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Sample records for budding yeast reveals

  1. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E H; Naylor, Maria L; Dephoure, Noah; Ballif, Bryan A; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gygi, Steven P; Elledge, Stephen J

    2016-06-28

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast.

  2. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E. H.; Naylor, Maria L.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast. PMID:27298372

  3. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, I R; Yang, H C; Pon, L A

    2001-06-01

    During the past decade significant advances were made toward understanding the mechanism of mitochondrial inheritance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A combination of genetics, cell-free assays and microscopy has led to the discovery of a great number of components. These fall into three major categories: cytoskeletal elements, mitochondrial membrane components and regulatory proteins. These proteins mediate activities, including movement of mitochondria from mother cells to buds, segregation of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA, and equal distribution of the organelle between mother cells and buds during yeast cell division.

  4. Dicentric chromosome stretching during anaphase reveals roles of Sir2/Ku in chromatin compaction in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Thrower, D A; Bloom, K

    2001-09-01

    We have used mitotic spindle forces to examine the role of Sir2 and Ku in chromatin compaction. Escherichia coli lac operator DNA was placed between two centromeres on a conditional dicentric chromosome in budding yeast cells and made visible by expression of a lac repressor-green fluorescent fusion protein. Centromeres on the same chromatid of a dicentric chromosome attach to opposite poles approximately 50% of the time, resulting in chromosome bridges during anaphase. In cells deleted for yKU70, yKU80, or SIR2, a 10-kb region of the dicentric chromosome stretched along the spindle axis to a length of 6 microm during anaphase. On spindle disassembly, stretched chromatin recoiled to the bud neck and was partitioned to mother and daughter cells after cytokinesis and cell separation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Sir2 localizes to the lacO region in response to activation of the dicentric chromosome. These findings indicate that Ku and Sir proteins are required for proper chromatin compaction within regions of a chromosome experiencing tension or DNA damage. The association of Sir2 with the affected region suggests a direct role in this process, which may include the formation of heterochromatic DNA.

  5. Experimental evolution in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss our progress in analyzing evolution in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We take two basic approaches. The first is to try and examine quantitative aspects of evolution, for example by determining how the rate of evolution depends on the mutation rate and the population size or asking whether the rate of mutation is uniform throughout the genome. The second is to try to evolve qualitatively novel, cell biologically interesting phenotypes and track the mutations that are responsible for the phenotype. Our efforts include trying to alter cell morphology, evolve multicellularity, and produce a biological oscillator.

  6. A Link between ORC-Origin Binding Mechanisms and Origin Activation Time Revealed in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hoggard, Timothy; Shor, Erika; Müller, Carolin A.; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; Fox, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication origins are selected in G1-phase when the origin recognition complex (ORC) binds chromosomal positions and triggers molecular events culminating in the initiation of DNA replication (a.k.a. origin firing) during S-phase. Each chromosome uses multiple origins for its duplication, and each origin fires at a characteristic time during S-phase, creating a cell-type specific genome replication pattern relevant to differentiation and genome stability. It is unclear whether ORC-origin interactions are relevant to origin activation time. We applied a novel genome-wide strategy to classify origins in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on the types of molecular interactions used for ORC-origin binding. Specifically, origins were classified as DNA-dependent when the strength of ORC-origin binding in vivo could be explained by the affinity of ORC for origin DNA in vitro, and, conversely, as ‘chromatin-dependent’ when the ORC-DNA interaction in vitro was insufficient to explain the strength of ORC-origin binding in vivo. These two origin classes differed in terms of nucleosome architecture and dependence on origin-flanking sequences in plasmid replication assays, consistent with local features of chromatin promoting ORC binding at ‘chromatin-dependent’ origins. Finally, the ‘chromatin-dependent’ class was enriched for origins that fire early in S-phase, while the DNA-dependent class was enriched for later firing origins. Conversely, the latest firing origins showed a positive association with the ORC-origin DNA paradigm for normal levels of ORC binding, whereas the earliest firing origins did not. These data reveal a novel association between ORC-origin binding mechanisms and the regulation of origin activation time. PMID:24068963

  7. The intronome of budding yeasts.

    PubMed

    Neuvéglise, Cécile; Marck, Christian; Gaillardin, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Whatever their abundance in genomes, spliceosomal introns are the signature of eukaryotic genes. The sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, achieved fifteen years ago, revealed that this yeast has very few introns, but conserved intron boundaries typical for an intron definition mechanism. With the improvement and the development of new sequencing technologies, yeast genomes have been extensively sequenced during the last decade. We took advantage of this plethora of data to compile and assess the intron content of the protein-coding genes of 13 genomes representative of the evolution of hemiascomycetous yeasts. We first observed that intron paucity is a general rule and that the fastest evolving genomes tend to lose their introns more rapidly (e.g. S. cerevisiae versus Yarrowia lipolytica). Noticeable differences were also confirmed for 5' splice sites and branch point sites (BP) as well as for the relative position of the BP. These changes seemed to be correlated with the lineage specific evolution of splicing factors.

  8. Functional Diversity of Silencers in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sjöstrand, Jimmy O. O.; Kegel, Andreas; Åström, Stefan U.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci HMLα and HMRa in the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. A 102-bp minimal silencer fragment was defined that was both necessary and sufficient for silencing of HMLα. Mutagenesis of the silencer revealed three distinct regions (A, B, and C) that were important for silencing. Recombinant K. lactis ribosomal DNA enhancer binding protein 1 (Reb1p) could bind the silencer in vitro, and point mutations in the B box abolished both Reb1p binding and silencer function. Furthermore, strains carrying temperature-sensitive alleles of the REB1 gene derepressed the transcription of the HMLα1 gene at the nonpermissive temperature. A functional silencer element from the K. lactis cryptic HMRa locus was also identified, which contained both Reb1p binding sites and A boxes, strongly suggesting a general role for these sequences in K. lactis silencing. Our data indicate that different proteins bind to Kluyveromyces silencers than to Saccharomyces silencers. We suggest that the evolution of silencers is rapid in budding yeasts and discuss the similarities and differences between silencers in Saccharomyces and Kluyveromyces. PMID:12456003

  9. High Throughput Analyses of Budding Yeast ARSs Reveal New DNA Elements Capable of Conferring Centromere-Independent Plasmid Propagation.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, Timothy; Liachko, Ivan; Burt, Cassaundra; Meikle, Troy; Jiang, Katherine; Craciun, Gheorghe; Dunham, Maitreya J; Fox, Catherine A

    2016-04-07

    The ability of plasmids to propagate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been instrumental in defining eukaryotic chromosomal control elements. Stable propagation demands both plasmid replication, which requires a chromosomal replication origin (i.e., an ARS), and plasmid distribution to dividing cells, which requires either a chromosomal centromere for segregation or a plasmid-partitioning element. While our knowledge of yeast ARSs and centromeres is relatively advanced, we know less about chromosomal regions that can function as plasmid partitioning elements. The Rap1 protein-binding site (RAP1) present in transcriptional silencers and telomeres of budding yeast is a known plasmid-partitioning element that functions to anchor a plasmid to the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which in turn facilitates plasmid distribution to daughter cells. This Rap1-dependent INM-anchoring also has an important chromosomal role in higher-order chromosomal structures that enhance transcriptional silencing and telomere stability. Thus, plasmid partitioning can reflect fundamental features of chromosome structure and biology, yet a systematic screen for plasmid partitioning elements has not been reported. Here, we couple deep sequencing with competitive growth experiments of a plasmid library containing thousands of short ARS fragments to identify new plasmid partitioning elements. Competitive growth experiments were performed with libraries that differed only in terms of the presence or absence of a centromere. Comparisons of the behavior of ARS fragments in the two experiments allowed us to identify sequences that were likely to drive plasmid partitioning. In addition to the silencer RAP1 site, we identified 74 new putative plasmid-partitioning motifs predicted to act as binding sites for DNA binding proteins enriched for roles in negative regulation of gene expression and G2/M-phase associated biology. These data expand our knowledge of chromosomal elements that may function in plasmid

  10. Energy Landscape Reveals That the Budding Yeast Cell Cycle Is a Robust and Adaptive Multi-stage Process

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Cheng; Li, Xiaoguang; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively understanding the robustness, adaptivity and efficiency of cell cycle dynamics under the influence of noise is a fundamental but difficult question to answer for most eukaryotic organisms. Using a simplified budding yeast cell cycle model perturbed by intrinsic noise, we systematically explore these issues from an energy landscape point of view by constructing an energy landscape for the considered system based on large deviation theory. Analysis shows that the cell cycle trajectory is sharply confined by the ambient energy barrier, and the landscape along this trajectory exhibits a generally flat shape. We explain the evolution of the system on this flat path by incorporating its non-gradient nature. Furthermore, we illustrate how this global landscape changes in response to external signals, observing a nice transformation of the landscapes as the excitable system approaches a limit cycle system when nutrients are sufficient, as well as the formation of additional energy wells when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated. By taking into account the finite volume effect, we find additional pits along the flat cycle path in the landscape associated with the checkpoint mechanism of the cell cycle. The difference between the landscapes induced by intrinsic and extrinsic noise is also discussed. In our opinion, this meticulous structure of the energy landscape for our simplified model is of general interest to other cell cycle dynamics, and the proposed methods can be applied to study similar biological systems. PMID:25794282

  11. Multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rebecca L; Okamoto, Koji; Shaw, Janet M

    2008-02-01

    Yeast mitochondria form a branched tubular network. Mitochondrial inheritance is tightly coupled with bud emergence, ensuring that daughter cells receive mitochondria from mother cells during division. Proteins reported to influence mitochondrial inheritance include the mitochondrial rho (Miro) GTPase Gem1p, Mmr1p, and Ypt11p. A synthetic genetic array (SGA) screen revealed interactions between gem1Delta and deletions of genes that affect mitochondrial function or inheritance, including mmr1Delta. Synthetic sickness of gem1Delta mmr1Delta double mutants correlated with defective mitochondrial inheritance by large buds. Additional studies demonstrated that GEM1, MMR1, and YPT11 each contribute to mitochondrial inheritance. Mitochondrial accumulation in buds caused by overexpression of either Mmr1p or Ypt11p did not depend on Gem1p, indicating these three proteins function independently. Physical linkage of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has led to speculation that distribution of these two organelles is coordinated. We show that yeast mitochondrial inheritance is not required for inheritance or spreading of cortical ER in the bud. Moreover, Ypt11p overexpression, but not Mmr1p overexpression, caused ER accumulation in the bud, revealing a potential role for Ypt11p in ER distribution. This study demonstrates that multiple pathways influence mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and that Miro GTPases have conserved roles in mitochondrial distribution.

  12. Synchronization of the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A number of model organisms have provided the basis for our understanding of the eukaryotic cell cycle. These model organisms are generally much easier to manipulate than mammalian cells and as such provide amenable tools for extensive genetic and biochemical analysis. One of the most common model organisms used to study the cell cycle is the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model provides the ability to synchronise cells efficiently at different stages of the cell cycle, which in turn opens up the possibility for extensive and detailed study of mechanisms regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle. Here, we describe methods in which budding yeast cells are arrested at a particular phase of the cell cycle and then released from the block, permitting the study of molecular mechanisms that drive the progression through the cell cycle.

  13. Mitochondrial movement and inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Boldogh, Istvan R; Fehrenbacher, Kammy L; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol; Pon, Liza A

    2005-07-18

    Mitochondria are essential organelles that perform fundamental cellular functions including aerobic energy mobilization, fatty acid oxidation, amino acid metabolism, heme biosynthesis and apoptosis. Mitochondria cannot be synthesized de novo. Therefore, the inheritance of this organelle is an essential part of the cell cycle; that is, daughter cells that do not inherit mitochondria will not survive. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a facultative aerobe that can tolerate mitochondrial mutations that would be lethal in other organisms. Therefore, yeast has been used extensively to study inheritance and segregation of mitochondria. As a result, much of what we know regarding mitochondrial inheritance has been uncovered using yeast as a model system. Here, we describe the latest developments in mitochondrial motility and inheritance.

  14. Combined Transcriptomics and Chemical-Genetics Reveal Molecular Mode of Action of Valproic acid, an Anticancer Molecule using Budding Yeast Model

    PubMed Central

    Golla, Upendarrao; Joseph, Deepthi; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid (VA) is a pharmacologically important histone deacetylase inhibitor that recently garnered attention as an anticancer agent. Since the molecular mechanisms behind the multiple effects of VA are unclear, this study was aimed to unravel the comprehensive cellular processes affected by VA and its molecular targets in vivo using budding yeast as a model organism. Interestingly, genome-wide transcriptome analysis of cells treated with VA showed differential regulation of 30% of the genome. Functional enrichment analysis of VA transcriptome evidenced alteration of various cellular processes including cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, DNA repair, ion homeostasis, metabolism, stress response, transport and ribosomal biogenesis, etc. Moreover, our genetic screening analysis revealed VA molecular targets belonging to oxidative and osmotic stress, DNA repair, cell wall integrity, and iron homeostasis. Further, our results demonstrated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) Hog1 (p38) and Slt2 (p44/42) upon VA treatment. Our results also exhibited that VA acts through alteration of mitochondrial, ER architecture and functions. Especially, VA effects were neutralized in cells lacking lipid particles. Altogether, our results deciphered the novel molecular insights and mechanistic links to strengthen our knowledge on diverse cellular effects of VA along with its probable therapeutic targets and detoxification approaches. PMID:27734932

  15. High resolution microscopy reveals the nuclear shape of budding yeast during cell cycle and in various biological states

    PubMed Central

    Kamgoue, Alain; Normand, Christophe; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Mangeat, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT How spatial organization of the genome depends on nuclear shape is unknown, mostly because accurate nuclear size and shape measurement is technically challenging. In large cell populations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we assessed the geometry (size and shape) of nuclei in three dimensions with a resolution of 30 nm. We improved an automated fluorescence localization method by implementing a post-acquisition correction of the spherical microscopic aberration along the z-axis, to detect the three dimensional (3D) positions of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope. Here, we used a method called NucQuant to accurately estimate the geometry of nuclei in 3D throughout the cell cycle. To increase the robustness of the statistics, we aggregated thousands of detected NPCs from a cell population in a single representation using the nucleolus or the spindle pole body (SPB) as references to align nuclei along the same axis. We could detect asymmetric changes of the nucleus associated with modification of nucleolar size. Stereotypical modification of the nucleus toward the nucleolus further confirmed the asymmetric properties of the nuclear envelope. PMID:27831493

  16. Systematic definition of protein constituents along the major polarization axis reveals an adaptive reuse of the polarization machinery in pheromone-treated budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Rammohan; Moradi, Emily K; Niu, Wei; Hart, G Traver; Davis, Matthew; McGary, Kriston L; Ellington, Andrew D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2009-01-01

    Polarizing cells extensively restructure cellular components in a spatially and temporally coupled manner along the major axis of cellular extension. Budding yeast are a useful model of polarized growth, helping to define many molecular components of this conserved process. Besides budding, yeast cells also differentiate upon treatment with pheromone from the opposite mating type, forming a mating projection (the 'shmoo') by directional restructuring of the cytoskeleton, localized vesicular transport and overall reorganization of the cytosol. To characterize the proteomic localization changes accompanying polarized growth, we developed and implemented a novel cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring the spatial redistribution of a large fraction of the yeast proteome, and applied this assay to identify proteins localized along the mating projection following pheromone treatment. We further trained a machine learning algorithm to refine the cell imaging screen, identifying additional shmoo-localized proteins. In all, we identified 74 proteins that specifically localize to the mating projection, including previously uncharacterized proteins (Ycr043c, Ydr348c, Yer071c, Ymr295c, and Yor304c-a) and known polarization complexes such as the exocyst. Functional analysis of these proteins, coupled with quantitative analysis of individual organelle movements during shmoo formation, suggests a model in which the basic machinery for cell polarization is generally conserved between processes forming the bud and the shmoo, with a distinct subset of proteins used only for shmoo formation. The net effect is a defined ordering of major organelles along the polarization axis, with specific proteins implicated at the proximal growth tip.

  17. Biofilm/Mat assays for budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Paul J

    2015-02-02

    Many microbial species form biofilms/mats under nutrient-limiting conditions, and fungal pathogens rely on this social behavior for virulence. In budding yeast, mat formation is dependent on the mucin-like flocculin Flo11, which promotes cell-to-cell and cell-to-substrate adhesion in mats. The biofilm/mat assays described here allow the evaluation of the role of Flo11 in the formation of mats. Cells are grown on surfaces with different degrees of rigidity to assess their expansion and three-dimensional architecture, and the cells are also exposed to plastic surfaces to quantify their adherence. These assays are broadly applicable to studying biofilm/mat formation in microbial species.

  18. Electrochemical Regulation of Budding Yeast Polarity

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Chang, Fred; Minc, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cells are naturally surrounded by organized electrical signals in the form of local ion fluxes, membrane potential, and electric fields (EFs) at their surface. Although the contribution of electrochemical elements to cell polarity and migration is beginning to be appreciated, underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we show that an exogenous EF can orient cell polarization in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, directing the growth of mating projections towards sites of hyperpolarized membrane potential, while directing bud emergence in the opposite direction, towards sites of depolarized potential. Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that a local change in membrane potential triggered by light is sufficient to direct cell polarization. Screens for mutants with altered EF responses identify genes involved in transducing electrochemical signals to the polarity machinery. Membrane potential, which is regulated by the potassium transporter Trk1p, is required for polarity orientation during mating and EF response. Membrane potential may regulate membrane charges through negatively charged phosphatidylserines (PSs), which act to position the Cdc42p-based polarity machinery. These studies thus define an electrochemical pathway that directs the orientation of cell polarization. PMID:25548923

  19. Measuring mitotic spindle dynamics in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, Kemp

    In order to carry out its life cycle and produce viable progeny through cell division, a cell must successfully coordinate and execute a number of complex processes with high fidelity, in an environment dominated by thermal noise. One important example of such a process is the assembly and positioning of the mitotic spindle prior to chromosome segregation. The mitotic spindle is a modular structure composed of two spindle pole bodies, separated in space and spanned by filamentous proteins called microtubules, along which the genetic material of the cell is held. The spindle is responsible for alignment and subsequent segregation of chromosomes into two equal parts; proper spindle positioning and timing ensure that genetic material is appropriately divided amongst mother and daughter cells. In this thesis, I describe fluorescence confocal microscopy and automated image analysis algorithms, which I have used to observe and analyze the real space dynamics of the mitotic spindle in budding yeast. The software can locate structures in three spatial dimensions and track their movement in time. By selecting fluorescent proteins which specifically label the spindle poles and cell periphery, mitotic spindle dynamics have been measured in a coordinate system relevant to the cell division. I describe how I have characterised the accuracy and precision of the algorithms by simulating fluorescence data for both spindle poles and the budding yeast cell surface. In this thesis I also describe the construction of a microfluidic apparatus that allows for the measurement of long time-scale dynamics of individual cells and the development of a cell population. The tools developed in this thesis work will facilitate in-depth quantitative analysis of the non-equilibrium processes in living cells.

  20. Estimation of population effects in synchronized budding yeast experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemistoe, Antti; Aho, Tommi; Thesleff, Henna; Tiainen, Mikko; Marjanen, Kalle; Linne, Marja-Leena; Yli-Harja, Olli P.

    2003-05-01

    An approach for estimating the distribution of a synchronized budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell population is discussed. This involves estimation of the phase of the cell cycle for each cell. The approach is based on counting the number of buds of different sizes in budding yeast images. An image processing procedure is presented for the bud-counting task. The procedure employs clustering of the local mean-variance space for segmentation of the images. The subsequent bud-detection step is based on an object separation method which utilizes the chain code representation of objects as well as labeling of connected components. The procedure is tested with microscopic images that were obtained in a time-series experiment of a synchronized budding yeast cell population. The use of the distribution estimate of the cell population for inverse filtering of signals that are obtained in time-series microarray measurements is discussed as well.

  1. The essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis is conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Kun; Kawara, Haruka; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Kume, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yukari; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Kenji; Ueno, Masaru; Kanai, Muneyoshi; Hirata, Dai; Funato, Kouichi; Mizuta, Keiko

    2015-09-01

    The Rrs1 protein plays an essential role in the biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Here, we examined whether the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) homologue of Rrs1 also plays a role in ribosome biogenesis. To this end, we constructed two temperature-sensitive fission yeast strains, rrs1-D14/22G and rrs1-L51P, which had amino acid substitutions corresponding to those of the previously characterized budding yeast rrs1-84 (D22/30G) and rrs1-124 (L61P) strains, respectively. The fission yeast mutants exhibited severe defects in growth and 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis at high temperatures. In addition, expression of the Rrs1 protein of fission yeast suppressed the growth defects of the budding yeast rrs1 mutants at high temperatures. Yeast two-hybrid analyses revealed that the interactions of Rrs1 with the Rfp2 and Ebp2 proteins were conserved in budding and fission yeasts. These results suggest that the essential function of Rrs1 in ribosome biogenesis may be conserved in budding and fission yeasts.

  2. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, M.; Torigoe, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Takizawa, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Ono, F.

    2014-05-01

    Our studies on the tolerance of plants and animals against very high pressure of several GPa have been extended to a smaller sized fungus, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate, and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar. It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for longer than 12 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is a little weaker than that of tardigrades.

  3. Identification of an Amphipathic Helix Important for the Formation of Ectopic Septin Spirals and Axial Budding in Yeast Axial Landmark Protein Bud3p

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Gong, Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Correct positioning of polarity axis in response to internal or external cues is central to cellular morphogenesis and cell fate determination. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bud3p plays a key role in the axial bud-site selection (axial budding) process in which cells assemble the new bud next to the preceding cell division site. Bud3p is thought to act as a component of a spatial landmark. However, it is not clear how Bud3p interacts with other components of the landmark, such as the septins, to control axial budding. Here, we report that overexpression of Bud3p causes the formation of small septin rings (∼1 µm in diameter) and arcs aside from previously reported spiral-like septin structures. Bud3p closely associates with the septins in vivo as Bud3p colocalizes with these aberrant septin structures and forms a complex with two septins, Cdc10p and Cdc11p. The interaction of Bud3p with the septins may involve multiple regions of Bud3p including 1–858, 850–1220, and 1221–1636 a.a. since they all target to the bud neck but exhibit different effects on septin organization when overexpressed. In addition, our study reveals that the axial budding function of Bud3p is mediated by the N-terminal region 1–858. This region shares an amphipathic helix (850–858) crucial for bud neck targeting with the middle portion 850–1103 involved in the formation of ectopic septin spirals and rings. Interestingly, the Dbl-homology domain located in 1–858 is dispensable for axial bud-site selection. Our findings suggest that multiple regions of Bud3p ensure efficient targeting of Bud3p to the bud neck in the assembly of the axial landmark and distinct domains of Bud3p are involved in axial bud-site selection and other cellular processes. PMID:21408200

  4. Dielectric modelling of cell division for budding and fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji; Sekine, Katsuhisa

    2007-02-01

    The frequency dependence of complex permittivity or the dielectric spectrum of a system including a cell in cell division has been simulated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. Two different types of cell division characteristic of budding and fission yeast were examined. The yeast cells are both regarded as a body of rotation, and thus have anisotropic polarization, i.e. the effective permittivity of the cell depends on the orientation of the cell to the direction of an applied electric field. In the perpendicular orientation, where the rotational axis of the cell is perpendicular to the electric field direction, the dielectric spectra for both yeast cells included one dielectric relaxation and its intensity depended on the cell volume. In the parallel orientation, on the other hand, two dielectric relaxations appeared with bud growth for budding yeast and with septum formation for fission yeast. The low-frequency relaxation was shifted to a lower frequency region by narrowing the neck between the bud and the mother cell for budding yeast and by increasing the degree of septum formation for fission yeast. After cell separation, the low-frequency relaxation disappeared. The simulations well interpreted the oscillation of the relative permittivity of culture broth found for synchronous cell growth of budding yeast.

  5. Characterization of Septin Ultrastructure in Budding Yeast Using Electron Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bertin, Aurélie; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Summary Septins are essential for the completion of cytokinesis. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, septins are located at the bud neck during mitosis and are closely connected to the inner plasma membrane. In vitro, yeast septins have been shown to self-assemble into a variety of filamentous structures, including rods, paired filaments, bundles and rings [1–3]. Using electron tomography of freeze-substituted section and cryo-electron tomography of frozen sections, we determined the three dimensional organization of the septin cytoskeleton in dividing budding yeast with molecular resolution [4,5]. Here we describe the detailed procedures used for our characterization of the septin cellular ultrastructure. PMID:26519309

  6. Singularity in polarization: rewiring yeast cells to make two buds.

    PubMed

    Howell, Audrey S; Savage, Natasha S; Johnson, Sam A; Bose, Indrani; Wagner, Allison W; Zyla, Trevin R; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Goryachev, Andrew B; Lew, Daniel J

    2009-11-13

    For budding yeast to ensure formation of only one bud, cells must polarize toward one, and only one, site. Polarity establishment involves the Rho family GTPase Cdc42, which concentrates at polarization sites via a positive feedback loop. To assess whether singularity is linked to the specific Cdc42 feedback loop, we disabled the yeast cell's endogenous amplification mechanism and synthetically rewired the cells to employ a different positive feedback loop. Rewired cells violated singularity, occasionally making two buds. Even cells that made only one bud sometimes initiated two clusters of Cdc42, but then one cluster became dominant. Mathematical modeling indicated that, given sufficient time, competition between clusters would promote singularity. In rewired cells, competition occurred slowly and sometimes failed to develop a single "winning" cluster before budding. Slowing competition in normal cells also allowed occasional formation of two buds, suggesting that singularity is enforced by rapid competition between Cdc42 clusters.

  7. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  8. Systematic identification of cell size regulators in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Soifer, Ilya; Barkai, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Cell size is determined by a complex interplay between growth and division, involving multiple cellular pathways. To identify systematically processes affecting size control in G1 in budding yeast, we imaged and analyzed the cell cycle of millions of individual cells representing 591 mutants implicated in size control. Quantitative metric distinguished mutants affecting the mechanism of size control from the majority of mutants that have a perturbed size due to indirect effects modulating cell growth. Overall, we identified 17 negative and dozens positive size control regulators, with the negative regulators forming a small network centered on elements of mitotic exit network. Some elements of the translation machinery affected size control with a notable distinction between the deletions of parts of small and large ribosomal subunit: parts of small ribosomal subunit tended to regulate size control, while parts of the large subunit affected cell growth. Analysis of small cells revealed additional size control mechanism that functions in G2/M, complementing the primary size control in G1. Our study provides new insights about size control mechanisms in budding yeast. PMID:25411401

  9. Budding Yeast for Budding Geneticists: A Primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model System

    PubMed Central

    Duina, Andrea A.; Miller, Mary E.; Keeney, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans. PMID:24807111

  10. Budding yeast for budding geneticists: a primer on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    PubMed

    Duina, Andrea A; Miller, Mary E; Keeney, Jill B

    2014-05-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model organism for studying fundamental aspects of eukaryotic cell biology. This Primer article presents a brief historical perspective on the emergence of this organism as a premier experimental system over the course of the past century. An overview of the central features of the S. cerevisiae genome, including the nature of its genetic elements and general organization, is also provided. Some of the most common experimental tools and resources available to yeast geneticists are presented in a way designed to engage and challenge undergraduate and graduate students eager to learn more about the experimental amenability of budding yeast. Finally, a discussion of several major discoveries derived from yeast studies highlights the far-reaching impact that the yeast system has had and will continue to have on our understanding of a variety of cellular processes relevant to all eukaryotes, including humans.

  11. Tolerance of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ultra high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Fumihisa; Shibata, Michiko; Torigoe, Motoki; Matsumoto, Yuta; Yamamoto, Shinsuke; Takizawa, Noboru; Hada, Yoshio; Mori, Yoshihisa; Takarabe, Kenichi

    2013-06-01

    In our previous studies on the tolerance of small plants and animals to the high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa, it was shown that all the living samples could be borne at this high pressure, which is more than one order of magnitude higher than the proteinic denaturation pressure. To make this inconsistency clear, we have extended these studies to a smaller sized fungus, budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A several pieces of budding yeast (dry yeast) were sealed in a small teflon capsule with a liquid pressure medium fluorinate (PC72, Sumitomo 3M), and exposed to 7.5 GPa by using a cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant for various duration of time from 2 to 24 h. After the pressure was released, the specimens were brought out from the teflon capsule, and they were cultivated on a potato dextrose agar (PDA). It was found that the budding yeast exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 6 h showed multiplication. However, those exposed to 7.5 GPa for 12 and 24 h were found dead. The high pressure tolerance of budding yeast is weaker than that of tardigrades.

  12. Distinct Domains of Yeast Cortical Tag Proteins Bud8p and Bud9p Confer Polar Localization and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Krappmann, Anne-Brit; Taheri, Naimeh; Heinrich, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, diploid yeast cells follow a bipolar budding program, which depends on the two transmembrane glycoproteins Bud8p and Bud9p that potentially act as cortical tags to mark the cell poles. Here, we have performed systematic structure-function analyses of Bud8p and Bud9p to identify functional domains. We find that polar transport of Bud8p and Bud9p does not depend on N-terminal sequences but instead on sequences in the median part of the proteins and on the C-terminal parts that contain the transmembrane domains. We show that the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factor Bud5p, which is essential for bud site selection and physically interacts with Bud8p, also interacts with Bud9p. Regions of Bud8p and Bud9p predicted to reside in the extracellular space are likely to confer interaction with the N-terminal region of Bud5p, implicating indirect interactions between the cortical tags and the GDP/GTP exchange factor. Finally, we have identified regions of Bud8p and Bud9p that are required for interaction with the cortical tag protein Rax1p. In summary, our study suggests that Bud8p and Bud9p carry distinct domains for delivery of the proteins to the cell poles, for interaction with the general budding machinery and for association with other cortical tag proteins. PMID:17581861

  13. Computational model of polarized actin cables and cytokinetic actin ring formation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haosu; Bidone, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast actin cables and contractile ring are important for polarized growth and division, revealing basic aspects of cytoskeletal function. To study these formin-nucleated structures, we built a 3D computational model with actin filaments represented as beads connected by springs. Polymerization by formins at the bud tip and bud neck, crosslinking, severing, and myosin pulling, are included. Parameter values were estimated from prior experiments. The model generates actin cable structures and dynamics similar to those of wild type and formin deletion mutant cells. Simulations with increased polymerization rate result in long, wavy cables. Simulated pulling by type V myosin stretches actin cables. Increasing the affinity of actin filaments for the bud neck together with reduced myosin V pulling promotes the formation of a bundle of antiparallel filaments at the bud neck, which we suggest as a model for the assembly of actin filaments to the contractile ring. PMID:26538307

  14. Polarity-Driven Geometrical Cluster Growth Model of Budding Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Reniel B.; Lim, May T.

    We present a polarity-driven activator-inhibitor model of budding yeast in a two-dimensional medium wherein impeding metabolites secretion (or growth inhibitors) and growth directionality are determined by the local nutrient level. We found that colony size and morphological features varied with nutrient concentration. A branched-type morphology is associated with high impeding metabolite concentration together with a high fraction of distal budding, while opposite conditions (low impeding metabolite concentration, high fraction of proximal budding) promote Eden-type patterns. Increasing the anisotropy factor (or polarity) produced other spatial patterns akin to the electrical breakdown under varying electric field. Rapid changes in the colony morphology, which we conjecture to be equivalent to a transition from an inactive quiescent state to an active budding state, appeared when nutrients were limited.

  15. How to halve ploidy: lessons from budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Gary William; Sarkar, Sourav; Arumugam, Prakash

    2012-09-01

    Maintenance of ploidy in sexually reproducing organisms requires a specialized form of cell division called meiosis that generates genetically diverse haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Meiotic cells halve their ploidy by undergoing two rounds of nuclear division (meiosis I and II) after a single round of DNA replication. Research in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) has shown that four major deviations from the mitotic cell cycle during meiosis are essential for halving ploidy. The deviations are (1) formation of a link between homologous chromosomes by crossover, (2) monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I, (3) protection of centromeric cohesion during meiosis I, and (4) suppression of DNA replication following exit from meiosis I. In this review we present the current understanding of the above four processes in budding yeast and examine the possible conservation of molecular mechanisms from yeast to humans.

  16. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  17. Asymmetric nucleosomes flank promoters in the budding yeast genome.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Zentner, Gabriel E; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Nucleosomes in active chromatin are dynamic, but whether they have distinct structural conformations is unknown. To identify nucleosomes with alternative structures genome-wide, we used H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which revealed that 5% of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleosome positions have asymmetric histone-DNA interactions. These asymmetric interactions are enriched at nucleosome positions that flank promoters. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) sequence-based profiles of asymmetric nucleosome positions revealed a corresponding asymmetry in MNase protection near the dyad axis, suggesting that the loss of DNA contacts around H4S47 is accompanied by protection of the DNA from MNase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation mapping of selected nucleosome remodelers indicated that asymmetric nucleosomes are bound by the RSC chromatin remodeling complex, which is required for maintaining nucleosomes at asymmetric positions. These results imply that the asymmetric nucleosome-RSC complex is a metastable intermediate representing partial unwrapping and protection of nucleosomal DNA on one side of the dyad axis during chromatin remodeling.

  18. Budding yeast colony growth study based on circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, Devi; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-08-01

    Yeast colony growth can be modelled by using circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. The bud growth angle can be set to regulate cell budding pattern. Cohesion force, contact force and Stokes force were adopted to accommodate the behaviour and interactions among cells. Simulation steps are divided into two steps, the explicit step is due to cell growing and implicit step for the cell rearrangement. Only in explicit step that time change was performed. In this study, we examine the influence of cell diameter growth time and reproduction time combination toward the growth of cell number and colony formation. We find a commutative relation between the cell diameter growth time and reproduction time to the specific growth rate. The greater value of the multiplication of the parameters, the smaller specific growth rate is obtained. It also shows a linear correlation between the specific growth rate and colony diameter growth rate.

  19. Mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeasts: towards an integrated understanding.

    PubMed

    Solieri, Lisa

    2010-11-01

    Recent advances in yeast mitogenomics have significantly contributed to our understanding of the diversity of organization, structure and topology in the mitochondrial genome of budding yeasts. In parallel, new insights on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inheritance in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae highlighted an integrated scenario where recombination, replication and segregation of mtDNA are intricately linked to mitochondrial nucleoid (mt-nucleoid) structure and organelle sorting. In addition to this, recent discoveries of bifunctional roles of some mitochondrial proteins have interesting implications on mito-nuclear genome interactions and the relationship between mtDNA inheritance, yeast fitness and speciation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on yeast mitogenomics, mtDNA inheritance with regard to mt-nucleoid structure and organelle dynamics, and mito-nuclear genome interactions.

  20. The fascinating and secret wild life of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liti, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in laboratory experiments for over a century and has been instrumental in understanding virtually every aspect of molecular biology and genetics. However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology. Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories. The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05835.001 PMID:25807086

  1. The fascinating and secret wild life of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liti, Gianni

    2015-03-25

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used in laboratory experiments for over a century and has been instrumental in understanding virtually every aspect of molecular biology and genetics. However, it wasn't until a decade ago that the scientific community started to realise how little was known about this yeast's ecology and natural history, and how this information was vitally important for interpreting its biology. Recent large-scale population genomics studies coupled with intensive field surveys have revealed a previously unappreciated wild lifestyle of S. cerevisiae outside the restrictions of human environments and laboratories. The recent discovery that Chinese isolates harbour almost twice as much genetic variation as isolates from the rest of the world combined suggests that Asia is the likely origin of the modern budding yeast.

  2. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions.

  3. Budding Yeast: An Ideal Backdrop for In vivo Lipid Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra

    2017-01-01

    Biological membranes are non-covalent assembly of lipids and proteins. Lipids play critical role in determining membrane physical properties and regulate the function of membrane associated proteins. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers an exceptional advantage to understand the lipid-protein interactions since lipid metabolism and homeostasis are relatively simple and well characterized as compared to other eukaryotes. In addition, a vast array of genetic and cell biological tools are available to determine and understand the role of a particular lipid in various lipid metabolic disorders. Budding yeast has been instrumental in delineating mechanisms related to lipid metabolism, trafficking and their localization in different subcellular compartments at various cell cycle stages. Further, availability of tools and enormous potential for the development of useful reagents and novel technologies to localize a particular lipid in different subcellular compartments in yeast makes it a formidable system to carry out lipid biology. Taken together, yeast provides an outstanding backdrop to characterize lipid metabolic changes under various physiological conditions. PMID:28119915

  4. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K; Viana, Matheus P; Garcia, Enrique J; Sing, Cierra N; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C; Vevea, Jason D; Boldogh, Istvan R; Rafelski, Susanne M; Pon, Liza A

    2016-03-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud.

  5. Mitochondrial anchorage and fusion contribute to mitochondrial inheritance and quality control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Charalel, Joseph K.; Viana, Matheus P.; Garcia, Enrique J.; Sing, Cierra N.; Koenigsberg, Andrea; Swayne, Theresa C.; Vevea, Jason D.; Boldogh, Istvan R.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Pon, Liza A.

