the next. PMID:14691135

  15. Mathematical model of the morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ciliberto, Andrea; Novak, Bela; Tyson, John J

    2003-12-22

    The morphogenesis checkpoint in budding yeast delays progression through the cell cycle in response to stimuli that prevent bud formation. Central to the checkpoint mechanism is Swe1 kinase: normally inactive, its activation halts cell cycle progression in G2. We propose a molecular network for Swe1 control, based on published observations of budding yeast and analogous control signals in fission yeast. The proposed Swe1 network is merged with a model of cyclin-dependent kinase regulation, converted into a set of differential equations and studied by numerical simulation. The simulations accurately reproduce the phenotypes of a dozen checkpoint mutants. Among other predictions, the model attributes a new role to Hsl1, a kinase known to play a role in Swe1 degradation: Hsl1 must also be indirectly responsible for potent inhibition of Swe1 activity. The model supports the idea that the morphogenesis checkpoint, like other checkpoints, raises the cell size threshold for progression from one phase of the cell cycle to the next.

  16. Sporulation in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Neiman, Aaron M.

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores. The formation of spores requires an unusual cell division event in which daughter cells are formed within the cytoplasm of the mother cell. This process involves the de novo generation of two different cellular structures: novel membrane compartments within the cell cytoplasm that give rise to the spore plasma membrane and an extensive spore wall that protects the spore from environmental insults. This article summarizes what is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling spore assembly with particular attention to how constitutive cellular functions are modified to create novel behaviors during this developmental process. Key regulatory points on the sporulation pathway are also discussed as well as the possible role of sporulation in the natural ecology of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22084423

  17. The fascinating and secret wild life of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liti, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in laboratory experiments for over a century and has been instrumental in understanding virtually every aspect of molecular biology and genetics. However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology. Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories. The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05835.001 PMID:25807086

  18. The fascinating and secret wild life of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liti, Gianni

    2015-03-25

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in laboratory experiments for over a century and has been instrumental in understanding virtually every aspect of molecular biology and genetics. However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology. Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories. The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast.

  19. Origin plasticity during budding yeast DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Julien; Devbhandari, Sujan; Remus, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The separation of DNA replication origin licensing and activation in the cell cycle is essential for genome stability across generations in eukaryotic cells. Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) license origins by loading Mcm2-7 complexes in inactive form around DNA. During origin firing in S phase, replisomes assemble around the activated Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. Budding yeast pre-RCs have previously been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Here, we show that reconstituted pre-RCs support replication of plasmid DNA in yeast cell extracts in a reaction that exhibits hallmarks of cellular replication initiation. Plasmid replication in vitro results in the generation of covalently closed circular daughter molecules, indicating that the system recapitulates the initiation, elongation, and termination stages of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, yeast origin DNA is not strictly required for DNA replication in vitro, as heterologous DNA sequences could support replication of plasmid molecules. Our findings support the notion that epigenetic mechanisms are important for determining replication origin sites in budding yeast, highlighting mechanistic principles of replication origin specification that are common among eukaryotes. PMID:24566988

  20. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions.

  1. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions. PMID:28119915

  2. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K; Viana, Matheus P; Garcia, Enrique J; Sing, Cierra N; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C; Vevea, Jason D; Boldogh, Istvan R; Rafelski, Susanne M; Pon, Liza A

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud.

  3. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K.; Viana, Matheus P.; Garcia, Enrique J.; Sing, Cierra N.; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C.; Vevea, Jason D.; Boldogh, Istvan R.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Pon, Liza A.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud. PMID:26764088

  4. Time-Lapse Fluorescence Microscopy of Budding Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Mendoza, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed visualization of a wide variety of processes within living cells. Thanks to the development of differently colored fluorophores, it is now possible to simultaneously follow distinct subcellular events at the single cell level. Here, we describe a basic method to visualize multiple events during cytokinesis by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this organism, contraction of an actomyosin-based ring drives ingression of the plasma membrane at the mother-bud division site to partition the cytoplasm of the dividing cell. Simultaneous visualization of distinct cytokinesis steps in living cells, such as ring contraction and membrane ingression, will facilitate a complete understanding of the mechanisms of eukaryotic cell division.

  5. Nuclear envelope fission is linked to cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, J; Li, R

    2000-11-01

    We have investigated the relationship between nuclear envelope fission and cytokinesis during mitotic cell division in budding yeast. By carrying out time-lapse and optical sectioning video microscopy analysis of cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged nuclear envelope and actomyosin ring components, we found that nuclear division is temporally coupled to cytokinesis. Light and electron microscopy analysis also showed that nuclear envelope fission and the division of the nucleoplasm are severely delayed in cytokinesis mutants, resulting in discoupling between the nuclear division cycle and the budding cycle. These results suggest that homotypic membrane fusion may be activated by components or the mechanical action of cytokinetic structures and presents a mechanism for the equal partitioning of the nucleus and the temporal coordination of this event with chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  6. Naumovozyma castellii: an alternative model for budding yeast molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Karademir Andersson, Ahu; Cohn, Marita

    2017-03-01

    Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii) is a member of the budding yeast family Saccharomycetaceae. It has been extensively used as a model organism for telomere biology research and has gained increasing interest as a budding yeast model for functional analyses owing to its amenability to genetic modifications. Owing to the suitable phylogenetic distance to S. cerevisiae, the whole genome sequence of N. castellii has provided unique data for comparative genomic studies, and it played a key role in the establishment of the timing of the whole genome duplication and the evolutionary events that took place in the subsequent genomic evolution of the Saccharomyces lineage. Here we summarize the historical background of its establishment as a laboratory yeast species, and the development of genetic and molecular tools and strains. We review the research performed on N. castellii, focusing on areas where it has significantly contributed to the discovery of new features of molecular biology and to the advancement of our understanding of molecular evolution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Analyzing transcription dynamics during the budding yeast cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Leman, Adam R; Bristow, Sara L; Haase, Steven B

    2014-01-01

    Assaying global cell cycle-regulated transcription in budding yeast involves extracting RNA from a synchronous population and proper normalization of detected transcript levels. Here, we describe synchronization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell populations by centrifugal elutriation, followed by the isolation of RNA for microarray analysis. Further, we outline the computational methods required to directly compare RNA abundance from individual time points within an experiment and to compare independent experiments. Together, these methods describe the complete workflow necessary to observe RNA abundance during the cell cycle.

  8. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  9. Saccharomyces Genome Database: the genomics resource of budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Michael; Hong, Eurie L.; Amundsen, Craig; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Chan, Esther T.; Christie, Karen R.; Costanzo, Maria C.; Dwight, Selina S.; Engel, Stacia R.; Fisk, Dianna G.; Hirschman, Jodi E.; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Karra, Kalpana; Krieger, Cynthia J.; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Nash, Rob S.; Park, Julie; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Simison, Matt; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D.

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD, http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the community resource for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The SGD project provides the highest-quality manually curated information from peer-reviewed literature. The experimental results reported in the literature are extracted and integrated within a well-developed database. These data are combined with quality high-throughput results and provided through Locus Summary pages, a powerful query engine and rich genome browser. The acquisition, integration and retrieval of these data allow SGD to facilitate experimental design and analysis by providing an encyclopedia of the yeast genome, its chromosomal features, their functions and interactions. Public access to these data is provided to researchers and educators via web pages designed for optimal ease of use. PMID:22110037

  10. Extremely fast and incredibly close: cotranscriptional splicing in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Edward W J; Beggs, Jean D

    2017-05-01

    RNA splicing, an essential part of eukaryotic pre-messenger RNA processing, can be simultaneous with transcription by RNA polymerase II. Here, we compare and review independent next-generation sequencing methods that jointly quantify transcription and splicing in budding yeast. For many yeast transcripts, splicing is fast, taking place within seconds of intron transcription, while polymerase is within a few dozens of nucleotides of the 3' splice site. Ribosomal protein transcripts are spliced particularly fast and cotranscriptionally. However, some transcripts are spliced inefficiently or mainly post-transcriptionally. Intron-mediated regulation of some genes is likely to be cotranscriptional. We suggest that intermediates of the splicing reaction, missing from current data sets, may hold key information about splicing kinetics. © 2017 Wallace and Beggs; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  12. Programmed Cell Death Initiation and Execution in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) was initially described in metazoans as a genetically controlled process leading to intracellular breakdown and engulfment by a neighboring cell . This process was distinguished from other forms of cell death like necrosis by maintenance of plasma membrane integrity prior to engulfment and the well-defined genetic system controlling this process. Apoptosis was originally described as a mechanism to reshape tissues during development. Given this context, the assumption was made that this process would not be found in simpler eukaryotes such as budding yeast. Although basic components of the apoptotic pathway were identified in yeast, initial observations suggested that it was devoid of prosurvival and prodeath regulatory proteins identified in mammalian cells. However, as apoptosis became extensively linked to the elimination of damaged cells, key PCD regulatory proteins were identified in yeast that play similar roles in mammals. This review highlights recent discoveries that have permitted information regarding PCD regulation in yeast to now inform experiments in animals. PMID:26272996

  13. A nutrient dependant switch explains mutually exclusive existence of meiosis and mitosis initiation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wannige, C T; Kulasiri, D; Samarasinghe, S

    2014-01-21

    Nutrients from living environment are vital for the survival and growth of any organism. Budding yeast diploid cells decide to grow by mitosis type cell division or decide to create unique, stress resistant spores by meiosis type cell division depending on the available nutrient conditions. To gain a molecular systems level understanding of the nutrient dependant switching between meiosis and mitosis initiation in diploid cells of budding yeast, we develop a theoretical model based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) including the mitosis initiator and its relations to budding yeast meiosis initiation network. Our model accurately and qualitatively predicts the experimentally revealed temporal variations of related proteins under different nutrient conditions as well as the diverse mutant studies related to meiosis and mitosis initiation. Using this model, we show how the meiosis and mitosis initiators form an all-or-none type bistable switch in response to available nutrient level (mainly nitrogen). The transitions to and from meiosis or mitosis initiation states occur via saddle node bifurcation. This bidirectional switch helps the optimal usage of available nutrients and explains the mutually exclusive existence of meiosis and mitosis pathways.

  14. Identification of budding yeast using a fiber-optic imaging bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschwanez, John; Holl, Mark; Marquardt, Brian; Dragavon, Joe; Burgess, Lloyd; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    A successful imaging system has been designed and built for yeast pedigree analysis. The system uses a fiber-optic imaging bundle to recognize single yeast cells. Image processing software has been developed to accurately classify the cells as either budding or not budding a daughter cell. This system is intended to replace the body of a microscope for the detection of budding in a microfluidic system.

  15. Localization of Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein necessary for programming cell polarity in yeast to the presumptive bud site

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Sanson, Anthony; Herskowitz, Ira

    1999-01-01

    Yeast cells of different cell type exhibit distinct budding patterns that reflect the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Bud1p (Rsr1p), a Ras-like GTPase, and Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein for Bud1p, are essential for proper budding pattern. We show that Bud2p is localized at the presumptive bud site in G1 cells in all cell types and that this localization is independent of Bud1p. Bud2p subsequently localizes to the mother-bud neck after bud emergence; this localization depends on the integrity of the septins. These observations indicate that Bud2p becomes positioned in G1 cells by recognizing cell type-specific landmarks at the presumptive bud site. PMID:10444589

  16. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity. PMID:25081216

  17. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  18. The mother-bud neck as a signaling platform for the coordination between spindle position and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Piatti, Simonetta

    2011-08-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical for ensuring the unequal inheritance of polarity factors. In budding yeast, the mother-bud neck determines the cleavage plane and a correct nuclear division between mother and daughter cell requires orientation of the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. A surveillance device called the spindle position/orientation checkpoint (SPOC) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability. Cytoskeletal proteins called septins form a ring at the bud neck that is essential for cytokinesis. Furthermore, septins and septin-associated proteins are implicated in spindle positioning and SPOC. In this review, we discuss the emerging connections between septins and the SPOC and the role of the mother-bud neck as a signaling platform to couple proper chromosome segregation to cytokinesis.

  19. Crosslinks in the cell wall of budding yeast control morphogenesis at the mother–bud neck

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Noelia; Reidy, Michael; Arroyo, Javier; Cabib, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Summary Previous work has shown that, in cla4Δ cells of budding yeast, where septin ring organization is compromised, the chitin ring at the mother–daughter neck becomes essential for prevention of neck widening and for cytokinesis. Here, we show that it is not the chitin ring per se, but its linkage to β(1-3)glucan that is required for control of neck growth. When in a cla4Δ background, crh1Δ crh2Δ mutants, in which the chitin ring is not connected to β(1-3)glucan, grew very slowly and showed wide and growing necks, elongated buds and swollen cells with large vacuoles. A similar behavior was elicited by inhibition of the Crh proteins. This aberrant morphology matched that of cla4Δ chs3Δ cells, which have no chitin at the neck. Thus, this is a clear case in which a specific chemical bond between two substances, chitin and glucan, is essential for the control of morphogenesis. This defines a new paradigm, in which chemistry regulates growth. PMID:23077181

  20. Using Microfluidic Devices to Measure Lifespan and Cellular Phenotypes in Single Budding Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ke; Ren, Diana S; Ou-Yang, Qi; Li, Hao; Zheng, Jiashun

    2017-03-30

    Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model organism in aging research. Genetic studies have revealed many genes with conserved effects on the lifespan across species. However, the molecular causes of aging and death remain elusive. To gain a systematic understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying yeast aging, we need high-throughput methods to measure lifespan and to quantify various cellular and molecular phenotypes in single cells. Previously, we developed microfluidic devices to track budding yeast mother cells throughout their lifespan while flushing away newborn daughter cells. This article presents a method for preparing microfluidic chips and for setting up microfluidic experiments. Multiple channels can be used to simultaneously track cells under different conditions or from different yeast strains. A typical setup can track hundreds of cells per channel and allow for high-resolution microscope imaging throughout the lifespan of the cells. Our method also allows detailed characterization of the lifespan, molecular markers, cell morphology, and the cell cycle dynamics of single cells. In addition, our microfluidic device is able to trap a significant amount of fresh mother cells that can be identified by downstream image analysis, making it possible to measure the lifespan with higher accuracy.

  1. Genome Diversity and Evolution in the Budding Yeasts (Saccharomycotina)

    PubMed Central

    Dujon, Bernard A.; Louis, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Considerable progress in our understanding of yeast genomes and their evolution has been made over the last decade with the sequencing, analysis, and comparisons of numerous species, strains, or isolates of diverse origins. The role played by yeasts in natural environments as well as in artificial manufactures, combined with the importance of some species as model experimental systems sustained this effort. At the same time, their enormous evolutionary diversity (there are yeast species in every subphylum of Dikarya) sparked curiosity but necessitated further efforts to obtain appropriate reference genomes. Today, yeast genomes have been very informative about basic mechanisms of evolution, speciation, hybridization, domestication, as well as about the molecular machineries underlying them. They are also irreplaceable to investigate in detail the complex relationship between genotypes and phenotypes with both theoretical and practical implications. This review examines these questions at two distinct levels offered by the broad evolutionary range of yeasts: inside the best-studied Saccharomyces species complex, and across the entire and diversified subphylum of Saccharomycotina. While obviously revealing evolutionary histories at different scales, data converge to a remarkably coherent picture in which one can estimate the relative importance of intrinsic genome dynamics, including gene birth and loss, vs. horizontal genetic accidents in the making of populations. The facility with which novel yeast genomes can now be studied, combined with the already numerous available reference genomes, offer privileged perspectives to further examine these fundamental biological questions using yeasts both as eukaryotic models and as fungi of practical importance. PMID:28592505

  2. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model for aging research: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Gershon, D

    2000-12-01

    In this review we discuss the yeast as a paradigm for the study of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can proliferate in both haploid and diploid states, has been used extensively in aging research. The budding yeast divides asymmetrically to form a 'mother' cell and a bud. Two major approaches, 'budding life span' and 'stationary phase' have been used to determine 'senescence' and 'life span' in yeast. Discrepancies observed in metabolic behavior and longevity between cells studied by these two systems raise questions of how 'life span' in yeast is defined and measured. Added to this variability in experimental approach and results is the variety of yeast strains with different genetic make up used as 'wild type' and experimental organisms. Another problematic genetic point in the published studies on yeast is the use of both diploid and haploid strains. We discuss the inherent, advantageous attributes that make the yeast an attractive choice for modern biological research as well as certain pitfalls in the choice of this model for the study of aging. The significance of the purported roles of the Sir2 gene, histone deacetylases, gene silencing, rDNA circles and stress genes in determination of yeast 'life span' and aging is evaluated. The relationship between cultivation conditions and longevity are assessed. Discrepancies between the yeast and mammalian systems with regard to aging are pointed out. We discuss unresolved problems concerning the suitability of the budding yeast for the study of basic aging phenomena.

  3. Bud8p and Bud9p, Proteins That May Mark the Sites for Bipolar Budding in YeastV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, Heidi A.; Pagé, Nicolas; Schenkman, Laura R.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Shaw, Sidney; Bussey, Howard; Pringle, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The bipolar budding pattern of a/α Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells appears to depend on persistent spatial markers in the cell cortex at the two poles of the cell. Previous analysis of mutants with specific defects in bipolar budding identified BUD8 and BUD9 as potentially encoding components of the markers at the poles distal and proximal to the birth scar, respectively. Further genetic analysis reported here supports this hypothesis. Mutants deleted for BUD8 or BUD9 grow normally but bud exclusively from the proximal and distal poles, respectively, and the double-mutant phenotype suggests that the bipolar budding pathway has been totally disabled. Moreover, overexpression of these genes can cause either an increased bias for budding at the distal (BUD8) or proximal (BUD9) pole or a randomization of bud position, depending on the level of expression. The structures and localizations of Bud8p and Bud9p are also consistent with their postulated roles as cortical markers. Both proteins appear to be integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane, and they have very similar overall structures, with long N-terminal domains that are both N- and O-glycosylated followed by a pair of putative transmembrane domains surrounding a short hydrophilic domain that is presumably cytoplasmic. The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the two proteins are very similar in sequence. When Bud8p and Bud9p were localized by immunofluorescence and tagging with GFP, each protein was found predominantly in the expected location, with Bud8p at presumptive bud sites, bud tips, and the distal poles of daughter cells and Bud9p at the necks of large-budded cells and the proximal poles of daughter cells. Bud8p localized approximately normally in several mutants in which daughter cells are competent to form their first buds at the distal pole, but it was not detected in a bni1 mutant, in which such distal-pole budding is lost. Surprisingly, Bud8p localization to the presumptive bud

  4. Actin and Septin Ultrastructures at the Budding Yeast Cell Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rodal, Avital A.; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Goode, Bruce L.; Drubin, David G.; Hartwig, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast has been a powerful model organism for studies of the roles of actin in endocytosis and septins in cell division and in signaling. However, the depth of mechanistic understanding that can be obtained from such studies has been severely hindered by a lack of ultrastructural information about how actin and septins are organized at the cell cortex. To address this problem, we developed rapid-freeze and deep-etch techniques to image the yeast cell cortex in spheroplasted cells at high resolution. The cortical actin cytoskeleton assembles into conical or mound-like structures composed of short, cross-linked filaments. The Arp2/3 complex localizes near the apex of these structures, suggesting that actin patch assembly may be initiated from the apex. Mutants in cortical actin patch components with defined defects in endocytosis disrupted different stages of cortical actin patch assembly. Based on these results, we propose a model for actin function during endocytosis. In addition to actin structures, we found that septin-containing filaments assemble into two kinds of higher order structures at the cell cortex: rings and ordered gauzes. These images provide the first high-resolution views of septin organization in cells. PMID:15525671

  5. Polarization of Diploid Daughter Cells Directed by Spatial Cues and GTP Hydrolysis of Cdc42 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Monisha; Chou, Ching-Shan; Park, Hay-Oak

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast exhibit a characteristic pattern of budding, which depends on cell-type-specific cortical markers, reflecting a genetic programming for the site of cell polarization. The Cdc42 GTPase plays a key role in cell polarization in various cell types. Although previous studies in budding yeast suggested positive feedback loops whereby Cdc42 becomes polarized, these mechanisms do not include spatial cues, neglecting the normal patterns of budding. Here we combine live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling to understand how diploid daughter cells establish polarity preferentially at the pole distal to the previous division site. Live-cell imaging shows that daughter cells of diploids exhibit dynamic polarization of Cdc42-GTP, which localizes to the bud tip until the M phase, to the division site at cytokinesis, and then to the distal pole in the next G1 phase. The strong bias toward distal budding of daughter cells requires the distal-pole tag Bud8 and Rga1, a GTPase activating protein for Cdc42, which inhibits budding at the cytokinesis site. Unexpectedly, we also find that over 50% of daughter cells lacking Rga1 exhibit persistent Cdc42-GTP polarization at the bud tip and the distal pole, revealing an additional role of Rga1 in spatiotemporal regulation of Cdc42 and thus in the pattern of polarized growth. Mathematical modeling indeed reveals robust Cdc42-GTP clustering at the distal pole in diploid daughter cells despite random perturbation of the landmark cues. Moreover, modeling predicts different dynamics of Cdc42-GTP polarization when the landmark level and the initial level of Cdc42-GTP at the division site are perturbed by noise added in the model. PMID:23437206

  6. Quantitative analysis of chaperone network throughput in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brownridge, Philip; Lawless, Craig; Payapilly, Aishwarya B; Lanthaler, Karin; Holman, Stephen W; Harman, Victoria M; Grant, Christopher M; Beynon, Robert J; Hubbard, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The network of molecular chaperones mediates the folding and translocation of the many proteins encoded in the genome of eukaryotic organisms, as well as a response to stress. It has been particularly well characterised in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where 63 known chaperones have been annotated and recent affinity purification and MS/MS experiments have helped characterise the attendant network of chaperone targets to a high degree. In this study, we apply our QconCAT methodology to directly quantify the set of yeast chaperones in absolute terms (copies per cell) via SRM MS. Firstly, we compare these to existing quantitative estimates of these yeast proteins, highlighting differences between approaches. Secondly, we cast the results into the context of the chaperone target network and show a distinct relationship between abundance of individual chaperones and their targets. This allows us to characterise the ‘throughput’ of protein molecules passing through individual chaperones and their groups on a proteome-wide scale in an unstressed model eukaryote for the first time. The results demonstrate specialisations of the chaperone classes, which display different overall workloads, efficiencies and preference for the sub-cellular localisation of their targets. The novel integration of the interactome data with quantification supports re-estimates of the level of protein throughout going through molecular chaperones. Additionally, although chaperones target fewer than 40% of annotated proteins we show that they mediate the folding of the majority of protein molecules (∼62% of the total protein flux in the cell), highlighting their importance. PMID:23420633

  7. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Michael B; Iversen, Edwin S; Hartemink, Alexander J

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or 'size control' appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1 Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growth and division has commonly been analysed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyse both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (i) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (ii) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and (iii) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modellers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.

  8. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast

    DOE PAGES

    Mayhew, Michael B.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Hartemink, Alexander J.

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or ‘size control’ appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1. Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growthmore » and division has commonly been analyzed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyze both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (1) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (2) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and, (3) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modelers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.« less

  9. Genome Diversity and Evolution in the Budding Yeasts (Saccharomycotina).

    PubMed

    Dujon, Bernard A; Louis, Edward J

    2017-06-01

    Considerable progress in our understanding of yeast genomes and their evolution has been made over the last decade with the sequencing, analysis, and comparisons of numerous species, strains, or isolates of diverse origins. The role played by yeasts in natural environments as well as in artificial manufactures, combined with the importance of some species as model experimental systems sustained this effort. At the same time, their enormous evolutionary diversity (there are yeast species in every subphylum of Dikarya) sparked curiosity but necessitated further efforts to obtain appropriate reference genomes. Today, yeast genomes have been very informative about basic mechanisms of evolution, speciation, hybridization, domestication, as well as about the molecular machineries underlying them. They are also irreplaceable to investigate in detail the complex relationship between genotypes and phenotypes with both theoretical and practical implications. This review examines these questions at two distinct levels offered by the broad evolutionary range of yeasts: inside the best-studied Saccharomyces species complex, and across the entire and diversified subphylum of Saccharomycotina. While obviously revealing evolutionary histories at different scales, data converge to a remarkably coherent picture in which one can estimate the relative importance of intrinsic genome dynamics, including gene birth and loss, vs. horizontal genetic accidents in the making of populations. The facility with which novel yeast genomes can now be studied, combined with the already numerous available reference genomes, offer privileged perspectives to further examine these fundamental biological questions using yeasts both as eukaryotic models and as fungi of practical importance. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Budding Yeast Strains and Genotype-Phenotype Mapping.

    PubMed

    Liti, Gianni; Warringer, Jonas; Blomberg, Anders

    2017-08-01

    A small number of well-studied laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mostly derived from S288C, are used in yeast research. Although powerful, studies for understanding S288C do not always capture the phenotypic essence or the genetic complexity of S. cerevisiae biology. This is particularly problematic for multilocus phenotypes identified in laboratory strains because these loci have never been jointly exposed to natural selection and the corresponding phenotypes do not represent optimization for any particular purpose or environment. Isolation and sequencing of new natural yeast strains also reveal that the total sequence diversity of the S. cerevisiae global population is poorly sampled in common laboratory strains. Here we discuss methodologies required for using the natural genetic variation in yeast to complete a genotype-phenotype map. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Fission yeast hotspot sequence motifs are also active in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Walter W; Steiner, Estelle M

    2012-01-01

    In most organisms, including humans, meiotic recombination occurs preferentially at a limited number of sites in the genome known as hotspots. There has been substantial progress recently in elucidating the factors determining the location of meiotic recombination hotspots, and it is becoming clear that simple sequence motifs play a significant role. In S. pombe, there are at least five unique sequence motifs that have been shown to produce hotspots of recombination, and it is likely that there are more. In S. cerevisiae, simple sequence motifs have also been shown to produce hotspots or show significant correlations with hotspots. Some of the hotspot motifs in both yeasts are known or suspected to bind transcription factors (TFs), which are required for the activity of those hotspots. Here we show that four of the five hotspot motifs identified in S. pombe also create hotspots in the distantly related budding yeast S. cerevisiae. For one of these hotspots, M26 (also called CRE), we identify TFs, Cst6 and Sko1, that activate and inhibit the hotspot, respectively. In addition, two of the hotspot motifs show significant correlations with naturally occurring hotspots. The conservation of these hotspots between the distantly related fission and budding yeasts suggests that these sequence motifs, and others yet to be discovered, may function widely as hotspots in many diverse organisms.

  12. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes.

  13. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end joining in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Charlene H.; Bertuch, Alison A.

    2017-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes make the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field. PMID:27240172

  14. Initiation of meiotic chromosome synapsis at centromeres in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tsubouchi, Tomomi; MacQueen, Amy J.; Roeder, G. Shirleen

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies of synaptonemal complex assembly in budding yeast have suggested that chromosome synapsis initiates at the sites of crossing over. The data presented here, however, indicate that centromeric regions are preferred sites for synapsis initiation. At early times during meiosis in wild type, the Zip1 protein (a major building block of the synaptonemal complex) localizes specifically to centromeric regions. As synapsis progresses and linear stretches of Zip1 are formed, the majority of stretches are associated with a centromere, as expected if the Zip1 protein present at the centromere polymerized outward along the chromosome arm. In many cases, the centromere is present at one end of a linear stretch, suggesting that synapsis is often unidirectional. Furthermore, the Zip2 protein, a protein that promotes Zip1 polymerization, is often present at the opposite end from the centromere, implying that Zip2 and associated proteins move at the leading edge of Zip1 polymerization. Surprisingly, synapsis initiation at centromeres is independent of the Zip3 protein, which plays a major role in synapsis initiation events at noncentromeric locations. Our data provide evidence for two classes of synapsis initiation events that differ in location, timing, genetic requirements, and relationship to meiotic recombination. PMID:19056898

  15. A simple biophysical model emulates budding yeast chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tammy MK; Heeger, Sebastian; Chaleil, Raphaël AG; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Wright, Jon; Lim, Carmay; Bates, Paul A; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes were one of the first cell biological structures to be described, yet their molecular architecture remains poorly understood. We have devised a simple biophysical model of a 300 kb-long nucleosome chain, the size of a budding yeast chromosome, constrained by interactions between binding sites of the chromosomal condensin complex, a key component of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Comparisons of computational and experimental (4C) interaction maps, and other biophysical features, allow us to predict a mode of condensin action. Stochastic condensin-mediated pairwise interactions along the nucleosome chain generate native-like chromosome features and recapitulate chromosome compaction and individualization during mitotic condensation. Higher order interactions between condensin binding sites explain the data less well. Our results suggest that basic assumptions about chromatin behavior go a long way to explain chromosome architecture and are able to generate a molecular model of what the inside of a chromosome is likely to look like. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05565.001 PMID:25922992

  16. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end-joining in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Charlene H; Bertuch, Alison A

    2016-10-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes makes the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field.

  17. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  18. Divergence of a conserved elongation factor and transcription regulation in budding and fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Gregory T.; Wang, Isabel X.; Cheung, Vivian G.; Lis, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Complex regulation of gene expression in mammals has evolved from simpler eukaryotic systems, yet the mechanistic features of this evolution remain elusive. Here, we compared the transcriptional landscapes of the distantly related budding and fission yeast. We adapted the Precision Run-On sequencing (PRO-seq) approach to map the positions of RNA polymerase active sites genome-wide in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, we mapped preferred sites of transcription initiation in each organism using PRO-cap. Unexpectedly, we identify a pause in early elongation, specific to S. pombe, that requires the conserved elongation factor subunit Spt4 and resembles promoter-proximal pausing in metazoans. PRO-seq profiles in strains lacking Spt4 reveal globally elevated levels of transcribing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) within genes in both species. Messenger RNA abundance, however, does not reflect the increases in Pol II density, indicating a global reduction in elongation rate. Together, our results provide the first base-pair resolution map of transcription elongation in S. pombe and identify divergent roles for Spt4 in controlling elongation in budding and fission yeast. PMID:27197211

  19. Divergence of a conserved elongation factor and transcription regulation in budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Booth, Gregory T; Wang, Isabel X; Cheung, Vivian G; Lis, John T

    2016-06-01

    Complex regulation of gene expression in mammals has evolved from simpler eukaryotic systems, yet the mechanistic features of this evolution remain elusive. Here, we compared the transcriptional landscapes of the distantly related budding and fission yeast. We adapted the Precision Run-On sequencing (PRO-seq) approach to map the positions of RNA polymerase active sites genome-wide in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, we mapped preferred sites of transcription initiation in each organism using PRO-cap. Unexpectedly, we identify a pause in early elongation, specific to S. pombe, that requires the conserved elongation factor subunit Spt4 and resembles promoter-proximal pausing in metazoans. PRO-seq profiles in strains lacking Spt4 reveal globally elevated levels of transcribing RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) within genes in both species. Messenger RNA abundance, however, does not reflect the increases in Pol II density, indicating a global reduction in elongation rate. Together, our results provide the first base-pair resolution map of transcription elongation in S. pombe and identify divergent roles for Spt4 in controlling elongation in budding and fission yeast. © 2016 Booth et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Stochastic association of neighboring replicons creates replication factories in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Saner, Nazan; Karschau, Jens; Natsume, Toyoaki; Gierliński, Marek; Retkute, Renata; Hawkins, Michelle; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Blow, J. Julian; de Moura, Alessandro P.S.

    2013-01-01

    Inside the nucleus, DNA replication is organized at discrete sites called replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. Replication factories play important roles in coordinating replication and in responding to replication stress. However, it remains unknown how replicons are organized for processing at each replication factory. Here we address this question using budding yeast. We analyze how individual replicons dynamically organized a replication factory using live-cell imaging and investigate how replication factories were structured using super-resolution microscopy. Surprisingly, we show that the grouping of replicons within factories is highly variable from cell to cell. Once associated, however, replicons stay together relatively stably to maintain replication factories. We derive a coherent genome-wide mathematical model showing how neighboring replicons became associated stochastically to form replication factories, which was validated by independent microscopy-based analyses. This study not only reveals the fundamental principles promoting replication factory organization in budding yeast, but also provides insight into general mechanisms by which chromosomes organize sub-nuclear structures. PMID:24062338

  1. High-resolution transcription atlas of the mitotic cell cycle in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Extensive transcription of non-coding RNAs has been detected in eukaryotic genomes and is thought to constitute an additional layer in the regulation of gene expression. Despite this role, their transcription through the cell cycle has not been studied; genome-wide approaches have only focused on protein-coding genes. To explore the complex transcriptome architecture underlying the budding yeast cell cycle, we used 8 bp tiling arrays to generate a 5 minute-resolution, strand-specific expression atlas of the whole genome. Results We discovered 523 antisense transcripts, of which 80 cycle or are located opposite periodically expressed mRNAs, 135 unannotated intergenic non-coding RNAs, of which 11 cycle, and 109 cell-cycle-regulated protein-coding genes that had not previously been shown to cycle. We detected periodic expression coupling of sense and antisense transcript pairs, including antisense transcripts opposite of key cell-cycle regulators, like FAR1 and TAF2. Conclusions Our dataset presents the most comprehensive resource to date on gene expression during the budding yeast cell cycle. It reveals periodic expression of both protein-coding and non-coding RNA and profiles the expression of non-annotated RNAs throughout the cell cycle for the first time. This data enables hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies concerning the functions of non-coding RNAs. PMID:20193063

  2. Genetic evidence for the roles of the bud-site-selection genes BUD5 and BUD2 in control of the Rsr1p (Bud1p) GTPase in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A

    1993-01-01

    Yeast cells normally display either an axial (for MATa or MAT alpha cells) or bipolar (for MATa/alpha cells) pattern of bud-site selection. The RSR1 gene, which was previously identified as a multicopy suppressor of Ts- mutations in the bud-emergence gene CDC24, encodes a GTPase of the Ras family that is required for both budding patterns. Mutations in Rsr1p that presumably block its ability to bind or hydrolyze GTP cause a randomized budding phenotype, suggesting that regulators of Rsr1p will prove to be required for proper bud positioning. The BUD5 gene product is required for proper bud-site selection and contains similarity to GDP-dissociation stimulators (GDS) for Ras-type proteins, suggesting that Bud5p may be a GDS for Rsr1p. Here I report that BUD5 is required for wild-type RSR1, but not for mutationally activated rsr1val12, to serve as a multicopy suppressor of cdc24, indicating that Bud5p functions as a GDS for Rsr1p in vivo. To identify the GAP (GTPase-activating protein) for Rsr1p, a genetic selection was designed based on the observation that mutationally activated rsr1val12, but not wild-type RSR1, can serve as a multicopy suppressor of yeast RAS2(Ts) mutants. Mutants were selected that allowed wild-type RSR1 to act as a multicopy suppressor of RAS2(Ts). Two such mutations proved to be in the BUD2 gene, suggesting that Bud2p functions as a GAP for Rsr1p in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8234337

  3. Cell cycle molecules and mechanisms of the budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Tim; Pearce, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The cell cycles of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe are currently the best understood of all eukaryotes. Studies in these two evolutionarily divergent organisms have identified common control mechanisms, which have provided paradigms for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. This chapter provides an overview of our current knowledge of the molecules and mechanisms that regulate the mitotic cell cycle in these two yeasts.

  4. Vhs2 is a novel regulator of septin dynamics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Corinne; Raspelli, Erica; Chiroli, Elena; Fraschini, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, septins are assembled into structures that undergo dramatic changes during the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that drive these remodelings are not fully uncovered. In this study, we describe a characterization of Vhs2, a nonessential protein that revealed to be a new player in septin dynamics. In particular, we report that Vhs2 is important to maintain the stability of the double septin ring structure until telophase. In addition, we show that Vhs2 undergoes multiple phosphorylations during the cell cycle, being phosphorylated during S phase until nuclear division and dephosphorylated just before cell division. Importantly we report that cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdk1 and protein phosphatase Cdc14 control these Vhs2 post-translational modifications. These results reveal that Vhs2 is a novel Cdc14 substrate that is involved in the control of septin organization.

  5. Vhs2 is a novel regulator of septin dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cassani, Corinne; Raspelli, Erica; Chiroli, Elena; Fraschini, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, septins are assembled into structures that undergo dramatic changes during the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that drive these remodelings are not fully uncovered. In this study, we describe a characterization of Vhs2, a nonessential protein that revealed to be a new player in septin dynamics. In particular, we report that Vhs2 is important to maintain the stability of the double septin ring structure until telophase. In addition, we show that Vhs2 undergoes multiple phosphorylations during the cell cycle, being phosphorylated during S phase until nuclear division and dephosphorylated just before cell division. Importantly we report that cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdk1 and protein phosphatase Cdc14 control these Vhs2 post-translational modifications. These results reveal that Vhs2 is a novel Cdc14 substrate that is involved in the control of septin organization. PMID:24646733

  6. Patterns of bud-site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select bud sites in either of two distinct spatial patterns, known as axial (expressed by a and alpha cells) and bipolar (expressed by a/alpha cells). Fluorescence, time-lapse, and scanning electron microscopy have been used to obtain more precise descriptions of these patterns. From these descriptions, we conclude that in the axial pattern, the new bud forms directly adjacent to the division site in daughter cells and directly adjacent to the immediately preceding division site (bud site) in mother cells, with little influence from earlier sites. Thus, the division site appears to be marked by a spatial signal(s) that specifies the location of the new bud site and is transient in that it only lasts from one budding event to the next. Consistent with this conclusion, starvation and refeeding of axially budding cells results in the formation of new buds at nonaxial sites. In contrast, in bipolar budding cells, both poles are specified persistently as potential bud sites, as shown by the observations that a pole remains competent for budding even after several generations of nonuse and that the poles continue to be used for budding after starvation and refeeding. It appears that the specification of the two poles as potential bud sites occurs before a daughter cell forms its first bud, as a daughter can form this bud near either pole. However, there is a bias towards use of the pole distal to the division site. The strength of this bias varies from strain to strain, is affected by growth conditions, and diminishes in successive cell cycles. The first bud that forms near the distal pole appears to form at the very tip of the cell, whereas the first bud that forms near the pole proximal to the original division site (as marked by the birth scar) is generally somewhat offset from the tip and adjacent to (or overlapping) the birth scar. Subsequent buds can form near either pole and appear almost always to be adjacent either to

  7. The phytopathogenic virulent effector protein RipI induces apoptosis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meng-Ying; Sun, Yun-Hao; Li, Pai; Fu, Bei; Shen, Dong; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Virulent protein toxins secreted by the bacterial pathogens can cause cytotoxicity by various molecular mechanisms to combat host cell defense. On the other hand, these proteins can also be used as probes to investigate the defense pathway of host innate immunity. Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most virulent bacterial phytopathogens, translocates more than 70 effector proteins via type III secretion system during infection. Here, we characterized the cytotoxicity of effector RipI in budding yeast Saccharomyce scerevisiae, an alternative host model. We found that over-expression of RipI resulted in severe growth defect and arginine (R) 117 within the predicted integrase motif was required for inhibition of yeast growth. The phenotype of death manifested the hallmarks of apoptosis. Our data also revealed that RipI-induced apoptosis was independent of Yca1 and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways because Δyca1 and Δaif1 were both sensitive to RipI as compared with the wild type. We further demonstrated that RipI was localized in the yeast nucleus and the N-terminal 1-174aa was required for the localization. High-throughput RNA sequencing analysis showed that upon RipI over-expression, 101 unigenes of yeast ribosome presented lower expression level, and 42 GO classes related to the nucleus or recombination were enriched with differential expression levels. Taken together, our data showed that a nuclear-targeting effector RipI triggers yeast apoptosis, potentially dependent on its integrase function. Our results also provided an alternative strategy to dissect the signaling pathway of cytotoxicity induced by the protein toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The spatial arrangement of ORC binding modules determines the functionality of replication origins in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2006-01-01

    In the quest to define autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs) in eukaryotic cells, an ARS consensus sequence (ACS) has emerged for budding yeast. This ACS is recognized by the replication initiator, the origin recognition complex (ORC). However, not every match to the ACS constitutes a replication origin. Here, we investigated the requirements for ORC binding to origins that carry multiple, redundant ACSs, such as ARS603. Previous studies raised the possibility that these ACSs function as individual ORC binding sites. Detailed mutational analysis of the two ACSs in ARS603 revealed that they function in concert and give rise to an initiation pattern compatible with a single bipartite ORC binding site. Consistent with this notion, deletion of one base pair between the ACS matches abolished ORC binding at ARS603. Importantly, loss of ORC binding in vitro correlated with the loss of ARS activity in vivo. Our results argue that replication origins in yeast are in general comprised of bipartite ORC binding sites that cannot function in random alignment but must conform to a configuration that permits ORC binding. These requirements help to explain why only a limited number of ACS matches in the yeast genome qualify as ORC binding sites.

  9. NAP1 acts with Clb1 to perform mitotic functions and to suppress polar bud growth in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    NAP1 is a 60-kD protein that interacts specifically with mitotic cyclins in budding yeast and frogs. We have examined the ability of the yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 to function in cells that lack NAP1. Our results demonstrate that Clb2 is unable to carry out its full range of functions without NAP1, even though Clb2/p34CDC28-associated kinase activity rises to normal levels. In the absence of NAP1, Clb2 is unable to efficiently induce mitotic events, and cells undergo a prolonged delay at the short spindle stage with normal levels of Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase activity. NAP1 is also required for the ability of Clb2 to induce the switch from polar to isotropic bud growth. As a result, polar bud growth continues during mitosis, giving rise to highly elongated cells. Our experiments also suggest that NAP1 is required for the ability of the Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex to amplify its own production, and that NAP1 plays a role in regulation of microtubule dynamics during mitosis. Together, these results demonstrate that NAP1 is required for the normal function of the activated Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex, and provide a step towards understanding how cyclin- dependent kinase complexes induce specific events during the cell cycle. PMID:7622567

  10. Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Maddox, P; Chin, E; Mallavarapu, A; Yeh, E; Salmon, E D; Bloom, K

    1999-03-08

    We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid

  11. Microtubule Dynamics from Mating through the First Zygotic Division in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Paul; Chin, E.; Mallavarapu, A.; Yeh, E.; Salmon, E.D.; Bloom, K.

    1999-01-01

    We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (∼0.5 μm/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 ± 0.07 μm/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB ∼30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 μm/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-μm stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid cell fusion in budding yeast may forgo cell cycle

  12. Interorganelle interactions and inheritance patterns of nuclei and vacuoles in budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ting; Lin, Jyun-Liang; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Chuang, Yu-Chien; Liang, Shu-Shan; Chuang, Chi-Ning; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2014-02-01

    Many of the mechanisms by which organelles are inherited by spores during meiosis are not well understood. Dramatic chromosome motion and bouquet formation are evolutionarily conserved characteristics of meiotic chromosomes. The budding yeast bouquet genes (NDJ1, MPS3, CSM4) mediate these movements via telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we report that during meiosis the NE is in direct contact with vacuoles via nucleus-vacuole junctions (NVJs). We show that in meiosis NVJs are assembled through the interaction of the outer NE-protein Nvj1 and the vacuolar membrane protein Vac8. Notably, NVJs function as diffusion barriers that exclude the nuclear pore complexes, the bouquet protein Mps3 and NE-tethered telomeres from the outer nuclear membrane and nuclear ER, resulting in distorted NEs during early meiosis. An increase in NVJ area resulting from Nvj1-GFP overexpression produced a moderate bouquet mutant-like phenotype in wild-type cells. NVJs, as the vacuolar contact sites of the nucleus, were found to undergo scission alongside the NE during meiotic nuclear division. The zygotic NE and NVJs were partly segregated into 4 spores. Lastly, new NVJs were also revealed to be synthesized de novo to rejoin the zygotic NE with the newly synthesized vacuoles in the mature spores. In conclusion, our results revealed that budding yeast nuclei and vacuoles exhibit dynamic interorganelle interactions and different inheritance patterns in meiosis, and also suggested that nvj1Δ mutant cells may be useful to resolve the technical challenges pertaining to the isolation of intact nuclei for the biochemical study of meiotic nuclear proteins.

  13. The budding yeast Polo-like kinase localizes to distinct populations at centrosomes during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Botchkarev, Vladimir V.; Garabedian, Mikael V.; Lemos, Brenda; Paulissen, Eric; Haber, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 is a key regulator of many mitotic events. Cdc5 coordinates its functions spatially and temporally by changing its localization during the cell cycle: Cdc5 is imported into the nucleus in G2 phase and released to the cytoplasm in anaphase, where it accumulates at the bud neck. Cdc5 also localizes to the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) from S phase until the end of mitosis. Whether Cdc5 changes its SPB population during the cell cycle is not known. We find that Cdc5 localizes to distinct SPB subpopulations, depending on the mitotic stage. Cdc5 localizes to the nuclear side of the SPBs during metaphase and early anaphase and to the cytoplasmic surface of the SPBs during late anaphase. Cdc14 is necessary to relocalize Cdc5 from the nuclear SPB plaque. Accumulation of Cdc5 at the daughter SPB in late anaphase is controlled by Bfa1. We also show that Cdc5 and Bfa1 are found in spatially distinct locations at the SPBs during G2/M arrest after DNA damage. Collectively our data reveal that Cdc5 is a dynamic component of the SPBs during mitosis and provide new insight into its regulation during both late mitotic events and DNA damage–induced G2/M arrest. PMID:28228549

  14. Comparative evolutionary analysis of cell cycle proteins networks in fission and budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Singh, Praveen K; Shakya, Madhvi

    2014-11-01

    Fission yeast and budding yeast are the two distantly related species with common ancestors. Various studies have shown significant differences in metabolic networks and regulatory networks. Cell cycle regulatory proteins in both species have differences in structural as well as in functional organization. Orthologous proteins in cell cycle regulatory protein networks seem to play contemporary role in both species during the evolution but little is known about non-orthologous proteins. Here, we used system biology approach to compare topological parameters of orthologous and non-orthologous proteins to find their contributions during the evolution to make an efficient cell cycle regulation. Observed results have shown a significant role of non-orthologous proteins in fission yeast in maintaining the efficiency of cell cycle regulation with less number of proteins as compared to budding yeast.

  15. Mek1/Mre4 is a master regulator of meiotic recombination in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms create gametes with half the somatic cell chromosome number so that fusion of gametes at fertilization does not change the ploidy of the cell. This reduction in chromosome number occurs by the specialized cell division of meiosis in which two rounds of chromosome segregation follow a single round of chromosome duplication. Meiotic crossovers formed between the non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes, combined with sister chromatid cohesion, physically connect homologs, thereby allowing proper segregation at the first meiotic division. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) whose repair is highly regulated such that (1) there is a bias for recombination with homologs rather than sister chromatids, (2) crossovers are distributed throughout the genome by a process called interference, (3) crossover homeostasis regulates the balance between crossover and non-crossover repair to maintain a critical number of crossovers and (4) each pair of homologs receives at least one crossover. It was previously known that the imposition of interhomolog bias in budding yeast requires meiosis-specific modifications to the DNA damage response and the local activation of the meiosis-specific Mek1/Mre4 (hereafter Mek1) kinase at DSBs. However, because inactivation of Mek1 results in intersister, rather than interhomolog DSB repair, whether Mek1 had a role in interhomolog pathway choice was unknown. A recent study by Chen et al. (2015) reveals that Mek1 indirectly regulates the crossover/non-crossover decision between homologs as well as genetic interference. It does this by enabling phosphorylation of Zip1, the meiosis-specific transverse filament protein of the synaptonemal complex (SC), by the conserved cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK). These results suggest that Mek1 is a “master regulator” of meiotic recombination in budding yeast.