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning mitochondria that are more reduced and have less ROS are anchored in the yeast bud tip by the Dsl1-family protein Mmr1p. Here we report a role for mitochondrial fusion in bud-tip anchorage of mitochondria. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) and network analysis experiments revealed that mitochondria in large buds are a continuous reticulum that is physically distinct from mitochondria in mother cells. FLIP studies also showed that mitochondria that enter the bud can fuse with mitochondria that are anchored in the bud tip. In addition, loss of fusion and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by deletion of mitochondrial outer or inner membrane fusion proteins (Fzo1p or Mgm1p) leads to decreased accumulation of mitochondria at the bud tip and inheritance of fitter mitochondria by buds compared with cells with no mtDNA. Conversely, increasing the accumulation and anchorage of mitochondria in the bud tip by overexpression of MMR1 results in inheritance of less-fit mitochondria by buds and decreased replicative lifespan and healthspan. Thus quantity and quality of mitochondrial inheritance are ensured by two opposing processes: bud-tip anchorage by mitochondrial fusion and Mmr1p, which favors bulk inheritance; and quality control mechanisms that promote segregation of fitter mitochondria to the bud. PMID:26764088

  6. Nuclear envelope fission is linked to cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, J; Li, R

    2000-11-01

    We have investigated the relationship between nuclear envelope fission and cytokinesis during mitotic cell division in budding yeast. By carrying out time-lapse and optical sectioning video microscopy analysis of cells that express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged nuclear envelope and actomyosin ring components, we found that nuclear division is temporally coupled to cytokinesis. Light and electron microscopy analysis also showed that nuclear envelope fission and the division of the nucleoplasm are severely delayed in cytokinesis mutants, resulting in discoupling between the nuclear division cycle and the budding cycle. These results suggest that homotypic membrane fusion may be activated by components or the mechanical action of cytokinetic structures and presents a mechanism for the equal partitioning of the nucleus and the temporal coordination of this event with chromosome segregation during mitosis.

  7. A comprehensive model to predict mitotic division in budding yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Yadav, Vikas; Sridhar, Shreyas; Sreekumar, Lakshmi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Ghosh, Santanu Kumar; Paul, Raja; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2015-01-01

    High-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division depends on a series of concerted interdependent interactions. Using a systems biology approach, we built a robust minimal computational model to comprehend mitotic events in dividing budding yeasts of two major phyla: Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This model accurately reproduces experimental observations related to spindle alignment, nuclear migration, and microtubule (MT) dynamics during cell division in these yeasts. The model converges to the conclusion that biased nucleation of cytoplasmic microtubules (cMTs) is essential for directional nuclear migration. Two distinct pathways, based on the population of cMTs and cortical dyneins, differentiate nuclear migration and spindle orientation in these two phyla. In addition, the model accurately predicts the contribution of specific classes of MTs in chromosome segregation. Thus we present a model that offers a wider applicability to simulate the effects of perturbation of an event on the concerted process of the mitotic cell division. PMID:26310442

  8. Replication-Associated Recombinational Repair: Lessons from Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Jaclyn N.; Zhao, Xiaolan

    2016-01-01

    Recombinational repair processes multiple types of DNA lesions. Though best understood in the repair of DNA breaks, recombinational repair is intimately linked to other situations encountered during replication. As DNA strands are decorated with many types of blocks that impede the replication machinery, a great number of genomic regions cannot be duplicated without the help of recombinational repair. This replication-associated recombinational repair employs both the core recombination proteins used for DNA break repair and the specialized factors that couple replication with repair. Studies from multiple organisms have provided insights into the roles of these specialized factors, with the findings in budding yeast being advanced through use of powerful genetics and methods for detecting DNA replication and repair intermediates. In this review, we summarize recent progress made in this organism, ranging from our understanding of the classical template switch mechanisms to gap filling and replication fork regression pathways. As many of the protein factors and biological principles uncovered in budding yeast are conserved in higher eukaryotes, these findings are crucial for stimulating studies in more complex organisms. PMID:27548223

  9. Programmed Cell Death Initiation and Execution in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death (PCD) was initially described in metazoans as a genetically controlled process leading to intracellular breakdown and engulfment by a neighboring cell . This process was distinguished from other forms of cell death like necrosis by maintenance of plasma membrane integrity prior to engulfment and the well-defined genetic system controlling this process. Apoptosis was originally described as a mechanism to reshape tissues during development. Given this context, the assumption was made that this process would not be found in simpler eukaryotes such as budding yeast. Although basic components of the apoptotic pathway were identified in yeast, initial observations suggested that it was devoid of prosurvival and prodeath regulatory proteins identified in mammalian cells. However, as apoptosis became extensively linked to the elimination of damaged cells, key PCD regulatory proteins were identified in yeast that play similar roles in mammals. This review highlights recent discoveries that have permitted information regarding PCD regulation in yeast to now inform experiments in animals. PMID:26272996

  10. A nutrient dependant switch explains mutually exclusive existence of meiosis and mitosis initiation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wannige, C T; Kulasiri, D; Samarasinghe, S

    2014-01-21

    Nutrients from living environment are vital for the survival and growth of any organism. Budding yeast diploid cells decide to grow by mitosis type cell division or decide to create unique, stress resistant spores by meiosis type cell division depending on the available nutrient conditions. To gain a molecular systems level understanding of the nutrient dependant switching between meiosis and mitosis initiation in diploid cells of budding yeast, we develop a theoretical model based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) including the mitosis initiator and its relations to budding yeast meiosis initiation network. Our model accurately and qualitatively predicts the experimentally revealed temporal variations of related proteins under different nutrient conditions as well as the diverse mutant studies related to meiosis and mitosis initiation. Using this model, we show how the meiosis and mitosis initiators form an all-or-none type bistable switch in response to available nutrient level (mainly nitrogen). The transitions to and from meiosis or mitosis initiation states occur via saddle node bifurcation. This bidirectional switch helps the optimal usage of available nutrients and explains the mutually exclusive existence of meiosis and mitosis pathways.

  11. Localization of Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein necessary for programming cell polarity in yeast to the presumptive bud site

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Sanson, Anthony; Herskowitz, Ira

    1999-01-01

    Yeast cells of different cell type exhibit distinct budding patterns that reflect the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Bud1p (Rsr1p), a Ras-like GTPase, and Bud2p, a GTPase-activating protein for Bud1p, are essential for proper budding pattern. We show that Bud2p is localized at the presumptive bud site in G1 cells in all cell types and that this localization is independent of Bud1p. Bud2p subsequently localizes to the mother-bud neck after bud emergence; this localization depends on the integrity of the septins. These observations indicate that Bud2p becomes positioned in G1 cells by recognizing cell type-specific landmarks at the presumptive bud site. PMID:10444589

  12. Identification of budding yeast using a fiber-optic imaging bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschwanez, John; Holl, Mark; Marquardt, Brian; Dragavon, Joe; Burgess, Lloyd; Meldrum, Deirdre

    2004-05-01

    A successful imaging system has been designed and built for yeast pedigree analysis. The system uses a fiber-optic imaging bundle to recognize single yeast cells. Image processing software has been developed to accurately classify the cells as either budding or not budding a daughter cell. This system is intended to replace the body of a microscope for the detection of budding in a microfluidic system.

  13. The yeast prefoldin-like URI-orthologue Bud27 associates with the RSC nucleosome remodeler and modulates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Mirón-García, María Carmen; Garrido-Godino, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Fernández, Verónica; Fernández-Pevida, Antonio; Cuevas-Bermúdez, Abel; Martín-Expósito, Manuel; Chávez, Sebastián; de la Cruz, Jesús; Navarro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bud27, the yeast orthologue of human URI/RMP, is a member of the prefoldin-like family of ATP-independent molecular chaperones. It has recently been shown to mediate the assembly of the three RNA polymerases in an Rpb5-dependent manner. In this work, we present evidence of Bud27 modulating RNA pol II transcription elongation. We show that Bud27 associates with RNA pol II phosphorylated forms (CTD-Ser5P and CTD-Ser2P), and that its absence affects RNA pol II occupancy of transcribed genes. We also reveal that Bud27 associates in vivo with the Sth1 component of the chromatin remodeling complex RSC and mediates its association with RNA pol II. Our data suggest that Bud27, in addition of contributing to Rpb5 folding within the RNA polymerases, also participates in the correct assembly of other chromatin-associated protein complexes, such as RSC, thereby modulating their activity. PMID:25081216

  14. Tanshinones extend chronological lifespan in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2014-10-01

    Natural products with anti-aging property have drawn great attention recently but examples of such compounds are exceedingly scarce. By applying a high-throughput assay based on yeast chronological lifespan measurement, we screened the anti-aging activity of 144 botanical materials and found that dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have significant anti-aging activity. Tanshinones isolated from the plant including cryptotanshione, tanshinone I, and tanshinone IIa, are the active components. Among them, cryptotanshinone can greatly extend the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological lifespan (up to 2.5 times) in a dose- and the-time-of-addition-dependent manner at nanomolar concentrations without disruption of cell growth. We demonstrate that cryptotanshinone prolong chronological lifespan via a nutrient-dependent regime, especially essential amino acid sensing, and three conserved protein kinases Tor1, Sch9, and Gcn2 are required for cryptotanshinone-induced lifespan extension. In addition, cryptotanshinone significantly increases the lifespan of SOD2-deleted mutants. Altogether, those data suggest that cryptotanshinone might be involved in the regulation of, Tor1, Sch9, Gcn2, and Sod2, these highly conserved longevity proteins modulated by nutrients from yeast to humans.

  15. Crosslinks in the cell wall of budding yeast control morphogenesis at the mother–bud neck

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Noelia; Reidy, Michael; Arroyo, Javier; Cabib, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    Summary Previous work has shown that, in cla4Δ cells of budding yeast, where septin ring organization is compromised, the chitin ring at the mother–daughter neck becomes essential for prevention of neck widening and for cytokinesis. Here, we show that it is not the chitin ring per se, but its linkage to β(1-3)glucan that is required for control of neck growth. When in a cla4Δ background, crh1Δ crh2Δ mutants, in which the chitin ring is not connected to β(1-3)glucan, grew very slowly and showed wide and growing necks, elongated buds and swollen cells with large vacuoles. A similar behavior was elicited by inhibition of the Crh proteins. This aberrant morphology matched that of cla4Δ chs3Δ cells, which have no chitin at the neck. Thus, this is a clear case in which a specific chemical bond between two substances, chitin and glucan, is essential for the control of morphogenesis. This defines a new paradigm, in which chemistry regulates growth. PMID:23077181

  16. The mother-bud neck as a signaling platform for the coordination between spindle position and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Piatti, Simonetta

    2011-08-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical for ensuring the unequal inheritance of polarity factors. In budding yeast, the mother-bud neck determines the cleavage plane and a correct nuclear division between mother and daughter cell requires orientation of the mitotic spindle along the mother-bud axis. A surveillance device called the spindle position/orientation checkpoint (SPOC) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability. Cytoskeletal proteins called septins form a ring at the bud neck that is essential for cytokinesis. Furthermore, septins and septin-associated proteins are implicated in spindle positioning and SPOC. In this review, we discuss the emerging connections between septins and the SPOC and the role of the mother-bud neck as a signaling platform to couple proper chromosome segregation to cytokinesis.

  17. Bud8p and Bud9p, Proteins That May Mark the Sites for Bipolar Budding in YeastV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, Heidi A.; Pagé, Nicolas; Schenkman, Laura R.; De Virgilio, Claudio; Shaw, Sidney; Bussey, Howard; Pringle, John R.

    2001-01-01

    The bipolar budding pattern of a/α Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells appears to depend on persistent spatial markers in the cell cortex at the two poles of the cell. Previous analysis of mutants with specific defects in bipolar budding identified BUD8 and BUD9 as potentially encoding components of the markers at the poles distal and proximal to the birth scar, respectively. Further genetic analysis reported here supports this hypothesis. Mutants deleted for BUD8 or BUD9 grow normally but bud exclusively from the proximal and distal poles, respectively, and the double-mutant phenotype suggests that the bipolar budding pathway has been totally disabled. Moreover, overexpression of these genes can cause either an increased bias for budding at the distal (BUD8) or proximal (BUD9) pole or a randomization of bud position, depending on the level of expression. The structures and localizations of Bud8p and Bud9p are also consistent with their postulated roles as cortical markers. Both proteins appear to be integral membrane proteins of the plasma membrane, and they have very similar overall structures, with long N-terminal domains that are both N- and O-glycosylated followed by a pair of putative transmembrane domains surrounding a short hydrophilic domain that is presumably cytoplasmic. The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the two proteins are very similar in sequence. When Bud8p and Bud9p were localized by immunofluorescence and tagging with GFP, each protein was found predominantly in the expected location, with Bud8p at presumptive bud sites, bud tips, and the distal poles of daughter cells and Bud9p at the necks of large-budded cells and the proximal poles of daughter cells. Bud8p localized approximately normally in several mutants in which daughter cells are competent to form their first buds at the distal pole, but it was not detected in a bni1 mutant, in which such distal-pole budding is lost. Surprisingly, Bud8p localization to the presumptive bud

  18. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model for aging research: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Gershon, D

    2000-12-01

    In this review we discuss the yeast as a paradigm for the study of aging. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can proliferate in both haploid and diploid states, has been used extensively in aging research. The budding yeast divides asymmetrically to form a 'mother' cell and a bud. Two major approaches, 'budding life span' and 'stationary phase' have been used to determine 'senescence' and 'life span' in yeast. Discrepancies observed in metabolic behavior and longevity between cells studied by these two systems raise questions of how 'life span' in yeast is defined and measured. Added to this variability in experimental approach and results is the variety of yeast strains with different genetic make up used as 'wild type' and experimental organisms. Another problematic genetic point in the published studies on yeast is the use of both diploid and haploid strains. We discuss the inherent, advantageous attributes that make the yeast an attractive choice for modern biological research as well as certain pitfalls in the choice of this model for the study of aging. The significance of the purported roles of the Sir2 gene, histone deacetylases, gene silencing, rDNA circles and stress genes in determination of yeast 'life span' and aging is evaluated. The relationship between cultivation conditions and longevity are assessed. Discrepancies between the yeast and mammalian systems with regard to aging are pointed out. We discuss unresolved problems concerning the suitability of the budding yeast for the study of basic aging phenomena.

  19. Actin and Septin Ultrastructures at the Budding Yeast Cell Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rodal, Avital A.; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Goode, Bruce L.; Drubin, David G.; Hartwig, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Budding yeast has been a powerful model organism for studies of the roles of actin in endocytosis and septins in cell division and in signaling. However, the depth of mechanistic understanding that can be obtained from such studies has been severely hindered by a lack of ultrastructural information about how actin and septins are organized at the cell cortex. To address this problem, we developed rapid-freeze and deep-etch techniques to image the yeast cell cortex in spheroplasted cells at high resolution. The cortical actin cytoskeleton assembles into conical or mound-like structures composed of short, cross-linked filaments. The Arp2/3 complex localizes near the apex of these structures, suggesting that actin patch assembly may be initiated from the apex. Mutants in cortical actin patch components with defined defects in endocytosis disrupted different stages of cortical actin patch assembly. Based on these results, we propose a model for actin function during endocytosis. In addition to actin structures, we found that septin-containing filaments assemble into two kinds of higher order structures at the cell cortex: rings and ordered gauzes. These images provide the first high-resolution views of septin organization in cells. PMID:15525671

  20. Polarization of Diploid Daughter Cells Directed by Spatial Cues and GTP Hydrolysis of Cdc42 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Monisha; Chou, Ching-Shan; Park, Hay-Oak

    2013-01-01

    Cell polarization occurs along a single axis that is generally determined by a spatial cue. Cells of the budding yeast exhibit a characteristic pattern of budding, which depends on cell-type-specific cortical markers, reflecting a genetic programming for the site of cell polarization. The Cdc42 GTPase plays a key role in cell polarization in various cell types. Although previous studies in budding yeast suggested positive feedback loops whereby Cdc42 becomes polarized, these mechanisms do not include spatial cues, neglecting the normal patterns of budding. Here we combine live-cell imaging and mathematical modeling to understand how diploid daughter cells establish polarity preferentially at the pole distal to the previous division site. Live-cell imaging shows that daughter cells of diploids exhibit dynamic polarization of Cdc42-GTP, which localizes to the bud tip until the M phase, to the division site at cytokinesis, and then to the distal pole in the next G1 phase. The strong bias toward distal budding of daughter cells requires the distal-pole tag Bud8 and Rga1, a GTPase activating protein for Cdc42, which inhibits budding at the cytokinesis site. Unexpectedly, we also find that over 50% of daughter cells lacking Rga1 exhibit persistent Cdc42-GTP polarization at the bud tip and the distal pole, revealing an additional role of Rga1 in spatiotemporal regulation of Cdc42 and thus in the pattern of polarized growth. Mathematical modeling indeed reveals robust Cdc42-GTP clustering at the distal pole in diploid daughter cells despite random perturbation of the landmark cues. Moreover, modeling predicts different dynamics of Cdc42-GTP polarization when the landmark level and the initial level of Cdc42-GTP at the division site are perturbed by noise added in the model. PMID:23437206

  1. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast

    DOE PAGES

    Mayhew, Michael B.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Hartemink, Alexander J.

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or ‘size control’ appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1. Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growthmore » and division has commonly been analyzed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyze both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (1) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (2) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and, (3) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modelers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.« less

  2. Characterization of dependencies between growth and division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Michael B; Iversen, Edwin S; Hartemink, Alexander J

    2017-02-01

    Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or 'size control' appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner. As such, studies of dependence between growth and division have focused on G1 Moreover, in unicellular organisms, coordination between growth and division has commonly been analysed within the cycle of a single cell without accounting for correlations in growth and division characteristics between cycles of related cells. In a comprehensive analysis of three published time-lapse microscopy datasets, we analyse both intra- and inter-cycle dependencies between growth and division, revisiting assumptions about the coordination between these two processes. Interestingly, we find evidence (i) that S/G2/M durations are systematically longer in daughters than in mothers, (ii) of dependencies between S/G2/M and size at budding that echo the classical G1 dependencies, and (iii) in contrast with recent bacterial studies, of negative dependencies between size at birth and size accumulated during the cell cycle. In addition, we develop a novel hierarchical model to uncover inter-cycle dependencies, and we find evidence for such dependencies in cells growing in sugar-poor environments. Our analysis highlights the need for experimentalists and modellers to account for new sources of cell-to-cell variation in growth and division, and our model provides a formal statistical framework for the continued study of dependencies between biological processes.

  3. Dynamic changes in brewing yeast cells in culture revealed by statistical analyses of yeast morphological data.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Enomoto, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2014-03-01

    The vitality of brewing yeasts has been used to monitor their physiological state during fermentation. To investigate the fermentation process, we used the image processing software, CalMorph, which generates morphological data on yeast mother cells and bud shape, nuclear shape and location, and actin distribution. We found that 248 parameters changed significantly during fermentation. Successive use of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed several important features of yeast, providing insight into the dynamic changes in the yeast population. First, PCA indicated that much of the observed variability in the experiment was summarized in just two components: a change with a peak and a change over time. Second, PCA indicated the independent and important morphological features responsible for dynamic changes: budding ratio, nucleus position, neck position, and actin organization. Thus, the large amount of data provided by imaging analysis can be used to monitor the fermentation processes involved in beer and bioethanol production.

  4. Using dielectrophoresis to study the dynamic response of single budding yeast cells to Lyticase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Yi, Pyshar; Soffe, Rebecca; Nahavandi, Sofia; Shukla, Ravi; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2015-05-01

    Budding yeast cells are quick and easy to grow and represent a versatile model of eukaryotic cells for a variety of cellular studies, largely because their genome has been widely studied and links can be drawn with higher eukaryotes. Therefore, the efficient separation, immobilization, and conversion of budding yeasts into spheroplast or protoplast can provide valuable insight for many fundamentals investigations in cell biology at a single cell level. Dielectrophoresis, the induced motion of particles in non-uniform electric fields, possesses a great versatility for manipulation of cells in microfluidic platforms. Despite this, dielectrophoresis has been largely utilized for studying of non-budding yeast cells and has rarely been used for manipulation of budding cells. Here, we utilize dielectrophoresis for studying the dynamic response of budding cells to different concentrations of Lyticase. This involves separation of the budding yeasts from a background of non-budding cells and their subsequent immobilization onto the microelectrodes at desired densities down to single cell level. The immobilized yeasts are then stimulated with Lyticase to remove the cell wall and convert them into spheroplasts, in a highly dynamic process that depends on the concentration of Lyticase. We also introduce a novel method for immobilization of the cell organelles released from the lysed cells by patterning multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) between the microelectrodes.

  5. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end joining in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Charlene H.; Bertuch, Alison A.

    2017-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes make the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field. PMID:27240172

  6. A simple biophysical model emulates budding yeast chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tammy MK; Heeger, Sebastian; Chaleil, Raphaël AG; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Wright, Jon; Lim, Carmay; Bates, Paul A; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes were one of the first cell biological structures to be described, yet their molecular architecture remains poorly understood. We have devised a simple biophysical model of a 300 kb-long nucleosome chain, the size of a budding yeast chromosome, constrained by interactions between binding sites of the chromosomal condensin complex, a key component of interphase and mitotic chromosomes. Comparisons of computational and experimental (4C) interaction maps, and other biophysical features, allow us to predict a mode of condensin action. Stochastic condensin-mediated pairwise interactions along the nucleosome chain generate native-like chromosome features and recapitulate chromosome compaction and individualization during mitotic condensation. Higher order interactions between condensin binding sites explain the data less well. Our results suggest that basic assumptions about chromatin behavior go a long way to explain chromosome architecture and are able to generate a molecular model of what the inside of a chromosome is likely to look like. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05565.001 PMID:25922992

  7. Consider the workhorse: Nonhomologous end-joining in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Charlene H; Bertuch, Alison A

    2016-10-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are dangerous sources of genome instability and must be repaired by the cell. Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway to repair DSBs by direct ligation of the ends, with no requirement for a homologous template. While NHEJ is the primary DSB repair pathway in mammalian cells, conservation of the core NHEJ factors throughout eukaryotes makes the pathway attractive for study in model organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been used extensively to develop a functional picture of NHEJ. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of NHEJ in S. cerevisiae. Topics include canonical end-joining, alternative end-joining, and pathway regulation. Particular attention will be paid to the NHEJ mechanism involving core factors, including Yku70/80, Dnl4, Lif1, and Nej1, as well as the various factors implicated in the processing of the broken ends. The relevance of chromatin dynamics to NHEJ will also be discussed. This review illustrates the use of S. cerevisiae as a powerful system to understand the principles of NHEJ, as well as in pioneering the direction of the field.

  8. Origin of irreversibility of cell cycle start in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Charvin, Gilles; Oikonomou, Catherine; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2010-01-19

    Budding yeast cells irreversibly commit to a new division cycle at a regulatory transition called Start. This essential decision-making step involves the activation of the SBF/MBF transcription factors. SBF/MBF promote expression of the G1 cyclins encoded by CLN1 and CLN2. Cln1,2 can activate their own expression by inactivating the Whi5 repressor of SBF/MBF. The resulting transcriptional positive feedback provides an appealing, but as yet unproven, candidate for generating irreversibility of Start. Here, we investigate the logic of the Start regulatory module by quantitative single-cell time-lapse microscopy, using strains in which expression of key regulators is efficiently controlled by changes of inducers in a microfluidic chamber. We show that Start activation is ultrasensitive to G1 cyclin. In the absence of CLN1,2-dependent positive feedback, we observe that Start transit is reversible, due to reactivation of the Whi5 transcriptional repressor. Introduction of the positive feedback loop makes Whi5 inactivation and Start activation irreversible, which therefore guarantees unidirectional entry into S phase. A simple mathematical model to describe G1 cyclin turn on at Start, entirely constrained by empirically measured parameters, shows that the experimentally measured ultrasensitivity and transcriptional positive feedback are necessary and sufficient dynamical characteristics to make the Start transition a bistable and irreversible switch. Our study thus demonstrates that Start irreversibility is a property that arises from the architecture of the system (Whi5/SBF/Cln2 loop), rather than the consequence of the regulation of a single component (e.g., irreversible protein degradation).

  9. Genetic evidence for the roles of the bud-site-selection genes BUD5 and BUD2 in control of the Rsr1p (Bud1p) GTPase in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, A

    1993-01-01

    Yeast cells normally display either an axial (for MATa or MAT alpha cells) or bipolar (for MATa/alpha cells) pattern of bud-site selection. The RSR1 gene, which was previously identified as a multicopy suppressor of Ts- mutations in the bud-emergence gene CDC24, encodes a GTPase of the Ras family that is required for both budding patterns. Mutations in Rsr1p that presumably block its ability to bind or hydrolyze GTP cause a randomized budding phenotype, suggesting that regulators of Rsr1p will prove to be required for proper bud positioning. The BUD5 gene product is required for proper bud-site selection and contains similarity to GDP-dissociation stimulators (GDS) for Ras-type proteins, suggesting that Bud5p may be a GDS for Rsr1p. Here I report that BUD5 is required for wild-type RSR1, but not for mutationally activated rsr1val12, to serve as a multicopy suppressor of cdc24, indicating that Bud5p functions as a GDS for Rsr1p in vivo. To identify the GAP (GTPase-activating protein) for Rsr1p, a genetic selection was designed based on the observation that mutationally activated rsr1val12, but not wild-type RSR1, can serve as a multicopy suppressor of yeast RAS2(Ts) mutants. Mutants were selected that allowed wild-type RSR1 to act as a multicopy suppressor of RAS2(Ts). Two such mutations proved to be in the BUD2 gene, suggesting that Bud2p functions as a GAP for Rsr1p in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8234337

  10. Patterns of bud-site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae select bud sites in either of two distinct spatial patterns, known as axial (expressed by a and alpha cells) and bipolar (expressed by a/alpha cells). Fluorescence, time-lapse, and scanning electron microscopy have been used to obtain more precise descriptions of these patterns. From these descriptions, we conclude that in the axial pattern, the new bud forms directly adjacent to the division site in daughter cells and directly adjacent to the immediately preceding division site (bud site) in mother cells, with little influence from earlier sites. Thus, the division site appears to be marked by a spatial signal(s) that specifies the location of the new bud site and is transient in that it only lasts from one budding event to the next. Consistent with this conclusion, starvation and refeeding of axially budding cells results in the formation of new buds at nonaxial sites. In contrast, in bipolar budding cells, both poles are specified persistently as potential bud sites, as shown by the observations that a pole remains competent for budding even after several generations of nonuse and that the poles continue to be used for budding after starvation and refeeding. It appears that the specification of the two poles as potential bud sites occurs before a daughter cell forms its first bud, as a daughter can form this bud near either pole. However, there is a bias towards use of the pole distal to the division site. The strength of this bias varies from strain to strain, is affected by growth conditions, and diminishes in successive cell cycles. The first bud that forms near the distal pole appears to form at the very tip of the cell, whereas the first bud that forms near the pole proximal to the original division site (as marked by the birth scar) is generally somewhat offset from the tip and adjacent to (or overlapping) the birth scar. Subsequent buds can form near either pole and appear almost always to be adjacent either to

  11. The phytopathogenic virulent effector protein RipI induces apoptosis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meng-Ying; Sun, Yun-Hao; Li, Pai; Fu, Bei; Shen, Dong; Lu, Yong-Jun

    2016-10-01

    Virulent protein toxins secreted by the bacterial pathogens can cause cytotoxicity by various molecular mechanisms to combat host cell defense. On the other hand, these proteins can also be used as probes to investigate the defense pathway of host innate immunity. Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most virulent bacterial phytopathogens, translocates more than 70 effector proteins via type III secretion system during infection. Here, we characterized the cytotoxicity of effector RipI in budding yeast Saccharomyce scerevisiae, an alternative host model. We found that over-expression of RipI resulted in severe growth defect and arginine (R) 117 within the predicted integrase motif was required for inhibition of yeast growth. The phenotype of death manifested the hallmarks of apoptosis. Our data also revealed that RipI-induced apoptosis was independent of Yca1 and mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways because Δyca1 and Δaif1 were both sensitive to RipI as compared with the wild type. We further demonstrated that RipI was localized in the yeast nucleus and the N-terminal 1-174aa was required for the localization. High-throughput RNA sequencing analysis showed that upon RipI over-expression, 101 unigenes of yeast ribosome presented lower expression level, and 42 GO classes related to the nucleus or recombination were enriched with differential expression levels. Taken together, our data showed that a nuclear-targeting effector RipI triggers yeast apoptosis, potentially dependent on its integrase function. Our results also provided an alternative strategy to dissect the signaling pathway of cytotoxicity induced by the protein toxins.

  12. NAP1 acts with Clb1 to perform mitotic functions and to suppress polar bud growth in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    NAP1 is a 60-kD protein that interacts specifically with mitotic cyclins in budding yeast and frogs. We have examined the ability of the yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 to function in cells that lack NAP1. Our results demonstrate that Clb2 is unable to carry out its full range of functions without NAP1, even though Clb2/p34CDC28-associated kinase activity rises to normal levels. In the absence of NAP1, Clb2 is unable to efficiently induce mitotic events, and cells undergo a prolonged delay at the short spindle stage with normal levels of Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase activity. NAP1 is also required for the ability of Clb2 to induce the switch from polar to isotropic bud growth. As a result, polar bud growth continues during mitosis, giving rise to highly elongated cells. Our experiments also suggest that NAP1 is required for the ability of the Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex to amplify its own production, and that NAP1 plays a role in regulation of microtubule dynamics during mitosis. Together, these results demonstrate that NAP1 is required for the normal function of the activated Clb2/p34CDC28 kinase complex, and provide a step towards understanding how cyclin- dependent kinase complexes induce specific events during the cell cycle. PMID:7622567

  13. Microtubule dynamics from mating through the first zygotic division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Maddox, P; Chin, E; Mallavarapu, A; Yeh, E; Salmon, E D; Bloom, K

    1999-03-08

    We have used time-lapse digital imaging microscopy to examine cytoplasmic astral microtubules (Mts) and spindle dynamics during the mating pathway in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mating begins when two cells of opposite mating type come into proximity. The cells arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and grow a projection towards one another forming a shmoo projection. Imaging of microtubule dynamics with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to dynein or tubulin revealed that the nucleus and spindle pole body (SPB) became oriented and tethered to the shmoo tip by a Mt-dependent search and capture mechanism. Dynamically unstable astral Mts were captured at the shmoo tip forming a bundle of three or four astral Mts. This bundle changed length as the tethered nucleus and SPB oscillated toward and away from the shmoo tip at growth and shortening velocities typical of free plus end astral Mts (approximately 0.5 micrometer/min). Fluorescent fiduciary marks in Mt bundles showed that Mt growth and shortening occurred primarily at the shmoo tip, not the SPB. This indicates that Mt plus end assembly/disassembly was coupled to pushing and pulling of the nucleus. Upon cell fusion, a fluorescent bar of Mts was formed between the two shmoo tip bundles, which slowly shortened (0.23 +/- 0.07 micrometer/min) as the two nuclei and their SPBs came together and fused (karyogamy). Bud emergence occurred adjacent to the fused SPB approximately 30 min after SPB fusion. During the first mitosis, the SPBs separated as the spindle elongated at a constant velocity (0.75 micrometer/min) into the zygotic bud. There was no indication of a temporal delay at the 2-micrometer stage of spindle morphogenesis or a lag in Mt nucleation by replicated SPBs as occurs in vegetative mitosis implying a lack of normal checkpoints. Thus, the shmoo tip appears to be a new model system for studying Mt plus end dynamic attachments and much like higher eukaryotes, the first mitosis after haploid

  14. Interorganelle interactions and inheritance patterns of nuclei and vacuoles in budding yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, I-Ting; Lin, Jyun-Liang; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Chuang, Yu-Chien; Liang, Shu-Shan; Chuang, Chi-Ning; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Wang, Ting-Fang

    2014-02-01

    Many of the mechanisms by which organelles are inherited by spores during meiosis are not well understood. Dramatic chromosome motion and bouquet formation are evolutionarily conserved characteristics of meiotic chromosomes. The budding yeast bouquet genes (NDJ1, MPS3, CSM4) mediate these movements via telomere attachment to the nuclear envelope (NE). Here, we report that during meiosis the NE is in direct contact with vacuoles via nucleus-vacuole junctions (NVJs). We show that in meiosis NVJs are assembled through the interaction of the outer NE-protein Nvj1 and the vacuolar membrane protein Vac8. Notably, NVJs function as diffusion barriers that exclude the nuclear pore complexes, the bouquet protein Mps3 and NE-tethered telomeres from the outer nuclear membrane and nuclear ER, resulting in distorted NEs during early meiosis. An increase in NVJ area resulting from Nvj1-GFP overexpression produced a moderate bouquet mutant-like phenotype in wild-type cells. NVJs, as the vacuolar contact sites of the nucleus, were found to undergo scission alongside the NE during meiotic nuclear division. The zygotic NE and NVJs were partly segregated into 4 spores. Lastly, new NVJs were also revealed to be synthesized de novo to rejoin the zygotic NE with the newly synthesized vacuoles in the mature spores. In conclusion, our results revealed that budding yeast nuclei and vacuoles exhibit dynamic interorganelle interactions and different inheritance patterns in meiosis, and also suggested that nvj1Δ mutant cells may be useful to resolve the technical challenges pertaining to the isolation of intact nuclei for the biochemical study of meiotic nuclear proteins.

  15. Mek1/Mre4 is a master regulator of meiotic recombination in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms create gametes with half the somatic cell chromosome number so that fusion of gametes at fertilization does not change the ploidy of the cell. This reduction in chromosome number occurs by the specialized cell division of meiosis in which two rounds of chromosome segregation follow a single round of chromosome duplication. Meiotic crossovers formed between the non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes, combined with sister chromatid cohesion, physically connect homologs, thereby allowing proper segregation at the first meiotic division. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) whose repair is highly regulated such that (1) there is a bias for recombination with homologs rather than sister chromatids, (2) crossovers are distributed throughout the genome by a process called interference, (3) crossover homeostasis regulates the balance between crossover and non-crossover repair to maintain a critical number of crossovers and (4) each pair of homologs receives at least one crossover. It was previously known that the imposition of interhomolog bias in budding yeast requires meiosis-specific modifications to the DNA damage response and the local activation of the meiosis-specific Mek1/Mre4 (hereafter Mek1) kinase at DSBs. However, because inactivation of Mek1 results in intersister, rather than interhomolog DSB repair, whether Mek1 had a role in interhomolog pathway choice was unknown. A recent study by Chen et al. (2015) reveals that Mek1 indirectly regulates the crossover/non-crossover decision between homologs as well as genetic interference. It does this by enabling phosphorylation of Zip1, the meiosis-specific transverse filament protein of the synaptonemal complex (SC), by the conserved cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK). These results suggest that Mek1 is a “master regulator” of meiotic recombination in budding yeast.

  16. Study of budding yeast colony formation and its characterizations by using circular granular cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprianti, D.; Haryanto, F.; Purqon, A.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2016-03-01

    Budding yeast can exhibit colony formation in solid substrate. The colony of pathogenic budding yeast can colonize various surfaces of the human body and medical devices. Furthermore, it can form biofilm that resists drug effective therapy. The formation of the colony is affected by the interaction between cells and with its growth media. The cell budding pattern holds an important role in colony expansion. To study this colony growth, the molecular dynamic method was chosen to simulate the interaction between budding yeast cells. Every cell was modelled by circular granular cells, which can grow and produce buds. Cohesion force, contact force, and Stokes force govern this model to mimic the interaction between cells and with the growth substrate. Characterization was determined by the maximum (L max) and minimum (L min) distances between two cells within the colony and whether two lines that connect the two cells in the maximum and minimum distances intersect each other. Therefore, it can be recognized the colony shape in circular, oval, and irregular shapes. Simulation resulted that colony formation are mostly in oval shape with little branch. It also shows that greater cohesion strength obtains more compact colony formation.