  16. Astral Microtubule Dynamics in Yeast: A Microtubule-based Searching Mechanism for Spindle Orientation and Nuclear Migration into the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sidney L.; Yeh, Elaine; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E.D.; Bloom, Kerry

    1997-01-01

    Localization of dynein–green fluorescent protein (GFP) to cytoplasmic microtubules allowed us to obtain one of the first views of the dynamic properties of astral microtubules in live budding yeast. Several novel aspects of microtubule function were revealed by time-lapse, three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy. Astral microtubules, about four to six in number for each pole, exhibited asynchronous dynamic instability throughout the cell cycle, growing at ≅0.3–1.5 μm/min toward the cell surface then switching to shortening at similar velocities back to the spindle pole body (SPB). During interphase, a conical array of microtubules trailed the SPB as the nucleus traversed the cytoplasm. Microtubule disassembly by nocodozole inhibited these movements, indicating that the nucleus was pushed around the interior of the cell via dynamic astral microtubules. These forays were evident in unbudded G1 cells, as well as in late telophase cells after spindle disassembly. Nuclear movement and orientation to the bud neck in S/G2 or G2/M was dependent on dynamic astral microtubules growing into the bud. The SPB and nucleus were then pulled toward the bud neck, and further microtubule growth from that SPB was mainly oriented toward the bud. After SPB separation and central spindle formation, a temporal delay in the acquisition of cytoplasmic dynein at one of the spindle poles was evident. Stable microtubule interactions with the cell cortex were rarely observed during anaphase, and did not appear to contribute significantly to spindle alignment or elongation into the bud. Alterations of microtubule dynamics, as observed in cells overexpressing dynein-GFP, resulted in eventual spindle misalignment. These studies provide the first mechanistic basis for understanding how spindle orientation and nuclear positioning are established and are indicative of a microtubule-based searching mechanism that requires dynamic microtubules for nuclear migration into the bud. PMID:9362516

  17. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  18. Cell size and budding during starvation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, G C

    1977-01-01

    When starved for nitrogen, cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced abnormally small cells. Nonetheless, during starvation, only cells of a size characteristic of growing cells were capable of initiating a bud. Even when growth was severely limited, some event(s) in G1 required growth to a critical size for completion. PMID:334753

  19. Cell Biology of Yeast Zygotes, from Genesis to Budding

    PubMed Central

    Tartakoff, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    The zygote is the essential intermediate that allows interchange of nuclear, mitochondrial and cytosolic determinants between cells. Zygote formation in S. cerevisiae is accomplished by mechanisms that are not characteristic of mitotic cells. These include shifting the axis of growth away from classical cortical landmarks, dramatically reorganizing the cell cortex, remodeling the cell wall in preparation for cell fusion, fusing with an adjacent partner, accomplishing nuclear fusion, orchestrating two steps of septin morphogenesis that account for a delay in fusion of mitochondria, and implementing new norms for bud site selection. This essay emphasizes the sequence of dependent relationships that account for this progression from cell encounters through to zygote budding. It briefly summarizes classical studies of signal transduction and polarity specification and then focuses on downstream events. PMID:25862405

  20. Cytoskeletal impairment during isoamyl alcohol-induced cell elongation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Wakae; Kinpara, Satoko; Kitahara, Nozomi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induces pseudohyphae including cell elongation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Detailed regulation of microtubules and actin in developmental transition during cell elongation is poorly understood. Here, we show that although IAA did not affect the intracellular actin level, it reduced the levels of both α- and β-tubulins. In budding yeast, cytoplasmic microtubules are linked to actin via complexes consisting of at least Kar9, Bim1, and Myo2, and reach from the spindle pole body to the cortical attachment site at the bud tip. However, IAA did not affect migration of Myo2 to the bud tip and kept Kar9 in the interior portion of the cell. In addition, bud elongation was observed in Kar9-overexpressing cells in the absence of IAA. These results indicate that impairment of the link between cytoplasmic microtubules and actin is possibly involved in the lowered interaction of Myo2 with Kar9. Our study might explain the reason for delayed cell cycle during IAA-induced cell elongation. PMID:27507042

  1. Evidence for two cell division cycle (CDC) genes that govern yeast bud emergence in the pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C R; Szaniszlo, P J

    1993-01-01

    Strains Mc2 and Mc3 are morphological mutants of the melanized, pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis. These strains possess temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations designated mcm2 and mcm3, respectively. At the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C), uninucleate yeast cells of strains Mc2 and Mc3 cease budding and initiate an isotropic mode of cellular development, which is reflected in the formation of a multicellular and multinucleate morphology. Because W. dermatitidis either lacks or has an undiscovered sexual cycle, parasexual methods of analysis were used to confirm that mcm2 and mcm3 define separate bud emergence control genes in the wild-type strain. Spheroplasts of albino auxotrophs derived from strains Mc2 and Mc3 were fused and then regenerated on minimal medium. The resulting fusion products grew as darkly pigmented, prototrophic colonies. When incubated at 37 degrees C, all fusion products exhibited polarized growth predominantly as uninucleate, budding yeasts and less frequently as pseudohyphae and moniliform hyphae. Subsequent analysis of cultures derived from albino, ts segregants, which were induced from fusion products by using methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate, revealed three types of cell populations. Two resembled those expressed by strain Mc2 or Mc3. The third consisted of a cell population unlike the former, suggesting the presence of both ts mutations in all cells. These results imply that yeast development in the fusion products resulted from intergenic complementation of mcm2 and mcm3, i.e., they are nonallelic. Because mcm2 and mcm3 are equivalent to certain cdc lesions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have renamed the analogous genes defined by the mutations in W. dermatitidis as CDC1 and CDC2. To our knowledge, these are the first CDC genes identified in a dematiaceous fungus. Images PMID:8478096

  2. Budding yeast as a model organism for population genetics.

    PubMed

    Zeyl, C

    2000-06-15

    Population genetics is a highly theoretical field in which many models and theories of broad significance have received little experimental testing. Microbes are well-suited for empirical population genetics since populations of almost any size may be studied genetically, and because many have easily controlled life cycles. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is almost ideal for such studies as the growing body of knowledge and techniques that have made it the best characterized eukaryote genome also allow the experimental manipulation and analysis of its population genetics. In experiments to date, the evolution of laboratory yeast populations has been observed for up to 1000 generations. In several cases, adaptation has occurred by gene duplications. The interaction between mutation, selection and genetic drift at varying population sizes is a major area of theoretical study in which yeast experiments can provide particularly valuable data. Conflicts between gene-level and among-cell selection, and co-evolution between genes within a genome, are additional topics in which a population genetics perspective may be particularly helpful. The growing field of genomics is increasingly complementary with that of population genetics. The characterization of the yeast genome presents unprecedented opportunities for the detailed study of evolutionary and population genetics. Conversely, the redundancy of the yeast genome means that, for many open reading frames, deletion has only a quantitative effect that is most readily observed in competitions with a wild-type strain. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A genomic analysis of chronological longevity factors in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Brady

    2011-01-01

    Chronological life span (CLS) has been studied as an aging paradigm in yeast. A few conserved aging genes have been identified that modulate both chronological and replicative longevity in yeast as well as longevity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; however, a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between genetic control of chronological longevity and aging in other model systems has yet to be reported. To address this question, we performed a functional genomic analysis of chronological longevity for 550 single-gene deletion strains, which accounts for approximately 12% of the viable homozygous diploid deletion strains in the yeast ORF deletion collection. This study identified 33 previously unknown determinants of CLS. We found no significant enrichment for enhanced CLS among deletions corresponding to yeast orthologs of worm aging genes or among replicatively long-lived deletion strains, although a trend toward overlap was noted. In contrast, a subset of gene deletions identified from a screen for reduced acidification of culture media during growth to stationary phase was enriched for increased CLS. These results suggest that genetic control of CLS under the most commonly utilized assay conditions does not strongly overlap with longevity determinants in C. elegans, with the existing confined to a small number of genetic pathways. These data also further support the model that acidification of the culture medium plays an important role in survival during chronological aging in synthetic medium, and suggest that chronological aging studies using alternate medium conditions may be more informative with regard to aging of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:21447998

  4. Heteromer formation of a long-chain prenyl diphosphate synthase from fission yeast Dps1 and budding yeast Coq1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Luo, Jun; Ogiyama, Yuki; Saiki, Ryoichi; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Ubiquinone is an essential factor for the electron transfer system and is also a known lipid antioxidant. The length of the ubiquinone isoprenoid side-chain differs amongst living organisms, with six isoprene units in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, eight units in Escherichia coli and 10 units in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and in humans. The length of the ubiquinone isoprenoid is determined by the product generated by polyprenyl diphosphate synthases (poly-PDSs), which are classified into homodimer (i.e. octa-PDS IspB in E. coli) and heterotetramer [i.e. deca-PDSs Dps1 and D-less polyprenyl diphosphate synthase (Dlp1) in Sc. pombe and in humans] types. In this study, we characterized the hexa-PDS (Coq1) of S. cerevisiae to identify whether this enzyme was a homodimer (as in bacteria) or a heteromer (as in fission yeast). When COQ1 was expressed in an E. coli ispB disruptant, only hexa-PDS activity and ubiquinone-6 were detected, indicating that the expression of Coq1 alone results in bacterial enzyme-like functionality. However, when expressed in fission yeast Deltadps1 and Deltadlp1 strains, COQ1 restored growth on minimal medium in the Deltadlp1 but not Deltadps1 strain. Intriguingly, ubiquinone-9 and ubiquinone-10, but not ubiquinone-6, were identified and deca-PDS activity was detected in the COQ1-expressing Deltadlp1 strain. No enzymatic activity or ubiquinone was detected in the COQ1-expressing Deltadps1 strain. These results indicate that Coq1 partners with Dps1, but not with Dlp1, to be functional in fission yeast. Binding of Coq1 and Dps1 was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation, and the formation of a tetramer consisting of Coq1 and Dps1 was detected in Sc. pombe. Thus, Coq1 is functional when expressed alone in E. coli and in budding yeast, but is only functional as a partner with Dps1 in fission yeast. This unusual observation indicates that different folding processes or protein modifications in budding yeast/E. coli

  5. The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3.

  6. The Anillin-Related Region of Bud4 Is the Major Functional Determinant for Bud4's Function in Septin Organization during Bud Growth and Axial Bud Site Selection in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3. PMID:25576483

  7. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  8. Form and function of topologically associating genomic domains in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Eser, Umut; Chandler-Brown, Devon; Ay, Ferhat; Straight, Aaron F; Duan, Zhijun; Noble, William Stafford; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-04-11

    The genome of metazoan cells is organized into topologically associating domains (TADs) that have similar histone modifications, transcription level, and DNA replication timing. Although similar structures appear to be conserved in fission yeast, computational modeling and analysis of high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data have been used to argue that the small, highly constrained budding yeast chromosomes could not have these structures. In contrast, herein we analyze Hi-C data for budding yeast and identify 200-kb scale TADs, whose boundaries are enriched for transcriptional activity. Furthermore, these boundaries separate regions of similarly timed replication origins connecting the long-known effect of genomic context on replication timing to genome architecture. To investigate the molecular basis of TAD formation, we performed Hi-C experiments on cells depleted for the Forkhead transcription factors, Fkh1 and Fkh2, previously associated with replication timing. Forkhead factors do not regulate TAD formation, but do promote longer-range genomic interactions and control interactions between origins near the centromere. Thus, our work defines spatial organization within the budding yeast nucleus, demonstrates the conserved role of genome architecture in regulating DNA replication, and identifies a molecular mechanism specifically regulating interactions between pericentric origins.

  9. Dynamic changes in brewing yeast cells in culture revealed by statistical analyses of yeast morphological data.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Enomoto, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2014-03-01

    The vitality of brewing yeasts has been used to monitor their physiological state during fermentation. To investigate the fermentation process, we used the image processing software, CalMorph, which generates morphological data on yeast mother cells and bud shape, nuclear shape and location, and actin distribution. We found that 248 parameters changed significantly during fermentation. Successive use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several important features of yeast, providing insight into the dynamic changes in the yeast population. First, PCA indicated that much of the observed variability in the experiment was summarized in just two components: a change with a peak and a change over time. Second, PCA indicated the independent and important morphological features responsible for dynamic changes: budding ratio, nucleus position, neck position, and actin organization. Thus, the large amount of data provided by imaging analysis can be used to monitor the fermentation processes involved in beer and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The budding yeast Polo-like kinase localizes to distinct populations at centrosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, Vladimir V; Garabedian, Mikael V; Lemos, Brenda; Paulissen, Eric; Haber, James E

    2017-04-15

    The budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 is a key regulator of many mitotic events. Cdc5 coordinates its functions spatially and temporally by changing its localization during the cell cycle: Cdc5 is imported into the nucleus in G2 phase and released to the cytoplasm in anaphase, where it accumulates at the bud neck. Cdc5 also localizes to the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) from S phase until the end of mitosis. Whether Cdc5 changes its SPB population during the cell cycle is not known. We find that Cdc5 localizes to distinct SPB subpopulations, depending on the mitotic stage. Cdc5 localizes to the nuclear side of the SPBs during metaphase and early anaphase and to the cytoplasmic surface of the SPBs during late anaphase. Cdc14 is necessary to relocalize Cdc5 from the nuclear SPB plaque. Accumulation of Cdc5 at the daughter SPB in late anaphase is controlled by Bfa1. We also show that Cdc5 and Bfa1 are found in spatially distinct locations at the SPBs during G2/M arrest after DNA damage. Collectively our data reveal that Cdc5 is a dynamic component of the SPBs during mitosis and provide new insight into its regulation during both late mitotic events and DNA damage-induced G2/M arrest. © 2017 Botchkarev et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Genetic basis of mycotoxin susceptibility differences between budding yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Xtopher; Tapia, Sebastián M; Villarroel, Carlos; Oporto, Christian; Abarca, Valentina; García, Verónica; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A

    2017-08-23

    Micophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant mycotoxin which impairs yeast cell growth to variable degrees depending on the genetic background. Such variation could have emerged from several phenomena, including MPA gene resistance mutations and variations in copy number and localisation of resistance genes. To test this, we evaluated MPA susceptibility in four S. cerevisiae isolates and genetically dissected variation through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci. Via linkage analysis we identified six QTLs, majority of which were located within subtelomeres and co-localised with IMD2, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase previously identified underlying MPA drug resistance in yeast cells. From chromosome end disruption and bioinformatics analysis, it was found that the subtelomere localisation of IMD2 within chromosome ends is variable depending on the strain, demonstrating the influence of IMD2 on the natural variation in yeast MPA susceptibility. Furthermore, GxE gene expression analysis of strains exhibiting opposite phenotypes indicated that ribosome biogenesis, RNA transport, and purine biosynthesis were impaired in strains most susceptible to MPA toxicity. Our results demonstrate that natural variation can be exploited to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying mycotoxin susceptibility in eukaryote cells and demonstrate the role of subtelomeric regions in mediating interactions with the environment.

  12. Mitochondrial quality control during inheritance is associated with lifespan and mother-daughter age asymmetry in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    McFaline-Figueroa, José Ricardo; Vevea, Jason; Swayne, Theresa C; Zhou, Chun; Liu, Christopher; Leung, Galen; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2011-10-01

    Fluorescence loss in photobleaching experiments and analysis of mitochondrial function using superoxide and redox potential biosensors revealed that mitochondria within individual yeast cells are physically and functionally distinct. Mitochondria that are retained in mother cells during yeast cell division have a significantly more oxidizing redox potential and higher superoxide levels compared to mitochondria in buds. Retention of mitochondria with more oxidizing redox potential in mother cells occurs to the same extent in young and older cells and can account for the age-associated decline in total cellular mitochondrial redox potential in yeast as they age from 0 to 5 generations. Deletion of Mmr1p, a member of the DSL1 family of tethering proteins that localizes to mitochondria at the bud tip and is required for normal mitochondrial inheritance, produces defects in mitochondrial quality control and heterogeneity in replicative lifespan (RLS). Long-lived mmr1Δ cells exhibit prolonged RLS, reduced mean generation times, more reducing mitochondrial redox potential and lower mitochondrial superoxide levels compared to wild-type cells. Short-lived mmr1Δ cells exhibit the opposite phenotypes. Moreover, short-lived cells give rise exclusively to short-lived cells, while the majority of daughters of long-lived cells are long lived. These findings support the model that the mitochondrial inheritance machinery promotes retention of lower-functioning mitochondria in mother cells and that this process contributes to both mother-daughter age asymmetry and age-associated declines in cellular fitness.

  13. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R.; Drubin, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin–Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism. PMID:27068241

  14. Chromosome Segregation in Budding Yeast: Sister Chromatid Cohesion and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Studies on budding yeast have exposed the highly conserved mechanisms by which duplicated chromosomes are evenly distributed to daughter cells at the metaphase–anaphase transition. The establishment of proteinaceous bridges between sister chromatids, a function provided by a ring-shaped complex known as cohesin, is central to accurate segregation. It is the destruction of this cohesin that triggers the segregation of chromosomes following their proper attachment to microtubules. Since it is irreversible, this process must be tightly controlled and driven to completion. Furthermore, during meiosis, modifications must be put in place to allow the segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the first division for gamete formation. Here, I review the pioneering work from budding yeast that has led to a molecular understanding of the establishment and destruction of cohesion. PMID:24395824

  15. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R; Drubin, David G

    2016-04-12

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin-Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism.

  16. Considerations for creating and annotating the budding yeast Genome Map at SGD: a progress report

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) is compiling and annotating a comprehensive catalogue of functional sequence elements identified in the budding yeast genome. Recent advances in deep sequencing technologies have enabled for example, global analyses of transcription profiling and assembly of maps of transcription factor occupancy and higher order chromatin organization, at nucleotide level resolution. With this growing influx of published genome-scale data, come new challenges for their storage, display, analysis and integration. Here, we describe SGD's progress in the creation of a consolidated resource for genome sequence elements in the budding yeast, the considerations taken in its design and the lessons learned thus far. The data within this collection can be accessed at http://browse.yeastgenome.org and downloaded from http://downloads.yeastgenome.org. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org PMID:22434826

  17. Inn1 couples contraction of the actomyosin ring to membrane ingression during cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto; Marchesi, Vanessa; Murray, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Pereira, Gislene; Edmondson, Ricky; Allen, Terry; Labib, Karim

    2008-04-01

    By rapidly depleting each of the essential budding yeast proteins of unknown function, we identified a novel factor that we call Inn1, which associates with the contractile actomyosin ring at the end of mitosis and is needed for cytokinesis. We show that Inn1 has a C2 domain at the amino terminus of the protein that is required for ingression of the plasma membrane, whereas the remainder of the protein recruits Inn1 to the actomyosin ring. The lethal effects of deleting the INN1 gene can be suppressed by artificial fusion of the C2 domain to other components of the actomyosin ring, restoring membrane ingression on contraction of the actomyosin ring. Our data indicate that recruitment of the C2 domain of Inn1 to the contractile actomyosin ring is crucial for ingression of the plasma membrane during cytokinesis in budding yeast.

  18. Budding yeast chromatin is dispersed in a crowded nucleoplasm in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Lim, Hong Hwa; Shi, Jian; Tamura, Sachiko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Surana, Uttam; Gan, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin organization has an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic systems. Although recent studies have refined the three-dimensional models of chromatin organization with high resolution at the genome sequence level, little is known about how the most fundamental units of chromatin—nucleosomes—are positioned in three dimensions in vivo. Here we use electron cryotomography to study chromatin organization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Direct visualization of yeast nuclear densities shows no evidence of 30-nm fibers. Aside from preribosomes and spindle microtubules, few nuclear structures are larger than a tetranucleosome. Yeast chromatin does not form compact structures in interphase or mitosis and is consistent with being in an “open” configuration that is conducive to high levels of transcription. From our study and those of others, we propose that yeast can regulate its transcription using local nucleosome–nucleosome associations. PMID:27605704

  19. Imaging of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Mitochondria in Fixed Budding Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a model system to study the organization and function of the cytoskeleton. In the past, its small size, rounded shape, and rigid cell wall created obstacles to explore the cell biology of this model eukaryote. It is now possible to acquire and analyze high-resolution and super-resolution multidimensional images of the yeast cell. As a result, imaging of yeast has emerged as an important tool in eukaryotic cell biology. This chapter describes labeling methods and optical approaches for visualizing the cytoskeleton and interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with mitochondria in fixed yeast cells using wide-field and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.

  20. A budding yeast's perspective on aging: The shape I'm in

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica; Wright, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Aging is exemplified by progressive, deleterious changes that increase the probability of death. However, while the effects of age are easy to recognize, identification of the processes involved has proved to be much more difficult. Somewhat surprisingly, research using the budding yeast has had a profound impact on our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Herein, we examine the biological significance and implications surrounding the observation that genetic pathways involved in the modulation of aging and the determination of lifespan in yeast are highly complicated and conserved. PMID:25819684

  1. New families of single integration vectors and gene tagging plasmids for genetic manipulations in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wosika, Victoria; Durandau, Eric; Varidel, Clémence; Aymoz, Delphine; Schmitt, Marta; Pelet, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The tractability of the budding yeast genome has provided many insights into the fundamental mechanisms regulating cellular life. With the advent of synthetic biology and single-cell measurements, novel tools are required to manipulate the yeast genome in a more controlled manner. We present, here, a new family of yeast shuttle vectors called single integration vectors (pSIV). Upon transformation in yeast, these plasmids replace the entire deficient auxotrophy marker locus by a cassette containing an exogenous marker. As shown using flow cytometry, this complete replacement results in a unique integration of the desired DNA fragment at the marker locus. In addition, a second transcriptional unit can be inserted to achieve the simultaneous integration of two constructs. The selection marker cassettes, present in the pSIV, were also used to generate a complete set of gene tagging plasmids (pGT) encompassing a large palette of fluorescent proteins, from a cyan fluorescent protein to a near-infrared tandem dimer red fluorescent protein. These tagging cassettes are orthogonal to each other thanks to the use of different TEF promoter and terminator couples, thereby avoiding marker cassette switching and favoring integration in the desired locus. In summary, we have created two sets of robust molecular tools for the precise genetic manipulation of the budding yeast.

  2. Targeting of PP2C in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ota, Irene M; Mapes, James

    2007-01-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases or PP2Cs are monomeric metal-requiring protein phosphatases that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are seven PP2Cs called PTCs (phosphatase 2C). Molecular genetic studies have implicated PTCs in many different functions, including RNA splicing, the unfolded protein response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and cell-cycle regulation. We have shown that three PTCs (Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3), regulate the stress-activated high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Proteomics studies have provided additional possible functions for these phosphatases by identifying interacting proteins. These studies have also provided the possible means by which these phosphatases are targeted to their substrates. For example, Nbp2-Ptc1 was identified as an interacting pair in yeast two-hybrid studies, and Nbp2 was found together with Ptc1 and HOG pathway kinases. We have shown that Nbp2 is an adapter in this pathway, mediating interaction between Ptc1 and the Pbs2 MAP/ERK kinase in the HOG pathway.

  3. Quantitative proteomic comparison of stationary/G0 phase cells and tetrads in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravinder; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    Most of the microbial cells on earth under natural conditions exist in a dormant condition, commonly known as quiescent state. Quiescent cells exhibit low rates of transcription and translation suggesting that cellular abundance of proteins may be similar in quiescent cells. Therefore, this study aim to compare the proteome of budding yeast cells from two quiescent states viz. stationary phase/G0 and tetrads. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based quantitative proteomics we identified 289 proteins, among which around 40 proteins exhibited ±1.5 fold change consistently from the four biological replicates. Proteomics data was validated by western blot and denstiometric analysis of Hsp12 and Spg4. Level of budding yeast 14-3-3 proteins was found to be similar in both the quiescent states, whereas Hsp12 and Spg4 expressed only during stress. FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis showed that budding yeast cells were arrested at G1 stages both in tetrads as well as in stationary phase. We also observed that quiescent states did not express Ime1 (inducer of meiosis). Taken together, our present study demonstrates that the cells in quiescent state may have similar proteome, and accumulation of proteins like Hsp12, Hsp26, and Spg4 may play an important role in retaining viability of the cells during dormancy. PMID:27558777

  4. The Malleable Nature of the Budding Yeast Nuclear Envelope: Flares, Fusion, and Fenestrations.

    PubMed

    Meseroll, Rebecca A; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2016-11-01

    In eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates nuclear components and activities from rest of the cell. The NE also provides rigidity to the nucleus and contributes to chromosome organization. At the same time, the NE is highly dynamic; it must change shape and rearrange its components during development and throughout the cell cycle, and its morphology can be altered in response to mutation and disease. Here we focus on the NE of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has several unique features: it remains intact throughout the cell cycle, expands symmetrically during interphase, elongates during mitosis and, expands asymmetrically during mitotic delay. Moreover, its NE is safely breached during mating and when large structures, such as nuclear pore complexes and the spindle pole body, are embedded into its double membrane. The budding yeast NE lacks lamins and yet the nucleus is capable of maintaining a spherical shape throughout interphase. Despite these eccentricities, studies of the budding yeast NE have uncovered interesting, and likely conserved, processes that contribute to NE dynamics. In particular, we discuss the processes that drive and enable NE expansion and the dramatic changes in the NE that lead to extensions and fenestrations. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2353-2360, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Coordinated Spindle Assembly and Orientation Requires Clb5p-Dependent Kinase in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Marisa; Clarke, Duncan J.; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E.D.; Bloom, Kerry; Reed, Steven I.

    2000-01-01

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle along a polarity axis is critical in asymmetric cell divisions. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of the S-phase B-type cyclin Clb5p under conditions of limited cyclin-dependent kinase activity (cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells) causes a spindle positioning defect that results in an undivided nucleus entering the bud. Based on time-lapse digital imaging microscopy of microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein fusions to either tubulin or dynein, we observed that the asymmetric behavior of the spindle pole bodies during spindle assembly was lost in the cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells. As soon as a spindle formed, both poles were equally likely to interact with the bud cell cortex. Persistent dynamic interactions with the bud ultimately led to spindle translocation across the bud neck. Thus, the mutant failed to assign one spindle pole body the task of organizing astral microtubules towards the mother cell. Our data suggest that Clb5p-associated kinase is required to confer mother-bound behavior to one pole in order to establish correct spindle polarity. In contrast, B-type cyclins, Clb3p and Clb4p, though partially redundant with Clb5p for an early role in spindle morphogenesis, preferentially promote spindle assembly. PMID:10662771

  6. Novel Functional Dissection of the Localization-Specific Roles of Budding Yeast Polo Kinase Cdc5p

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Eun; Park, Chong J.; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Karpova, Tatiana; Asano, Satoshi; McNally, James; Sunwoo, Yangil; Leem, Sun-Hee; Lee, Kyung S.

    2004-01-01

    Budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5p localizes to the spindle pole body (SPB) and to the bud-neck and plays multiple roles during M-phase progression. To dissect localization-specific mitotic functions of Cdc5p, we tethered a localization-defective N-terminal kinase domain of Cdc5p (Cdc5pΔC) to the SPB or to the bud-neck with components specifically localizing to one of these sites and characterized these mutants in a cdc5Δ background. Characterization of a viable, SPB-localizing, CDC5ΔC-CNM67 mutant revealed that it is defective in timely degradation of Swe1p, a negative regulator of Cdc28p. Loss of BFA1, a negative regulator of mitotic exit, rescued the lethality of a neck-localizing CDC5ΔC-CDC12 or CDC5ΔC-CDC3 mutant but yielded severe defects in cytokinesis. These data suggest that the SPB-associated Cdc5p activity is critical for both mitotic exit and cytokinesis, whereas the bud neck-localized Cdc5p is required for proper Swe1p regulation. Interestingly, a cdc5Δ bfa1Δ swe1Δ triple mutant is viable but grows slowly, whereas cdc5Δ cells bearing both CDC5ΔC-CNM67 and CDC5ΔC-CDC12 grow well with only a mild cell cycle delay. Thus, SPB- and the bud-neck-localized Cdc5p control most of the critical Cdc5p functions and downregulation of Bfa1p and Swe1p at the respective locations are two critical factors that require Cdc5p. PMID:15509790

  7. Genome-wide studies of telomere biology in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Yaniv; Kupiec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized DNA-protein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres are essential for chromosomal stability and integrity, as they prevent chromosome ends from being recognized as double strand breaks. In rapidly proliferating cells, telomeric DNA is synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, which copies a short template sequence within its own RNA moiety, thus helping to solve the “end-replication problem”, in which information is lost at the ends of chromosomes with each DNA replication cycle. The basic mechanisms of telomere length, structure and function maintenance are conserved among eukaryotes. Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been instrumental in deciphering the basic aspects of telomere biology. In the last decade, technical advances, such as the availability of mutant collections, have allowed carrying out systematic genome-wide screens for mutants affecting various aspects of telomere biology. In this review we summarize these efforts, and the insights that this Systems Biology approach has produced so far.

  8. Genetic variation in adaptability and pleiotropy in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James Kameron; Bloom, Joshua S; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Evolution can favor organisms that are more adaptable, provided that genetic variation in adaptability exists. Here, we quantify this variation among 230 offspring of a cross between diverged yeast strains. We measure the adaptability of each offspring genotype, defined as its average rate of adaptation in a specific environmental condition, and analyze the heritability, predictability, and genetic basis of this trait. We find that initial genotype strongly affects adaptability and can alter the genetic basis of future evolution. Initial genotype also affects the pleiotropic consequences of adaptation for fitness in a different environment. This genetic variation in adaptability and pleiotropy is largely determined by initial fitness, according to a rule of declining adaptability with increasing initial fitness, but several individual QTLs also have a significant idiosyncratic role. Our results demonstrate that both adaptability and pleiotropy are complex traits, with extensive heritable differences arising from naturally occurring variation. PMID:28826486

  9. Dual mechanisms regulate the recruitment of spindle assembly checkpoint proteins to the budding yeast kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    Aravamudhan, Pavithra; Chen, Renjie; Roy, Babhrubahan; Sim, Janice; Joglekar, Ajit P.

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins by an unattached kinetochore leads to SAC activation. This recruitment is licensed by the Mps1 kinase, which phosphorylates the kinetochore protein Spc105 at one or more of its six MELT repeats. Spc105 then recruits the Bub3-Bub1 and Mad1-Mad2 complexes, which produce the inhibitory signal that arrests cell division. The strength of this signal depends, in part, on the number of Bub3-Bub1 and Mad1-Mad2 molecules that Spc105 recruits. Therefore regulation of this recruitment will influence SAC signaling. To understand this regulation, we established the physiological binding curves that describe the binding of Bub3-Bub1 and Mad1-Mad2 to the budding yeast kinetochore. We find that the binding of both follows the mass action law. Mps1 likely phosphorylates all six MELT repeats of Spc105. However, two mechanisms prevent Spc105 from recruiting six Bub3-Bub1 molecules: low Bub1 abundance and hindrance in the binding of more than one Bub3-Bub1 molecule to the same Spc105. Surprisingly, the kinetochore recruits two Mad1-Mad2 heterotetramers for every Bub3-Bub1 molecule. Finally, at least three MELT repeats per Spc105 are needed for accurate chromosome segregation. These data reveal that kinetochore-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms influence the physiological operation of SAC signaling, potentially to maximize chromosome segregation accuracy. PMID:27170178

  10. Ontogeny of Unstable Chromosomes Generated by Telomere Error in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes. Early unstable chromosomes may then resolve to an internal "collection site" where a dicentric forms and resolves to an isochromosome (other outcomes are possible at each step). The initial telomere-proximal unstable chromosome is increased in mutants in telomerase subunits, Tel1, and even Rad9, with no known telomere-specific function. Defects in Tel1 and in Rrm3, a checkpoint protein kinase with a role in telomere maintenance and a DNA helicase, respectively, synergize dramatically to generate unstable chromosomes, further illustrating the consequence of replication error in the telomere. Collectively, our results suggest telomeric replication errors may be a common cause of seemingly unrelated genomic rearrangements located hundreds of kilobases away. PMID:27716774

  11. Dynamics of Sir3 spreading in budding yeast: secondary recruitment sites and euchromatic localization

    PubMed Central

    Radman-Livaja, Marta; Ruben, Giulia; Weiner, Assaf; Friedman, Nir; Kamakaka, Rohinton; Rando, Oliver J

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin domains are believed to spread via a polymerization-like mechanism in which modification of a given nucleosome recruits a modifying complex, which can then modify the next nucleosome in the polymer. In this study, we carry out genome-wide mapping of the Sir3 component of the Sir silencing complex in budding yeast during a time course of establishment of heterochromatin. Sir3 localization patterns do not support a straightforward model for nucleation and polymerization, instead showing strong but spatially delimited binding to silencers, and weaker and more variable Ume6-dependent binding to novel secondary recruitment sites at the seripauperin (PAU) genes. Genome-wide nucleosome mapping revealed that Sir binding to subtelomeric regions was associated with overpackaging of subtelomeric promoters. Sir3 also bound to a surprising number of euchromatic sites, largely at genes expressed at high levels, and was dynamically recruited to GAL genes upon galactose induction. Together, our results indicate that heterochromatin complex localization cannot simply be explained by nucleation and linear polymerization, and show that heterochromatin complexes associate with highly expressed euchromatic genes in many different organisms. PMID:21336256

  12. Ontogeny of Unstable Chromosomes Generated by Telomere Error in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Tracey; Weinert, Ted

    2016-10-01

    DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes. Early unstable chromosomes may then resolve to an internal "collection site" where a dicentric forms and resolves to an isochromosome (other outcomes are possible at each step). The initial telomere-proximal unstable chromosome is increased in mutants in telomerase subunits, Tel1, and even Rad9, with no known telomere-specific function. Defects in Tel1 and in Rrm3, a checkpoint protein kinase with a role in telomere maintenance and a DNA helicase, respectively, synergize dramatically to generate unstable chromosomes, further illustrating the consequence of replication error in the telomere. Collectively, our results suggest telomeric replication errors may be a common cause of seemingly unrelated genomic rearrangements located hundreds of kilobases away.

  13. HRR25, a putative protein kinase from budding yeast: Association with repair of damaged DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, M.F.; Ou, A.C.; DeMaggio, A.J.; Burbee, D.G. ); Liskay, R.M. ); Heffron, F. )

    1991-08-30

    In simple eukaryotes, protein kinases regulate mitotic and meiotic cell cycles, the response to polypeptide pheromones, and the initiation of nuclear DNA synthesis. The protein HRR25 from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was defined by the mutation hrr25-1. This mutation resulted in sensitivity to continuous expression of the HO double-strand endonuclease, to methyl methanesulfonate, and to x-irradiation. Homozygotes of hrr25-1 were unable to sporulate and disruption and deletion of HRR25 interfered with mitotic and meiotic cell division. Sequence analysis revealed two distinctive regions in the protein. The NH{sub 2}-terminus of HRR25 contains the hallmark features of protein kinases, whereas the COOH-terminus is rich in proline and glutamine. Mutations in HRR25 at conserved residues found in all protein kinases inactivated the gene, and these mutants exhibited the hrr25 null phenotypes. Taken together, the hrr25 mutant phenotypes and the features of the gene product indicate that HRR25 is a distinctive member of the protein kinase superfamily.

  14. Genetic approaches to aging in budding and fission yeasts: new connections and new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Ruei; Runge, Kurt W

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts are powerful model systems to examine the evolutionarily conserved aspects of eukaryotic aging because they maintain many of the same core cellular signaling pathways and essential organelles as human cells. We constructed a strain of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that could monitor the distribution of proteins involved in heterochromatic silencing and aging, and isolated mutants that alter this distribution. The largest class of such mutants cause defects in mitochondrial function, and appear to cause changes in nuclear silencing separate from the well-known Rtg2p-dependent pathway that alters nuclear transcription in response to the loss of the mitochondrial genome. Mutants that inactivate the ATP2 gene, which encodes the ATPase subunit of the mitochondrial F(1)F(0)-ATPase, were isolated twice in our screen and identify a lifespan extending pathway in a gene that is conserved in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The budding yeast S. cerevisiae S. cerevisiae has been used with great success to identify other lifespan-extending pathways in screens using surrogate phenotypes such as stress resistance or silencing to identify random mutants, or in high throughput screens that utilize the deletion strain set resource. However, the direct selection of long-lived mutants from a pool of random mutants is more challenging. We have established a new chronological aging assay for the evolutionarily distant fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe that recapitulates aspects of aging conserved in all eukaryotes. We have constructed a novel S. pombe S. pombe DNA insertion mutant bank, and used it to show that we can directly select for a long-lived mutant. The use of both the budding and fission yeast systems should continue to facilitate the identification and validation of lifespan extending pathways that are conserved in humans.

  15. Discovery of an unconventional centromere in budding yeast redefines evolution of point centromeres.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Norihiko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Schoenfeld, Lori W; Müller, Carolin A; Nieduszynski, Conrad; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2015-08-03

    Centromeres are the chromosomal regions promoting kinetochore assembly for chromosome segregation. In many eukaryotes, the centromere consists of up to mega base pairs of DNA. On such "regional centromeres," kinetochore assembly is mainly defined by epigenetic regulation [1]. By contrast, a clade of budding yeasts (Saccharomycetaceae) has a "point centromere" of 120-200 base pairs of DNA, on which kinetochore assembly is defined by the consensus DNA sequence [2, 3]. During evolution, budding yeasts acquired point centromeres, which replaced ancestral, regional centromeres [4]. All known point centromeres among different yeast species share common consensus DNA elements (CDEs) [5, 6], implying that they evolved only once and stayed essentially unchanged throughout evolution. Here, we identify a yeast centromere that challenges this view: that of the budding yeast Naumovozyma castellii is the first unconventional point centromere with unique CDEs. The N. castellii centromere CDEs are essential for centromere function but have different DNA sequences from CDEs in other point centromeres. Gene order analyses around N. castellii centromeres indicate their unique, and separate, evolutionary origin. Nevertheless, they are still bound by the ortholog of the CBF3 complex, which recognizes CDEs in other point centromeres. The new type of point centromere originated prior to the divergence between N. castellii and its close relative Naumovozyma dairenensis and disseminated to all N. castellii chromosomes through extensive genome rearrangement. Thus, contrary to the conventional view, point centromeres can undergo rapid evolutionary changes. These findings give new insights into the evolution of point centromeres. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploiting budding yeast natural variation for industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-11-01

    For the last two decades, the natural variation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been massively exploited with the aim of understanding ecological and evolutionary processes. As a result, many new genetic variants have been uncovered, providing a large catalogue of alleles underlying complex traits. These alleles represent a rich genetic resource with the potential to provide new strains that can cope with the growing demands of industrial fermentation processes. When surveyed in detail, several of these variants have proven useful in wine and beer industries by improving nitrogen utilisation, fermentation kinetics, ethanol production, sulphite resistance and aroma production. Here, I illustrate how allele-specific expression and polymorphisms within the coding region of GDB1 underlie fermentation kinetic differences in synthetic wine must. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of how GDB1 variants and other natural alleles interact in foreign genetic backgrounds remains unclear. Further studies in large sets of strains, recombinant hybrids and multiple parental pairs will broaden our knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis of trait adaptation for utilisation in applied and industrial processes.

  17. MAP kinase dynamics in response to pheromones in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Stucke, V M; Jorritsma, G; Peter, M

    2001-12-01

    Although scaffolding is a major regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, scaffolding proteins are poorly understood. During yeast mating, MAPK Fus3p is phosphorylated by MAPKK Ste7p, which is activated by MAPKKK Ste11p. This MAPK module interacts with the scaffold molecule Ste5p. Here we show that Ste11p and Ste7p were predominantly cytoplasmic proteins, while Ste5p and Fus3p were found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Ste5p, Ste7p and Fus3p also localized to tips of mating projections in pheromone-treated cells. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrate that Fus3p rapidly shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm independently of pheromones, Fus3p phosphorylation and Ste5p. Membrane-bound Ste5p can specifically recruit Fus3p and Ste7p to the cell cortex. Ste5p remains stably bound at the plasma membrane, unlike activated Fus3p, which dissociates from Ste5p and translocates to the nucleus.

  18. The spindle position checkpoint: how to deal with spindle misalignment during asymmetric cell division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta; Venturetti, Marianna; Chiroli, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2008-06-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical to ensure the unequal segregation of polarity factors and generate daughter cells with different sizes or fates. In budding yeast the boundary between mother and daughter cell resides at the bud neck, where cytokinesis takes place at the end of the cell cycle. Since budding and bud neck formation occur much earlier than bipolar spindle formation, spindle positioning is a finely regulated process. A surveillance device called the SPOC (spindle position checkpoint) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability.

  19. Global transcriptional responses of fission and budding yeast to changes in copper and iron levels: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Rustici, Gabriella; van Bakel, Harm; Lackner, Daniel H; Holstege, Frank C; Wijmenga, Cisca; Bähler, Jürg; Brazma, Alvis

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies in comparative genomics demonstrate that interspecies comparison represents a powerful tool for identifying both conserved and specialized biologic processes across large evolutionary distances. All cells must adjust to environmental fluctuations in metal levels, because levels that are too low or too high can be detrimental. Here we explore the conservation of metal homoeostasis in two distantly related yeasts. Results We examined genome-wide gene expression responses to changing copper and iron levels in budding and fission yeast using DNA microarrays. The comparison reveals conservation of only a small core set of genes, defining the copper and iron regulons, with a larger number of additional genes being specific for each species. Novel regulatory targets were identified in Schizosaccharomyces pombe for Cuf1p (pex7 and SPAC3G6.05) and Fep1p (srx1, sib1, sib2, rds1, isu1, SPBC27B12.03c, SPAC1F8.02c, and SPBC947.05c). We also present evidence refuting a direct role of Cuf1p in the repression of genes involved in iron uptake. Remarkable differences were detected in responses of the two yeasts to excess copper, probably reflecting evolutionary adaptation to different environments. Conclusion The considerable evolutionary distance between budding and fission yeast resulted in substantial diversion in the regulation of copper and iron homeostasis. Despite these differences, the conserved regulation of a core set of genes involved in the uptake of these metals provides valuable clues to key features of metal metabolism. PMID:17477863

  20. Mmr1p is a mitochondrial factor for Myo2p-dependent inheritance of mitochondria in the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takashi; Toh-E, Akio; Matsui, Yasushi

    2004-07-07

    Class V myosins play a pivotal role in organelle distribution. In the budding yeast, Myo2p, a class V myosin, is essential for mitochondrial distribution. We identified MMR1 as a high-dose suppressor of the myo2 mitochondrial defect and that Mmr1p resides restrictively on the bud-localizing mitochondria and forms a complex with Myo2p tail. Mmr1p loss delayed mitochondrial transfer to buds and completely abolished mitochondrial distribution in the absence of Ypt11p, which promotes mitochondrial distribution by complex formation with Myo2p tail. The myo2-573 mutation, which causes a mitochondrial distribution defect and inactivates the Mmr1p function, reduced association between Myo2p and Mmr1p and depolarized Mmr1p localization on mitochondria. These strongly suggest that Mmr1p is a key mitochondrial component of the link between Myo2p and mitochondria for Myo2p-dependent mitochondrial distribution. Genetical analysis revealed that the Mmr1p-Myo2p pathway is independent of the Ypt11p-Myo2p pathway, suggesting that an essential system for mitochondrial distribution is composed of two independent Myo2p pathways.

  1. Mdm12p, a component required for mitochondrial inheritance that is conserved between budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Berger, K H; Sogo, L F; Yaffe, M P

    1997-02-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the MDM12 gene product display temperature-sensitive growth and possess abnormally large, round mitochondria that are defective for inheritance by daughter buds. Analysis of the wild-type MDM12 gene revealed its product to be a 31-kD polypeptide that is homologous to a protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. When expressed in S. cerevisiae, the S. pombe Mdm12p homolog conferred a dominant-negative phenotype of giant mitochondria and aberrant mitochondrial distribution, suggesting partial functional conservation of Mdm12p activity between budding and fission yeast. The S. cerevisiae Mdm12p was localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and by subcellular fractionation and immunodetection to the mitochondrial outer membrane and displayed biochemical properties of an integral membrane protein. Mdm12p is the third mitochondrial outer membrane protein required for normal mitochondrial morphology and distribution to be identified in S. cerevisiae and the first such mitochondrial component that is conserved between two different species.

  2. Spindle checkpoint proteins and chromosome-microtubule attachment in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Emily S; Espelin, Christopher W; Sorger, Peter K

    2004-02-16

    Accurate chromosome segregation depends on precise regulation of mitosis by the spindle checkpoint. This checkpoint monitors the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachment and delays the metaphase to anaphase transition until all kinetochores have formed stable bipolar connections to the mitotic spindle. Components of the spindle checkpoint include the mitotic arrest defective (MAD) genes MAD1-3, and the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (BUB) genes BUB1 and BUB3. In animal cells, all known spindle checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores during normal mitoses. In contrast, we show that whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bub1p and Bub3p are bound to kinetochores early in mitosis as part of the normal cell cycle, Mad1p and Mad2p are kinetochore bound only in the presence of spindle damage or kinetochore lesions that interfere with chromosome-microtubule attachment. Moreover, although Mad1p and Mad2p perform essential mitotic functions during every division cycle in mammalian cells, they are required in budding yeast only when mitosis goes awry. We propose that differences in the behavior of spindle checkpoint proteins in animal cells and budding yeast result primarily from evolutionary divergence in spindle assembly pathways. Copyright The Rockefeller University Press

  3. Partial purification of histone H3 proteolytic activity from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-06-01

    The proteolytic clipping of histone tails has recently emerged as a novel form of irreversible post-translational modification (PTM) of histones. Histone clipping has been implicated as a regulatory process leading to the permanent removal of PTMs from histone proteins. However, there is scarcity of literature that describes the identification and characterization of histone-specific proteases. Here, we employed various biochemical methods to report histone H3-specific proteolytic activity from budding yeast. Our results demonstrate that H3 proteolytic activity was associated with sepharose bead matrices and activity was not affected by a variety of stress conditions. We have also identified the existence of an unknown protein that acts as a physiological inhibitor of the H3-clipping activity of yeast H3 protease. Moreover, through protease inhibition assays, we have also characterized yeast H3 protease as a serine protease. Interestingly, unlike glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), yeast H3 proteolytic activity was not inhibited by Stefin B. Together, our findings suggest the existence of a novel H3 protease in yeast that is different from other reported histone H3 proteases. The presence of histone H3 proteolytic activity, along with the physiological inhibitor in yeast, suggests an interesting molecular mechanism that regulates the activity of histone proteases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparative 3D genome structure analysis of the fission and the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Alber, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We studied the 3D structural organization of the fission yeast genome, which emerges from the tethering of heterochromatic regions in otherwise randomly configured chromosomes represented as flexible polymer chains in an nuclear environment. This model is sufficient to explain in a statistical manner many experimentally determined distinctive features of the fission yeast genome, including chromatin interaction patterns from Hi-C experiments and the co-locations of functionally related and co-expressed genes, such as genes expressed by Pol-III. Our findings demonstrate that some previously described structure-function correlations can be explained as a consequence of random chromatin collisions driven by a few geometric constraints (mainly due to centromere-SPB and telomere-NE tethering) combined with the specific gene locations in the chromosome sequence. We also performed a comparative analysis between the fission and budding yeast genome structures, for which we previously detected a similar organizing principle. However, due to the different chromosome sizes and numbers, substantial differences are observed in the 3D structural genome organization between the two species, most notably in the nuclear locations of orthologous genes, and the extent of nuclear territories for genes and chromosomes. However, despite those differences, remarkably, functional similarities are maintained, which is evident when comparing spatial clustering of functionally related genes in both yeasts. Functionally related genes show a similar spatial clustering behavior in both yeasts, even though their nuclear locations are largely different between the yeast species.

  5. Comparative 3D Genome Structure Analysis of the Fission and the Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ke; Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Alber, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We studied the 3D structural organization of the fission yeast genome, which emerges from the tethering of heterochromatic regions in otherwise randomly configured chromosomes represented as flexible polymer chains in an nuclear environment. This model is sufficient to explain in a statistical manner many experimentally determined distinctive features of the fission yeast genome, including chromatin interaction patterns from Hi-C experiments and the co-locations of functionally related and co-expressed genes, such as genes expressed by Pol-III. Our findings demonstrate that some previously described structure-function correlations can be explained as a consequence of random chromatin collisions driven by a few geometric constraints (mainly due to centromere-SPB and telomere-NE tethering) combined with the specific gene locations in the chromosome sequence. We also performed a comparative analysis between the fission and budding yeast genome structures, for which we previously detected a similar organizing principle. However, due to the different chromosome sizes and numbers, substantial differences are observed in the 3D structural genome organization between the two species, most notably in the nuclear locations of orthologous genes, and the extent of nuclear territories for genes and chromosomes. However, despite those differences, remarkably, functional similarities are maintained, which is evident when comparing spatial clustering of functionally related genes in both yeasts. Functionally related genes show a similar spatial clustering behavior in both yeasts, even though their nuclear locations are largely different between the yeast species. PMID:25799503

  6. Effect of temperature on replicative aging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Molon, Mateusz; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in gerontological studies was based on the assumption that the reproduction limit of a single cell (replicative aging) is a consequence of accumulation of a hypothetical universal "senescence factor" within the mother cell. However, some evidence suggests that molecules or structures proposed as the "aging factor", such as rDNA circles, oxidatively damaged proteins (with carbonyl groups) or mitochondria, have little effect on replicative lifespan of yeast cells. Our results also suggest that protein aggregates associated with Hsp104, treated as a marker of yeast aging, do not seem to affect the numeric value of replicative lifespan of yeast. What these results indicate, however, is the need for finding a different way of expressing age and longevity of yeast cells instead of the commonly used number of daughters produced over units of time, as in the case of other organisms. In this paper, we show that the temperature has a stronger influence on the time of life (the total lifespan) than on the reproductive potential of yeast cells.

  7. Components required for cytokinesis are important for bud site selection in yeast

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Polarized cell division is a fundamental process that occurs in a variety of organisms; it is responsible for the proper positioning of daughter cells and the correct segregation of cytoplasmic components. The SPA2 gene of yeast encodes a nonessential protein that localizes to sites of cell growth and to the site of cytokinesis. spa2 mutants exhibit slightly altered budding patterns. In this report, a genetic screen was used to isolate a novel ochre allele of CDC10, cdc10-10; strains containing this mutation require the SPA2 gene for growth. CDC10 encodes a conserved potential GTP-binding protein that previously has been shown to localize to the bud neck and to be important for cytokinesis. The genetic interaction of cdc10-10 and spa2 suggests a role for SPA2 in cytokinesis. Most importantly, strains that contain a cdc10-10 mutation and those containing mutations affecting other putative neck filament proteins do not form buds at their normal proximal location. The finding that a component involved in cytokinesis is also important in bud site selection provides strong evidence for the cytokinesis tag model; i.e., critical components at the site of cytokinesis are involved in determining the next site of polarized growth and division. PMID:8320260

  8. Focal accumulation of preribosomes outside the nucleolus during metaphase-anaphase in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Moriggi, Giulia; Gaspar, Sonia G; Nieto, Blanca; Bustelo, Xosé R; Dosil, Mercedes

    2017-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains one nucleolus that remains intact in the mother-cell side of the nucleus throughout most of mitosis. Based on this, it is assumed that the bulk of ribosome production during cell division occurs in the mother cell. Here, we show that the ribosome synthesis machinery localizes not only in the nucleolus but also at a center that is present in the bud side of the nucleus after the initiation of mitosis. This center can be visualized by live microscopy as a punctate body located in close proximity to the nuclear envelope and opposite to the nucleolus. It contains ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and precursors of both 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. Proteins that actively participate in ribosome synthesis, but not functionally defective variants, accumulate in that site. The formation of this body occurs in the metaphase-to-anaphase transition when discrete regions of rDNA occasionally exit the nucleolus and move into the bud. Collectively, our data unveil the existence of a previously unknown mechanism for preribosome accumulation at the nuclear periphery in budding yeast. We propose that this might be a strategy to expedite the delivery of ribosomes to the growing bud. © 2017 Moriggi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  9. Co-regulation of polar mRNA transport and lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Taranukha, Dmitri; Budovsky, Arie; Gobshtis, Nikolai; Braiman, Alex; Porat, Ziv; Aronov, Stella; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2012-11-15

    Recent studies have uncovered the links between aging, rejuvenation and polar protein transport in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we examined a still unexplored possibility for co-regulation of polar mRNA transport and lifespan. To monitor the amount and distribution of mRNA-containing granules in mother and daughter cells, we used a fluorescent mRNA-labeling system, with MFA2 as a reporter gene. The results obtained showed that deletion of the selected longevity regulators in budding yeast had a significant impact on the polar mRNA transport. This included changes in the amount of mRNA-containing granules in cytoplasm, their aggregation and distribution between the mother and daughter cells. A significant negative correlation was found between strain-specific longevity, amount of granules and total fluorescent intensity both in mother and daughter cells. As indicated by the coefficient of determination, approximately 50-75% of variation in yeast lifespan could be attributed to the differences in polar mRNA transport.

  10. Mitochondrial inheritance is required for MEN-regulated cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Luis J; Crider, David G; Gay, Anna Card; Salanueva, Iñigo J; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2009-11-03

    Mitochondrial inheritance, the transfer of mitochondria from mother to daughter cell during cell division, is essential for daughter cell viability. The mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex containing Mdm10p, Mdm12p, and Mmm1p, is required for mitochondrial motility leading to inheritance in budding yeast. We observe a defect in cytokinesis in mitochore mutants and another mutant (mmr1Delta gem1Delta) with impaired mitochondrial inheritance. This defect is not observed in yeast that have no mitochondrial DNA or defects in mitochondrial protein import or assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Deletion of MDM10 inhibits contractile-ring closure, but does not inhibit contractile-ring assembly, localization of a chromosomal passenger protein to the spindle during early anaphase, spindle alignment, nucleolar segregation, or nuclear migration during anaphase. Release of the mitotic exit network (MEN) component, Cdc14p, from the nucleolus during anaphase is delayed in mdm10Delta cells. Finally, hyperactivation of the MEN by deletion of BUB2 restores defects in cytokinesis in mdm10Delta and mmr1Delta gem1Delta cells and reduces the fidelity of mitochondrial segregation between mother and daughter cells in wild-type and mdm10Delta cells. Our studies identify a novel MEN-linked regulatory system that inhibits cytokinesis in response to defects in mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

  11. Budding yeast as a model organism to study the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Denoth Lippuner, Annina; Julou, Thomas; Barral, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Although a budding yeast culture can be propagated eternally, individual yeast cells age and eventually die. The detailed knowledge of this unicellular eukaryotic species as well as the powerful tools developed to study its physiology makes budding yeast an ideal model organism to study the mechanisms involved in aging. Considering both detrimental and positive aspects of age, we review changes occurring during aging both at the whole-cell level and at the intracellular level. The possible mechanisms allowing old cells to produce rejuvenated progeny are described in terms of accumulation and inheritance of aging factors. Based on the dynamic changes associated with age, we distinguish different stages of age: early age, during which changes do not impair cell growth; intermediate age, during which aging factors start to accumulate; and late age, which corresponds to the last divisions before death. For each aging factor, we examine its asymmetric segregation and whether it plays a causal role in aging. Using the example of caloric restriction, we describe how the aging process can be modulated at different levels and how changes in different organelles might interplay with each other. Finally, we discuss the beneficial aspects that might be associated with age.