  17. Cell size and budding during starvation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, G C

    1977-01-01

    When starved for nitrogen, cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced abnormally small cells. Nonetheless, during starvation, only cells of a size characteristic of growing cells were capable of initiating a bud. Even when growth was severely limited, some event(s) in G1 required growth to a critical size for completion. PMID:334753

  18. Cytoskeletal impairment during isoamyl alcohol-induced cell elongation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Wakae; Kinpara, Satoko; Kitahara, Nozomi; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Isoamyl alcohol (IAA) induces pseudohyphae including cell elongation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Detailed regulation of microtubules and actin in developmental transition during cell elongation is poorly understood. Here, we show that although IAA did not affect the intracellular actin level, it reduced the levels of both α- and β-tubulins. In budding yeast, cytoplasmic microtubules are linked to actin via complexes consisting of at least Kar9, Bim1, and Myo2, and reach from the spindle pole body to the cortical attachment site at the bud tip. However, IAA did not affect migration of Myo2 to the bud tip and kept Kar9 in the interior portion of the cell. In addition, bud elongation was observed in Kar9-overexpressing cells in the absence of IAA. These results indicate that impairment of the link between cytoplasmic microtubules and actin is possibly involved in the lowered interaction of Myo2 with Kar9. Our study might explain the reason for delayed cell cycle during IAA-induced cell elongation. PMID:27507042

  19. Evidence for two cell division cycle (CDC) genes that govern yeast bud emergence in the pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, C R; Szaniszlo, P J

    1993-01-01

    Strains Mc2 and Mc3 are morphological mutants of the melanized, pathogenic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis. These strains possess temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations designated mcm2 and mcm3, respectively. At the restrictive temperature (37 degrees C), uninucleate yeast cells of strains Mc2 and Mc3 cease budding and initiate an isotropic mode of cellular development, which is reflected in the formation of a multicellular and multinucleate morphology. Because W. dermatitidis either lacks or has an undiscovered sexual cycle, parasexual methods of analysis were used to confirm that mcm2 and mcm3 define separate bud emergence control genes in the wild-type strain. Spheroplasts of albino auxotrophs derived from strains Mc2 and Mc3 were fused and then regenerated on minimal medium. The resulting fusion products grew as darkly pigmented, prototrophic colonies. When incubated at 37 degrees C, all fusion products exhibited polarized growth predominantly as uninucleate, budding yeasts and less frequently as pseudohyphae and moniliform hyphae. Subsequent analysis of cultures derived from albino, ts segregants, which were induced from fusion products by using methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate, revealed three types of cell populations. Two resembled those expressed by strain Mc2 or Mc3. The third consisted of a cell population unlike the former, suggesting the presence of both ts mutations in all cells. These results imply that yeast development in the fusion products resulted from intergenic complementation of mcm2 and mcm3, i.e., they are nonallelic. Because mcm2 and mcm3 are equivalent to certain cdc lesions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have renamed the analogous genes defined by the mutations in W. dermatitidis as CDC1 and CDC2. To our knowledge, these are the first CDC genes identified in a dematiaceous fungus. Images PMID:8478096

  20. A genomic analysis of chronological longevity factors in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Brady

    2011-01-01

    Chronological life span (CLS) has been studied as an aging paradigm in yeast. A few conserved aging genes have been identified that modulate both chronological and replicative longevity in yeast as well as longevity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; however, a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between genetic control of chronological longevity and aging in other model systems has yet to be reported. To address this question, we performed a functional genomic analysis of chronological longevity for 550 single-gene deletion strains, which accounts for approximately 12% of the viable homozygous diploid deletion strains in the yeast ORF deletion collection. This study identified 33 previously unknown determinants of CLS. We found no significant enrichment for enhanced CLS among deletions corresponding to yeast orthologs of worm aging genes or among replicatively long-lived deletion strains, although a trend toward overlap was noted. In contrast, a subset of gene deletions identified from a screen for reduced acidification of culture media during growth to stationary phase was enriched for increased CLS. These results suggest that genetic control of CLS under the most commonly utilized assay conditions does not strongly overlap with longevity determinants in C. elegans, with the existing confined to a small number of genetic pathways. These data also further support the model that acidification of the culture medium plays an important role in survival during chronological aging in synthetic medium, and suggest that chronological aging studies using alternate medium conditions may be more informative with regard to aging of multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:21447998

  1. The Anillin-Related Region of Bud4 Is the Major Functional Determinant for Bud4's Function in Septin Organization during Bud Growth and Axial Bud Site Selection in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3. PMID:25576483

  2. The anillin-related region of Bud4 is the major functional determinant for Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and axial bud site selection in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Ya-Ting; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The anillin-related protein Bud4 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for axial bud site selection by linking the axial landmark to the septins, which localize at the mother bud neck. Recent studies indicate that Bud4 plays a role in septin organization during cytokinesis. Here we show that Bud4 is also involved in septin organization during bud growth prior to cytokinesis, as bud4Δ shs1Δ cells displayed an elongated bud morphology and defective septin organization at 18°C. Bud4 overexpression also affected septin organization during bud growth in shs1Δ cells at 30°C. Bud4 was previously thought to associate with the septins via its central region, while the C-terminal anillin-related region was not involved in septin association. Surprisingly, we found that the central region of Bud4 alone targets to the bud neck throughout the cell cycle, unlike full-length Bud4, which localizes to the bud neck only during G2/M phase. We identified the anillin-related region to be a second targeting domain that cooperates with the central region for proper septin association. In addition, the anillin-related region could largely mediate Bud4's function in septin organization during bud growth and bud site selection. We show that this region interacts with the C terminus of Bud3 and the two segments depend on each other for association with the septins. Moreover, like the bud4Δ mutant, the bud3Δ mutant genetically interacts with shs1Δ and cdc12-6 mutants in septin organization, suggesting that Bud4 and Bud3 may cooperate in septin organization during bud growth. These observations provide new insights into the interaction of Bud4 with the septins and Bud3.

  3. Proliferation enhancement of budding yeast and mammalian cells with periodic oxygen radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Jun; Murata, Tomiyasu; Hahizume, Hiroshi; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    Recently, nonequilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have been intensively studied for biological applications. However, the each effect of species in plasmas to biological tissue has not been clarified yet because various factors exist in the plasmas. Accordingly, we have studied effects of atomic oxygen dose on cell growth such as budding yeast and mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts of mammalian cells. Both of cells were suspended with PBS, and treated using oxygen radical source. In order to prevent the radicals from reacting with the ambient air, the treatment region was surrounded by a plastic cover and purged with Ar. The proliferative effect of 15 % was observed at the O3Pj dose of around 1 . 0 ×1017 cm-3 in NIH3T3 cells as well as in yeast cells. Moreover, periodic oxygen treatment enhanced the effect in budding yeast cells. The best interval of periodic oxygen radical treatment was around 2 hours, which is almost the same period as that of their cell cycle. With the optimum interval time, we have investigated the effect of the number of the treatments. As the number of treatments increases, the growth rate of budding yeast cells was gradually enhanced and saturated at thrice treatments. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  4. Mitochondrial quality control during inheritance is associated with lifespan and mother-daughter age asymmetry in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    McFaline-Figueroa, José Ricardo; Vevea, Jason; Swayne, Theresa C; Zhou, Chun; Liu, Christopher; Leung, Galen; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2011-10-01

    Fluorescence loss in photobleaching experiments and analysis of mitochondrial function using superoxide and redox potential biosensors revealed that mitochondria within individual yeast cells are physically and functionally distinct. Mitochondria that are retained in mother cells during yeast cell division have a significantly more oxidizing redox potential and higher superoxide levels compared to mitochondria in buds. Retention of mitochondria with more oxidizing redox potential in mother cells occurs to the same extent in young and older cells and can account for the age-associated decline in total cellular mitochondrial redox potential in yeast as they age from 0 to 5 generations. Deletion of Mmr1p, a member of the DSL1 family of tethering proteins that localizes to mitochondria at the bud tip and is required for normal mitochondrial inheritance, produces defects in mitochondrial quality control and heterogeneity in replicative lifespan (RLS). Long-lived mmr1Δ cells exhibit prolonged RLS, reduced mean generation times, more reducing mitochondrial redox potential and lower mitochondrial superoxide levels compared to wild-type cells. Short-lived mmr1Δ cells exhibit the opposite phenotypes. Moreover, short-lived cells give rise exclusively to short-lived cells, while the majority of daughters of long-lived cells are long lived. These findings support the model that the mitochondrial inheritance machinery promotes retention of lower-functioning mitochondria in mother cells and that this process contributes to both mother-daughter age asymmetry and age-associated declines in cellular fitness.

  5. Fimbrin phosphorylation by metaphase Cdk1 regulates actin cable dynamics in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yansong; Han, Xuemei; Zheng, Liangzhen; Xie, Ying; Mu, Yuguang; Yates, John R.; Drubin, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Actin cables, composed of actin filament bundles nucleated by formins, mediate intracellular transport for cell polarity establishment and maintenance. We previously observed that metaphase cells preferentially promote actin cable assembly through cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) activity. However, the relevant metaphase Cdk1 targets were not known. Here we show that the highly conserved actin filament crosslinking protein fimbrin is a critical Cdk1 target for actin cable assembly regulation in budding yeast. Fimbrin is specifically phosphorylated on threonine 103 by the metaphase cyclin–Cdk1 complex, in vivo and in vitro. On the basis of conformational simulations, we suggest that this phosphorylation stabilizes fimbrin's N-terminal domain, and modulates actin filament binding to regulate actin cable assembly and stability in cells. Overall, this work identifies fimbrin as a key target for cell cycle regulation of actin cable assembly in budding yeast, and suggests an underlying mechanism. PMID:27068241

  6. Chromosome Segregation in Budding Yeast: Sister Chromatid Cohesion and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Studies on budding yeast have exposed the highly conserved mechanisms by which duplicated chromosomes are evenly distributed to daughter cells at the metaphase–anaphase transition. The establishment of proteinaceous bridges between sister chromatids, a function provided by a ring-shaped complex known as cohesin, is central to accurate segregation. It is the destruction of this cohesin that triggers the segregation of chromosomes following their proper attachment to microtubules. Since it is irreversible, this process must be tightly controlled and driven to completion. Furthermore, during meiosis, modifications must be put in place to allow the segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the first division for gamete formation. Here, I review the pioneering work from budding yeast that has led to a molecular understanding of the establishment and destruction of cohesion. PMID:24395824

  7. Imaging of the Actin Cytoskeleton and Mitochondria in Fixed Budding Yeast Cells.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Sanabria, Ryo; Swayne, Theresa C; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a model system to study the organization and function of the cytoskeleton. In the past, its small size, rounded shape, and rigid cell wall created obstacles to explore the cell biology of this model eukaryote. It is now possible to acquire and analyze high-resolution and super-resolution multidimensional images of the yeast cell. As a result, imaging of yeast has emerged as an important tool in eukaryotic cell biology. This chapter describes labeling methods and optical approaches for visualizing the cytoskeleton and interactions of the actin cytoskeleton with mitochondria in fixed yeast cells using wide-field and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.

  8. Budding yeast chromatin is dispersed in a crowded nucleoplasm in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Lim, Hong Hwa; Shi, Jian; Tamura, Sachiko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Surana, Uttam; Gan, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin organization has an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic systems. Although recent studies have refined the three-dimensional models of chromatin organization with high resolution at the genome sequence level, little is known about how the most fundamental units of chromatin—nucleosomes—are positioned in three dimensions in vivo. Here we use electron cryotomography to study chromatin organization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Direct visualization of yeast nuclear densities shows no evidence of 30-nm fibers. Aside from preribosomes and spindle microtubules, few nuclear structures are larger than a tetranucleosome. Yeast chromatin does not form compact structures in interphase or mitosis and is consistent with being in an “open” configuration that is conducive to high levels of transcription. From our study and those of others, we propose that yeast can regulate its transcription using local nucleosome–nucleosome associations. PMID:27605704

  9. A budding yeast's perspective on aging: The shape I'm in

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica; Wright, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Aging is exemplified by progressive, deleterious changes that increase the probability of death. However, while the effects of age are easy to recognize, identification of the processes involved has proved to be much more difficult. Somewhat surprisingly, research using the budding yeast has had a profound impact on our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Herein, we examine the biological significance and implications surrounding the observation that genetic pathways involved in the modulation of aging and the determination of lifespan in yeast are highly complicated and conserved. PMID:25819684

  10. Targeting of PP2C in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ota, Irene M; Mapes, James

    2007-01-01

    Type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases or PP2Cs are monomeric metal-requiring protein phosphatases that are present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are seven PP2Cs called PTCs (phosphatase 2C). Molecular genetic studies have implicated PTCs in many different functions, including RNA splicing, the unfolded protein response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and cell-cycle regulation. We have shown that three PTCs (Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3), regulate the stress-activated high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Proteomics studies have provided additional possible functions for these phosphatases by identifying interacting proteins. These studies have also provided the possible means by which these phosphatases are targeted to their substrates. For example, Nbp2-Ptc1 was identified as an interacting pair in yeast two-hybrid studies, and Nbp2 was found together with Ptc1 and HOG pathway kinases. We have shown that Nbp2 is an adapter in this pathway, mediating interaction between Ptc1 and the Pbs2 MAP/ERK kinase in the HOG pathway.

  11. New families of single integration vectors and gene tagging plasmids for genetic manipulations in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Wosika, Victoria; Durandau, Eric; Varidel, Clémence; Aymoz, Delphine; Schmitt, Marta; Pelet, Serge

    2016-12-01

    The tractability of the budding yeast genome has provided many insights into the fundamental mechanisms regulating cellular life. With the advent of synthetic biology and single-cell measurements, novel tools are required to manipulate the yeast genome in a more controlled manner. We present, here, a new family of yeast shuttle vectors called single integration vectors (pSIV). Upon transformation in yeast, these plasmids replace the entire deficient auxotrophy marker locus by a cassette containing an exogenous marker. As shown using flow cytometry, this complete replacement results in a unique integration of the desired DNA fragment at the marker locus. In addition, a second transcriptional unit can be inserted to achieve the simultaneous integration of two constructs. The selection marker cassettes, present in the pSIV, were also used to generate a complete set of gene tagging plasmids (pGT) encompassing a large palette of fluorescent proteins, from a cyan fluorescent protein to a near-infrared tandem dimer red fluorescent protein. These tagging cassettes are orthogonal to each other thanks to the use of different TEF promoter and terminator couples, thereby avoiding marker cassette switching and favoring integration in the desired locus. In summary, we have created two sets of robust molecular tools for the precise genetic manipulation of the budding yeast.

  12. Quantitative proteomic comparison of stationary/G0 phase cells and tetrads in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravinder; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    Most of the microbial cells on earth under natural conditions exist in a dormant condition, commonly known as quiescent state. Quiescent cells exhibit low rates of transcription and translation suggesting that cellular abundance of proteins may be similar in quiescent cells. Therefore, this study aim to compare the proteome of budding yeast cells from two quiescent states viz. stationary phase/G0 and tetrads. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based quantitative proteomics we identified 289 proteins, among which around 40 proteins exhibited ±1.5 fold change consistently from the four biological replicates. Proteomics data was validated by western blot and denstiometric analysis of Hsp12 and Spg4. Level of budding yeast 14-3-3 proteins was found to be similar in both the quiescent states, whereas Hsp12 and Spg4 expressed only during stress. FACS (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis showed that budding yeast cells were arrested at G1 stages both in tetrads as well as in stationary phase. We also observed that quiescent states did not express Ime1 (inducer of meiosis). Taken together, our present study demonstrates that the cells in quiescent state may have similar proteome, and accumulation of proteins like Hsp12, Hsp26, and Spg4 may play an important role in retaining viability of the cells during dormancy. PMID:27558777

  13. The Malleable Nature of the Budding Yeast Nuclear Envelope: Flares, Fusion, and Fenestrations.

    PubMed

    Meseroll, Rebecca A; Cohen-Fix, Orna

    2016-11-01

    In eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope (NE) physically separates nuclear components and activities from rest of the cell. The NE also provides rigidity to the nucleus and contributes to chromosome organization. At the same time, the NE is highly dynamic; it must change shape and rearrange its components during development and throughout the cell cycle, and its morphology can be altered in response to mutation and disease. Here we focus on the NE of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has several unique features: it remains intact throughout the cell cycle, expands symmetrically during interphase, elongates during mitosis and, expands asymmetrically during mitotic delay. Moreover, its NE is safely breached during mating and when large structures, such as nuclear pore complexes and the spindle pole body, are embedded into its double membrane. The budding yeast NE lacks lamins and yet the nucleus is capable of maintaining a spherical shape throughout interphase. Despite these eccentricities, studies of the budding yeast NE have uncovered interesting, and likely conserved, processes that contribute to NE dynamics. In particular, we discuss the processes that drive and enable NE expansion and the dramatic changes in the NE that lead to extensions and fenestrations. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2353-2360, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Coordinated Spindle Assembly and Orientation Requires Clb5p-Dependent Kinase in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Marisa; Clarke, Duncan J.; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E.D.; Bloom, Kerry; Reed, Steven I.

    2000-01-01

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle along a polarity axis is critical in asymmetric cell divisions. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, loss of the S-phase B-type cyclin Clb5p under conditions of limited cyclin-dependent kinase activity (cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells) causes a spindle positioning defect that results in an undivided nucleus entering the bud. Based on time-lapse digital imaging microscopy of microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein fusions to either tubulin or dynein, we observed that the asymmetric behavior of the spindle pole bodies during spindle assembly was lost in the cdc28-4 clb5Δ cells. As soon as a spindle formed, both poles were equally likely to interact with the bud cell cortex. Persistent dynamic interactions with the bud ultimately led to spindle translocation across the bud neck. Thus, the mutant failed to assign one spindle pole body the task of organizing astral microtubules towards the mother cell. Our data suggest that Clb5p-associated kinase is required to confer mother-bound behavior to one pole in order to establish correct spindle polarity. In contrast, B-type cyclins, Clb3p and Clb4p, though partially redundant with Clb5p for an early role in spindle morphogenesis, preferentially promote spindle assembly. PMID:10662771

  15. Novel Functional Dissection of the Localization-Specific Roles of Budding Yeast Polo Kinase Cdc5p

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Eun; Park, Chong J.; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Karpova, Tatiana; Asano, Satoshi; McNally, James; Sunwoo, Yangil; Leem, Sun-Hee; Lee, Kyung S.

    2004-01-01

    Budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5p localizes to the spindle pole body (SPB) and to the bud-neck and plays multiple roles during M-phase progression. To dissect localization-specific mitotic functions of Cdc5p, we tethered a localization-defective N-terminal kinase domain of Cdc5p (Cdc5pΔC) to the SPB or to the bud-neck with components specifically localizing to one of these sites and characterized these mutants in a cdc5Δ background. Characterization of a viable, SPB-localizing, CDC5ΔC-CNM67 mutant revealed that it is defective in timely degradation of Swe1p, a negative regulator of Cdc28p. Loss of BFA1, a negative regulator of mitotic exit, rescued the lethality of a neck-localizing CDC5ΔC-CDC12 or CDC5ΔC-CDC3 mutant but yielded severe defects in cytokinesis. These data suggest that the SPB-associated Cdc5p activity is critical for both mitotic exit and cytokinesis, whereas the bud neck-localized Cdc5p is required for proper Swe1p regulation. Interestingly, a cdc5Δ bfa1Δ swe1Δ triple mutant is viable but grows slowly, whereas cdc5Δ cells bearing both CDC5ΔC-CNM67 and CDC5ΔC-CDC12 grow well with only a mild cell cycle delay. Thus, SPB- and the bud-neck-localized Cdc5p control most of the critical Cdc5p functions and downregulation of Bfa1p and Swe1p at the respective locations are two critical factors that require Cdc5p. PMID:15509790

  16. Genome-wide studies of telomere biology in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Yaniv; Kupiec, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialized DNA-protein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres are essential for chromosomal stability and integrity, as they prevent chromosome ends from being recognized as double strand breaks. In rapidly proliferating cells, telomeric DNA is synthesized by the enzyme telomerase, which copies a short template sequence within its own RNA moiety, thus helping to solve the “end-replication problem”, in which information is lost at the ends of chromosomes with each DNA replication cycle. The basic mechanisms of telomere length, structure and function maintenance are conserved among eukaryotes. Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been instrumental in deciphering the basic aspects of telomere biology. In the last decade, technical advances, such as the availability of mutant collections, have allowed carrying out systematic genome-wide screens for mutants affecting various aspects of telomere biology. In this review we summarize these efforts, and the insights that this Systems Biology approach has produced so far.

  17. Ontogeny of Unstable Chromosomes Generated by Telomere Error in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Tracey; Weinert, Ted

    2016-10-01

    DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes. Early unstable chromosomes may then resolve to an internal "collection site" where a dicentric forms and resolves to an isochromosome (other outcomes are possible at each step). The initial telomere-proximal unstable chromosome is increased in mutants in telomerase subunits, Tel1, and even Rad9, with no known telomere-specific function. Defects in Tel1 and in Rrm3, a checkpoint protein kinase with a role in telomere maintenance and a DNA helicase, respectively, synergize dramatically to generate unstable chromosomes, further illustrating the consequence of replication error in the telomere. Collectively, our results suggest telomeric replication errors may be a common cause of seemingly unrelated genomic rearrangements located hundreds of kilobases away.

  18. Ontogeny of Unstable Chromosomes Generated by Telomere Error in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication errors at certain sites in the genome initiate chromosome instability that ultimately leads to stable genomic rearrangements. Where instability begins is often unclear. And, early instability may form unstable chromosome intermediates whose transient nature also hinders mechanistic understanding. We report here a budding yeast model that reveals the genetic ontogeny of genome rearrangements, from initial replication error to unstable chromosome formation to their resolution. Remarkably, the initial error often arises in or near the telomere, and frequently forms unstable chromosomes. Early unstable chromosomes may then resolve to an internal "collection site" where a dicentric forms and resolves to an isochromosome (other outcomes are possible at each step). The initial telomere-proximal unstable chromosome is increased in mutants in telomerase subunits, Tel1, and even Rad9, with no known telomere-specific function. Defects in Tel1 and in Rrm3, a checkpoint protein kinase with a role in telomere maintenance and a DNA helicase, respectively, synergize dramatically to generate unstable chromosomes, further illustrating the consequence of replication error in the telomere. Collectively, our results suggest telomeric replication errors may be a common cause of seemingly unrelated genomic rearrangements located hundreds of kilobases away. PMID:27716774

  19. MAP kinase dynamics in response to pheromones in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Stucke, V M; Jorritsma, G; Peter, M

    2001-12-01

    Although scaffolding is a major regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, scaffolding proteins are poorly understood. During yeast mating, MAPK Fus3p is phosphorylated by MAPKK Ste7p, which is activated by MAPKKK Ste11p. This MAPK module interacts with the scaffold molecule Ste5p. Here we show that Ste11p and Ste7p were predominantly cytoplasmic proteins, while Ste5p and Fus3p were found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Ste5p, Ste7p and Fus3p also localized to tips of mating projections in pheromone-treated cells. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrate that Fus3p rapidly shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm independently of pheromones, Fus3p phosphorylation and Ste5p. Membrane-bound Ste5p can specifically recruit Fus3p and Ste7p to the cell cortex. Ste5p remains stably bound at the plasma membrane, unlike activated Fus3p, which dissociates from Ste5p and translocates to the nucleus.

  20. Exploiting budding yeast natural variation for industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-11-01

    For the last two decades, the natural variation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been massively exploited with the aim of understanding ecological and evolutionary processes. As a result, many new genetic variants have been uncovered, providing a large catalogue of alleles underlying complex traits. These alleles represent a rich genetic resource with the potential to provide new strains that can cope with the growing demands of industrial fermentation processes. When surveyed in detail, several of these variants have proven useful in wine and beer industries by improving nitrogen utilisation, fermentation kinetics, ethanol production, sulphite resistance and aroma production. Here, I illustrate how allele-specific expression and polymorphisms within the coding region of GDB1 underlie fermentation kinetic differences in synthetic wine must. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of how GDB1 variants and other natural alleles interact in foreign genetic backgrounds remains unclear. Further studies in large sets of strains, recombinant hybrids and multiple parental pairs will broaden our knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis of trait adaptation for utilisation in applied and industrial processes.

  1. The spindle position checkpoint: how to deal with spindle misalignment during asymmetric cell division in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Fraschini, Roberta; Venturetti, Marianna; Chiroli, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2008-06-01

    During asymmetric cell division, spindle positioning is critical to ensure the unequal segregation of polarity factors and generate daughter cells with different sizes or fates. In budding yeast the boundary between mother and daughter cell resides at the bud neck, where cytokinesis takes place at the end of the cell cycle. Since budding and bud neck formation occur much earlier than bipolar spindle formation, spindle positioning is a finely regulated process. A surveillance device called the SPOC (spindle position checkpoint) oversees this process and delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly oriented along the division axis, thus ensuring genome stability.

  2. Mmr1p is a mitochondrial factor for Myo2p-dependent inheritance of mitochondria in the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Takashi; Toh-E, Akio; Matsui, Yasushi

    2004-07-07

    Class V myosins play a pivotal role in organelle distribution. In the budding yeast, Myo2p, a class V myosin, is essential for mitochondrial distribution. We identified MMR1 as a high-dose suppressor of the myo2 mitochondrial defect and that Mmr1p resides restrictively on the bud-localizing mitochondria and forms a complex with Myo2p tail. Mmr1p loss delayed mitochondrial transfer to buds and completely abolished mitochondrial distribution in the absence of Ypt11p, which promotes mitochondrial distribution by complex formation with Myo2p tail. The myo2-573 mutation, which causes a mitochondrial distribution defect and inactivates the Mmr1p function, reduced association between Myo2p and Mmr1p and depolarized Mmr1p localization on mitochondria. These strongly suggest that Mmr1p is a key mitochondrial component of the link between Myo2p and mitochondria for Myo2p-dependent mitochondrial distribution. Genetical analysis revealed that the Mmr1p-Myo2p pathway is independent of the Ypt11p-Myo2p pathway, suggesting that an essential system for mitochondrial distribution is composed of two independent Myo2p pathways.

  3. Mdm12p, a component required for mitochondrial inheritance that is conserved between budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Berger, K H; Sogo, L F; Yaffe, M P

    1997-02-10

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the MDM12 gene product display temperature-sensitive growth and possess abnormally large, round mitochondria that are defective for inheritance by daughter buds. Analysis of the wild-type MDM12 gene revealed its product to be a 31-kD polypeptide that is homologous to a protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. When expressed in S. cerevisiae, the S. pombe Mdm12p homolog conferred a dominant-negative phenotype of giant mitochondria and aberrant mitochondrial distribution, suggesting partial functional conservation of Mdm12p activity between budding and fission yeast. The S. cerevisiae Mdm12p was localized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and by subcellular fractionation and immunodetection to the mitochondrial outer membrane and displayed biochemical properties of an integral membrane protein. Mdm12p is the third mitochondrial outer membrane protein required for normal mitochondrial morphology and distribution to be identified in S. cerevisiae and the first such mitochondrial component that is conserved between two different species.

  4. Comparative 3D genome structure analysis of the fission and the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Alber, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We studied the 3D structural organization of the fission yeast genome, which emerges from the tethering of heterochromatic regions in otherwise randomly configured chromosomes represented as flexible polymer chains in an nuclear environment. This model is sufficient to explain in a statistical manner many experimentally determined distinctive features of the fission yeast genome, including chromatin interaction patterns from Hi-C experiments and the co-locations of functionally related and co-expressed genes, such as genes expressed by Pol-III. Our findings demonstrate that some previously described structure-function correlations can be explained as a consequence of random chromatin collisions driven by a few geometric constraints (mainly due to centromere-SPB and telomere-NE tethering) combined with the specific gene locations in the chromosome sequence. We also performed a comparative analysis between the fission and budding yeast genome structures, for which we previously detected a similar organizing principle. However, due to the different chromosome sizes and numbers, substantial differences are observed in the 3D structural genome organization between the two species, most notably in the nuclear locations of orthologous genes, and the extent of nuclear territories for genes and chromosomes. However, despite those differences, remarkably, functional similarities are maintained, which is evident when comparing spatial clustering of functionally related genes in both yeasts. Functionally related genes show a similar spatial clustering behavior in both yeasts, even though their nuclear locations are largely different between the yeast species.

  5. Partial purification of histone H3 proteolytic activity from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Tomar, Raghuvir Singh

    2016-06-01

    The proteolytic clipping of histone tails has recently emerged as a novel form of irreversible post-translational modification (PTM) of histones. Histone clipping has been implicated as a regulatory process leading to the permanent removal of PTMs from histone proteins. However, there is scarcity of literature that describes the identification and characterization of histone-specific proteases. Here, we employed various biochemical methods to report histone H3-specific proteolytic activity from budding yeast. Our results demonstrate that H3 proteolytic activity was associated with sepharose bead matrices and activity was not affected by a variety of stress conditions. We have also identified the existence of an unknown protein that acts as a physiological inhibitor of the H3-clipping activity of yeast H3 protease. Moreover, through protease inhibition assays, we have also characterized yeast H3 protease as a serine protease. Interestingly, unlike glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), yeast H3 proteolytic activity was not inhibited by Stefin B. Together, our findings suggest the existence of a novel H3 protease in yeast that is different from other reported histone H3 proteases. The presence of histone H3 proteolytic activity, along with the physiological inhibitor in yeast, suggests an interesting molecular mechanism that regulates the activity of histone proteases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of temperature on replicative aging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Molon, Mateusz; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2016-04-01

    The use of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in gerontological studies was based on the assumption that the reproduction limit of a single cell (replicative aging) is a consequence of accumulation of a hypothetical universal "senescence factor" within the mother cell. However, some evidence suggests that molecules or structures proposed as the "aging factor", such as rDNA circles, oxidatively damaged proteins (with carbonyl groups) or mitochondria, have little effect on replicative lifespan of yeast cells. Our results also suggest that protein aggregates associated with Hsp104, treated as a marker of yeast aging, do not seem to affect the numeric value of replicative lifespan of yeast. What these results indicate, however, is the need for finding a different way of expressing age and longevity of yeast cells instead of the commonly used number of daughters produced over units of time, as in the case of other organisms. In this paper, we show that the temperature has a stronger influence on the time of life (the total lifespan) than on the reproductive potential of yeast cells.

  7. Components required for cytokinesis are important for bud site selection in yeast

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Polarized cell division is a fundamental process that occurs in a variety of organisms; it is responsible for the proper positioning of daughter cells and the correct segregation of cytoplasmic components. The SPA2 gene of yeast encodes a nonessential protein that localizes to sites of cell growth and to the site of cytokinesis. spa2 mutants exhibit slightly altered budding patterns. In this report, a genetic screen was used to isolate a novel ochre allele of CDC10, cdc10-10; strains containing this mutation require the SPA2 gene for growth. CDC10 encodes a conserved potential GTP-binding protein that previously has been shown to localize to the bud neck and to be important for cytokinesis. The genetic interaction of cdc10-10 and spa2 suggests a role for SPA2 in cytokinesis. Most importantly, strains that contain a cdc10-10 mutation and those containing mutations affecting other putative neck filament proteins do not form buds at their normal proximal location. The finding that a component involved in cytokinesis is also important in bud site selection provides strong evidence for the cytokinesis tag model; i.e., critical components at the site of cytokinesis are involved in determining the next site of polarized growth and division. PMID:8320260

  8. SNAP-, CLIP- and Halo-tag labelling of budding yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Stagge, Franziska; Mitronova, Gyuzel Y; Belov, Vladimir N; Wurm, Christian A; Jakobs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy of the localization and the spatial and temporal dynamics of specifically labelled proteins is an indispensable tool in cell biology. Besides fluorescent proteins as tags, tag-mediated labelling utilizing self-labelling proteins as the SNAP-, CLIP-, or the Halo-tag are widely used, flexible labelling systems relying on exogenously supplied fluorophores. Unfortunately, labelling of live budding yeast cells proved to be challenging with these approaches because of the limited accessibility of the cell interior to the dyes. In this study we developed a fast and reliable electroporation-based labelling protocol for living budding yeast cells expressing SNAP-, CLIP-, or Halo-tagged fusion proteins. For the Halo-tag, we demonstrate that it is crucial to use the 6'-carboxy isomers and not the 5'-carboxy isomers of important dyes to ensure cell viability. We report on a simple rule for the analysis of ¹H NMR spectra to discriminate between 6'- and 5'-carboxy isomers of fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives. We demonstrate the usability of the labelling protocol by imaging yeast cells with STED super-resolution microscopy and dual colour live cell microscopy. The large number of available fluorophores for these self-labelling proteins and the simplicity of the protocol described here expands the available toolbox for the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  9. Mitochondrial inheritance is required for MEN-regulated cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Luis J; Crider, David G; Gay, Anna Card; Salanueva, Iñigo J; Boldogh, Istvan R; Pon, Liza A

    2009-11-03

    Mitochondrial inheritance, the transfer of mitochondria from mother to daughter cell during cell division, is essential for daughter cell viability. The mitochore, a mitochondrial protein complex containing Mdm10p, Mdm12p, and Mmm1p, is required for mitochondrial motility leading to inheritance in budding yeast. We observe a defect in cytokinesis in mitochore mutants and another mutant (mmr1Delta gem1Delta) with impaired mitochondrial inheritance. This defect is not observed in yeast that have no mitochondrial DNA or defects in mitochondrial protein import or assembly of beta-barrel proteins in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Deletion of MDM10 inhibits contractile-ring closure, but does not inhibit contractile-ring assembly, localization of a chromosomal passenger protein to the spindle during early anaphase, spindle alignment, nucleolar segregation, or nuclear migration during anaphase. Release of the mitotic exit network (MEN) component, Cdc14p, from the nucleolus during anaphase is delayed in mdm10Delta cells. Finally, hyperactivation of the MEN by deletion of BUB2 restores defects in cytokinesis in mdm10Delta and mmr1Delta gem1Delta cells and reduces the fidelity of mitochondrial segregation between mother and daughter cells in wild-type and mdm10Delta cells. Our studies identify a novel MEN-linked regulatory system that inhibits cytokinesis in response to defects in mitochondrial inheritance in budding yeast.

  10. Budding yeast as a model organism to study the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Denoth Lippuner, Annina; Julou, Thomas; Barral, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Although a budding yeast culture can be propagated eternally, individual yeast cells age and eventually die. The detailed knowledge of this unicellular eukaryotic species as well as the powerful tools developed to study its physiology makes budding yeast an ideal model organism to study the mechanisms involved in aging. Considering both detrimental and positive aspects of age, we review changes occurring during aging both at the whole-cell level and at the intracellular level. The possible mechanisms allowing old cells to produce rejuvenated progeny are described in terms of accumulation and inheritance of aging factors. Based on the dynamic changes associated with age, we distinguish different stages of age: early age, during which changes do not impair cell growth; intermediate age, during which aging factors start to accumulate; and late age, which corresponds to the last divisions before death. For each aging factor, we examine its asymmetric segregation and whether it plays a causal role in aging. Using the example of caloric restriction, we describe how the aging process can be modulated at different levels and how changes in different organelles might interplay with each other. Finally, we discuss the beneficial aspects that might be associated with age.

  11. Transcriptional and genomic mayhem due to aging-induced nucleosome loss in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheng; Chen, Kaifu; Li, Wei; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes are assembled into a nucleoprotein structure termed chromatin, which is comprised of regular arrays of nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of eight core histone protein molecules around which the DNA is wrapped 1.75 times. The ultimate consequence of packaging the genome into chromatin is that the DNA sequences are relatively inaccessible. This allows the cell to use a comprehensive toolbox of chromatin-altering machineries to reveal access to the DNA sequence at the right time and right place in order to allow genomic processes, such as DNA repair, transcription and replication, to occur in a tightly-regulated manner. In other words, chromatin provides the framework that allows the regulation of all genomic processes, because the machineries that mediate transcription, repair and DNA replication themselves are relatively non-sequence specific and if the genome were naked, they would presumably perform their tasks in a random and unregulated manner. We recently provided support for this prediction in Zheng et al., [Genes and Development (2014) 28: 396-408] by investigating a physiologically relevant scenario in which we had found that cells lose half of the core histone proteins, that is, during the mitotic aging (also called replicative aging) of budding yeast. Using new spike-in normalization techniques, we found that the occupancy of nucleosomes at most DNA sequences is reduced by 50%, leading to transcriptional induction of every single gene. This loss of histones during aging was also accompanied by a significantly-increased frequency of genomic instability including DNA breaks, chromosomal translocations, retrotransposition, and transfer of mitochondrial DNA into the nuclear genome (Figure 1).

  12. A new function of Skp1 in the mitotic exit of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namil; Yoon, Hayoung; Lee, Eunhwa; Song, Kiwon

    2006-12-01

    We previously reported that Skp1, a component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCF) complex essential for the timely degradation of cell cycle proteins by ubiquitination, physically interacts with Bfa1, which is a key negative regulator of the mitotic exit network (MEN) in response to diverse checkpoint-activating stresses in budding yeast. In this study, we initially investigated whether the interaction of Skp1 and Bfa1 is involved in the regulation of the Bfa1 protein level during the cell cycle, especially by mediating its degradation. However, the profile of the Bfa1 protein did not change during the cell cycle in skp1-11, which is a SKP1 mutant allele in which the function of Skp1 as a part of SCF is completely impaired, thus indicating that Skp1 does not affect the degradation of Bfa1. On the other hand, we found that the skp1-12 mutant allele, previously reported to block G2-M transition, showed defects in mitotic exit and cytokinesis. The skp1-12 mutant allele also revealed a specific genetic interaction with Deltabfa1. Bfa1 interacted with Skp1 via its 184 C-terminal residues (Bfa1-D8) that are responsible for its function in mitotic exit. In addition, the interaction between Bfa1 and the Skp1-12 mutant protein was stronger than that of Bfa1 and the wild type Skp1. We suggest a novel function of Skp1 in mitotic exit and cytokinesis, independent of its function as a part of the SCF complex. The interaction of Skp1 and Bfa1 may contribute to the function of Skp1 in the mitotic exit.