  12. Snap-, CLIP- and Halo-Tag Labelling of Budding Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stagge, Franziska; Mitronova, Gyuzel Y.; Belov, Vladimir N.; Wurm, Christian A.; Jakobs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of the localization and the spatial and temporal dynamics of specifically labelled proteins is an indispensable tool in cell biology. Besides fluorescent proteins as tags, tag-mediated labelling utilizing self-labelling proteins as the SNAP-, CLIP-, or the Halo-tag are widely used, flexible labelling systems relying on exogenously supplied fluorophores. Unfortunately, labelling of live budding yeast cells proved to be challenging with these approaches because of the limited accessibility of the cell interior to the dyes. In this study we developed a fast and reliable electroporation-based labelling protocol for living budding yeast cells expressing SNAP-, CLIP-, or Halo-tagged fusion proteins. For the Halo-tag, we demonstrate that it is crucial to use the 6′-carboxy isomers and not the 5′-carboxy isomers of important dyes to ensure cell viability. We report on a simple rule for the analysis of 1H NMR spectra to discriminate between 6′- and 5′-carboxy isomers of fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives. We demonstrate the usability of the labelling protocol by imaging yeast cells with STED super-resolution microscopy and dual colour live cell microscopy. The large number of available fluorophores for these self-labelling proteins and the simplicity of the protocol described here expands the available toolbox for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:24205303

  13. SNAP-, CLIP- and Halo-tag labelling of budding yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Stagge, Franziska; Mitronova, Gyuzel Y; Belov, Vladimir N; Wurm, Christian A; Jakobs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of the localization and the spatial and temporal dynamics of specifically labelled proteins is an indispensable tool in cell biology. Besides fluorescent proteins as tags, tag-mediated labelling utilizing self-labelling proteins as the SNAP-, CLIP-, or the Halo-tag are widely used, flexible labelling systems relying on exogenously supplied fluorophores. Unfortunately, labelling of live budding yeast cells proved to be challenging with these approaches because of the limited accessibility of the cell interior to the dyes. In this study we developed a fast and reliable electroporation-based labelling protocol for living budding yeast cells expressing SNAP-, CLIP-, or Halo-tagged fusion proteins. For the Halo-tag, we demonstrate that it is crucial to use the 6'-carboxy isomers and not the 5'-carboxy isomers of important dyes to ensure cell viability. We report on a simple rule for the analysis of ¹H NMR spectra to discriminate between 6'- and 5'-carboxy isomers of fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives. We demonstrate the usability of the labelling protocol by imaging yeast cells with STED super-resolution microscopy and dual colour live cell microscopy. The large number of available fluorophores for these self-labelling proteins and the simplicity of the protocol described here expands the available toolbox for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  14. Measuring dynamic changes in histone modifications and nucleosome density during activated transcription in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Govind, Chhabi K; Ginsburg, Daniel; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation is widely utilized to determine the in vivo binding of factors that regulate transcription. This procedure entails formaldehyde-mediated cross-linking of proteins and isolation of soluble chromatin followed by shearing. The fragmented chromatin is subjected to immunoprecipitation using antibodies against the protein of interest and the associated DNA is identified using quantitative PCR. Since histones are posttranslationally modified during transcription, this technique can be effectively used to determine the changes in histone modifications that occur during transcription. In this paper, we describe a detailed methodology to determine changes in histone modifications in budding yeast that takes into account reductions in nucleosome.

  15. Transcriptional and genomic mayhem due to aging-induced nucleosome loss in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Chen, Kaifu; Li, Wei; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes are assembled into a nucleoprotein structure termed chromatin, which is comprised of regular arrays of nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of eight core histone protein molecules around which the DNA is wrapped 1.75 times. The ultimate consequence of packaging the genome into chromatin is that the DNA sequences are relatively inaccessible. This allows the cell to use a comprehensive toolbox of chromatin-altering machineries to reveal access to the DNA sequence at the right time and right place in order to allow genomic processes, such as DNA repair, transcription and replication, to occur in a tightly-regulated manner. In other words, chromatin provides the framework that allows the regulation of all genomic processes, because the machineries that mediate transcription, repair and DNA replication themselves are relatively non-sequence specific and if the genome were naked, they would presumably perform their tasks in a random and unregulated manner. We recently provided support for this prediction in Zheng et al., [Genes and Development (2014) 28: 396-408] by investigating a physiologically relevant scenario in which we had found that cells lose half of the core histone proteins, that is, during the mitotic aging (also called replicative aging) of budding yeast. Using new spike-in normalization techniques, we found that the occupancy of nucleosomes at most DNA sequences is reduced by 50%, leading to transcriptional induction of every single gene. This loss of histones during aging was also accompanied by a significantly-increased frequency of genomic instability including DNA breaks, chromosomal translocations, retrotransposition, and transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome (Figure 1).

  16. A new function of Skp1 in the mitotic exit of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namil; Yoon, Hayoung; Lee, Eunhwa; Song, Kiwon

    2006-12-01

    We previously reported that Skp1, a component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) complex essential for the timely degradation of cell cycle proteins by ubiquitination, physically interacts with Bfa1, which is a key negative regulator of the mitotic exit network (MEN) in response to diverse checkpoint-activating stresses in budding yeast. In this study, we initially investigated whether the interaction of Skp1 and Bfa1 is involved in the regulation of the Bfa1 protein level during the cell cycle, especially by mediating its degradation. However, the profile of the Bfa1 protein did not change during the cell cycle in skp1-11, which is a SKP1 mutant allele in which the function of Skp1 as a part of SCF is completely impaired, thus indicating that Skp1 does not affect the degradation of Bfa1. On the other hand, we found that the skp1-12 mutant allele, previously reported to block G2-M transition, showed defects in mitotic exit and cytokinesis. The skp1-12 mutant allele also revealed a specific genetic interaction with Deltabfa1. Bfa1 interacted with Skp1 via its 184 C-terminal residues (Bfa1-D8) that are responsible for its function in mitotic exit. In addition, the interaction between Bfa1 and the Skp1-12 mutant protein was stronger than that of Bfa1 and the wild type Skp1. We suggest a novel function of Skp1 in mitotic exit and cytokinesis, independent of its function as a part of the SCF complex. The interaction of Skp1 and Bfa1 may contribute to the function of Skp1 in the mitotic exit.

  17. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Fraschini, Roberta; Boettcher, Barbara; Barral, Yves; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  18. Global reorganization of budding yeast chromosome conformation in different physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tjong, Harianto; Weider, Elodie; Herzog, Mareike; Young, Barry; Brune, Christiane; Müllner, Daniel; Loewen, Christopher; Alber, Frank; Weis, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome is nonrandom and important for correct function. Specifically, the nuclear envelope plays a critical role in gene regulation. It generally constitutes a repressive environment, but several genes, including the GAL locus in budding yeast, are recruited to the nuclear periphery on activation. Here, we combine imaging and computational modeling to ask how the association of a single gene locus with the nuclear envelope influences the surrounding chromosome architecture. Systematic analysis of an entire yeast chromosome establishes that peripheral recruitment of the GAL locus is part of a large-scale rearrangement that shifts many chromosomal regions closer to the nuclear envelope. This process is likely caused by the presence of several independent anchoring points. To identify novel factors required for peripheral anchoring, we performed a genome-wide screen and demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase SAGA and the activity of histone deacetylases are needed for this extensive gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery. PMID:26811423

  19. Structure and Scm3-mediated assembly of budding yeast centromeric nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Wyns, Katharina; Li, Ming; Hall, Michael A; Wang, Michelle D; Luger, Karolin

    2011-01-01

    Much controversy exists regarding the structural organization of the yeast centromeric nucleosome and the role of the nonhistone protein, Scm3, in its assembly and architecture. Here we show that the substitution of H3 with its centromeric variant Cse4 results in octameric nucleosomes that organize DNA in a left-handed superhelix. We demonstrate by single-molecule approaches, micrococcal nuclease digestion and small-angle X-ray scattering that Cse4-nucleosomes exhibit an open conformation with weakly bound terminal DNA segments. The Cse4-octamer does not preferentially form nucleosomes on its cognate centromeric DNA. We show that Scm3 functions as a Cse4-specific nucleosome assembly factor, and that the resulting octameric nucleosomes do not contain Scm3 as a stably bound component. Taken together, our data provide insights into the assembly and structural features of the budding yeast centromeric nucleosome.

  20. Investigating Filamentous Growth and Biofilm/Mat Formation in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In response to nutrient limitation, budding yeast can undergo filamentous growth by differentiating into elongated chains of interconnected cells. Filamentous growth is regulated by signal transduction pathways that oversee the reorganization of cell polarity, changes to the cell cycle, and an increase in cell adhesion that occur in response to nutrient limitation. Each of these changes can be easily measured. Yeast can also grow colonially atop surfaces in a biofilm or mat of connected cells. Filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation require cooperation among individuals; therefore, studying these responses can shed light on the origin and genetic basis of multicellular behaviors. The assays introduced here can be used to study analogous behaviors in fungal pathogens, which require filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation for virulence. PMID:25734073

  1. EdU Incorporation for FACS and Microscopy Analysis of DNA Replication in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Talarek, Nicolas; Petit, Julie; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is a key determinant of chromosome segregation and stability in eukaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used for cell cycle studies, yet simple but key parameters such as the fraction of cells in S phase in a population or the subnuclear localization of DNA synthesis have been difficult to gather for this organism. 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a thymidine analogue that can be incorporated in vivo and later detected using copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (Click reaction) without prior DNA denaturation. This chapter describes a budding yeast strain and conditions that allow rapid EdU incorporation at moderate extracellular concentrations, followed by its efficient detection for the analysis of DNA replication in single cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.

  2. Separable Crossover-Promoting and Crossover-Constraining Aspects of Zip1 Activity during Budding Yeast Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Voelkel-Meiman, Karen; Johnston, Cassandra; Thappeta, Yashna; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V.; Hochwagen, Andreas; MacQueen, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on the presence of crossover events distributed among all chromosomes. MutSγ and MutLγ homologs (Msh4/5 and Mlh1/3) facilitate the formation of a prominent group of meiotic crossovers that mature within the context of an elaborate chromosomal structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC). SC proteins are required for intermediate steps in the formation of MutSγ-MutLγ crossovers, but whether the assembled SC structure per se is required for MutSγ-MutLγ-dependent crossover recombination events is unknown. Here we describe an interspecies complementation experiment that reveals that the mature SC is dispensable for the formation of Mlh3-dependent crossovers in budding yeast. Zip1 forms a major structural component of the budding yeast SC, and is also required for MutSγ and MutLγ-dependent crossover formation. Kluyveromyces lactis ZIP1 expressed in place of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP1 in S. cerevisiae cells fails to support SC assembly (synapsis) but promotes wild-type crossover levels in those nuclei that progress to form spores. While stable, full-length SC does not assemble in S. cerevisiae cells expressing K. lactis ZIP1, aggregates of K. lactis Zip1 displayed by S. cerevisiae meiotic nuclei are decorated with SC-associated proteins, and K. lactis Zip1 promotes the SUMOylation of the SC central element protein Ecm11, suggesting that K. lactis Zip1 functionally interfaces with components of the S. cerevisiae synapsis machinery. Moreover, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers rely on S. cerevisiae synapsis initiation proteins Zip3, Zip4, Spo16, as well as the Mlh3 protein, as do the crossovers mediated by S. cerevisiae Zip1. Surprisingly, however, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers are largely Msh4/Msh5 (MutSγ)-independent. This separation-of-function version of Zip1 thus reveals that neither assembled SC nor MutSγ is required for Mlh3-dependent crossover formation per se in budding yeast. Our data

  3. The budding yeast Centromere DNA Element II wraps a stable Cse4 hemisome in either orientation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Henikoff, Steven; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Krassovsky, Kristina; Bryson, Terri D; Codomo, Christine A; Brogaard, Kristin; Wang, Ji-Ping; Henikoff, Jorja G

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, a single cenH3 (Cse4) nucleosome occupies the ∼120-bp functional centromere, however conflicting structural models for the particle have been proposed. To resolve this controversy, we have applied H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which reveals the precise position of histone H4 in every nucleosome in the genome. We find that cleavage patterns at centromeres are unique within the genome and are incompatible with symmetrical structures, including octameric nucleosomes and (Cse4/H4)2 tetrasomes. Centromere cleavage patterns are compatible with a precisely positioned core structure, one in which each of the 16 yeast centromeres is occupied by oppositely oriented Cse4/H4/H2A/H2B hemisomes in two rotational phases within the population. Centromere-specific hemisomes are also inferred from distances observed between closely-spaced H4 cleavages, as predicted from structural modeling. Our results indicate that the orientation and rotational position of the stable hemisome at each yeast centromere is not specified by the functional centromere sequence. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01861.001 PMID:24737863

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression in Primate Taste Buds Reveals Links to Diverse Processes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Min; Gao, Na; White, Evan; Echeverri, Fernando; Kalabat, Dalia; Soto, Hortensia; Laita, Bianca; Li, Cherry; Yeh, Shaoyang Anthony; Zoller, Mark; Zlotnik, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation) have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM) procured fungiform (FG) and circumvallate (CV) taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology. PMID:19636377

  5. Comparative genetic analysis of PP2A-Cdc55 regulators in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Rossio, Valentina; Kazatskaya, Anna; Hirabayashi, Mayo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cdc55, a regulatory B subunit of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex, plays various functions during mitosis. Sequestration of Cdc55 from the nucleus by Zds1 and Zds2 is important for robust activation of mitotic Cdk1 and mitotic progression in budding yeast. However, Zds1-family proteins are found only in fungi but not in higher eukaryotes. In animal cells, highly conserved ENSA/ARPP-19 family proteins bind and inhibit PP2A-B55 activity for mitotic entry.   In this study, we compared the relative contribution of Zds1/Zds2 and ENSA-family proteins Igo1/Igo2 on Cdc55 functions in budding yeast mitosis. We confirmed that Igo1/Igo2 can inhibit Cdc55 in early mitosis, but their contribution to Cdc55 regulation is relatively minor compared with the role of Zds1/Zds2. In contrast to Zds1, which primarily localized to the sites of cell polarity and in the cytoplasm, Igo1 is localized in the nucleus, suggesting that Igo1/Igo2 inhibit Cdc55 in a manner distinct from Zds1/Zds2. Our analysis confirmed an evolutionarily conserved function of ENSA-family proteins in inhibiting PP2A-Cdc55, and we propose that Zds1-dependent sequestration of PP2A-Cdc55 from the nucleus is uniquely evolved to facilitate closed mitosis in fungal species.

  6. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Arcones, Irene; Sacristan, Carlos; Filali-Mouncef, Yasmina; Roncero, Cesar; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named ‘ingression progression complexes’ (IPCs). In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role. PMID:26891268

  7. Evidence for ORC-dependent repression of budding yeast genes induced by starvation and other stresses.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Lakshmi; Burhans, Debra T; Laun, Peter; Wang, Jianxin; Liang, Ping; Weinberger, Martin; Wissing, Silke; Jarolim, Stefanie; Suter, Bernhard; Madeo, Frank; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C

    2006-08-01

    The highly conserved origin recognition complex (ORC) is required for repressing genes in the silent mating type loci of budding yeast. Here we report that at a non-permissive temperature, the temperature-sensitive orc2-1 mutation induces the expression of more than 500 genes, the majority of which are also induced during starvation of wild-type cells. Many genes induced by starvation or by the orc2-1 mutation are also induced by inactivation of proteins required for chromatin-mediated repression of transcription. Genes induced by the orc2-1 mutation, starvation, or inactivation of repressor proteins, map near ORC-binding loci significantly more frequently compared to all genes. Genes repressed by starvation map near ORC-binding sites less frequently compared to all genes, which suggests they have been evolutionarily excluded from regions of repressive chromatin near ORC-binding sites. Deletion of sequences containing ORC-binding sites near the DAL2 and DAL4 genes in the DAL gene cluster, which are induced by either the orc2-1 mutation or by starvation, constitutively activates these genes and abolishes their activation by the orc2-1 mutation. Our findings suggest a role for ORC in the repression of a large number of budding yeast genes induced by starvation or other aspects of a deleterious environment.

  8. Astral Microtubule Pivoting Promotes Their Search for Cortical Anchor Sites during Mitosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Baumgärtner, Stephan; Tolić, Iva M.

    2014-01-01

    Positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for proper cell division. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two mechanisms contribute to spindle positioning. In the Kar9 pathway, astral microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body interact via the linker protein Kar9 with the myosin Myo2, which moves the microtubule along the actin cables towards the neck. In the dynein pathway, astral microtubules off-load dynein onto the cortical anchor protein Num1, which is followed by dynein pulling on the spindle. Yet, the mechanism by which microtubules target cortical anchor sites is unknown. Here we quantify the pivoting motion of astral microtubules around the spindle pole bodies, which occurs during spindle translocation towards the neck and through the neck. We show that this pivoting is largely driven by the Kar9 pathway. The microtubules emanating from the daughter-bound spindle pole body pivot faster than those at the mother-bound spindle pole body. The Kar9 pathway reduces the time needed for an astral microtubule inside the daughter cell to start pulling on the spindle. Thus, we propose a new role for microtubule pivoting: By pivoting around the spindle pole body, microtubules explore the space laterally, which helps them search for cortical anchor sites in the context of spindle positioning in budding yeast. PMID:24721997

  9. Chemical genetic profiling of the microtubule-targeting agent peloruside A in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Anja; Hanna, Reem; Heathcott, Rosemary W; Northcote, Peter T; Atkinson, Paul H; Bellows, David S; Miller, John H

    2012-04-15

    Peloruside A, a microtubule-stabilising agent from a New Zealand marine sponge, inhibits mammalian cell division by a similar mechanism to that of the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Wild type budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (haploid strain BY4741) showed growth sensitivity to peloruside A with an IC(50) of 35μM. Sensitivity was increased in a mad2Δ (Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2) deletion mutant (IC(50)=19μM). Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint complex that delays the onset of anaphase in cells with defects in mitotic spindle assembly. Haploid mad2Δ cells were much less sensitive to paclitaxel than to peloruside A, possibly because the peloruside binding site on yeast tubulin is more similar to mammalian tubulin than the taxoid site where paclitaxel binds. In order to obtain information on the primary and secondary targets of peloruside A in yeast, a microarray analysis of yeast heterozygous and homozygous deletion mutant sets was carried out. Haploinsufficiency profiling (HIP) failed to provide hits that could be validated, but homozygous profiling (HOP) generated twelve validated genes that interact with peloruside A in cells. Five of these were particularly significant: RTS1, SAC1, MAD1, MAD2, and LSM1. In addition to its known target tubulin, based on these microarray 'hits', peloruside A was seen to interact genetically with other cell proteins involved in the cell cycle, mitosis, RNA splicing, and membrane trafficking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CENP-A exceeds microtubule attachment sites in centromere clusters of both budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Valerie C; Wu, Pengcheng; Parthun, Mark R; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2011-11-14

    The stoichiometries of kinetochores and their constituent proteins in yeast and vertebrate cells were determined using the histone H3 variant CENP-A, known as Cse4 in budding yeast, as a counting standard. One Cse4-containing nucleosome exists in the centromere (CEN) of each chromosome, so it has been assumed that each anaphase CEN/kinetochore cluster contains 32 Cse4 molecules. We report that anaphase CEN clusters instead contained approximately fourfold more Cse4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ~40-fold more CENP-A (Cnp1) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe than predicted. These results suggest that the number of CENP-A molecules exceeds the number of kinetochore-microtubule (MT) attachment sites on each chromosome and that CENP-A is not the sole determinant of kinetochore assembly sites in either yeast. In addition, we show that fission yeast has enough Dam1-DASH complex for ring formation around attached MTs. The results of this study suggest the need for significant revision of existing CEN/kinetochore architectural models. © 2011 Coffman et al.

  11. An insight into the complex prion-prion interaction network in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiqiang; Valtierra, Stephanie; Li, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model system for studying prion-prion interactions as it contains multiple prion proteins. A recent study from our laboratory showed that the existence of Swi1 prion ([SWI(+)]) and overproduction of Swi1 can have strong impacts on the formation of 2 other extensively studied yeast prions, [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] ([RNQ(+)]) (Genetics, Vol. 197, 685-700). We showed that a single yeast cell is capable of harboring at least 3 heterologous prion elements and these prions can influence each other's appearance positively and/or negatively. We also showed that during the de novo [PSI(+)] formation process upon Sup35 overproduction, the aggregation patterns of a preexisting inducer ([RNQ(+)] or [SWI(+)]) can undergo significant remodeling from stably transmitted dot-shaped aggregates to aggregates that co-localize with the newly formed Sup35 aggregates that are ring/ribbon/rod- shaped. Such co-localization disappears once the newly formed [PSI(+)] prion stabilizes. Our finding provides strong evidence supporting the "cross-seeding" model for prion-prion interactions and confirms earlier reports that the interactions among different prions and their prion proteins mostly occur at the initiation stages of prionogenesis. Our results also highlight a complex prion interaction network in yeast. We believe that elucidating the mechanism underlying the yeast prion-prion interaction network will not only provide insight into the process of prion de novo generation and propagation in yeast but also shed light on the mechanisms that govern protein misfolding, aggregation, and amyloidogenesis in higher eukaryotes.

  12. A Proteome-wide Fission Yeast Interactome Reveals Network Evolution Principles from Yeasts to Human.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tommy V; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J; Cordero, Nicolas A; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J; Degatano, Andrew G; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P; Pleiss, Jeffrey A; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2016-01-14

    Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ∼ 50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A proteome-wide fission yeast interactome reveals network evolution principles from yeasts to human

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tommy V.; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J.; Cordero, Nicolas A.; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J.; Degatano, Andrew G.; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G.; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P.; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ~50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. PMID:26771498

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Pac1/LIS1-mediated Dynein Targeting: Implications for Regulation of Dynein Activity in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Steven M.; Plevock, Karen M.; St. Germain, Bryan J.; Punch, Jesse J.; Meaden, Christopher W.; Lee, Wei-Lih

    2011-01-01

    LIS1 is a critical regulator of dynein function during mitosis and organelle transport. Here, we investigated how Pac1, the budding yeast LIS1 homologue, regulates dynein targeting and activity during nuclear migration. We show that Pac1 and Dyn1 (dynein heavy chain) are dependent upon each other and upon Bik1 (budding yeast CLIP-170 homologue) for plus end localization, whereas Bik1 is independent of either. Dyn1, Pac1 and Bik1 interact in vivo at the plus ends, where an excess amount of Bik1 recruits approximately equal amounts of Pac1 and Dyn1. Overexpression of Pac1 enhanced plus end targeting of Dyn1 and vice versa, while affinity-purification of Dyn1 revealed that it exists in a complex with Pac1 in the absence of Bik1, leading us to conclude that the Pac1-Dyn1 complex preassembles in the cytoplasm prior to loading onto Bik1-decorated plus ends. Strikingly, we found that Pac1-overexpression augments cortical dynein activity through a mechanism distinct from loss of She1, a negative regulator of dynein-dynactin association. While Pac1-overexpression enhances the frequency of cortical targeting for dynein and dynactin, the stoichiometry of these complexes remains relatively unchanged at the plus ends compared to that in wild-type cells (~3 dynein to 1 dynactin). Loss of She1, however, enhances dynein-dynactin association at the plus ends and the cell cortex, resulting in an apparent 1:1 stoichiometry. Our results reveal differential regulation of cortical dynein activity by She1 and Pac1, and provide a potentially new regulatory step in the off-loading model for dynein function. PMID:21294277

  15. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  16. The budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 is released from the nucleus during anaphase for timely mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, Vladimir V; Rossio, Valentina; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Polo-like kinases are important regulators of multiple mitotic events; however, how Polo-like kinases are spatially and temporally regulated to perform their many tasks is not well understood. Here, we examined the subcellular localization of the budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 using a functional Cdc5-GFP protein expressed from the endogenous locus. In addition to the well-described localization of Cdc5 at the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and the bud neck, we found that Cdc5-GFP accumulates in the nucleus in early mitosis but is released to the cytoplasm in late mitosis in a manner dependent on the Cdc14 phosphatase. This Cdc5 release from the nucleus is important for mitotic exit because artificial sequestration of Cdc5 in the nucleus by addition of a strong nuclear localization signal (NLS) resulted in mitotic exit defects. We identified a key cytoplasmic target of Cdc5 as Bfa1, an inhibitor of mitotic exit. Our study revealed a novel layer of Cdc5 regulation and suggests the existence of a possible coordination between Cdc5 and Cdc14 activity.

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals posttranslational responses to aneuploidy in yeast.

    PubMed

    Dephoure, Noah; Hwang, Sunyoung; O'Sullivan, Ciara; Dodgson, Stacie E; Gygi, Steven P; Amon, Angelika; Torres, Eduardo M

    2014-07-29

    Aneuploidy causes severe developmental defects and is a near universal feature of tumor cells. Despite its profound effects, the cellular processes affected by aneuploidy are not well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of aneuploidy on the proteome of aneuploid budding yeast strains. We show that although protein levels largely scale with gene copy number, subunits of multi-protein complexes are notable exceptions. Posttranslational mechanisms attenuate their expression when their encoding genes are in excess. Our proteomic analyses further revealed a novel aneuploidy-associated protein expression signature characteristic of altered metabolism and redox homeostasis. Indeed aneuploid cells harbor increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, increased protein turnover attenuates ROS levels and this novel aneuploidy-associated signature and improves the fitness of most aneuploid strains. Our results show that aneuploidy causes alterations in metabolism and redox homeostasis. Cells respond to these alterations through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Copyright © 2014, Dephoure et al.

  18. Comparative Live-Cell Imaging Analyses of SPA-2, BUD-6 and BNI-1 in Neurospora crassa Reveal Novel Features of the Filamentous Fungal Polarisome

    PubMed Central

    Read, Nick D.; Castro-Longoria, Ernestina

    2012-01-01

    A key multiprotein complex involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and secretory machinery required for polarized growth in fungi, is the polarisome. Recognized core constituents in budding yeast are the proteins Spa2, Pea2, Aip3/Bud6, and the key effector Bni1. Multicellular fungi display a more complex polarized morphogenesis than yeasts, suggesting that the filamentous fungal polarisome might fulfill additional functions. In this study, we compared the subcellular organization and dynamics of the putative polarisome components BUD-6 and BNI-1 with those of the bona fide polarisome marker SPA-2 at various developmental stages of Neurospora crassa. All three proteins exhibited a yeast-like polarisome configuration during polarized germ tube growth, cell fusion, septal pore plugging and tip repolarization. However, the localization patterns of all three proteins showed spatiotemporally distinct characteristics during the establishment of new polar axes, septum formation and cytokinesis, and maintained hyphal tip growth. Most notably, in vegetative hyphal tips BUD-6 accumulated as a subapical cloud excluded from the Spitzenkörper (Spk), whereas BNI-1 and SPA-2 partially colocalized with the Spk and the tip apex. Novel roles during septal plugging and cytokinesis, connected to the reinitiation of tip growth upon physical injury and conidial maturation, were identified for BUD-6 and BNI-1, respectively. Phenotypic analyses of gene deletion mutants revealed additional functions for BUD-6 and BNI-1 in cell fusion regulation, and the maintenance of Spk integrity. Considered together, our findings reveal novel polarisome-independent functions of BUD-6 and BNI-1 in Neurospora, but also suggest that all three proteins cooperate at plugged septal pores, and their complex arrangement within the apical dome of mature hypha might represent a novel aspect of filamentous fungal polarisome architecture. PMID:22291944

  19. Fission yeast SWI/SNF and RSC complexes show compositional and functional differences from budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Brendon J; Villén, Judit; Marguerat, Samuel; Bähler, Jürg; Gygi, Steven P; Winston, Fred

    2008-08-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes have crucial roles in transcription and other chromatin-related processes. The analysis of the two members of this class in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SWI/SNF and RSC, has heavily contributed to our understanding of these complexes. To understand the in vivo functions of SWI/SNF and RSC in an evolutionarily distant organism, we have characterized these complexes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although core components are conserved between the two yeasts, the compositions of S. pombe SWI/SNF and RSC differ from their S. cerevisiae counterparts and in some ways are more similar to metazoan complexes. Furthermore, several of the conserved proteins, including actin-like proteins, are markedly different between the two yeasts with respect to their requirement for viability. Finally, phenotypic and microarray analyses identified widespread requirements for SWI/SNF and RSC on transcription including strong evidence that SWI/SNF directly represses iron-transport genes.

  20. Protein Kinase C Controls Binding of Igo/ENSA Proteins to Protein Phosphatase 2A in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Thai, Vu; Dephoure, Noah; Weiss, Amit; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Leitao, Ricardo; Gygi, Steven P; Kellogg, Douglas R

    2017-03-24

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays important roles in controlling mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. The form of PP2A that controls mitosis is associated with a conserved regulatory subunit that is called B55 in vertebrates and Cdc55 in budding yeast. The activity of this form of PP2A can be inhibited by binding of conserved Igo/ENSA proteins. Although the mechanisms that activate Igo/ENSA to bind and inhibit PP2A are well understood, little is known about how Igo/Ensa are inactivated. Here, we have analyzed regulation of Igo/ENSA in the context of a checkpoint pathway that links mitotic entry to membrane growth in budding yeast. Protein kinase C (Pkc1) relays signals in the pathway by activating PP2A(Cdc55) We discovered that constitutively active Pkc1 can drive cells through a mitotic checkpoint arrest, which suggests that Pkc1-dependent activation of PP2A(Cdc55) plays a critical role in checkpoint signaling. We therefore used mass spectrometry to determine how Pkc1 modifies the PP2A(Cdc55) complex. This revealed that Pkc1 induces changes in the phosphorylation of multiple subunits of the complex, as well as dissociation of Igo/ENSA. Pkc1 directly phosphorylates Cdc55 and Igo/ENSA, and phosphorylation site mapping and mutagenesis indicate that phosphorylation of Cdc55 contributes to Igo/ENSA dissociation. Association of Igo2 with PP2A(Cdc55) is regulated during the cell cycle, yet mutation of Pkc1-dependent phosphorylation sites on Cdc55 and Igo2 did not cause defects in mitotic progression. Together, the data suggest that Pkc1 controls PP2A(Cdc55) by multiple overlapping mechanisms. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  2. A Stochastic Model Correctly Predicts Changes in Budding Yeast Cell Cycle Dynamics upon Periodic Expression of CLN2

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Cihan; Palmisano, Alida; Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Watson, Layne T.; Baumann, William T.; Tyson, John J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we focus on a recent stochastic budding yeast cell cycle model. First, we estimate the model parameters using extensive data sets: phenotypes of 110 genetic strains, single cell statistics of wild type and cln3 strains. Optimization of stochastic model parameters is achieved by an automated algorithm we recently used for a deterministic cell cycle model. Next, in order to test the predictive ability of the stochastic model, we focus on a recent experimental study in which forced periodic expression of CLN2 cyclin (driven by MET3 promoter in cln3 background) has been used to synchronize budding yeast cell colonies. We demonstrate that the model correctly predicts the experimentally observed synchronization levels and cell cycle statistics of mother and daughter cells under various experimental conditions (numerical data that is not enforced in parameter optimization), in addition to correctly predicting the qualitative changes in size control due to forced CLN2 expression. Our model also generates a novel prediction: under frequent CLN2 expression pulses, G1 phase duration is bimodal among small-born cells. These cells originate from daughters with extended budded periods due to size control during the budded period. This novel prediction and the experimental trends captured by the model illustrate the interplay between cell cycle dynamics, synchronization of cell colonies, and size control in budding yeast. PMID:24816736

  3. Expression of budding yeast IPT1 produces mannosyldiinositol phosphorylceramide in fission yeast and inhibits cell growth.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Mai; Tani, Motohiro; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2012-05-01

    In Saccharomyces (Sacc.) cerevisiae, the final step of the complex sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway requires Ipt1p for synthesis of mannosyldiinositol phosphorylceramide [M(IP)(2)C]. No fission yeast equivalent to Ipt1p has been found in the Schizosaccharomyces (Schiz.) pombe genome, and the most abundant complex sphingolipid is mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide. To examine the effect of expressing Sacc. cerevisiae IPT1 (ScIPT1) in Schiz. pombe, the ScIPT1 gene was cloned into an inducible fission yeast integrative vector and expressed in wild-type Schiz. pombe. In the Schiz. pombe ScIPT1-expressing cells, M(IP)(2)C was detected, indicating that ScIpt1p functions in M(IP)(2)C synthesis in Schiz. pombe. Expression of ScIPT1 caused pleiotropic phenotypes, including aberrant morphology and mislocalization of ergosterols in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, growth of Schiz. pombe was severely impaired. We analysed the sphingolipid composition of ScIPT1-expressing cells following a prolonged lag phase, and found that M(IP)(2)C was not synthesized, indicating that Ipt1p had been inactivated. GFP-tagged ScIpt1 localized primarily in the Golgi apparatus in wild-type Schiz. pombe. Over time, ScIpt1p was eventually transported to the vacuolar lumen through the multivesicular body pathway. These results indicate that M(IP)(2)C is toxic to Schiz. pombe and that fission yeast possesses an unknown mechanism to effectively extrude toxic sphingolipids from cells.

  4. H2B Ubiquitylation Modulates Spliceosome Assembly and Function in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hérissant, Lucas; Moehle, Erica A.; Bertaccini, Diego; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Guthrie, Christine; Dargemont, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background information Commitment to splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, but a major unanswered question is the extent to which various modifications of chromatin, the template for transcription in vivo, contribute to the regulation of splicing. Results Here we perform genome-wide analyses showing that inhibition of specific marks – H2B ubiquitylation, H3K4 methylation, and H3K36 methylation – perturbs splicing in budding yeast, with each modification exerting gene-specific effects. Furthermore, semi-quantitative mass spectrometry on purified nuclear mRNPs and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on intron-containing genes indicated that H2B ubiquitylation, but not Set1-, Set2- or Dot1-dependent H3 methylation, stimulates recruitment of the early splicing factors, namely U1 and U2 snRNPs, onto nascent RNAs. Conclusions These results suggest that histone modifications impact splicing of distinct subsets of genes using distinct pathways. PMID:24476359

  5. A Microfluidic System for Studying Ageing and Dynamic Single-Cell Responses in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Elco; Smith, Stewart; Swain, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of cell-to-cell variability in cellular decision-making and a growing interest in stochastic modeling of cellular processes has led to an increased demand for high density, reproducible, single-cell measurements in time-varying surroundings. We present ALCATRAS (A Long-term Culturing And TRApping System), a microfluidic device that can quantitatively monitor up to 1000 cells of budding yeast in a well-defined and controlled environment. Daughter cells are removed by fluid flow to avoid crowding allowing experiments to run for over 60 hours, and the extracellular media may be changed repeatedly and in seconds. We illustrate use of the device by measuring ageing through replicative life span curves, following the dynamics of the cell cycle, and examining history-dependent behaviour in the general stress response. PMID:24950344

  6. Reinventing Heterochromatin in Budding Yeasts: Sir2 and the Origin Recognition Complex Take Center Stage ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Meleah A.; Froyd, Cara A.; Rusche, Laura N.

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best-studied models of repressive heterochromatin. However, this type of heterochromatin, which is mediated by the Sir proteins, has a distinct molecular composition compared to the more ubiquitous type of heterochromatin found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, other fungi, animals, and plants and characterized by the presence of HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1). This review discusses how the loss of important heterochromatin proteins, including HP1, in the budding yeast lineage presented an evolutionary opportunity for the development and diversification of alternative varieties of heterochromatin, in which the conserved deacetylase Sir2 and the replication protein Orc1 play key roles. In addition, we highlight how this diversification has been facilitated by gene duplications and has contributed to adaptations in lifestyle. PMID:21764908

  7. Bifurcation analysis of a model of the budding yeast cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battogtokh, Dorjsuren; Tyson, John J.

    2004-09-01

    We study the bifurcations of a set of nine nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase that triggers DNA synthesis and mitosis in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that Clb2-dependent kinase exhibits bistability (stable steady states of high or low kinase activity). The transition from low to high Clb2-dependent kinase activity is driven by transient activation of Cln2-dependent kinase, and the reverse transition is driven by transient activation of the Clb2 degradation machinery. We show that a four-variable model retains the main features of the nine-variable model. In a three-variable model exhibiting birhythmicity (two stable oscillatory states), we explore possible effects of extrinsic fluctuations on cell cycle progression.

  8. Reduced Mad2 expression keeps relaxed kinetochores from arresting budding yeast in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Dorer, Russell K.; Murray, Andrew W.; Schuyler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome segregation depends on the spindle checkpoint, which delays anaphase until all chromosomes have bound microtubules and have been placed under tension. The Mad1–Mad2 complex is an essential component of the checkpoint. We studied the consequences of removing one copy of MAD2 in diploid cells of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared to MAD2/MAD2 cells, MAD2/mad2Δ heterozygotes show increased chromosome loss and have different responses to two insults that activate the spindle checkpoint: MAD2/mad2Δ cells respond normally to antimicrotubule drugs but cannot respond to chromosomes that lack tension between sister chromatids. In MAD2/mad2Δ cells with normal sister chromatid cohesion, removing one copy of MAD1 restores the checkpoint and returns chromosome loss to wild-type levels. We conclude that cells need the normal Mad2:Mad1 ratio to respond to chromosomes that are not under tension. PMID:21593209

  9. MEN, destruction and separation: mechanistic links between mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Foong May; Lim, Hong Hwa; Surana, Uttam

    2002-07-01

    Cellular events must be executed in a certain sequence during the cell division in order to maintain genome integrity and hence ensure a cell's survival. In M phase, for instance, chromosome segregation always precedes mitotic exit (characterized by mitotic kinase inactivation via cyclin destruction); this is then followed by cytokinesis. How do cells impose this strict order? Recent findings in budding yeast have suggested a mechanism whereby partitioning of chromosomes into the daughter cell is a prerequisite for the activation of mitotic exit network (MEN). So far, however, a regulatory scheme that would temporally link the initiation of cytokinesis to the execution of mitotic exit has not been determined. We propose that the requirement of MEN components for cytokinesis, their translocation to the mother-daughter neck and triggering of this translocation by inactivation of the mitotic kinase may be the three crucial elements that render initiation of cytokinesis dependent on mitotic exit.

  10. Commitment to meiosis: what determines the mode of division in budding yeast?

    PubMed

    Simchen, Giora

    2009-02-01

    In budding yeast, commitment to meiosis is attained when meiotic cells cannot return to the mitotic cell cycle even if the triggering cue (nutrients deprivation) is withdrawn. Commitment is arrived at gradually, and different aspects of meiosis may be committed at different times. Cells become fully committed to meiosis at the end of Prophase I, long after DNA replication and just before the first meiotic division (M(I)). Whole-genome gene expression analysis has shown that committed cells have a distinct and rapid response to nutrients, and are not simply insulated from environmental signals. Thus becoming committed to meiosis is an active process. The cellular event most likely to be associated with commitment to meiosis is the separation of the duplicated spindle-pole bodies (SPBs) and the formation of the spindle. Commitment to the mitotic cell cycle is also associated with the separation of SPBs, although it occurs in G1, before DNA replication.

  11. Assessment of the Biological Pathways Targeted by Isocyanate Using N-Succinimidyl N-Methylcarbamate in Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Tomar, Raghuvir S.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanates, a group of low molecular weight aromatic and aliphatic compounds possesses the functional isocyanate group. They are highly toxic in nature hence; we used N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate (NSNM), a surrogate chemical containing a functional isocyanate group to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds. We employed budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the pathways targeted by NSNM. Our screening with yeast mutants revealed that it affects chromatin, DNA damage response, protein-ubiquitylation and chaperones, oxidative stress, TOR pathway and DNA repair processes. We also show that NSNM acts as an epigenetic modifier as its treatment causes reduction in global histone acetylation and formation of histone adducts. Cells treated with NSNM exhibited increase in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as intracellular ROS levels and the effects were rescued by addition of reduced glutathione to the medium. We also report that deletion of SOD1 and SOD2, the superoxide dismutase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed hypersensitivity to NSNM. Furthermore, NSNM treatment causes rapid depletion of total glutathione and reduced glutathione. We also demonstrated that NSNM induces degradation of Sml1, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor involved in regulating dNTPs production. In summary, we define the various biological pathways targeted by isocyanates. PMID:24664350

  12. Assessment of the biological pathways targeted by isocyanate using N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanates, a group of low molecular weight aromatic and aliphatic compounds possesses the functional isocyanate group. They are highly toxic in nature hence; we used N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate (NSNM), a surrogate chemical containing a functional isocyanate group to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds. We employed budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the pathways targeted by NSNM. Our screening with yeast mutants revealed that it affects chromatin, DNA damage response, protein-ubiquitylation and chaperones, oxidative stress, TOR pathway and DNA repair processes. We also show that NSNM acts as an epigenetic modifier as its treatment causes reduction in global histone acetylation and formation of histone adducts. Cells treated with NSNM exhibited increase in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as intracellular ROS levels and the effects were rescued by addition of reduced glutathione to the medium. We also report that deletion of SOD1 and SOD2, the superoxide dismutase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed hypersensitivity to NSNM. Furthermore, NSNM treatment causes rapid depletion of total glutathione and reduced glutathione. We also demonstrated that NSNM induces degradation of Sml1, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor involved in regulating dNTPs production. In summary, we define the various biological pathways targeted by isocyanates.

  13. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  14. Similar environments but diverse fates: Responses of budding yeast to nutrient deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Honigberg, Saul M.

    2016-01-01

    Diploid budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can adopt one of several alternative differentiation fates in response to nutrient limitation, and each of these fates provides distinct biological functions. When different strain backgrounds are taken into account, these various fates occur in response to similar environmental cues, are regulated by the same signal transduction pathways, and share many of the same master regulators. I propose that the relationships between fate choice, environmental cues and signaling pathways are not Boolean, but involve graded levels of signals, pathway activation and master-regulator activity. In the absence of large differences between environmental cues, small differences in the concentration of cues may be reinforced by cell-to-cell signals. These signals are particularly essential for fate determination within communities, such as colonies and biofilms, where fate choice varies dramatically from one region of the community to another. The lack of Boolean relationships between cues, signaling pathways, master regulators and cell fates may allow yeast communities to respond appropriately to the wide range of environments they encounter in nature. PMID:27917388

  15. Experimental testing of a new integrated model of the budding yeast Start transition

    PubMed Central

    Adames, Neil R.; Schuck, P. Logan; Chen, Katherine C.; Murali, T. M.; Tyson, John J.; Peccoud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The cell cycle is composed of bistable molecular switches that govern the transitions between gap phases (G1 and G2) and the phases in which DNA is replicated (S) and partitioned between daughter cells (M). Many molecular details of the budding yeast G1–S transition (Start) have been elucidated in recent years, especially with regard to its switch-like behavior due to positive feedback mechanisms. These results led us to reevaluate and expand a previous mathematical model of the yeast cell cycle. The new model incorporates Whi3 inhibition of Cln3 activity, Whi5 inhibition of SBF and MBF transcription factors, and feedback inhibition of Whi5 by G1–S cyclins. We tested the accuracy of the model by simulating various mutants not described in the literature. We then constructed these novel mutant strains and compared their observed phenotypes to the model’s simulations. The experimental results reported here led to further changes of the model, which will be fully described in a later article. Our study demonstrates the advantages of combining model design, simulation, and testing in a coordinated effort to better understand a complex biological network. PMID:26310445

  16. Ndc10 is a platform for inner kinetochore assembly in budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Uhn-Soo; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2012-01-10

    Kinetochores link centromeric DNA to spindle microtubules and ensure faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. In point-centromere yeasts, the CBF3 complex Skp1-Ctf13-(Cep3){sub 2}-(Ndc10){sub 2} recognizes a conserved centromeric DNA element through contacts made by Cep3 and Ndc10. We describe here the five-domain organization of Kluyveromyces lactis Ndc10 and the structure at 2.8 {angstrom} resolution of domains I-II (residues 1-402) bound to DNA. The structure resembles tyrosine DNA recombinases, although it lacks both endonuclease and ligase activities. Structural and biochemical data demonstrate that each subunit of the Ndc10 dimer binds a separate fragment of DNA, suggesting that Ndc10 stabilizes a DNA loop at the centromere. We describe in vitro association experiments showing that specific domains of Ndc10 interact with each of the known inner-kinetochore proteins or protein complexes in budding yeast. We propose that Ndc10 provides a central platform for inner-kinetochore assembly.

  17. Control of cell polarity in response to intra- and extracellular signals in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Michele; Wiget, Philippe; Shimada, Yukiko; Peter, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast serves as a powerful genetic model organism for studying the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity in single cells. Like other polarized eukaryotic cells, yeast cells possess polarity programs that regulate where they grow and divide. Establishment of a site of cell polarity may be conceptualized in several stages. First, cells mark a specific location at the cell surface for polarized cell growth and cell division. To define these sites, cells use intrinsic cues present in the cell or landmarks determined by extracellular signals such as morphogens. Second, these landmark proteins then recruit or activate polarity establishment proteins including small GTPases and their regulators. Positive and negative feedback mechanisms are required to transform these site-selection processes into a stable axis of polarity. Finally, these locally activated GTPase modules recruit and activate proteins that organize the actin cytoskeleton and cell growth. In this short review, we describe molecular pathways required to establish oriented cell polarity, and emphasize recent advances in defining positive and negative feedback mechanisms that together may translate an initially weak symmetry-breaking signal into a robust axis of polarity.

  18. Continuous High-resolution Microscopic Observation of Replicative Aging in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huberts, Daphne H. E. W.; Janssens, Georges E.; Lee, Sung Sik; Vizcarra, Ima Avalos; Heinemann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a simple microfluidic setup, in which single budding yeast cells can be tracked throughout their entire lifespan. The microfluidic chip exploits the size difference between mother and daughter cells using an array of micropads. Upon loading, cells are trapped underneath these micropads, because the distance between the micropad and cover glass is similar to the diameter of a yeast cell (3-4 μm). After the loading procedure, culture medium is continuously flushed through the chip, which not only creates a constant and defined environment throughout the entire experiment, but also flushes out the emerging daughter cells, which are not retained underneath the pads due to their smaller size. The setup retains mother cells so efficiently that in a single experiment up to 50 individual cells can be monitored in a fully automated manner for 5 days or, if necessary, longer. In addition, the excellent optical properties of the chip allow high-resolution imaging of cells during the entire aging process. PMID:23995364

  19. A pathway of targeted autophagy is induced by DNA damage in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Vinay V.; Waterman, David P.; Bernard, Amélie; Schiffmann, Nathan; Sayas, Enrich; Kamber, Roarke; Lemos, Brenda; Memisoglu, Gonen; Ang, Jessie; Mazella, Allison; Chuartzman, Silvia G.; Loewith, Robbie J.; Schuldiner, Maya; Denic, Vladimir; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Haber, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) by controlling the levels of various DNA repair and checkpoint proteins; however, how the DDR communicates with the autophagy pathway remains unknown. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that global genotoxic damage or even a single unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) initiates a previously undescribed and selective pathway of autophagy that we term genotoxin-induced targeted autophagy (GTA). GTA requires the action primarily of Mec1/ATR and Rad53/CHEK2 checkpoint kinases, in part via transcriptional up-regulation of central autophagy proteins. GTA is distinct from starvation-induced autophagy. GTA requires Atg11, a central component of the selective autophagy machinery, but is different from previously described autophagy pathways. By screening a collection of ∼6,000 yeast mutants, we identified genes that control GTA but do not significantly affect rapamycin-induced autophagy. Overall, our findings establish a pathway of autophagy specific to the DNA damage response. PMID:28154131

  20. Immobile myosin-II plays a scaffolding role during cytokinesis in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wloka, Carsten; Vallen, Elizabeth A.; Thé, Lydia; Fang, Xiaodong; Oh, Younghoon

    2013-01-01

    Core components of cytokinesis are conserved from yeast to human, but how these components are assembled into a robust machine that drives cytokinesis remains poorly understood. In this paper, we show by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis that Myo1, the sole myosin-II in budding yeast, was mobile at the division site before anaphase and became immobilized shortly before cytokinesis. This immobility was independent of actin filaments or the motor domain of Myo1 but required a small region in the Myo1 tail that is thought to be involved in higher-order assembly. As expected, proteins involved in actin ring assembly (tropomyosin and formin) and membrane trafficking (myosin-V and exocyst) were dynamic during cytokinesis. Strikingly, proteins involved in septum formation (the chitin synthase Chs2) and/or its coordination with the actomyosin ring (essential light chain, IQGAP, F-BAR, etc.) displayed Myo1-dependent immobility during cytokinesis, suggesting that Myo1 plays a scaffolding role in the assembly of a cytokinesis machine. PMID:23358243

  1. The Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, M. Joan; Lutz, Sheila; Lesage, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long-terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons generate a copy of their DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription of their RNA genome in cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. They are widespread in the eukaryotic kingdom and are the evolutionary progenitors of retroviruses [1]. The Ty1 element of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first LTR-retrotransposon demonstrated to mobilize through an RNA intermediate, and not surprisingly, is the best studied. The depth of our knowledge of Ty1 biology stems not only from the predominance of active Ty1 elements in the S. cerevisiae genome but also the ease and breadth of genomic, biochemical and cell biology approaches available to study cellular processes in yeast. This review describes the basic structure of Ty1 and its gene products, the replication cycle, the rapidly expanding compendium of host co-factors known to influence retrotransposition and the nature of Ty1's elaborate symbiosis with its host. Our goal is to illuminate the value of Ty1 as a paradigm to explore the biology of LTR-retrotransposons in multicellular organisms, where the low frequency of retrotransposition events presents a formidable barrier to investigations of retrotransposon biology. PMID:25893143

  2. Growth control of budding yeast cells by oxygen-radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru

    2013-09-01

    Microorganisms respond to stimuli or stresses such as chemicals, nutrition, pressure, heat and so on. Those stimuli lead to cell activation, inactivation or cell death, such as apoptosis and necrosis. Reactive oxygen species possibly affect cell growth as well as inactivation depending on stimuli. In this study, we investigated effects of oxygen-radical treatment on not only inactivation but also promoted/repressed cell growth of budding yeast by varying dose of atomic oxygen produced from an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source. Dose of atomic oxygen was estimated based on treatment time and oxygen flux. Cell growth was promoted with atomic oxygen between 0 and 2.1 ×1019 cm-2 dose of atomic oxygen. The treated cells were grown about 10 percent more proliferously than the control cells. Moreover, 64 percent of the treated cells to the control ones were inactivated at more than 4.2 ×1020 cm-2. These results, therefore, suggested that atomic-oxygen dose had a potential to control mitotic promotion and repression, and inactivation of yeast cell growth.

  3. A pathway of targeted autophagy is induced by DNA damage in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Vinay V; Waterman, David P; Bernard, Amélie; Schiffmann, Nathan; Sayas, Enrich; Kamber, Roarke; Lemos, Brenda; Memisoglu, Gonen; Ang, Jessie; Mazella, Allison; Chuartzman, Silvia G; Loewith, Robbie J; Schuldiner, Maya; Denic, Vladimir; Klionsky, Daniel J; Haber, James E

    2017-02-14

    Autophagy plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) by controlling the levels of various DNA repair and checkpoint proteins; however, how the DDR communicates with the autophagy pathway remains unknown. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that global genotoxic damage or even a single unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) initiates a previously undescribed and selective pathway of autophagy that we term genotoxin-induced targeted autophagy (GTA). GTA requires the action primarily of Mec1/ATR and Rad53/CHEK2 checkpoint kinases, in part via transcriptional up-regulation of central autophagy proteins. GTA is distinct from starvation-induced autophagy. GTA requires Atg11, a central component of the selective autophagy machinery, but is different from previously described autophagy pathways. By screening a collection of ∼6,000 yeast mutants, we identified genes that control GTA but do not significantly affect rapamycin-induced autophagy. Overall, our findings establish a pathway of autophagy specific to the DNA damage response.