  13. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    PubMed

    Merlini, Laura; Fraschini, Roberta; Boettcher, Barbara; Barral, Yves; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  14. Structure and Scm3-mediated assembly of budding yeast centromeric nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Wyns, Katharina; Li, Ming; Hall, Michael A; Wang, Michelle D; Luger, Karolin

    2011-01-01

    Much controversy exists regarding the structural organization of the yeast centromeric nucleosome and the role of the nonhistone protein, Scm3, in its assembly and architecture. Here we show that the substitution of H3 with its centromeric variant Cse4 results in octameric nucleosomes that organize DNA in a left-handed superhelix. We demonstrate by single-molecule approaches, micrococcal nuclease digestion and small-angle X-ray scattering that Cse4-nucleosomes exhibit an open conformation with weakly bound terminal DNA segments. The Cse4-octamer does not preferentially form nucleosomes on its cognate centromeric DNA. We show that Scm3 functions as a Cse4-specific nucleosome assembly factor, and that the resulting octameric nucleosomes do not contain Scm3 as a stably bound component. Taken together, our data provide insights into the assembly and structural features of the budding yeast centromeric nucleosome.

  15. EdU Incorporation for FACS and Microscopy Analysis of DNA Replication in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Talarek, Nicolas; Petit, Julie; Gueydon, Elisabeth; Schwob, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is a key determinant of chromosome segregation and stability in eukaryotes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used for cell cycle studies, yet simple but key parameters such as the fraction of cells in S phase in a population or the subnuclear localization of DNA synthesis have been difficult to gather for this organism. 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) is a thymidine analogue that can be incorporated in vivo and later detected using copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (Click reaction) without prior DNA denaturation. This chapter describes a budding yeast strain and conditions that allow rapid EdU incorporation at moderate extracellular concentrations, followed by its efficient detection for the analysis of DNA replication in single cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.

  16. Investigating Filamentous Growth and Biofilm/Mat Formation in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    In response to nutrient limitation, budding yeast can undergo filamentous growth by differentiating into elongated chains of interconnected cells. Filamentous growth is regulated by signal transduction pathways that oversee the reorganization of cell polarity, changes to the cell cycle, and an increase in cell adhesion that occur in response to nutrient limitation. Each of these changes can be easily measured. Yeast can also grow colonially atop surfaces in a biofilm or mat of connected cells. Filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation require cooperation among individuals; therefore, studying these responses can shed light on the origin and genetic basis of multicellular behaviors. The assays introduced here can be used to study analogous behaviors in fungal pathogens, which require filamentous growth and biofilm/mat formation for virulence. PMID:25734073

  17. Global reorganization of budding yeast chromosome conformation in different physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tjong, Harianto; Weider, Elodie; Herzog, Mareike; Young, Barry; Brune, Christiane; Müllner, Daniel; Loewen, Christopher; Alber, Frank; Weis, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The organization of the genome is nonrandom and important for correct function. Specifically, the nuclear envelope plays a critical role in gene regulation. It generally constitutes a repressive environment, but several genes, including the GAL locus in budding yeast, are recruited to the nuclear periphery on activation. Here, we combine imaging and computational modeling to ask how the association of a single gene locus with the nuclear envelope influences the surrounding chromosome architecture. Systematic analysis of an entire yeast chromosome establishes that peripheral recruitment of the GAL locus is part of a large-scale rearrangement that shifts many chromosomal regions closer to the nuclear envelope. This process is likely caused by the presence of several independent anchoring points. To identify novel factors required for peripheral anchoring, we performed a genome-wide screen and demonstrated that the histone acetyltransferase SAGA and the activity of histone deacetylases are needed for this extensive gene recruitment to the nuclear periphery. PMID:26811423

  18. Separable Crossover-Promoting and Crossover-Constraining Aspects of Zip1 Activity during Budding Yeast Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Voelkel-Meiman, Karen; Johnston, Cassandra; Thappeta, Yashna; Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V.; Hochwagen, Andreas; MacQueen, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis relies on the presence of crossover events distributed among all chromosomes. MutSγ and MutLγ homologs (Msh4/5 and Mlh1/3) facilitate the formation of a prominent group of meiotic crossovers that mature within the context of an elaborate chromosomal structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC). SC proteins are required for intermediate steps in the formation of MutSγ-MutLγ crossovers, but whether the assembled SC structure per se is required for MutSγ-MutLγ-dependent crossover recombination events is unknown. Here we describe an interspecies complementation experiment that reveals that the mature SC is dispensable for the formation of Mlh3-dependent crossovers in budding yeast. Zip1 forms a major structural component of the budding yeast SC, and is also required for MutSγ and MutLγ-dependent crossover formation. Kluyveromyces lactis ZIP1 expressed in place of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZIP1 in S. cerevisiae cells fails to support SC assembly (synapsis) but promotes wild-type crossover levels in those nuclei that progress to form spores. While stable, full-length SC does not assemble in S. cerevisiae cells expressing K. lactis ZIP1, aggregates of K. lactis Zip1 displayed by S. cerevisiae meiotic nuclei are decorated with SC-associated proteins, and K. lactis Zip1 promotes the SUMOylation of the SC central element protein Ecm11, suggesting that K. lactis Zip1 functionally interfaces with components of the S. cerevisiae synapsis machinery. Moreover, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers rely on S. cerevisiae synapsis initiation proteins Zip3, Zip4, Spo16, as well as the Mlh3 protein, as do the crossovers mediated by S. cerevisiae Zip1. Surprisingly, however, K. lactis Zip1-mediated crossovers are largely Msh4/Msh5 (MutSγ)-independent. This separation-of-function version of Zip1 thus reveals that neither assembled SC nor MutSγ is required for Mlh3-dependent crossover formation per se in budding yeast. Our data

  19. The budding yeast Centromere DNA Element II wraps a stable Cse4 hemisome in either orientation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Henikoff, Steven; Ramachandran, Srinivas; Krassovsky, Kristina; Bryson, Terri D; Codomo, Christine A; Brogaard, Kristin; Wang, Ji-Ping; Henikoff, Jorja G

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast, a single cenH3 (Cse4) nucleosome occupies the ∼120-bp functional centromere, however conflicting structural models for the particle have been proposed. To resolve this controversy, we have applied H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping, which reveals the precise position of histone H4 in every nucleosome in the genome. We find that cleavage patterns at centromeres are unique within the genome and are incompatible with symmetrical structures, including octameric nucleosomes and (Cse4/H4)2 tetrasomes. Centromere cleavage patterns are compatible with a precisely positioned core structure, one in which each of the 16 yeast centromeres is occupied by oppositely oriented Cse4/H4/H2A/H2B hemisomes in two rotational phases within the population. Centromere-specific hemisomes are also inferred from distances observed between closely-spaced H4 cleavages, as predicted from structural modeling. Our results indicate that the orientation and rotational position of the stable hemisome at each yeast centromere is not specified by the functional centromere sequence. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01861.001 PMID:24737863

  20. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Arcones, Irene; Sacristan, Carlos; Filali-Mouncef, Yasmina; Roncero, Cesar; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named ‘ingression progression complexes’ (IPCs). In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role. PMID:26891268

  1. Monitoring the cell cycle by multi-kinase-dependent regulation of Swe1/Wee1 in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung S; Asano, Satoshi; Park, Jung-Eun; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Erikson, Raymond L

    2005-10-01

    In eukaryotes, G(2)/M transition is induced by the activation of cyclin B-bound Cdk1, which is held in check by the protein kinase, Wee1. Recent advances in our understanding of mitotic entry in budding yeast has revealed that these cells utilize the level of Swe1 (Wee1 ortholog) phosphorylation as a means of monitoring cell cycle progression and of coordinating morphogenetic events with mitotic entry. Swe1 is phosphorylated by at least three distinct kinases at different stages of the cell cycle. This cumulative phosphorylation leads to the hyperphosphorylation and degradation of Swe1 through ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Thus, Swe1 functions as an important cell cycle modulator that integrates multiple upstream signals from prior cell cycle events before its ultimate degradation permits passage into mitosis.

  2. Electron Tomography Reveals the Steps in Filovirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Welsch, Sonja; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Krähling, Verena; Riches, James D.; Becker, Stephan; Briggs, John A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola, are non-segmented negative-strand RNA viruses causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in humans and nonhuman primates. The sequence of events that leads to release of filovirus particles from cells is poorly understood. Two contrasting mechanisms have been proposed, one proceeding via a “submarine-like” budding with the helical nucleocapsid emerging parallel to the plasma membrane, and the other via perpendicular “rocket-like” protrusion. Here we have infected cells with Marburg virus under BSL-4 containment conditions, and reconstructed the sequence of steps in the budding process in three dimensions using electron tomography of plastic-embedded cells. We find that highly infectious filamentous particles are released at early stages in infection. Budding proceeds via lateral association of intracellular nucleocapsid along its whole length with the plasma membrane, followed by rapid envelopment initiated at one end of the nucleocapsid, leading to a protruding intermediate. Scission results in local membrane instability at the rear of the virus. After prolonged infection, increased vesiculation of the plasma membrane correlates with changes in shape and infectivity of released viruses. Our observations demonstrate a cellular determinant of virus shape. They reconcile the contrasting models of filovirus budding and allow us to describe the sequence of events taking place during budding and release of Marburg virus. We propose that this represents a general sequence of events also followed by other filamentous and rod-shaped viruses. PMID:20442788

  3. An insight into the complex prion-prion interaction network in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiqiang; Valtierra, Stephanie; Li, Liming

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model system for studying prion-prion interactions as it contains multiple prion proteins. A recent study from our laboratory showed that the existence of Swi1 prion ([SWI(+)]) and overproduction of Swi1 can have strong impacts on the formation of 2 other extensively studied yeast prions, [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] ([RNQ(+)]) (Genetics, Vol. 197, 685-700). We showed that a single yeast cell is capable of harboring at least 3 heterologous prion elements and these prions can influence each other's appearance positively and/or negatively. We also showed that during the de novo [PSI(+)] formation process upon Sup35 overproduction, the aggregation patterns of a preexisting inducer ([RNQ(+)] or [SWI(+)]) can undergo significant remodeling from stably transmitted dot-shaped aggregates to aggregates that co-localize with the newly formed Sup35 aggregates that are ring/ribbon/rod- shaped. Such co-localization disappears once the newly formed [PSI(+)] prion stabilizes. Our finding provides strong evidence supporting the "cross-seeding" model for prion-prion interactions and confirms earlier reports that the interactions among different prions and their prion proteins mostly occur at the initiation stages of prionogenesis. Our results also highlight a complex prion interaction network in yeast. We believe that elucidating the mechanism underlying the yeast prion-prion interaction network will not only provide insight into the process of prion de novo generation and propagation in yeast but also shed light on the mechanisms that govern protein misfolding, aggregation, and amyloidogenesis in higher eukaryotes.

  4. A Proteome-wide Fission Yeast Interactome Reveals Network Evolution Principles from Yeasts to Human.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tommy V; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J; Cordero, Nicolas A; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J; Degatano, Andrew G; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P; Pleiss, Jeffrey A; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2016-01-14

    Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ∼ 50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution.

  5. A proteome-wide fission yeast interactome reveals network evolution principles from yeasts to human

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tommy V.; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J.; Cordero, Nicolas A.; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J.; Degatano, Andrew G.; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G.; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P.; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ~50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. PMID:26771498

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Pac1/LIS1-mediated Dynein Targeting: Implications for Regulation of Dynein Activity in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Steven M.; Plevock, Karen M.; St. Germain, Bryan J.; Punch, Jesse J.; Meaden, Christopher W.; Lee, Wei-Lih

    2011-01-01

    LIS1 is a critical regulator of dynein function during mitosis and organelle transport. Here, we investigated how Pac1, the budding yeast LIS1 homologue, regulates dynein targeting and activity during nuclear migration. We show that Pac1 and Dyn1 (dynein heavy chain) are dependent upon each other and upon Bik1 (budding yeast CLIP-170 homologue) for plus end localization, whereas Bik1 is independent of either. Dyn1, Pac1 and Bik1 interact in vivo at the plus ends, where an excess amount of Bik1 recruits approximately equal amounts of Pac1 and Dyn1. Overexpression of Pac1 enhanced plus end targeting of Dyn1 and vice versa, while affinity-purification of Dyn1 revealed that it exists in a complex with Pac1 in the absence of Bik1, leading us to conclude that the Pac1-Dyn1 complex preassembles in the cytoplasm prior to loading onto Bik1-decorated plus ends. Strikingly, we found that Pac1-overexpression augments cortical dynein activity through a mechanism distinct from loss of She1, a negative regulator of dynein-dynactin association. While Pac1-overexpression enhances the frequency of cortical targeting for dynein and dynactin, the stoichiometry of these complexes remains relatively unchanged at the plus ends compared to that in wild-type cells (~3 dynein to 1 dynactin). Loss of She1, however, enhances dynein-dynactin association at the plus ends and the cell cortex, resulting in an apparent 1:1 stoichiometry. Our results reveal differential regulation of cortical dynein activity by She1 and Pac1, and provide a potentially new regulatory step in the off-loading model for dynein function. PMID:21294277

  7. The budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 is released from the nucleus during anaphase for timely mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Botchkarev, Vladimir V; Rossio, Valentina; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Polo-like kinases are important regulators of multiple mitotic events; however, how Polo-like kinases are spatially and temporally regulated to perform their many tasks is not well understood. Here, we examined the subcellular localization of the budding yeast Polo-like kinase Cdc5 using a functional Cdc5-GFP protein expressed from the endogenous locus. In addition to the well-described localization of Cdc5 at the spindle pole bodies (SPBs) and the bud neck, we found that Cdc5-GFP accumulates in the nucleus in early mitosis but is released to the cytoplasm in late mitosis in a manner dependent on the Cdc14 phosphatase. This Cdc5 release from the nucleus is important for mitotic exit because artificial sequestration of Cdc5 in the nucleus by addition of a strong nuclear localization signal (NLS) resulted in mitotic exit defects. We identified a key cytoplasmic target of Cdc5 as Bfa1, an inhibitor of mitotic exit. Our study revealed a novel layer of Cdc5 regulation and suggests the existence of a possible coordination between Cdc5 and Cdc14 activity.

  8. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  9. Reinventing Heterochromatin in Budding Yeasts: Sir2 and the Origin Recognition Complex Take Center Stage ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Meleah A.; Froyd, Cara A.; Rusche, Laura N.

    2011-01-01

    The transcriptional silencing of the cryptic mating-type loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the best-studied models of repressive heterochromatin. However, this type of heterochromatin, which is mediated by the Sir proteins, has a distinct molecular composition compared to the more ubiquitous type of heterochromatin found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, other fungi, animals, and plants and characterized by the presence of HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1). This review discusses how the loss of important heterochromatin proteins, including HP1, in the budding yeast lineage presented an evolutionary opportunity for the development and diversification of alternative varieties of heterochromatin, in which the conserved deacetylase Sir2 and the replication protein Orc1 play key roles. In addition, we highlight how this diversification has been facilitated by gene duplications and has contributed to adaptations in lifestyle. PMID:21764908

  10. H2B Ubiquitylation Modulates Spliceosome Assembly and Function in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hérissant, Lucas; Moehle, Erica A.; Bertaccini, Diego; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Guthrie, Christine; Dargemont, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background information Commitment to splicing occurs co-transcriptionally, but a major unanswered question is the extent to which various modifications of chromatin, the template for transcription in vivo, contribute to the regulation of splicing. Results Here we perform genome-wide analyses showing that inhibition of specific marks – H2B ubiquitylation, H3K4 methylation, and H3K36 methylation – perturbs splicing in budding yeast, with each modification exerting gene-specific effects. Furthermore, semi-quantitative mass spectrometry on purified nuclear mRNPs and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on intron-containing genes indicated that H2B ubiquitylation, but not Set1-, Set2- or Dot1-dependent H3 methylation, stimulates recruitment of the early splicing factors, namely U1 and U2 snRNPs, onto nascent RNAs. Conclusions These results suggest that histone modifications impact splicing of distinct subsets of genes using distinct pathways. PMID:24476359

  11. Commitment to meiosis: what determines the mode of division in budding yeast?

    PubMed

    Simchen, Giora

    2009-02-01

    In budding yeast, commitment to meiosis is attained when meiotic cells cannot return to the mitotic cell cycle even if the triggering cue (nutrients deprivation) is withdrawn. Commitment is arrived at gradually, and different aspects of meiosis may be committed at different times. Cells become fully committed to meiosis at the end of Prophase I, long after DNA replication and just before the first meiotic division (M(I)). Whole-genome gene expression analysis has shown that committed cells have a distinct and rapid response to nutrients, and are not simply insulated from environmental signals. Thus becoming committed to meiosis is an active process. The cellular event most likely to be associated with commitment to meiosis is the separation of the duplicated spindle-pole bodies (SPBs) and the formation of the spindle. Commitment to the mitotic cell cycle is also associated with the separation of SPBs, although it occurs in G1, before DNA replication.

  12. MEN, destruction and separation: mechanistic links between mitotic exit and cytokinesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Foong May; Lim, Hong Hwa; Surana, Uttam

    2002-07-01

    Cellular events must be executed in a certain sequence during the cell division in order to maintain genome integrity and hence ensure a cell's survival. In M phase, for instance, chromosome segregation always precedes mitotic exit (characterized by mitotic kinase inactivation via cyclin destruction); this is then followed by cytokinesis. How do cells impose this strict order? Recent findings in budding yeast have suggested a mechanism whereby partitioning of chromosomes into the daughter cell is a prerequisite for the activation of mitotic exit network (MEN). So far, however, a regulatory scheme that would temporally link the initiation of cytokinesis to the execution of mitotic exit has not been determined. We propose that the requirement of MEN components for cytokinesis, their translocation to the mother-daughter neck and triggering of this translocation by inactivation of the mitotic kinase may be the three crucial elements that render initiation of cytokinesis dependent on mitotic exit.

  13. Reduced Mad2 expression keeps relaxed kinetochores from arresting budding yeast in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Erin L.; Dorer, Russell K.; Murray, Andrew W.; Schuyler, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome segregation depends on the spindle checkpoint, which delays anaphase until all chromosomes have bound microtubules and have been placed under tension. The Mad1–Mad2 complex is an essential component of the checkpoint. We studied the consequences of removing one copy of MAD2 in diploid cells of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Compared to MAD2/MAD2 cells, MAD2/mad2Δ heterozygotes show increased chromosome loss and have different responses to two insults that activate the spindle checkpoint: MAD2/mad2Δ cells respond normally to antimicrotubule drugs but cannot respond to chromosomes that lack tension between sister chromatids. In MAD2/mad2Δ cells with normal sister chromatid cohesion, removing one copy of MAD1 restores the checkpoint and returns chromosome loss to wild-type levels. We conclude that cells need the normal Mad2:Mad1 ratio to respond to chromosomes that are not under tension. PMID:21593209

  14. A Microfluidic System for Studying Ageing and Dynamic Single-Cell Responses in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Elco; Smith, Stewart; Swain, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of cell-to-cell variability in cellular decision-making and a growing interest in stochastic modeling of cellular processes has led to an increased demand for high density, reproducible, single-cell measurements in time-varying surroundings. We present ALCATRAS (A Long-term Culturing And TRApping System), a microfluidic device that can quantitatively monitor up to 1000 cells of budding yeast in a well-defined and controlled environment. Daughter cells are removed by fluid flow to avoid crowding allowing experiments to run for over 60 hours, and the extracellular media may be changed repeatedly and in seconds. We illustrate use of the device by measuring ageing through replicative life span curves, following the dynamics of the cell cycle, and examining history-dependent behaviour in the general stress response. PMID:24950344

  15. Assessment of the biological pathways targeted by isocyanate using N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gajendra Kumar; Singh, Vikash; Tomar, Raghuvir S

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanates, a group of low molecular weight aromatic and aliphatic compounds possesses the functional isocyanate group. They are highly toxic in nature hence; we used N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate (NSNM), a surrogate chemical containing a functional isocyanate group to understand the mode of action of this class of compounds. We employed budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism to study the pathways targeted by NSNM. Our screening with yeast mutants revealed that it affects chromatin, DNA damage response, protein-ubiquitylation and chaperones, oxidative stress, TOR pathway and DNA repair processes. We also show that NSNM acts as an epigenetic modifier as its treatment causes reduction in global histone acetylation and formation of histone adducts. Cells treated with NSNM exhibited increase in mitochondrial membrane potential as well as intracellular ROS levels and the effects were rescued by addition of reduced glutathione to the medium. We also report that deletion of SOD1 and SOD2, the superoxide dismutase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae displayed hypersensitivity to NSNM. Furthermore, NSNM treatment causes rapid depletion of total glutathione and reduced glutathione. We also demonstrated that NSNM induces degradation of Sml1, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor involved in regulating dNTPs production. In summary, we define the various biological pathways targeted by isocyanates.

  16. Continuous High-resolution Microscopic Observation of Replicative Aging in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Huberts, Daphne H. E. W.; Janssens, Georges E.; Lee, Sung Sik; Vizcarra, Ima Avalos; Heinemann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a simple microfluidic setup, in which single budding yeast cells can be tracked throughout their entire lifespan. The microfluidic chip exploits the size difference between mother and daughter cells using an array of micropads. Upon loading, cells are trapped underneath these micropads, because the distance between the micropad and cover glass is similar to the diameter of a yeast cell (3-4 μm). After the loading procedure, culture medium is continuously flushed through the chip, which not only creates a constant and defined environment throughout the entire experiment, but also flushes out the emerging daughter cells, which are not retained underneath the pads due to their smaller size. The setup retains mother cells so efficiently that in a single experiment up to 50 individual cells can be monitored in a fully automated manner for 5 days or, if necessary, longer. In addition, the excellent optical properties of the chip allow high-resolution imaging of cells during the entire aging process. PMID:23995364

  17. Similar environments but diverse fates: Responses of budding yeast to nutrient deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Honigberg, Saul M.

    2016-01-01

    Diploid budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can adopt one of several alternative differentiation fates in response to nutrient limitation, and each of these fates provides distinct biological functions. When different strain backgrounds are taken into account, these various fates occur in response to similar environmental cues, are regulated by the same signal transduction pathways, and share many of the same master regulators. I propose that the relationships between fate choice, environmental cues and signaling pathways are not Boolean, but involve graded levels of signals, pathway activation and master-regulator activity. In the absence of large differences between environmental cues, small differences in the concentration of cues may be reinforced by cell-to-cell signals. These signals are particularly essential for fate determination within communities, such as colonies and biofilms, where fate choice varies dramatically from one region of the community to another. The lack of Boolean relationships between cues, signaling pathways, master regulators and cell fates may allow yeast communities to respond appropriately to the wide range of environments they encounter in nature. PMID:27917388

  18. The Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, M. Joan; Lutz, Sheila; Lesage, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Summary Long-terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons generate a copy of their DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription of their RNA genome in cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. They are widespread in the eukaryotic kingdom and are the evolutionary progenitors of retroviruses [1]. The Ty1 element of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first LTR-retrotransposon demonstrated to mobilize through an RNA intermediate, and not surprisingly, is the best studied. The depth of our knowledge of Ty1 biology stems not only from the predominance of active Ty1 elements in the S. cerevisiae genome but also the ease and breadth of genomic, biochemical and cell biology approaches available to study cellular processes in yeast. This review describes the basic structure of Ty1 and its gene products, the replication cycle, the rapidly expanding compendium of host co-factors known to influence retrotransposition and the nature of Ty1's elaborate symbiosis with its host. Our goal is to illuminate the value of Ty1 as a paradigm to explore the biology of LTR-retrotransposons in multicellular organisms, where the low frequency of retrotransposition events presents a formidable barrier to investigations of retrotransposon biology. PMID:25893143

  19. Experimental testing of a new integrated model of the budding yeast Start transition

    PubMed Central

    Adames, Neil R.; Schuck, P. Logan; Chen, Katherine C.; Murali, T. M.; Tyson, John J.; Peccoud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The cell cycle is composed of bistable molecular switches that govern the transitions between gap phases (G1 and G2) and the phases in which DNA is replicated (S) and partitioned between daughter cells (M). Many molecular details of the budding yeast G1–S transition (Start) have been elucidated in recent years, especially with regard to its switch-like behavior due to positive feedback mechanisms. These results led us to reevaluate and expand a previous mathematical model of the yeast cell cycle. The new model incorporates Whi3 inhibition of Cln3 activity, Whi5 inhibition of SBF and MBF transcription factors, and feedback inhibition of Whi5 by G1–S cyclins. We tested the accuracy of the model by simulating various mutants not described in the literature. We then constructed these novel mutant strains and compared their observed phenotypes to the model’s simulations. The experimental results reported here led to further changes of the model, which will be fully described in a later article. Our study demonstrates the advantages of combining model design, simulation, and testing in a coordinated effort to better understand a complex biological network. PMID:26310445

  20. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  1. A pathway of targeted autophagy is induced by DNA damage in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Vinay V.; Waterman, David P.; Bernard, Amélie; Schiffmann, Nathan; Sayas, Enrich; Kamber, Roarke; Lemos, Brenda; Memisoglu, Gonen; Ang, Jessie; Mazella, Allison; Chuartzman, Silvia G.; Loewith, Robbie J.; Schuldiner, Maya; Denic, Vladimir; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Haber, James E.

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) by controlling the levels of various DNA repair and checkpoint proteins; however, how the DDR communicates with the autophagy pathway remains unknown. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that global genotoxic damage or even a single unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) initiates a previously undescribed and selective pathway of autophagy that we term genotoxin-induced targeted autophagy (GTA). GTA requires the action primarily of Mec1/ATR and Rad53/CHEK2 checkpoint kinases, in part via transcriptional up-regulation of central autophagy proteins. GTA is distinct from starvation-induced autophagy. GTA requires Atg11, a central component of the selective autophagy machinery, but is different from previously described autophagy pathways. By screening a collection of ∼6,000 yeast mutants, we identified genes that control GTA but do not significantly affect rapamycin-induced autophagy. Overall, our findings establish a pathway of autophagy specific to the DNA damage response. PMID:28154131

  2. A pathway of targeted autophagy is induced by DNA damage in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Vinay V; Waterman, David P; Bernard, Amélie; Schiffmann, Nathan; Sayas, Enrich; Kamber, Roarke; Lemos, Brenda; Memisoglu, Gonen; Ang, Jessie; Mazella, Allison; Chuartzman, Silvia G; Loewith, Robbie J; Schuldiner, Maya; Denic, Vladimir; Klionsky, Daniel J; Haber, James E

    2017-02-14

    Autophagy plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) by controlling the levels of various DNA repair and checkpoint proteins; however, how the DDR communicates with the autophagy pathway remains unknown. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that global genotoxic damage or even a single unrepaired double-strand break (DSB) initiates a previously undescribed and selective pathway of autophagy that we term genotoxin-induced targeted autophagy (GTA). GTA requires the action primarily of Mec1/ATR and Rad53/CHEK2 checkpoint kinases, in part via transcriptional up-regulation of central autophagy proteins. GTA is distinct from starvation-induced autophagy. GTA requires Atg11, a central component of the selective autophagy machinery, but is different from previously described autophagy pathways. By screening a collection of ∼6,000 yeast mutants, we identified genes that control GTA but do not significantly affect rapamycin-induced autophagy. Overall, our findings establish a pathway of autophagy specific to the DNA damage response.

  3. Chl1p, a DNA helicase-like protein in budding yeast, functions in sister-chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed Central

    Skibbens, Robert V

    2004-01-01

    From the time of DNA replication until anaphase onset, sister chromatids remain tightly paired along their length. Ctf7p/Eco1p is essential to establish sister-chromatid pairing during S-phase and associates with DNA replication components. DNA helicases precede the DNA replication fork and thus will first encounter chromatin sites destined for cohesion. In this study, I provide the first evidence that a DNA helicase is required for proper sister-chromatid cohesion. Characterizations of chl1 mutant cells reveal that CHL1 interacts genetically with both CTF7/ECO1 and CTF18/CHL12, two genes that function in sister-chromatid cohesion. Consistent with genetic interactions, Chl1p physically associates with Ctf7p/Eco1p both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, a functional assay reveals that Chl1p is critical for sister-chromatid cohesion. Within the budding yeast genome, Chl1p exhibits the highest degree of sequence similarity to human CHL1 isoforms and BACH1. Previous studies revealed that human CHLR1 exhibits DNA helicase-like activities and that BACH1 is a helicase-like protein that associates with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 to maintain genome integrity. Our findings document a novel role for Chl1p in sister-chromatid cohesion and provide new insights into the possible mechanisms through which DNA helicases may contribute to cancer progression when mutated. PMID:15020404

  4. The Roles of Bud-Site-Selection Proteins during Haploid Invasive Growth in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Paul J.; Sprague, George F.

    2002-01-01

    In haploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose depletion causes invasive growth, a foraging response that requires a change in budding pattern from axial to unipolar-distal. To begin to address how glucose influences budding pattern in the haploid cell, we examined the roles of bud-site-selection proteins in invasive growth. We found that proteins required for bipolar budding in diploid cells were required for haploid invasive growth. In particular, the Bud8p protein, which marks and directs bud emergence to the distal pole of diploid cells, was localized to the distal pole of haploid cells. In response to glucose limitation, Bud8p was required for the localization of the incipient bud site marker Bud2p to the distal pole. Three of the four known proteins required for axial budding, Bud3p, Bud4p, and Axl2p, were expressed and localized appropriately in glucose-limiting conditions. However, a fourth axial budding determinant, Axl1p, was absent in filamentous cells, and its abundance was controlled by glucose availability and the protein kinase Snf1p. In the bud8 mutant in glucose-limiting conditions, apical growth and bud site selection were uncoupled processes. Finally, we report that diploid cells starved for glucose also initiate the filamentous growth response. PMID:12221111

  5. IQGAP and mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins are required for cytokinesis and re-polarization of the actin cytoskeleton in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Mark; Xiong, Yulan; Boyne, James R; Wright, Daniel J; Munro, Ewen; Price, Clive

    2006-11-01

    In budding yeast the final stages of the cell division cycle, cytokinesis and cell separation, are distinct events that require to be coupled, both together and with mitotic exit. Here we demonstrate that mutations in genes of the mitotic exit network (MEN) prevent cell separation and are synthetically lethal in combination with both cytokinesis and septation defective mutations. Analysis of the synthetic lethal phenotypes reveals that Iqg1p functions in combination with the MEN components, Tem1p, Cdc15p Dbf20p and Dbf2p to govern the re-polarization of the actin cytoskeleton to either side of the bud neck. In addition phosphorylation of the conserved PCH protein, Hof1p, is dependent upon these activities and requires actin ring assembly. Recruitment of Dbf2p to the bud neck is dependent upon actin ring assembly and correlates with Hof1p phosphorylation. Failure to phosphorylate Hof1p results in the increased stability of the protein and its persistence at the bud neck. These data establish a mechanistic dependency of cell separation upon an intermediate step requiring actomyosin ring assembly.

  6. Genetic analysis of the bipolar pattern of bud site selection in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, J E; Harkins, H A; Pringle, J R

    1996-01-01

    Previous analysis of the bipolar budding pattern of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has suggested that it depends on persistent positional signals that mark the region of the division site and the tip of the distal pole on a newborn daughter cell, as well as each previous division site on a mother cell. In an attempt to identify genes encoding components of these signals or proteins involved in positioning or responding to them, we identified 11 mutants with defects in bipolar but not in axial budding. Five mutants displaying a bipolar budding-specific randomization of budding pattern had mutations in four previously known genes (BUD2, BUD5, SPA2, and BNI1) and one novel gene (BUD6), respectively. As Bud2p and Bud5p are known to be required for both the axial and bipolar budding patterns, the alleles identified here probably encode proteins that have lost their ability to interact with the bipolar positional signals but have retained their ability to interact with the distinct positional signal used in axial budding. The function of Spa2p is not known, but previous work has shown that its intracellular localization is similar to that postulated for the bipolar positional signals. BNI1 was originally identified on the basis of genetic interaction with CDC12, which encodes one of the neck-filament-associated septin proteins, suggesting that these proteins may be involved in positioning the bipolar signals. One mutant with a heterogeneous budding pattern defines a second novel gene (BUD7). Two mutants budding almost exclusively from the proximal pole carry mutations in a fourth novel gene (BUD9). A bud8 bud9 double mutant also buds almost exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that Bud9p is involved in positioning the proximal pole signal rather than being itself a component of this signal. PMID:8657162

  7. Multifaceted effects of antimetabolite and anticancer drug, 2-deoxyglucose on eukaryotic cancer models budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Vishwanatha, Akshay; D'Souza, Cletus Joseph Michael

    2017-03-01

    Glycolytic inhibitors are of interest therapeutically as they are effective against cancers that display increased glycolytic rate and mitochondrial defects. 2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG) is one such glycolytic inhibitor and was identified to be a competitive inhibitor of glucose. Studies from past few decades have shown that the mechanism of action of 2-DG is complex involving several metabolic and signaling pathways. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are two important models for studying metabolism, cell cycle and cell signaling. These two unicellular eukaryotes are Crabtree positive yeasts exhibiting a metabolism similar to that of cancer cells. Effects of 2-DG in yeast is of interest owing to these similarities and hence yeasts have emerged as ideal model organisms to study the mode of action and resistance to 2-DG. In this review, we summarize the studies on biological effect and resistance to 2-DG in budding and fission yeasts and give an insight into its possible mechanism of action as models for understanding cancer metabolism and drugs affecting cancer progression. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(3):137-147, 2017.

  8. Genome-wide profiling of untranslated regions by paired-end ditag sequencing reveals unexpected transcriptome complexity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ya-Ni; Lai, Deng-Pan; Ooi, Hong Sain; Shen, Ting-Ting; Kou, Yao; Tian, Jing; Czajkowsky, Daniel M; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2015-02-01

    The identification of structural and functional elements encoded in a genome is a challenging task. Although the transcriptome of budding yeast has been extensively analyzed, the boundaries and untranslated regions of yeast genes remain elusive. To address this least-explored field of yeast genomics, we performed a transcript profiling analysis through paired-end ditag (PET) approach coupled with deep sequencing. With 562,133 PET sequences we accurately defined the boundaries and untranslated regions of 3,409 ORFs, suggesting many yeast genes have multiple transcription start sites (TSSs). We also identified 85 previously uncharacterized transcripts either in intergenic regions or from the opposite strand of reported genomic features. Furthermore, our data revealed the extensive 3' end heterogeneity of yeast genes and identified a novel putative motif for polyadenylation. Our results indicate the yeast transcriptome is more complex than expected. This study would serve as an invaluable resource for elucidating the regulation and evolution of yeast genes.