  4. Cleavage of the SUN-domain protein Mps3 at its N-terminus regulates centrosome disjunction in budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Bailey A.; Han, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge. Using the unique feature in yeast meiosis that centrosomes are linked for hours before their separation, we have revealed that Mps3 is cleaved at its nucleus-localized N-terminal domain, the process of which is regulated by its phosphorylation at serine 70. Cleavage of Mps3 takes place at the yeast centrosome and requires proteasome activity. We show that noncleavable Mps3 (Mps3-nc) inhibits centrosome separation during yeast meiosis. In addition, overexpression of mps3-nc in vegetative yeast cells also inhibits centrosome separation and is lethal. Our findings provide a genetic mechanism for the regulation of SUN-domain protein-mediated activities, including centrosome separation, by irreversible protein cleavage at the nuclear periphery. PMID:28609436

  5. Effects of intense magnetic fields on sedimentation pattern and gene expression profile in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, Masateru; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Miyakoshi, Junji; Ueno, Shoogo; Koana, Takao

    2003-05-01

    Effects of magnetic fields (MFs) on biological systems are usually investigated using biological indices such as gene expression profiles. However, to precisely evaluate the biological effects of MF, the effects of intense MFs on systematic material transport processes including experimental environment must be seriously taken into consideration. In this study, a culture of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used as a model for an in vitro biological test system. After exposure to 5 T static vertical MF, we found a difference in the sedimentation pattern of cells depending on the location of the dish in the magnet bore. Sedimented cells were localized in the center of the dish when they were placed in the lower part of the magnet bore while the sedimentation of the cells was uniform in dishes placed in the upper part of the bore because of the diamagnetic force. Genome wide gene expression profile of the yeast cells after exposure to 5 T static MF for 2 h suggested that the MF did not affect the expression level of any gene in yeast cells although the sedimentation pattern was altered. In addition, exposure to 10 T for 1 h and 5 T for 24 h also did not affect the gene expression. On the other hand, a slight change in expressions of several genes which are related to respiration was observed by exposure to a 14 T static MF for 24 h. The necessity of estimating the indirect effects of MFs on a study of its biological effect of MF in vitro will be discussed.

  6. Chl1p, a DNA helicase-like protein in budding yeast, functions in sister-chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed Central

    Skibbens, Robert V

    2004-01-01

    From the time of DNA replication until anaphase onset, sister chromatids remain tightly paired along their length. Ctf7p/Eco1p is essential to establish sister-chromatid pairing during S-phase and associates with DNA replication components. DNA helicases precede the DNA replication fork and thus will first encounter chromatin sites destined for cohesion. In this study, I provide the first evidence that a DNA helicase is required for proper sister-chromatid cohesion. Characterizations of chl1 mutant cells reveal that CHL1 interacts genetically with both CTF7/ECO1 and CTF18/CHL12, two genes that function in sister-chromatid cohesion. Consistent with genetic interactions, Chl1p physically associates with Ctf7p/Eco1p both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, a functional assay reveals that Chl1p is critical for sister-chromatid cohesion. Within the budding yeast genome, Chl1p exhibits the highest degree of sequence similarity to human CHL1 isoforms and BACH1. Previous studies revealed that human CHLR1 exhibits DNA helicase-like activities and that BACH1 is a helicase-like protein that associates with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 to maintain genome integrity. Our findings document a novel role for Chl1p in sister-chromatid cohesion and provide new insights into the possible mechanisms through which DNA helicases may contribute to cancer progression when mutated. PMID:15020404

  7. The Roles of Bud-Site-Selection Proteins during Haploid Invasive Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2002-01-01

    In haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose depletion causes invasive growth, a foraging response that requires a change in budding pattern from axial to unipolar-distal. To begin to address how glucose influences budding pattern in the haploid cell, we examined the roles of bud-site-selection proteins in invasive growth. We found that proteins required for bipolar budding in diploid cells were required for haploid invasive growth. In particular, the Bud8p protein, which marks and directs bud emergence to the distal pole of diploid cells, was localized to the distal pole of haploid cells. In response to glucose limitation, Bud8p was required for the localization of the incipient bud site marker Bud2p to the distal pole. Three of the four known proteins required for axial budding, Bud3p, Bud4p, and Axl2p, were expressed and localized appropriately in glucose-limiting conditions. However, a fourth axial budding determinant, Axl1p, was absent in filamentous cells, and its abundance was controlled by glucose availability and the protein kinase Snf1p. In the bud8 mutant in glucose-limiting conditions, apical growth and bud site selection were uncoupled processes. Finally, we report that diploid cells starved for glucose also initiate the filamentous growth response. PMID:12221111

  8. IQGAP and mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins are required for cytokinesis and re-polarization of the actin cytoskeleton in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Mark; Xiong, Yulan; Boyne, James R; Wright, Daniel J; Munro, Ewen; Price, Clive

    2006-11-01

    In budding yeast the final stages of the cell division cycle, cytokinesis and cell separation, are distinct events that require to be coupled, both together and with mitotic exit. Here we demonstrate that mutations in genes of the mitotic exit network (MEN) prevent cell separation and are synthetically lethal in combination with both cytokinesis and septation defective mutations. Analysis of the synthetic lethal phenotypes reveals that Iqg1p functions in combination with the MEN components, Tem1p, Cdc15p Dbf20p and Dbf2p to govern the re-polarization of the actin cytoskeleton to either side of the bud neck. In addition phosphorylation of the conserved PCH protein, Hof1p, is dependent upon these activities and requires actin ring assembly. Recruitment of Dbf2p to the bud neck is dependent upon actin ring assembly and correlates with Hof1p phosphorylation. Failure to phosphorylate Hof1p results in the increased stability of the protein and its persistence at the bud neck. These data establish a mechanistic dependency of cell separation upon an intermediate step requiring actomyosin ring assembly.

  9. Small-molecule inhibitors of the budded-to-hyphal-form transition in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Toenjes, Kurt A; Munsee, Suzanne M; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Jeffrey, Rachel; Edwards, John E; Johnson, Douglas I

    2005-03-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can exist in multiple morphological states, including budded, pseudohyphal, and true hyphal forms. The ability to convert between the budded and hyphal forms, termed the budded-to-hyphal-form transition, is important for virulence and is regulated by multiple environmental and cellular signals. To identify inhibitors of this morphological transition, a microplate-based morphological assay was developed. With this assay, the known actin-inhibiting drugs latrunculin-A and jasplakinolide were shown to inhibit the transition in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. Five novel small molecules that reversibly inhibited the transition and hyphal elongation without affecting budded growth were identified. These molecules inhibited hyphal growth induced by Spider, Lee's, M199 pH 8, and 10% serum-containing media, with two molecules having a synergistic effect. The molecules also differentially affected the hyphal form-specific gene expression of HWP1 and endocytosis without disrupting the actin cytoskeleton or septin organization. Structural derivatives of one of the molecules were more effective inhibiters than the original molecule, while other derivatives had decreased efficacies. Several of the small molecules were able to reduce C. albicans-dependent damage to endothelial cells by inhibiting the budded-to-hyphal-form transition. These studies substantiated the effectiveness of the morphological assay and identified several novel molecules that, by virtue of their ability to inhibit the budded-to-hyphal-form transition, may be exploited as starting points for effective antifungal therapeutics in the future.

  10. Genetic analysis of the bipolar pattern of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, J E; Harkins, H A; Pringle, J R

    1996-01-01

    Previous analysis of the bipolar budding pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has suggested that it depends on persistent positional signals that mark the region of the division site and the tip of the distal pole on a newborn daughter cell, as well as each previous division site on a mother cell. In an attempt to identify genes encoding components of these signals or proteins involved in positioning or responding to them, we identified 11 mutants with defects in bipolar but not in axial budding. Five mutants displaying a bipolar budding-specific randomization of budding pattern had mutations in four previously known genes (BUD2, BUD5, SPA2, and BNI1) and one novel gene (BUD6), respectively. As Bud2p and Bud5p are known to be required for both the axial and bipolar budding patterns, the alleles identified here probably encode proteins that have lost their ability to interact with the bipolar positional signals but have retained their ability to interact with the distinct positional signal used in axial budding. The function of Spa2p is not known, but previous work has shown that its intracellular localization is similar to that postulated for the bipolar positional signals. BNI1 was originally identified on the basis of genetic interaction with CDC12, which encodes one of the neck-filament-associated septin proteins, suggesting that these proteins may be involved in positioning the bipolar signals. One mutant with a heterogeneous budding pattern defines a second novel gene (BUD7). Two mutants budding almost exclusively from the proximal pole carry mutations in a fourth novel gene (BUD9). A bud8 bud9 double mutant also buds almost exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that Bud9p is involved in positioning the proximal pole signal rather than being itself a component of this signal. PMID:8657162

  11. Multifaceted effects of antimetabolite and anticancer drug, 2-deoxyglucose on eukaryotic cancer models budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Vishwanatha, Akshay; D'Souza, Cletus Joseph Michael

    2017-03-01

    Glycolytic inhibitors are of interest therapeutically as they are effective against cancers that display increased glycolytic rate and mitochondrial defects. 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG) is one such glycolytic inhibitor and was identified to be a competitive inhibitor of glucose. Studies from past few decades have shown that the mechanism of action of 2-DG is complex involving several metabolic and signaling pathways. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are two important models for studying metabolism, cell cycle and cell signaling. These two unicellular eukaryotes are Crabtree positive yeasts exhibiting a metabolism similar to that of cancer cells. Effects of 2-DG in yeast is of interest owing to these similarities and hence yeasts have emerged as ideal model organisms to study the mode of action and resistance to 2-DG. In this review, we summarize the studies on biological effect and resistance to 2-DG in budding and fission yeasts and give an insight into its possible mechanism of action as models for understanding cancer metabolism and drugs affecting cancer progression. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(3):137-147, 2017.

  12. Genome-wide profiling of untranslated regions by paired-end ditag sequencing reveals unexpected transcriptome complexity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ya-Ni; Lai, Deng-Pan; Ooi, Hong Sain; Shen, Ting-Ting; Kou, Yao; Tian, Jing; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2015-02-01

    The identification of structural and functional elements encoded in a genome is a challenging task. Although the transcriptome of budding yeast has been extensively analyzed, the boundaries and untranslated regions of yeast genes remain elusive. To address this least-explored field of yeast genomics, we performed a transcript profiling analysis through paired-end ditag (PET) approach coupled with deep sequencing. With 562,133 PET sequences we accurately defined the boundaries and untranslated regions of 3,409 ORFs, suggesting many yeast genes have multiple transcription start sites (TSSs). We also identified 85 previously uncharacterized transcripts either in intergenic regions or from the opposite strand of reported genomic features. Furthermore, our data revealed the extensive 3' end heterogeneity of yeast genes and identified a novel putative motif for polyadenylation. Our results indicate the yeast transcriptome is more complex than expected. This study would serve as an invaluable resource for elucidating the regulation and evolution of yeast genes.

  13. The glyoxylate shunt is essential for desiccation tolerance in C. elegans and budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Cihan; Gade, Vamshidhar R; Laxman, Sunil; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms, including species from all kingdoms of life, can survive desiccation by entering a state with no detectable metabolism. To survive, C. elegans dauer larvae and stationary phase S. cerevisiae require elevated amounts of the disaccharide trehalose. We found that dauer larvae and stationary phase yeast switched into a gluconeogenic mode in which metabolism was reoriented toward production of sugars from non-carbohydrate sources. This mode depended on full activity of the glyoxylate shunt (GS), which enables synthesis of trehalose from acetate. The GS was especially critical during preparation of worms for harsh desiccation (preconditioning) and during the entry of yeast into stationary phase. Loss of the GS dramatically decreased desiccation tolerance in both organisms. Our results reveal a novel physiological role for the GS and elucidate a conserved metabolic rewiring that confers desiccation tolerance on organisms as diverse as worm and yeast. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13614.001 PMID:27090086

  14. Biology of the Heat Shock Response and Protein Chaperones: Budding Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a Model System

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Jacob; Abrams, Jennifer; Wang, Yanyu

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The eukaryotic heat shock response is an ancient and highly conserved transcriptional program that results in the immediate synthesis of a battery of cytoprotective genes in the presence of thermal and other environmental stresses. Many of these genes encode molecular chaperones, powerful protein remodelers with the capacity to shield, fold, or unfold substrates in a context-dependent manner. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be an invaluable model for driving the discovery of regulatory features of this fundamental stress response. In addition, budding yeast has been an outstanding model system to elucidate the cell biology of protein chaperones and their organization into functional networks. In this review, we evaluate our understanding of the multifaceted response to heat shock. In addition, the chaperone complement of the cytosol is compared to those of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, organelles with their own unique protein homeostasis milieus. Finally, we examine recent advances in the understanding of the roles of protein chaperones and the heat shock response in pathogenic fungi, which is being accelerated by the wealth of information gained for budding yeast. PMID:22688810

  15. Polygenic molecular architecture underlying non-sexual cell aggregation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiarui; Wang, Lin; Wu, Xiaoping; Fang, Ou; Wang, Luwen; Lu, Chenqi; Yang, Shengjie; Hu, Xiaohua; Luo, Zewei

    2013-02-01

    Cell aggregation in unicellular organisms, induced by either cell non-sexual adhesion to yield flocs and biofilm, or pheromone-driving sexual conjugation is of great significance in cellular stress response, medicine, and brewing industries. Most current literatures have focused on one form of cell aggregation termed flocculation and its major molecular determinants, the flocculation (FLO) family genes. Here, we implemented a map-based approach for dissecting the molecular basis of non-sexual cell aggregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide mapping has identified four major quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying nature variation in the cell aggregation phenotype. High-resolution mapping following up with knockout and allele replacement experiments resolved the QTL into the underlying genes (AMN1, RGA1, FLO1, and FLO8) or even into the causative nucleotide. Genetic variation in the QTL genes can explain up to 46% of phenotypic variation of this trait. Of these genes, AMN1 plays the leading role, differing from the FLO family members, in regulating expression of cell clumping phenotype through inducing cell segregation defect. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of how cell aggregation is regulated in budding yeast, and the data will be directly implicated to understand the molecular basis and evolutionary implications of cell aggregation in other fungus species.

  16. Cse4 is Part of an Octameric Nucleosome in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Camahort, Raymond; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Mattingly, Mark; Li, Bing; Nakanishi, Shima; Zhu, Dongxiao; Shilatifard, Ali; Workman, Jerry L.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The budding yeast CenH3 histone variant Cse4 localizes to centromeric nucleosomes and is required for kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation. The exact composition of centromeric Cse4–containing nucleosomes is a subject of debate. ChIP-chip experiments and high resolution quantitative PCR confirm that there is a single Cse4 nucleosome at each centromere, and additional regions of the genome contain Cse4 nucleosomes at low levels. Using unbiased biochemical, cell biological, and genetic approaches we have tested the composition of Cse4-containing nucleosomes. Using micrococcal nuclease-treated chromatin, we find that Cse4 is associated with the histones H2A, H2B, and H4, but not H3 or the non-histone protein Scm3. Overexpression of Cse4 rescues the lethality of a scm3 deletion, indicating Scm3 is not essential for the formation of functional centromeric chromatin. Additionally, octameric Cse4 nucleosomes can be reconstituted in vitro. The Cse4-Cse4 interaction domain appears to be essential and interaction occurs in vivo in the centromeric nucleosome. Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4-nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4. PMID:19782029

  17. Sequestration of mRNAs Modulates the Timing of Translation during Meiosis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Yifeng; Sternglanz, Rolf; Neiman, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Starvation of diploid cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces them to enter meiosis and differentiate into haploid spores. During meiosis, the precise timing of gene expression is controlled at the level of transcription, and also translation. If cells are returned to rich medium after they have committed to meiosis, the transcript levels of most meiotically upregulated genes decrease rapidly. However, for a subset of transcripts whose translation is delayed until the end of meiosis II, termed protected transcripts, the transcript levels remain stable even after nutrients are reintroduced. The Ime2-Rim4 regulatory circuit controls both the delayed translation and the stability of protected transcripts. These protected mRNAs localize in discrete foci, which are not seen for transcripts of genes with different translational timing and are regulated by Ime2. These results suggest that Ime2 and Rim4 broadly regulate translational delay but that additional factors, such as mRNA localization, modulate this delay to tune the timing of gene expression to developmental transitions during sporulation.

  18. SAGA complex and Gcn5 are necessary for respiration in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Canzonetta, Claudia; Leo, Manuela; Guarino, Salvatore Rocco; Montanari, Arianna; Francisci, Silvia; Filetici, Patrizia

    2016-12-01

    In budding yeast, growth through fermentation and/or respiration is dependent on the type of carbon source present in the medium. SAGA complex is the main acetylation complex and is required, together with Rtg factors, for nucleus-mitochondria communication and transcriptional activation of specific nuclear genes. Even though acetylation is necessary for mitochondria activity and respiratory pathways the direct role of histone acetyltransferases and SAGA complex has never been investigated directly. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, that Gcn5 and SAGA are needed for respiratory metabolism and oxygen consumption. According to a central role for acetylation in respiration we find that the Gcn5 inhibitor CPTH2 had higher efficacy on cells grown in glycerol containing media. We also demonstrated that the opposing activities of Gcn5 and Hda1 modify selectively H3-AcK18 and are essential for respiration. Taken together our results suggest a novel paradigm coupling acetyltransferase activity to respiratory metabolism. Correspondingly we propose the selective utilization of KAT inhibitor CPTH2, combined to the modulation of the respiratory metabolism of the cell, as a promising novel tool of intervention in cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Divergence and Selectivity of Expression-Coupled Histone Modifications in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mosesson, Yaron; Voichek, Yoav; Barkai, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Various histone modifications are widely associated with gene expression, but their functional selectivity at individual genes remains to be characterized. Here, we identify widespread differences between genome-wide patterns of two prominent marks, H3K9ac and H3K4me3, in budding yeasts. As well as characteristic gene profiles, relative modification levels vary significantly amongst genes, irrespective of expression. Interestingly, we show that these differences couple to contrasting features: higher methylation to essential, periodically expressed, ‘DPN’ (Depleted Proximal Nucleosome) genes, and higher acetylation to non-essential, responsive, ‘OPN’ (Occupied Proximal Nucleosome) genes. Thus, H3K4me3 may generally associate with expression stability, and H3K9ac, with variability. To evaluate this notion, we examine their association with expression divergence between the closely related species, S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. Although individually well conserved at orthologous genes, changes between modifications are mostly uncorrelated, indicating largely non-overlapping regulatory mechanisms. Notably, we find that inter-species differences in methylation, but not acetylation, are well correlated with expression changes, thereby proposing H3K4me3 as a candidate regulator of expression divergence. Taken together, our results suggest distinct evolutionary roles for expression-linked modifications, wherein H3K4me3 may contribute to stabilize average expression, whilst H3K9ac associates with more indirect aspects such as responsiveness. PMID:25007273

  20. Lipid droplets maintain lipid homeostasis during anaphase for efficient cell separation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Lin; Hsu, Tzu-Han; Wang, Chao-Wen; Chen, Rey-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutral lipids steryl ester and triacylglycerol (TAG) are stored in the membrane-bound organelle lipid droplet (LD) in essentially all eukaryotic cells. It is unclear what physiological conditions require the mobilization or storage of these lipids. Here, we study the budding yeast mutant are1Δ are2Δ dga1Δ lro1Δ, which cannot synthesize the neutral lipids and therefore lacks LDs. This quadruple mutant is delayed at cell separation upon release from mitotic arrest. The cells have abnormal septa, unstable septin assembly during cytokinesis, and prolonged exocytosis at the division site at the end of cytokinesis. Lipidomic analysis shows a marked increase of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid, the precursors for TAG, in the mutant during mitotic exit. The cytokinesis and separation defects are rescued by adding phospholipid precursors or inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, which both reduce DAG levels. Our results suggest that converting excess lipids to neutral lipids for storage during mitotic exit is important for proper execution of cytokinesis and efficient cell separation. PMID:27307588

  1. Coordinate responses to alkaline pH stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Ariño, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Alkalinization of the medium represents a stress condition for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to which this organism responds with profound remodeling of gene expression. This is the result of the modulation of a substantial number of signaling pathways whose participation in the alkaline response has been elucidated within the last ten years. These regulatory inputs involve not only the conserved Rim101/PacC pathway, but also the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, the Wsc1-Pkc1-Slt2 MAP kinase, the Snf1 and PKA kinases and oxidative stress-response pathways. The uptake of many nutrients is perturbed by alkalinization of the environment and, consequently, an impact on phosphate, iron/copper and glucose homeostatic mechanisms can also be observed. The analysis of available data highlights cases in which diverse signaling pathways are integrated in the gene promoter to shape the appropriate response pattern. Thus, the expression of different genes sharing the same signaling network can be coordinated, allowing functional coupling of their gene products. PMID:28357292

  2. Checkpoint proteins influence telomeric silencing and length maintenance in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Longhese, M P; Paciotti, V; Neecke, H; Lucchini, G

    2000-01-01

    A complex network of surveillance mechanisms, called checkpoints, interrupts cell cycle progression when damage to the genome is detected or when cells fail to complete DNA replication, thus ensuring genetic integrity. In budding yeast, components of the DNA damage checkpoint regulatory network include the RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, MEC3, DDC1, RAD53, and MEC1 genes that are proposed to be involved in different aspects of DNA metabolism. We provide evidence that some DNA damage checkpoint components play a role in maintaining telomere integrity. In fact, rad53 mutants specifically enhance repression of telomere-proximal transcription via the Sir-mediated pathway, suggesting that Rad53 might be required for proper chromatin structure at telomeres. Moreover, Rad53, Mec1, Ddc1, and Rad17 are necessary for telomere length maintenance, since mutations in all of these genes cause a decrease in telomere size. The telomeric shortening in rad53 and mec1 mutants is further enhanced in the absence of SIR genes, suggesting that Rad53/Mec1 and Sir proteins contribute to chromosome end protection by different pathways. The finding that telomere shortening, but not increased telomeric repression of gene expression in rad53 mutants, can be suppressed by increasing dNTP synthetic capacity in these strains suggests that transcriptional silencing and telomere integrity involve separable functions of Rad53. PMID:10924458

  3. Sequestration of mRNAs Modulates the Timing of Translation during Meiosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Yifeng; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Starvation of diploid cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces them to enter meiosis and differentiate into haploid spores. During meiosis, the precise timing of gene expression is controlled at the level of transcription, and also translation. If cells are returned to rich medium after they have committed to meiosis, the transcript levels of most meiotically upregulated genes decrease rapidly. However, for a subset of transcripts whose translation is delayed until the end of meiosis II, termed protected transcripts, the transcript levels remain stable even after nutrients are reintroduced. The Ime2-Rim4 regulatory circuit controls both the delayed translation and the stability of protected transcripts. These protected mRNAs localize in discrete foci, which are not seen for transcripts of genes with different translational timing and are regulated by Ime2. These results suggest that Ime2 and Rim4 broadly regulate translational delay but that additional factors, such as mRNA localization, modulate this delay to tune the timing of gene expression to developmental transitions during sporulation. PMID:26217015

  4. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole Is Tuned by Membrane Trafficking Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yee-Hung Mark; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2014-01-01

    Organelles serve as biochemical reactors in the cell, and often display characteristic scaling trends with cell size, suggesting mechanisms that coordinate their sizes. In this study, we measure the vacuole-cell size scaling trends in budding yeast using optical microscopy and a novel, to our knowledge, image analysis algorithm. Vacuole volume and surface area both show characteristic scaling trends with respect to cell size that are consistent among different strains. Rapamycin treatment was found to increase vacuole-cell size scaling trends for both volume and surface area. Unexpectedly, these increases did not depend on macroautophagy, as similar increases in vacuole size were observed in the autophagy deficient mutants atg1Δ and atg5Δ. Rather, rapamycin appears to act on vacuole size by inhibiting retrograde membrane trafficking, as the atg18Δ mutant, which is defective in retrograde trafficking, shows similar vacuole size scaling to rapamycin-treated cells and is itself insensitive to rapamycin treatment. Disruption of anterograde membrane trafficking in the apl5Δ mutant leads to complementary changes in vacuole size scaling. These quantitative results lead to a simple model for vacuole size scaling based on proportionality between cell growth rates and vacuole growth rates. PMID:24806931

  5. Nur1 Dephosphorylation Confers Positive Feedback to Mitotic Exit Phosphatase Activation in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Molly; Kuilman, Thomas; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Substrate dephosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-opposing phosphatase, Cdc14, is vital for many events during budding yeast mitotic exit. Cdc14 is sequestered in the nucleolus through inhibitory binding to Net1, from which it is released in anaphase following Net1 phosphorylation. Initial Net1 phosphorylation depends on Cdk itself, in conjunction with proteins of the Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) network. Later on, the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) signaling cascade maintains Cdc14 release. An important unresolved question is how Cdc14 activity can increase in early anaphase, while Cdk activity, that is required for Net1 phosphorylation, decreases and the MEN is not yet active. Here we show that the nuclear rim protein Nur1 interacts with Net1 and, in its Cdk phosphorylated form, inhibits Cdc14 release. Nur1 is dephosphorylated by Cdc14 in early anaphase, relieving the inhibition and promoting further Cdc14 release. Nur1 dephosphorylation thus describes a positive feedback loop in Cdc14 phosphatase activation during mitotic exit, required for faithful chromosome segregation and completion of the cell division cycle. PMID:25569132

  6. Mad2 and Mad3 Cooperate to Arrest Budding Yeast in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Derek T. C.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome transmission by delaying chromosome segregation until all chromosomes are correctly aligned on the mitotic spindle. The checkpoint is activated by kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules or are attached but not under tension and arrests cells at metaphase by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its co-activator Cdc20. Despite numerous studies, we still do not understand how the checkpoint proteins coordinate with each other to inhibit APCCdc20 activity. Results To ask how the checkpoint components induce metaphase arrest, we constructed fusions of checkpoint proteins and expressed them in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to mimic possible protein interactions during checkpoint activation. We found that expression of a Mad2-Mad3 protein fusion or non-covalently linked Mad2 and Mad3, but not the overexpression of the two separate proteins, induces metaphase arrest that is independent of functional kinetochores or other checkpoint proteins. We further showed that artificially tethering Mad2 to Cdc20 also arrests cells in metaphase independently of other checkpoint components. Conclusion Our results suggest that Mad3 is required for the stable binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 in vivo, which is sufficient to inhibit APC activity and is the most downstream event in spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:22209528

  7. Local chromosome context is a major determinant of crossover pathway biochemistry during budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Darpan; Goldman, Alastair SH; Lichten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers. At a Hop1-enriched locus, most VDE-initiated crossovers, like most Spo11-initiated crossovers, required the meiosis-specific MutLγ resolvase. In contrast, at a locus with lower Hop1 occupancy, most VDE-initiated crossovers were MutLγ-independent. In pch2 mutants, the two loci displayed similar Hop1 occupancy levels, and VDE-induced crossovers were similarly MutLγ-dependent. We suggest that meiotic and mitotic recombination pathways coexist within meiotic cells, and that features of meiotic chromosome structure determine whether one or the other predominates in different regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19669.001 PMID:27855779

  8. Re-establishment of nucleosome occupancy during double-strand break repair in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Hicks, Wade M; Tsaponina, Olga; Haber, James E

    2016-11-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway in eukaryotes that repairs a double-strand break (DSB) by copying homologous sequences from a sister chromatid, a homologous chromosome or an ectopic location. Recombination is challenged by the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes, which may impair the process at many steps, from resection of the DSB ends to the re-establishement of nucleosomes after repair. However, nucleosome dynamics during DSB repair have not been well described, primarily because of a lack of well-ordered nucleosomes around a DSB. We designed a system in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monitor nucleosome dynamics during repair of an HO endonuclease-induced DSB. Nucleosome occupancy around the break is lost following DSB formation, by 5'-3' resection of the DSB end. Soon after repair is complete, nucleosome occupancy is partially restored in a repair-dependent but cell cycle-independent manner. Full re-establishment of nucleosome protection back to the level prior to DSB induction is achieved when the cell cycle resumes following repair. These findings may have implications to the mechanisms by which cells sense the completion of repair.

  9. Requirement for the Budding Yeast Polo Kinase Cdc5 in Proper Microtubule Growth and Dynamics▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong J.; Park, Jung-Eun; Karpova, Tatiana S.; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Yu, Li-Rong; Song, Sukgil; Lee, Kyung H.; Xia, Xue; Kang, Eugene; Dabanoglu, Ilknur; Oh, Doo-Yi; Zhang, James Y.; Kang, Young Hwi; Wincovitch, Stephen; Huffaker, Tim C.; Veenstra, Timothy D.; McNally, James G.; Lee, Kyung S.

    2008-01-01

    In many organisms, polo kinases appear to play multiple roles during M-phase progression. To provide new insights into the function of the budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5, we generated novel temperature-sensitive cdc5 mutants by mutagenizing the C-terminal noncatalytic polo box domain, a region that is critical for proper subcellular localization. One of these mutants, cdc5-11, exhibited a temperature-sensitive growth defect with an abnormal spindle morphology. Strikingly, provision of a moderate level of benomyl, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug, permitted cdc5-11 cells to grow significantly better than the isogenic CDC5 wild type in a FEAR (cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release)-independent manner. In addition, cdc5-11 required MAD2 for both cell growth and the benomyl-remedial phenotype. These results suggest that cdc5-11 is defective in proper spindle function. Consistent with this view, cdc5-11 exhibited abnormal spindle morphology, shorter spindle length, and delayed microtubule regrowth at the nonpermissive temperature. Overexpression of CDC5 moderately rescued the spc98-2 growth defect. Interestingly, both Cdc28 and Cdc5 were required for the proper modification of the spindle pole body components Nud1, Slk19, and Stu2 in vivo. They also phosphorylated these three proteins in vitro. Taken together, these observations suggest that concerted action of Cdc28 and Cdc5 on Nud1, Slk19, and Stu2 is important for proper spindle functions. PMID:18178775

  10. Cyclin B-cdk activity stimulates meiotic rereplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy; Mallory, Michael J; Jarnik, Michal; Cooper, Katrina F

    2004-01-01

    Haploidization of gametes during meiosis requires a single round of premeiotic DNA replication (meiS) followed by two successive nuclear divisions. This study demonstrates that ectopic activation of cyclin B/cyclin-dependent kinase in budding yeast recruits up to 30% of meiotic cells to execute one to three additional rounds of meiS. Rereplication occurs prior to the meiotic nuclear divisions, indicating that this process is different from the postmeiotic mitoses observed in other fungi. The cells with overreplicated DNA produced asci containing up to 20 spores that were viable and haploid and demonstrated Mendelian marker segregation. Genetic tests indicated that these cells executed the meiosis I reductional division and possessed a spindle checkpoint. Finally, interfering with normal synaptonemal complex formation or recombination increased the efficiency of rereplication. These studies indicate that the block to rereplication is very different in meiotic and mitotic cells and suggest a negative role for the recombination machinery in allowing rereplication. Moreover, the production of haploids, regardless of the genome content, suggests that the cell counts replication cycles, not chromosomes, in determining the number of nuclear divisions to execute. PMID:15342503

  11. Genes involved in sister chromatid separation and segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Biggins, S; Bhalla, N; Chang, A; Smith, D L; Murray, A W

    2001-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires the precise coordination of events during the cell cycle. Replicated sister chromatids are held together while they are properly attached to and aligned by the mitotic spindle at metaphase. At anaphase, the links between sisters must be promptly dissolved to allow the mitotic spindle to rapidly separate them to opposite poles. To isolate genes involved in chromosome behavior during mitosis, we microscopically screened a temperature-sensitive collection of budding yeast mutants that contain a GFP-marked chromosome. Nine LOC (loss of cohesion) complementation groups that do not segregate sister chromatids at anaphase were identified. We cloned the corresponding genes and performed secondary tests to determine their function in chromosome behavior. We determined that three LOC genes, PDS1, ESP1, and YCS4, are required for sister chromatid separation and three other LOC genes, CSE4, IPL1, and SMT3, are required for chromosome segregation. We isolated alleles of two genes involved in splicing, PRP16 and PRP19, which impair alpha-tubulin synthesis thus preventing spindle assembly, as well as an allele of CDC7 that is defective in DNA replication. We also report an initial characterization of phenotypes associated with the SMT3/SUMO gene and the isolation of WSS1, a high-copy smt3 suppressor. PMID:11606525

  12. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Position effects influencing intrachromosomal repair of a double-strand break in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruoxi W; Lee, Cheng-Sheng; Haber, James E

    2017-01-01

    Repair of a double-strand break (DSB) by an ectopic homologous donor sequence is subject to the three-dimensional arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus of haploid budding yeast. The data for interchromosomal recombination suggest that searching for homology is accomplished by a random collision process, strongly influenced by the contact probability of the donor and recipient sequences. Here we explore how recombination occurs on the same chromosome and whether there are additional constraints imposed on repair. Specifically, we examined how intrachromosomal repair is affected by the location of the donor sequence along the 813-kb chromosome 2 (Chr2), with a site-specific DSB created on the right arm (position 625 kb). Repair correlates well with contact frequencies determined by chromosome conformation capture-based studies (r = 0.85). Moreover, there is a profound constraint imposed by the anchoring of the centromere (CEN2, position 238 kb) to the spindle pole body. Sequences at the same distance on either side of CEN2 are equivalently constrained in recombining with a DSB located more distally on one arm, suggesting that sequences on the opposite arm from the DSB are not otherwise constrained in their interaction with the DSB. The centromere constraint can be partially relieved by inducing transcription through the centromere to inactivate CEN2 tethering. In diploid cells, repair of a DSB via its allelic donor is strongly influenced by the presence and the position of an ectopic intrachromosomal donor.

  14. Anoxia-Induced Suspended Animation in Budding Yeast as an Experimental Paradigm for Studying Oxygen-Regulated Gene Expression▿

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kin; Roth, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    A lack of oxygen can force many organisms to enter into recoverable hypometabolic states. To better understand how organisms cope with oxygen deprivation, our laboratory previously had shown that when challenged with anoxia, both the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio enter into suspended animation, in which all life processes that can be observed by light microscopy reversibly halt pending the restoration of oxygen (P. A. Padilla and M. B. Roth, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:7331-7335, 2001, and P. A. Padilla, T. G. Nystul, R. A. Zager, A. C. Johnson, and M. B. Roth, Mol. Biol. Cell 13:1473-1483, 2002). Here, we show that both sporulating and vegetative cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae also enter into a similar state of suspended animation when made anoxic on a nonfermentable carbon source. Transcriptional profiling using cDNA microarrays and follow-on quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a relative derepression of aerobic metabolism genes in carbon monoxide (CO)-induced anoxia when compared to nitrogen (N2) gas-induced anoxia, which is consistent with the known oxygen-mimetic effects of CO. We also found that mutants deleted for components of the mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway can tolerate prolonged exposure to CO but not to N2. We conclude that the cellular response to anoxia is dependent on whether the anoxic gas is an oxygen mimetic and that the mitochondrial retrograde signaling pathway is functionally important for mediating this response. PMID:18708563

  15. Intrinsic and cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent control of spindle pole body duplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Simmons Kovacs, Laura A; Nelson, Christine L; Haase, Steven B

    2008-08-01

    Centrosome duplication must be tightly controlled so that duplication occurs only once each cell cycle. Accumulation of multiple centrosomes can result in the assembly of a multipolar spindle and lead to chromosome mis-segregation and genomic instability. In metazoans, a centrosome-intrinsic mechanism prevents reduplication until centriole disengagement. Mitotic cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) prevent reduplication of the budding yeast centrosome, called a spindle pole body (SPB), in late S-phase and G2/M, but the mechanism remains unclear. How SPB reduplication is prevented early in the cell cycle is also not understood. Here we show that, similar to metazoans, an SPB-intrinsic mechanism prevents reduplication early in the cell cycle. We also show that mitotic cyclins can inhibit SPB duplication when expressed before satellite assembly in early G1, but not later in G1, after the satellite had assembled. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed that SPBs do not assemble a satellite in cells expressing Clb2 in early G1. Finally, we demonstrate that Clb2 must localize to the cytoplasm in order to inhibit SPB duplication, suggesting the possibility for direct CDK inhibition of satellite components. These two mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic control by CDK, evoke two-step system that prevents SPB reduplication throughout the cell cycle.

  16. YODA: software to facilitate high-throughput analysis of chronological life span, growth rate, and survival in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Brady; Murakami, Christopher J; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2010-03-18

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely studied model organisms in aging-related science. Although several genetic modifiers of yeast longevity have been identified, the utility of this system for longevity studies has been limited by a lack of high-throughput assays for quantitatively measuring survival of individual yeast cells during aging. Here we describe the Yeast Outgrowth Data Analyzer (YODA), an automated system for analyzing population survival of yeast cells based on the kinetics of outgrowth measured by optical density over time. YODA has been designed specifically for quantification of yeast chronological life span, but can also be used to quantify growth rate and survival of yeast cells in response to a variety of different conditions, including temperature, nutritional composition of the growth media, and chemical treatments. YODA is optimized for use with a Bioscreen C MBR shaker/incubator/plate reader, but is also amenable to use with any standard plate reader or spectrophotometer. We estimate that use of YODA as described here reduces the effort and resources required to measure chronological life span and analyze the resulting data by at least 15-fold.

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals posttranslational responses to aneuploidy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dephoure, Noah; Hwang, Sunyoung; O'Sullivan, Ciara; Dodgson, Stacie E; Gygi, Steven P; Amon, Angelika; Torres, Eduardo M

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy causes severe developmental defects and is a near universal feature of tumor cells. Despite its profound effects, the cellular processes affected by aneuploidy are not well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of aneuploidy on the proteome of aneuploid budding yeast strains. We show that although protein levels largely scale with gene copy number, subunits of multi-protein complexes are notable exceptions. Posttranslational mechanisms attenuate their expression when their encoding genes are in excess. Our proteomic analyses further revealed a novel aneuploidy-associated protein expression signature characteristic of altered metabolism and redox homeostasis. Indeed aneuploid cells harbor increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, increased protein turnover attenuates ROS levels and this novel aneuploidy-associated signature and improves the fitness of most aneuploid strains. Our results show that aneuploidy causes alterations in metabolism and redox homeostasis. Cells respond to these alterations through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03023.001 PMID:25073701

  18. Global analysis of fission yeast mating genes reveals new autophagy factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Li, Ming; Suo, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Shen, En-Zhi; Yang, Bing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12-Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy.

  19. Global Analysis of Fission Yeast Mating Genes Reveals New Autophagy Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Shen, En-Zhi; Yang, Bing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12–Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy. PMID:23950735

  20. Novel E3 Ubiquitin Ligases That Regulate Histone Protein Levels in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Gonzalez, Melanie; Kabbaj, Marie-Helene Miquel; Gunjan, Akash

    2012-01-01

    Core histone proteins are essential for packaging the genomic DNA into chromatin in all eukaryotes. Since multiple genes encode these histone proteins, there is potential for generating more histones than what is required for chromatin assembly. The positively charged histones have a very high affinity for negatively charged molecules such as DNA, and any excess of histone proteins results in deleterious effects on genomic stability and cell viability. Hence, histone levels are known to be tightly regulated via transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational mechanisms. We have previously elucidated the posttranslational regulation of histone protein levels by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway involving the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc4/5 and the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-Terminus) domain containing E3 ligase Tom1 in the budding yeast. Here we report the identification of four additional E3 ligases containing the RING (Really Interesting New Gene) finger domains that are involved in the ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of excess histones in yeast. These E3 ligases are Pep5, Snt2 as well as two previously uncharacterized Open Reading Frames (ORFs) YKR017C and YDR266C that we have named Hel1 and Hel2 (for Histone E3 Ligases) respectively. Mutants lacking these E3 ligases are sensitive to histone overexpression as they fail to degrade excess histones and accumulate high levels of endogenous histones on histone chaperones. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that these E3 ligases interact with the major E2 enzyme Ubc4 that is involved in the degradation related ubiquitylation of histones. Using mutagenesis we further demonstrate that the RING domains of Hel1, Hel2 and Snt2 are required for histone regulation. Lastly, mutants corresponding to Hel1, Hel2 and Pep5 are sensitive to replication inhibitors. Overall, our results highlight the importance of posttranslational histone regulatory mechanisms that employ multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases

  1. Reliable cell cycle commitment in budding yeast is ensured by signal integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chao

    2014-03-01

    Cells have to make reliable decisions in response to external and/or internal signals that can be noisy and varying. For budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells decide whether and when to commit to cell division at the Start checkpoint. The decision is irreversible and has the physiological significance for coordinating cell growth with cell division. The trigger of the Start, the G1 cyclin Cln3 is a dynamic sensor of the nutrient and cellular conditions with low copy number and rapid turnover time. Here we quantitatively investigate how cells process the information from Cln3 to make the Start decision. By using an inducible Cln3 and monitoring the time cell waits before Start transition (G1 length), we find that G1 length is inversely proportional to Cln3 concentration, which implies that Start is triggered when the integration of Cln3 concentration over time exceeds certain threshold. We identify the Start repressor, Whi5 as the integrator. The instantaneous kinase activity of Cln3-Cdk1 is recorded over time on the phosphorylated Whi5, and the decision is made only when the phosphorylation level of Whi5 reaches a threshold. Furthermore, we find that Whi5 plays an important role for coordinating growth and division - cells modulate Whi5 level in different nutrient conditions to adjust the Start threshold. The strategy of signal integration, which reduces noise and minimizes error and uncertainty, has been found in decision-making behaviors of animals. Our work shows that it is adopted at the cellular level, suggesting a general design principle that may be widely implemented in decision-making and signaling systems.

  2. B-Cyclin/CDKs Regulate Mitotic Spindle Assembly by Phosphorylating Kinesins-5 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Mark K.; Haase, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that B-cyclin/CDK complexes regulate the assembly of the mitotic spindle and entry into mitosis, the full complement of relevant CDK targets has not been identified. It has previously been shown in a variety of model systems that B-type cyclin/CDK complexes, kinesin-5 motors, and the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase are required for the separation of spindle poles and assembly of a bipolar spindle. It has been suggested that, in budding yeast, B-type cyclin/CDK (Clb/Cdc28) complexes promote spindle pole separation by inhibiting the degradation of the kinesins-5 Kip1 and Cin8 by the anaphase-promoting complex (APCCdh1). We have determined, however, that the Kip1 and Cin8 proteins are present at wild-type levels in the absence of Clb/Cdc28 kinase activity. Here, we show that Kip1 and Cin8 are in vitro targets of Clb2/Cdc28 and that the mutation of conserved CDK phosphorylation sites on Kip1 inhibits spindle pole separation without affecting the protein's in vivo localization or abundance. Mass spectrometry analysis confirms that two CDK sites in the tail domain of Kip1 are phosphorylated in vivo. In addition, we have determined that Sic1, a Clb/Cdc28-specific inhibitor, is the SCFCdc4 target that inhibits spindle pole separation in cells lacking functional Cdc4. Based on these findings, we propose that Clb/Cdc28 drives spindle pole separation by direct phosphorylation of kinesin-5 motors. PMID:20463882

  3. Positive Feedback of NDT80 Expression Ensures Irreversible Meiotic Commitment in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Dai; Yang, Yang; Lacefield, Soni

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, meiotic commitment is the irreversible continuation of the developmental path of meiosis. After reaching meiotic commitment, cells finish meiosis and gametogenesis, even in the absence of the meiosis-inducing signal. In contrast, if the meiosis-inducing signal is removed and the mitosis-inducing signal is provided prior to reaching meiotic commitment, cells exit meiosis and return to mitosis. Previous work has shown that cells commit to meiosis after prophase I but before entering the meiotic divisions. Since the Ndt80 transcription factor induces expression of middle meiosis genes necessary for the meiotic divisions, we examined the role of the NDT80 transcriptional network in meiotic commitment. Using a microfluidic approach to analyze single cells, we found that cells commit to meiosis in prometaphase I, after the induction of the Ndt80-dependent genes. Our results showed that high-level expression of NDT80 is important for the timing and irreversibility of meiotic commitment. A modest reduction in NDT80 levels delayed meiotic commitment based on meiotic stages, although the timing of each meiotic stage was similar to that of wildtype cells. A further reduction of NDT80 resulted in the surprising finding of inappropriately uncommitted cells: withdrawal of the meiosis-inducing signal and addition of the mitosis-inducing signal to cells at stages beyond metaphase I caused return to mitosis, leading to multi-nucleate cells. Since Ndt80 enhances its own transcription through positive feedback, we tested whether positive feedback ensured the irreversibility of meiotic commitment. Ablating positive feedback in NDT80 expression resulted in a complete loss of meiotic commitment. These findings suggest that irreversibility of meiotic commitment is a consequence of the NDT80 transcriptional positive feedback loop, which provides the high-level of Ndt80 required for the developmental switch of meiotic commitment. These results also illustrate the

  4. Phosphorylation and cellular function of the human Rpa2 N-terminus in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ghospurkar, Padmaja L; Wilson, Timothy M; Liu, Shengqin; Herauf, Anna; Steffes, Jenna; Mueller, Erica N; Oakley, Gregory G; Haring, Stuart J

    2015-02-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity is critical for proper cell growth. This occurs through accurate DNA replication and repair of DNA lesions. A key factor involved in both DNA replication and the DNA damage response is the heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding complex Replication Protein A (RPA). Although the RPA complex appears to be structurally conserved throughout eukaryotes, the primary amino acid sequence of each subunit can vary considerably. Examination of sequence differences along with the functional interchangeability of orthologous RPA subunits or regions could provide insight into important regions and their functions. This might also allow for study in simpler systems. We determined that substitution of yeast Replication Factor A (RFA) with human RPA does not support yeast cell viability. Exchange of a single yeast RFA subunit with the corresponding human RPA subunit does not function due to lack of inter-species subunit interactions. Substitution of yeast Rfa2 with domains/regions of human Rpa2 important for Rpa2 function (i.e., the N-terminus and the loop 3-4 region) supports viability in yeast cells, and hybrid proteins containing human Rpa2 N-terminal phospho-mutations result in similar DNA damage phenotypes to analogous yeast Rfa2 N-terminal phospho-mutants. Finally, the human Rpa2 N-terminus (NT) fused to yeast Rfa2 is phosphorylated in a manner similar to human Rpa2 in human cells, indicating that conserved kinases recognize the human domain in yeast. The implication is that budding yeast represents a potential model system for studying not only human Rpa2 N-terminal phosphorylation, but also phosphorylation of Rpa2 N-termini from other eukaryotic organisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A protein complex containing Epo1p anchors the cortical endoplasmic reticulum to the yeast bud tip

    PubMed Central

    Neller, Joachim; Dünkler, Alexander; Rösler, Reinhild

    2015-01-01

    The cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER) of yeast underlies the plasma membrane (PM) at specific contact sites to enable a direct transfer of information and material between both organelles. During budding, directed movement of cER to the young bud followed by subsequent anchorage at its tip ensures the faithful inheritance of this organelle. The ER membrane protein Scs2p tethers the cER to the PM and to the bud tip through so far unknown receptors. We characterize Epo1p as a novel member of the polarisome that interacts with Scs2p exclusively at the cell tip during bud growth and show that Epo1p binds simultaneously to the Cdc42p guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein Bem3p. Deletion of EPO1 or deletion of BEM3 in a polarisome-deficient strain reduces the amount of cER at the tip. This analysis therefore identifies Epo1p as a novel and important component of the polarisome that promotes cER tethering at sites of polarized growth. PMID:25547157

  6. Far3 and Five Interacting Proteins Prevent Premature Recovery from Pheromone Arrest in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Hilary A.; Sprague, Jr., George F.

    2003-01-01

    In budding yeast, diffusible mating pheromones initiate a signaling pathway that culminates in several responses, including cell cycle arrest. Only a handful of genes required for the interface between pheromone response and the cell cycle have been identified, among them FAR1 and FAR3; of these, only FAR1 has been extensively characterized. In an effort to learn about the mechanism by which Far3 acts, we used the two-hybrid method to identify interacting proteins. We identified five previously uncharacterized open reading frames, dubbed FAR7, FAR8, FAR9, FAR10, and FAR11, that cause a far3-like pheromone arrest defect when disrupted. Using two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis, we found that all six Far proteins interact with each other. Moreover, velocity sedimentation experiments suggest that Far3 and Far7 to Far11 form a complex. The phenotype of a sextuple far3far7-far11 mutant is no more severe than any single mutant. Thus, FAR3 and FAR7 to FAR11 all participate in the same pathway leading to G1 arrest. These mutants initially arrest in response to pheromone but resume budding after 10 h. Under these conditions, wild-type cells fail to resume budding even after several days whereas far1 mutant cells resume budding within 1 h. We conclude that the FAR3-dependent arrest pathway is functionally distinct from that which employs FAR1. PMID:12588993

  7. Mode of vegetative reproduction of the bipolar budding yeast species Wickerhamomyces pijperi and related strains.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Yumi; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Nakase, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    To clarify the budding pattern of Wickerhamomyces pijperi, the vegetative cells were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The cells grew by bipolar budding, but cells that budded from the shoulder of a mother cell were occasionally observed. We examined the cell morphology and phylogeny of five strains of Wickerhamomyces sp. isolated in Thailand as well as seven W. pijperi and three Wickerhamomyces sp. strains that were preserved in culture collections. Phylogenetic analysis based on three different nucleotide sequences (D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA, the actin gene ACT1 and the elongation factor 2 gene EF2) indicated that all the strains belonged to the genus Wickerhamomyces and were neighbours of the type strain W. pijperi NBRC 1290(T). The strains fell into two groups in this analysis. The budding patterns of the strains were carefully observed by staining the bud scars, and these patterns were categorized into three groups: types I-III. Type I included cells that grew by bipolar budding and formed multiple scars, type III included cells that grew by multilateral budding and formed a single scar, and type II included cells that exhibited a mixture of type I and type III patterns. Among the 15 strains, 12 strains, including W. pijperi NBRC 1290(T), mainly exhibited type I or type II budding patterns; these strains belonged to group 1 of the phylogenetic analysis. The remaining three strains, which belonged to group 2, exhibited either type II or type III patterns. Thus the phylogenetic relationship and budding patterns are related. Moreover, some cells also exhibited budding characteristics that were intermediate between bipolar and multilateral budding.