  9. The glyoxylate shunt is essential for desiccation tolerance in C. elegans and budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Cihan; Gade, Vamshidhar R; Laxman, Sunil; Kurzchalia, Teymuras V

    2016-01-01

    Many organisms, including species from all kingdoms of life, can survive desiccation by entering a state with no detectable metabolism. To survive, C. elegans dauer larvae and stationary phase S. cerevisiae require elevated amounts of the disaccharide trehalose. We found that dauer larvae and stationary phase yeast switched into a gluconeogenic mode in which metabolism was reoriented toward production of sugars from non-carbohydrate sources. This mode depended on full activity of the glyoxylate shunt (GS), which enables synthesis of trehalose from acetate. The GS was especially critical during preparation of worms for harsh desiccation (preconditioning) and during the entry of yeast into stationary phase. Loss of the GS dramatically decreased desiccation tolerance in both organisms. Our results reveal a novel physiological role for the GS and elucidate a conserved metabolic rewiring that confers desiccation tolerance on organisms as diverse as worm and yeast. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13614.001 PMID:27090086

  10. Biology of the Heat Shock Response and Protein Chaperones: Budding Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a Model System

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Jacob; Abrams, Jennifer; Wang, Yanyu

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The eukaryotic heat shock response is an ancient and highly conserved transcriptional program that results in the immediate synthesis of a battery of cytoprotective genes in the presence of thermal and other environmental stresses. Many of these genes encode molecular chaperones, powerful protein remodelers with the capacity to shield, fold, or unfold substrates in a context-dependent manner. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae continues to be an invaluable model for driving the discovery of regulatory features of this fundamental stress response. In addition, budding yeast has been an outstanding model system to elucidate the cell biology of protein chaperones and their organization into functional networks. In this review, we evaluate our understanding of the multifaceted response to heat shock. In addition, the chaperone complement of the cytosol is compared to those of mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, organelles with their own unique protein homeostasis milieus. Finally, we examine recent advances in the understanding of the roles of protein chaperones and the heat shock response in pathogenic fungi, which is being accelerated by the wealth of information gained for budding yeast. PMID:22688810

  11. Cyclin B-cdk activity stimulates meiotic rereplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Strich, Randy; Mallory, Michael J; Jarnik, Michal; Cooper, Katrina F

    2004-01-01

    Haploidization of gametes during meiosis requires a single round of premeiotic DNA replication (meiS) followed by two successive nuclear divisions. This study demonstrates that ectopic activation of cyclin B/cyclin-dependent kinase in budding yeast recruits up to 30% of meiotic cells to execute one to three additional rounds of meiS. Rereplication occurs prior to the meiotic nuclear divisions, indicating that this process is different from the postmeiotic mitoses observed in other fungi. The cells with overreplicated DNA produced asci containing up to 20 spores that were viable and haploid and demonstrated Mendelian marker segregation. Genetic tests indicated that these cells executed the meiosis I reductional division and possessed a spindle checkpoint. Finally, interfering with normal synaptonemal complex formation or recombination increased the efficiency of rereplication. These studies indicate that the block to rereplication is very different in meiotic and mitotic cells and suggest a negative role for the recombination machinery in allowing rereplication. Moreover, the production of haploids, regardless of the genome content, suggests that the cell counts replication cycles, not chromosomes, in determining the number of nuclear divisions to execute. PMID:15342503

  12. Genes involved in sister chromatid separation and segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Biggins, S; Bhalla, N; Chang, A; Smith, D L; Murray, A W

    2001-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires the precise coordination of events during the cell cycle. Replicated sister chromatids are held together while they are properly attached to and aligned by the mitotic spindle at metaphase. At anaphase, the links between sisters must be promptly dissolved to allow the mitotic spindle to rapidly separate them to opposite poles. To isolate genes involved in chromosome behavior during mitosis, we microscopically screened a temperature-sensitive collection of budding yeast mutants that contain a GFP-marked chromosome. Nine LOC (loss of cohesion) complementation groups that do not segregate sister chromatids at anaphase were identified. We cloned the corresponding genes and performed secondary tests to determine their function in chromosome behavior. We determined that three LOC genes, PDS1, ESP1, and YCS4, are required for sister chromatid separation and three other LOC genes, CSE4, IPL1, and SMT3, are required for chromosome segregation. We isolated alleles of two genes involved in splicing, PRP16 and PRP19, which impair alpha-tubulin synthesis thus preventing spindle assembly, as well as an allele of CDC7 that is defective in DNA replication. We also report an initial characterization of phenotypes associated with the SMT3/SUMO gene and the isolation of WSS1, a high-copy smt3 suppressor. PMID:11606525

  13. Sequestration of mRNAs Modulates the Timing of Translation during Meiosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Yifeng; Sternglanz, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Starvation of diploid cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces them to enter meiosis and differentiate into haploid spores. During meiosis, the precise timing of gene expression is controlled at the level of transcription, and also translation. If cells are returned to rich medium after they have committed to meiosis, the transcript levels of most meiotically upregulated genes decrease rapidly. However, for a subset of transcripts whose translation is delayed until the end of meiosis II, termed protected transcripts, the transcript levels remain stable even after nutrients are reintroduced. The Ime2-Rim4 regulatory circuit controls both the delayed translation and the stability of protected transcripts. These protected mRNAs localize in discrete foci, which are not seen for transcripts of genes with different translational timing and are regulated by Ime2. These results suggest that Ime2 and Rim4 broadly regulate translational delay but that additional factors, such as mRNA localization, modulate this delay to tune the timing of gene expression to developmental transitions during sporulation. PMID:26217015

  14. Nur1 Dephosphorylation Confers Positive Feedback to Mitotic Exit Phosphatase Activation in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Molly; Kuilman, Thomas; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Substrate dephosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-opposing phosphatase, Cdc14, is vital for many events during budding yeast mitotic exit. Cdc14 is sequestered in the nucleolus through inhibitory binding to Net1, from which it is released in anaphase following Net1 phosphorylation. Initial Net1 phosphorylation depends on Cdk itself, in conjunction with proteins of the Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) network. Later on, the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) signaling cascade maintains Cdc14 release. An important unresolved question is how Cdc14 activity can increase in early anaphase, while Cdk activity, that is required for Net1 phosphorylation, decreases and the MEN is not yet active. Here we show that the nuclear rim protein Nur1 interacts with Net1 and, in its Cdk phosphorylated form, inhibits Cdc14 release. Nur1 is dephosphorylated by Cdc14 in early anaphase, relieving the inhibition and promoting further Cdc14 release. Nur1 dephosphorylation thus describes a positive feedback loop in Cdc14 phosphatase activation during mitotic exit, required for faithful chromosome segregation and completion of the cell division cycle. PMID:25569132

  15. Coordinate responses to alkaline pH stress in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Cardona, Albert; Canadell, David; Ariño, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Alkalinization of the medium represents a stress condition for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to which this organism responds with profound remodeling of gene expression. This is the result of the modulation of a substantial number of signaling pathways whose participation in the alkaline response has been elucidated within the last ten years. These regulatory inputs involve not only the conserved Rim101/PacC pathway, but also the calcium-activated phosphatase calcineurin, the Wsc1-Pkc1-Slt2 MAP kinase, the Snf1 and PKA kinases and oxidative stress-response pathways. The uptake of many nutrients is perturbed by alkalinization of the environment and, consequently, an impact on phosphate, iron/copper and glucose homeostatic mechanisms can also be observed. The analysis of available data highlights cases in which diverse signaling pathways are integrated in the gene promoter to shape the appropriate response pattern. Thus, the expression of different genes sharing the same signaling network can be coordinated, allowing functional coupling of their gene products. PMID:28357292

  16. Local chromosome context is a major determinant of crossover pathway biochemistry during budding yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Darpan; Goldman, Alastair SH; Lichten, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers. At a Hop1-enriched locus, most VDE-initiated crossovers, like most Spo11-initiated crossovers, required the meiosis-specific MutLγ resolvase. In contrast, at a locus with lower Hop1 occupancy, most VDE-initiated crossovers were MutLγ-independent. In pch2 mutants, the two loci displayed similar Hop1 occupancy levels, and VDE-induced crossovers were similarly MutLγ-dependent. We suggest that meiotic and mitotic recombination pathways coexist within meiotic cells, and that features of meiotic chromosome structure determine whether one or the other predominates in different regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19669.001 PMID:27855779

  17. Lipid droplets maintain lipid homeostasis during anaphase for efficient cell separation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Lin; Hsu, Tzu-Han; Wang, Chao-Wen; Chen, Rey-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutral lipids steryl ester and triacylglycerol (TAG) are stored in the membrane-bound organelle lipid droplet (LD) in essentially all eukaryotic cells. It is unclear what physiological conditions require the mobilization or storage of these lipids. Here, we study the budding yeast mutant are1Δ are2Δ dga1Δ lro1Δ, which cannot synthesize the neutral lipids and therefore lacks LDs. This quadruple mutant is delayed at cell separation upon release from mitotic arrest. The cells have abnormal septa, unstable septin assembly during cytokinesis, and prolonged exocytosis at the division site at the end of cytokinesis. Lipidomic analysis shows a marked increase of diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid, the precursors for TAG, in the mutant during mitotic exit. The cytokinesis and separation defects are rescued by adding phospholipid precursors or inhibiting fatty acid synthesis, which both reduce DAG levels. Our results suggest that converting excess lipids to neutral lipids for storage during mitotic exit is important for proper execution of cytokinesis and efficient cell separation. PMID:27307588

  18. Sequestration of mRNAs Modulates the Timing of Translation during Meiosis in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Yifeng; Sternglanz, Rolf; Neiman, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Starvation of diploid cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces them to enter meiosis and differentiate into haploid spores. During meiosis, the precise timing of gene expression is controlled at the level of transcription, and also translation. If cells are returned to rich medium after they have committed to meiosis, the transcript levels of most meiotically upregulated genes decrease rapidly. However, for a subset of transcripts whose translation is delayed until the end of meiosis II, termed protected transcripts, the transcript levels remain stable even after nutrients are reintroduced. The Ime2-Rim4 regulatory circuit controls both the delayed translation and the stability of protected transcripts. These protected mRNAs localize in discrete foci, which are not seen for transcripts of genes with different translational timing and are regulated by Ime2. These results suggest that Ime2 and Rim4 broadly regulate translational delay but that additional factors, such as mRNA localization, modulate this delay to tune the timing of gene expression to developmental transitions during sporulation.

  19. Re-establishment of nucleosome occupancy during double-strand break repair in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Hicks, Wade M; Tsaponina, Olga; Haber, James E

    2016-11-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway in eukaryotes that repairs a double-strand break (DSB) by copying homologous sequences from a sister chromatid, a homologous chromosome or an ectopic location. Recombination is challenged by the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes, which may impair the process at many steps, from resection of the DSB ends to the re-establishement of nucleosomes after repair. However, nucleosome dynamics during DSB repair have not been well described, primarily because of a lack of well-ordered nucleosomes around a DSB. We designed a system in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monitor nucleosome dynamics during repair of an HO endonuclease-induced DSB. Nucleosome occupancy around the break is lost following DSB formation, by 5'-3' resection of the DSB end. Soon after repair is complete, nucleosome occupancy is partially restored in a repair-dependent but cell cycle-independent manner. Full re-establishment of nucleosome protection back to the level prior to DSB induction is achieved when the cell cycle resumes following repair. These findings may have implications to the mechanisms by which cells sense the completion of repair.

  20. Mad2 and Mad3 Cooperate to Arrest Budding Yeast in Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Derek T. C.; Murray, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The spindle checkpoint ensures accurate chromosome transmission by delaying chromosome segregation until all chromosomes are correctly aligned on the mitotic spindle. The checkpoint is activated by kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules or are attached but not under tension and arrests cells at metaphase by inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and its co-activator Cdc20. Despite numerous studies, we still do not understand how the checkpoint proteins coordinate with each other to inhibit APCCdc20 activity. Results To ask how the checkpoint components induce metaphase arrest, we constructed fusions of checkpoint proteins and expressed them in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to mimic possible protein interactions during checkpoint activation. We found that expression of a Mad2-Mad3 protein fusion or non-covalently linked Mad2 and Mad3, but not the overexpression of the two separate proteins, induces metaphase arrest that is independent of functional kinetochores or other checkpoint proteins. We further showed that artificially tethering Mad2 to Cdc20 also arrests cells in metaphase independently of other checkpoint components. Conclusion Our results suggest that Mad3 is required for the stable binding of Mad2 to Cdc20 in vivo, which is sufficient to inhibit APC activity and is the most downstream event in spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:22209528

  1. Polygenic molecular architecture underlying non-sexual cell aggregation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiarui; Wang, Lin; Wu, Xiaoping; Fang, Ou; Wang, Luwen; Lu, Chenqi; Yang, Shengjie; Hu, Xiaohua; Luo, Zewei

    2013-02-01

    Cell aggregation in unicellular organisms, induced by either cell non-sexual adhesion to yield flocs and biofilm, or pheromone-driving sexual conjugation is of great significance in cellular stress response, medicine, and brewing industries. Most current literatures have focused on one form of cell aggregation termed flocculation and its major molecular determinants, the flocculation (FLO) family genes. Here, we implemented a map-based approach for dissecting the molecular basis of non-sexual cell aggregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genome-wide mapping has identified four major quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying nature variation in the cell aggregation phenotype. High-resolution mapping following up with knockout and allele replacement experiments resolved the QTL into the underlying genes (AMN1, RGA1, FLO1, and FLO8) or even into the causative nucleotide. Genetic variation in the QTL genes can explain up to 46% of phenotypic variation of this trait. Of these genes, AMN1 plays the leading role, differing from the FLO family members, in regulating expression of cell clumping phenotype through inducing cell segregation defect. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism of how cell aggregation is regulated in budding yeast, and the data will be directly implicated to understand the molecular basis and evolutionary implications of cell aggregation in other fungus species.

  2. Cse4 is Part of an Octameric Nucleosome in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Camahort, Raymond; Shivaraju, Manjunatha; Mattingly, Mark; Li, Bing; Nakanishi, Shima; Zhu, Dongxiao; Shilatifard, Ali; Workman, Jerry L.; Gerton, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The budding yeast CenH3 histone variant Cse4 localizes to centromeric nucleosomes and is required for kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation. The exact composition of centromeric Cse4–containing nucleosomes is a subject of debate. ChIP-chip experiments and high resolution quantitative PCR confirm that there is a single Cse4 nucleosome at each centromere, and additional regions of the genome contain Cse4 nucleosomes at low levels. Using unbiased biochemical, cell biological, and genetic approaches we have tested the composition of Cse4-containing nucleosomes. Using micrococcal nuclease-treated chromatin, we find that Cse4 is associated with the histones H2A, H2B, and H4, but not H3 or the non-histone protein Scm3. Overexpression of Cse4 rescues the lethality of a scm3 deletion, indicating Scm3 is not essential for the formation of functional centromeric chromatin. Additionally, octameric Cse4 nucleosomes can be reconstituted in vitro. The Cse4-Cse4 interaction domain appears to be essential and interaction occurs in vivo in the centromeric nucleosome. Taken together, our experimental evidence supports the model that the Cse4-nucleosome is an octamer, containing two copies each of Cse4, H2A, H2B, and H4. PMID:19782029

  3. Intrinsic and cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent control of spindle pole body duplication in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Simmons Kovacs, Laura A; Nelson, Christine L; Haase, Steven B

    2008-08-01

    Centrosome duplication must be tightly controlled so that duplication occurs only once each cell cycle. Accumulation of multiple centrosomes can result in the assembly of a multipolar spindle and lead to chromosome mis-segregation and genomic instability. In metazoans, a centrosome-intrinsic mechanism prevents reduplication until centriole disengagement. Mitotic cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) prevent reduplication of the budding yeast centrosome, called a spindle pole body (SPB), in late S-phase and G2/M, but the mechanism remains unclear. How SPB reduplication is prevented early in the cell cycle is also not understood. Here we show that, similar to metazoans, an SPB-intrinsic mechanism prevents reduplication early in the cell cycle. We also show that mitotic cyclins can inhibit SPB duplication when expressed before satellite assembly in early G1, but not later in G1, after the satellite had assembled. Moreover, electron microscopy revealed that SPBs do not assemble a satellite in cells expressing Clb2 in early G1. Finally, we demonstrate that Clb2 must localize to the cytoplasm in order to inhibit SPB duplication, suggesting the possibility for direct CDK inhibition of satellite components. These two mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic control by CDK, evoke two-step system that prevents SPB reduplication throughout the cell cycle.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals posttranslational responses to aneuploidy in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Dephoure, Noah; Hwang, Sunyoung; O'Sullivan, Ciara; Dodgson, Stacie E; Gygi, Steven P; Amon, Angelika; Torres, Eduardo M

    2014-01-01

    Aneuploidy causes severe developmental defects and is a near universal feature of tumor cells. Despite its profound effects, the cellular processes affected by aneuploidy are not well characterized. Here, we examined the consequences of aneuploidy on the proteome of aneuploid budding yeast strains. We show that although protein levels largely scale with gene copy number, subunits of multi-protein complexes are notable exceptions. Posttranslational mechanisms attenuate their expression when their encoding genes are in excess. Our proteomic analyses further revealed a novel aneuploidy-associated protein expression signature characteristic of altered metabolism and redox homeostasis. Indeed aneuploid cells harbor increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, increased protein turnover attenuates ROS levels and this novel aneuploidy-associated signature and improves the fitness of most aneuploid strains. Our results show that aneuploidy causes alterations in metabolism and redox homeostasis. Cells respond to these alterations through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03023.001 PMID:25073701

  5. Reliable cell cycle commitment in budding yeast is ensured by signal integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chao

    2014-03-01

    Cells have to make reliable decisions in response to external and/or internal signals that can be noisy and varying. For budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells decide whether and when to commit to cell division at the Start checkpoint. The decision is irreversible and has the physiological significance for coordinating cell growth with cell division. The trigger of the Start, the G1 cyclin Cln3 is a dynamic sensor of the nutrient and cellular conditions with low copy number and rapid turnover time. Here we quantitatively investigate how cells process the information from Cln3 to make the Start decision. By using an inducible Cln3 and monitoring the time cell waits before Start transition (G1 length), we find that G1 length is inversely proportional to Cln3 concentration, which implies that Start is triggered when the integration of Cln3 concentration over time exceeds certain threshold. We identify the Start repressor, Whi5 as the integrator. The instantaneous kinase activity of Cln3-Cdk1 is recorded over time on the phosphorylated Whi5, and the decision is made only when the phosphorylation level of Whi5 reaches a threshold. Furthermore, we find that Whi5 plays an important role for coordinating growth and division - cells modulate Whi5 level in different nutrient conditions to adjust the Start threshold. The strategy of signal integration, which reduces noise and minimizes error and uncertainty, has been found in decision-making behaviors of animals. Our work shows that it is adopted at the cellular level, suggesting a general design principle that may be widely implemented in decision-making and signaling systems.

  6. B-Cyclin/CDKs Regulate Mitotic Spindle Assembly by Phosphorylating Kinesins-5 in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Mark K.; Haase, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Although it has been known for many years that B-cyclin/CDK complexes regulate the assembly of the mitotic spindle and entry into mitosis, the full complement of relevant CDK targets has not been identified. It has previously been shown in a variety of model systems that B-type cyclin/CDK complexes, kinesin-5 motors, and the SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase are required for the separation of spindle poles and assembly of a bipolar spindle. It has been suggested that, in budding yeast, B-type cyclin/CDK (Clb/Cdc28) complexes promote spindle pole separation by inhibiting the degradation of the kinesins-5 Kip1 and Cin8 by the anaphase-promoting complex (APCCdh1). We have determined, however, that the Kip1 and Cin8 proteins are present at wild-type levels in the absence of Clb/Cdc28 kinase activity. Here, we show that Kip1 and Cin8 are in vitro targets of Clb2/Cdc28 and that the mutation of conserved CDK phosphorylation sites on Kip1 inhibits spindle pole separation without affecting the protein's in vivo localization or abundance. Mass spectrometry analysis confirms that two CDK sites in the tail domain of Kip1 are phosphorylated in vivo. In addition, we have determined that Sic1, a Clb/Cdc28-specific inhibitor, is the SCFCdc4 target that inhibits spindle pole separation in cells lacking functional Cdc4. Based on these findings, we propose that Clb/Cdc28 drives spindle pole separation by direct phosphorylation of kinesin-5 motors. PMID:20463882

  7. Far3 and Five Interacting Proteins Prevent Premature Recovery from Pheromone Arrest in the Budding Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Hilary A.; Sprague, Jr., George F.

    2003-01-01

    In budding yeast, diffusible mating pheromones initiate a signaling pathway that culminates in several responses, including cell cycle arrest. Only a handful of genes required for the interface between pheromone response and the cell cycle have been identified, among them FAR1 and FAR3; of these, only FAR1 has been extensively characterized. In an effort to learn about the mechanism by which Far3 acts, we used the two-hybrid method to identify interacting proteins. We identified five previously uncharacterized open reading frames, dubbed FAR7, FAR8, FAR9, FAR10, and FAR11, that cause a far3-like pheromone arrest defect when disrupted. Using two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analysis, we found that all six Far proteins interact with each other. Moreover, velocity sedimentation experiments suggest that Far3 and Far7 to Far11 form a complex. The phenotype of a sextuple far3far7-far11 mutant is no more severe than any single mutant. Thus, FAR3 and FAR7 to FAR11 all participate in the same pathway leading to G1 arrest. These mutants initially arrest in response to pheromone but resume budding after 10 h. Under these conditions, wild-type cells fail to resume budding even after several days whereas far1 mutant cells resume budding within 1 h. We conclude that the FAR3-dependent arrest pathway is functionally distinct from that which employs FAR1. PMID:12588993

  8. Bub1, Sgo1, and Mps1 mediate a distinct pathway for chromosome biorientation in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Storchová, Zuzana; Becker, Justin S.; Talarek, Nicolas; Kögelsberger, Sandra; Pellman, David

    2011-01-01

    The conserved mitotic kinase Bub1 performs multiple functions that are only partially characterized. Besides its role in the spindle assembly checkpoint and chromosome alignment, Bub1 is crucial for the kinetochore recruitment of multiple proteins, among them Sgo1. Both Bub1 and Sgo1 are dispensable for growth of haploid and diploid budding yeast, but they become essential in cells with higher ploidy. We find that overexpression of SGO1 partially corrects the chromosome segregation defect of bub1Δ haploid cells and restores viability to bub1Δ tetraploid cells. Using an unbiased high-copy suppressor screen, we identified two members of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), BIR1 (survivin) and SLI15 (INCENP, inner centromere protein), as suppressors of the growth defect of both bub1Δ and sgo1Δ tetraploids, suggesting that these mutants die due to defects in chromosome biorientation. Overexpression of BIR1 or SLI15 also complements the benomyl sensitivity of haploid bub1Δ and sgo1Δ cells. Mutants lacking SGO1 fail to biorient sister chromatids attached to the same spindle pole (syntelic attachment) after nocodazole treatment. Moreover, the sgo1Δ cells accumulate syntelic attachments in unperturbed mitoses, a defect that is partially corrected by BIR1 or SLI15 overexpression. We show that in budding yeast neither Bub1 nor Sgo1 is required for CPC localization or affects Aurora B activity. Instead we identify Sgo1 as a possible partner of Mps1, a mitotic kinase suggested to have an Aurora B–independent function in establishment of biorientation. We found that Sgo1 overexpression rescues defects caused by metaphase inactivation of Mps1 and that Mps1 is required for Sgo1 localization to the kinetochore. We propose that Bub1, Sgo1, and Mps1 facilitate chromosome biorientation independently of the Aurora B–mediated pathway at the budding yeast kinetochore and that both pathways are required for the efficient turnover of syntelic attachments. PMID:21389114

  9. Role of endocytosis in localization and maintenance of the spatial markers for bud-site selection in yeast.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Shanshan; Nakashima, Kenichi; Pringle, John R

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally selects bud sites (and hence axes of cell polarization) in one of two distinct patterns, the axial pattern of haploid cells and the bipolar pattern of diploid cells. These patterns depend on distinct sets of cortical-marker proteins that transmit positional information through a common signaling pathway based on a Ras-type GTPase. It has been reported previously that various proteins of the endocytic pathway may be involved in determining the bipolar pattern but not the axial pattern. To explore this question systematically, we constructed and analyzed congenic haploid and diploid deletion mutants for 14 genes encoding proteins that are involved in endocytosis. The mutants displayed a wide range of severities in their overall endocytosis defects, as judged by their growth rates and abilities to take up the lipophilic dye FM 4-64. Consistent with the previous reports, none of the mutants displayed a significant defect in axial budding, but they displayed defects in bipolar budding that were roughly correlated with the severities of their overall endocytosis defects. Both the details of the mutant budding patterns and direct examination of GFP-tagged marker proteins suggested that both initial formation and maintenance of the normally persistent bipolar marks depend on endocytosis, as well as polarized exocytosis, in actively growing cells. Interestingly, maintenance of the bipolar marks in non-growing cells did not appear to require normal levels of endocytosis. In some cases, there was a striking lack of correlation between the overall severities of the general-endocytosis defect and the bud-site selection defect, suggesting that various endocytosis proteins may differ in their importance for the uptake of various plasma-membrane targets.

  10. Budding Yeast Rif1 Controls Genome Integrity by Inhibiting rDNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Benjamin; Hafner, Lukas; Lezaja, Aleksandra; Costanzo, Michael; Boone, Charlie; Shore, David

    2016-01-01

    The Rif1 protein is a negative regulator of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes. Here we show that budding yeast Rif1 inhibits DNA replication initiation at the rDNA locus. Absence of Rif1, or disruption of its interaction with PP1/Glc7 phosphatase, leads to more intensive rDNA replication. The effect of Rif1-Glc7 on rDNA replication is similar to that of the Sir2 deacetylase, and the two would appear to act in the same pathway, since the rif1Δ sir2Δ double mutant shows no further increase in rDNA replication. Loss of Rif1-Glc7 activity is also accompanied by an increase in rDNA repeat instability that again is not additive with the effect of sir2Δ. We find, in addition, that the viability of rif1Δ cells is severely compromised in combination with disruption of the MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 complexes, both of which are implicated in stabilization of stalled replication forks. Significantly, we show that removal of the rDNA replication fork barrier (RFB) protein Fob1, alleviation of replisome pausing by deletion of the Tof1/Csm3 complex, or a large deletion of the rDNA repeat array all rescue this synthetic growth defect of rif1Δ cells lacking in addition either MRX or Ctf4-Mms22 activity. These data suggest that the repression of origin activation by Rif1-Glc7 is important to avoid the deleterious accumulation of stalled replication forks at the rDNA RFB, which become lethal when fork stability is compromised. Finally, we show that Rif1-Glc7, unlike Sir2, has an important effect on origin firing outside of the rDNA locus that serves to prevent activation of the DNA replication checkpoint. Our results thus provide insights into a mechanism of replication control within a large repetitive chromosomal domain and its importance for the maintenance of genome stability. These findings may have important implications for metazoans, where large blocks of repetitive sequences are much more common. PMID:27820830

  11. Model-guided optogenetic study of PKA signaling in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Chen, Susan; Bhatnagar, Rajat; Weissman, Jonathan S.; El-Samad, Hana

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotes, protein kinase A (PKA) is a master regulator of cell proliferation and survival. The activity of PKA is subject to elaborate control and exhibits complex time dynamics. To probe the quantitative attributes of PKA dynamics in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we developed an optogenetic strategy that uses a photoactivatable adenylate cyclase to achieve real-time regulation of cAMP and the PKA pathway. We capitalize on the precise and rapid control afforded by this optogenetic tool, together with quantitative computational modeling, to study the properties of feedback in the PKA signaling network and dissect the nonintuitive dynamic effects that ensue from perturbing its components. Our analyses reveal that negative feedback channeled through the Ras1/2 GTPase is delayed, pinpointing its time scale and its contribution to the dynamic features of the cAMP/PKA signaling network. PMID:28035051

  12. The long-lasting love affair between the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Lista, María José; Voisset, Cécile; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Daskalogianni, Chrysoula; Bihel, Frédéric; Fåhraeus, Robin; Blondel, Marc

    2015-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr gammaherpesvirus (EBV) is the first oncogenic virus discovered in human. Indeed, EBV has been known for more than 50 years to be tightly associated with certain human cancers. As such, EBV has been the subject of extensive studies aiming at deciphering various aspects of its biological cycle, ranging from the regulation of its genome replication and maintenance to the induction of its lytic cycle, including the mechanisms that allow its immune evasion or that are related to its tumorogenicity. For more than 30 years the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has fruitfully contributed to a number of these studies. The aim of this article is to review the various aspects of EBV biology for which yeast has been instrumental, and to propose new possible applications for these yeast-based assays, as well as the creation of further yeast models dedicated to EBV. This review article illustrates the tremendous potential of S. cerevisiae in integrated chemobiological approaches for the biomedical research.

  13. Conservation and rewiring of functional modules revealed by an epistasis map in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Roguev, Assen; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Zofall, Martin; Zhang, Ke; Fischer, Tamas; Collins, Sean R; Qu, Hongjing; Shales, Michael; Park, Han-Oh; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ideker, Trey; Grewal, Shiv I; Weissman, Jonathan S; Krogan, Nevan J

    2008-10-17

    An epistasis map (E-MAP) was constructed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by systematically measuring the phenotypes associated with pairs of mutations. This high-density, quantitative genetic interaction map focused on various aspects of chromosome function, including transcription regulation and DNA repair/replication. The E-MAP uncovered a previously unidentified component of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery (rsh1) and linked the RNAi pathway to several other biological processes. Comparison of the S. pombe E-MAP to an analogous genetic map from the budding yeast revealed that, whereas negative interactions were conserved between genes involved in similar biological processes, positive interactions and overall genetic profiles between pairs of genes coding for physically associated proteins were even more conserved. Hence, conservation occurs at the level of the functional module (protein complex), but the genetic cross talk between modules can differ substantially.

  14. The budding yeast orthologue of Parkinson's disease-associated DJ-1 is a multi-stress response protein protecting cells against toxic glycolytic products.

    PubMed

    Natkańska, Urszula; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Sieńko, Marzena; Skoneczny, Marek

    2016-10-27

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp31p is a DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI family protein that was previously shown to be important for survival in the stationary phase of growth and under oxidative stress. Recently, it was identified as a chaperone or as glutathione-independent glyoxalase. To elucidate the role played by this protein in budding yeast cells, we investigated its involvement in the protection against diverse environmental stresses. Our study revealed that HSP31 gene expression is controlled by multiple transcription factors, including Yap1p, Cad1p, Msn2p, Msn4p, Haa1p and Hsf1p. These transcription factors mediate the HSP31 promoter responses to oxidative, osmotic and thermal stresses, to potentially toxic products of glycolysis, such as methylglyoxal and acetic acid, and to the diauxic shift. We also demonstrated that the absence of the HSP31 gene sensitizes cells to these stressors. Overproduction of Hsp31p and its homologue Hsp32p rescued the sensitivity of glo1Δ cells to methylglyoxal. Hsp31p also reversed the increased sensitivity of the ald6Δ strain to acetic acid. Since Hsp31p glyoxalase III coexists in S. cerevisiae cells with thousand-fold more potent glyoxalase I/II system, its biological purpose requires substantiation. We postulate that S. cerevisiae Hsp31p may have broader substrate specificity than previously proposed and is able to eliminate various toxic products of glycolysis. Alternatively, Hsp31p might be effective under high concentration of exogenous methylglyoxal present in some natural environmental niches populated by budding yeast, when glyoxalase I/II system capacity is saturated.

  15. Long-range compaction and flexibility of interphase chromatin in budding yeast analyzed by high-resolution imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Kerstin; Heun, Patrick; Gehlen, Lutz; Langowski, Jörg; Gasser, Susan M.

    2004-11-01

    Little is known about how chromatin folds in its native state. Using optimized in situ hybridization and live imaging techniques have determined compaction ratios and fiber flexibility for interphase chromatin in budding yeast. Unlike previous studies, ours examines nonrepetitive chromatin at intervals short enough to be meaningful for yeast chromosomes and functional domains in higher eukaryotes. We reconcile high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization data from intervals of 14-100 kb along single chromatids with measurements of whole chromosome arms (122-623 kb in length), monitored in intact cells through the targeted binding of bacterial repressors fused to GFP derivatives. The results are interpreted with a flexible polymer model and suggest that interphase chromatin exists in a compact higher-order conformation with a persistence length of 170-220 nm and a mass density of 110-150 bp/nm. These values are equivalent to 7-10 nucleosomes per 11-nm turn within a 30-nm-like fiber structure. Comparison of long and short chromatid arm measurements demonstrates that chromatin fiber extension is also influenced by nuclear geometry. The observation of this surprisingly compact chromatin structure for transcriptionally competent chromatin in living yeast cells suggests that the passage of RNA polymerase II requires a very transient unfolding of higher-order chromatin structure. higher-order structure | 30-nm fiber | nucleosomes

  16. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1

    PubMed Central

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1–3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4–9 did not influence the cell cycle–regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4–9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1. PMID:27226481

  17. Dual control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the budding yeast APC/C ubiquitin ligase activator Cdh1.

    PubMed

    Höckner, Sebastian; Neumann-Arnold, Lea; Seufert, Wolfgang

    2016-07-15

    The antagonism between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1 is central to eukaryotic cell cycle control. APC/C-Cdh1 targets cyclin B and other regulatory proteins for degradation, whereas Cdks disable APC/C-Cdh1 through phosphorylation of the Cdh1 activator protein at multiple sites. Budding yeast Cdh1 carries nine Cdk phosphorylation sites in its N-terminal regulatory domain, most or all of which contribute to inhibition. However, the precise role of individual sites has remained unclear. Here, we report that the Cdk phosphorylation sites of yeast Cdh1 are organized into autonomous subgroups and act through separate mechanisms. Cdk sites 1-3 had no direct effect on the APC/C binding of Cdh1 but inactivated a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and thereby controlled the partitioning of Cdh1 between cytoplasm and nucleus. In contrast, Cdk sites 4-9 did not influence the cell cycle-regulated localization of Cdh1 but prevented its binding to the APC/C. Cdk sites 4-9 reside near two recently identified APC/C interaction motifs in a pattern conserved with the human Cdh1 orthologue. Thus a Cdk-inhibited NLS goes along with Cdk-inhibited APC/C binding sites in yeast Cdh1 to relay the negative control by Cdk1 phosphorylation of the ubiquitin ligase APC/C-Cdh1.

  18. Interactions between the bud emergence proteins Bem1p and Bem2p and Rho- type GTPases in yeast

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The SH3 domain-containing protein Bem1p is needed for normal bud emergence and mating projection formation, two processes that require asymmetric reorganizations of the cortical cytoskeleton in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify proteins that functionally and/or physically interact with Bem1p, we screened for mutations that display synthetic lethality with a mutant allele of the BEM1 gene and for genes whose products display two-hybrid interactions with the Bem1 protein. CDC24, which is required for bud emergence and encodes a GEF (guanine- nucleotide exchange factor) for the essential Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p, was identified during both screens. The COOH-terminal 75 amino acids of Cdc24p, outside of the GEF domain, can interact with a portion of Bem1p that lacks both SH3 domains. Bacterially expressed Cdc24p and Bem1p bind to each other in vitro, indicating that no other yeast proteins are required for this interaction. The most frequently identified gene that arose from the bem1 synthetic-lethal screen was the bud-emergence gene BEM2 (Bender and Pringle. 1991. Mol. Cell Biol. 11:1295-1395), which is allelic with IPL2 (increase in ploidy; Chan and Botstein, 1993. Genetics. 135:677-691). Here we show that Bem2p contains a GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain for Rho-type GTPases, and that this portion of Bem2p can stimulate in vitro the GTPase activity of Rho1p, a second essential yeast Rho-type GTPase. Cells deleted for BEM2 become large and multinucleate. These and other genetic, two-hybrid, biochemical, and phenotypic data suggest that multiple Rho-type GTPases control the reorganization of the cortical cytoskeleton in yeast and that the functions of these GTPases are tightly coupled. Also, these findings raise the possibility that Bem1p may regulate or be a target of action of one or more of these GTPases. PMID:7962098

  19. Shaping meiotic chromosomes with SUMO: a feedback loop controls the assembly of the synaptonemal complex in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tsubouchi, Hideo; Argunhan, Bilge; Tsubouchi, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a meiosis-specific chromosomal structure in which homologous chromosomes are intimately linked through arrays of specialized proteins called transverse filaments (TF). Widely conserved in eukaryote meiosis, the SC forms during prophase I and is essential for accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at meiosis I. However, the basic mechanism overlooking formation and regulation of the SC has been poorly understood. By using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we recently showed that SC formation is controlled through the attachment of multiple molecules of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to a regulator of TF assembly. Intriguingly, this SUMOylation is activated by TF, implicating the involvement of a positive feedback loop in the control of SC assembly. We discuss the implication of this finding and possible involvement of a similar mechanism in regulating other processes.

  20. Attachment of the yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is mediated by adhesives localized at sites of bud cell development.

    PubMed

    Buck, J W; Andrews, J H

    1999-02-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides (anamorph, Rhodotorula glutinis) is a common phylloplane epiphyte with biocontrol potential. To understand how R. toruloides adheres to plant surfaces, we obtained nonadherent fungal mutants after chemical mutagenesis with methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester. Sixteen attachment-minus (Att-) mutants were identified by three methods: (i) screening capsule-minus colonies for loss of adhesive ability; (ii) enrichment for mutants unable to attach to polystyrene; and (iii) selection for reduced fluorescence of fluorescein isothiocyanate-concanavalin A (Con A)-stained cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. None of the 16 mutants attached to polystyrene or barley leaves. The lectin Con A eliminated adhesion in all of the wild-type isolates tested. Hapten competition assays indicated that Con A bound to mannose residues on the cell surface. Adhesion of wild-type R. toruloides was transient; nonadhesive cells subsequently became adhesive, with bud development. All Att- mutants and nonattaching wild-type cells lacked polar regions that stained intensely with fluorescein isothiocyanate-Con A and India ink. Lectin, enzyme, and chemical treatments showed that the polar regions consisted of alkali-soluble materials, including mannose residues. Tunicamycin treatment reduced wild-type adhesion, indicating that the mannose residues could be associated with glycoproteins. We concluded that compounds, including mannose residues, that are localized at sites of bud development mediate adhesion of R. toruloides to both polystyrene and barley leaf surfaces.

  1. Coupling spindle position with mitotic exit in budding yeast: The multifaceted role of the small GTPase Tem1.

    PubMed

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-10-02

    The budding yeast S. cerevisiae divides asymmetrically and is an excellent model system for asymmetric cell division. As for other asymmetrically dividing cells, proper spindle positioning along the mother-daughter polarity axis is crucial for balanced chromosome segregation. Thus, a surveillance mechanism named Spindle Position Checkpoint (SPOC) inhibits mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the mitotic spindle is properly oriented, thereby preventing the generation of cells with aberrant ploidies. The small GTPase Tem1 is required to trigger a Hippo-like protein kinase cascade, named Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), that is essential for mitotic exit and cytokinesis but also contributes to correct spindle alignment in metaphase. Importantly, Tem1 is the target of the SPOC, which relies on the activity of the GTPase-activating complex (GAP) Bub2-Bfa1 to keep Tem1 in the GDP-bound inactive form. Tem1 forms a hetero-trimeric complex with Bub2-Bfa1 at spindle poles (SPBs) that accumulates asymmetrically on the bud-directed spindle pole during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. We have recently shown that Tem1 residence at SPBs depends on its nucleotide state and, importantly, asymmetry of the Bub2-Bfa1-Tem1 complex does not promote mitotic exit but rather controls spindle positioning.

  2. Coupling spindle position with mitotic exit in budding yeast: The multifaceted role of the small GTPase Tem1

    PubMed Central

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The budding yeast S. cerevisiae divides asymmetrically and is an excellent model system for asymmetric cell division. As for other asymmetrically dividing cells, proper spindle positioning along the mother-daughter polarity axis is crucial for balanced chromosome segregation. Thus, a surveillance mechanism named Spindle Position Checkpoint (SPOC) inhibits mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the mitotic spindle is properly oriented, thereby preventing the generation of cells with aberrant ploidies. The small GTPase Tem1 is required to trigger a Hippo-like protein kinase cascade, named Mitotic Exit Network (MEN), that is essential for mitotic exit and cytokinesis but also contributes to correct spindle alignment in metaphase. Importantly, Tem1 is the target of the SPOC, which relies on the activity of the GTPase-activating complex (GAP) Bub2-Bfa1 to keep Tem1 in the GDP-bound inactive form. Tem1 forms a hetero-trimeric complex with Bub2-Bfa1 at spindle poles (SPBs) that accumulates asymmetrically on the bud-directed spindle pole during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. We have recently shown that Tem1 residence at SPBs depends on its nucleotide state and, importantly, asymmetry of the Bub2-Bfa1-Tem1 complex does not promote mitotic exit but rather controls spindle positioning. PMID:26507466

  3. Nanomechanics of Yeast Surfaces Revealed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dague, Etienne; Beaussart, Audrey; Alsteens, David

    Despite the large and well-documented characterization of the microbial cell wall in terms of chemical composition, the determination of the mechanical properties of surface molecules in relation to their function remains a key challenge in cell biology.The emergence of powerful tools allowing molecular manipulations has already revolutionized our understanding of the surface properties of fungal cells. At the frontier between nanophysics and molecular biology, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and more specifically single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS), has strongly contributed to our current knowledge of the cell wall organization and nanomechanical properties. However, due to the complexity of the technique, measurements on live cells are still at their infancy.In this chapter, we describe the cell wall composition and recapitulate the principles of AFM as well as the main current methodologies used to perform AFM measurements on live cells, including sample immobilization and tip functionalization.The current status of the progress in probing nanomechanics of the yeast surface is illustrated through three recent breakthrough studies. Determination of the cell wall nanostructure and elasticity is presented through two examples: the mechanical response of mannoproteins from brewing yeasts and elasticity measurements on lacking polysaccharide mutant strains. Additionally, an elegant study on force-induced unfolding and clustering of adhesion proteins located at the cell surface is also presented.

  4. Complete DNA sequence of Kuraishia capsulata illustrates novel genomic features among budding yeasts (Saccharomycotina).

    PubMed

    Morales, Lucia; Noel, Benjamin; Porcel, Betina; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Hullo, Marie-Francoise; Sacerdot, Christine; Tekaia, Fredj; Leh-Louis, Véronique; Despons, Laurence; Khanna, Varun; Aury, Jean-Marc; Barbe, Valérie; Couloux, Arnaud; Labadie, Karen; Pelletier, Eric; Souciet, Jean-Luc; Boekhout, Teun; Gabaldon, Toni; Wincker, Patrick; Dujon, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The numerous yeast genome sequences presently available provide a rich source of information for functional as well as evolutionary genomics but unequally cover the large phylogenetic diversity of extant yeasts. We present here the complete sequence of the nuclear genome of the haploid-type strain of Kuraishia capsulata (CBS1993(T)), a nitrate-assimilating Saccharomycetales of uncertain taxonomy, isolated from tunnels of insect larvae underneath coniferous barks and characterized by its copious production of extracellular polysaccharides. The sequence is composed of seven scaffolds, one per chromosome, totaling 11.4 Mb and containing 6,029 protein-coding genes, ~13.5% of which being interrupted by introns. This GC-rich yeast genome (45.7%) appears phylogenetically related with the few other nitrate-assimilating yeasts sequenced so far, Ogataea polymorpha, O. parapolymorpha, and Dekkera bruxellensis, with which it shares a very reduced number of tRNA genes, a novel tRNA sparing strategy, and a common nitrate assimilation cluster, three specific features to this group of yeasts. Centromeres were recognized in GC-poor troughs of each scaffold. The strain bears MAT alpha genes at a single MAT locus and presents a significant degree of conservation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes, suggesting that it can perform sexual cycles in nature, although genes involved in meiosis were not all recognized. The complete absence of conservation of synteny between K. capsulata and any other yeast genome described so far, including the three other nitrate-assimilating species, validates the interest of this species for long-range evolutionary genomic studies among Saccharomycotina yeasts.

  5. Mediated amperometry reveals different modes of yeast responses to sugars.

    PubMed

    Garjonyte, Rasa; Melvydas, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Albertas

    2016-02-01

    Menadione-mediated amperometry at carbon paste electrodes modified with various yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii) was employed to monitor redox activity inside the yeast cells induced by glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose or galactose. Continuous measurements revealed distinct modes (transient or gradually increasing) of the current development during the first 2 to 3 min after subjection to glucose, fructose and sucrose at electrodes containing S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains. Different modes (increasing or decreasing) of the current development after yeast subjection to galactose at electrodes with S. cerevisiae or D. hansenii and at electrodes with C. pulcherrima and P. guilliermondii suggested different mechanisms of galactose assimilation.

  6. Nile red fluorescence screening facilitating neutral lipid phenotype determination in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Kerry A; Rolph, Carole E; Lawrence, Clare L

    2015-07-01

    Investigation of yeast neutral lipid accumulation is important for biotechnology and also for modelling aberrant lipid metabolism in human disease. The Nile red (NR) method has been extensively utilised to determine lipid phenotypes of yeast cells via microscopic means. NR assays have been used to differentiate lipid accumulation and relative amounts of lipid in oleaginous species but have not been thoroughly validated for phenotype determination arising from genetic modification. A modified NR assay, first described by Sitepu et al. (J Microbiol Methods 91:321-328, 2012), was able to detect neutral lipid changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants with sensitivity similar to more advanced methodology. We have also be able to, for the first time, successfully apply the NR assay to the well characterised fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an increasingly important organism in biotechnology. The described NR fluorescence assay is suitable for increased throughput and rapid screening of genetically modified strains in both the biotechnology industry and for modelling ectopic lipid production for a variety of human diseases. This ultimately negates the need for labour intensive and time consuming lipid analyses of samples that may not yield a desirable lipid phenotype, whilst genetic modifications impacting significantly on the cellular lipid phenotype can be further promoted for more in depth analyses.

  7. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation.

  8. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  9. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 mediates cadmium resistance in budding yeast through ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Gi-Wook; Furuchi, Takemitsu; Naganuma, Akira

    2007-11-23

    Overexpression of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 conferred strong cadmium resistance on budding yeast. Proteasome activity, which is involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, was not essential for the acquisition of resistance to cadmium. The overexpression of Cdc34 accelerated the ubiquitination of the transcription factor Met4 and reduced expression of MET25 gene, which is a target of Met4. A MET25-disrupted strain of yeast was more resistant to cadmium than was the wild-type strain, but overexpression of Cdc34 in the MET25-disrupted cells did not affect sensitivity to cadmium. Met25 is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of homocysteine from sulfide (S{sup 2-}) and O-acetylhomocysteine and we detected the increased production of S{sup 2-} upon overexpression of Cdc34. Our results suggest that overexpression of Cdc34 inactivates Met4 and interferes with expression of the MET25, with subsequent production of CdS, which has low toxicity, and, thus, a decrease in the cadmium toxicity.

  10. A plant virus movement protein regulates the Gcn2p kinase in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Frederic; Aparicio-Sanchis, Rafael; Gadea, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús Ángel; Pallás, Vicente; Murguía, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Virus life cycle heavily depends on their ability to command the host machinery in order to translate their genomes. Animal viruses have been shown to interfere with host translation machinery by expressing viral proteins that either maintain or inhibit eIF2α function by phosphorylation. However, this interference mechanism has not been described for any plant virus yet. Prunnus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a serious pathogen of cultivated stone fruit trees. The movement protein (MP) of PNRSV is necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus. By using a yeast-based approach we have found that over-expression of the PNRSV MP caused a severe growth defect in yeast cells. cDNA microarrays analysis carried out to characterise at the molecular level the growth interference phenotype reported the induction of genes related to amino acid deprivation suggesting that expression of MP activates the GCN pathway in yeast cells. Accordingly, PNRSV MP triggered activation of the Gcn2p kinase, as judged by increased eIF2α phosphorylation. Activation of Gcn2p by MP expression required a functional Tor1p kinase, since rapamycin treatment alleviated the yeast cell growth defect and blocked eIF2α phosphorylation triggered by MP expression. Overall, these findings uncover a previously uncharacterised function for PNRSV MP viral protein, and point out at Tor1p and Gcn2p kinases as candidate susceptibility factors for plant viral infections.

  11. Aip3p/Bud6p, a yeast actin-interacting protein that is involved in morphogenesis and the selection of bipolar budding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amberg, D C; Zahner, J E; Mulholland, J W; Pringle, J R; Botstein, D

    1997-01-01

    A search for Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins that interact with actin in the two-hybrid system and a screen for mutants that affect the bipolar budding pattern identified the same gene, AIP3/BUD6. This gene is not essential for mitotic growth but is necessary for normal morphogenesis. MATa/alpha daughter cells lacking Aip3p place their first buds normally at their distal poles but choose random sites for budding in subsequent cell cycles. This suggests that actin and associated proteins are involved in placing the bipolar positional marker at the division site but not at the distal tip of the daughter cell. In addition, although aip3 mutant cells are not obviously defective in the initial polarization of the cytoskeleton at the time of bud emergence, they appear to lose cytoskeletal polarity as the bud enlarges, resulting in the formation of cells that are larger and rounder than normal. aip3 mutant cells also show inefficient nuclear migration and nuclear division, defects in the organization of the secretory system, and abnormal septation, all defects that presumably reflect the involvement of Aip3p in the organization and/or function of the actin cytoskeleton. The sequence of Aip3p is novel but contains a predicted coiled-coil domain near its C terminus that may mediate the observed homo-oligomerization of the protein. Aip3p shows a distinctive localization pattern that correlates well with its likely sites of action: it appears at the presumptive bud site prior to bud emergence, remains near the tips of small bund, and forms a ring (or pair of rings) in the mother-bud neck that is detectable early in the cell cycle but becomes more prominent prior to cytokinesis. Surprisingly, the localization of Aip3p does not appear to require either polarized actin or the septin proteins of the neck filaments. Images PMID:9247651

  12. Maintenance and Integrity of the Mitochondrial Genome: a Plethora of Nuclear Genes in the Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Contamine, Véronique; Picard, Marguerite

    2000-01-01

    Instability of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is a general problem from yeasts to humans. However, its genetic control is not well documented except in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. From the discovery, 50 years ago, of the petite mutants by Ephrussi and his coworkers, it has been shown that more than 100 nuclear genes directly or indirectly influence the fate of the rho+ mtDNA. It is not surprising that mutations in genes involved in mtDNA metabolism (replication, repair, and recombination) can cause a complete loss of mtDNA (rho0 petites) and/or lead to truncated forms (rho−) of this genome. However, most loss-of-function mutations which increase yeast mtDNA instability act indirectly: they lie in genes controlling functions as diverse as mitochondrial translation, ATP synthase, iron homeostasis, fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, and so on. In a few cases it has been shown that gene overexpression increases the levels of petite mutants. Mutations in other genes are lethal in the absence of a functional mtDNA and thus convert this petite-positive yeast into a petite-negative form: petite cells cannot be recovered in these genetic contexts. Most of the data are explained if one assumes that the maintenance of the rho+ genome depends on a centromere-like structure dispensable for the maintenance of rho− mtDNA and/or the function of mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase subunits, especially ATP6. In fact, the real challenge for the next 50 years will be to assemble the pieces of this puzzle by using yeast and to use complementary models, especially in strict aerobes. PMID:10839818

  13. Collective effects of SNPs on transgenerational inheritance in Caenorhabditis elegans and budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuobin; Man, Xian; Xia, Mengying; Huang, Yimin; Yuan, Dejian; Huang, Shi

    2015-07-01

    We studied the collective effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on transgenerational inheritance in Caenorhabditis elegans recombinant inbred advanced intercross lines (RIAILs) and yeast segregants. We divided the RIAILs and segregants into two groups of high and low minor allele content (MAC). RIAILs with higher MAC needed less generations of benzaldehyde training to gain a stable olfactory imprint and showed a greater change from normal after benzaldehyde training. Yeast segregants with higher MAC showed a more dramatic shortening of the lag phase length after ethanol exposure. The short lag phase as acquired by ethanol training was more dramatically lost after recovery in ethanol free medium for the high MAC group. We also found a preferential association between MAC and traits linked with higher number of additive QTLs. These results suggest a role for the collective effects of SNPs in transgenerational inheritance, and may help explain human variations in disease susceptibility.

  14. Microtubule stability in budding yeast: characterization and dosage suppression of a benomyl-dependent tubulin mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Machin, N A; Lee, J M; Barnes, G

    1995-01-01

    To better understand the dynamic regulation of microtubule structures in yeast, we studied a conditional-lethal beta-tubulin mutation tub2-150. This mutation is unique among the hundreds of tubulin mutations isolated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in that it appears to cause an increase in the stability of microtubules. We report here that this allele is a mutation of threonine 238 to alanine, and that tub2-150 prevents the spindle from elongating during anaphase, suggesting a nuclear microtubule defect. To identify regulators of microtubule stability and/or anaphase, yeast genes were selected that, when overexpressed, could suppress the tub2-150 temperature-sensitive phenotype. One of these genes, JSN1, encodes a protein of 125 kDa that has limited similarity to a number of proteins of unknown function. Overexpression of the JSN1 gene in a TUB2 strain causes that strain to become more sensitive to benomyl, a microtubule-destabilizing drug. Of a representative group of microtubule mutants, only one other mutation, tub2-404, could be suppressed by JSN1 overexpression, showing that JSN1 is an allele-specific suppressor. As tub2-404 mutants are also defective for spindle elongation, this provides additional support for a role for JSN1 during anaphase. Images PMID:8534919

  15. Transcription factor genes essential for cell proliferation and replicative lifespan in budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Kamei, Yuka; Tai, Akiko; Dakeyama, Shota; Yamamoto, Kaori; Inoue, Yamato; Kishimoto, Yoshifumi; Ohara, Hiroya; Mukai, Yukio

    2015-07-31

    Many of the lifespan-related genes have been identified in eukaryotes ranging from the yeast to human. However, there is limited information available on the longevity genes that are essential for cell proliferation. Here, we investigated whether the essential genes encoding DNA-binding transcription factors modulated the replicative lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Heterozygous diploid knockout strains for FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1 genes showed significantly short lifespan. {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis indicated a characteristic metabolic profile in the Δfhl1/FHL1 mutant. These results strongly suggest that FHL1 regulates the transcription of lifespan related metabolic genes. Thus, heterozygous knockout strains could be the potential materials for discovering further novel lifespan genes. - Highlights: • Involvement of yeast TF genes essential for cell growth in lifespan was evaluated. • The essential TF genes, FHL1, RAP1, REB1, and MCM1, regulate replicative lifespan. • Heterozygous deletion of FHL1 changes cellular metabolism related to lifespan.

  16. The Third Exon of the Budding Yeast Meiotic Recombination Gene HOP2 Is Required for Calcium-dependent and Recombinase Dmc1-specific Stimulation of Homologous Strand Assimilation*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuen-Ling; Brown, M. Scott; Qin, Daoming; Handa, Naofumi; Bishop, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOP2 and MND1 genes are essential for recombination. A previous biochemical study has shown that budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 stimulates the activity of the meiosis-specific strand exchange protein ScDmc1 only 3-fold, whereas analogous studies using mammalian homologs show >30-fold stimulation. The HOP2 gene was recently discovered to contain a second intron that lies near the 3′-end. We show that both HOP2 introns are efficiently spliced during meiosis, forming a predominant transcript that codes for a protein with a C-terminal sequence different from that of the previously studied version of the protein. Using the newly identified HOP2 open reading frame to direct synthesis of wild type Hop2 protein, we show that the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer stimulated Dmc1 D-loop activity up to 30-fold, similar to the activity of mammalian Hop2-Mnd1. ScHop2-Mnd1 stimulated ScDmc1 activity in the presence of physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca2+ ions, as long as Mg2+ was also present at physiological concentrations, leading us to hypothesize that ScDmc1 protomers bind both cations in the active Dmc1 filament. Co-factor requirements and order-of-addition experiments suggested that Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of Dmc1 involves a process that follows the formation of functional Dmc1-ssDNA filaments. In dramatic contrast to mammalian orthologs, the stimulatory activity of budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 appeared to be specific to Dmc1; we observed no Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of the other budding yeast strand exchange protein Rad51. Together, these results support previous genetic experiments indicating that Hop2-Mnd1 specifically stimulates Dmc1 during meiotic recombination in budding yeast. PMID:24798326

  17. The third exon of the budding yeast meiotic recombination gene HOP2 is required for calcium-dependent and recombinase Dmc1-specific stimulation of homologous strand assimilation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuen-Ling; Brown, M Scott; Qin, Daoming; Handa, Naofumi; Bishop, Douglas K

    2014-06-27

    During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOP2 and MND1 genes are essential for recombination. A previous biochemical study has shown that budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 stimulates the activity of the meiosis-specific strand exchange protein ScDmc1 only 3-fold, whereas analogous studies using mammalian homologs show >30-fold stimulation. The HOP2 gene was recently discovered to contain a second intron that lies near the 3'-end. We show that both HOP2 introns are efficiently spliced during meiosis, forming a predominant transcript that codes for a protein with a C-terminal sequence different from that of the previously studied version of the protein. Using the newly identified HOP2 open reading frame to direct synthesis of wild type Hop2 protein, we show that the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer stimulated Dmc1 D-loop activity up to 30-fold, similar to the activity of mammalian Hop2-Mnd1. ScHop2-Mnd1 stimulated ScDmc1 activity in the presence of physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca(2+) ions, as long as Mg(2+) was also present at physiological concentrations, leading us to hypothesize that ScDmc1 protomers bind both cations in the active Dmc1 filament. Co-factor requirements and order-of-addition experiments suggested that Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of Dmc1 involves a process that follows the formation of functional Dmc1-ssDNA filaments. In dramatic contrast to mammalian orthologs, the stimulatory activity of budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 appeared to be specific to Dmc1; we observed no Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of the other budding yeast strand exchange protein Rad51. Together, these results support previous genetic experiments indicating that Hop2-Mnd1 specifically stimulates Dmc1 during meiotic recombination in budding yeast.

  18. iAID: an improved auxin-inducible degron system for the construction of a 'tight' conditional mutant in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiji; Miyazawa-Onami, Mayumi; Iida, Tetsushi; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Isolation of a 'tight' conditional mutant of a gene of interest is an effective way of studying the functions of essential genes. Strategies that use ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation to eliminate the product of a gene of interest, such as heat-inducible degron (td) and auxin-inducible degron (AID), are powerful methods for constructing conditional mutants. However, these methods do not work with some genes. Here, we describe an improved AID system (iAID) for isolating tight conditional mutants in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this method, transcriptional repression by the 'Tet-OFF' promoter is combined with proteolytic elimination of the target protein by the AID system. To provide examples, we describe the construction of tight mutants of the replication factors Dpb11 and Mcm10, dpb11-iAID, and mcm10-iAID. Because Dpb11 and Mcm10 are required for the initiation of DNA replication, their tight mutants are unable to enter S phase. This is the case for dpb11-iAID and mcm10-iAID cells after the addition of tetracycline and auxin. Both the 'Tet-OFF' promoter and the AID system have been shown to work in model eukaryotes other than budding yeast. Therefore, the iAID system is not only useful in budding yeast, but also can be applied to other model systems to isolate tight conditional mutants.

  19. Rad9 BRCT domain interaction with phosphorylated H2AX regulates the G1 checkpoint in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hammet, Andrew; Magill, Christine; Heierhorst, Jörg; Jackson, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H2A or H2AX is an early and sensitive marker of DNA damage in eukaryotic cells, although mutation of the conserved damage-dependent phosphorylation site is well tolerated. Here, we show that H2A phosphorylation is required for cell-cycle arrest in response to DNA damage at the G1/S transition in budding yeast. Furthermore, we show that the tandem BRCT domain of Rad9 interacts directly with phosphorylated H2A in vitro and that a rad9 point mutation that abolishes this interaction results in in vivo phenotypes that are similar to those caused by an H2A phosphorylation site mutation. Remarkably, similar checkpoint defects are also caused by a Rad9 Tudor domain mutation that impairs Rad9 chromatin association already in undamaged cells. These findings indicate that constitutive Tudor domain-mediated and damage-specific BRCT domain–phospho-H2A-dependent interactions of Rad9 with chromatin cooperate to establish G1 checkpoint arrest. PMID:17721446

  20. Whole-cell imaging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by high-voltage scanning transmission electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Esaki, Masatoshi; Ogura, Teru; Arai, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    Electron tomography using a high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM) provides three-dimensional information about cellular components in sections thicker than 1 μm, although in bright-field mode image degradation caused by multiple inelastic scattering of transmitted electrons limit the attainable resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is believed to give enhanced contrast and resolution compared to conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM). Samples up to 1 μm in thickness have been analyzed with an intermediate-voltage electron microscope because inelastic scattering is not a critical limitation, and probe broadening can be minimized. Here, we employed STEM at 1 MeV high-voltage to extend the useful specimen thickness for electron tomography, which we demonstrate by a seamless tomographic reconstruction of a whole, budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell, which is ~3 μm in thickness. High-voltage STEM tomography, especially in the bright-field mode, demonstrated sufficiently enhanced contrast and intensity, compared to CTEM tomography, to permit segmentation of major organelles in the whole cell. STEM imaging also reduced specimen shrinkage during tilt-series acquisition. The fidelity of structural preservation was limited by cytoplasmic extraction, and the spatial resolution was limited by the relatively large convergence angle of the scanning probe. However, the new technique has potential to solve longstanding problems of image blurring in biological specimens beyond 1 μm in thickness, and may facilitate new research in cellular structural biology.

  1. Cdc14p resets the competency of replication licensing by dephosphorylating multiple initiation proteins during mitotic exit in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yuanliang; Yung, Philip Y K; Huo, Lin; Liang, Chun

    2010-11-15

    In eukaryotes, replication licensing is achieved through sequential loading of several replication-initiation proteins onto replication origins to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), and unscheduled replication licensing is prevented by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) through inhibitory phosphorylations of multiple initiation proteins. It is known that CDK inactivation during mitotic exit promotes pre-RC formation for the next cell cycle. However, whether the removal of the inhibitory phosphorylations on the initiation proteins is essential and the identity of the acting phosphatase(s) remain unknown. Here, we show that cell division cycle protein 14 (Cdc14p) dephosphorylates replication-initiation proteins Orc2p, Orc6p, Cdc6p and Mcm3p to restore their competence for pre-RC assembly in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells without functional Cdc14p fail to dephosphorylate initiation proteins and to form pre-RCs - even when CDK activities are suppressed - and cannot replicate DNA in mitotic rereplication systems, whereas pulsed ectopic expression of Cdc14p in mitotic cells results in efficient pre-RC assembly and DNA rereplication. Furthermore, Cdc14p becomes dispensable for DNA rereplication in mitotic cells with combined non-phosphorylatable and/or phosphorylation-insensitive alleles of the initiation proteins. These data unravel the essential role of Cdc14p in replication licensing, beyond its established functions in mitotic exit, providing new insight into the intricate regulation of DNA replication through the interplay of CDKs and the Cdc14p phosphatase.

  2. Decoding the principles underlying the frequency of association with nucleoli for RNA polymerase III–transcribed genes in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Belagal, Praveen; Normand, Christophe; Shukla, Ashutosh; Wang, Renjie; Léger-Silvestre, Isabelle; Dez, Christophe; Bhargava, Purnima; Gadal, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The association of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–transcribed genes with nucleoli seems to be an evolutionarily conserved property of the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes. However, recent studies of global chromosome architecture in budding yeast have challenged this view. We used live-cell imaging to determine the intranuclear positions of 13 Pol III–transcribed genes. The frequency of association with nucleolus and nuclear periphery depends on linear genomic distance from the tethering elements—centromeres or telomeres. Releasing the hold of the tethering elements by inactivating centromere attachment to the spindle pole body or changing the position of ribosomal DNA arrays resulted in the association of Pol III–transcribed genes with nucleoli. Conversely, ectopic insertion of a Pol III–transcribed gene in the vicinity of a centromere prevented its association with nucleolus. Pol III–dependent transcription was independent of the intranuclear position of the gene, but the nucleolar recruitment of Pol III–transcribed genes required active transcription. We conclude that the association of Pol III–transcribed genes with the nucleolus, when permitted by global chromosome architecture, provides nucleolar and/or nuclear peripheral anchoring points contributing locally to intranuclear chromosome organization. PMID:27559135

  3. Synthesis and function of membrane phosphoinositides in budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Strahl, Thomas; Thorner, Jeremy

    2007-03-01

    It is now well appreciated that derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are key regulators of many cellular processes in eukaryotes. Of particular interest are phosphoinositides (mono- and polyphosphorylated adducts to the inositol ring in PtdIns), which are located at the cytoplasmic face of cellular membranes. Phosphoinositides serve both a structural and a signaling role via their recruitment of proteins that contain phosphoinositide-binding domains. Phosphoinositides also have a role as precursors of several types of second messengers for certain intracellular signaling pathways. Realization of the importance of phosphoinositides has brought increased attention to characterization of the enzymes that regulate their synthesis, interconversion, and turnover. Here we review the current state of our knowledge about the properties and regulation of the ATP-dependent lipid kinases responsible for synthesis of phosphoinositides and also the additional temporal and spatial controls exerted by the phosphatases and a phospholipase that act on phosphoinositides in yeast.

  4. Synthesis and Function of Membrane Phosphoinositides in Budding Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, Thomas; Thorner, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    It is now well appreciated that derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are key regulators of many cellular processes in eukaryotes. Of particular interest are phosphoinositides (mono- and polyphosphorylated adducts to the inositol ring in PtdIns), which are located at the cytoplasmic face of cellular membranes. Phosphoinositides serve both a structural and a signaling role via their recruitment of proteins that contain phosphoinositide-binding domains. Phosphoinositides also have a role as precursors of several types of second messengers for certain intracellular signaling pathways. Realization of the importance of phosphoinositides has brought increased attention to characterization of the enzymes that regulate their synthesis, interconversion, and turnover. Here we review the current state of our knowledge about the properties and regulation of the ATP-dependent lipid kinases responsible for synthesis of phosphoinositides and also the additional temporal and spatial controls exerted by the phosphatases and a phospholipase that act on phosphoinositides in yeast. PMID:17382260

  5. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF. PMID:27630630

  6. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  7. Transcription of two long noncoding RNAs mediates mating-type control of gametogenesis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    van Werven, Folkert J; Neuert, Gregor; Hendrick, Natalie; Lardenois, Aurélie; Buratowski, Stephen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Primig, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2012-09-14

    The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/α but not haploid MATa or MATα cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating-type control of sporulation. In MATa or MATα haploids, expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4 allows cells expressing the haploid mating type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/α diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/α diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating-type control of gametogenesis in yeast.

  8. Natural variation in non-coding regions underlying phenotypic diversity in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Francisco; de Boer, Carl G; Abarca, Valentina; García, Verónica; Cuevas, Mara; Araos, Sebastian; Larrondo, Luis F; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-02-22

    Linkage mapping studies in model organisms have typically focused their efforts in polymorphisms within coding regions, ignoring those within regulatory regions that may contribute to gene expression variation. In this context, differences in transcript abundance are frequently proposed as a source of phenotypic diversity between individuals, however, until now, little molecular evidence has been provided. Here, we examined Allele Specific Expression (ASE) in six F1 hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae derived from crosses between representative strains of the four main lineages described in yeast. ASE varied between crosses with levels ranging between 28% and 60%. Part of the variation in expression levels could be explained by differences in transcription factors binding to polymorphic cis-regulations and to differences in trans-activation depending on the allelic form of the TF. Analysis on highly expressed alleles on each background suggested ASN1 as a candidate transcript underlying nitrogen consumption differences between two strains. Further promoter allele swap analysis under fermentation conditions confirmed that coding and non-coding regions explained aspartic and glutamic acid consumption differences, likely due to a polymorphism affecting Uga3 binding. Together, we provide a new catalogue of variants to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype.

  9. Natural variation in non-coding regions underlying phenotypic diversity in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Francisco; de Boer, Carl G.; Abarca, Valentina; García, Verónica; Cuevas, Mara; Araos, Sebastian; Larrondo, Luis F.; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A.

    2016-01-01

    Linkage mapping studies in model organisms have typically focused their efforts in polymorphisms within coding regions, ignoring those within regulatory regions that may contribute to gene expression variation. In this context, differences in transcript abundance are frequently proposed as a source of phenotypic diversity between individuals, however, until now, little molecular evidence has been provided. Here, we examined Allele Specific Expression (ASE) in six F1 hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae derived from crosses between representative strains of the four main lineages described in yeast. ASE varied between crosses with levels ranging between 28% and 60%. Part of the variation in expression levels could be explained by differences in transcription factors binding to polymorphic cis-regulations and to differences in trans-activation depending on the allelic form of the TF. Analysis on highly expressed alleles on each background suggested ASN1 as a candidate transcript underlying nitrogen consumption differences between two strains. Further promoter allele swap analysis under fermentation conditions confirmed that coding and non-coding regions explained aspartic and glutamic acid consumption differences, likely due to a polymorphism affecting Uga3 binding. Together, we provide a new catalogue of variants to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype. PMID:26898953

  10. A series of conditional shuttle vectors for targeted genomic integration in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Ching; Patel, Michael T.; Gartenberg, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repair exposed DNA ends by homologous recombination has long been used by experimentalists to assemble plasmids from DNA fragments in vivo. While this approach works well for engineering extrachromosomal vectors, it is not well suited to the generation, recovery and reuse of integrative vectors. Here, we describe the creation of a series of conditional centromeric shuttle vectors, termed pXR vectors, that can be used for both plasmid assembly in vivo and targeted genomic integration. The defining feature of pXR vectors is that the DNA segment bearing the centromere and origin of replication, termed CEN/ARS, is flanked by a pair of loxP sites. Passaging the vectors through bacteria that express Cre recombinase reduces the loxP-CEN/ARS-loxP module to a single loxP site, thereby eliminating the ability to replicate autonomously in yeast. Each vector also contains a selectable marker gene, as well as a fragment of the HO locus, which permits targeted integration at a neutral genomic site. The pXR vectors provide a convenient and robust method to assemble DNAs for targeted genomic modifications. PMID:25736914

  11. Patterns and mechanisms of ancestral histone protein inheritance in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Radman-Livaja, Marta; Verzijlbergen, Kitty F; Weiner, Assaf; van Welsem, Tibor; Friedman, Nir; Rando, Oliver J; van Leeuwen, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Replicating chromatin involves disruption of histone-DNA contacts and subsequent reassembly of maternal histones on the new daughter genomes. In bulk, maternal histones are randomly segregated to the two daughters, but little is known about the fine details of this process: do maternal histones re-assemble at preferred locations or close to their original loci? Here, we use a recently developed method for swapping epitope tags to measure the disposition of ancestral histone H3 across the yeast genome over six generations. We find that ancestral H3 is preferentially retained at the 5' ends of most genes, with strongest retention at long, poorly transcribed genes. We recapitulate these observations with a quantitative model in which the majority of maternal histones are reincorporated within 400 bp of their pre-replication locus during replication, with replication-independent replacement and transcription-related retrograde nucleosome movement shaping the resulting distributions of ancestral histones. We find a key role for Topoisomerase I in retrograde histone movement during transcription, and we find that loss of Chromatin Assembly Factor-1 affects replication-independent turnover. Together, these results show that specific loci are enriched for histone proteins first synthesized several generations beforehand, and that maternal histones re-associate close to their original locations on daughter genomes after replication. Our findings further suggest that accumulation of ancestral histones could play a role in shaping histone modification patterns.

  12. A series of conditional shuttle vectors for targeted genomic integration in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Ching; Patel, Michael T; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    The capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repair exposed DNA ends by homologous recombination has long been used by experimentalists to assemble plasmids from DNA fragments in vivo. While this approach works well for engineering extrachromosomal vectors, it is not well suited to the generation, recovery and reuse of integrative vectors. Here, we describe the creation of a series of conditional centromeric shuttle vectors, termed pXR vectors, that can be used for both plasmid assembly in vivo and targeted genomic integration. The defining feature of pXR vectors is that the DNA segment bearing the centromere and origin of replication, termed CEN/ARS, is flanked by a pair of loxP sites. Passaging the vectors through bacteria that express Cre recombinase reduces the loxP-CEN/ARS-loxP module to a single loxP site, thereby eliminating the ability to replicate autonomously in yeast. Each vector also contains a selectable marker gene, as well as a fragment of the HO locus, which permits targeted integration at a neutral genomic site. The pXR vectors provide a convenient and robust method to assemble DNAs for targeted genomic modifications.

  13. Vps factors are required for efficient transcription elongation in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Naseem A; Hasek, Jiri; Brickner, Donna Garvey; Qiu, Hongfang; Zhang, Fan; Wong, Chi-Ming; Malcova, Ivana; Vasicova, Pavla; Brickner, Jason H; Hinnebusch, Alan G

    2013-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that certain Vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins, factors that mediate vesicular protein trafficking, have additional roles in regulating transcription factors at the endosome. We found that yeast mutants lacking the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] kinase Vps34 or its associated protein kinase Vps15 display multiple phenotypes indicating impaired transcription elongation. These phenotypes include reduced mRNA production from long or G+C-rich coding sequences (CDS) without affecting the associated GAL1 promoter activity, and a reduced rate of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) progression through lacZ CDS in vivo. Consistent with reported genetic interactions with mutations affecting the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutations reduce NuA4 occupancy in certain transcribed CDS. vps15Δ and vps34Δ mutants also exhibit impaired localization of the induced GAL1 gene to the nuclear periphery. We found unexpectedly that, similar to known transcription elongation factors, these and several other Vps factors can be cross-linked to the CDS of genes induced by Gcn4 or Gal4 in a manner dependent on transcriptional induction and stimulated by Cdk7/Kin28-dependent phosphorylation of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We also observed colocalization of a fraction of Vps15-GFP and Vps34-GFP with nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole (NV) junctions in live cells. These findings suggest that Vps factors enhance the efficiency of transcription elongation in a manner involving their physical proximity to nuclear pores and transcribed chromatin.

  14. Characterization of global gene expression during assurance of lifespan extension by caloric restriction in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-12-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is the best-studied intervention known to delay aging and extend lifespan in evolutionarily distant organisms ranging from yeast to mammals in the laboratory. Although the effect of CR on lifespan extension has been investigated for nearly 80years, the molecular mechanisms of CR are still elusive. Consequently, it is important to understand the fundamental mechanisms of when and how lifespan is affected by CR. In this study, we first identified the time-windows during which CR assured cellular longevity by switching cells from culture media containing 2% or 0.5% glucose to water, which allows us to observe CR and non-calorically-restricted cells under the same conditions. We also constructed time-dependent gene expression profiles and selected 646 genes that showed significant changes and correlations with the lifespan-extending effect of CR. The positively correlated genes participated in transcriptional regulation, ribosomal RNA processing and nuclear genome stability, while the negatively correlated genes were involved in the regulation of several metabolic pathways, endoplasmic reticulum function, stress response and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, we discovered major upstream regulators of those significantly changed genes, including AZF1 (YOR113W), HSF1 (YGL073W) and XBP1 (YIL101C). Deletions of two genes, AZF1 and XBP1 (HSF1 is essential and was thus not tested), were confirmed to lessen the lifespan extension mediated by CR. The absence of these genes in the tor1Δ and ras2Δ backgrounds did show non-overlapping effects with regard to CLS, suggesting differences between the CR mechanism for Tor and Ras signaling.