  8. Dissecting the fission yeast regulatory network reveals phase-specific control elements of its cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Bushel, Pierre R; Heard, Nicholas A; Gutman, Roee; Liu, Liwen; Peddada, Shyamal D; Pyne, Saumyadipta

    2009-09-16

    Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are among the original model organisms in the study of the cell-division cycle. Unlike budding yeast, no large-scale regulatory network has been constructed for fission yeast. It has only been partially characterized. As a result, important regulatory cascades in budding yeast have no known or complete counterpart in fission yeast. By integrating genome-wide data from multiple time course cell cycle microarray experiments we reconstructed a gene regulatory network. Based on the network, we discovered in addition to previously known regulatory hubs in M phase, a new putative regulatory hub in the form of the HMG box transcription factor SPBC19G7.04. Further, we inferred periodic activities of several less known transcription factors over the course of the cell cycle, identified over 500 putative regulatory targets and detected many new phase-specific and conserved cis-regulatory motifs. In particular, we show that SPBC19G7.04 has highly significant periodic activity that peaks in early M phase, which is coordinated with the late G2 activity of the forkhead transcription factor fkh2. Finally, using an enhanced Bayesian algorithm to co-cluster the expression data, we obtained 31 clusters of co-regulated genes 1) which constitute regulatory modules from different phases of the cell cycle, 2) whose phase order is coherent across the 10 time course experiments, and 3) which lead to identification of phase-specific control elements at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in S. pombe. In particular, the ribosome biogenesis clusters expressed in G2 phase reveal new, highly conserved RNA motifs. Using a systems-level analysis of the phase-specific nature of the S. pombe cell cycle gene regulation, we have provided new testable evidence for post-transcriptional regulation in the G2 phase of the fission yeast cell cycle. Based on this comprehensive gene regulatory network, we

  9. Hof1 and Rvs167 have redundant roles in actomyosin ring function during cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Nkosi, Pedro Junior; Targosz, Bianca-Sabrina; Labib, Karim; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The Hof1 protein (Homologue of Fifteen) regulates formation of the primary septum during cytokinesis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the orthologous Cdc15 protein in fission yeast regulates the actomyosin ring by using its F-BAR domain to recruit actin nucleators to the cleavage site. Here we show that budding yeast Hof1 also contributes to actin ring assembly in parallel with the Rvs167 protein. Simultaneous deletion of the HOF1 and RVS167 genes is lethal, and cells fail to assemble the actomyosin ring as they progress through mitosis. Although Hof1 and Rvs167 are not orthologues, they both share an analogous structure, with an F-BAR or BAR domain at the amino terminus, capable of inducing membrane curvature, and SH3 domains at the carboxyl terminus that bind to specific proline-rich targets. The SH3 domain of Rvs167 becomes essential for assembly of the actomyosin ring in cells lacking Hof1, suggesting that it helps to recruit a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. This new function of Rvs167 appears to be independent of its known role as a regulator of the Arp2/3 actin nucleator, as actin ring assembly is not abolished by the simultaneous inactivation of Hof1 and Arp2/3. Instead we find that recruitment to the bud-neck of the Iqg1 actin regulator is defective in cells lacking Hof1 and Rvs167, though future studies will be needed to determine if this reflects a direct interaction between these factors. The redundant role of Hof1 in actin ring assembly suggests that the mechanism of actin ring assembly has been conserved to a greater extent across evolution than anticipated previously.

  10. Bub1, Sgo1, and Mps1 mediate a distinct pathway for chromosome biorientation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Storchová, Zuzana; Becker, Justin S.; Talarek, Nicolas; Kögelsberger, Sandra; Pellman, David

    2011-01-01

    The conserved mitotic kinase Bub1 performs multiple functions that are only partially characterized. Besides its role in the spindle assembly checkpoint and chromosome alignment, Bub1 is crucial for the kinetochore recruitment of multiple proteins, among them Sgo1. Both Bub1 and Sgo1 are dispensable for growth of haploid and diploid budding yeast, but they become essential in cells with higher ploidy. We find that overexpression of SGO1 partially corrects the chromosome segregation defect of bub1Δ haploid cells and restores viability to bub1Δ tetraploid cells. Using an unbiased high-copy suppressor screen, we identified two members of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), BIR1 (survivin) and SLI15 (INCENP, inner centromere protein), as suppressors of the growth defect of both bub1Δ and sgo1Δ tetraploids, suggesting that these mutants die due to defects in chromosome biorientation. Overexpression of BIR1 or SLI15 also complements the benomyl sensitivity of haploid bub1Δ and sgo1Δ cells. Mutants lacking SGO1 fail to biorient sister chromatids attached to the same spindle pole (syntelic attachment) after nocodazole treatment. Moreover, the sgo1Δ cells accumulate syntelic attachments in unperturbed mitoses, a defect that is partially corrected by BIR1 or SLI15 overexpression. We show that in budding yeast neither Bub1 nor Sgo1 is required for CPC localization or affects Aurora B activity. Instead we identify Sgo1 as a possible partner of Mps1, a mitotic kinase suggested to have an Aurora B–independent function in establishment of biorientation. We found that Sgo1 overexpression rescues defects caused by metaphase inactivation of Mps1 and that Mps1 is required for Sgo1 localization to the kinetochore. We propose that Bub1, Sgo1, and Mps1 facilitate chromosome biorientation independently of the Aurora B–mediated pathway at the budding yeast kinetochore and that both pathways are required for the efficient turnover of syntelic attachments. PMID:21389114

  11. Role of endocytosis in localization and maintenance of the spatial markers for bud-site selection in yeast.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Shanshan; Nakashima, Kenichi; Pringle, John R

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally selects bud sites (and hence axes of cell polarization) in one of two distinct patterns, the axial pattern of haploid cells and the bipolar pattern of diploid cells. These patterns depend on distinct sets of cortical-marker proteins that transmit positional information through a common signaling pathway based on a Ras-type GTPase. It has been reported previously that various proteins of the endocytic pathway may be involved in determining the bipolar pattern but not the axial pattern. To explore this question systematically, we constructed and analyzed congenic haploid and diploid deletion mutants for 14 genes encoding proteins that are involved in endocytosis. The mutants displayed a wide range of severities in their overall endocytosis defects, as judged by their growth rates and abilities to take up the lipophilic dye FM 4-64. Consistent with the previous reports, none of the mutants displayed a significant defect in axial budding, but they displayed defects in bipolar budding that were roughly correlated with the severities of their overall endocytosis defects. Both the details of the mutant budding patterns and direct examination of GFP-tagged marker proteins suggested that both initial formation and maintenance of the normally persistent bipolar marks depend on endocytosis, as well as polarized exocytosis, in actively growing cells. Interestingly, maintenance of the bipolar marks in non-growing cells did not appear to require normal levels of endocytosis. In some cases, there was a striking lack of correlation between the overall severities of the general-endocytosis defect and the bud-site selection defect, suggesting that various endocytosis proteins may differ in their importance for the uptake of various plasma-membrane targets.

  12. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Shyian, Maksym; Mattarocci, Stefano; Albert, Benjamin; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charlie; Shore, David

    2016-11-01

    The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common.

  13. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Benjamin; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charlie; Shore, David

    2016-01-01

    The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common. PMID:27820830

  14. Improved conversion of cinnamaldehyde derivatives to diol compounds via a pyruvate decarboxylase-dependent mechanism in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Shunichi; Negishi, Yukari; Sekiya, Yusuke; Nakajima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is stereospecifically converted to (2S,3R) 5-phenylpent-4-ene-2,3-diol, an important starting material for the synthesis of biologically active compounds, by the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Immobilization of the yeast in calcium alginate capsules suppressed the formation of by-products and increased accumulation of the diol compounds. The mechanism of cinnamaldehyde conversion was investigated by using recombinant strains of Escherichia coli and S. cerevisiae carrying the pyruvate decarboxylase gene PDC1. As a result, condensation of the substrate with acetaldehyde was enhanced by PDC and flow to the diol product was altered. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ndj1, a telomere-associated protein, regulates centrosome separation in budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Shao, Yize; Jin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Yeast centrosomes (called spindle pole bodies [SPBs]) remain cohesive for hours during meiotic G2 when recombination takes place. In contrast, SPBs separate within minutes after duplication in vegetative cells. We report here that Ndj1, a previously known meiosis-specific telomere-associated protein, is required for protecting SPB cohesion. Ndj1 localizes to the SPB but dissociates from it ∼16 min before SPB separation. Without Ndj1, meiotic SPBs lost cohesion prematurely, whereas overproduction of Ndj1 delayed SPB separation. When produced ectopically in vegetative cells, Ndj1 caused SPB separation defects and cell lethality. Localization of Ndj1 to the SPB depended on the SUN domain protein Mps3, and removal of the N terminus of Mps3 allowed SPB separation and suppressed the lethality of NDJ1-expressing vegetative cells. Finally, we show that Ndj1 forms oligomeric complexes with Mps3, and that the Polo-like kinase Cdc5 regulates Ndj1 protein stability and SPB separation. These findings reveal the underlying mechanism that coordinates yeast centrosome dynamics with meiotic telomere movement and cell cycle progression. PMID:25897084

  16. Model-guided optogenetic study of PKA signaling in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Chen, Susan; Bhatnagar, Rajat; Weissman, Jonathan S.; El-Samad, Hana

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotes, protein kinase A (PKA) is a master regulator of cell proliferation and survival. The activity of PKA is subject to elaborate control and exhibits complex time dynamics. To probe the quantitative attributes of PKA dynamics in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed an optogenetic strategy that uses a photoactivatable adenylate cyclase to achieve real-time regulation of cAMP and the PKA pathway. We capitalize on the precise and rapid control afforded by this optogenetic tool, together with quantitative computational modeling, to study the properties of feedback in the PKA signaling network and dissect the nonintuitive dynamic effects that ensue from perturbing its components. Our analyses reveal that negative feedback channeled through the Ras1/2 GTPase is delayed, pinpointing its time scale and its contribution to the dynamic features of the cAMP/PKA signaling network. PMID:28035051

  17. H2A.Z marks antisense promoters and has positive effects on antisense transcript levels in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gu, Muxin; Naiyachit, Yanin; Wood, Thomas J; Millar, Catherine B

    2015-02-19

    The histone variant H2A.Z, which has been reported to have both activating and repressive effects on gene expression, is known to occupy nucleosomes at the 5' ends of protein-coding genes. We now find that H2A.Z is also significantly enriched in gene coding regions and at the 3' ends of genes in budding yeast, where it co-localises with histone marks associated with active promoters. By comparing H2A.Z binding to global gene expression in budding yeast strains engineered so that normally unstable transcripts are abundant, we show that H2A.Z is required for normal levels of antisense transcripts as well as sense ones. High levels of H2A.Z at antisense promoters are associated with decreased antisense transcript levels when H2A.Z is deleted, indicating that H2A.Z has an activating effect on antisense transcripts. Decreases in antisense transcripts affected by H2A.Z are accompanied by increased levels of paired sense transcripts. The effect of H2A.Z on protein coding gene expression is a reflection of its importance for normal levels of both sense and antisense transcripts.

  18. The long-lasting love affair between the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Lista, María José; Voisset, Cécile; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Bihel, Frédéric; Fåhraeus, Robin; Blondel, Marc

    2015-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr gammaherpesvirus (EBV) is the first oncogenic virus discovered in human. Indeed, EBV has been known for more than 50 years to be tightly associated with certain human cancers. As such, EBV has been the subject of extensive studies aiming at deciphering various aspects of its biological cycle, ranging from the regulation of its genome replication and maintenance to the induction of its lytic cycle, including the mechanisms that allow its immune evasion or that are related to its tumorogenicity. For more than 30 years the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has fruitfully contributed to a number of these studies. The aim of this article is to review the various aspects of EBV biology for which yeast has been instrumental, and to propose new possible applications for these yeast-based assays, as well as the creation of further yeast models dedicated to EBV. This review article illustrates the tremendous potential of S. cerevisiae in integrated chemobiological approaches for the biomedical research.

  19. Conservation and Rewiring of Functional Modules Revealed by an Epistasis Map in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Roguev, Assen; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Zofall, Martin; Zhang, Ke; Fischer, Tamas; Collins, Sean R.; Qu, Hongjing; Shales, Michael; Park, Han-Oh; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ideker, Trey; Grewal, Shiv I.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2009-01-01

    An epistasis map (E-MAP) was constructed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by systematically measuring the phenotypes associated with pairs of mutations. This high-density, quantitative genetic interaction map focused on various aspects of chromosome function, including transcription regulation and DNA repair/replication. The E-MAP uncovered a previously unidentified component of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery (rsh1) and linked the RNAi pathway to several other biological processes. Comparison of the S. pombe E-MAP to an analogous genetic map from the budding yeast revealed that, whereas negative interactions were conserved between genes involved in similar biological processes, positive interactions and overall genetic profiles between pairs of genes coding for physically associated proteins were even more conserved. Hence, conservation occurs at the level of the functional module (protein complex), but the genetic cross talk between modules can differ substantially. PMID:18818364

  20. Conservation and rewiring of functional modules revealed by an epistasis map in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Roguev, Assen; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Zofall, Martin; Zhang, Ke; Fischer, Tamas; Collins, Sean R; Qu, Hongjing; Shales, Michael; Park, Han-Oh; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ideker, Trey; Grewal, Shiv I; Weissman, Jonathan S; Krogan, Nevan J

    2008-10-17

    An epistasis map (E-MAP) was constructed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by systematically measuring the phenotypes associated with pairs of mutations. This high-density, quantitative genetic interaction map focused on various aspects of chromosome function, including transcription regulation and DNA repair/replication. The E-MAP uncovered a previously unidentified component of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery (rsh1) and linked the RNAi pathway to several other biological processes. Comparison of the S. pombe E-MAP to an analogous genetic map from the budding yeast revealed that, whereas negative interactions were conserved between genes involved in similar biological processes, positive interactions and overall genetic profiles between pairs of genes coding for physically associated proteins were even more conserved. Hence, conservation occurs at the level of the functional module (protein complex), but the genetic cross talk between modules can differ substantially.

  1. New rapid screening method for anti-aging compounds using budding yeast and identification of beauveriolide I as a potent active compound.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Mizuno, Saki; Ishigami, Hiroki; Yamakawa, Yasuhiro; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. We report here the development of a new method to assess yeast CLS. The new assay is simple, convenient and labor-saving. We applied this new method to screen natural compounds isolated from mushrooms and discovered beauveriolide I as a potent anti-aging agent.

  2. The budding yeast orthologue of Parkinson's disease-associated DJ-1 is a multi-stress response protein protecting cells against toxic glycolytic products.

    PubMed

    Natkańska, Urszula; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Sieńko, Marzena; Skoneczny, Marek

    2016-10-27

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp31p is a DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI family protein that was previously shown to be important for survival in the stationary phase of growth and under oxidative stress. Recently, it was identified as a chaperone or as glutathione-independent glyoxalase. To elucidate the role played by this protein in budding yeast cells, we investigated its involvement in the protection against diverse environmental stresses. Our study revealed that HSP31 gene expression is controlled by multiple transcription factors, including Yap1p, Cad1p, Msn2p, Msn4p, Haa1p and Hsf1p. These transcription factors mediate the HSP31 promoter responses to oxidative, osmotic and thermal stresses, to potentially toxic products of glycolysis, such as methylglyoxal and acetic acid, and to the diauxic shift. We also demonstrated that the absence of the HSP31 gene sensitizes cells to these stressors. Overproduction of Hsp31p and its homologue Hsp32p rescued the sensitivity of glo1Δ cells to methylglyoxal. Hsp31p also reversed the increased sensitivity of the ald6Δ strain to acetic acid. Since Hsp31p glyoxalase III coexists in S. cerevisiae cells with thousand-fold more potent glyoxalase I/II system, its biological purpose requires substantiation. We postulate that S. cerevisiae Hsp31p may have broader substrate specificity than previously proposed and is able to eliminate various toxic products of glycolysis. Alternatively, Hsp31p might be effective under high concentration of exogenous methylglyoxal present in some natural environmental niches populated by budding yeast, when glyoxalase I/II system capacity is saturated.

  3. Long-range compaction and flexibility of interphase chromatin in budding yeast analyzed by high-resolution imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Kerstin; Heun, Patrick; Gehlen, Lutz; Langowski, Jörg; Gasser, Susan M.

    2004-11-01

    Little is known about how chromatin folds in its native state. Using optimized in situ hybridization and live imaging techniques have determined compaction ratios and fiber flexibility for interphase chromatin in budding yeast. Unlike previous studies, ours examines nonrepetitive chromatin at intervals short enough to be meaningful for yeast chromosomes and functional domains in higher eukaryotes. We reconcile high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization data from intervals of 14-100 kb along single chromatids with measurements of whole chromosome arms (122-623 kb in length), monitored in intact cells through the targeted binding of bacterial repressors fused to GFP derivatives. The results are interpreted with a flexible polymer model and suggest that interphase chromatin exists in a compact higher-order conformation with a persistence length of 170-220 nm and a mass density of 110-150 bp/nm. These values are equivalent to 7-10 nucleosomes per 11-nm turn within a 30-nm-like fiber structure. Comparison of long and short chromatid arm measurements demonstrates that chromatin fiber extension is also influenced by nuclear geometry. The observation of this surprisingly compact chromatin structure for transcriptionally competent chromatin in living yeast cells suggests that the passage of RNA polymerase II requires a very transient unfolding of higher-order chromatin structure. higher-order structure | 30-nm fiber | nucleosomes

  4. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1

    PubMed Central

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1–3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4–9 did not influence the cell cycle–regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4–9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1. PMID:27226481

  5. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  6. Interactions between the bud emergence proteins Bem1p and Bem2p and Rho- type GTPases in yeast

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The SH3 domain-containing protein Bem1p is needed for normal bud emergence and mating projection formation, two processes that require asymmetric reorganizations of the cortical cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify proteins that functionally and/or physically interact with Bem1p, we screened for mutations that display synthetic lethality with a mutant allele of the BEM1 gene and for genes whose products display two-hybrid interactions with the Bem1 protein. CDC24, which is required for bud emergence and encodes a GEF (guanine- nucleotide exchange factor) for the essential Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p, was identified during both screens. The COOH-terminal 75 amino acids of Cdc24p, outside of the GEF domain, can interact with a portion of Bem1p that lacks both SH3 domains. Bacterially expressed Cdc24p and Bem1p bind to each other in vitro, indicating that no other yeast proteins are required for this interaction. The most frequently identified gene that arose from the bem1 synthetic-lethal screen was the bud-emergence gene BEM2 (Bender and Pringle. 1991. Mol. Cell Biol. 11:1295-1395), which is allelic with IPL2 (increase in ploidy; Chan and Botstein, 1993. Genetics. 135:677-691). Here we show that Bem2p contains a GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain for Rho-type GTPases, and that this portion of Bem2p can stimulate in vitro the GTPase activity of Rho1p, a second essential yeast Rho-type GTPase. Cells deleted for BEM2 become large and multinucleate. These and other genetic, two-hybrid, biochemical, and phenotypic data suggest that multiple Rho-type GTPases control the reorganization of the cortical cytoskeleton in yeast and that the functions of these GTPases are tightly coupled. Also, these findings raise the possibility that Bem1p may regulate or be a target of action of one or more of these GTPases. PMID:7962098

  7. Interactions between the bud emergence proteins Bem1p and Bem2p and Rho-type GTPases in yeast.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J; Zheng, Y; Bender, L; Myers, A; Cerione, R; Bender, A

    1994-12-01

    The SH3 domain-containing protein Bem1p is needed for normal bud emergence and mating projection formation, two processes that require asymmetric reorganizations of the cortical cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify proteins that functionally and/or physically interact with Bem1p, we screened for mutations that display synthetic lethality with a mutant allele of the BEM1 gene and for genes whose products display two-hybrid interactions with the Bem1 protein. CDC24, which is required for bud emergence and encodes a GEF (guanine-nucleotide exchange factor) for the essential Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p, was identified during both screens. The COOH-terminal 75 amino acids of Cdc24p, outside of the GEF domain, can interact with a portion of Bem1p that lacks both SH3 domains. Bacterially expressed Cdc24p and Bem1p bind to each other in vitro, indicating that no other yeast proteins are required for this interaction. The most frequently identified gene that arose from the bem1 synthetic-lethal screen was the bud-emergence gene BEM2 (Bender and Pringle. 1991. Mol. Cell Biol. 11:1295-1395), which is allelic with IPL2 (increase in ploidy; Chan and Botstein, 1993. Genetics. 135:677-691). Here we show that Bem2p contains a GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain for Rho-type GTPases, and that this portion of Bem2p can stimulate in vitro the GTPase activity of Rho1p, a second essential yeast Rho-type GTPase. Cells deleted for BEM2 become large and multinucleate. These and other genetic, two-hybrid, biochemical, and phenotypic data suggest that multiple Rho-type GTPases control the reorganization of the cortical cytoskeleton in yeast and that the functions of these GTPases are tightly coupled. Also, these findings raise the possibility that Bem1p may regulate or be a target of action of one or more of these GTPases.

  8. Stochastic Modeling Yields a Mechanistic Framework for Spindle Attachment Error Correction in Budding Yeast Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Tubman, Emily S; Biggins, Sue; Odde, David J

    2017-06-28

    Proper segregation of the replicated genome requires that kinetochores form and maintain bioriented, amphitelic attachments to microtubules from opposite spindle poles and eliminate erroneous, syntelic attachments to microtubules from the same spindle pole. Phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins destabilizes low-tension kinetochore-microtubule attachments, yet tension stabilizes bioriented attachments. This conundrum for forming high-tension amphitelic attachments is recognized as the "initiation problem of biorientation (IPBO)." A delay before kinetochore-microtubule detachment solves the IPBO, but it lacks a mechanistic framework. We developed a stochastic mathematical model for kinetochore-microtubule error correction in yeast that reveals: (1) under low chromatin tension, requiring a large number of phosphorylation events at multiple sites to achieve detachment provides the necessary delay; and (2) kinetochore-induced microtubule depolymerization generates tension in amphitelic, but not syntelic, attachments. With these requirements, the model provides a mechanistic framework for the delay before detachment to solve the IPBO and demonstrates the high degree of amphitely observed experimentally for wild-type spindles under optimal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The polarity and dynamics of microtubule assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Paul S.; Bloom, Kerry S.; Salmon, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    Microtubule assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is initiated from sites within spindle pole bodies (SPBs) in the nuclear envelope. Microtubule plus ends are thought to be organized distal to the SPBs, while minus ends are proximal. Several hypotheses for the function of microtubule motor proteins in force generation and regulation of microtubule assembly propose that assembly and disassembly occur at minus ends as well as at plus ends. Here we analyse microtubule assembly relative to the SPBs in haploid yeast cells expressing green fluorescent protein fused to α-tubulin, a microtubule subunit. Throughout the cell cycle, analysis of fluorescent speckle marks on cytoplasmic astral microtubules reveals that there is no detectable assembly or disassembly at minus ends. After laser-photobleaching, metaphase spindles recover about 63% of the bleached fluorescence, with a half-life of about 1 minute. After anaphase onset, photobleached marks in the interpolar spindle are persistent and do not move relative to the SPBs. In late anaphase, the elongated spindles disassemble at the microtubule plus ends. These results show for astral and anaphase interpolar spindle microtubules, and possibly for metaphase spindle microtubules, that microtubule assembly and disassembly occur at plus, and not minus, ends. PMID:10620805

  10. Global analysis of the sugarcane microtranscriptome reveals a unique composition of small RNAs associated with axillary bud outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Morea, Fausto A.; Vicentini, Renato; Silva, Geraldo F.F.; Silva, Eder M.; Carrer, Helaine; Rodrigues, Ana P.; Nogueira, Fabio T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Axillary bud outgrowth determines shoot architecture and is under the control of endogenous hormones and a fine-tuned gene-expression network, which probably includes small RNAs (sRNAs). Although it is well known that sRNAs act broadly in plant development, our understanding about their roles in vegetative bud outgrowth remains limited. Moreover, the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets within axillary buds are largely unknown. Here, we employed sRNA next-generation sequencing as well as computational and gene-expression analysis to identify and quantify sRNAs and their targets in vegetative axillary buds of the biofuel crop sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). Computational analysis allowed the identification of 26 conserved miRNA families and two putative novel miRNAs, as well as a number of trans-acting small interfering RNAs. sRNAs associated with transposable elements and protein-encoding genes were similarly represented in both inactive and developing bud libraries. Conversely, sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that specific miRNAs were differentially expressed in developing buds, and some correlated negatively with the expression of their targets at specific stages of axillary bud development. For instance, the expression patterns of miR159 and its target GAMYB suggested that they may play roles in regulating abscisic acid-signalling pathways during sugarcane bud outgrowth. Our work reveals, for the first time, differences in the composition and expression profiles of diverse sRNAs and targets between inactive and developing vegetative buds that, together with the endogenous balance of specific hormones, may be important in regulating axillary bud outgrowth. PMID:23564956

  11. Shaping meiotic chromosomes with SUMO: a feedback loop controls the assembly of the synaptonemal complex in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tsubouchi, Hideo; Argunhan, Bilge; Tsubouchi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a meiosis-specific chromosomal structure in which homologous chromosomes are intimately linked through arrays of specialized proteins called transverse filaments (TF). Widely conserved in eukaryote meiosis, the SC forms during prophase I and is essential for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at meiosis I. However, the basic mechanism overlooking formation and regulation of the SC has been poorly understood. By using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we recently showed that SC formation is controlled through the attachment of multiple molecules of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to a regulator of TF assembly. Intriguingly, this SUMOylation is activated by TF, implicating the involvement of a positive feedback loop in the control of SC assembly. We discuss the implication of this finding and possible involvement of a similar mechanism in regulating other processes.

  12. Conditional Budding Yeast Mutants with Temperature-Sensitive and Auxin-Inducible Degrons for Screening of Suppressor Genes.

    PubMed

    Devrekanli, Asli; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2016-01-01

    The conditional control of protein expression is useful to characterize the function of proteins, especially of those that are essential for cell viability. Two degron-based systems, temperature-sensitive and auxin-inducible degrons, can be used to generate conditional mutants of budding yeast, simply by transforming appropriate cells with PCR-amplified DNA. We describe a protocol for the generation of temperature-sensitive and auxin-inducible degron mutants. We also show that a conditional mutant with few spontaneous revertants was generated by combining two degron systems for the Inn1 protein. Finally, we describe a suppressor screening method that uses the dual degron-Inn1 mutant to identify mutant proteins that suppress Inn1-K31A, which has a defect in cytokinesis.

  13. Coupling spindle position with mitotic exit in budding yeast: The multifaceted role of the small GTPase Tem1.

    PubMed

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-10-02

    The budding yeast S. cerevisiae divides asymmetrically and is an excellent model system for asymmetric cell division. As for other asymmetrically dividing cells, proper spindle positioning along the mother-daughter polarity axis is crucial for balanced chromosome segregation. Thus, a surveillance mechanism named Spindle Position Checkpoint (SPOC) inhibits mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the mitotic spindle is properly oriented, thereby preventing the generation of cells with aberrant ploidies. The small GTPase Tem1 is required to trigger a Hippo-like protein kinase cascade, named Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), that is essential for mitotic exit and cytokinesis but also contributes to correct spindle alignment in metaphase. Importantly, Tem1 is the target of the SPOC, which relies on the activity of the GTPase-activating complex (GAP) Bub2-Bfa1 to keep Tem1 in the GDP-bound inactive form. Tem1 forms a hetero-trimeric complex with Bub2-Bfa1 at spindle poles (SPBs) that accumulates asymmetrically on the bud-directed spindle pole during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. We have recently shown that Tem1 residence at SPBs depends on its nucleotide state and, importantly, asymmetry of the Bub2-Bfa1-Tem1 complex does not promote mitotic exit but rather controls spindle positioning.

  14. Coupling spindle position with mitotic exit in budding yeast: The multifaceted role of the small GTPase Tem1

    PubMed Central

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast S. cerevisiae divides asymmetrically and is an excellent model system for asymmetric cell division. As for other asymmetrically dividing cells, proper spindle positioning along the mother-daughter polarity axis is crucial for balanced chromosome segregation. Thus, a surveillance mechanism named Spindle Position Checkpoint (SPOC) inhibits mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the mitotic spindle is properly oriented, thereby preventing the generation of cells with aberrant ploidies. The small GTPase Tem1 is required to trigger a Hippo-like protein kinase cascade, named Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), that is essential for mitotic exit and cytokinesis but also contributes to correct spindle alignment in metaphase. Importantly, Tem1 is the target of the SPOC, which relies on the activity of the GTPase-activating complex (GAP) Bub2-Bfa1 to keep Tem1 in the GDP-bound inactive form. Tem1 forms a hetero-trimeric complex with Bub2-Bfa1 at spindle poles (SPBs) that accumulates asymmetrically on the bud-directed spindle pole during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. We have recently shown that Tem1 residence at SPBs depends on its nucleotide state and, importantly, asymmetry of the Bub2-Bfa1-Tem1 complex does not promote mitotic exit but rather controls spindle positioning. PMID:26507466

  15. Attachment of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is mediated by adhesives localized at sites of bud cell development.

    PubMed

    Buck, J W; Andrews, J H

    1999-02-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (anamorph, Rhodotorula glutinis) is a common phylloplane epiphyte with biocontrol potential. To understand how R. toruloides adheres to plant surfaces, we obtained nonadherent fungal mutants after chemical mutagenesis with methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester. Sixteen attachment-minus (Att-) mutants were identified by three methods: (i) screening capsule-minus colonies for loss of adhesive ability; (ii) enrichment for mutants unable to attach to polystyrene; and (iii) selection for reduced fluorescence of fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin A (Con A)-stained cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. None of the 16 mutants attached to polystyrene or barley leaves. The lectin Con A eliminated adhesion in all of the wild-type isolates tested. Hapten competition assays indicated that Con A bound to mannose residues on the cell surface. Adhesion of wild-type R. toruloides was transient; nonadhesive cells subsequently became adhesive, with bud development. All Att- mutants and nonattaching wild-type cells lacked polar regions that stained intensely with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Con A and India ink. Lectin, enzyme, and chemical treatments showed that the polar regions consisted of alkali-soluble materials, including mannose residues. Tunicamycin treatment reduced wild-type adhesion, indicating that the mannose residues could be associated with glycoproteins. We concluded that compounds, including mannose residues, that are localized at sites of bud development mediate adhesion of R. toruloides to both polystyrene and barley leaf surfaces.

  16. A Synthetic Human Kinase Can Control Cell Cycle Progression in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Megan J.; Andrighetti, Heather J.; Ma, Xiaoli; Brandl, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The DDK kinase complex, composed of Cdc7 and Dbf4, is required for S-phase progression. The two component proteins show different degrees of sequence conservation between human and yeast. Here, we determine that Saccharomyces cerevisiae bearing human CDC7 and DBF4 grows comparably to cells with yeast DDK under standard growth conditions. HsDrf1 (a second human Dbf4-like protein) does not support growth, suggesting that HsDbf4 is the true ortholog of ScDbf4. Both human subunits are required to complement yeast cdc7Δ or dbf4Δ due to the inability of human Cdc7 or Dbf4 to interact with the corresponding yeast protein. Flow cytometry indicates normal cell cycle progression for yeast containing human DDK. However, yeast containing human DDK is sensitive to long-term exposure to hydroxyurea and fails to sporulate, suggesting that human DDK substitutes for some, but not all, of yeast DDK’s functions. We mapped the region of Cdc7 required for species-specific function of DDK to the C-terminus of Cdc7 by substituting the yeast C-terminal 55 amino acid residues in place of the equivalent human residues. The resulting hybrid protein supported growth of a cdc7Δ strain only in the presence of ScDBF4. The strain supported by the hybrid CDC7 was not sensitive to HU and formed tetrads. Together, our data indicate that DDK’s targeting of its essential substrate is conserved between species, whereas the interactions within DDK are species specific. PMID:22384342

  17. Nanomechanics of Yeast Surfaces Revealed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, Etienne; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David

    Despite the large and well-documented characterization of the microbial cell wall in terms of chemical composition, the determination of the mechanical properties of surface molecules in relation to their function remains a key challenge in cell biology.The emergence of powerful tools allowing molecular manipulations has already revolutionized our understanding of the surface properties of fungal cells. At the frontier between nanophysics and molecular biology, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and more specifically single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), has strongly contributed to our current knowledge of the cell wall organization and nanomechanical properties. However, due to the complexity of the technique, measurements on live cells are still at their infancy.In this chapter, we describe the cell wall composition and recapitulate the principles of AFM as well as the main current methodologies used to perform AFM measurements on live cells, including sample immobilization and tip functionalization.The current status of the progress in probing nanomechanics of the yeast surface is illustrated through three recent breakthrough studies. Determination of the cell wall nanostructure and elasticity is presented through two examples: the mechanical response of mannoproteins from brewing yeasts and elasticity measurements on lacking polysaccharide mutant strains. Additionally, an elegant study on force-induced unfolding and clustering of adhesion proteins located at the cell surface is also presented.

  18. Complete DNA Sequence of Kuraishia capsulata Illustrates Novel Genomic Features among Budding Yeasts (Saccharomycotina)

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Lucia; Noel, Benjamin; Porcel, Betina; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Hullo, Marie-Francoise; Sacerdot, Christine; Tekaia, Fredj; Leh-Louis, Véronique; Despons, Laurence; Khanna, Varun; Aury, Jean-Marc; Barbe, Valérie; Couloux, Arnaud; Labadie, Karen; Pelletier, Eric; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Boekhout, Teun; Gabaldon, Toni; Wincker, Patrick; Dujon, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The numerous yeast genome sequences presently available provide a rich source of information for functional as well as evolutionary genomics but unequally cover the large phylogenetic diversity of extant yeasts. We present here the complete sequence of the nuclear genome of the haploid-type strain of Kuraishia capsulata (CBS1993T), a nitrate-assimilating Saccharomycetales of uncertain taxonomy, isolated from tunnels of insect larvae underneath coniferous barks and characterized by its copious production of extracellular polysaccharides. The sequence is composed of seven scaffolds, one per chromosome, totaling 11.4 Mb and containing 6,029 protein-coding genes, ∼13.5% of which being interrupted by introns. This GC-rich yeast genome (45.7%) appears phylogenetically related with the few other nitrate-assimilating yeasts sequenced so far, Ogataea polymorpha, O. parapolymorpha, and Dekkera bruxellensis, with which it shares a very reduced number of tRNA genes, a novel tRNA sparing strategy, and a common nitrate assimilation cluster, three specific features to this group of yeasts. Centromeres were recognized in GC-poor troughs of each scaffold. The strain bears MAT alpha genes at a single MAT locus and presents a significant degree of conservation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, suggesting that it can perform sexual cycles in nature, although genes involved in meiosis were not all recognized. The complete absence of conservation of synteny between K. capsulata and any other yeast genome described so far, including the three other nitrate-assimilating species, validates the interest of this species for long-range evolutionary genomic studies among Saccharomycotina yeasts. PMID:24317973

  19. Complete DNA sequence of Kuraishia capsulata illustrates novel genomic features among budding yeasts (Saccharomycotina).

    PubMed

    Morales, Lucia; Noel, Benjamin; Porcel, Betina; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Hullo, Marie-Francoise; Sacerdot, Christine; Tekaia, Fredj; Leh-Louis, Véronique; Despons, Laurence; Khanna, Varun; Aury, Jean-Marc; Barbe, Valérie; Couloux, Arnaud; Labadie, Karen; Pelletier, Eric; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Boekhout, Teun; Gabaldon, Toni; Wincker, Patrick; Dujon, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The numerous yeast genome sequences presently available provide a rich source of information for functional as well as evolutionary genomics but unequally cover the large phylogenetic diversity of extant yeasts. We present here the complete sequence of the nuclear genome of the haploid-type strain of Kuraishia capsulata (CBS1993(T)), a nitrate-assimilating Saccharomycetales of uncertain taxonomy, isolated from tunnels of insect larvae underneath coniferous barks and characterized by its copious production of extracellular polysaccharides. The sequence is composed of seven scaffolds, one per chromosome, totaling 11.4 Mb and containing 6,029 protein-coding genes, ~13.5% of which being interrupted by introns. This GC-rich yeast genome (45.7%) appears phylogenetically related with the few other nitrate-assimilating yeasts sequenced so far, Ogataea polymorpha, O. parapolymorpha, and Dekkera bruxellensis, with which it shares a very reduced number of tRNA genes, a novel tRNA sparing strategy, and a common nitrate assimilation cluster, three specific features to this group of yeasts. Centromeres were recognized in GC-poor troughs of each scaffold. The strain bears MAT alpha genes at a single MAT locus and presents a significant degree of conservation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, suggesting that it can perform sexual cycles in nature, although genes involved in meiosis were not all recognized. The complete absence of conservation of synteny between K. capsulata and any other yeast genome described so far, including the three other nitrate-assimilating species, validates the interest of this species for long-range evolutionary genomic studies among Saccharomycotina yeasts.

  20. Mediated amperometry reveals different modes of yeast responses to sugars.

    PubMed

    Garjonyte, Rasa; Melvydas, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Albertas

    2016-02-01

    Menadione-mediated amperometry at carbon paste electrodes modified with various yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii) was employed to monitor redox activity inside the yeast cells induced by glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose or galactose. Continuous measurements revealed distinct modes (transient or gradually increasing) of the current development during the first 2 to 3 min after subjection to glucose, fructose and sucrose at electrodes containing S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains. Different modes (increasing or decreasing) of the current development after yeast subjection to galactose at electrodes with S. cerevisiae or D. hansenii and at electrodes with C. pulcherrima and P. guilliermondii suggested different mechanisms of galactose assimilation.

  1. Nile red fluorescence screening facilitating neutral lipid phenotype determination in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Kerry A; Rolph, Carole E; Lawrence, Clare L

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of yeast neutral lipid accumulation is important for biotechnology and also for modelling aberrant lipid metabolism in human disease. The Nile red (NR) method has been extensively utilised to determine lipid phenotypes of yeast cells via microscopic means. NR assays have been used to differentiate lipid accumulation and relative amounts of lipid in oleaginous species but have not been thoroughly validated for phenotype determination arising from genetic modification. A modified NR assay, first described by Sitepu et al. (J Microbiol Methods 91:321-328, 2012), was able to detect neutral lipid changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants with sensitivity similar to more advanced methodology. We have also be able to, for the first time, successfully apply the NR assay to the well characterised fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an increasingly important organism in biotechnology. The described NR fluorescence assay is suitable for increased throughput and rapid screening of genetically modified strains in both the biotechnology industry and for modelling ectopic lipid production for a variety of human diseases. This ultimately negates the need for labour intensive and time consuming lipid analyses of samples that may not yield a desirable lipid phenotype, whilst genetic modifications impacting significantly on the cellular lipid phenotype can be further promoted for more in depth analyses.

  2. Integrated RNA- and protein profiling of fermentation and respiration in diploid budding yeast provides insight into nutrient control of cell growth and development.

    PubMed

    Becker, Emmanuelle; Liu, Yuchen; Lardenois, Aurélie; Walther, Thomas; Horecka, Joe; Stuparevic, Igor; Law, Michael J; Lavigne, Régis; Evrard, Bertrand; Demougin, Philippe; Riffle, Michael; Strich, Randy; Davis, Ronald W; Pineau, Charles; Primig, Michael

    2015-04-24

    Diploid budding yeast undergoes rapid mitosis when it ferments glucose, and in the presence of a non-fermentable carbon source and the absence of a nitrogen source it triggers sporulation. Rich medium with acetate is a commonly used pre-sporulation medium, but our understanding of the molecular events underlying the acetate-driven transition from mitosis to meiosis is still incomplete. We identified 263 proteins for which mRNA and protein synthesis are linked or uncoupled in fermenting and respiring cells. Using motif predictions, interaction data and RNA profiling we find among them 28 likely targets for Ume6, a subunit of the conserved Rpd3/Sin3 histone deacetylase-complex regulating genes involved in metabolism, stress response and meiosis. Finally, we identify 14 genes for which both RNA and proteins are detected exclusively in respiring cells but not in fermenting cells in our sample set, including CSM4, SPR1, SPS4 and RIM4, which were thought to be meiosis-specific. Our work reveals intertwined transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms acting when a MATa/α strain responds to nutritional signals, and provides molecular clues how the carbon source primes yeast cells for entering meiosis. Our integrated genomics study provides insight into the interplay between the transcriptome and the proteome in diploid yeast cells undergoing vegetative growth in the presence of glucose (fermentation) or acetate (respiration). Furthermore, it reveals novel target genes involved in these processes for Ume6, the DNA binding subunit of the conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3 and the co-repressor Sin3. We have combined data from an RNA profiling experiment using tiling arrays that cover the entire yeast genome, and a large-scale protein detection analysis based on mass spectrometry in diploid MATa/α cells. This distinguishes our study from most others in the field-which investigate haploid yeast strains-because only diploid cells can undergo meiotic development

  3. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 mediates cadmium resistance in budding yeast through ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Naganuma, Akira

    2007-11-23

    Overexpression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 conferred strong cadmium resistance on budding yeast. Proteasome activity, which is involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, was not essential for the acquisition of resistance to cadmium. The overexpression of Cdc34 accelerated the ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4 and reduced expression of MET25 gene, which is a target of Met4. A MET25-disrupted strain of yeast was more resistant to cadmium than was the wild-type strain, but overexpression of Cdc34 in the MET25-disrupted cells did not affect sensitivity to cadmium. Met25 is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of homocysteine from sulfide (S{sup 2-}) and O-acetylhomocysteine and we detected the increased production of S{sup 2-} upon overexpression of Cdc34. Our results suggest that overexpression of Cdc34 inactivates Met4 and interferes with expression of the MET25, with subsequent production of CdS, which has low toxicity, and, thus, a decrease in the cadmium toxicity.

  4. A plant virus movement protein regulates the Gcn2p kinase in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Frederic; Aparicio-Sanchis, Rafael; Gadea, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús Ángel; Pallás, Vicente; Murguía, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Virus life cycle heavily depends on their ability to command the host machinery in order to translate their genomes. Animal viruses have been shown to interfere with host translation machinery by expressing viral proteins that either maintain or inhibit eIF2α function by phosphorylation. However, this interference mechanism has not been described for any plant virus yet. Prunnus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a serious pathogen of cultivated stone fruit trees. The movement protein (MP) of PNRSV is necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus. By using a yeast-based approach we have found that over-expression of the PNRSV MP caused a severe growth defect in yeast cells. cDNA microarrays analysis carried out to characterise at the molecular level the growth interference phenotype reported the induction of genes related to amino acid deprivation suggesting that expression of MP activates the GCN pathway in yeast cells. Accordingly, PNRSV MP triggered activation of the Gcn2p kinase, as judged by increased eIF2α phosphorylation. Activation of Gcn2p by MP expression required a functional Tor1p kinase, since rapamycin treatment alleviated the yeast cell growth defect and blocked eIF2α phosphorylation triggered by MP expression. Overall, these findings uncover a previously uncharacterised function for PNRSV MP viral protein, and point out at Tor1p and Gcn2p kinases as candidate susceptibility factors for plant viral infections.

  5. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  6. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  7. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, D C; Zahner, J E; Mulholland, J W; Pringle, J R; Botstein, D

    1997-01-01

    A search for Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins that interact with actin in the two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis. MATa/alpha daughter cells lacking Aip3p place their first buds normally at their distal poles but choose random sites for budding in subsequent cell cycles. This suggests that actin and associated proteins are involved in placing the bipolar positional marker at the division site but not at the distal tip of the daughter cell. In addition, although aip3 mutant cells are not obviously defective in the initial polarization of the cytoskeleton at the time of bud emergence, they appear to lose cytoskeletal polarity as the bud enlarges, resulting in the formation of cells that are larger and rounder than normal. aip3 mutant cells also show inefficient nuclear migration and nuclear division, defects in the organization of the secretory system, and abnormal septation, all defects that presumably reflect the involvement of Aip3p in the organization and/or function of the actin cytoskeleton. The sequence of Aip3p is novel but contains a predicted coiled-coil domain near its C terminus that may mediate the observed homo-oligomerization of the protein. Aip3p shows a distinctive localization pattern that correlates well with its likely sites of action: it appears at the presumptive bud site prior to bud emergence, remains near the tips of small bund, and forms a ring (or pair of rings) in the mother-bud neck that is detectable early in the cell cycle but becomes more prominent prior to cytokinesis. Surprisingly, the localization of Aip3p does not appear to require either polarized actin or the septin proteins of the neck filaments. Images PMID:9247651

  8. Dietary Restriction Depends on Nutrient Composition to Extend Chronological Lifespan in Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziyun; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    The traditional view on dietary restriction has been challenged with regard to extending lifespan of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This is because studies have shown that changing the balance of dietary components without reduction of dietary intake can increase lifespan, suggesting that nutrient composition other than dietary restriction play a pivotal role in regulation of longevity. However, this opinion has not been reflected in yeast aging studies. Inspired by this new finding, response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the relationships between nutrients (glucose, amino acids and yeast nitrogen base) and lifespan as well as biomass production in four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (wild-type BY4742, sch9Δ, tor1Δ, and sir2Δ mutants) using a high throughput screening assay. Our results indicate that lifespan extension by a typical dietary restriction regime was dependent on the nutrients in media and that nutrient composition was a key determinant for yeast longevity. Four different yeast strains were cultured in various media, which showed similar response surface trends in biomass production and viability at day two but greatly different trends in lifespan. The pH of aging media was dependent on glucose concentration and had no apparent correlation with lifespan under conditions where amino acids and YNB were varied widely, and simply buffering the pH of media could extend lifespan significantly. Furthermore, the results showed that strain sch9Δ was more responsive in nutrient-sensing than the other three strains, suggesting that Sch9 (serine-threonine kinase pathway) was a major nutrient-sensing factor that regulates cell growth, cell size, metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Overall, our findings support the notion that nutrient composition might be a more effective way than simple dietary restriction to optimize lifespan and biomass production from yeast to other organisms. PMID:23691220

  9. Maintenance and Integrity of the Mitochondrial Genome: a Plethora of Nuclear Genes in the Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Contamine, Véronique; Picard, Marguerite

    2000-01-01

    Instability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is a general problem from yeasts to humans. However, its genetic control is not well documented except in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the discovery, 50 years ago, of the petite mutants by Ephrussi and his coworkers, it has been shown that more than 100 nuclear genes directly or indirectly influence the fate of the rho+ mtDNA. It is not surprising that mutations in genes involved in mtDNA metabolism (replication, repair, and recombination) can cause a complete loss of mtDNA (rho0 petites) and/or lead to truncated forms (rho−) of this genome. However, most loss-of-function mutations which increase yeast mtDNA instability act indirectly: they lie in genes controlling functions as diverse as mitochondrial translation, ATP synthase, iron homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, and so on. In a few cases it has been shown that gene overexpression increases the levels of petite mutants. Mutations in other genes are lethal in the absence of a functional mtDNA and thus convert this petite-positive yeast into a petite-negative form: petite cells cannot be recovered in these genetic contexts. Most of the data are explained if one assumes that the maintenance of the rho+ genome depends on a centromere-like structure dispensable for the maintenance of rho− mtDNA and/or the function of mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase subunits, especially ATP6. In fact, the real challenge for the next 50 years will be to assemble the pieces of this puzzle by using yeast and to use complementary models, especially in strict aerobes. PMID:10839818

  10. Collective effects of SNPs on transgenerational inheritance in Caenorhabditis elegans and budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuobin; Man, Xian; Xia, Mengying; Huang, Yimin; Yuan, Dejian; Huang, Shi

    2015-07-01

    We studied the collective effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on transgenerational inheritance in Caenorhabditis elegans recombinant inbred advanced intercross lines (RIAILs) and yeast segregants. We divided the RIAILs and segregants into two groups of high and low minor allele content (MAC). RIAILs with higher MAC needed less generations of benzaldehyde training to gain a stable olfactory imprint and showed a greater change from normal after benzaldehyde training. Yeast segregants with higher MAC showed a more dramatic shortening of the lag phase length after ethanol exposure. The short lag phase as acquired by ethanol training was more dramatically lost after recovery in ethanol free medium for the high MAC group. We also found a preferential association between MAC and traits linked with higher number of additive QTLs. These results suggest a role for the collective effects of SNPs in transgenerational inheritance, and may help explain human variations in disease susceptibility.

  11. Cell-cycle control of gene expression in budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bähler, Jürg

    2005-01-01

    Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be a universal feature of proliferating cells, although relatively little is known about its biological significance and conservation between organisms. The two distantly related yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have provided valuable complementary insight into the regulation of periodic transcription as a function of the cell cycle. More recently, genome-wide studies of proliferating cells have identified hundreds of periodically expressed genes and underlying mechanisms of transcriptional control. This review discusses the regulation of three major transcriptional waves, which roughly coincide with three main cell-cycle transitions (initiation of DNA replication, entry into mitosis, and exit from mitosis). I also compare and contrast the transcriptional regulatory networks between the two yeasts and discuss the evolutionary conservation and possible roles for cell cycle-regulated transcription.

  12. Genetic Dissection of Ethanol Tolerance in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X. H.; Wang, M. H.; Tan, T.; Li, J. R.; Yang, H.; Leach, L.; Zhang, R. M.; Luo, Z. W.

    2007-01-01

    Uncovering genetic control of variation in ethanol tolerance in natural populations of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for understanding the evolution of fermentation, the dominant lifestyle of the species, and for improving efficiency of selection for strains with high ethanol tolerance, a character of great economic value for the brewing and biofuel industries. To date, as many as 251 genes have been predicted to be involved in influencing this character. Candidacy of these genes was determined from a tested phenotypic effect following gene knockout, from an induced change in gene function under an ethanol stress condition, or by mutagenesis. This article represents the first genomics approach for dissecting genetic variation in ethanol tolerance between two yeast strains with a highly divergent trait phenotype. We developed a simple but reliable experimental protocol for scoring the phenotype and a set of STR/SNP markers evenly covering the whole genome. We created a mapping population comprising 319 segregants from crossing the parental strains. On the basis of the data sets, we find that the tolerance trait has a high heritability and that additive genetic variance dominates genetic variation of the trait. Segregation at five QTL detected has explained ∼50% of phenotypic variation; in particular, the major QTL mapped on yeast chromosome 9 has accounted for a quarter of the phenotypic variation. We integrated the QTL analysis with the predicted candidacy of ethanol resistance genes and found that only a few of these candidates fall in the QTL regions. PMID:17194785

  13. Genetic dissection of ethanol tolerance in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hu, X H; Wang, M H; Tan, T; Li, J R; Yang, H; Leach, L; Zhang, R M; Luo, Z W

    2007-03-01

    Uncovering genetic control of variation in ethanol tolerance in natural populations of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for understanding the evolution of fermentation, the dominant lifestyle of the species, and for improving efficiency of selection for strains with high ethanol tolerance, a character of great economic value for the brewing and biofuel industries. To date, as many as 251 genes have been predicted to be involved in influencing this character. Candidacy of these genes was determined from a tested phenotypic effect following gene knockout, from an induced change in gene function under an ethanol stress condition, or by mutagenesis. This article represents the first genomics approach for dissecting genetic variation in ethanol tolerance between two yeast strains with a highly divergent trait phenotype. We developed a simple but reliable experimental protocol for scoring the phenotype and a set of STR/SNP markers evenly covering the whole genome. We created a mapping population comprising 319 segregants from crossing the parental strains. On the basis of the data sets, we find that the tolerance trait has a high heritability and that additive genetic variance dominates genetic variation of the trait. Segregation at five QTL detected has explained approximately 50% of phenotypic variation; in particular, the major QTL mapped on yeast chromosome 9 has accounted for a quarter of the phenotypic variation. We integrated the QTL analysis with the predicted candidacy of ethanol resistance genes and found that only a few of these candidates fall in the QTL regions.