  15. Organelle Size Scaling of the Budding Yeast Vacuole by Relative Growth and Inheritance.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yee-Hung M; Reyes, Lorena; Sohail, Saba M; Tran, Nancy K; Marshall, Wallace F

    2016-05-09

    It has long been noted that larger animals have larger organs compared to smaller animals of the same species, a phenomenon termed scaling [1]. Julian Huxley proposed an appealingly simple model of "relative growth"-in which an organ and the whole body grow with their own intrinsic rates [2]-that was invoked to explain scaling in organs from fiddler crab claws to human brains. Because organ size is regulated by complex, unpredictable pathways [3], it remains unclear whether scaling requires feedback mechanisms to regulate organ growth in response to organ or body size. The molecular pathways governing organelle biogenesis are simpler than organogenesis, and therefore organelle size scaling in the cell provides a more tractable case for testing Huxley's model. We ask the question: is it possible for organelle size scaling to arise if organelle growth is independent of organelle or cell size? Using the yeast vacuole as a model, we tested whether mutants defective in vacuole inheritance, vac8Δ and vac17Δ, tune vacuole biogenesis in response to perturbations in vacuole size. In vac8Δ/vac17Δ, vacuole scaling increases with the replicative age of the cell. Furthermore, vac8Δ/vac17Δ cells continued generating vacuole at roughly constant rates even when they had significantly larger vacuoles compared to wild-type. With support from computational modeling, these results suggest there is no feedback between vacuole biogenesis rates and vacuole or cell size. Rather, size scaling is determined by the relative growth rates of the vacuole and the cell, thus representing a cellular version of Huxley's model.

  16. Cdc14 phosphatase directs centrosome re-duplication at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. However, their execution is inhibited until S phase, where further preparatory events are also prevented. This “licensing” ensures that both the chromosomes and the centrosomes/SPBs replicate exactly once per cell cycle, thereby maintaining constant ploidy. Crucially, between meiosis I and meiosis II, centrosomes/SPBs must be re-licensed, but DNA re-replication must be avoided. In budding yeast, the Cdc14 protein phosphatase triggers CDK down regulation to promote exit from mitosis. Cdc14 also regulates the meiosis I to meiosis II transition, though its mode of action has remained unclear. Methods Fluorescence and electron microscopy was combined with proteomics to probe SPB duplication in cells with inactive or hyperactive Cdc14. Results We demonstrate that Cdc14 ensures two successive nuclear divisions by re-licensing SPBs at the meiosis I to meiosis II transition. We show that Cdc14 is asymmetrically enriched on a single SPB during anaphase I and provide evidence that this enrichment promotes SPB re-duplication. Cells with impaired Cdc14 activity fail to promote extension of the SPB half-bridge, the initial step in morphogenesis of a new SPB. Conversely, cells with hyper-active Cdc14 duplicate SPBs, but fail to induce their separation. Conclusion Our findings implicate reversal of key CDK-dependent phosphorylations in the differential licensing of cyclical events at the meiosis I to meiosis I

  17. Budding yeast protein extraction and purification for the study of function, interactions, and post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Eva Paige; Kerscher, Oliver

    2013-10-30

    Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g. galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g. nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g. MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and

  18. Regulation of Cdc42 polarization by the Rsr1 GTPase and Rga1, a Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein, in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mid Eum; Lo, Wing-Cheong; Miller, Kristi E.; Chou, Ching-Shan; Park, Hay-Oak

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cdc42 plays a central role in establishing polarity in yeast and animals, yet how polarization of Cdc42 is achieved in response to spatial cues is poorly understood. Using live-cell imaging, we found distinct dynamics of Cdc42 polarization in haploid budding yeast in correlation with two temporal steps of the G1 phase. The position at which the Cdc42–GTP cluster develops changes rapidly around the division site during the first step but becomes stabilized in the second step, suggesting that an axis of polarized growth is determined in mid G1. Cdc42 polarization in the first step and its proper positioning depend on Rsr1 and its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bud2. Interestingly, Rga1, a Cdc42 GAP, exhibits transient localization to a site near the bud neck and to the division site during cytokinesis and G1, and this temporal change of Rga1 distribution is necessary for determination of a proper growth site. Mathematical modeling suggests that a proper axis of Cdc42 polarization in haploid cells might be established through a biphasic mechanism involving sequential positive feedback and transient negative feedback. PMID:25908844

  19. Rfc5p regulates alternate RFC complex functions in sister chromatid pairing reactions in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Maradeo, Marie E; Garg, Anisha; Skibbens, Robert V

    2010-11-01

    Sister chromatid pairing reactions, termed cohesion establishment, occur during S-phase and appear to be regulated by Replication Factor C (RFC) complexes. For instance, RFCs that contain Ctf18p exhibit pro-establishment activities while those that contain Elg1p exhibit anti-establishment activities. It remains unknown whether Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC functions are simply opposing or instead reveal complicated and non-parallel regulatory mechanisms. To better understand the nature of these novel pathways, we analyzed the small RFC subunit Rfc5p that is common to both Ctf18p-RFC and Elg1p-RFC. Despite this commonality, the data show that diminished Rfc5p function rescues ctf7/eco1 mutant cell phenotypes, revealing that Rfc5p promotes anti-establishment activities. This rescue is specific to establishment pathways in that rfc5-1 greatly accentuates growth defects when expressed in scc2 (deposition), mcd1/scc1 or smc3 (cohesion maintenance) mutated cells. Our results reveal for the first time a role for small RFC subunits in directing RFC complex functions-in this case towards anti-establishment pathways. We further report that Pds5p exhibits both establishment and anti-establishment functions in cohesion. This duality suggests that categorizations of establishment and anti-establishment activities require further examination.

  20. A septin from the filamentous fungus A. nidulans induces atypical pseudohyphae in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septins were first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they form a scaffold that organizes the bud site and are a component of the morphogenesis checkpoint that coordinates budding with mitosis. Five of the seven S. cerevisiae septins (Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12 and Shs1) colocalize as a rin...

  1. Modelling of Yeast Mating Reveals Robustness Strategies for Cell-Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weitao; Nie, Qing; Yi, Tau-Mu; Chou, Ching-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Mating of budding yeast cells is a model system for studying cell-cell interactions. Haploid yeast cells secrete mating pheromones that are sensed by the partner which responds by growing a mating projection toward the source. The two projections meet and fuse to form the diploid. Successful mating relies on precise coordination of dynamic extracellular signals, signaling pathways, and cell shape changes in a noisy background. It remains elusive how cells mate accurately and efficiently in a natural multi-cell environment. Here we present the first stochastic model of multiple mating cells whose morphologies are driven by pheromone gradients and intracellular signals. Our novel computational framework encompassed a moving boundary method for modeling both a-cells and α-cells and their cell shape changes, the extracellular diffusion of mating pheromones dynamically coupled with cell polarization, and both external and internal noise. Quantification of mating efficiency was developed and tested for different model parameters. Computer simulations revealed important robustness strategies for mating in the presence of noise. These strategies included the polarized secretion of pheromone, the presence of the α-factor protease Bar1, and the regulation of sensing sensitivity; all were consistent with data in the literature. In addition, we investigated mating discrimination, the ability of an a-cell to distinguish between α-cells either making or not making α-factor, and mating competition, in which multiple a-cells compete to mate with one α-cell. Our simulations were consistent with previous experimental results. Moreover, we performed a combination of simulations and experiments to estimate the diffusion rate of the pheromone a-factor. In summary, we constructed a framework for simulating yeast mating with multiple cells in a noisy environment, and used this framework to reproduce mating behaviors and to identify strategies for robust cell-cell interactions. PMID

  2. γ-Tubulin Is Required for Proper Recruitment and Assembly of Kar9–Bim1 Complexes in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cuschieri, Lara; Miller, Rita

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end–interacting proteins (+TIPs) promote the dynamic interactions between the plus ends (+ends) of astral microtubules and cortical actin that are required for preanaphase spindle positioning. Paradoxically, +TIPs such as the EB1 orthologue Bim1 and Kar9 also associate with spindle pole bodies (SPBs), the centrosome equivalent in budding yeast. Here, we show that deletion of four C-terminal residues of the budding yeast γ-tubulin Tub4 (tub4-Δdsyl) perturbs Bim1 and Kar9 localization to SPBs and Kar9-dependant spindle positioning. Surprisingly, we find Kar9 localizes to microtubule +ends in tub4-Δdsyl cells, but these microtubules fail to position the spindle when targeted to the bud. Using cofluorescence and coaffinity purification, we show Kar9 complexes in tub4-Δdsyl cells contain reduced levels of Bim1. Astral microtubule dynamics is suppressed in tub4-Δdsyl cells, but it are restored by deletion of Kar9. Moreover, Myo2- and F-actin–dependent dwelling of Kar9 in the bud is observed in tub4-Δdsyl cells, suggesting defective Kar9 complexes tether microtubule +ends to the cortex. Overproduction of Bim1, but not Kar9, restores Kar9-dependent spindle positioning in the tub4-Δdsyl mutant, reduces cortical dwelling, and promotes Bim1–Kar9 interactions. We propose that SPBs, via the tail of Tub4, promote the assembly of functional +TIP complexes before their deployment to microtubule +ends. PMID:16899509

  3. Molecular Identification of d-Ribulokinase in Budding Yeast and Mammals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charandeep; Glaab, Enrico; Linster, Carole L

    2017-01-20

    Proteomes of even well characterized organisms still contain a high percentage of proteins with unknown or uncertain molecular and/or biological function. A significant fraction of those proteins is predicted to have catalytic properties. Here we aimed at identifying the function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ydr109c protein and its human homolog FGGY, both of which belong to the broadly conserved FGGY family of carbohydrate kinases. Functionally identified members of this family phosphorylate 3- to 7-carbon sugars or sugar derivatives, but the endogenous substrate of S. cerevisiae Ydr109c and human FGGY has remained unknown. Untargeted metabolomics analysis of an S. cerevisiae deletion mutant of YDR109C revealed ribulose as one of the metabolites with the most significantly changed intracellular concentration as compared with a wild-type strain. In human HEK293 cells, ribulose could only be detected when ribitol was added to the cultivation medium, and under this condition, FGGY silencing led to ribulose accumulation. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant purified Ydr109c and FGGY proteins showed a clear substrate preference of both kinases for d-ribulose over a range of other sugars and sugar derivatives tested, including l-ribulose. Detailed sequence and structural analyses of Ydr109c and FGGY as well as homologs thereof furthermore allowed the definition of a 5-residue d-ribulokinase signature motif (TCSLV). The physiological role of the herein identified eukaryotic d-ribulokinase remains unclear, but we speculate that S. cerevisiae Ydr109c and human FGGY could act as metabolite repair enzymes, serving to re-phosphorylate free d-ribulose generated by promiscuous phosphatases from d-ribulose 5-phosphate. In human cells, FGGY can additionally participate in ribitol metabolism.

  4. SIR2 and other genes are abundantly expressed in long-lived natural segregants for replicative aging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenhua; Adomas, Aleksandra B; Jackson, Erin D; Qin, Hong; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the mechanism underlying the natural variation in longevity within natural populations using the model budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed whole-genome gene expression in four progeny of a natural S. cerevisiae strain that display differential replicative aging. Genes with different expression levels in short- and long-lived strains were classified disproportionately into metabolism, transport, development, transcription or cell cycle, and organelle organization (mitochondrial, chromosomal, and cytoskeletal). With several independent validating experiments, we detected 15 genes with consistent differential expression levels between the long- and the short-lived progeny. Among those 15, SIR2, HSP30, and TIM17 were upregulated in long-lived strains, which is consistent with the known effects of gene silencing, stress response, and mitochondrial function on aging. The link between SIR2 and yeast natural life span variation offers some intriguing ties to the allelic association of the human homolog SIRT1 to visceral obesity and metabolic response to lifestyle intervention.

  5. Alteration of a yeast SH3 protein leads to conditional viability with defects in cytoskeletal and budding patterns.

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Urdaci, M; Aigle, M; Crouzet, M

    1993-08-01

    Mutations in genes necessary for survival in stationary phase were isolated to understand the ability of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remain viable during prolonged periods of nutritional deprivation. Here we report results concerning one of these mutants, rvs167, which shows reduced viability and abnormal cell morphology upon carbon and nitrogen starvation. The mutant exhibits the same response when cells are grown in high salt concentrations and other unfavorable growth conditions. The RVS167 gene product displays significant homology with the Rvs161 protein and contains a SH3 domain at the C-terminal end. Abnormal actin distribution is associated with the mutant phenotype. In addition, while the budding pattern of haploid strains remains axial in standard growth conditions, the budding pattern of diploid mutant strains is random. The gene RVS167 therefore could be implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization in response to environmental stresses and could act in the budding site selection mechanism.

  6. Alteration of a yeast SH3 protein leads to conditional viability with defects in cytoskeletal and budding patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, F; Urdaci, M; Aigle, M; Crouzet, M

    1993-01-01

    Mutations in genes necessary for survival in stationary phase were isolated to understand the ability of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae to remain viable during prolonged periods of nutritional deprivation. Here we report results concerning one of these mutants, rvs167, which shows reduced viability and abnormal cell morphology upon carbon and nitrogen starvation. The mutant exhibits the same response when cells are grown in high salt concentrations and other unfavorable growth conditions. The RVS167 gene product displays significant homology with the Rvs161 protein and contains a SH3 domain at the C-terminal end. Abnormal actin distribution is associated with the mutant phenotype. In addition, while the budding pattern of haploid strains remains axial in standard growth conditions, the budding pattern of diploid mutant strains is random. The gene RVS167 therefore could be implicated in cytoskeletal reorganization in response to environmental stresses and could act in the budding site selection mechanism. Images PMID:8336735

  7. A role for the rap GTPase YlRsr1 in cellular morphogenesis and the involvement of YlRsr1 and the ras GTPase YlRas2 in bud site selection in the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Qing; Li, Min; Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Gao, Xiang-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a dimorphic yeast species that can grow in the ovoid yeast form or in the elongated pseudohyphal or hyphal form depending on the growth conditions. Here, we show that the Rap GTPase Rsr1 of Y. lipolytica (YlRsr1) plays an important role in cellular morphogenesis in this microorganism. Cells deleted for YlRSR1 exhibited impaired polarized growth during yeast-form growth. Pseudohyphal and hyphal development were also abnormal. YlRsr1 is also important for cell growth, since the deletion of YlRSR1 in cells lacking the Ras GTPase YlRas2 caused lethality. Y. lipolytica cells bud in a bipolar pattern in which the cells produce the new buds at the two poles. YlRsr1 plays a prominent role in this bud site selection process. YlRsr1's function in bud site selection absolutely requires the cycling of YlRsr1 between the GTP- and GDP-bound states but its function in cellular morphogenesis does not, suggesting that the two processes are differentially regulated. Interestingly, the Ras GTPase YlRas2 is also involved in the control of bud site selection, as Ylras2Δ cells were severely impaired in bipolar bud site selection. The GTP/GDP cycling and the plasma membrane localization of YlRas2 are important for YlRas2's function in bud site selection. However, they are not essential for this process, suggesting that the mechanism by which YlRas2 acts is different from that of YlRsr1. Our results suggest that YlRsr1 is regulated by the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) YlBud2 and partially by YlCdc25, the potential guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for YlRas2.

  8. Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cowart, L Ashley; Shotwell, Matthew; Worley, Mitchell L; Richards, Adam J; Montefusco, David J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids including sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide participate in numerous cell programs through signaling mechanisms. This class of lipids has important functions in stress responses; however, determining which sphingolipid mediates specific events has remained encumbered by the numerous metabolic interconnections of sphingolipids, such that modulating a specific lipid of interest through manipulating metabolic enzymes causes 'ripple effects', which change levels of many other lipids. Here, we develop a method of integrative analysis for genomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic data to address this previously intractable problem. This method revealed a specific signaling role for phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid with no previously defined specific function in yeast, in regulating genes required for mitochondrial respiration through the HAP complex transcription factor. This approach could be applied to extract meaningful biological information from a similar experimental design that produces multiple sets of high-throughput data.

  9. Revealing a signaling role of phytosphingosine-1-phosphate in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cowart, L Ashley; Shotwell, Matthew; Worley, Mitchell L; Richards, Adam J; Montefusco, David J; Hannun, Yusuf A; Lu, Xinghua

    2010-01-01

    Sphingolipids including sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide participate in numerous cell programs through signaling mechanisms. This class of lipids has important functions in stress responses; however, determining which sphingolipid mediates specific events has remained encumbered by the numerous metabolic interconnections of sphingolipids, such that modulating a specific lipid of interest through manipulating metabolic enzymes causes ‘ripple effects', which change levels of many other lipids. Here, we develop a method of integrative analysis for genomic, transcriptomic, and lipidomic data to address this previously intractable problem. This method revealed a specific signaling role for phytosphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid with no previously defined specific function in yeast, in regulating genes required for mitochondrial respiration through the HAP complex transcription factor. This approach could be applied to extract meaningful biological information from a similar experimental design that produces multiple sets of high-throughput data. PMID:20160710

  10. Structural and functional studies of Bud23-Trm112 reveal 18S rRNA N7-G1575 methylation occurs on late 40S precursor ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Létoquart, Juliette; Huvelle, Emmeline; Wacheul, Ludivine; Bourgeois, Gabrielle; Zorbas, Christiane; Graille, Marc; Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie; Lafontaine, Denis L J

    2014-12-23

    The eukaryotic small ribosomal subunit carries only four ribosomal (r) RNA methylated bases, all close to important functional sites. N(7)-methylguanosine (m(7)G) introduced at position 1575 on 18S rRNA by Bud23-Trm112 is at a ridge forming a steric block between P- and E-site tRNAs. Here we report atomic resolution structures of Bud23-Trm112 in the apo and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-bound forms. Bud23 and Trm112 interact through formation of a β-zipper involving main-chain atoms, burying an important hydrophobic surface and stabilizing the complex. The structures revealed that the coactivator Trm112 undergoes an induced fit to accommodate its methyltransferase (MTase) partner. We report important structural similarity between the active sites of Bud23 and Coffea canephora xanthosine MTase, leading us to propose and validate experimentally a model for G1575 coordination. We identify Bud23 residues important for Bud23-Trm112 complex formation and recruitment to pre-ribosomes. We report that though Bud23-Trm112 binds precursor ribosomes at an early nucleolar stage, m(7)G methylation occurs at a late step of small subunit biogenesis, implying specifically delayed catalytic activation. Finally, we show that Bud23-Trm112 interacts directly with the box C/D snoRNA U3-associated DEAH RNA helicase Dhr1 supposedly involved in central pseudoknot formation; this suggests that Bud23-Trm112 might also contribute to controlling formation of this irreversible and dramatic structural reorganization essential to overall folding of small subunit rRNA. Our study contributes important new elements to our understanding of key molecular aspects of human ribosomopathy syndromes associated with WBSCR22 (human Bud23) malfunction.

  11. Fusion of nearby inverted repeats by a replication-based mechanism leads to formation of dicentric and acentric chromosomes that cause genome instability in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Paek, Andrew L; Kaochar, Salma; Jones, Hope; Elezaby, Aly; Shanks, Lisa; Weinert, Ted

    2009-12-15

    Large-scale changes (gross chromosomal rearrangements [GCRs]) are common in genomes, and are often associated with pathological disorders. We report here that a specific pair of nearby inverted repeats in budding yeast fuse to form a dicentric chromosome intermediate, which then rearranges to form a translocation and other GCRs. We next show that fusion of nearby inverted repeats is general; we found that many nearby inverted repeats that are present in the yeast genome also fuse, as does a pair of synthetically constructed inverted repeats. Fusion occurs between inverted repeats that are separated by several kilobases of DNA and share >20 base pairs of homology. Finally, we show that fusion of inverted repeats, surprisingly, does not require genes involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair or genes involved in other repeat recombination events. We therefore propose that fusion may occur by a DSB-independent, DNA replication-based mechanism (which we term "faulty template switching"). Fusion of nearby inverted repeats to form dicentrics may be a major cause of instability in yeast and in other organisms.

  12. RIM15 antagonistic pleiotropy is responsible for differences in fermentation and stress response kinetics in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kessi-Pérez, Eduardo I; Araos, Sebastián; García, Verónica; Salinas, Francisco; Abarca, Valentina; Larrondo, Luis F; Martínez, Claudio; Cubillos, Francisco A

    2016-05-01

    Different natural yeast populations have faced dissimilar selective pressures due to the heterogeneous fermentation substrates available around the world; this increases the genetic and phenotypic diversity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae In this context, we expect prominent differences between isolates when exposed to a particular condition, such as wine or sake musts. To better comprehend the mechanisms underlying niche adaptation between two S. cerevisiae isolates obtained from wine and sake fermentation processes, we evaluated fermentative and fungicide resistance phenotypes and identify the molecular origin of such adaptive variation. Multiple regions were associated with fermentation rate under different nitrogen conditions and fungicide resistance, with a single QTL co-localizing in all traits. Analysis around this region identified RIM15 as the causative locus driving fungicide sensitivity, together with efficient nitrogen utilization and glycerol production in the wine strain. A null RIM15 variant confers a greater fermentation rate through the utilization of available glucose instead of its storage. However, this variant has a detrimental effect on fungicide resistance since complex sugars are not synthesized and transported into the membrane. Together, our results reveal the antagonist pleiotropic nature of a RIM15 null variant, positively affecting a series of fermentation related phenotypes, but apparently detrimental in the wild.

  13. The C-terminal domains of human neurofibromin and its budding yeast homologs Ira1 and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangming; Kim, Junwon; Song, Kiwon

    2014-01-01

    The human tumor suppressor neurofibromin contains a cysteine and serine-rich domain/Ras-GTPase activating protein domain (CSRD/RasGAP) and a C-terminal domain (CTD). Domain studies of neurofibromin suggest it has other functions in addition to being a RasGAP, but the mechanisms underlying its tumor suppressor activity are not well understood. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a good model system for studying neurofibromin function because it possesses Ira1 and Ira2, which are homologous to human neurofibromin in both sequence and function. We found that overexpression of CTD or a neurofibromin CTD-homologous domain (CHD) of Ira1/2 in budding yeast delayed degradation of the securin protein Pds1, whereas overexpression of CSRD/RasGAP did not affect Pds1 degradation. We also found that when CTD or CHD was overexpressed, the number of cells in metaphase was higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that CTD and CHD function in the metaphase to anaphase transition. In addition, Δira1Δira2 cells bypassed mitotic arrest in response to spindle damage, indicating that Ira1 and Ira2 may be involved in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, Δira1Δira2Δmad2 cells are more sensitive to spindle damage than Δmad2 or Δira1Δira2 cells are, suggesting that Ira1/2 and Mad2 function in different pathways. Overexpression of CTD but not CSRD/RasGAP partially rescued the hypersensitivity of Δira1Δira2Δmad2 cells to microtubule-destabilizing drugs, indicating a role for CTD in the SAC pathway. Taken together, independently of RasGAP activity, the C-terminal domains of neurofibromin, Ira1, and Ira2 regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition in a Mad2-independent fashion.

  14. Ca(2+) homeostasis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Impact of ER/Golgi Ca(2+) storage.

    PubMed

    D'hooge, Petra; Coun, Catherina; Van Eyck, Vincent; Faes, Liesbeth; Ghillebert, Ruben; Mariën, Lore; Winderickx, Joris; Callewaert, Geert

    2015-08-01

    Yeast has proven to be a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular aspects of several biological processes in higher eukaryotes. As in mammalian cells, yeast intracellular Ca(2+) signalling is crucial for a myriad of biological processes. Yeast cells also bear homologs of the major components of the Ca(2+) signalling toolkit in mammalian cells, including channels, co-transporters and pumps. Using yeast single- and multiple-gene deletion strains of various plasma membrane and organellar Ca(2+) transporters, combined with manipulations to estimate intracellular Ca(2+) storage, we evaluated the contribution of individual transport systems to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Yeast strains lacking Pmr1 and/or Cod1, two ion pumps implicated in ER/Golgi Ca(2+) homeostasis, displayed a fragmented vacuolar phenotype and showed increased vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane. In the pmr1Δ strain, these effects were insensitive to calcineurin activity, independent of Cch1/Mid1 Ca(2+) channels and Pmc1 but required Vcx1. By contrast, in the cod1Δ strain increased vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake was not affected by Vcx1 deletion but was largely dependent on Pmc1 activity. Our analysis further corroborates the distinct roles of Vcx1 and Pmc1 in vacuolar Ca(2+) uptake and point to the existence of not-yet identified Ca(2+) influx pathways.

  15. Asymmetry of the budding yeast Tem1 GTPase at spindle poles is required for spindle positioning but not for mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Venturetti, Marianna; Hotz, Manuel; Lengefeld, Jette; Barral, Yves; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-02-01

    The asymmetrically dividing yeast S. cerevisiae assembles a bipolar spindle well after establishing the future site of cell division (i.e., the bud neck) and the division axis (i.e., the mother-bud axis). A surveillance mechanism called spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly positioned relative to the mother-bud axis, thereby ensuring the correct ploidy of the progeny. SPOC relies on the heterodimeric GTPase-activating protein Bub2/Bfa1 that inhibits the small GTPase Tem1, in turn essential for activating the mitotic exit network (MEN) kinase cascade and cytokinesis. The Bub2/Bfa1 GAP and the Tem1 GTPase form a complex at spindle poles that undergoes a remarkable asymmetry during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned, with the complex accumulating on the bud-directed old spindle pole. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. The mechanism driving asymmetry of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 in mitosis is unclear. Furthermore, whether asymmetry is involved in timely mitotic exit is controversial. We investigated the mechanism by which the GAP Bub2/Bfa1 controls GTP hydrolysis on Tem1 and generated a series of mutants leading to constitutive Tem1 activation. These mutants are SPOC-defective and invariably lead to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 at spindle poles, indicating that GTP hydrolysis is essential for asymmetry. Constitutive tethering of Bub2 or Bfa1 to both spindle poles impairs SPOC response but does not impair mitotic exit. Rather, it facilitates mitotic exit of MEN mutants, likely by increasing the residence time of Tem1 at spindle poles where it gets active. Surprisingly, all mutant or chimeric proteins leading to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 lead to increased symmetry at spindle poles of the Kar9 protein that mediates spindle positioning and cause spindle misalignment. Thus, asymmetry of the Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 complex is

  16. Asymmetry of the Budding Yeast Tem1 GTPase at Spindle Poles Is Required for Spindle Positioning But Not for Mitotic Exit

    PubMed Central

    Scarfone, Ilaria; Venturetti, Marianna; Hotz, Manuel; Lengefeld, Jette; Barral, Yves; Piatti, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The asymmetrically dividing yeast S. cerevisiae assembles a bipolar spindle well after establishing the future site of cell division (i.e., the bud neck) and the division axis (i.e., the mother-bud axis). A surveillance mechanism called spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis until the spindle is properly positioned relative to the mother-bud axis, thereby ensuring the correct ploidy of the progeny. SPOC relies on the heterodimeric GTPase-activating protein Bub2/Bfa1 that inhibits the small GTPase Tem1, in turn essential for activating the mitotic exit network (MEN) kinase cascade and cytokinesis. The Bub2/Bfa1 GAP and the Tem1 GTPase form a complex at spindle poles that undergoes a remarkable asymmetry during mitosis when the spindle is properly positioned, with the complex accumulating on the bud-directed old spindle pole. In contrast, the complex remains symmetrically localized on both poles of misaligned spindles. The mechanism driving asymmetry of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 in mitosis is unclear. Furthermore, whether asymmetry is involved in timely mitotic exit is controversial. We investigated the mechanism by which the GAP Bub2/Bfa1 controls GTP hydrolysis on Tem1 and generated a series of mutants leading to constitutive Tem1 activation. These mutants are SPOC-defective and invariably lead to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 at spindle poles, indicating that GTP hydrolysis is essential for asymmetry. Constitutive tethering of Bub2 or Bfa1 to both spindle poles impairs SPOC response but does not impair mitotic exit. Rather, it facilitates mitotic exit of MEN mutants, likely by increasing the residence time of Tem1 at spindle poles where it gets active. Surprisingly, all mutant or chimeric proteins leading to symmetrical localization of Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 lead to increased symmetry at spindle poles of the Kar9 protein that mediates spindle positioning and cause spindle misalignment. Thus, asymmetry of the Bub2/Bfa1/Tem1 complex is

  17. Clausmarin A, Potential Immunosuppressant Revealed by Yeast-Based Assay and Interleukin-2 Production Assay in Jurkat T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suauam, Pitipreya; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-ek; Palaga, Tanapat; Miyakawa, Tokichi; Yompakdee, Chulee

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of Ca2+-signaling pathways are of medicinal importance, as exemplified by the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A. Using a yeast-based assay devised for the specific detection of Ca2+-signaling inhibitors, clausmarin A, a previously reported terpenoid coumarin, was identified as an active substance. Here, we investigated the likely mechanism of clausmarin A action in yeast and Jurkat T-cells. In the presence of 100 mM CaCl2 in the growth medium of Ca2+-sensitive Δzds1 strain yeast, clausmarin A exhibited a dose-dependent alleviation of various defects due to hyperactivation of Ca2+ signaling, such as growth inhibition, polarized bud growth and G2 phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, clausmarin A inhibited the growth of Δmpk1 (lacking the Mpk1 MAP kinase pathway) but not Δcnb1 (lacking the calcineurin pathway) strain, suggesting that clausmarin A inhibited the calcineurin pathway as presumed from the synthetic lethality of these pathways. Furthermore, clausmarin A alleviated the serious defects of a strain expressing a constitutively active form of calcineurin. In the human Jurkat T-cell line, clausmarin A exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-2 production and IL-2 gene transcription, as well as an inhibition of NFAT dephosphorylation. The effects of clausmarin A observed in both yeast and Jurkat cells are basically similar to those of FK506. Our study revealed that clausmarin A is an inhibitor of the calcineurin pathway, and that this is probably mediated via inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity. As such, clausmarin A is a potential immunosuppressant. PMID:26313553

  18. Close, stable homolog juxtaposition during meiosis in budding yeast is dependent on meiotic recombination, occurs independently of synapsis, and is distinct from DSB-independent pairing contacts

    PubMed Central

    Peoples, Tamara L.; Dean, Eric; Gonzalez, Oscar; Lambourne, Lindsey; Burgess, Sean M.

    2002-01-01

    A site-specific recombination system that probes the relative probabilities that pairs of chromosomal loci collide with one another in living cells of budding yeast was used to explore the relative contributions of pairing, recombination, synaptonemal complex formation, and telomere clustering to the close juxtaposition of homologous chromosome pairs during meiosis. The level of Cre-mediated recombination between a pair of loxP sites located at an allelic position on homologous chromosomes was 13-fold greater than that between a pair of loxP sites located at ectopic positions on nonhomologous chromosomes. Mutations affecting meiotic recombination initiation and the processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) into single-end invasions (SEIs) reduced the levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination levels by three- to sixfold. The severity of Cre/loxP phenotypes is presented in contrast to relatively weak DSB-independent pairing defects as assayed using fluorescence in situ hybridization for these mutants. Mutations affecting synaptonemal complex (SC) formation or crossover control gave wild-type levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination. A delay in attaining maximum levels of allelic Cre-mediated recombination was observed for a mutant defective in telomere clustering. None of the mutants affected ectopic levels of recombination. These data suggest that stable, close homolog juxtaposition in yeast is distinct from pre-DSB pairing interactions, requires both DSB and SEI formation, but does not depend on crossovers or SC. PMID:12101126

  19. An interaction between Sla1p and Sla2p plays a role in regulating actin dynamics and endocytosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gourlay, Campbell W; Dewar, Hilary; Warren, Derek T; Costa, Rosaria; Satish, Nilima; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2003-06-15

    The importance of a dynamic actin cytoskeleton for facilitating endocytosis has been recognised for many years in budding yeast and is increasingly recognised in mammalian cells. However, the mechanism for actin recruitment and the role it plays in endocytosis is unclear. Here we show the importance of two yeast proteins in this process. We demonstrate that Sla1p and Sla2p interact in vitro and in vivo and that this interaction is mediated by the central domain of Sla2p, which includes its coiled-coil region, and by a domain of Sla1p between residues 118 and 361. Overexpression of the interacting fragment of Sla1p causes reduced fluid-phase endocytosis and, interestingly, defects in subsequent trafficking to vacuoles. We show that Sla2p is required for the polarised localisation of Sla1p in cells but not for its cortical localisation or for its overlapping localisation with actin. Generation of an Deltasla1Deltasla2 double mutant demonstrates that Sla2p is likely to act upstream of Sla1p in endocytosis, whereas sensitivity to latrunculin-A suggests that the proteins have opposite effects on actin dynamics. We propose that Sla2p recruits Sla1p to endocytic sites. Sla1p and its associated protein Pan1p then regulate actin assembly through interactions with Arp2/3 and Arp2/3-activating proteins Abp1p and Las17/Bee1p.

  20. A Method for Sporulating Budding Yeast Cells That Allows for Unbiased Identification of Kinase Substrates Using Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Suhandynata, Ray; Liang, Jason; Albuquerque, Claudio. P.; Zhou, Huilin; Hollingsworth, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics has been widely used to elucidate many cellular processes. In particular, stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) has been instrumental in improving the quality of data generated from quantitative high-throughput proteomic studies. SILAC uses the cell’s natural metabolic pathways to label proteins with isotopically heavy amino acids. Incorporation of these heavy amino acids effectively labels a cell’s proteome, allowing the comparison of cell cultures treated under different conditions. SILAC has been successfully applied to a variety of model organisms including yeast, fruit flies, plants, and mice to look for kinase substrates as well as protein–protein interactions. In budding yeast, several kinases are known to play critical roles in different aspects of meiosis. Therefore, the use of SILAC to identify potential kinase substrates would be helpful in the understanding the specific mechanisms by which these kinases act. Previously, it has not been possible to use SILAC to quantitatively study the phosphoproteome of meiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, because yeast cells sporulate inefficiently after pregrowth in standard synthetic medium. In this study we report the development of a synthetic, SILAC-compatible, pre-sporulation medium (RPS) that allows for efficient sporulation of S. cerevisiae SK1 diploids. Pre-growth in RPS supplemented with heavy amino acids efficiently labels the proteome, after which cells proceed relatively synchronously through meiosis, producing highly viable spores. As proof of principle, SILAC experiments were able to identify known targets of the meiosis-specific kinase Mek1. PMID:25168012

  1. Indistinguishable Landscapes of Meiotic DNA Breaks in rad50+ and rad50S Strains of Fission Yeast Revealed by a Novel rad50+ Recombination Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Hyppa, Randy W.; Cromie, Gareth A.; Smith, Gerald R.

    2008-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rec12 protein, the homolog of Spo11 in other organisms, initiates meiotic recombination by creating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and becoming covalently linked to the DNA ends of the break. This protein–DNA linkage has previously been detected only in mutants such as rad50S in which break repair is impeded and DSBs accumulate. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DSB distribution in a rad50S mutant is markedly different from that in wild-type (RAD50) meiosis, and it was suggested that this might also be true for other organisms. Here, we show that we can detect Rec12-DNA linkages in Sc. pombe rad50+ cells, which are proficient for DSB repair. In contrast to the results from Sa. cerevisiae, genome-wide microarray analysis of Rec12-DNA reveals indistinguishable meiotic DSB distributions in rad50+ and rad50S strains of Sc. pombe. These results confirm our earlier findings describing the occurrence of widely spaced DSBs primarily in large intergenic regions of DNA and demonstrate the relevance and usefulness of fission yeast studies employing rad50S. We propose that the differential behavior of rad50S strains reflects a major difference in DSB regulation between the two species—specifically, the requirement for the Rad50-containing complex for DSB formation in budding yeast but not in fission yeast. Use of rad50S and related mutations may be a useful method for DSB analysis in other species. PMID:19023408

  2. Quasi-programmed aging of budding yeast: a trade-off between programmed processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, stress response, survival and death defines yeast lifespan.

    PubMed

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Leonov, Anna; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that evolutionarily distant organisms share the key features of the aging process and exhibit similar mechanisms of its modulation by certain genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions. The scope of this review is to analyze mechanisms that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae underlie: (1) the replicative and chronological modes of aging; (2) the convergence of these 2 modes of aging into a single aging process; (3) a programmed differentiation of aging cell communities in liquid media and on solid surfaces; and (4) longevity-defining responses of cells to some chemical compounds released to an ecosystem by other organisms populating it. Based on such analysis, we conclude that all these mechanisms are programs for upholding the long-term survival of the entire yeast population inhabiting an ecological niche; however, none of these mechanisms is a "program of aging" - i.e., a program for progressing through consecutive steps of the aging process.