  14. The proline metabolism intermediate Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate directly inhibits the mitochondrial respiration in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akira; Nasuno, Ryo; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-07-30

    The proline metabolism intermediate Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) induces cell death in animals, plants and yeasts. To elucidate how P5C triggers cell death, we analyzed P5C metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and superoxide anion generation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene disruption analysis revealed that P5C-mediated cell death was not due to P5C metabolism. Interestingly, deficiency in mitochondrial respiration suppressed the sensitivity of yeast cells to P5C. In addition, we found that P5C inhibits the mitochondrial respiration and induces a burst of superoxide anions from the mitochondria. We propose that P5C regulates cell death via the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutation Rates across Budding Yeast Chromosome VI Are Correlated with Replication Timing

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Gregory I.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2011-01-01

    Previous experimental studies suggest that the mutation rate is nonuniform across the yeast genome. To characterize this variation across the genome more precisely, we measured the mutation rate of the URA3 gene integrated at 43 different locations tiled across Chromosome VI. We show that mutation rate varies 6-fold across a single chromosome, that this variation is correlated with replication timing, and we propose a model to explain this variation that relies on the temporal separation of two processes for replicating past damaged DNA: error-free DNA damage tolerance and translesion synthesis. This model is supported by the observation that eliminating translesion synthesis decreases this variation. PMID:21666225

  16. Bck2 Acts through the MADS Box Protein Mcm1 to Activate Cell-Cycle-Regulated Genes in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bastajian, Nazareth; Friesen, Helena; Andrews, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The Bck2 protein is a potent genetic regulator of cell-cycle-dependent gene expression in budding yeast. To date, most experiments have focused on assessing a potential role for Bck2 in activation of the G1/S-specific transcription factors SBF (Swi4, Swi6) and MBF (Mbp1, Swi6), yet the mechanism of gene activation by Bck2 has remained obscure. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using a truncated version of Bck2 and discovered six novel Bck2-binding partners including Mcm1, an essential protein that binds to and activates M/G1 promoters through Early Cell cycle Box (ECB) elements as well as to G2/M promoters. At M/G1 promoters Mcm1 is inhibited by association with two repressors, Yox1 or Yhp1, and gene activation ensues once repression is relieved by an unknown activating signal. Here, we show that Bck2 interacts physically with Mcm1 to activate genes during G1 phase. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments to show that Bck2 localizes to the promoters of M/G1-specific genes, in a manner dependent on functional ECB elements, as well as to the promoters of G1/S and G2/M genes. The Bck2-Mcm1 interaction requires valine 69 on Mcm1, a residue known to be required for interaction with Yox1. Overexpression of BCK2 decreases Yox1 localization to the early G1-specific CLN3 promoter and rescues the lethality caused by overexpression of YOX1. Our data suggest that Yox1 and Bck2 may compete for access to the Mcm1-ECB scaffold to ensure appropriate activation of the initial suite of genes required for cell cycle commitment. PMID:23675312

  17. Direct TFIIA-TFIID protein contacts drive budding yeast ribosomal protein gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Layer, Justin H; Weil, P Anthony

    2013-08-09

    We have previously shown that yeast TFIID provides coactivator function on the promoters of ribosomal protein-encoding genes (RPGs) by making direct contact with the transactivator repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1). Further, our structural studies of assemblies generated with purified Rap1, TFIID, and TFIIA on RPG enhancer-promoter DNA indicate that Rap1-TFIID interaction induces dramatic conformational rearrangements of enhancer-promoter DNA and TFIID-bound TFIIA. These data indicate a previously unknown yet critical role for yeast TFIIA in the integration of activator-TFIID contacts with promoter conformation and downstream preinitiation complex formation and/or function. Here we describe the use of systematic mutagenesis to define how specific TFIIA contacts contribute to these processes. We have verified that TFIIA is required for RPG transcription in vivo and in vitro, consistent with the existence of a critical Rap1-TFIIA-TFIID interaction network. We also identified essential points of contact for TFIIA and Rap1 within the Rap1 binding domain of the Taf4 subunit of TFIID. These data suggest a mechanism for how interactions between TFIID, TFIIA, and Rap1 contribute to the high rate of transcription initiation seen on RPGs in vivo.

  18. Direct TFIIA-TFIID Protein Contacts Drive Budding Yeast Ribosomal Protein Gene Transcription*

    PubMed Central

    Layer, Justin H.; Weil, P. Anthony

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that yeast TFIID provides coactivator function on the promoters of ribosomal protein-encoding genes (RPGs) by making direct contact with the transactivator repressor activator protein 1 (Rap1). Further, our structural studies of assemblies generated with purified Rap1, TFIID, and TFIIA on RPG enhancer-promoter DNA indicate that Rap1-TFIID interaction induces dramatic conformational rearrangements of enhancer-promoter DNA and TFIID-bound TFIIA. These data indicate a previously unknown yet critical role for yeast TFIIA in the integration of activator-TFIID contacts with promoter conformation and downstream preinitiation complex formation and/or function. Here we describe the use of systematic mutagenesis to define how specific TFIIA contacts contribute to these processes. We have verified that TFIIA is required for RPG transcription in vivo and in vitro, consistent with the existence of a critical Rap1-TFIIA-TFIID interaction network. We also identified essential points of contact for TFIIA and Rap1 within the Rap1 binding domain of the Taf4 subunit of TFIID. These data suggest a mechanism for how interactions between TFIID, TFIIA, and Rap1 contribute to the high rate of transcription initiation seen on RPGs in vivo. PMID:23814059

  19. Microtubule stability in budding yeast: characterization and dosage suppression of a benomyl-dependent tubulin mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Machin, N A; Lee, J M; Barnes, G

    1995-01-01

    To better understand the dynamic regulation of microtubule structures in yeast, we studied a conditional-lethal beta-tubulin mutation tub2-150. This mutation is unique among the hundreds of tubulin mutations isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in that it appears to cause an increase in the stability of microtubules. We report here that this allele is a mutation of threonine 238 to alanine, and that tub2-150 prevents the spindle from elongating during anaphase, suggesting a nuclear microtubule defect. To identify regulators of microtubule stability and/or anaphase, yeast genes were selected that, when overexpressed, could suppress the tub2-150 temperature-sensitive phenotype. One of these genes, JSN1, encodes a protein of 125 kDa that has limited similarity to a number of proteins of unknown function. Overexpression of the JSN1 gene in a TUB2 strain causes that strain to become more sensitive to benomyl, a microtubule-destabilizing drug. Of a representative group of microtubule mutants, only one other mutation, tub2-404, could be suppressed by JSN1 overexpression, showing that JSN1 is an allele-specific suppressor. As tub2-404 mutants are also defective for spindle elongation, this provides additional support for a role for JSN1 during anaphase. Images PMID:8534919

  20. Transcription factor genes essential for cell proliferation and replicative lifespan in budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, Yuka; Tai, Akiko; Dakeyama, Shota; Yamamoto, Kaori; Inoue, Yamato; Kishimoto, Yoshifumi; Ohara, Hiroya; Mukai, Yukio

    2015-07-31

    Many of the lifespan-related genes have been identified in eukaryotes ranging from the yeast to human. However, there is limited information available on the longevity genes that are essential for cell proliferation. Here, we investigated whether the essential genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors modulated the replicative lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterozygous diploid knockout strains for FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1 genes showed significantly short lifespan. {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated a characteristic metabolic profile in the Δfhl1/FHL1 mutant. These results strongly suggest that FHL1 regulates the transcription of lifespan related metabolic genes. Thus, heterozygous knockout strains could be the potential materials for discovering further novel lifespan genes. - Highlights: • Involvement of yeast TF genes essential for cell growth in lifespan was evaluated. • The essential TF genes, FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1, regulate replicative lifespan. • Heterozygous deletion of FHL1 changes cellular metabolism related to lifespan.

  1. The third exon of the budding yeast meiotic recombination gene HOP2 is required for calcium-dependent and recombinase Dmc1-specific stimulation of homologous strand assimilation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuen-Ling; Brown, M Scott; Qin, Daoming; Handa, Naofumi; Bishop, Douglas K

    2014-06-27

    During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOP2 and MND1 genes are essential for recombination. A previous biochemical study has shown that budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 stimulates the activity of the meiosis-specific strand exchange protein ScDmc1 only 3-fold, whereas analogous studies using mammalian homologs show >30-fold stimulation. The HOP2 gene was recently discovered to contain a second intron that lies near the 3'-end. We show that both HOP2 introns are efficiently spliced during meiosis, forming a predominant transcript that codes for a protein with a C-terminal sequence different from that of the previously studied version of the protein. Using the newly identified HOP2 open reading frame to direct synthesis of wild type Hop2 protein, we show that the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer stimulated Dmc1 D-loop activity up to 30-fold, similar to the activity of mammalian Hop2-Mnd1. ScHop2-Mnd1 stimulated ScDmc1 activity in the presence of physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca(2+) ions, as long as Mg(2+) was also present at physiological concentrations, leading us to hypothesize that ScDmc1 protomers bind both cations in the active Dmc1 filament. Co-factor requirements and order-of-addition experiments suggested that Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of Dmc1 involves a process that follows the formation of functional Dmc1-ssDNA filaments. In dramatic contrast to mammalian orthologs, the stimulatory activity of budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 appeared to be specific to Dmc1; we observed no Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of the other budding yeast strand exchange protein Rad51. Together, these results support previous genetic experiments indicating that Hop2-Mnd1 specifically stimulates Dmc1 during meiotic recombination in budding yeast.

  2. The Third Exon of the Budding Yeast Meiotic Recombination Gene HOP2 Is Required for Calcium-dependent and Recombinase Dmc1-specific Stimulation of Homologous Strand Assimilation*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuen-Ling; Brown, M. Scott; Qin, Daoming; Handa, Naofumi; Bishop, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOP2 and MND1 genes are essential for recombination. A previous biochemical study has shown that budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 stimulates the activity of the meiosis-specific strand exchange protein ScDmc1 only 3-fold, whereas analogous studies using mammalian homologs show >30-fold stimulation. The HOP2 gene was recently discovered to contain a second intron that lies near the 3′-end. We show that both HOP2 introns are efficiently spliced during meiosis, forming a predominant transcript that codes for a protein with a C-terminal sequence different from that of the previously studied version of the protein. Using the newly identified HOP2 open reading frame to direct synthesis of wild type Hop2 protein, we show that the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer stimulated Dmc1 D-loop activity up to 30-fold, similar to the activity of mammalian Hop2-Mnd1. ScHop2-Mnd1 stimulated ScDmc1 activity in the presence of physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca2+ ions, as long as Mg2+ was also present at physiological concentrations, leading us to hypothesize that ScDmc1 protomers bind both cations in the active Dmc1 filament. Co-factor requirements and order-of-addition experiments suggested that Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of Dmc1 involves a process that follows the formation of functional Dmc1-ssDNA filaments. In dramatic contrast to mammalian orthologs, the stimulatory activity of budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 appeared to be specific to Dmc1; we observed no Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of the other budding yeast strand exchange protein Rad51. Together, these results support previous genetic experiments indicating that Hop2-Mnd1 specifically stimulates Dmc1 during meiotic recombination in budding yeast. PMID:24798326

  3. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants.

  4. Whole-cell imaging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by high-voltage scanning transmission electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Esaki, Masatoshi; Ogura, Teru; Arai, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    Electron tomography using a high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM) provides three-dimensional information about cellular components in sections thicker than 1 μm, although in bright-field mode image degradation caused by multiple inelastic scattering of transmitted electrons limit the attainable resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is believed to give enhanced contrast and resolution compared to conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM). Samples up to 1 μm in thickness have been analyzed with an intermediate-voltage electron microscope because inelastic scattering is not a critical limitation, and probe broadening can be minimized. Here, we employed STEM at 1 MeV high-voltage to extend the useful specimen thickness for electron tomography, which we demonstrate by a seamless tomographic reconstruction of a whole, budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell, which is ~3 μm in thickness. High-voltage STEM tomography, especially in the bright-field mode, demonstrated sufficiently enhanced contrast and intensity, compared to CTEM tomography, to permit segmentation of major organelles in the whole cell. STEM imaging also reduced specimen shrinkage during tilt-series acquisition. The fidelity of structural preservation was limited by cytoplasmic extraction, and the spatial resolution was limited by the relatively large convergence angle of the scanning probe. However, the new technique has potential to solve longstanding problems of image blurring in biological specimens beyond 1 μm in thickness, and may facilitate new research in cellular structural biology.

  5. Cdc14p resets the competency of replication licensing by dephosphorylating multiple initiation proteins during mitotic exit in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanliang; Yung, Philip Y K; Huo, Lin; Liang, Chun

    2010-11-15

    In eukaryotes, replication licensing is achieved through sequential loading of several replication-initiation proteins onto replication origins to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), and unscheduled replication licensing is prevented by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) through inhibitory phosphorylations of multiple initiation proteins. It is known that CDK inactivation during mitotic exit promotes pre-RC formation for the next cell cycle. However, whether the removal of the inhibitory phosphorylations on the initiation proteins is essential and the identity of the acting phosphatase(s) remain unknown. Here, we show that cell division cycle protein 14 (Cdc14p) dephosphorylates replication-initiation proteins Orc2p, Orc6p, Cdc6p and Mcm3p to restore their competence for pre-RC assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells without functional Cdc14p fail to dephosphorylate initiation proteins and to form pre-RCs - even when CDK activities are suppressed - and cannot replicate DNA in mitotic rereplication systems, whereas pulsed ectopic expression of Cdc14p in mitotic cells results in efficient pre-RC assembly and DNA rereplication. Furthermore, Cdc14p becomes dispensable for DNA rereplication in mitotic cells with combined non-phosphorylatable and/or phosphorylation-insensitive alleles of the initiation proteins. These data unravel the essential role of Cdc14p in replication licensing, beyond its established functions in mitotic exit, providing new insight into the intricate regulation of DNA replication through the interplay of CDKs and the Cdc14p phosphatase.

  6. Multiple branches of the meiotic recombination pathway contribute independently to homolog pairing and stable juxtaposition during meiosis in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Peoples-Holst, Tamara L.; Burgess, Sean M.

    2005-01-01

    A unique aspect of meiosis is the segregation of homologous chromosomes at the meiosis I division. Homologs are physically connected prior to segregation by crossing over between nonsister chromatids. Crossovers arise from the repair of induced double-strand breaks (DSBs). In many organisms, more DSBs are formed than crossovers in a given nucleus. It has been previously suggested that repair of DSBs to noncrossover recombination products aids homolog alignment. Here we explore how two modes of the meiotic recombination pathway (crossover and noncrossover) and meiotic telomere reorganization contribute to the pairing and close juxtaposition of homologous chromosomes in budding yeast. We found that intermediates in the DSB repair pathway leading to both crossover and noncrossover recombination products contribute independently to close, stable homolog juxtaposition (CSHJ), a measurable state of homolog pairing. Analysis of the ndj1Δ mutant indicates that the effect of meiotic telomere reorganization on CSHJ is exerted through recombination intermediates at interstitial chromosomal loci, perhaps through the noncrossover branch of the DSB repair pathway. We suggest that transient, early DSB-initiated interactions, including those that give rise to noncrossovers, are important for homolog recognition and juxtaposition. PMID:15805472

  7. Kinetochore function and chromosome segregation rely on critical residues in histones H3 and H4 in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tessie M; Lenstra, Tineke L; Duggan, Nicole; Jiang, Shuangying; Ceto, Steven; Holstege, Frank C P; Dai, Junbiao; Boeke, Jef D; Biggins, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires that sister kinetochores biorient and attach to microtubules from opposite poles. Kinetochore biorientation relies on the underlying centromeric chromatin, which provides a platform to assemble the kinetochore and to recruit the regulatory factors that ensure the high fidelity of this process. To identify the centromeric chromatin determinants that contribute to chromosome segregation, we performed two complementary unbiased genetic screens using a library of budding yeast mutants in every residue of histone H3 and H4. In one screen, we identified mutants that lead to increased loss of a nonessential chromosome. In the second screen, we isolated mutants whose viability depends on a key regulator of biorientation, the Aurora B protein kinase. Nine mutants were common to both screens and exhibited kinetochore biorientation defects. Four of the mutants map near the unstructured nucleosome entry site, and their genetic interaction with reduced IPL1 can be suppressed by increasing the dosage of SGO1, a key regulator of biorientation. In addition, the composition of purified kinetochores was altered in six of the mutants. Together, this work identifies previously unknown histone residues involved in chromosome segregation and lays the foundation for future studies on the role of the underlying chromatin structure in chromosome segregation.

  8. Rad9 BRCT domain interaction with phosphorylated H2AX regulates the G1 checkpoint in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hammet, Andrew; Magill, Christine; Heierhorst, Jörg; Jackson, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H2A or H2AX is an early and sensitive marker of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, although mutation of the conserved damage-dependent phosphorylation site is well tolerated. Here, we show that H2A phosphorylation is required for cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage at the G1/S transition in budding yeast. Furthermore, we show that the tandem BRCT domain of Rad9 interacts directly with phosphorylated H2A in vitro and that a rad9 point mutation that abolishes this interaction results in in vivo phenotypes that are similar to those caused by an H2A phosphorylation site mutation. Remarkably, similar checkpoint defects are also caused by a Rad9 Tudor domain mutation that impairs Rad9 chromatin association already in undamaged cells. These findings indicate that constitutive Tudor domain-mediated and damage-specific BRCT domain–phospho-H2A-dependent interactions of Rad9 with chromatin cooperate to establish G1 checkpoint arrest. PMID:17721446

  9. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III–transcribed genes in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III–transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements—centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III–transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III–transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III–dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III–transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III–transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. PMID:27559135

  10. Distinct roles of the polarity factors Boi1 and Boi2 in the control of exocytosis and abscission in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Masgrau, Aina; Battola, Andrea; Sanmartin, Trinidad; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Gabaldón, Toni; Mendoza, Manuel

    2017-09-13

    Boi1 and Boi2 (Boi1/2) are budding yeast plasma membrane proteins that function in polarized growth, and in cytokinesis inhibition in response to chromosome bridges via the NoCut abscission checkpoint. How Boi1/2 act in these two distinct processes is not understood. We demonstrate that Boi1/2 are required for a late step in the fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane of the growing bud. Cells lacking Boi1/2 accumulate secretory vesicles and are defective in bud growth. In contrast, Boi2 is specifically required for abscission inhibition in cells with chromatin bridges. The SH3 domain of Boi2, which is dispensable for bud growth and targets Boi2 to the site of abscission, is necessary and sufficient for abscission inhibition. Gain of function of the exocyst, a conserved protein complex involved in tethering of exocytic vesicles to the plasma membrane, rescued secretion and bud growth defects in boi mutant cells, and abrogated NoCut checkpoint function. Thus, Boi2 functions redundantly with Boi1 to promote the fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane at sites of polarized growth, and acts as an abscission inhibitor during cytokinesis in response to chromatin bridges. © 2017 by The American Society for Cell Biology.

  11. Synthesis and function of membrane phosphoinositides in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Strahl, Thomas; Thorner, Jeremy

    2007-03-01

    It is now well appreciated that derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are key regulators of many cellular processes in eukaryotes. Of particular interest are phosphoinositides (mono- and polyphosphorylated adducts to the inositol ring in PtdIns), which are located at the cytoplasmic face of cellular membranes. Phosphoinositides serve both a structural and a signaling role via their recruitment of proteins that contain phosphoinositide-binding domains. Phosphoinositides also have a role as precursors of several types of second messengers for certain intracellular signaling pathways. Realization of the importance of phosphoinositides has brought increased attention to characterization of the enzymes that regulate their synthesis, interconversion, and turnover. Here we review the current state of our knowledge about the properties and regulation of the ATP-dependent lipid kinases responsible for synthesis of phosphoinositides and also the additional temporal and spatial controls exerted by the phosphatases and a phospholipase that act on phosphoinositides in yeast.

  12. Delete and repeat: a comprehensive toolkit for sequential gene knockout in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, Johannes H; Heick, Sven Boris

    2011-01-01

    Gene inactivation is an essential step in the molecular dissection of gene function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many tools for gene disruption are available. Gene disruption cassettes comprising completely heterologous marker genes flanked by short DNA segments homologous to the regions to the left and right of the gene to be deleted mediate highly efficient one-step gene disruption events. Routinely, in more than 50% of analyzed clones, the marker cassette is integrated in the targeted location. The inclusion of loxP sites flanking the disruption marker gene allows sequence-specific Cre recombinase-mediated marker rescue so that the marker can be reused to disrupt another gene. Here, we describe a comprehensive toolbox for multiple gene disruptions comprising a set of seven heterologous marker genes including four dominant resistance markers for gene disruption, plus a set of Cre expression plasmids carrying eight different selection markers, four of them dominant.

  13. Synthesis and Function of Membrane Phosphoinositides in Budding Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, Thomas; Thorner, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It is now well appreciated that derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are key regulators of many cellular processes in eukaryotes. Of particular interest are phosphoinositides (mono- and polyphosphorylated adducts to the inositol ring in PtdIns), which are located at the cytoplasmic face of cellular membranes. Phosphoinositides serve both a structural and a signaling role via their recruitment of proteins that contain phosphoinositide-binding domains. Phosphoinositides also have a role as precursors of several types of second messengers for certain intracellular signaling pathways. Realization of the importance of phosphoinositides has brought increased attention to characterization of the enzymes that regulate their synthesis, interconversion, and turnover. Here we review the current state of our knowledge about the properties and regulation of the ATP-dependent lipid kinases responsible for synthesis of phosphoinositides and also the additional temporal and spatial controls exerted by the phosphatases and a phospholipase that act on phosphoinositides in yeast. PMID:17382260

  14. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  15. In vivo single-particle imaging of nuclear mRNA export in budding yeast demonstrates an essential role for Mex67p

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carlas; Lari, Azra; Derrer, Carina Patrizia; Ouwehand, Anette; Rossouw, Ammeret; Huisman, Maximiliaan; Dange, Thomas; Hopman, Mark; Joseph, Aviva; Zenklusen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Many messenger RNA export proteins have been identified; yet the spatial and temporal activities of these proteins and how they determine directionality of messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex export from the nucleus remain largely undefined. Here, the bacteriophage PP7 RNA-labeling system was used in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to follow single-particle mRNP export events with high spatial precision and temporal resolution. These data reveal that mRNP export, consisting of nuclear docking, transport, and cytoplasmic release from a nuclear pore complex (NPC), is fast (∼200 ms) and that upon arrival in the cytoplasm, mRNPs are frequently confined near the nuclear envelope. Mex67p functions as the principal mRNP export receptor in budding yeast. In a mex67-5 mutant, delayed cytoplasmic release from NPCs and retrograde transport of mRNPs was observed. This proves an essential role for Mex67p in cytoplasmic mRNP release and directionality of transport. PMID:26694837

  16. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  17. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF. PMID:27630630

  18. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    PubMed Central

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  19. Effects of 50 Hz magnetic field on cell cycle kinetics and the colony forming ability of budding yeast exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Markkanen, A; Juutilainen, J; Lang, S; Pelkonen, J; Rytömaa, T; Naarala, J

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposed budding yeast, haploid yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells of the strain SEy2101a were exposed to 50 Hz sine wave magnetic field (MF) of 120 microT with simultaneous exposure to UV radiation. Most of the UV energy was in the UVB range (280-320 nm). The biologically weighted (CIE action spectrum) dose level for the UV radiation was 175 J/m2. We examined whether 50 Hz MF affected the ability of UV irradiated yeast cells to form colonies (Colony Forming Units, CFUs). In addition, the effect of coexposure on cell cycle kinetics was investigated. Although the significant effect of MF on the cell cycle phases of UV exposed yeast cells was seen only at one time point, the overall results showed that MF exposure may influence the cell cycle kinetics at the first cycle after UV irradiation. The effect of our particular MF exposure on the colony forming ability of the UV irradiated yeast cells was statistically significant 420 min after UV irradiation. Moreover, at 240, 360, and 420 min after UV irradiation, there were fewer CFUs in every experiment in (UV+MF) exposed populations than in only UV exposed yeast populations. These results could indicate that MF exposure in conjunction with UV may have some effects on yeast cell survival or growth. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Cell cycle commitment in budding yeast emerges from the cooperation of multiple bistable switches

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tongli; Schmierer, Bernhard; Novák, Béla

    2011-01-01

    The start-transition (START) in the G1 phase marks the point in the cell cycle at which a yeast cell initiates a new round of cell division. Once made, this decision is irreversible and the cell is committed to progressing through the entire cell cycle, irrespective of arrest signals such as pheromone. How commitment emerges from the underlying molecular interaction network is poorly understood. Here, we perform a dynamical systems analysis of an established cell cycle model, which has never been analysed from a commitment perspective. We show that the irreversibility of the START transition and subsequent commitment can be consistently explained in terms of the interplay of multiple bistable molecular switches. By applying an existing mathematical model to a novel problem and by expanding the model in a self-consistent manner, we achieve several goals: we bring together a large number of experimental findings into a coherent theoretical framework; we increase the scope and the applicability of the original model; we give a systems level explanation of how the START transition and the cell cycle commitment arise from the dynamical features of the underlying molecular interaction network; and we make clear, experimentally testable predictions. PMID:22645649

  1. A series of conditional shuttle vectors for targeted genomic integration in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Ching; Patel, Michael T.; Gartenberg, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repair exposed DNA ends by homologous recombination has long been used by experimentalists to assemble plasmids from DNA fragments in vivo. While this approach works well for engineering extrachromosomal vectors, it is not well suited to the generation, recovery and reuse of integrative vectors. Here, we describe the creation of a series of conditional centromeric shuttle vectors, termed pXR vectors, that can be used for both plasmid assembly in vivo and targeted genomic integration. The defining feature of pXR vectors is that the DNA segment bearing the centromere and origin of replication, termed CEN/ARS, is flanked by a pair of loxP sites. Passaging the vectors through bacteria that express Cre recombinase reduces the loxP-CEN/ARS-loxP module to a single loxP site, thereby eliminating the ability to replicate autonomously in yeast. Each vector also contains a selectable marker gene, as well as a fragment of the HO locus, which permits targeted integration at a neutral genomic site. The pXR vectors provide a convenient and robust method to assemble DNAs for targeted genomic modifications. PMID:25736914

  2. Patterns and mechanisms of ancestral histone protein inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Radman-Livaja, Marta; Verzijlbergen, Kitty F; Weiner, Assaf; van Welsem, Tibor; Friedman, Nir; Rando, Oliver J; van Leeuwen, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Replicating chromatin involves disruption of histone-DNA contacts and subsequent reassembly of maternal histones on the new daughter genomes. In bulk, maternal histones are randomly segregated to the two daughters, but little is known about the fine details of this process: do maternal histones re-assemble at preferred locations or close to their original loci? Here, we use a recently developed method for swapping epitope tags to measure the disposition of ancestral histone H3 across the yeast genome over six generations. We find that ancestral H3 is preferentially retained at the 5' ends of most genes, with strongest retention at long, poorly transcribed genes. We recapitulate these observations with a quantitative model in which the majority of maternal histones are reincorporated within 400 bp of their pre-replication locus during replication, with replication-independent replacement and transcription-related retrograde nucleosome movement shaping the resulting distributions of ancestral histones. We find a key role for Topoisomerase I in retrograde histone movement during transcription, and we find that loss of Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 affects replication-independent turnover. Together, these results show that specific loci are enriched for histone proteins first synthesized several generations beforehand, and that maternal histones re-associate close to their original locations on daughter genomes after replication. Our findings further suggest that accumulation of ancestral histones could play a role in shaping histone modification patterns.

  3. Key events during the transition from rapid growth to quiescence in budding yeast require posttranscriptional regulators

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lihong; Miles, Shawna; Melville, Zephan; Prasad, Amalthiya; Bradley, Graham; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast that naturally exhaust the glucose from their environment differentiate into three distinct cell types distinguishable by flow cytometry. Among these is a quiescent (Q) population, which is so named because of its uniform but readily reversed G1 arrest, its fortified cell walls, heat tolerance, and longevity. Daughter cells predominate in Q-cell populations and are the longest lived. The events that differentiate Q cells from nonquiescent (nonQ) cells are initiated within hours of the diauxic shift, when cells have scavenged all the glucose from the media. These include highly asymmetric cell divisions, which give rise to very small daughter cells. These daughters modify their cell walls by Sed1- and Ecm33-dependent and dithiothreitol-sensitive mechanisms that enhance Q-cell thermotolerance. Ssd1 speeds Q-cell wall assembly and enables mother cells to enter this state. Ssd1 and the related mRNA-binding protein Mpt5 play critical overlapping roles in Q-cell formation and longevity. These proteins deliver mRNAs to P-bodies, and at least one P-body component, Lsm1, also plays a unique role in Q-cell longevity. Cells lacking Lsm1 and Ssd1 or Mpt5 lose viability under these conditions and fail to enter the quiescent state. We conclude that posttranscriptional regulation of mRNAs plays a crucial role in the transition in and out of quiescence. PMID:24088570

  4. Natural variation in non-coding regions underlying phenotypic diversity in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Francisco; de Boer, Carl G; Abarca, Valentina; García, Verónica; Cuevas, Mara; Araos, Sebastian; Larrondo, Luis F; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-02-22

    Linkage mapping studies in model organisms have typically focused their efforts in polymorphisms within coding regions, ignoring those within regulatory regions that may contribute to gene expression variation. In this context, differences in transcript abundance are frequently proposed as a source of phenotypic diversity between individuals, however, until now, little molecular evidence has been provided. Here, we examined Allele Specific Expression (ASE) in six F1 hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae derived from crosses between representative strains of the four main lineages described in yeast. ASE varied between crosses with levels ranging between 28% and 60%. Part of the variation in expression levels could be explained by differences in transcription factors binding to polymorphic cis-regulations and to differences in trans-activation depending on the allelic form of the TF. Analysis on highly expressed alleles on each background suggested ASN1 as a candidate transcript underlying nitrogen consumption differences between two strains. Further promoter allele swap analysis under fermentation conditions confirmed that coding and non-coding regions explained aspartic and glutamic acid consumption differences, likely due to a polymorphism affecting Uga3 binding. Together, we provide a new catalogue of variants to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype.

  5. Transcription of two long noncoding RNAs mediates mating-type control of gametogenesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    van Werven, Folkert J; Neuert, Gregor; Hendrick, Natalie; Lardenois, Aurélie; Buratowski, Stephen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Primig, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2012-09-14

    The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/α but not haploid MATa or MATα cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating-type control of sporulation. In MATa or MATα haploids, expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4 allows cells expressing the haploid mating type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/α diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/α diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating-type control of gametogenesis in yeast.

  6. Natural variation in non-coding regions underlying phenotypic diversity in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Francisco; de Boer, Carl G.; Abarca, Valentina; García, Verónica; Cuevas, Mara; Araos, Sebastian; Larrondo, Luis F.; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    Linkage mapping studies in model organisms have typically focused their efforts in polymorphisms within coding regions, ignoring those within regulatory regions that may contribute to gene expression variation. In this context, differences in transcript abundance are frequently proposed as a source of phenotypic diversity between individuals, however, until now, little molecular evidence has been provided. Here, we examined Allele Specific Expression (ASE) in six F1 hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae derived from crosses between representative strains of the four main lineages described in yeast. ASE varied between crosses with levels ranging between 28% and 60%. Part of the variation in expression levels could be explained by differences in transcription factors binding to polymorphic cis-regulations and to differences in trans-activation depending on the allelic form of the TF. Analysis on highly expressed alleles on each background suggested ASN1 as a candidate transcript underlying nitrogen consumption differences between two strains. Further promoter allele swap analysis under fermentation conditions confirmed that coding and non-coding regions explained aspartic and glutamic acid consumption differences, likely due to a polymorphism affecting Uga3 binding. Together, we provide a new catalogue of variants to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype. PMID:26898953

  7. A series of conditional shuttle vectors for targeted genomic integration in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Ching; Patel, Michael T; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    The capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repair exposed DNA ends by homologous recombination has long been used by experimentalists to assemble plasmids from DNA fragments in vivo. While this approach works well for engineering extrachromosomal vectors, it is not well suited to the generation, recovery and reuse of integrative vectors. Here, we describe the creation of a series of conditional centromeric shuttle vectors, termed pXR vectors, that can be used for both plasmid assembly in vivo and targeted genomic integration. The defining feature of pXR vectors is that the DNA segment bearing the centromere and origin of replication, termed CEN/ARS, is flanked by a pair of loxP sites. Passaging the vectors through bacteria that express Cre recombinase reduces the loxP-CEN/ARS-loxP module to a single loxP site, thereby eliminating the ability to replicate autonomously in yeast. Each vector also contains a selectable marker gene, as well as a fragment of the HO locus, which permits targeted integration at a neutral genomic site. The pXR vectors provide a convenient and robust method to assemble DNAs for targeted genomic modifications.

  8. Spatial organization of the budding yeast genome in the cell nucleus and identification of specific chromatin interactions from multi-chromosome constrained chromatin model.

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Gamze; Xu, Yun; Liang, Jie

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear landmarks and biochemical factors play important roles in the organization of the yeast genome. The interaction pattern of budding yeast as measured from genome-wide 3C studies are largely recapitulated by model polymer genomes subject to landmark constraints. However, the origin of inter-chromosomal interactions, specific roles of individual landmarks, and the roles of biochemical factors in yeast genome organization remain unclear. Here we describe a multi-chromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model (mC-SAC) to gain understanding of the budding yeast genome organization. With significantly improved sampling of genome structures, both intra- and inter-chromosomal interaction patterns from genome-wide 3C studies are accurately captured in our model at higher resolution than previous studies. We show that nuclear confinement is a key determinant of the intra-chromosomal interactions, and centromere tethering is responsible for the inter-chromosomal interactions. In addition, important genomic elements such as fragile sites and tRNA genes are found to be clustered spatially, largely due to centromere tethering. We uncovered previously unknown interactions that were not captured by genome-wide 3C studies, which are found to be enriched with tRNA genes, RNAPIII and TFIIS binding. Moreover, we identified specific high-frequency genome-wide 3C interactions that are unaccounted for by polymer effects under landmark constraints. These interactions are enriched with important genes and likely play biological roles.

  9. Spatial organization of the budding yeast genome in the cell nucleus and identification of specific chromatin interactions from multi-chromosome constrained chromatin model

    PubMed Central

    Gürsoy, Gamze; Xu, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear landmarks and biochemical factors play important roles in the organization of the yeast genome. The interaction pattern of budding yeast as measured from genome-wide 3C studies are largely recapitulated by model polymer genomes subject to landmark constraints. However, the origin of inter-chromosomal interactions, specific roles of individual landmarks, and the roles of biochemical factors in yeast genome organization remain unclear. Here we describe a multi-chromosome constrained self-avoiding chromatin model (mC-SAC) to gain understanding of the budding yeast genome organization. With significantly improved sampling of genome structures, both intra- and inter-chromosomal interaction patterns from genome-wide 3C studies are accurately captured in our model at higher resolution than previous studies. We show that nuclear confinement is a key determinant of the intra-chromosomal interactions, and centromere tethering is responsible for the inter-chromosomal interactions. In addition, important genomic elements such as fragile sites and tRNA genes are found to be clustered spatially, largely due to centromere tethering. We uncovered previously unknown interactions that were not captured by genome-wide 3C studies, which are found to be enriched with tRNA genes, RNAPIII and TFIIS binding. Moreover, we identified specific high-frequency genome-wide 3C interactions that are unaccounted for by polymer effects under landmark constraints. These interactions are enriched with important genes and likely play biological roles. PMID:28704374

  10. Characterization of global gene expression during assurance of lifespan extension by caloric restriction in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-12-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is the best-studied intervention known to delay aging and extend lifespan in evolutionarily distant organisms ranging from yeast to mammals in the laboratory. Although the effect of CR on lifespan extension has been investigated for nearly 80years, the molecular mechanisms of CR are still elusive. Consequently, it is important to understand the fundamental mechanisms of when and how lifespan is affected by CR. In this study, we first identified the time-windows during which CR assured cellular longevity by switching cells from culture media containing 2% or 0.5% glucose to water, which allows us to observe CR and non-calorically-restricted cells under the same conditions. We also constructed time-dependent gene expression profiles and selected 646 genes that showed significant changes and correlations with the lifespan-extending effect of CR. The positively correlated genes participated in transcriptional regulation, ribosomal RNA processing and nuclear genome stability, while the negatively correlated genes were involved in the regulation of several metabolic pathways, endoplasmic reticulum function, stress response and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, we discovered major upstream regulators of those significantly changed genes, including AZF1 (YOR113W), HSF1 (YGL073W) and XBP1 (YIL101C). Deletions of two genes, AZF1 and XBP1 (HSF1 is essential and was thus not tested), were confirmed to lessen the lifespan extension mediated by CR. The absence of these genes in the tor1Δ and ras2Δ backgrounds did show non-overlapping effects with regard to CLS, suggesting differences between the CR mechanism for Tor and Ras signaling. © 2013.

  11. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole by Relative Growth and Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yee-Hung M; Reyes, Lorena; Sohail, Saba M; Tran, Nancy K; Marshall, Wallace F

    2016-05-09

    It has long been noted that larger animals have larger organs compared to smaller animals of the same species, a phenomenon termed scaling [1]. Julian Huxley proposed an appealingly simple model of "relative growth"-in which an organ and the whole body grow with their own intrinsic rates [2]-that was invoked to explain scaling in organs from fiddler crab claws to human brains. Because organ size is regulated by complex, unpredictable pathways [3], it remains unclear whether scaling requires feedback mechanisms to regulate organ growth in response to organ or body size. The molecular pathways governing organelle biogenesis are simpler than organogenesis, and therefore organelle size scaling in the cell provides a more tractable case for testing Huxley's model. We ask the question: is it possible for organelle size scaling to arise if organelle growth is independent of organelle or cell size? Using the yeast vacuole as a model, we tested whether mutants defective in vacuole inheritance, vac8Δ and vac17Δ, tune vacuole biogenesis in response to perturbations in vacuole size. In vac8Δ/vac17Δ, vacuole scaling increases with the replicative age of the cell. Furthermore, vac8Δ/vac17Δ cells continued generating vacuole at roughly constant rates even when they had significantly larger vacuoles compared to wild-type. With support from computational modeling, these results suggest there is no feedback between vacuole biogenesis rates and vacuole or cell size. Rather, size scaling is determined by the relative growth rates of the vacuole and the cell, thus representing a cellular version of Huxley's model.

  12. Vps factors are required for efficient transcription elongation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Naseem A; Hasek, Jiri; Brickner, Donna Garvey; Qiu, Hongfang; Zhang, Fan; Wong, Chi-Ming; Malcova, Ivana; Vasicova, Pavla; Brickner, Jason H; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain Vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins, factors that mediate vesicular protein trafficking, have additional roles in regulating transcription factors at the endosome. We found that yeast mutants lacking the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] kinase Vps34 or its associated protein kinase Vps15 display multiple phenotypes indicating impaired transcription elongation. These phenotypes include reduced mRNA production from long or G+C-rich coding sequences (CDS) without affecting the associated GAL1 promoter activity, and a reduced rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) progression through lacZ CDS in vivo. Consistent with reported genetic interactions with mutations affecting the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutations reduce NuA4 occupancy in certain transcribed CDS. vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutants also exhibit impaired localization of the induced GAL1 gene to the nuclear periphery. We found unexpectedly that, similar to known transcription elongation factors, these and several other Vps factors can be cross-linked to the CDS of genes induced by Gcn4 or Gal4 in a manner dependent on transcriptional induction and stimulated by Cdk7/Kin28-dependent phosphorylation of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We also observed colocalization of a fraction of Vps15-GFP and Vps34-GFP with nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions in live cells. These findings suggest that Vps factors enhance the efficiency of transcription elongation in a manner involving their physical proximity to nuclear pores and transcribed chromatin.

  13. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  14. Budding yeast protein extraction and purification for the study of function, interactions, and post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Eva Paige; Kerscher, Oliver

    2013-10-30

    Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g. galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g. nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g. MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and

  15. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-10-15

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III-transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements-centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III-transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III-dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III-transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III-transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. © 2016 Belagal et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. The Budding Yeast Amphiphysin Complex Is Required for Contractile Actin Ring (CAR) Assembly and Post-Contraction GEF-Independent Accumulation of Rho1-GTP

    PubMed Central

    Cundell, Michael John; Price, Clive

    2014-01-01

    The late events of the budding yeast cell division cycle, cytokinesis and cell separation, require the assembly of a contractile actomyosin ring (CAR), primary and secondary septum formation followed by enzymatic degradation of the primary septum. Here we present evidence that demonstrates a role for the budding yeast amphiphysin complex, a heterodimer comprising Rvs167 and Rvs161, in CAR assembly and cell separation. The iqg1-1 allele is synthetically lethal with both rvs167 and rvs161 null mutations. We show that both Iqg1 and the amphiphysin complex are required for CAR assembly in early anaphase but cells are able to complete assembly in late anaphase when these activities are, respectively, either compromised or absent. Amphiphysin dependent CAR assembly is dependent upon the Rvs167 SH3 domain, but this function is insufficient to explain the observed synthetic lethality. Dosage suppression of the iqg1-1 allele demonstrates that endocytosis is required for the default cell separation pathway in the absence of CAR contraction but is unlikely to be required to maintain viability. The amphiphysin complex is required for normal, post-mitotic, localization of Chs3 and the Rho1 GEF, Rom2, which are responsible for secondary septum deposition and the accumulation of GTP bound Rho1 at the bud neck. It is concluded that a failure of polarity establishment in the absence of CAR contraction and amphiphysin function leads to loss of viability as a result of the consequent cell separation defect. PMID:24874185

  17. Regulation of Cdc42 polarization by the Rsr1 GTPase and Rga1, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mid Eum; Lo, Wing-Cheong; Miller, Kristi E.; Chou, Ching-Shan; Park, Hay-Oak

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cdc42 plays a central role in establishing polarity in yeast and animals, yet how polarization of Cdc42 is achieved in response to spatial cues is poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging, we found distinct dynamics of Cdc42 polarization in haploid budding yeast in correlation with two temporal steps of the G1 phase. The position at which the Cdc42–GTP cluster develops changes rapidly around the division site during the first step but becomes stabilized in the second step, suggesting that an axis of polarized growth is determined in mid G1. Cdc42 polarization in the first step and its proper positioning depend on Rsr1 and its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bud2. Interestingly, Rga1, a Cdc42 GAP, exhibits transient localization to a site near the bud neck and to the division site during cytokinesis and G1, and this temporal change of Rga1 distribution is necessary for determination of a proper growth site. Mathematical modeling suggests that a proper axis of Cdc42 polarization in haploid cells might be established through a biphasic mechanism involving sequential positive feedback and transient negative feedback. PMID:25908844

  18. Rfc5p regulates alternate RFC complex functions in sister chromatid pairing reactions in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Maradeo, Marie E; Garg, Anisha; Skibbens, Robert V

    2010-11-01

    Sister chromatid pairing reactions, termed cohesion establishment, occur during S-phase and appear to be regulated by Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes. For instance, RFCs that contain Ctf18p exhibit pro-establishment activities while those that contain Elg1p exhibit anti-establishment activities. It remains unknown whether Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC functions are simply opposing or instead reveal complicated and non-parallel regulatory mechanisms. To better understand the nature of these novel pathways, we analyzed the small RFC subunit Rfc5p that is common to both Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC. Despite this commonality, the data show that diminished Rfc5p function rescues ctf7/eco1 mutant cell phenotypes, revealing that Rfc5p promotes anti-establishment activities. This rescue is specific to establishment pathways in that rfc5-1 greatly accentuates growth defects when expressed in scc2 (deposition), mcd1/scc1 or smc3 (cohesion maintenance) mutated cells. Our results reveal for the first time a role for small RFC subunits in directing RFC complex functions-in this case towards anti-establishment pathways. We further report that Pds5p exhibits both establishment and anti-establishment functions in cohesion. This duality suggests that categorizations of establishment and anti-establishment activities require further examination.

  19. A septin from the filamentous fungus A. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Septins were first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they form a scaffold that organizes the bud site and are a component of the morphogenesis checkpoint that coordinates budding with mitosis. Five of the seven S. cerevisiae septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12 and Shs1) colocalize as a rin...

  20. Analysis of osmoadaptation system in budding yeast suggests that regulated degradation of glycerol synthesis enzyme is key to near-perfect adaptation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anilkumar K; Bhartiya, Sharad; Venkatesh, K V

    2014-06-01

    In order to maintain its turgor pressure at a desired homeostatic level, budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to the external variation of the osmotic pressure by varying its internal osmotic pressure through regulation of synthesis and transport of the intracellular glycerol. Hog1PP (dually phosphorylated Hog1), a final effector in the signalling pathway of the hyper osmotic stress, regulates the glycerol synthesis both at transcriptional and non-transcriptional stages. It is known that for a step-change in salt concentration leading to moderate osmotic shock, Hog1PP activity shows a transient response before it returns to the vicinity of pre-stimulus level. It is believed that an integrating process in a negative feedback loop can be a design strategy to yield such an adaptive response. Several negative feedback loops have been identified in the osmoadaptation system in yeast. However, the precise location of the integrating process in the osmoadaptation system which includes signalling, gene regulation, metabolism and biophysical modules is unclear. To address this issue, we developed a reduced model which captures various experimental observations of the osmoadaptation behaviour of wild type and mutant strains. Dynamic simulations and steady state analysis suggested that known information about the osmoadaptation system of budding yeast does not necessarily give a perfect integrating process through the known feedback loops of Hog1PP. On the other hand, regulation of glycerol synthesising enzyme degradation can result in a near integrating process leading to a near-perfect adaptation.

  1. Discovery of a small molecule targeting IRA2 deletion in budding yeast and neurofibromin loss in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Matthew; Rawe, Melissa; Johansson, Gunnar; Pang, Shu; Soderquist, Ryan S.; Patel, Ami V.; Nelson, Sandra; Seibel, William; Ratner, Nancy; Sanchez, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a life-threatening complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). NF1 is caused by mutation in the gene encoding neurofibromin, a negative regulator of Ras signaling. There are no effective pharmacologic therapies for MPNST. To identify new therapeutic approaches targeting this dangerous malignancy, we developed assays in NF1+/+ and NF1−/ − MPNST cell lines and in budding yeast lacking the NF1 homologue IRA2 (ira2Δ). Here we describe UC1, a small molecule that targets NF1−/− cell lines and ira2Δ budding yeast. Using yeast genetics we identified NAB3 as a high-copy suppressor of UC1 sensitivity. NAB3 encodes an RNA binding protein that associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II and plays a role in the termination of non-polyadenylated RNA transcripts. Strains with deletion of IRA2 are sensitive to genetic inactivation of NAB3, suggesting an interaction between Ras signaling and Nab3-dependent transcript termination. This work identifies a lead compound and a possible target pathway for NF1-associated MPNST, and demonstrates a novel model system approach to identify and validate target pathways for cancer cells in which NF1 loss drives tumor formation. PMID:21697395

  2. γ-Tubulin Is Required for Proper Recruitment and Assembly of Kar9–Bim1 Complexes in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cuschieri, Lara; Miller, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end–interacting proteins (+TIPs) promote the dynamic interactions between the plus ends (+ends) of astral microtubules and cortical actin that are required for preanaphase spindle positioning. Paradoxically, +TIPs such as the EB1 orthologue Bim1 and Kar9 also associate with spindle pole bodies (SPBs), the centrosome equivalent in budding yeast. Here, we show that deletion of four C-terminal residues of the budding yeast γ-tubulin Tub4 (tub4-Δdsyl) perturbs Bim1 and Kar9 localization to SPBs and Kar9-dependant spindle positioning. Surprisingly, we find Kar9 localizes to microtubule +ends in tub4-Δdsyl cells, but these microtubules fail to position the spindle when targeted to the bud. Using cofluorescence and coaffinity purification, we show Kar9 complexes in tub4-Δdsyl cells contain reduced levels of Bim1. Astral microtubule dynamics is suppressed in tub4-Δdsyl cells, but it are restored by deletion of Kar9. Moreover, Myo2- and F-actin–dependent dwelling of Kar9 in the bud is observed in tub4-Δdsyl cells, suggesting defective Kar9 complexes tether microtubule +ends to the cortex. Overproduction of Bim1, but not Kar9, restores Kar9-dependent spindle positioning in the tub4-Δdsyl mutant, reduces cortical dwelling, and promotes Bim1–Kar9 interactions. We propose that SPBs, via the tail of Tub4, promote the assembly of functional +TIP complexes before their deployment to microtubule +ends. PMID:16899509

  3. Modelling of Yeast Mating Reveals Robustness Strategies for Cell-Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weitao; Nie, Qing; Yi, Tau-Mu; Chou, Ching-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Mating of budding yeast cells is a model system for studying cell-cell interactions. Haploid yeast cells secrete mating pheromones that are sensed by the partner which responds by growing a mating projection toward the source. The two projections meet and fuse to form the diploid. Successful mating relies on precise coordination of dynamic extracellular signals, signaling pathways, and cell shape changes in a noisy background. It remains elusive how cells mate accurately and efficiently in a natural multi-cell environment. Here we present the first stochastic model of multiple mating cells whose morphologies are driven by pheromone gradients and intracellular signals. Our novel computational framework encompassed a moving boundary method for modeling both a-cells and α-cells and their cell shape changes, the extracellular diffusion of mating pheromones dynamically coupled with cell polarization, and both external and internal noise. Quantification of mating efficiency was developed and tested for different model parameters. Computer simulations revealed important robustness strategies for mating in the presence of noise. These strategies included the polarized secretion of pheromone, the presence of the α-factor protease Bar1, and the regulation of sensing sensitivity; all were consistent with data in the literature. In addition, we investigated mating discrimination, the ability of an a-cell to distinguish between α-cells either making or not making α-factor, and mating competition, in which multiple a-cells compete to mate with one α-cell. Our simulations were consistent with previous experimental results. Moreover, we performed a combination of simulations and experiments to estimate the diffusion rate of the pheromone a-factor. In summary, we constructed a framework for simulating yeast mating with multiple cells in a noisy environment, and used this framework to reproduce mating behaviors and to identify strategies for robust cell-cell interactions. PMID

  4. Abf1 and other general regulatory factors control ribosome biogenesis gene expression in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Bosio, Maria Cristina; Fermi, Beatrice; Spagnoli, Gloria; Levati, Elisabetta; Rubbi, Ludmilla; Ferrari, Roberto; Pellegrini, Matteo; Dieci, Giorgio

    2017-05-05

    Ribosome biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves a regulon of >200 genes (Ribi genes) coordinately regulated in response to nutrient availability and cellular growth rate. Two cis-acting elements called PAC and RRPE are known to mediate Ribi gene repression in response to nutritional downshift. Here, we show that most Ribi gene promoters also contain binding sites for one or more General Regulatory Factors (GRFs), most frequently Abf1 and Reb1, and that these factors are enriched in vivo at Ribi promoters. Abf1/Reb1/Tbf1 promoter association was required for full Ribi gene expression in rich medium and for its modulation in response to glucose starvation, characterized by a rapid drop followed by slow recovery. Such a response did not entail changes in Abf1 occupancy, but it was paralleled by a quick increase, followed by slow decrease, in Rpd3L histone deacetylase occupancy. Remarkably, Abf1 site disruption also abolished Rpd3L complex recruitment in response to starvation. Extensive mutational analysis of the DBP7 promoter revealed a complex interplay of Tbf1 sites, PAC and RRPE in the transcriptional regulation of this Ribi gene. Our observations point to GRFs as new multifaceted players in Ribi gene regulation both during exponential growth and under repressive conditions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. New insights into the regulation of anaphase by mitotic cyclins in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Signon, Laurence

    2011-05-15

    Mitotic cyclins drive initiation and progression through mitosis. However, their role during progression remains poorly understood due to their essential function in initiation of mitosis and redundant activities. The function of the principal mitotic cyclin, Clb2, in S. cerevisiae, was investigated during progression through anaphase in diploid cells after DNA damage and during normal growth using fixed and live cell fluorescence techniques. I find that during anaphase, absence of Clb2 affects chromosome movement and plays an important role in inhibiting kinetochore microtubules regrowth. In addition, absence of Clb2 leads to defects and the collapse of spindle pole body separation. Most unexpectedly, new bipolar spindle forms and spindle re-forms. The intensity of the defects appears to correlate with strength of checkpoint activation, and during adaptation to DNA damage, these defects lead to important chromosome missegregation, during normal growth, defects are resolved rapidly. During recovery, intermediate phenotypes are observed. Altogether, data reveal new and unexpected roles for mitotic cyclins during progression through mitosis; results indicate that mitotic cyclins play key role in growth suppression of kinetochore microtubules and suggest that new bipolar spindle formation might be actively inhibited by mitotic cyclins during anaphase.

  6. Molecular Identification of d-Ribulokinase in Budding Yeast and Mammals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charandeep; Glaab, Enrico; Linster, Carole L

    2017-01-20

    Proteomes of even well characterized organisms still contain a high percentage of proteins with unknown or uncertain molecular and/or biological function. A significant fraction of those proteins is predicted to have catalytic properties. Here we aimed at identifying the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr109c protein and its human homolog FGGY, both of which belong to the broadly conserved FGGY family of carbohydrate kinases. Functionally identified members of this family phosphorylate 3- to 7-carbon sugars or sugar derivatives, but the endogenous substrate of S. cerevisiae Ydr109c and human FGGY has remained unknown. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of an S. cerevisiae deletion mutant of YDR109C revealed ribulose as one of the metabolites with the most significantly changed intracellular concentration as compared with a wild-type strain. In human HEK293 cells, ribulose could only be detected when ribitol was added to the cultivation medium, and under this condition, FGGY silencing led to ribulose accumulation. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant purified Ydr109c and FGGY proteins showed a clear substrate preference of both kinases for d-ribulose over a range of other sugars and sugar derivatives tested, including l-ribulose. Detailed sequence and structural analyses of Ydr109c and FGGY as well as homologs thereof furthermore allowed the definition of a 5-residue d-ribulokinase signature motif (TCSLV). The physiological role of the herein identified eukaryotic d-ribulokinase remains unclear, but we speculate that S. cerevisiae Ydr109c and human FGGY could act as metabolite repair enzymes, serving to re-phosphorylate free d-ribulose generated by promiscuous phosphatases from d-ribulose 5-phosphate. In human cells, FGGY can additionally participate in ribitol metabolism.

  7. The Ddc1-Mec3-Rad17 sliding clamp regulates histone-histone chaperone interactions and DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca J; Han, Junhong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2014-04-11

    The maintenance of genome integrity is regulated in part by chromatin structure and factors involved in the DNA damage response pathway. Nucleosome assembly is a highly regulated process that restores chromatin structure after DNA replication, DNA repair, and gene transcription. During S phase the histone chaperones Asf1, CAF-1, and Rtt106 coordinate to deposit newly synthesized histones H3-H4 onto replicated DNA in budding yeast. Here we describe synthetic genetic interactions between RTT106 and the DDC1-MEC3-RAD17 (9-1-1) complex, a sliding clamp functioning in the S phase DNA damage and replication checkpoint response, upon treatment with DNA damaging agents. The DNA damage sensitivity of rad17Δ rtt106Δ cells depends on the function of Rtt106 in nucleosome assembly. Epistasis analysis reveals that 9-1-1 complex components interact with multiple DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly factors, including Rtt106, CAF-1, and lysine residues of H3-H4. Furthermore, rad17Δ cells exhibit defects in the deposition of newly synthesized H3-H4 onto replicated DNA. Finally, deletion of RAD17 results in increased association of Asf1 with checkpoint kinase Rad53, which may lead to the observed reduction in Asf1-H3 interaction in rad17Δ mutant cells. In addition, we observed that the interaction between histone H3-H4 with histone chaperone CAF-1 or Rtt106 increases in cells lacking Rad17. These results support the idea that the 9-1-1 checkpoint protein regulates DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly in part through regulating histone-histone chaperone interactions.

  8. SIR2 and other genes are abundantly expressed in long-lived natural segregants for replicative aging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenhua; Adomas, Aleksandra B; Jackson, Erin D; Qin, Hong; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the mechanism underlying the natural variation in longevity within natural populations using the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed whole-genome gene expression in four progeny of a natural S. cerevisiae strain that display differential replicative aging. Genes with different expression levels in short- and long-lived strains were classified disproportionately into metabolism, transport, development, transcription or cell cycle, and organelle organization (mitochondrial, chromosomal, and cytoskeletal). With several independent validating experiments, we detected 15 genes with consistent differential expression levels between the long- and the short-lived progeny. Among those 15, SIR2, HSP30, and TIM17 were upregulated in long-lived strains, which is consistent with the known effects of gene silencing, stress response, and mitochondrial function on aging. The link between SIR2 and yeast natural life span variation offers some intriguing ties to the allelic association of the human homolog SIRT1 to visceral obesity and metabolic response to lifestyle intervention.

  9. Alteration of a yeast SH3 protein leads to conditional viability with defects in cytoskeletal and budding patterns.

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Urdaci, M; Aigle, M; Crouzet, M

    1993-08-01

    Mutations in genes necessary for survival in stationary phase were isolated to understand the ability of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remain viable during prolonged periods of nutritional deprivation. Here we report results concerning one of these mutants, rvs167, which shows reduced viability and abnormal cell morphology upon carbon and nitrogen starvation. The mutant exhibits the same response when cells are grown in high salt concentrations and other unfavorable growth conditions. The RVS167 gene product displays significant homology with the Rvs161 protein and contains a SH3 domain at the C-terminal end. Abnormal actin distribution is associated with the mutant phenotype. In addition, while the budding pattern of haploid strains remains axial in standard growth conditions, the budding pattern of diploid mutant strains is random. The gene RVS167 therefore could be implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization in response to environmental stresses and could act in the budding site selection mechanism.

  10. Alteration of a yeast SH3 protein leads to conditional viability with defects in cytoskeletal and budding patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, F; Urdaci, M; Aigle, M; Crouzet, M

    1993-01-01

    Mutations in genes necessary for survival in stationary phase were isolated to understand the ability of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remain viable during prolonged periods of nutritional deprivation. Here we report results concerning one of these mutants, rvs167, which shows reduced viability and abnormal cell morphology upon carbon and nitrogen starvation. The mutant exhibits the same response when cells are grown in high salt concentrations and other unfavorable growth conditions. The RVS167 gene product displays significant homology with the Rvs161 protein and contains a SH3 domain at the C-terminal end. Abnormal actin distribution is associated with the mutant phenotype. In addition, while the budding pattern of haploid strains remains axial in standard growth conditions, the budding pattern of diploid mutant strains is random. The gene RVS167 therefore could be implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization in response to environmental stresses and could act in the budding site selection mechanism. Images PMID:8336735

  11. H2B ubiquitylation is part of chromatin architecture that marks exon-intron structure in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Grace S; Pan, Chin-Hua; Wu, Jia-Hong; Sun, Yun-Ju; Wang, Chia-Chang; Hsiao, Wei-Chun; Lin, Chia-Yeh; Tung, Luh; Chang, Tien-Hsien; Fleming, Alastair B; Hillyer, Cory; Lo, Yi-Chen; Berger, Shelley L; Osley, Mary Ann; Kao, Cheng-Fu

    2011-12-22

    The packaging of DNA into chromatin regulates transcription from initiation through 3' end processing. One aspect of transcription in which chromatin plays a poorly understood role is the co-transcriptional splicing of pre-mRNA. Here we provide evidence that H2B monoubiquitylation (H2BK123ub1) marks introns in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A genome-wide map of H2BK123ub1 in this organism reveals that this modification is enriched in coding regions and that its levels peak at the transcribed regions of two characteristic subgroups of genes. First, long genes are more likely to have higher levels of H2BK123ub1, correlating with the postulated role of this modification in preventing cryptic transcription initiation in ORFs. Second, genes that are highly transcribed also have high levels of H2BK123ub1, including the ribosomal protein genes, which comprise the majority of intron-containing genes in yeast. H2BK123ub1 is also a feature of introns in the yeast genome, and the disruption of this modification alters the intragenic distribution of H3 trimethylation on lysine 36 (H3K36me3), which functionally correlates with alternative RNA splicing in humans. In addition, the deletion of genes encoding the U2 snRNP subunits, Lea1 or Msl1, in combination with an htb-K123R mutation, leads to synthetic lethality. These data suggest that H2BK123ub1 facilitates cross talk between chromatin and pre-mRNA splicing by modulating the distribution of intronic and exonic histone modifications.

  12. The S40 residue in HIV-1 Gag p6 impacts local and distal budding determinants, revealing additional late domain activities.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Susan M; Chen, Min-Huei; Khan, Mahfuz; Ehrlich, Lorna; Kemal, Kimdar Sherefa; Weiser, Barbara; Shi, Binshan; Chen, Chaoping; Powell, Michael; Anastos, Kathryn; Burger, Harold; Carter, Carol A

    2013-11-21

    HIV-1 budding is directed primarily by two motifs in Gag p6 designated as late domain-1 and -2 that recruit ESCRT machinery by binding Tsg101 and Alix, respectively, and by poorly characterized determinants in the capsid (CA) domain. Here, we report that a conserved Gag p6 residue, S40, impacts budding mediated by all of these determinants. Whereas budding normally results in formation of single spherical particles ~100 nm in diameter and containing a characteristic electron-dense conical core, the substitution of Phe for S40, a change that does not alter the amino acids encoded in the overlapping pol reading frame, resulted in defective CA-SP1 cleavage, formation of strings of tethered particles or filopodia-like membrane protrusions containing Gag, and diminished infectious particle formation. The S40F-mediated release defects were exacerbated when the viral-encoded protease (PR) was inactivated or when L domain-1 function was disrupted or when budding was almost completely obliterated by the disruption of both L domain-1 and -2. S40F mutation also resulted in stronger Gag-Alix interaction, as detected by yeast 2-hybrid assay. Reducing Alix binding by mutational disruption of contact residues restored single particle release, implicating the perturbed Gag-Alix interaction in the aberrant budding events. Interestingly, introduction of S40F partially rescued the negative effects on budding of CA NTD mutations EE75,76AA and P99A, which both prevent membrane curvature and therefore block budding at an early stage. The results indicate that the S40 residue is a novel determinant of HIV-1 egress that is most likely involved in regulation of a critical assembly event required for budding in the Tsg101-, Alix-, Nedd4- and CA N-terminal domain affected pathways.

  13. A role for the rap GTPase YlRsr1 in cellular morphogenesis and the involvement of YlRsr1 and the ras GTPase YlRas2 in bud site selection in the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Qing; Li, Min; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast species that can grow in the ovoid yeast form or in the elongated pseudohyphal or hyphal form depending on the growth conditions. Here, we show that the Rap GTPase Rsr1 of Y. lipolytica (YlRsr1) plays an important role in cellular morphogenesis in this microorganism. Cells deleted for YlRSR1 exhibited impaired polarized growth during yeast-form growth. Pseudohyphal and hyphal development were also abnormal. YlRsr1 is also important for cell growth, since the deletion of YlRSR1 in cells lacking the Ras GTPase YlRas2 caused lethality. Y. lipolytica cells bud in a bipolar pattern in which the cells produce the new buds at the two poles. YlRsr1 plays a prominent role in this bud site selection process. YlRsr1's function in bud site selection absolutely requires the cycling of YlRsr1 between the GTP- and GDP-bound states but its function in cellular morphogenesis does not, suggesting that the two processes are differentially regulated. Interestingly, the Ras GTPase YlRas2 is also involved in the control of bud site selection, as Ylras2Δ cells were severely impaired in bipolar bud site selection. The GTP/GDP cycling and the plasma membrane localization of YlRas2 are important for YlRas2's function in bud site selection. However, they are not essential for this process, suggesting that the mechanism by which YlRas2 acts is different from that of YlRsr1. Our results suggest that YlRsr1 is regulated by the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) YlBud2 and partially by YlCdc25, the potential guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for YlRas2.

  14. Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cowart, L Ashley; Shotwell, Matthew; Worley, Mitchell L; Richards, Adam J; Montefusco, David J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids including sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide participate in numerous cell programs through signaling mechanisms. This class of lipids has important functions in stress responses; however, determining which sphingolipid mediates specific events has remained encumbered by the numerous metabolic interconnections of sphingolipids, such that modulating a specific lipid of interest through manipulating metabolic enzymes causes 'ripple effects', which change levels of many other lipids. Here, we develop a method of integrative analysis for genomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic data to address this previously intractable problem. This method revealed a specific signaling role for phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid with no previously defined specific function in yeast, in regulating genes required for mitochondrial respiration through the HAP complex transcription factor. This approach could be applied to extract meaningful biological information from a similar experimental design that produces multiple sets of high-throughput data.

  15. Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cowart, L Ashley; Shotwell, Matthew; Worley, Mitchell L; Richards, Adam J; Montefusco, David J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids including sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide participate in numerous cell programs through signaling mechanisms. This class of lipids has important functions in stress responses; however, determining which sphingolipid mediates specific events has remained encumbered by the numerous metabolic interconnections of sphingolipids, such that modulating a specific lipid of interest through manipulating metabolic enzymes causes ‘ripple effects', which change levels of many other lipids. Here, we develop a method of integrative analysis for genomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic data to address this previously intractable problem. This method revealed a specific signaling role for phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid with no previously defined specific function in yeast, in regulating genes required for mitochondrial respiration through the HAP complex transcription factor. This approach could be applied to extract meaningful biological information from a similar experimental design that produces multiple sets of high-throughput data. PMID:20160710

  16. In budding yeast, contraction of the actomyosin ring and formation of the primary septum at cytokinesis depend on each other.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin; Bowers, Blair; Varma, Archana; Roh, Dong-Hyun; Cabib, Enrico

    2002-01-15

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae chs2 mutants are unable to synthesize primary septum chitin, and myo1 mutants cannot construct a functional contractile ring. The morphology of the two mutants, as observed by electron microscopy, is very similar. In both cases, neither an invagination of the plasma membrane, which normally results from contraction of the actomyosin ring, nor generation of a chitin disc, the primary septum, is observed. Rather, both mutants are able to complete cytokinesis by an abnormal process in which lateral walls thicken gradually and finally meet over an extended region, giving rise to a thick septum lacking the normal trilaminar structure and often enclosing lacunae. Defects in chs2 or myo1 strains were not aggravated in a double mutant, an indication that the corresponding proteins participate in a common process. In contrast, in a chs3 background the chs2 mutation is lethal and the myo1 defect is greatly worsened, suggesting that the synthesis of chitin catalyzed by chitin synthase III is necessary for the functionality of the remedial septa. Both chs2 and myo1 mutants show abnormalities in budding pattern and a decrease in the level of certain proteins associated with budding, such as Bud3p, Bud4p and Spa2p. The possible reasons for these phenotypes and for the interdependence between actomyosin ring contraction and primary septum formation are discussed.

  17. Fusion of nearby inverted repeats by a replication-based mechanism leads to formation of dicentric and acentric chromosomes that cause genome instability in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Paek, Andrew L; Kaochar, Salma; Jones, Hope; Elezaby, Aly; Shanks, Lisa; Weinert, Ted

    2009-12-15

    Large-scale changes (gross chromosomal rearrangements [GCRs]) are common in genomes, and are often associated with pathological disorders. We report here that a specific pair of nearby inverted repeats in budding yeast fuse to form a dicentric chromosome intermediate, which then rearranges to form a translocation and other GCRs. We next show that fusion of nearby inverted repeats is general; we found that many nearby inverted repeats that are present in the yeast genome also fuse, as does a pair of synthetically constructed inverted repeats. Fusion occurs between inverted repeats that are separated by several kilobases of DNA and share >20 base pairs of homology. Finally, we show that fusion of inverted repeats, surprisingly, does not require genes involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair or genes involved in other repeat recombination events. We therefore propose that fusion may occur by a DSB-independent, DNA replication-based mechanism (which we term "faulty template switching"). Fusion of nearby inverted repeats to form dicentrics may be a major cause of instability in yeast and in other organisms.

  18. Structural and functional studies of Bud23-Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2014-12-23

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N(7)-methylguanosine (m(7)G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23-Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23-Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23-Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23-Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m(7)G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23-Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23-Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction.

  19. RIM15 antagonistic pleiotropy is responsible for differences in fermentation and stress response kinetics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kessi-Pérez, Eduardo I; Araos, Sebastián; García, Verónica; Salinas, Francisco; Abarca, Valentina; Larrondo, Luis F; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-05-01

    Different natural yeast populations have faced dissimilar selective pressures due to the heterogeneous fermentation substrates available around the world; this increases the genetic and phenotypic diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae In this context, we expect prominent differences between isolates when exposed to a particular condition, such as wine or sake musts. To better comprehend the mechanisms underlying niche adaptation between two S. cerevisiae isolates obtained from wine and sake fermentation processes, we evaluated fermentative and fungicide resistance phenotypes and identify the molecular origin of such adaptive variation. Multiple regions were associated with fermentation rate under different nitrogen conditions and fungicide resistance, with a single QTL co-localizing in all traits. Analysis around this region identified RIM15 as the causative locus driving fungicide sensitivity, together with efficient nitrogen utilization and glycerol production in the wine strain. A null RIM15 variant confers a greater fermentation rate through the utilization of available glucose instead of its storage. However, this variant has a detrimental effect on fungicide resistance since complex sugars are not synthesized and transported into the membrane. Together, our results reveal the antagonist pleiotropic nature of a RIM15 null variant, positively affecting a series of fermentation related phenotypes, but apparently detrimental in the wild.

  20. The stress-regulatory transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 regulate fatty acid oxidation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Rajvanshi, Praveen Kumar; Arya, Madhuri; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2017-09-18

    The transcription factors multicopy suppressor of SNF1 mutation (Msn) Msn2 and Msn4 bind the stress-response element in gene promoters in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the roles of Msn2/4 in primary metabolic pathways such as fatty acid β-oxidation are unclear. Here, in silico analysis revealed that the promoters of most genes involved in the biogenesis, function, and regulation of the peroxisome contain Msn2/4 binding sites. We also found that transcript levels of MSN2/MSN4 are increased in glucose-depletion conditions and that during growth in nonpreferred carbon sources, Msn2 is constantly localized to the nucleus in wildtype cells. Of note, the double mutant msn2Δmsn4Δ exhibited a severe growth defect when grown with oleic acid as the sole carbon source and had reduced transcript levels of major β-oxidation genes. ChIP indicated that Msn2 has increased occupancy on the promoters of β-oxidation genes in glucose-depleted conditions, and in vivo reporter genes analysis indicated reduced expression of these genes in msn2Δmsn4Δ cells. Moreover, mobility shift assays revealed that Msn4 binds β-oxidation gene promoters. Immunofluorescence microscopy with anti-peroxisome membrane protein antibodies disclosed that the msn2Δmsn4Δ strain had fewer peroxisomes than the wildtype, and lipid analysis indicated that the msn2Δmsn4Δ strain had increased triacylglycerol and steryl ester levels. Collectively, our data suggest that Msn2/Msn4 transcription factors activate expression of the genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. As glucose sensing, signaling, and fatty acid β-oxidation pathways are evolutionarily conserved throughout eukaryotes, the msn2Δmsn4Δ strain could therefore be a good model system for further study of these critical processes. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Using the semi-synthetic epitope system to identify direct substrates of the meiosis-specific budding yeast kinase, Mek1

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsiao-Chi; Hollingsworth, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the meiosis-specific kinase, Mek1, plays a key role in promoting recombination between homologous chromosomes during meiosis in budding yeast by suppressing recombination between sister chromatids, as well as playing a role in the meiotic recombination checkpoint. Understanding how Mek1 regulates recombination requires the identification of direct substrates of the kinase. We have applied the semi-synthetic epitope method developed by Shokat and colleagues to Mek1. This method uses an analog-sensitive version of Mek1, Gst-mek1-as, in conjunction with an ATPγS analog, for kinase assays that detect only those proteins that are directly phosphorylated by Mek1. This method may be applicable to any kinase for which an analog-sensitive version is available. In addition, it provides a non-radioactive alternative for kinase assays with wild-type kinases. PMID:21660693

  2. Mitochondrial fission proteins Fis1 and Mdv1, but not Dnm1, play a role in maintenance of heteroplasmy in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elliot; Yoshida, Minoru; Ling, Feng

    2012-04-24

    In budding yeast, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication pathway involving the homologous DNA pairing protein Mhr1 promotes mitochondrial allele segregation. Mitochondrial fusion facilitates the recombination-mediated replication pathway; however, the role of fission remains largely unknown. By monitoring mitochondrial allele segregation during zygotic division, we found that the absence of fission proteins Fis1 or Mdv1, but not Dnm1, resulted in increased initial homoplasmy levels and decreased mtDNA copy number. However, decreases in mtDNA copy number alone were not sufficient for rapid establishment of homoplasmy, suggesting that inhibiting the activities of certain fission proteins promotes homoplasmy by reducing the number of mtDNA segregation units. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The C-terminal domains of human neurofibromin and its budding yeast homologs Ira1 and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangming; Kim, Junwon; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    The human tumor suppressor neurofibromin contains a cysteine and serine-rich domain/Ras-GTPase activating protein domain (CSRD/RasGAP) and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Domain studies of neurofibromin suggest it has other functions in addition to being a RasGAP, but the mechanisms underlying its tumor suppressor activity are not well understood. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good model system for studying neurofibromin function because it possesses Ira1 and Ira2, which are homologous to human neurofibromin in both sequence and function. We found that overexpression of CTD or a neurofibromin CTD-homologous domain (CHD) of Ira1/2 in budding yeast delayed degradation of the securin protein Pds1, whereas overexpression of CSRD/RasGAP did not affect Pds1 degradation. We also found that when CTD or CHD was overexpressed, the number of cells in metaphase was higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that CTD and CHD function in the metaphase to anaphase transition. In addition, Δira1Δira2 cells bypassed mitotic arrest in response to spindle damage, indicating that Ira1 and Ira2 may be involved in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, Δira1Δira2Δmad2 cells are more sensitive to spindle damage than Δmad2 or Δira1Δira2 cells are, suggesting that Ira1/2 and Mad2 function in different pathways. Overexpression of CTD but not CSRD/RasGAP partially rescued the hypersensitivity of Δira1Δira2Δmad2 cells to microtubule-destabilizing drugs, indicating a role for CTD in the SAC pathway. Taken together, independently of RasGAP activity, the C-terminal domains of neurofibromin, Ira1, and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition in a Mad2-independent fashion.

  4. Ca(2+) homeostasis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Impact of ER/Golgi Ca(2+) storage.

    PubMed

    D'hooge, Petra; Coun, Catherina; Van Eyck, Vincent; Faes, Liesbeth; Ghillebert, Ruben; Mariën, Lore; Winderickx, Joris; Callewaert, Geert

    2015-08-01

    Yeast has proven to be a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular aspects of several biological processes in higher eukaryotes. As in mammalian cells, yeast intracellular Ca(2+) signalling is crucial for a myriad of biological processes. Yeast cells also bear homologs of the major components of the Ca(2+) signalling toolkit in mammalian cells, including channels, co-transporters and pumps. Using yeast single- and multiple-gene deletion strains of various plasma membrane and organellar Ca(2+) transporters, combined with manipulations to estimate intracellular Ca(2+) storage, we evaluated the contribution of individual transport systems to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Yeast strains lacking Pmr1 and/or Cod1, two ion pumps implicated in ER/Golgi Ca(2+) homeostasis, displayed a fragmented vacuolar phenotype and showed increased vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. In the pmr1Δ strain, these effects were insensitive to calcineurin activity, independent of Cch1/Mid1 Ca(2+) channels and Pmc1 but required Vcx1. By contrast, in the cod1Δ strain increased vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake was not affected by Vcx1 deletion but was largely dependent on Pmc1 activity. Our analysis further corroborates the distinct roles of Vcx1 and Pmc1 in vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake and point to the existence of not-yet identified Ca(2+) influx pathways.

  5. Asymmetry of the budding yeast Tem1 GTPase at spindle poles is required for spindle positioning but not for mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Venturetti, Marianna; Hotz, Manuel; Lengefeld, Jette; Barral, Yves; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-02-01

    The asymmetrically dividing yeast S. cerevisiae assembles a bipolar spindle well after establishing the future site of cell division (i.e., the bud neck) and the division axis (i.e., the mother-bud axis). A surveillance mechanism called spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly positioned relative to the mother-bud axis, thereby ensuring the correct ploidy of the progeny. SPOC relies on the heterodimeric GTPase-activating protein Bub2/Bfa1 that inhibits the small GTPase Tem1, in turn essential for activating the mitotic exit network (MEN) kinase cascade and cytokinesis. The Bub2/Bfa1 GAP and the Tem1 GTPase form a complex at spindle poles that undergoes a remarkable asymmetry during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned, with the complex accumulating on the bud-directed old spindle pole. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. The mechanism driving asymmetry of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 in mitosis is unclear. Furthermore, whether asymmetry is involved in timely mitotic exit is controversial. We investigated the mechanism by which the GAP Bub2/Bfa1 controls GTP hydrolysis on Tem1 and generated a series of mutants leading to constitutive Tem1 activation. These mutants are SPOC-defective and invariably lead to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 at spindle poles, indicating that GTP hydrolysis is essential for asymmetry. Constitutive tethering of Bub2 or Bfa1 to both spindle poles impairs SPOC response but does not impair mitotic exit. Rather, it facilitates mitotic exit of MEN mutants, likely by increasing the residence time of Tem1 at spindle poles where it gets active. Surprisingly, all mutant or chimeric proteins leading to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 lead to increased symmetry at spindle poles of the Kar9 protein that mediates spindle positioning and cause spindle misalignment. Thus, asymmetry of the Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 complex is

  6. Asymmetry of the Budding Yeast Tem1 GTPase at Spindle Poles Is Required for Spindle Positioning But Not for Mitotic Exit

    PubMed Central

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Venturetti, Marianna; Hotz, Manuel; Lengefeld, Jette; Barral, Yves; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetrically dividing yeast S. cerevisiae assembles a bipolar spindle well after establishing the future site of cell division (i.e., the bud neck) and the division axis (i.e., the mother-bud axis). A surveillance mechanism called spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly positioned relative to the mother-bud axis, thereby ensuring the correct ploidy of the progeny. SPOC relies on the heterodimeric GTPase-activating protein Bub2/Bfa1 that inhibits the small GTPase Tem1, in turn essential for activating the mitotic exit network (MEN) kinase cascade and cytokinesis. The Bub2/Bfa1 GAP and the Tem1 GTPase form a complex at spindle poles that undergoes a remarkable asymmetry during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned, with the complex accumulating on the bud-directed old spindle pole. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. The mechanism driving asymmetry of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 in mitosis is unclear. Furthermore, whether asymmetry is involved in timely mitotic exit is controversial. We investigated the mechanism by which the GAP Bub2/Bfa1 controls GTP hydrolysis on Tem1 and generated a series of mutants leading to constitutive Tem1 activation. These mutants are SPOC-defective and invariably lead to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 at spindle poles, indicating that GTP hydrolysis is essential for asymmetry. Constitutive tethering of Bub2 or Bfa1 to both spindle poles impairs SPOC response but does not impair mitotic exit. Rather, it facilitates mitotic exit of MEN mutants, likely by increasing the residence time of Tem1 at spindle poles where it gets active. Surprisingly, all mutant or chimeric proteins leading to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 lead to increased symmetry at spindle poles of the Kar9 protein that mediates spindle positioning and cause spindle misalignment. Thus, asymmetry of the Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 complex is

  7. Cell length growth patterns in fission yeast reveal a novel size control mechanism operating in late G2 phase.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Anna; Rácz-Mónus, Anna; Buchwald, Peter; Sveiczer, Ákos

    2016-09-01

    Because cylindrically shaped fission yeast cells grow exclusively at their tips, cell volume is proportional to length and can be easily monitored by time-lapse microscopy. Here, we analysed the growth pattern of individual cells from several fission yeast strains to determine the growth function that describes them most adequately and to perform size control studies. The growth pattern of most cells during their growth period is best described by a bilinear function (i.e., two linear segments of different growth rates separated by a rate-change point). Linear growth patterns were also observed in several cases, but exponential ones only rarely. Since the bilinear patterns are separated into two segments by a breakpoint, we examined the existence of size control by regression analyses of the appropriate growth parameters in both segments. This confirmed the existence of known size controls in late G1, mid-G2 and late G2 during the fission yeast cycle. The present analyses also revealed that, contrary to the commonly accepted current view, late G2 size control is a general characteristic third event in the cycle. The level of the critical late G2 size that needs to be reached in an individual fission yeast cell is influenced by the growth rate of the cell in a manner similar to budding yeast, suggesting an evolutionary conserved mechanism. The present study of individual cell growth patterns in wild-type and several cell cycle mutant fission yeast strains confirmed that, for most cells, growth is best described by a bilinear function. Three different size control mechanisms were found to operate in the different strains, and, as a novel observation, cell size was always found to be monitored before mitotic onset, irrespective of the existence of any earlier size checkpoints. Studying the pattern of growth and the mechanism of size control helps to clarify the connections between cell growth and division, since their coordination must work properly to maintain size

  8. Clausmarin A, Potential Immunosuppressant Revealed by Yeast-Based Assay and Interleukin-2 Production Assay in Jurkat T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suauam, Pitipreya; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-ek; Palaga, Tanapat; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Yompakdee, Chulee

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of Ca2+-signaling pathways are of medicinal importance, as exemplified by the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A. Using a yeast-based assay devised for the specific detection of Ca2+-signaling inhibitors, clausmarin A, a previously reported terpenoid coumarin, was identified as an active substance. Here, we investigated the likely mechanism of clausmarin A action in yeast and Jurkat T-cells. In the presence of 100 mM CaCl2 in the growth medium of Ca2+-sensitive Δzds1 strain yeast, clausmarin A exhibited a dose-dependent alleviation of various defects due to hyperactivation of Ca2+ signaling, such as growth inhibition, polarized bud growth and G2 phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, clausmarin A inhibited the growth of Δmpk1 (lacking the Mpk1 MAP kinase pathway) but not Δcnb1 (lacking the calcineurin pathway) strain, suggesting that clausmarin A inhibited the calcineurin pathway as presumed from the synthetic lethality of these pathways. Furthermore, clausmarin A alleviated the serious defects of a strain expressing a constitutively active form of calcineurin. In the human Jurkat T-cell line, clausmarin A exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-2 production and IL-2 gene transcription, as well as an inhibition of NFAT dephosphorylation. The effects of clausmarin A observed in both yeast and Jurkat cells are basically similar to those of FK506. Our study revealed that clausmarin A is an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway, and that this is probably mediated via inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity. As such, clausmarin A is a potential immunosuppressant. PMID:26313553

  9. Close, stable homolog juxtaposition during meiosis in budding yeast is dependent on meiotic recombination, occurs independently of synapsis, and is distinct from DSB-independent pairing contacts

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, Tamara L.; Dean, Eric; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lambourne, Lindsey; Burgess, Sean M.

    2002-01-01

    A site-specific recombination system that probes the relative probabilities that pairs of chromosomal loci collide with one another in living cells of budding yeast was used to explore the relative contributions of pairing, recombination, synaptonemal complex formation, and telomere clustering to the close juxtaposition of homologous chromosome pairs during meiosis. The level of Cre-mediated recombination between a pair of loxP sites located at an allelic position on homologous chromosomes was 13-fold greater than that between a pair of loxP sites located at ectopic positions on nonhomologous chromosomes. Mutations affecting meiotic recombination initiation and the processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) into single-end invasions (SEIs) reduced the levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination levels by three- to sixfold. The severity of Cre/loxP phenotypes is presented in contrast to relatively weak DSB-independent pairing defects as assayed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for these mutants. Mutations affecting synaptonemal complex (SC) formation or crossover control gave wild-type levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination. A delay in attaining maximum levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination was observed for a mutant defective in telomere clustering. None of the mutants affected ectopic levels of recombination. These data suggest that stable, close homolog juxtaposition in yeast is distinct from pre-DSB pairing interactions, requires both DSB and SEI formation, but does not depend on crossovers or SC. PMID:12101126

  10. PRIMED: PRIMEr database for deleting and tagging all fission and budding yeast genes developed using the open-source genome retrieval script (GRS).

    PubMed

    Cummings, Michael T; Joh, Richard I; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100 bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities.

  11. PRIMED: PRIMEr Database for Deleting and Tagging All Fission and Budding Yeast Genes Developed Using the Open-Source Genome Retrieval Script (GRS)

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Michael T.; Joh, Richard I.; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities. PMID:25643023

  12. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a CDC2-related kinase by complementation of a budding yeast cdc28 mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun ); Nomoto, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kunihiro ); Yasuda, Hideyo ); Reed, S.I. )

    1991-10-15

    The authors have cloned two different human cDNAs that can complement cdc28 mutations of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One corresponds to a gene encoding human p34{sup CDC2} kinase, and the other to a gene (CDK2; cell division kinase) that has not been characterized previously. The CDK2 protein is highly homologous to p34{sup CDC2} kinase and more significantly is homologous to Xenopus Eg1 kinase, suggesting that CDK2 is the human homolog of Eg1. The human CDC2 and CDK2 genes were both able to complement the inviability of a null allele of S. cerevisiae CDC28. This result indicates that the CDK2 protein has a biological activity closely related to the CDC28 and p34{sup CDC2} kinases. However, CDK2 was unable to complement cdc2 mutants in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the condition where the human CDC2 gene could complement them. CDK2 mRNA appeared late in G{sub 1} or in early S phase, slightly before CDC2 mRNA, after growth stimulation in normal human fibroblast cells. These results suggest that in human cells, two different CDC2-like kinases may regulate the cell cycle at distinct stages.

  13. An interaction between Sla1p and Sla2p plays a role in regulating actin dynamics and endocytosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Campbell W; Dewar, Hilary; Warren, Derek T; Costa, Rosaria; Satish, Nilima; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2003-06-15

    The importance of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton for facilitating endocytosis has been recognised for many years in budding yeast and is increasingly recognised in mammalian cells. However, the mechanism for actin recruitment and the role it plays in endocytosis is unclear. Here we show the importance of two yeast proteins in this process. We demonstrate that Sla1p and Sla2p interact in vitro and in vivo and that this interaction is mediated by the central domain of Sla2p, which includes its coiled-coil region, and by a domain of Sla1p between residues 118 and 361. Overexpression of the interacting fragment of Sla1p causes reduced fluid-phase endocytosis and, interestingly, defects in subsequent trafficking to vacuoles. We show that Sla2p is required for the polarised localisation of Sla1p in cells but not for its cortical localisation or for its overlapping localisation with actin. Generation of an Deltasla1Deltasla2 double mutant demonstrates that Sla2p is likely to act upstream of Sla1p in endocytosis, whereas sensitivity to latrunculin-A suggests that the proteins have opposite effects on actin dynamics. We propose that Sla2p recruits Sla1p to endocytic sites. Sla1p and its associated protein Pan1p then regulate actin assembly through interactions with Arp2/3 and Arp2/3-activating proteins Abp1p and Las17/Bee1p.

  14. A Method for Sporulating Budding Yeast Cells That Allows for Unbiased Identification of Kinase Substrates Using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Suhandynata, Ray; Liang, Jason; Albuquerque, Claudio. P.; Zhou, Huilin; Hollingsworth, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics has been widely used to elucidate many cellular processes. In particular, stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) has been instrumental in improving the quality of data generated from quantitative high-throughput proteomic studies. SILAC uses the cell’s natural metabolic pathways to label proteins with isotopically heavy amino acids. Incorporation of these heavy amino acids effectively labels a cell’s proteome, allowing the comparison of cell cultures treated under different conditions. SILAC has been successfully applied to a variety of model organisms including yeast, fruit flies, plants, and mice to look for kinase substrates as well as protein–protein interactions. In budding yeast, several kinases are known to play critical roles in different aspects of meiosis. Therefore, the use of SILAC to identify potential kinase substrates would be helpful in the understanding the specific mechanisms by which these kinases act. Previously, it has not been possible to use SILAC to quantitatively study the phosphoproteome of meiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, because yeast cells sporulate inefficiently after pregrowth in standard synthetic medium. In this study we report the development of a synthetic, SILAC-compatible, pre-sporulation medium (RPS) that allows for efficient sporulation of S. cerevisiae SK1 diploids. Pre-growth in RPS supplemented with heavy amino acids efficiently labels the proteome, after which cells proceed relatively synchronously through meiosis, producing highly viable spores. As proof of principle, SILAC experiments were able to identify known targets of the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1. PMID:25168012

  15. Analysis of a genome-wide set of gene deletions in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Hayles, Jacqueline; Kim, Dongsup; Wood, Valerie; Park, Han-Oh; Won, Misun; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Duhig, Trevor; Nam, Miyoung; Palmer, Georgia; Han, Sangjo; Jeffery, Linda; Baek, Seung-Tae; Lee, Hyemi; Shim, Young Sam; Lee, Minho; Kim, Lila; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Noh, Eun Joo; Lee, Ah-Reum; Jang, Young-Joo; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Shin-Jung; Park, Jo-Young; Park, Youngwoo; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Park, Hae-Joon; Kang, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hyong Bai; Kang, Hyun-Sam; Park, Hee-Moon; Kim, Kyunghoon; Song, Kiwon; Song, Kyung Bin; Nurse, Paul; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2010-06-01

    We report the construction and analysis of 4,836 heterozygous diploid deletion mutants covering 98.4% of the fission yeast genome providing a tool for studying eukaryotic biology. Comprehensive gene dispensability comparisons with budding yeast--the only other eukaryote for which a comprehensive knockout library exists--revealed that 83% of single-copy orthologs in the two yeasts had conserved dispensability. Gene dispensability differed for certain pathways between the two yeasts, including mitochondrial translation and cell cycle checkpoint control. We show that fission yeast has more essential genes than budding yeast and that essential genes are more likely than nonessential genes to be present in a single copy, to be broadly conserved and to contain introns. Growth fitness analyses determined sets of haploinsufficient and haploproficient genes for fission yeast, and comparisons with budding yeast identified specific ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits, which may act more generally to regulate eukaryotic cell growth.

  16. Involvement of Irreversible Vacuolar Membrane Fragmentation in the Lethality of Food Emulsifier Diglycerol Monolaurate against Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Chikako; Ogita, Akira; Doi, Takeshi; Kumazawa, Fumitaka; Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Toshio

    2017-07-19

    Diglycerol monolaurate (DGL) has been manufactured as a novel type of food emulsifier and is being considered for further application as a food preservative. DGL lethality was thus examined against Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model of a yeast that causes food spoilage. In spite of its molecular structure as a nonionic surfactant, DGL could exhibit lethality at a concentration lower than that which caused disruptive damage to the yeast plasma membrane. DGL lethality was rather accompanied by a dynamic intracellular event such as a marked vacuolar membrane fragmentation. In DGL-treated cells, the tiny dots or particles of fragmented vacuolar membranes failed to fuse into the original large rounded architecture after its removal from medium, which were distinguished from those generated as a result of vacuolar fission normally accelerated under hyperosmotic conditions. Such an irreversible structural damage of the organelle membrane was considered a cause of DGL lethality.

  17. Expression profiling of budding cells in colorectal cancer reveals an EMT-like phenotype and molecular subtype switching.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Linde; Palmans, Sofie; Andel, Daan; Govaere, Olivier; Boeckx, Bram; Smeets, Dominiek; Galle, Eva; Wouters, Jasper; Barras, David; Suffiotti, Madeleine; Dekervel, Jeroen; Tousseyn, Thomas; De Hertogh, Gert; Prenen, Hans; Tejpar, Sabine; Lambrechts, Diether; Sagaert, Xavier

    2017-01-03

    Tumour budding, described as the presence of single cells or small clusters of up to five tumour cells at the invasive margin, is established as a prognostic marker in colorectal carcinoma. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the molecular signature of tumour budding cells and the corresponding tumour bulk. Tumour bulk and budding areas were microdissected and processed for RNA-sequencing. As little RNA was obtained from budding cells, a special low-input mRNA library preparation protocol was used. Gene expression profiles of budding as compared with tumour bulk were investigated for established EMT signatures, consensus molecular subtype (CMS), gene set enrichment and pathway analysis. A total of 296 genes were differentially expressed with an FDR <0.05 and a twofold change between tumour bulk and budding regions. Genes that were upregulated in the budding signature were mainly involved in cell migration and survival while downregulated genes were important for cell proliferation. Supervised clustering according to an established EMT gene signature categorised budding regions as EMT-positive, whereas tumour bulk was considered EMT-negative. Furthermore, a shift from CMS2 (epithelial) to CMS4 (mesenchymal) was observed as tumour cells transit from the tumour bulk to the budding regions. Tumour budding regions are characterised by a phenotype switch compared with the tumour bulk, involving the acquisition of migratory characteristics and a decrease in cell proliferation. In particular, most tumour budding signatures were EMT-positive and switched from an epithelial subtype (CMS2) in the tumour bulk to a mesenchymal subtype (CMS4) in budding cells.

  18. Quasi-programmed aging of budding yeast: a trade-off between programmed processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, stress response, survival and death defines yeast lifespan.

    PubMed

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Leonov, Anna; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that evolutionarily distant organisms share the key features of the aging process and exhibit similar mechanisms of its modulation by certain genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions. The scope of this review is to analyze mechanisms that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae underlie: (1) the replicative and chronological modes of aging; (2) the convergence of these 2 modes of aging into a single aging process; (3) a programmed differentiation of aging cell communities in liquid media and on solid surfaces; and (4) longevity-defining responses of cells to some chemical compounds released to an ecosystem by other organisms populating it. Based on such analysis, we conclude that all these mechanisms are programs for upholding the long-term survival of the entire yeast population inhabiting an ecological niche; however, none of these mechanisms is a "program of aging" - i.e., a program for progressing through consecutive steps of the aging process.

  19. Quasi-programmed aging of budding yeast: a trade-off between programmed processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, stress response, survival and death defines yeast lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Leonov, Anna; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that evolutionarily distant organisms share the key features of the aging process and exhibit similar mechanisms of its modulation by certain genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions. The scope of this review is to analyze mechanisms that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae underlie: (1) the replicative and chronological modes of aging; (2) the convergence of these 2 modes of aging into a single aging process; (3) a programmed differentiation of aging cell communities in liquid media and on solid surfaces; and (4) longevity-defining responses of cells to some chemical compounds released to an ecosystem by other organisms populating it. Based on such analysis, we conclude that all these mechanisms are programs for upholding the long-term survival of the entire yeast population inhabiting an ecological niche; however, none of these mechanisms is a ʺprogram of agingʺ - i.e., a program for progressing through consecutive steps of the aging process. PMID:25485579

  20. Correlation of epiphyllous bud differentiation with foliar senescence in crassulacean succulent Kalanchoe pinnata as revealed by thidiazuron and ethrel application.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sarita; Sawhney, Sudhir

    2006-05-01

    Leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata have crenate margins with each notch bearing a dormant bud competent to develop into a healthy plantlet. Leaf detachment is a common signal for inducing two contrastingly different leaf-based processes, i.e. epiphyllous bud development into plantlet and foliar senescence. To investigate differentiation of bud and its correlation, if any, with foliar senescence, thidiazuron (TDZ), having cytokinin activity and ethrel (ETH), an ethylene releasing compound, were employed. The experimental system was comprised of marginal leaf discs, each harbouring an epiphyllous bud. Most of the growth characteristics of plantlet developing from the epiphyllous bud were significantly inhibited by TDZ but promoted by ETH. The two regulators modulated senescence in a manner different for leaf discs and plantlet leaves. Thus, TDZ caused a complete retention whereas ETH a complete loss of chlorophyll in the leaf discs. In contrast, the former resulted in a complete depletion of chlorophyll from the plantlet leaves producing an albino effect, while the latter reduced it by 50% only. In combined dispensation of the two regulators, the effect of TDZ was expressed in majority of responses studied. The results presented in this investigation clearly show that the foliar processes of epiphyllous bud differentiation and senescence are interlinked as TDZ that delayed senescence inhibited epiphyllous bud differentiation and ETH that hastened senescence promoted it. A working hypothesis to interpret responsiveness of the disc-bud composite on lines of a source-sink duo, has been proposed.

  1. Homeostatic control of START through negative feedback between Cln3-Cdk1 and Rim15/Greatwall kinase in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Talarek, Nicolas; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    How cells coordinate growth and division is key for size homeostasis. Phosphorylation by G1-CDK of Whi5/Rb inhibitors of SBF/E2F transcription factors triggers irreversible S-phase entry in yeast and metazoans, but why this occurs at a given cell size is not fully understood. We show that the yeast Rim15-Igo1,2 pathway, orthologous to Gwl-Arpp19/ENSA, is up-regulated in early G1 and helps promoting START by preventing PP2ACdc55 to dephosphorylate Whi5. RIM15 overexpression lowers cell size while IGO1,2 deletion delays START in cells with low CDK activity. Deletion of WHI5, CDC55 and ectopic CLN2 expression suppress the START delay of igo1,2∆ cells. Rim15 activity increases after cells switch from fermentation to respiration, where Igo1,2 contribute to chromosome maintenance. Interestingly Cln3-Cdk1 also inhibits Rim15 activity, which enables homeostatic control of Whi5 phosphorylation and cell cycle entry. We propose that Rim15/Gwl regulation of PP2A plays a hitherto unappreciated role in cell size homeostasis during metabolic rewiring of the cell cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26233.001 PMID:28600888

  2. Long-term tracking of budding yeast cells in brightfield microscopy: CellStar and the Evaluation Platform

    PubMed Central

    Versari, Cristian; Stoma, Szymon; Batmanov, Kirill; Llamosi, Artémis; Mroz, Filip; Kaczmarek, Adam; Deyell, Matt

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of single cell biology, the observation of the behaviour of individual cells over extended durations and with high accuracy has become a problem of central importance. Surprisingly, even for yeast cells that have relatively regular shapes, no solution has been proposed that reaches the high quality required for long-term experiments for segmentation and tracking (S&T) based on brightfield images. Here, we present CellStar, a tool chain designed to achieve good performance in long-term experiments. The key features are the use of a new variant of parametrized active rays for segmentation, a neighbourhood-preserving criterion for tracking, and the use of an iterative approach that incrementally improves S&T quality. A graphical user interface enables manual corrections of S&T errors and their use for the automated correction of other, related errors and for parameter learning. We created a benchmark dataset with manually analysed images and compared CellStar with six other tools, showing its high performance, notably in long-term tracking. As a community effort, we set up a website, the Yeast Image Toolkit, with the benchmark and the Evaluation Platform to gather this and additional information provided by others. PMID:28179544

  3. High-yield expression in Escherichia coli, purification and application of budding yeast K2 killer protein.

    PubMed

    Podoliankaitė, Monika; Lukša, Juliana; Vyšniauskis, Gintautas; Sereikaitė, Jolanta; Melvydas, Vytautas; Serva, Saulius; Servienė, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae K2 toxin is a highly active extracellular protein, important as a biocontrol agent for biotechnological applications in the wine industry. This protein is produced at negligible levels in yeast, making difficult to isolate it in amounts sufficient for investigation and generation of analysis tools. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a bacterial system for expression of the recombinant K2 protein, suitable for generation of antibodies specific for toxin of the yeast origin. Synthesis of the full-length S. cerevisiae K2 preprotoxin in Escherichia coli was found to be toxic to the host cell, resulting in diminished growth. Such effect was abolished by the introduction of the C-terminal truncation into K2 protein, directing it into non-toxic inclusion body fraction. The obtained protein is of limited solubility thus, facilitating the purification by simple and efficient chromatography-free procedure. The protein aggregates were successfully refolded into a soluble form yielding sufficient amounts of a tag-less truncated K2 protein suitable for polyclonal antibody production. Antibodies were raised in rabbit and found to be specific for detection of both antigen and native S. cerevisiae K2 toxin.

  4. Long-term tracking of budding yeast cells in brightfield microscopy: CellStar and the Evaluation Platform.

    PubMed

    Versari, Cristian; Stoma, Szymon; Batmanov, Kirill; Llamosi, Artémis; Mroz, Filip; Kaczmarek, Adam; Deyell, Matt; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Hersen, Pascal; Batt, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    With the continuous expansion of single cell biology, the observation of the behaviour of individual cells over extended durations and with high accuracy has become a problem of central importance. Surprisingly, even for yeast cells that have relatively regular shapes, no solution has been proposed that reaches the high quality required for long-term experiments for segmentation and tracking (S&T) based on brightfield images. Here, we present CellStar, a tool chain designed to achieve good performance in long-term experiments. The key features are the use of a new variant of parametrized active rays for segmentation, a neighbourhood-preserving criterion for tracking, and the use of an iterative approach that incrementally improves S&T quality. A graphical user interface enables manual corrections of S&T errors and their use for the automated correction of other, related errors and for parameter learning. We created a benchmark dataset with manually analysed images and compared CellStar with six other tools, showing its high performance, notably in long-term tracking. As a community effort, we set up a website, the Yeast Image Toolkit, with the benchmark and the Evaluation Platform to gather this and additional information provided by others.

  5. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Gogoi, Neeku M.; Pillai, Indu V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Munn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organisation of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  6. A Functional Interface at the rDNA Connects rRNA Synthesis, Pre-rRNA Processing and Nucleolar Surveillance in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Leporé, Nathalie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2011-01-01

    Ribogenesis is a multistep error-prone process that is actively monitored by quality control mechanisms. How ribosomal RNA synthesis, pre-rRNA processing and nucleolar surveillance are integrated is unclear. Nor is it understood how defective ribosomes are recognized. We report in budding yeast that, in vivo, the interaction between the transcription elongation factor Spt5 and Rpa190, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase (Pol) I, requires the Spt5 C-terminal region (CTR), a conserved and highly repetitive domain that is reminiscent of the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We show that this sequence is also required for the interaction between Spt5 and Nrd1, an RNA specific binding protein, and an exosome cofactor. Both the Spt4-Spt5, and the Nrd1-Nab3 complexes interact functionally with Rrp6, and colocalize at the rDNA. Mutations in the RNA binding domain of Nrd1, but not in its RNA Pol II CTD-interacting domain, and mutations in the RRM of Nab3 led to the accumulation of normal and aberrant polyadenylated pre-rRNAs. Altogether these results indicate that Nrd1-Nab3 contributes to recruiting the nucleolar surveillance to elongating polymerases to survey nascent rRNA transcripts. PMID:21949810

  7. Elevated Levels of the Polo Kinase Cdc5 Override the Mec1/ATR Checkpoint in Budding Yeast by Acting at Different Steps of the Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Donnianni, Roberto Antonio; Ferrari, Matteo; Lazzaro, Federico; Clerici, Michela; Tamilselvan Nachimuthu, Benjamin; Plevani, Paolo; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Pellicioli, Achille

    2010-01-01

    Checkpoints are surveillance mechanisms that constitute a barrier to oncogenesis by preserving genome integrity. Loss of checkpoint function is an early event in tumorigenesis. Polo kinases (Plks) are fundamental regulators of cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and are frequently overexpressed in tumors. Through their polo box domain, Plks target multiple substrates previously phosphorylated by CDKs and MAPKs. In response to DNA damage, Plks are temporally inhibited in order to maintain the checkpoint-dependent cell cycle block while their activity is required to silence the checkpoint response and resume cell cycle progression. Here, we report that, in budding yeast, overproduction of the Cdc5 polo kinase overrides the checkpoint signaling induced by double strand DNA breaks (DSBs), preventing the phosphorylation of several Mec1/ATR targets, including Ddc2/ATRIP, the checkpoint mediator Rad9, and the transducer kinase Rad53/CHK2. We also show that high levels of Cdc5 slow down DSB processing in a Rad9-dependent manner, but do not prevent the binding of checkpoint factors to a single DSB. Finally, we provide evidence that Sae2, the functional ortholog of human CtIP, which regulates DSB processing and inhibits checkpoint signaling, is regulated by Cdc5. We propose that Cdc5 interferes with the checkpoint response to DSBs acting at multiple levels in the signal transduction pathway and at an early step required to resect DSB ends. PMID:20098491

  8. Ras/cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Regulates Multiple Aspects of Cellular Events by Phosphorylating the Whi3 Cell Cycle Regulator in Budding Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Mizunuma, Masaki; Tsubakiyama, Ryohei; Ogawa, Takafumi; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Kobayashi, Yoshifumi; Inai, Tomomi; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The Start/G1 phase in the cell cycle is an important period during which cells determine their developmental fate, onset of mitotic progression, or the switch to developmental stages in response to both external and internal signals. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Whi3, a negative regulator of the G1 cyclins, has been identified as a positive regulator of cell size control and is involved in the regulation of Start. However, the regulatory pathway of Whi3 governing the response to multiple signals remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Whi3 is phosphorylated by the Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and that phosphorylation of Ser-568 in Whi3 by PKA plays an inhibitory role in Whi3 function. Phosphorylation of Whi3 by PKA led to its decreased interaction with CLN3 G1 cyclin mRNA and was required for the promotion of G1/S progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phosphomimetic S568D mutation of Whi3 prevented the developmental fate switch to sporulation or invasive growth. Thus, PKA modulated the function of Whi3 by phosphorylation, thus implicating PKA-mediated modulation of Whi3 in multiple cellular events. PMID:23471970

  9. PP2ACdc55’s role in reductional chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis in budding yeast is independent of its FEAR function

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Gary W.; Wong, Jin Huei; Arumugam, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    PP2ACdc55 is a highly conserved serine-threonine protein phosphatase that is involved in diverse cellular processes. In budding yeast, meiotic cells lacking PP2ACdc55 activity undergo a premature exit from meiosis I which results in a failure to form bipolar spindles and divide nuclei. This defect is largely due to its role in negatively regulating the Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) pathway. PP2ACdc55 prevents nucleolar release of the Cdk (Cyclin-dependent kinase)-antagonising phosphatase Cdc14 by counteracting phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein Net1 by Cdk. CDC55 was identified in a genetic screen for monopolins performed by isolating suppressors of spo11Δ spo12Δ lethality suggesting that Cdc55 might have a role in meiotic chromosome segregation. We investigated this possibility by isolating cdc55 alleles that suppress spo11Δ spo12Δ lethality and show that this suppression is independent of PP2ACdc55’s FEAR function. Although the suppressor mutations in cdc55 affect reductional chromosome segregation in the absence of recombination, they have no effect on chromosome segregation during wild type meiosis. We suggest that Cdc55 is required for reductional chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis and this is independent of its FEAR function. PMID:27455870

  10. Mps1 and Ipl1/Aurora B Act Sequentially to Correctly Orient Chromosomes on the Meiotic Spindle of Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Régis E.; Kim, Seoyoung; Obeso, David; Straight, Paul D.; Winey, Mark; Dawson, Dean S.

    2013-01-01

    The conserved kinases Mps1 and Ipl1/Aurora B are critical for enabling chromosomes to attach to microtubules such that partner chromosomes will be segregated correctly from each other, but the precise roles of these kinases have been unclear. Here, imaging of live yeast cells was performed to elucidate the stages of chromosome-microtubule interactions, and their regulation by Ipl1 and Mps1, through meiosis I. Ipl1 was found to release kinetochore-microtubule (kMT) associations following meiotic entry, liberating chromosomes to begin homologous pairing. Surprisingly, most chromosome pairs were found to begin their spindle interactions with incorrect kMT attachments. Ipl1 released these improper connections while Mps1 triggered the formation of new force-generating microtubule attachments. This microtubule release and reattachment cycle can prevent catastrophic chromosome segregation errors in meiosis. PMID:23371552

  11. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  12. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Lemnian, Ioana; Gohr, André; Kasper, Lydia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Grosse, Ivo; Breunig, Karin D.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive) while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative), which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and KlCat8, to

  13. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Lemnian, Ioana; Gohr, André; Kasper, Lydia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Grosse, Ivo; Breunig, Karin D

    2015-01-01

    Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive) while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative), which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and KlCat8, to

  14. Symmetric cell division in pseudohyphae of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Kron, S J; Styles, C A; Fink, G R

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are dimorphic; in response to nitrogen starvation they switch from a yeast form (YF) to a filamentous pseudohyphal (PH) form. Time-lapse video microscopy of dividing cells reveals that YF and PH cells differ in their cell cycles and budding polarity. The YF cell cycle is controlled at the G1/S transition by the cell-size checkpoint Start. YF cells divide asymmetrically, producing small daughters from full-sized mothers. As a result, mothers and daughters bud asynchronously. Mothers bud immediately but daughters grow in G1 until they achieve a critical cell size. By contrast, PH cells divide symmetrically, restricting mitosis until the bud grows to the size of the mother. Thus, mother and daughter bud synchronously in the next cycle, without a G1 delay before Start. YF and PH cells also exhibit distinct bud-site selection patterns. YF cells are bipolar, producing their second and subsequent buds at either pole. PH cells are unipolar, producing their second and subsequent buds only from the end opposite the junction with their mother. We propose that in PH cells a G2 cell-size checkpoint delays mitosis until bud size reaches that of the mother cell. We conclude that yeast and PH forms are distinct cell types each with a unique cell cycle, budding pattern, and cell shape. Images PMID:7841518

  15. Alk1 and Alk2 are two new cell cycle-regulated haspin-like proteins in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Alessandro; Vercillo, Raffaella; di Nola, Lisa; Diani, Laura; Giannattasio, Michele; Plevani, Paolo; Muzi-Falconi, Marco

    2006-07-01

    Haspin is a protein kinase identified in mouse and human cells, and genes coding for haspin-like proteins are present in virtually all eukaryotic genomes sequenced so far. Two haspin homologues, called Alk1 and Alk2, are present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both Alk1 and Alk2 exhibit a weak auto-kinase activity in vitro, are phosphoproteins in vivo and are hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. The amount and modification of the two proteins is greatly regulated during the cell cycle. In fact, Alk1 and Alk2 levels peak in mitosis and late-S/G2, respectively, and phosphorylation of both proteins is maximal in mitosis. Control of protein stability plays a major role in Alk2 regulation. The half-life of Alk2 is particularly short in G1; mutagenesis and genetic analysis indicate that its degradation is controlled by the APC pathway. Overexpression of ALK2, but not of ALK1, causes a mitotic arrest, which is correlated to the kinase activity of the protein. This finding, together with its cell cycle regulation, suggests a role for Alk2 in the control of mitosis.

  16. Important role of catalase in the cellular response of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2015-03-01

    Ionizing radiation indirectly causes oxidative stress in cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radicals (OH(-)) generated by the radiolysis of water. We investigated how the catalase function was affected by ionizing radiation and analyzed the phenotype of mutants with a disrupted catalase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to radiation. The wild-type yeast strain and isogenic mutants with disrupted catalase genes were exposed to various doses of (60)Co gamma-rays. There was no difference between the wild-type strain and the cta1 disruption mutant following exposure to gamma-ray irradiation. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the ctt1 disruption mutant, suggesting that this strain exhibited decreased survival on gamma-ray exposure compared with other strains. In all three strains, stationary phase cells were more tolerant to the exposure of gamma-rays than exponential phase cells, whereas the catalase activity in the wild-type strain and cta1 disruption mutant was higher in the stationary phase than in the exponential phase. These data suggest a correlation between catalase activity and survival following gamma-ray exposure. However, this correlation was not clear in the ctt1 disruption mutant, suggesting that other factors are involved in the tolerance to ROS induced by irradiation.

  17. Osh proteins regulate COPII-mediated vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Kentaro; Ikeda, Atsuko; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Castillon, Guillaume A; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Hanada, Kentaro; Riezman, Howard; Muñiz, Manuel; Funato, Kouichi

    2014-01-15

    Lipids synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are delivered to the Golgi by vesicular and non-vesicular pathways. ER-to-Golgi transport is crucial for maintaining the different membrane lipid composition and identities of organelles. Despite their importance, mechanisms regulating transport remain elusive. Here we report that in yeast coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle-mediated transport of ceramide from the ER to the Golgi requires oxysterol-binding protein homologs, Osh proteins, which have been implicated in lipid homeostasis. Because Osh proteins are not required to transport proteins to the Golgi, these results indicate a specific requirement for the Osh proteins in the transport of ceramide. In addition, we provide evidence that Osh proteins play a negative role in COPII vesicle biogenesis. Together, our data suggest that ceramide transport and sphingolipid levels between the ER and Golgi are maintained by two distinct functions of Osh proteins, which negatively regulate COPII vesicle formation and positively control a later stage, presumably fusion of ceramide-enriched vesicles with Golgi compartments.

  18. Rfc5, a small subunit of replication factor C complex, couples DNA replication and mitosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, K; Shimomura, T; Hashimoto, K; Araki, H; Sugino, A; Matsumoto, K

    1996-01-01

    The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevents mitotic entry through the action of the S phase checkpoint. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an essential protein kinase, Spk1/Mec2/Rad53/Sad1, controls the coupling of S phase to mitosis. In an attempt to identify genes that genetically interact with Spk1, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation, rfc5-1, that can be suppressed by overexpression of SPK1. The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C complex. At the restrictive temperature, rfc5-1 mutant cells entered mitosis with unevenly separated or fragmented chromosomes, resulting in loss of viability. Thus, the rfc5 mutation defective for DNA replication is also impaired in the S phase checkpoint. Overexpression of POL30, which encodes the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suppressed the replication defect of the rfc5 mutant but not its checkpoint defect. Taken together, these results suggested that replication factor C has a direct role in sensing the state of DNA replication and transmitting the signal to the checkpoint machinery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692942

  19. Mutagenesis of N-terminal residues of feline foamy virus Gag reveals entirely distinct functions during capsid formation, particle assembly, Gag processing and budding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Betts, Matthew J; Lei, Janet; Wei, Guochao; Bao, Qiuying; Kehl, Timo; Russell, Robert B; Löchelt, Martin

    2016-08-22

    Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency, murine leukemia, and human T cell lymphotropic viruses. The FV Gag N-terminal region is responsible for capsid formation and particle budding via interaction with Env. However, the critical residues or motifs in this region and their functional interaction are currently ill-defined, especially in non-primate FVs. Mutagenesis of N-terminal Gag residues of feline FV (FFV) reveals key residues essential for either capsid assembly and/or viral budding via interaction with the FFV Env leader protein (Elp). In an in vitro Gag-Elp interaction screen, Gag mutations abolishing particle assembly also interfered with Elp binding, indicating that Gag assembly is a prerequisite for this highly specific interaction. Gradient sedimentation analyses of cytosolic proteins indicate that wild-type Gag is mostly assembled into virus capsids. Moreover, proteolytic processing of Gag correlates with capsid assembly and is mostly, if not completely, independent from particle budding. In addition, Gag processing correlates with the presence of packaging-competent FFV genomic RNA suggesting that Pol encapsidation via genomic RNA is a prerequisite for Gag processing. Though an appended heterogeneous myristoylation signal rescues Gag particle budding of mutants unable to form capsids or defective in interacting with Elp, it fails to generate infectious particles that co-package Pol, as evidenced by a lack of Gag processing. Changes in proteolytic Gag processing, intracellular capsid assembly, particle budding and infectivity of defined N-terminal Gag mutants highlight their essential, distinct and only partially overlapping roles during viral assembly and budding. Discussion of these findings will be based on a recent model developed for Gag

  20. Control of Polarized Growth by the Rho Family GTPase Rho4 in Budding Yeast: Requirement of the N-Terminal Extension of Rho4 and Regulation by the Rho GTPase-Activating Protein Bem2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ting; Liao, Yuan; He, Fei; Yang, Yang; Yang, Dan-Dan; Chen, Xiang-Dong

    2013-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rho4 GTPase partially plays a redundant role with Rho3 in the control of polarized growth, as deletion of RHO4 and RHO3 together, but not RHO4 alone, caused lethality and a loss of cell polarity at 30°C. Here, we show that overexpression of the constitutively active rho4Q131L mutant in an rdi1Δ strain caused a severe growth defect and generated large, round, unbudded cells, suggesting that an excess of Rho4 activity could block bud emergence. We also generated four temperature-sensitive rho4-Ts alleles in a rho3Δ rho4Δ strain. These mutants showed growth and morphological defects at 37°C. Interestingly, two rho4-Ts alleles contain mutations that cause amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal region of Rho4. Rho4 possesses a long N-terminal extension that is unique among the six Rho GTPases in the budding yeast but is common in Rho4 homologs in other yeasts and filamentous fungi. We show that the N-terminal extension plays an important role in Rho4 function since rho3Δ rho4Δ61 cells expressing truncated Rho4 lacking amino acids (aa) 1 to 61 exhibited morphological defects at 24°C and a growth defect at 37°C. Furthermore, we show that Rho4 interacts with Bem2, a Rho GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) for Cdc42 and Rho1, by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays. Bem2 specifically interacts with the GTP-bound form of Rho4, and the interaction is mediated by its RhoGAP domain. Overexpression of BEM2 aggravates the defects of rho3Δ rho4 mutants. These results suggest that Bem2 might be a novel GAP for Rho4. PMID:23264647

  1. Proteomic research reveals the stress response and detoxification of yeast to combined inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates.

  2. Proteomic Research Reveals the Stress Response and Detoxification of Yeast to Combined Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:22952687

  3. Budding yeast ATM/ATR control meiotic double-strand break (DSB) levels by down-regulating Rec114, an essential component of the DSB-machinery.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Jesús A; Panizza, Silvia; Serrentino, Maria Elisabetta; Johnson, Anthony L; Geymonat, Marco; Borde, Valérie; Klein, Franz; Cha, Rita S

    2013-06-01

    An essential feature of meiosis is Spo11 catalysis of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Evidence suggests that the number of DSBs generated per meiosis is genetically determined and that this ability to maintain a pre-determined DSB level, or "DSB homeostasis", might be a property of the meiotic program. Here, we present direct evidence that Rec114, an evolutionarily conserved essential component of the meiotic DSB-machinery, interacts with DSB hotspot DNA, and that Tel1 and Mec1, the budding yeast ATM and ATR, respectively, down-regulate Rec114 upon meiotic DSB formation through phosphorylation. Mimicking constitutive phosphorylation reduces the interaction between Rec114 and DSB hotspot DNA, resulting in a reduction and/or delay in DSB formation. Conversely, a non-phosphorylatable rec114 allele confers a genome-wide increase in both DSB levels and in the interaction between Rec114 and the DSB hotspot DNA. These observations strongly suggest that Tel1 and/or Mec1 phosphorylation of Rec114 following Spo11 catalysis down-regulates DSB formation by limiting the interaction between Rec114 and DSB hotspots. We also present evidence that Ndt80, a meiosis specific transcription factor, contributes to Rec114 degradation, consistent with its requirement for complete cessation of DSB formation. Loss of Rec114 foci from chromatin is associated with homolog synapsis but independent of Ndt80 or Tel1/Mec1 phosphorylation. Taken together, we present evidence for three independent ways of regulating Rec114 activity, which likely contribute to meiotic DSBs-homeostasis in maintaining genetically determined levels of breaks.

  4. Analysis of replication profiles reveals key role of RFC-Ctf18 in yeast replication stress response.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Laure; Thomas, Aubin; Pantesco, Véronique; De Vos, John; Pasero, Philippe; Lengronne, Armelle

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity relies on surveillance mechanisms that detect and signal arrested replication forks. Although evidence from budding yeast indicates that the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC) is primarily activated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), studies in higher eukaryotes have implicated primer ends in this process. To identify factors that signal primed ssDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have screened a collection of checkpoint mutants for their ability to activate the DRC, using the repression of late origins as readout for checkpoint activity. This quantitative analysis reveals that neither RFC(Rad24) and the 9-1-1 clamp nor the alternative clamp loader RFC(Elg1) is required to signal paused forks. In contrast, we found that RFC(Ctf18) is essential for the Mrc1-dependent activation of Rad53 and for the maintenance of paused forks. These data identify RFC(Ctf18) as a key DRC mediator, potentially bridging Mrc1 and primed ssDNA to signal paused forks.

  5. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals "aging factors" and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Li, Hao

    2015-09-22

    Budding yeast divides asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother cell that progressively ages and a daughter cell with full lifespan. It is generally assumed that mother cells retain damaged, lifespan limiting materials ("aging factors") through asymmetric division. However, the identity of these aging factors and the mechanisms through which they limit lifespan remain poorly understood. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the asymmetric partitioning of the yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells during cell division, discovering 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. While daughter-enriched proteins are biased toward those needed for bud construction and genome maintenance, mother-enriched proteins are biased towards those localized in the plasma membrane and vacuole. Deletion of 23 of the 74 mother-enriched proteins leads to lifespan extension, a fraction that is about six times that of the genes picked randomly from the genome. Among these lifespan-extending genes, three are involved in endosomal sorting/endosome to vacuole transport, and three are nitrogen source transporters. Tracking the dynamic expression of specific mother-enriched proteins revealed that their concentration steadily increases in the mother cells as they age, but is kept relatively low in the daughter cells via asymmetric distribution. Our results suggest that some mother-enriched proteins may increase to a concentration that becomes deleterious and lifespan-limiting in aged cells, possibly by upsetting homeostasis or leading to aberrant signaling. Our study provides a comprehensive resource for analyzing asymmetric cell division and aging in yeast, which should also be valuable for understanding similar phenomena in other organisms.

  6. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals “aging factors” and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A.; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K.; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Budding yeast divides asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother cell that progressively ages and a daughter cell with full lifespan. It is generally assumed that mother cells retain damaged, lifespan limiting materials (“aging factors”) through asymmetric division. However, the identity of these aging factors and the mechanisms through which they limit lifespan remain poorly understood. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the asymmetric partitioning of the yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells during cell division, discovering 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. While daughter-enriched proteins are biased toward those needed for bud construction and genome maintenance, mother-enriched proteins are biased towards those localized in the plasma membrane and vacuole. Deletion of 23 of the 74 mother-enriched proteins leads to lifespan extension, a fraction that is about six times that of the genes picked randomly from the genome. Among these lifespan-extending genes, three are involved in endosomal sorting/endosome to vacuole transport, and three are nitrogen source transporters. Tracking the dynamic expression of specific mother-enriched proteins revealed that their concentration steadily increases in the mother cells as they age, but is kept relatively low in the daughter cells via asymmetric distribution. Our results suggest that some mother-enriched proteins may increase to a concentration that becomes deleterious and lifespan-limiting in aged cells, possibly by upsetting homeostasis or leading to aberrant signaling. Our study provides a comprehensive resource for analyzing asymmetric cell division and aging in yeast, which should also be valuable for understanding similar phenomena in other organisms. PMID:26351681

  7. The linear interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic noises ensures a high accuracy of cell fate selection in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongkai; Yi, Ming; Zou, Xiufen

    2014-07-01

    To gain insights into the mechanisms of cell fate decision in a noisy environment, the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on cell fate are explored at the single cell level. Specifically, we theoretically define the impulse of Cln1/2 as an indication of cell fates. The strong dependence between the impulse of Cln1/2 and cell fates is exhibited. Based on the simulation results, we illustrate that increasing intrinsic fluctuations causes the parallel shift of the separation ratio of Whi5P but that increasing extrinsic fluctuations leads to the mixture of different cell fates. Our quantitative study also suggests that the strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic noises around an approximate linear model can ensure a high accuracy of cell fate selection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the selection of cell fates is an entropy-decreasing process. In addition, we reveal that cell fates are significantly correlated with the range of entropy decreases.

  8. Papulacandin B resistance in budding and fission yeasts: isolation and characterization of a gene involved in (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Castro, C; Ribas, J C; Valdivieso, M H; Varona, R; del Rey, F; Duran, A

    1995-01-01

    Papulacandin B, an antifungal agent that interferes with the synthesis of yeast cell wall (1,3)beta-D-glucan, was used to isolate resistant mutants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resistance to papulacandin B always segregated as a recessive character that defines a single complementation group in both yeasts (pbr1+ and PBR1, respectively). Determination of several kinetic parameters of (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity revealed no differences between S. pombe wild-type and pbr1 mutant strains except in the 50% inhibitory concentration for papulacandin B of the synthases (about a 50-fold increase in mutant activity). Inactivation of the synthase activity of both yeasts after in vivo treatment with the antifungal agent showed that mutant synthases were more resistant than the corresponding wild-type ones. Detergent dissociation of the S. pombe synthase into soluble and particulate fractions and subsequent reconstitution indicated that the resistance character of pbr1 mutants resides in the particulate fraction of the enzyme. Cloning and sequencing of PBR1 from S. cerevisiae revealed a gene identical to others recently reported (FKS1, ETG1, CWH53, and CND1). Its disruption leads to reduced levels of both (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity and the alkali-insoluble cell wall fraction. Transformants containing the PBR1 gene reverse the defect in (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase. It is concluded that Pbr1p is probably part of the (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase complex. PMID:7592316

  9. Arenavirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:22312335

  10. Functional Characterization of Rpn3 Uncovers a Distinct 19S Proteasomal Subunit Requirement for Ubiquitin-Dependent Proteolysis of Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Eric; Reed, Steven I.

    1999-01-01

    By selectively eliminating ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, the 26S proteasome plays a pivotal role in a large variety of cellular regulatory processes, particularly in the control of cell cycle transitions. Access of ubiquitinated substrates to the inner catalytic chamber within the 20S core particle is mediated by the 19S regulatory particle (RP), whose subunit composition in budding yeast has been recently elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the cell cycle defects resulting from conditional inactivation of one of these RP components, the essential non-ATPase Rpn3/Sun2 subunit. Using temperature-sensitive mutant alleles, we show that rpn3 mutations do not prevent the G1/S transition but cause a metaphase arrest, indicating that the essential Rpn3 function is limiting for mitosis. rpn3 mutants appear severely compromised in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several physiologically important proteasome substrates. Thus, RPN3 function is required for the degradation of the G1-phase cyclin Cln2 targeted by SCF; the S-phase cyclin Clb5, whose ubiquitination is likely to involve a combination of E3 (ubiquitin protein ligase) enzymes; and anaphase-promoting complex targets, such as the B-type cyclin Clb2 and the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Our results indicate that the Pds1 degradation defect of the rpn3 mutants most likely accounts for the metaphase arrest phenotype observed. Surprisingly, but consistent with the lack of a G1 arrest phenotype in thermosensitive rpn3 strains, the Cdk inhibitor Sic1 exhibits a short half-life regardless of the RPN3 genotype. In striking contrast, Sic1 turnover is severely impaired by a temperature-sensitive mutation in RPN12/NIN1, encoding another essential RP subunit. While other interpretations are possible, these data strongly argue for the requirement of distinct RP subunits for efficient proteolysis of specific cell cycle regulators. The potential implications of these data are discussed in the context of possible Rpn3

  11. The Toxoplasma gondii centrosome is the platform for internal daughter budding as revealed by a Nek1 kinase mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2013-08-01

    The pathology and severity of toxoplasmosis results from the rapid replication cycle of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The tachyzoites divide asexually through endodyogeny, wherein two daughter cells bud inside the mother cell. Before mitosis is completed, the daughter buds form around the duplicated centrosomes and subsequently elongate to serve as the scaffold for organellogenesis and organelle partitioning. The molecular control mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Here, we characterized a T. gondii NIMA-related kinase (Nek) ortholog that was identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. A temperature-sensitive mutant, V-A15, possesses a Cys316Arg mutation in TgNek1 (a novel mutant allele in Neks), which is responsible for growth defects at the restrictive temperature. Phenotypic analysis of V-A15 indicated that TgNek1 is essential for centrosome splitting, proper formation of daughter cells and faithful segregation of genetic material. In vitro kinase assays showed that the mutation abolishes the kinase activity of TgNek1. TgNek1 is recruited to the centrosome prior to its duplication and localizes on the duplicated centrosomes facing the spindle poles in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. Mutational analysis of the activation loop suggests that localization and activity are spatio-temporally regulated by differential phosphorylation. Collectively, our results identified a novel temperature-sensitive allele for a Nek kinase and highlight its essential function in centrosome splitting in Toxoplasma. Moreover, these results conclusively show for the first time that Toxoplasma bud assembly is facilitated by the centrosome because defective centrosome splitting results in single daughter cell budding.

  12. Yeast-yeast interactions revealed by aromatic profile analysis of Sauvignon Blanc wine fermented by single or co-culture of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sadoudi, Mohand; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Steyer, Damien; Gallardo-Chacón, Joan-Josep; Ballester, Jordi; Vichi, Stefania; Guérin-Schneider, Rémi; Caixach, Josep; Alexandre, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main reason is that the multistarter fermentation process is thought to simulate indigenous fermentation, thus increasing wine aroma complexity while avoiding the risks linked to natural fermentation. However, multistarter fermentation is characterised by complex and largely unknown interactions between yeasts. Consequently the resulting wine quality is rather unpredictable. In order to better understand the interactions that take place between non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation, we analysed the volatile profiles of several mono-culture and co-cultures. Candida zemplinina, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were used to conduct fermentations either in mono-culture or in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. Up to 48 volatile compounds belonging to different chemical families were quantified. For the first time, we show that C. zemplinina is a strong producer of terpenes and lactones. We demonstrate by means of multivariate analysis that different interactions exist between the co-cultures studied. We observed a synergistic effect on aromatic compound production when M. pulcherrima was in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. However a negative interaction was observed between C. zemplinina and S. cerevisiae, which resulted in a decrease in terpene and lactone content. These interactions are independent of biomass production. The aromatic profiles of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae in mono-culture and in co-culture are very close, and are biomass-dependent, reflecting a neutral interaction. This study reveals that a whole family of compounds could be altered by such interactions. These results suggest that the entire metabolic pathway is affected by these interactions.

  13. A Stochastic Model of the Yeast Cell Cycle Reveals Roles for Feedback Regulation in Limiting Cellular Variability.

    PubMed

    Barik, Debashis; Ball, David A; Peccoud, Jean; Tyson, John J

    2016-12-01

    The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system. In this paper we provide a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle that accurately accounts for the variable phenotypes of wild-type cells and more than 20 mutant yeast strains simulated in different growth conditions. We specifically tested the role of feedback regulations mediated by G1- and SG2M-phase cyclins to minimize the noise in cell cycle progression. Details of the model are informed and tested by quantitative measurements (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the joint distributions of mRNA populations in yeast cells. We use the model to predict the phenotypes of ~30 mutant yeast strains that have not yet been characterized experimentally.

  14. A Stochastic Model of the Yeast Cell Cycle Reveals Roles for Feedback Regulation in Limiting Cellular Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system. In this paper we provide a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle that accurately accounts for the variable phenotypes of wild-type cells and more than 20 mutant yeast strains simulated in different growth conditions. We specifically tested the role of feedback regulations mediated by G1- and SG2M-phase cyclins to minimize the noise in cell cycle progression. Details of the model are informed and tested by quantitative measurements (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the joint distributions of mRNA populations in yeast cells. We use the model to predict the phenotypes of ~30 mutant yeast strains that have not yet been characterized experimentally. PMID:27935947

  15. Genome-wide Fitness Profiles Reveal a Requirement for Autophagy During Yeast Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Nina; Cook, Michael A.; Tyers, Mike; Measday, Vivien

    2011-01-01

    The ability of cells to respond to environmental changes and adapt their metabolism enables cell survival under stressful conditions. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) is particularly well adapted to the harsh conditions of anaerobic wine fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae gene function has not been previously systematically interrogated under conditions of industrial fermentation. We performed a genome-wide study of essential and nonessential S. cerevisiae gene requirements during grape juice fermentation to identify deletion strains that are either depleted or enriched within the viable fermentative population. Genes that function in autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation are required for optimal survival during fermentation, whereas genes that function in ribosome assembly and peroxisome biogenesis impair fitness during fermentation. We also uncover fermentation phenotypes for 139 uncharacterized genes with no previously known cellular function. We demonstrate that autophagy is induced early in wine fermentation in a nitrogen-replete environment, suggesting that autophagy may be triggered by other forms of stress that arise during fermentation. These results provide insights into the complex fermentation process and suggest possible means for improvement of industrial fermentation strains. PMID:22384346

  16. Structural and functional studies of Bud23–Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes

    PubMed Central

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L. J.

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N7-methylguanosine (m7G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23–Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23–Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23–Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23–Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m7G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23–Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23–Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction. PMID:25489090

  17. Xbp1 Directs Global Repression of Budding Yeast Transcription during the Transition to Quiescence and Is Important for the Longevity and Reversibility of the Quiescent State

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Li, Lihong; Davison, Jerry; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Pure populations of quiescent yeast can be obtained from stationary phase cultures that have ceased proliferation after exhausting glucose and other carbon sources from their environment. They are uniformly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and display very high thermo-tolerance and longevity. We find that G1 arrest is initiated before all the glucose has been scavenged from the media. Maintaining G1 arrest requires transcriptional repression of the G1 cyclin, CLN3, by Xbp1. Xbp1 is induced as glucose is depleted and it is among the most abundant transcripts in quiescent cells. Xbp1 binds and represses CLN3 transcription and in the absence of Xbp1, or with extra copies of CLN3, cells undergo ectopic divisions and produce very small cells. The Rad53-mediated replication stress checkpoint reinforces the arrest and becomes essential when Cln3 is overproduced. The XBP1 transcript also undergoes metabolic oscillations under glucose limitation and we identified many additional transcripts that oscillate out of phase with XBP1 and have Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Further global analysis revealed that Xbp1 represses 15% of all yeast genes as they enter the quiescent state and over 500 of these transcripts contain Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Xbp1-repressed transcripts are highly enriched for genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell division and metabolism. Failure to repress some or all of these targets leads xbp1 cells to enter a permanent arrest or senescence with a shortened lifespan. PMID:24204289

  18. Pea2 protein of yeast is localized to sites of polarized growth and is required for efficient mating and bipolar budding

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits polarized growth during two phases of its life cycle, budding and mating. The site for polarization during vegetative growth is determined genetically: a and alpha haploid cells exhibit an axial budding pattern, and a/alpha diploid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. During mating, each cell polarizes towards its partner to ensure efficient mating. SPA2 is required for the bipolar budding pattern (Snyder. M 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1419-1429; Zahner, J.A., H.A. Harkins, and J.R. Pringle. 1996. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1857-1870) and polarization during mating (Snyder, M., S. Gehrung, and B.D. Page. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114: 515-532). We previously identified mutants defective in PEA2 and SPA2 which alter cell polarization in the presence of mating pheromone in a similar manner (Chenevert, J., N. Valtz, and I. Herskowitz. 1994. Genetics, 136:1287-1297). Here we report the further characterization of these mutants. We have found that PEA2 is also required for the bipolar budding pattern and that it encodes a novel protein with a predicted coiled-coil domain. Pea2p is expressed in all cell types and is localized to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells in a pattern similar to Spa2p, Pea2p and Spa2p exhibit interdependent localization: Spa2p is produced in pea2 mutants but fails to localize properly; Pea2p is not stably produced in spa2 mutants. These results suggest that Pea2p and Spa2p function together as a complex to generate the bipolar budding pattern and to guarantee proper polarization during mating. PMID:8909546

  19. New insights into sulfur metabolism in yeasts as revealed by studies of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Beckerich, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution.

  20. New Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in Yeasts as Revealed by Studies of Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution. PMID:23220962

  1. Yeast genome-wide screen reveals dissimilar sets of host genes affecting replication of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Panavas, Tadas; Serviene, Elena; Brasher, Jeremy; Nagy, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Viruses are devastating pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. To further our understanding of how viruses use the resources of infected cells, we systematically tested the yeast single-gene-knockout library for the effect of each host gene on the replication of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a positive-strand RNA virus of plants. The genome-wide screen identified 96 host genes whose absence either reduced or increased the accumulation of the TBSV replicon. The identified genes are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and other compounds and in protein targeting/transport. Comparison with published genome-wide screens reveals that the replication of TBSV and brome mosaic virus (BMV), which belongs to a different supergroup among plus-strand RNA viruses, is affected by vastly different yeast genes. Moreover, a set of yeast genes involved in vacuolar targeting of proteins and vesicle-mediated transport both affected replication of the TBSV replicon and enhanced the cytotoxicity of the Parkinson's disease-related α-synuclein when this protein was expressed in yeast. In addition, a set of host genes involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism affected both TBSV replication and the cytotoxicity of a mutant huntingtin protein, a candidate agent in Huntington's disease. This finding suggests that virus infection and disease-causing proteins might use or alter similar host pathways and may suggest connections between chronic diseases and prior virus infection. PMID:15883361

  2. Analysis of COX2 mutants reveals cytochrome oxidase subassemblies in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase catalyses the reduction of oxygen to water. The mitochondrial enzyme contains up to 13 subunits, 11 in yeast, of which three, Cox1p, Cox2p and Cox3p, are mitochondrially encoded. The assembly pathway of this complex is still poorly understood. Its study in yeast has been so far impeded by the rapid turnover of unassembled subunits of the enzyme. In the present study, immunoblot analysis of blue native gels of yeast wild-type and Cox2p mutants revealed five cytochrome oxidase complexes or subcomplexes: a, b, c, d and f; a is likely to be the fully assembled enzyme; b lacks Cox6ap; d contains Cox7p and/or Cox7ap; f represents unassembled Cox1p; and c, observed only in the Cox2p mutants, contains Cox1p, Cox3p, Cox5p and Cox6p and lacks the other subunits. The identification of these novel cytochrome oxidase subcomplexes should encourage the reexamination of other yeast mutants. PMID:15921494

  3. High-resolution analysis of four efficient yeast replication origins reveals new insights into the ORC and putative MCM binding elements.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fujung; May, Caitlin D; Hoggard, Timothy; Miller, Jeremy; Fox, Catherine A; Weinreich, Michael

    2011-08-01

    In budding yeast, the eukaryotic initiator protein ORC (origin recognition complex) binds to a bipartite sequence consisting of an 11 bp ACS element and an adjacent B1 element. However, the genome contains many more matches to this consensus than actually bind ORC or function as origins in vivo. Although ORC-dependent loading of the replicative MCM helicase at origins is enhanced by a distal B2 element, less is known about this element. Here, we analyzed four highly active origins (ARS309, ARS319, ARS606 and ARS607) by linker scanning mutagenesis and found that sequences adjacent to the ACS contributed substantially to origin activity and ORC binding. Using the sequences of four additional B2 elements we generated a B2 multiple sequence alignment and identified a shared, degenerate 8 bp sequence that was enriched within 228 known origins. In addition, our high-resolution analysis revealed that not all origins exist within nucleosome free regions: a class of Sir2-regulated origins has a stably positioned nucleosome overlapping or near B2. This study illustrates the conserved yet flexible nature of yeast origin architecture to promote ORC binding and origin activity, and helps explain why a strong match to the ORC binding site is insufficient to identify origins within the genome.

  4. Genetic mosaic analysis reveals FGF receptor 2 function in terminal end buds during mammary gland branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pengfei; Ewald, Andrew J.; Martin, Gail R.; Werb, Zena

    2008-01-01

    FGF signaling is associated with breast cancer and is required for mammary placode formation in the mouse. In this study, we employed a genetic mosaic analysis based on Cre-mediated recombination to investigate FGF receptor 2 (Fgfr2) function in the postnatal mammary gland. Mosaic inactivation of Fgfr2 by the MMTVCre transgene enabled us to compare the behavior of Fgfr2 null and Fgfr2 heterozygous cells in the same gland. Fgfr2 null cells were at a competitive disadvantage to their Fgfr2 heterozygous neighbors in the highly proliferative terminal end buds (TEBs) at the invasion front, owing to a negative effect of loss of Fgfr2 function on cell proliferation. However, Fgfr2 null cells were tolerated in mature ducts. In these genetic mosaic mammary glands, the epithelial network is apparently built by TEBs that over time are composed of a progressively larger proportion of Fgfr2-positive cells. However, subsequently, most cells lose Fgfr2 function, presumably due to additional rounds of Cre-mediated recombination. Using an independent strategy to create mosaic mammary glands, which employed an adenovirus-Cre that acts only once, we confirmed that Fgfr2 null cells were out-competed by neighboring Fgfr2 heterozygous cells. Together, our data demonstrate that Fgfr2 functions in the proliferating and invading TEBs, but it is not required in the mature ducts of the pubertal mammary gland. PMID:18585375

  5. Deletion of the cruciform binding domain in CBP/14-3-3 displays reduced origin binding and initiation of DNA replication in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Wafaa; Callejo, Mario; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves many protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. We have previously shown that 14-3-3 proteins bind cruciform DNA and associate with mammalian and yeast replication origins in a cell cycle dependent manner. Results By expressing the human 14-3-3ε, as the sole member of 14-3-3 proteins family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that 14-3-3ε complements the S. cerevisiae Bmh1/Bmh2 double knockout, conserves its cruciform binding activity, and associates in vivo with the yeast replication origins ARS307. Deletion of the α5-helix, the potential cruciform binding domain of 14-3-3, decreased the cruciform binding activity of the protein as well as its association with the yeast replication origins ARS307 and ARS1. Furthermore, the mutant cells had a reduced ability to stably maintain plasmids bearing one or multiple origins. Conclusion 14-3-3, a cruciform DNA binding protein, associates with yeast origins of replication and functions as an initiator of DNA replication, presumably through binding to cruciform DNA forming at yeast replicators. PMID:17430600

  6. Accounting for Experimental Noise Reveals That mRNA Levels, Amplified by Post-Transcriptional Processes, Largely Determine Steady-State Protein Levels in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Csárdi, Gábor; Franks, Alexander; Choi, David S.; Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Drummond, D. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to their environment by modulating protein levels through mRNA transcription and post-transcriptional control. Modest observed correlations between global steady-state mRNA and protein measurements have been interpreted as evidence that mRNA levels determine roughly 40% of the variation in protein levels, indicating dominant post-transcriptional effects. However, the techniques underlying these conclusions, such as correlation and regression, yield biased results when data are noisy, missing systematically, and collinear---properties of mRNA and protein measurements---which motivated us to revisit this subject. Noise-robust analyses of 24 studies of budding yeast reveal that mRNA levels explain more than 85% of the variation in steady-state protein levels. Protein levels are not proportional to mRNA levels, but rise much more rapidly. Regulation of translation suffices to explain this nonlinear effect, revealing post-transcriptional amplification of, rather than competition with, transcriptional signals. These results substantially revise widely credited models of protein-level regulation, and introduce multiple noise-aware approaches essential for proper analysis of many biological phenomena. PMID:25950722

  7. Genetic dissection of the budding yeast Arp2/3 complex: A comparison of the in vivo and structural roles of individual subunits

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Dirk C.; Choe, Elizabeth Y.; Li, Rong

    1999-01-01

    In previous work, we identified the yeast Arp2/3 complex, which localizes to cortical actin patches and is required for their motility and integrity in vivo. This complex contains proteins homologous to each subunit of the Acanthamoeba and human Arp2/3 complex except for a 40-kDa subunit (p40), which was missing from the purified yeast complex. Here, we demonstrate by using immunoprecipitation and gel-filtration analysis that Arc40p, the homolog of p40 identified from the yeast genome database, associates with the yeast Arp2/3 complex. We have carried out gene disruptions of each subunit of the yeast Arp2/3 complex to study each subunit’s role in the function of the complex. Surprisingly, we find that only ARC40 is fully essential for cell viability. Strains lacking each of the other subunits exhibit varying degrees of defects in cell growth and viability and in assembly and polarization of cortical actin patches. We have also examined each subunit’s role in maintaining the structural integrity of the Arp2/3 complex. Arp2p, Arp3p, and Arc40p fall into the monomer pool in Δarc19 and Δarc35 cells, suggesting that Arc19p and Arc35p are the central scaffolding components of the complex. Arp2p and Arp3p do not have major roles in maintaining complex integrity, and Arc15p is required for association of Arp2p and Arc40p, but not other subunits, with the complex. These results provide evidence that each subunit contributes differently to the assembly and function of the Arp2/3 complex. PMID:10377407

  8. Bulk Segregant Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of a Natural Trait Variation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Suo, Fang; Du, Li-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a well-established model organism, studies of natural trait variations in this species remain limited. To assess the feasibility of segregant-pool-based mapping of phenotype-causing genes in natural strains of fission yeast, we investigated the cause of a maltose utilization defect (Mal-) of the S. pombe strain CBS5557 (originally known as Schizosaccharomyces malidevorans). Analyzing the genome sequence of CBS5557 revealed 955 nonconservative missense substitutions, and 61 potential loss-of-function variants including 47 frameshift indels, 13 early stop codons, and 1 splice site mutation. As a side benefit, our analysis confirmed 146 sequence errors in the reference genome and improved annotations of 27 genes. We applied bulk segregant analysis to map the causal locus of the Mal- phenotype. Through sequencing the segregant pools derived from a cross between CBS5557 and the laboratory strain, we located the locus to within a 2.23-Mb chromosome I inversion found in most S. pombe isolates including CBS5557. To map genes within the inversion region that occupies 18% of the genome, we created a laboratory strain containing the same inversion. Analyzing segregants from a cross between CBS5557 and the inversion-containing laboratory strain narrowed down the locus to a 200-kb interval and led us to identify agl1, which suffers a 5-bp deletion in CBS5557, as the causal gene. Interestingly, loss of agl1 through a 34-kb deletion underlies the Mal- phenotype of another S. pombe strain CGMCC2.1628. This work adapts and validates the bulk segregant analysis method for uncovering trait-gene relationship in natural fission yeast strains. PMID:26615217

  9. ESCRT requirements for EIAV budding.

    PubMed

    Sandrin, Virginie; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2013-10-09

    Retroviruses and many other enveloped viruses usurp the cellular ESCRT pathway to bud from cells. However, the stepwise process of ESCRT-mediated virus budding can be challenging to analyze in retroviruses like HIV-1 that recruit multiple different ESCRT factors to initiate budding. In this study, we characterized the ESCRT factor requirements for budding of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), whose only known direct ESCRT protein interaction is with ALIX. siRNA depletion of endogenous ESCRT proteins and "rescue" experiments with exogenous siRNA-resistant wild type and mutant constructs revealed budding requirements for the following ESCRT proteins: ALIX, CHMP4B, CHMP2A and VPS4A or VPS4B. EIAV budding was inhibited by point mutations that abrogate the direct interactions between ALIX:CHMP4B, CHMP4B:CHMP2A, and CHMP2A:VPS4A/B, indicating that each of these interactions is required for EIAV budding. Unexpectedly, CHMP4B depletion led to formation of multi-lobed and long tubular EIAV virions. We conclude that EIAV budding requires an ESCRT protein network that comprises EIAV Gag-ALIX-CHMP4B-CHMP2A-VPS4 interactions. Our experiments also suggest that CHMP4B recruitment/polymerization helps control Gag polymerization and/or processing to ensure that ESCRT factor assembly and membrane fission occur at the proper stage of virion assembly. These studies help establish EIAV as a streamlined model system for dissecting the stepwise processes of lentivirus assembly and ESCRT-mediated budding.

  10. Population Genomic Analysis Reveals Highly Conserved Mitochondrial Genomes in the Yeast Species Lachancea thermotolerans

    PubMed Central

    Freel, Kelle C.; Friedrich, Anne; Hou, Jing; Schacherer, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of mitochondrial (mt) sequence data from various yeasts provides a tool to study genomic evolution within and between different species. While the genomes from a range of lineages are available, there is a lack of information concerning intraspecific mtDNA diversity. Here, we analyzed the mt genomes of 50 strains from Lachancea thermotolerans, a protoploid yeast species that has been isolated from several locations (Europe, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and North / South America) and ecological sources (fruit, tree exudate, plant material, and grape and agave fermentations). Protein-coding genes from the mtDNA were used to construct a phylogeny, which reflected a similar, yet less resolved topology than the phylogenetic tree of 50 nuclear genes. In comparison to its sister species Lachancea kluyveri, L. thermotolerans has a smaller mt genome. This is due to shorter intergenic regions and fewer introns, of which the latter are only found in COX1. We revealed that L. kluyveri and L. thermotolerans share similar levels of intraspecific divergence concerning the nuclear genomes. However, L. thermotolerans has a more highly conserved mt genome with the coding regions characterized by low rates of nonsynonymous substitution. Thus, in the mt genomes of L. thermotolerans, stronger purifying selection and lower mutation rates potentially shape genome diversity in contract to what was found for L. kluyveri, demonstrating that the factors driving mt genome evolution are different even between closely related species. PMID:25212859

  11. Molecular architecture of the yeast Elongator complex reveals an unexpected asymmetric subunit arrangement.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva T; Cheng, Derrick Th; Lu, Shan; Hansen, Jesse M; Dalwadi, Udit; Lam, Cindy Hy; To, Jeffrey L; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2017-02-01

    Elongator is a ~850 kDa protein complex involved in multiple processes from transcription to tRNA modification. Conserved from yeast to humans, Elongator is assembled from two copies of six unique subunits (Elp1 to Elp6). Despite the wealth of structural data on the individual subunits, the overall architecture and subunit organization of the full Elongator and the molecular mechanisms of how it exerts its multiple activities remain unclear. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we revealed that yeast Elongator adopts a bilobal architecture and an unexpected asymmetric subunit arrangement resulting from the hexameric Elp456 subassembly anchored to one of the two Elp123 lobes that form the structural scaffold. By integrating the EM data with available subunit crystal structures and restraints generated from cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry, we constructed a multiscale molecular model that showed the two Elp3, the main catalytic subunit, are located in two distinct environments. This work provides the first structural insights into Elongator and a framework to understand the molecular basis of its multifunctionality.

  12. Correlations of three-dimensional motion of chromosomal loci in yeast revealed by the double-helix point spread function microscope

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Mikael P.; Joyner, Ryan; Weis, Karsten; Moerner, W. E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-particle tracking has been applied to study chromatin motion in live cells, revealing a wealth of dynamical behavior of the genomic material once believed to be relatively static throughout most of the cell cycle. Here we used the dual-color three-dimensional (3D) double-helix point spread function microscope to study the correlations of movement between two fluorescently labeled gene loci on either the same or different budding yeast chromosomes. We performed fast (10 Hz) 3D tracking of the two copies of the GAL locus in diploid cells in both activating and repressive conditions. As controls, we tracked pairs of loci along the same chromosome at various separations, as well as transcriptionally orthogonal genes on different chromosomes. We found that under repressive conditions, the GAL loci exhibited significantly higher velocity cross-correlations than they did under activating conditions. This relative increase has potentially important biological implications, as it might suggest coupling via shared silencing factors or association with decoupled machinery upon activation. We also found that on the time scale studied (∼0.1–30 s), the loci moved with significantly higher subdiffusive mean square displacement exponents than previously reported, which has implications for the application of polymer theory to chromatin motion in eukaryotes. PMID:25318676

  13. Genetic Analysis of Yeast Yip1p Function Reveals a Requirement for Golgi-Localized Rab Proteins and Rab-Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine Z.; Calero, Monica; DeRegis, Carol J.; Heidtman, Matthew; Barlowe, Charles; Collins, Ruth N.

    2004-01-01

    Yip1p is the first identified Rab-interacting membrane protein and the founder member of the YIP1 family, with both orthologs and paralogs found in all eukaryotic genomes. The exact role of Yip1p is unclear; YIP1 is an essential gene and defective alleles severely disrupt membrane transport and inhibit ER vesicle budding. Yip1p has the ability to physically interact with Rab proteins and the nature of this interaction has led to suggestions that Yip1p may function in the process by which Rab proteins translocate between cytosol and membranes. In this study we have investigated the physiological requirements for Yip1p action. Yip1p function requires Rab-GDI and Rab proteins, and several mutations that abrogate Yip1p function lack Rab-interacting capability. We have previously shown that Yip1p in detergent extracts has the capability to physically interact with Rab proteins in a promiscuous manner; however, a genetic analysis that covers every yeast Rab reveals that the Rab requirement in vivo is exclusively confined to a subset of Rab proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus. PMID:15611160

  14. Genetic analysis of yeast Yip1p function reveals a requirement for Golgi-localized rab proteins and rab-Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine Z; Calero, Monica; DeRegis, Carol J; Heidtman, Matthew; Barlowe, Charles; Collins, Ruth N

    2004-12-01

    Yip1p is the first identified Rab-interacting membrane protein and the founder member of the YIP1 family, with both orthologs and paralogs found in all eukaryotic genomes. The exact role of Yip1p is unclear; YIP1 is an essential gene and defective alleles severely disrupt membrane transport and inhibit ER vesicle budding. Yip1p has the ability to physically interact with Rab proteins and the nature of this interaction has led to suggestions that Yip1p may function in the process by which Rab proteins translocate between cytosol and membranes. In this study we have investigated the physiological requirements for Yip1p action. Yip1p function requires Rab-GDI and Rab proteins, and several mutations that abrogate Yip1p function lack Rab-interacting capability. We have previously shown that Yip1p in detergent extracts has the capability to physically interact with Rab proteins in a promiscuous manner; however, a genetic analysis that covers every yeast Rab reveals that the Rab requirement in vivo is exclusively confined to a subset of Rab proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus.

  15. Expression profiling reveals an unexpected growth-stimulating effect of surplus iron on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Du, Yang; Cheng, Wang; Li, Wei-Fang

    2012-08-01

    Iron homeostasis plays a crucial role in growth and division of cells in all kingdoms of life. Although yeast iron metabolism has been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanism of response to surplus iron. In this study, expression profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of surplus iron revealed a dual effect at 1 and 4 h. A cluster of stress-responsive genes was upregulated via activation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn4, which indicated the stress effect of surplus iron on yeast metabolism. Genes involved in aerobic metabolism and several anabolic pathways are also upregulated in iron-surplus conditions, which could significantly accelerate yeast growth. This dual effect suggested that surplus iron might participate in a more complex metabolic network, in addition to serving as a stress inducer. These findings contribute to our understanding of the global response of yeast to the fluctuating availability of iron in the environment.

  16. Expression Profiling Reveals an Unexpected Growth-Stimulating Effect of Surplus Iron on the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yang; Cheng, Wang; Li, Wei-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Iron homeostasis plays a crucial role in growth and division of cells in all kingdoms of life. Although yeast iron metabolism has been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanism of response to surplus iron. In this study, expression profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of surplus iron revealed a dual effect at 1 and 4 h. A cluster of stress-responsive genes was upregulated via activation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn4, which indicated the stress effect of surplus iron on yeast metabolism. Genes involved in aerobic metabolism and several anabolic pathways are also upregulated in iron-surplus conditions, which could significantly accelerate yeast growth. This dual effect suggested that surplus iron might participate in a more complex metabolic network, in addition to serving as a stress inducer. These findings contribute to our understanding of the global response of yeast to the fluctuating availability of iron in the environment. PMID:22907175

  17. Comprehensive polyadenylation site maps in yeast and human reveal pervasive alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Ozsolak, Fatih; Kapranov, Philipp; Foissac, Sylvain; Kim, Sang Woo; Fishilevich, Elane; Monaghan, A Paula; John, Bino; Milos, Patrice M

    2010-12-10

    The emerging discoveries on the link between polyadenylation and disease states underline the need to fully characterize genome-wide polyadenylation states. Here, we report comprehensive maps of global polyadenylation events in human and yeast generated using refinements to the Direct RNA Sequencing technology. This direct approa