  3. Quasi-programmed aging of budding yeast: a trade-off between programmed processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, stress response, survival and death defines yeast lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Piano, Amanda; Leonov, Anna; Svistkova, Veronika; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that evolutionarily distant organisms share the key features of the aging process and exhibit similar mechanisms of its modulation by certain genetic, dietary and pharmacological interventions. The scope of this review is to analyze mechanisms that in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae underlie: (1) the replicative and chronological modes of aging; (2) the convergence of these 2 modes of aging into a single aging process; (3) a programmed differentiation of aging cell communities in liquid media and on solid surfaces; and (4) longevity-defining responses of cells to some chemical compounds released to an ecosystem by other organisms populating it. Based on such analysis, we conclude that all these mechanisms are programs for upholding the long-term survival of the entire yeast population inhabiting an ecological niche; however, none of these mechanisms is a ʺprogram of agingʺ - i.e., a program for progressing through consecutive steps of the aging process. PMID:25485579

  4. Long-term tracking of budding yeast cells in brightfield microscopy: CellStar and the Evaluation Platform

    PubMed Central

    Versari, Cristian; Stoma, Szymon; Batmanov, Kirill; Llamosi, Artémis; Mroz, Filip; Kaczmarek, Adam; Deyell, Matt

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous expansion of single cell biology, the observation of the behaviour of individual cells over extended durations and with high accuracy has become a problem of central importance. Surprisingly, even for yeast cells that have relatively regular shapes, no solution has been proposed that reaches the high quality required for long-term experiments for segmentation and tracking (S&T) based on brightfield images. Here, we present CellStar, a tool chain designed to achieve good performance in long-term experiments. The key features are the use of a new variant of parametrized active rays for segmentation, a neighbourhood-preserving criterion for tracking, and the use of an iterative approach that incrementally improves S&T quality. A graphical user interface enables manual corrections of S&T errors and their use for the automated correction of other, related errors and for parameter learning. We created a benchmark dataset with manually analysed images and compared CellStar with six other tools, showing its high performance, notably in long-term tracking. As a community effort, we set up a website, the Yeast Image Toolkit, with the benchmark and the Evaluation Platform to gather this and additional information provided by others. PMID:28179544

  5. Long-term tracking of budding yeast cells in brightfield microscopy: CellStar and the Evaluation Platform.

    PubMed

    Versari, Cristian; Stoma, Szymon; Batmanov, Kirill; Llamosi, Artémis; Mroz, Filip; Kaczmarek, Adam; Deyell, Matt; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Hersen, Pascal; Batt, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    With the continuous expansion of single cell biology, the observation of the behaviour of individual cells over extended durations and with high accuracy has become a problem of central importance. Surprisingly, even for yeast cells that have relatively regular shapes, no solution has been proposed that reaches the high quality required for long-term experiments for segmentation and tracking (S&T) based on brightfield images. Here, we present CellStar, a tool chain designed to achieve good performance in long-term experiments. The key features are the use of a new variant of parametrized active rays for segmentation, a neighbourhood-preserving criterion for tracking, and the use of an iterative approach that incrementally improves S&T quality. A graphical user interface enables manual corrections of S&T errors and their use for the automated correction of other, related errors and for parameter learning. We created a benchmark dataset with manually analysed images and compared CellStar with six other tools, showing its high performance, notably in long-term tracking. As a community effort, we set up a website, the Yeast Image Toolkit, with the benchmark and the Evaluation Platform to gather this and additional information provided by others.

  6. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Gogoi, Neeku M.; Pillai, Indu V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Munn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organisation of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  7. Ras/cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA) Regulates Multiple Aspects of Cellular Events by Phosphorylating the Whi3 Cell Cycle Regulator in Budding Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Mizunuma, Masaki; Tsubakiyama, Ryohei; Ogawa, Takafumi; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Kobayashi, Yoshifumi; Inai, Tomomi; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai

    2013-01-01

    The Start/G1 phase in the cell cycle is an important period during which cells determine their developmental fate, onset of mitotic progression, or the switch to developmental stages in response to both external and internal signals. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Whi3, a negative regulator of the G1 cyclins, has been identified as a positive regulator of cell size control and is involved in the regulation of Start. However, the regulatory pathway of Whi3 governing the response to multiple signals remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Whi3 is phosphorylated by the Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and that phosphorylation of Ser-568 in Whi3 by PKA plays an inhibitory role in Whi3 function. Phosphorylation of Whi3 by PKA led to its decreased interaction with CLN3 G1 cyclin mRNA and was required for the promotion of G1/S progression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phosphomimetic S568D mutation of Whi3 prevented the developmental fate switch to sporulation or invasive growth. Thus, PKA modulated the function of Whi3 by phosphorylation, thus implicating PKA-mediated modulation of Whi3 in multiple cellular events. PMID:23471970

  8. PP2ACdc55’s role in reductional chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis in budding yeast is independent of its FEAR function

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Gary W.; Wong, Jin Huei; Arumugam, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    PP2ACdc55 is a highly conserved serine-threonine protein phosphatase that is involved in diverse cellular processes. In budding yeast, meiotic cells lacking PP2ACdc55 activity undergo a premature exit from meiosis I which results in a failure to form bipolar spindles and divide nuclei. This defect is largely due to its role in negatively regulating the Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) pathway. PP2ACdc55 prevents nucleolar release of the Cdk (Cyclin-dependent kinase)-antagonising phosphatase Cdc14 by counteracting phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein Net1 by Cdk. CDC55 was identified in a genetic screen for monopolins performed by isolating suppressors of spo11Δ spo12Δ lethality suggesting that Cdc55 might have a role in meiotic chromosome segregation. We investigated this possibility by isolating cdc55 alleles that suppress spo11Δ spo12Δ lethality and show that this suppression is independent of PP2ACdc55’s FEAR function. Although the suppressor mutations in cdc55 affect reductional chromosome segregation in the absence of recombination, they have no effect on chromosome segregation during wild type meiosis. We suggest that Cdc55 is required for reductional chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis and this is independent of its FEAR function. PMID:27455870

  9. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Lemnian, Ioana; Gohr, André; Kasper, Lydia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Grosse, Ivo; Breunig, Karin D.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive) while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative), which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and KlCat8, to

  10. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mehlgarten, Constance; Krijger, Jorrit-Jan; Lemnian, Ioana; Gohr, André; Kasper, Lydia; Diesing, Anne-Kathrin; Grosse, Ivo; Breunig, Karin D

    2015-01-01

    Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive) while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative), which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and KlCat8, to

  11. Important role of catalase in the cellular response of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2015-03-01

    Ionizing radiation indirectly causes oxidative stress in cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radicals (OH(-)) generated by the radiolysis of water. We investigated how the catalase function was affected by ionizing radiation and analyzed the phenotype of mutants with a disrupted catalase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to radiation. The wild-type yeast strain and isogenic mutants with disrupted catalase genes were exposed to various doses of (60)Co gamma-rays. There was no difference between the wild-type strain and the cta1 disruption mutant following exposure to gamma-ray irradiation. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the ctt1 disruption mutant, suggesting that this strain exhibited decreased survival on gamma-ray exposure compared with other strains. In all three strains, stationary phase cells were more tolerant to the exposure of gamma-rays than exponential phase cells, whereas the catalase activity in the wild-type strain and cta1 disruption mutant was higher in the stationary phase than in the exponential phase. These data suggest a correlation between catalase activity and survival following gamma-ray exposure. However, this correlation was not clear in the ctt1 disruption mutant, suggesting that other factors are involved in the tolerance to ROS induced by irradiation.

  12. Rfc5, a small subunit of replication factor C complex, couples DNA replication and mitosis in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, K; Shimomura, T; Hashimoto, K; Araki, H; Sugino, A; Matsumoto, K

    1996-01-01

    The inhibition of DNA synthesis prevents mitotic entry through the action of the S phase checkpoint. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an essential protein kinase, Spk1/Mec2/Rad53/Sad1, controls the coupling of S phase to mitosis. In an attempt to identify genes that genetically interact with Spk1, we have isolated a temperature-sensitive mutation, rfc5-1, that can be suppressed by overexpression of SPK1. The RFC5 gene encodes a small subunit of replication factor C complex. At the restrictive temperature, rfc5-1 mutant cells entered mitosis with unevenly separated or fragmented chromosomes, resulting in loss of viability. Thus, the rfc5 mutation defective for DNA replication is also impaired in the S phase checkpoint. Overexpression of POL30, which encodes the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, suppressed the replication defect of the rfc5 mutant but not its checkpoint defect. Taken together, these results suggested that replication factor C has a direct role in sensing the state of DNA replication and transmitting the signal to the checkpoint machinery. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8692942

  13. Osh proteins regulate COPII-mediated vesicular transport of ceramide from the endoplasmic reticulum in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Kentaro; Ikeda, Atsuko; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Castillon, Guillaume A; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Hanada, Kentaro; Riezman, Howard; Muñiz, Manuel; Funato, Kouichi

    2014-01-15

    Lipids synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are delivered to the Golgi by vesicular and non-vesicular pathways. ER-to-Golgi transport is crucial for maintaining the different membrane lipid composition and identities of organelles. Despite their importance, mechanisms regulating transport remain elusive. Here we report that in yeast coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle-mediated transport of ceramide from the ER to the Golgi requires oxysterol-binding protein homologs, Osh proteins, which have been implicated in lipid homeostasis. Because Osh proteins are not required to transport proteins to the Golgi, these results indicate a specific requirement for the Osh proteins in the transport of ceramide. In addition, we provide evidence that Osh proteins play a negative role in COPII vesicle biogenesis. Together, our data suggest that ceramide transport and sphingolipid levels between the ER and Golgi are maintained by two distinct functions of Osh proteins, which negatively regulate COPII vesicle formation and positively control a later stage, presumably fusion of ceramide-enriched vesicles with Golgi compartments.

  14. Alk1 and Alk2 are two new cell cycle-regulated haspin-like proteins in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Nespoli, Alessandro; Vercillo, Raffaella; di Nola, Lisa; Diani, Laura; Giannattasio, Michele; Plevani, Paolo; Muzi-Falconi, Marco

    2006-07-01

    Haspin is a protein kinase identified in mouse and human cells, and genes coding for haspin-like proteins are present in virtually all eukaryotic genomes sequenced so far. Two haspin homologues, called Alk1 and Alk2, are present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both Alk1 and Alk2 exhibit a weak auto-kinase activity in vitro, are phosphoproteins in vivo and are hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage. The amount and modification of the two proteins is greatly regulated during the cell cycle. In fact, Alk1 and Alk2 levels peak in mitosis and late-S/G2, respectively, and phosphorylation of both proteins is maximal in mitosis. Control of protein stability plays a major role in Alk2 regulation. The half-life of Alk2 is particularly short in G1; mutagenesis and genetic analysis indicate that its degradation is controlled by the APC pathway. Overexpression of ALK2, but not of ALK1, causes a mitotic arrest, which is correlated to the kinase activity of the protein. This finding, together with its cell cycle regulation, suggests a role for Alk2 in the control of mitosis.

  15. Proteomic Research Reveals the Stress Response and Detoxification of Yeast to Combined Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:22952687

  16. Proteomic research reveals the stress response and detoxification of yeast to combined inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Jing-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The tolerant mechanism of yeast to the combination of three inhibitors (furfural, phenol and acetic acid) was investigated using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The stress response and detoxification related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Hsp26p) were expressed higher in the tolerant yeast than in the parental yeast. The expressions of most nitrogen metabolism related proteins (e.g. Gdh1p, Met1p) were higher in the parental yeast, indicating that the tolerant yeast decreases its nitrogen metabolism rate to reserve energy, and possesses high resistance to the stress of combined inhibitors. Furthermore, upon exposure to the inhibitors, the proteins related to protein folding, degradation and translation (e.g., Ssc1p, Ubp14p, Efb1p) were all significantly affected, and the oxidative stress related proteins (e.g., Ahp1p, Grx1p) were increased. Knockdown of genes related to the oxidative stress and unfolded protein response (Grx1, Gre2, Asc1) significantly decreased the tolerance of yeast to inhibitors, which further suggested that yeast responded to the inhibitors mainly by inducing unfolded protein response. This study reveals that increasing the detoxification and tolerating oxidative stress, and/or decreasing the nitrogen metabolism would be promising strategies in developing more tolerant strains to the multiple inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates.

  17. Budding yeast ATM/ATR control meiotic double-strand break (DSB) levels by down-regulating Rec114, an essential component of the DSB-machinery.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Jesús A; Panizza, Silvia; Serrentino, Maria Elisabetta; Johnson, Anthony L; Geymonat, Marco; Borde, Valérie; Klein, Franz; Cha, Rita S

    2013-06-01

    An essential feature of meiosis is Spo11 catalysis of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Evidence suggests that the number of DSBs generated per meiosis is genetically determined and that this ability to maintain a pre-determined DSB level, or "DSB homeostasis", might be a property of the meiotic program. Here, we present direct evidence that Rec114, an evolutionarily conserved essential component of the meiotic DSB-machinery, interacts with DSB hotspot DNA, and that Tel1 and Mec1, the budding yeast ATM and ATR, respectively, down-regulate Rec114 upon meiotic DSB formation through phosphorylation. Mimicking constitutive phosphorylation reduces the interaction between Rec114 and DSB hotspot DNA, resulting in a reduction and/or delay in DSB formation. Conversely, a non-phosphorylatable rec114 allele confers a genome-wide increase in both DSB levels and in the interaction between Rec114 and the DSB hotspot DNA. These observations strongly suggest that Tel1 and/or Mec1 phosphorylation of Rec114 following Spo11 catalysis down-regulates DSB formation by limiting the interaction between Rec114 and DSB hotspots. We also present evidence that Ndt80, a meiosis specific transcription factor, contributes to Rec114 degradation, consistent with its requirement for complete cessation of DSB formation. Loss of Rec114 foci from chromatin is associated with homolog synapsis but independent of Ndt80 or Tel1/Mec1 phosphorylation. Taken together, we present evidence for three independent ways of regulating Rec114 activity, which likely contribute to meiotic DSBs-homeostasis in maintaining genetically determined levels of breaks.

  18. Analysis of replication profiles reveals key role of RFC-Ctf18 in yeast replication stress response.

    PubMed

    Crabbé, Laure; Thomas, Aubin; Pantesco, Véronique; De Vos, John; Pasero, Philippe; Lengronne, Armelle

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity relies on surveillance mechanisms that detect and signal arrested replication forks. Although evidence from budding yeast indicates that the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC) is primarily activated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), studies in higher eukaryotes have implicated primer ends in this process. To identify factors that signal primed ssDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have screened a collection of checkpoint mutants for their ability to activate the DRC, using the repression of late origins as readout for checkpoint activity. This quantitative analysis reveals that neither RFC(Rad24) and the 9-1-1 clamp nor the alternative clamp loader RFC(Elg1) is required to signal paused forks. In contrast, we found that RFC(Ctf18) is essential for the Mrc1-dependent activation of Rad53 and for the maintenance of paused forks. These data identify RFC(Ctf18) as a key DRC mediator, potentially bridging Mrc1 and primed ssDNA to signal paused forks.

  19. Systematic analysis of asymmetric partitioning of yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells reveals "aging factors" and mechanism of lifespan asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; McCormick, Mark A; Zheng, Jiashun; Xie, Zhengwei; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; El-Samad, Hana; Ouyang, Qi; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K; Li, Hao

    2015-09-22

    Budding yeast divides asymmetrically, giving rise to a mother cell that progressively ages and a daughter cell with full lifespan. It is generally assumed that mother cells retain damaged, lifespan limiting materials ("aging factors") through asymmetric division. However, the identity of these aging factors and the mechanisms through which they limit lifespan remain poorly understood. Using a flow cytometry-based, high-throughput approach, we quantified the asymmetric partitioning of the yeast proteome between mother and daughter cells during cell division, discovering 74 mother-enriched and 60 daughter-enriched proteins. While daughter-enriched proteins are biased toward those needed for bud construction and genome maintenance, mother-enriched proteins are biased towards those localized in the plasma membrane and vacuole. Deletion of 23 of the 74 mother-enriched proteins leads to lifespan extension, a fraction that is about six times that of the genes picked randomly from the genome. Among these lifespan-extending genes, three are involved in endosomal sorting/endosome to vacuole transport, and three are nitrogen source transporters. Tracking the dynamic expression of specific mother-enriched proteins revealed that their concentration steadily increases in the mother cells as they age, but is kept relatively low in the daughter cells via asymmetric distribution. Our results suggest that some mother-enriched proteins may increase to a concentration that becomes deleterious and lifespan-limiting in aged cells, possibly by upsetting homeostasis or leading to aberrant signaling. Our study provides a comprehensive resource for analyzing asymmetric cell division and aging in yeast, which should also be valuable for understanding similar phenomena in other organisms.

  20. The linear interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic noises ensures a high accuracy of cell fate selection in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongkai; Yi, Ming; Zou, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    To gain insights into the mechanisms of cell fate decision in a noisy environment, the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on cell fate are explored at the single cell level. Specifically, we theoretically define the impulse of Cln1/2 as an indication of cell fates. The strong dependence between the impulse of Cln1/2 and cell fates is exhibited. Based on the simulation results, we illustrate that increasing intrinsic fluctuations causes the parallel shift of the separation ratio of Whi5P but that increasing extrinsic fluctuations leads to the mixture of different cell fates. Our quantitative study also suggests that the strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic noises around an approximate linear model can ensure a high accuracy of cell fate selection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the selection of cell fates is an entropy-decreasing process. In addition, we reveal that cell fates are significantly correlated with the range of entropy decreases. PMID:25042292

  1. Papulacandin B resistance in budding and fission yeasts: isolation and characterization of a gene involved in (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Castro, C; Ribas, J C; Valdivieso, M H; Varona, R; del Rey, F; Duran, A

    1995-01-01

    Papulacandin B, an antifungal agent that interferes with the synthesis of yeast cell wall (1,3)beta-D-glucan, was used to isolate resistant mutants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resistance to papulacandin B always segregated as a recessive character that defines a single complementation group in both yeasts (pbr1+ and PBR1, respectively). Determination of several kinetic parameters of (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity revealed no differences between S. pombe wild-type and pbr1 mutant strains except in the 50% inhibitory concentration for papulacandin B of the synthases (about a 50-fold increase in mutant activity). Inactivation of the synthase activity of both yeasts after in vivo treatment with the antifungal agent showed that mutant synthases were more resistant than the corresponding wild-type ones. Detergent dissociation of the S. pombe synthase into soluble and particulate fractions and subsequent reconstitution indicated that the resistance character of pbr1 mutants resides in the particulate fraction of the enzyme. Cloning and sequencing of PBR1 from S. cerevisiae revealed a gene identical to others recently reported (FKS1, ETG1, CWH53, and CND1). Its disruption leads to reduced levels of both (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity and the alkali-insoluble cell wall fraction. Transformants containing the PBR1 gene reverse the defect in (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase. It is concluded that Pbr1p is probably part of the (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase complex. PMID:7592316

  2. Arenavirus Budding

    PubMed Central

    Urata, Shuzo; de la Torre, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Several arenaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health concern in their endemic regions. On the other hand, the prototypic arenavirus LCMV is a superb workhorse for the investigation of virus-host interactions and associated disease. The arenavirus small RING finger protein called Z has been shown to be the main driving force of virus budding. The budding activity of Z is mediated by late (L) domain motifs, PT/SAP, and PPXY, located at the C-terminus of Z. This paper will present the current knowledge on arenavirus budding including the diversity of L domain motifs used by different arenaviruses. We will also discuss how improved knowledge of arenavirus budding may facilitate the development of novel antiviral strategies to combat human pathogenic arenaviruses. PMID:22312335

  3. Functional Characterization of Rpn3 Uncovers a Distinct 19S Proteasomal Subunit Requirement for Ubiquitin-Dependent Proteolysis of Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Eric; Reed, Steven I.

    1999-01-01

    By selectively eliminating ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, the 26S proteasome plays a pivotal role in a large variety of cellular regulatory processes, particularly in the control of cell cycle transitions. Access of ubiquitinated substrates to the inner catalytic chamber within the 20S core particle is mediated by the 19S regulatory particle (RP), whose subunit composition in budding yeast has been recently elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the cell cycle defects resulting from conditional inactivation of one of these RP components, the essential non-ATPase Rpn3/Sun2 subunit. Using temperature-sensitive mutant alleles, we show that rpn3 mutations do not prevent the G1/S transition but cause a metaphase arrest, indicating that the essential Rpn3 function is limiting for mitosis. rpn3 mutants appear severely compromised in the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of several physiologically important proteasome substrates. Thus, RPN3 function is required for the degradation of the G1-phase cyclin Cln2 targeted by SCF; the S-phase cyclin Clb5, whose ubiquitination is likely to involve a combination of E3 (ubiquitin protein ligase) enzymes; and anaphase-promoting complex targets, such as the B-type cyclin Clb2 and the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Our results indicate that the Pds1 degradation defect of the rpn3 mutants most likely accounts for the metaphase arrest phenotype observed. Surprisingly, but consistent with the lack of a G1 arrest phenotype in thermosensitive rpn3 strains, the Cdk inhibitor Sic1 exhibits a short half-life regardless of the RPN3 genotype. In striking contrast, Sic1 turnover is severely impaired by a temperature-sensitive mutation in RPN12/NIN1, encoding another essential RP subunit. While other interpretations are possible, these data strongly argue for the requirement of distinct RP subunits for efficient proteolysis of specific cell cycle regulators. The potential implications of these data are discussed in the context of possible Rpn3

  4. The Toxoplasma gondii centrosome is the platform for internal daughter budding as revealed by a Nek1 kinase mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2013-08-01

    The pathology and severity of toxoplasmosis results from the rapid replication cycle of the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The tachyzoites divide asexually through endodyogeny, wherein two daughter cells bud inside the mother cell. Before mitosis is completed, the daughter buds form around the duplicated centrosomes and subsequently elongate to serve as the scaffold for organellogenesis and organelle partitioning. The molecular control mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Here, we characterized a T. gondii NIMA-related kinase (Nek) ortholog that was identified in a chemical mutagenesis screen. A temperature-sensitive mutant, V-A15, possesses a Cys316Arg mutation in TgNek1 (a novel mutant allele in Neks), which is responsible for growth defects at the restrictive temperature. Phenotypic analysis of V-A15 indicated that TgNek1 is essential for centrosome splitting, proper formation of daughter cells and faithful segregation of genetic material. In vitro kinase assays showed that the mutation abolishes the kinase activity of TgNek1. TgNek1 is recruited to the centrosome prior to its duplication and localizes on the duplicated centrosomes facing the spindle poles in a cell-cycle-dependent manner. Mutational analysis of the activation loop suggests that localization and activity are spatio-temporally regulated by differential phosphorylation. Collectively, our results identified a novel temperature-sensitive allele for a Nek kinase and highlight its essential function in centrosome splitting in Toxoplasma. Moreover, these results conclusively show for the first time that Toxoplasma bud assembly is facilitated by the centrosome because defective centrosome splitting results in single daughter cell budding.

  5. Yeast-yeast interactions revealed by aromatic profile analysis of Sauvignon Blanc wine fermented by single or co-culture of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sadoudi, Mohand; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Steyer, Damien; Gallardo-Chacón, Joan-Josep; Ballester, Jordi; Vichi, Stefania; Guérin-Schneider, Rémi; Caixach, Josep; Alexandre, Hervé

    2012-12-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main reason is that the multistarter fermentation process is thought to simulate indigenous fermentation, thus increasing wine aroma complexity while avoiding the risks linked to natural fermentation. However, multistarter fermentation is characterised by complex and largely unknown interactions between yeasts. Consequently the resulting wine quality is rather unpredictable. In order to better understand the interactions that take place between non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation, we analysed the volatile profiles of several mono-culture and co-cultures. Candida zemplinina, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were used to conduct fermentations either in mono-culture or in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. Up to 48 volatile compounds belonging to different chemical families were quantified. For the first time, we show that C. zemplinina is a strong producer of terpenes and lactones. We demonstrate by means of multivariate analysis that different interactions exist between the co-cultures studied. We observed a synergistic effect on aromatic compound production when M. pulcherrima was in co-culture with S. cerevisiae. However a negative interaction was observed between C. zemplinina and S. cerevisiae, which resulted in a decrease in terpene and lactone content. These interactions are independent of biomass production. The aromatic profiles of T. delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae in mono-culture and in co-culture are very close, and are biomass-dependent, reflecting a neutral interaction. This study reveals that a whole family of compounds could be altered by such interactions. These results suggest that the entire metabolic pathway is affected by these interactions.

  6. A Stochastic Model of the Yeast Cell Cycle Reveals Roles for Feedback Regulation in Limiting Cellular Variability

    PubMed Central

    Ball, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system. In this paper we provide a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle that accurately accounts for the variable phenotypes of wild-type cells and more than 20 mutant yeast strains simulated in different growth conditions. We specifically tested the role of feedback regulations mediated by G1- and SG2M-phase cyclins to minimize the noise in cell cycle progression. Details of the model are informed and tested by quantitative measurements (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the joint distributions of mRNA populations in yeast cells. We use the model to predict the phenotypes of ~30 mutant yeast strains that have not yet been characterized experimentally. PMID:27935947

  7. A Stochastic Model of the Yeast Cell Cycle Reveals Roles for Feedback Regulation in Limiting Cellular Variability.

    PubMed

    Barik, Debashis; Ball, David A; Peccoud, Jean; Tyson, John J

    2016-12-01

    The cell division cycle of eukaryotes is governed by a complex network of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs) and auxiliary proteins that govern CDK activities. The control system must function reliably in the context of molecular noise that is inevitable in tiny yeast cells, because mistakes in sequencing cell cycle events are detrimental or fatal to the cell or its progeny. To assess the effects of noise on cell cycle progression requires not only extensive, quantitative, experimental measurements of cellular heterogeneity but also comprehensive, accurate, mathematical models of stochastic fluctuations in the CDK control system. In this paper we provide a stochastic model of the budding yeast cell cycle that accurately accounts for the variable phenotypes of wild-type cells and more than 20 mutant yeast strains simulated in different growth conditions. We specifically tested the role of feedback regulations mediated by G1- and SG2M-phase cyclins to minimize the noise in cell cycle progression. Details of the model are informed and tested by quantitative measurements (by fluorescence in situ hybridization) of the joint distributions of mRNA populations in yeast cells. We use the model to predict the phenotypes of ~30 mutant yeast strains that have not yet been characterized experimentally.

  8. Xbp1 Directs Global Repression of Budding Yeast Transcription during the Transition to Quiescence and Is Important for the Longevity and Reversibility of the Quiescent State

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Li, Lihong; Davison, Jerry; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Pure populations of quiescent yeast can be obtained from stationary phase cultures that have ceased proliferation after exhausting glucose and other carbon sources from their environment. They are uniformly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and display very high thermo-tolerance and longevity. We find that G1 arrest is initiated before all the glucose has been scavenged from the media. Maintaining G1 arrest requires transcriptional repression of the G1 cyclin, CLN3, by Xbp1. Xbp1 is induced as glucose is depleted and it is among the most abundant transcripts in quiescent cells. Xbp1 binds and represses CLN3 transcription and in the absence of Xbp1, or with extra copies of CLN3, cells undergo ectopic divisions and produce very small cells. The Rad53-mediated replication stress checkpoint reinforces the arrest and becomes essential when Cln3 is overproduced. The XBP1 transcript also undergoes metabolic oscillations under glucose limitation and we identified many additional transcripts that oscillate out of phase with XBP1 and have Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Further global analysis revealed that Xbp1 represses 15% of all yeast genes as they enter the quiescent state and over 500 of these transcripts contain Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Xbp1-repressed transcripts are highly enriched for genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell division and metabolism. Failure to repress some or all of these targets leads xbp1 cells to enter a permanent arrest or senescence with a shortened lifespan. PMID:24204289

  9. Pea2 protein of yeast is localized to sites of polarized growth and is required for efficient mating and bipolar budding

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits polarized growth during two phases of its life cycle, budding and mating. The site for polarization during vegetative growth is determined genetically: a and alpha haploid cells exhibit an axial budding pattern, and a/alpha diploid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. During mating, each cell polarizes towards its partner to ensure efficient mating. SPA2 is required for the bipolar budding pattern (Snyder. M 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1419-1429; Zahner, J.A., H.A. Harkins, and J.R. Pringle. 1996. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1857-1870) and polarization during mating (Snyder, M., S. Gehrung, and B.D. Page. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114: 515-532). We previously identified mutants defective in PEA2 and SPA2 which alter cell polarization in the presence of mating pheromone in a similar manner (Chenevert, J., N. Valtz, and I. Herskowitz. 1994. Genetics, 136:1287-1297). Here we report the further characterization of these mutants. We have found that PEA2 is also required for the bipolar budding pattern and that it encodes a novel protein with a predicted coiled-coil domain. Pea2p is expressed in all cell types and is localized to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells in a pattern similar to Spa2p, Pea2p and Spa2p exhibit interdependent localization: Spa2p is produced in pea2 mutants but fails to localize properly; Pea2p is not stably produced in spa2 mutants. These results suggest that Pea2p and Spa2p function together as a complex to generate the bipolar budding pattern and to guarantee proper polarization during mating. PMID:8909546

  10. New insights into sulfur metabolism in yeasts as revealed by studies of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal; Beckerich, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution.

  11. New Insights into Sulfur Metabolism in Yeasts as Revealed by Studies of Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Agnès; Forquin-Gomez, Marie-Pierre; Roux, Aurélie; Aubert, Julie; Junot, Christophe; Heilier, Jean-François; Landaud, Sophie; Bonnarme, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica, located at the frontier of hemiascomycetous yeasts and fungi, is an excellent candidate for studies of metabolism evolution. This yeast, widely recognized for its technological applications, in particular produces volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) that fully contribute to the flavor of smear cheese. We report here a relevant global vision of sulfur metabolism in Y. lipolytica based on a comparison between high- and low-sulfur source supplies (sulfate, methionine, or cystine) by combined approaches (transcriptomics, metabolite profiling, and VSC analysis). The strongest repression of the sulfate assimilation pathway was observed in the case of high methionine supply, together with a large accumulation of sulfur intermediates. A high sulfate supply seems to provoke considerable cellular stress via sulfite production, resulting in a decrease of the availability of the glutathione pathway's sulfur intermediates. The most limited effect was observed for the cystine supply, suggesting that the intracellular cysteine level is more controlled than that of methionine and sulfate. Using a combination of metabolomic profiling and genetic experiments, we revealed taurine and hypotaurine metabolism in yeast for the first time. On the basis of a phylogenetic study, we then demonstrated that this pathway was lost by some of the hemiascomycetous yeasts during evolution. PMID:23220962

  12. Yeast genome-wide screen reveals dissimilar sets of host genes affecting replication of RNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Panavas, Tadas; Serviene, Elena; Brasher, Jeremy; Nagy, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Viruses are devastating pathogens of humans, animals, and plants. To further our understanding of how viruses use the resources of infected cells, we systematically tested the yeast single-gene-knockout library for the effect of each host gene on the replication of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a positive-strand RNA virus of plants. The genome-wide screen identified 96 host genes whose absence either reduced or increased the accumulation of the TBSV replicon. The identified genes are involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, and other compounds and in protein targeting/transport. Comparison with published genome-wide screens reveals that the replication of TBSV and brome mosaic virus (BMV), which belongs to a different supergroup among plus-strand RNA viruses, is affected by vastly different yeast genes. Moreover, a set of yeast genes involved in vacuolar targeting of proteins and vesicle-mediated transport both affected replication of the TBSV replicon and enhanced the cytotoxicity of the Parkinson's disease-related α-synuclein when this protein was expressed in yeast. In addition, a set of host genes involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism affected both TBSV replication and the cytotoxicity of a mutant huntingtin protein, a candidate agent in Huntington's disease. This finding suggests that virus infection and disease-causing proteins might use or alter similar host pathways and may suggest connections between chronic diseases and prior virus infection. PMID:15883361

  13. Genetic mosaic analysis reveals FGF receptor 2 function in terminal end buds during mammary gland branching morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pengfei; Ewald, Andrew J.; Martin, Gail R.; Werb, Zena

    2008-01-01

    FGF signaling is associated with breast cancer and is required for mammary placode formation in the mouse. In this study, we employed a genetic mosaic analysis based on Cre-mediated recombination to investigate FGF receptor 2 (Fgfr2) function in the postnatal mammary gland. Mosaic inactivation of Fgfr2 by the MMTVCre transgene enabled us to compare the behavior of Fgfr2 null and Fgfr2 heterozygous cells in the same gland. Fgfr2 null cells were at a competitive disadvantage to their Fgfr2 heterozygous neighbors in the highly proliferative terminal end buds (TEBs) at the invasion front, owing to a negative effect of loss of Fgfr2 function on cell proliferation. However, Fgfr2 null cells were tolerated in mature ducts. In these genetic mosaic mammary glands, the epithelial network is apparently built by TEBs that over time are composed of a progressively larger proportion of Fgfr2-positive cells. However, subsequently, most cells lose Fgfr2 function, presumably due to additional rounds of Cre-mediated recombination. Using an independent strategy to create mosaic mammary glands, which employed an adenovirus-Cre that acts only once, we confirmed that Fgfr2 null cells were out-competed by neighboring Fgfr2 heterozygous cells. Together, our data demonstrate that Fgfr2 functions in the proliferating and invading TEBs, but it is not required in the mature ducts of the pubertal mammary gland. PMID:18585375

  14. Deletion of the cruciform binding domain in CBP/14-3-3 displays reduced origin binding and initiation of DNA replication in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Yahyaoui, Wafaa; Callejo, Mario; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication involves many protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. We have previously shown that 14-3-3 proteins bind cruciform DNA and associate with mammalian and yeast replication origins in a cell cycle dependent manner. Results By expressing the human 14-3-3ε, as the sole member of 14-3-3 proteins family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that 14-3-3ε complements the S. cerevisiae Bmh1/Bmh2 double knockout, conserves its cruciform binding activity, and associates in vivo with the yeast replication origins ARS307. Deletion of the α5-helix, the potential cruciform binding domain of 14-3-3, decreased the cruciform binding activity of the protein as well as its association with the yeast replication origins ARS307 and ARS1. Furthermore, the mutant cells had a reduced ability to stably maintain plasmids bearing one or multiple origins. Conclusion 14-3-3, a cruciform DNA binding protein, associates with yeast origins of replication and functions as an initiator of DNA replication, presumably through binding to cruciform DNA forming at yeast replicators. PMID:17430600

  15. Genetic dissection of the budding yeast Arp2/3 complex: A comparison of the in vivo and structural roles of individual subunits

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Dirk C.; Choe, Elizabeth Y.; Li, Rong

    1999-01-01

    In previous work, we identified the yeast Arp2/3 complex, which localizes to cortical actin patches and is required for their motility and integrity in vivo. This complex contains proteins homologous to each subunit of the Acanthamoeba and human Arp2/3 complex except for a 40-kDa subunit (p40), which was missing from the purified yeast complex. Here, we demonstrate by using immunoprecipitation and gel-filtration analysis that Arc40p, the homolog of p40 identified from the yeast genome database, associates with the yeast Arp2/3 complex. We have carried out gene disruptions of each subunit of the yeast Arp2/3 complex to study each subunit’s role in the function of the complex. Surprisingly, we find that only ARC40 is fully essential for cell viability. Strains lacking each of the other subunits exhibit varying degrees of defects in cell growth and viability and in assembly and polarization of cortical actin patches. We have also examined each subunit’s role in maintaining the structural integrity of the Arp2/3 complex. Arp2p, Arp3p, and Arc40p fall into the monomer pool in Δarc19 and Δarc35 cells, suggesting that Arc19p and Arc35p are the central scaffolding components of the complex. Arp2p and Arp3p do not have major roles in maintaining complex integrity, and Arc15p is required for association of Arp2p and Arc40p, but not other subunits, with the complex. These results provide evidence that each subunit contributes differently to the assembly and function of the Arp2/3 complex. PMID:10377407

  16. Bulk Segregant Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of a Natural Trait Variation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Suo, Fang; Du, Li-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a well-established model organism, studies of natural trait variations in this species remain limited. To assess the feasibility of segregant-pool-based mapping of phenotype-causing genes in natural strains of fission yeast, we investigated the cause of a maltose utilization defect (Mal-) of the S. pombe strain CBS5557 (originally known as Schizosaccharomyces malidevorans). Analyzing the genome sequence of CBS5557 revealed 955 nonconservative missense substitutions, and 61 potential loss-of-function variants including 47 frameshift indels, 13 early stop codons, and 1 splice site mutation. As a side benefit, our analysis confirmed 146 sequence errors in the reference genome and improved annotations of 27 genes. We applied bulk segregant analysis to map the causal locus of the Mal- phenotype. Through sequencing the segregant pools derived from a cross between CBS5557 and the laboratory strain, we located the locus to within a 2.23-Mb chromosome I inversion found in most S. pombe isolates including CBS5557. To map genes within the inversion region that occupies 18% of the genome, we created a laboratory strain containing the same inversion. Analyzing segregants from a cross between CBS5557 and the inversion-containing laboratory strain narrowed down the locus to a 200-kb interval and led us to identify agl1, which suffers a 5-bp deletion in CBS5557, as the causal gene. Interestingly, loss of agl1 through a 34-kb deletion underlies the Mal- phenotype of another S. pombe strain CGMCC2.1628. This work adapts and validates the bulk segregant analysis method for uncovering trait-gene relationship in natural fission yeast strains. PMID:26615217

  17. Population Genomic Analysis Reveals Highly Conserved Mitochondrial Genomes in the Yeast Species Lachancea thermotolerans

    PubMed Central

    Freel, Kelle C.; Friedrich, Anne; Hou, Jing; Schacherer, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of mitochondrial (mt) sequence data from various yeasts provides a tool to study genomic evolution within and between different species. While the genomes from a range of lineages are available, there is a lack of information concerning intraspecific mtDNA diversity. Here, we analyzed the mt genomes of 50 strains from Lachancea thermotolerans, a protoploid yeast species that has been isolated from several locations (Europe, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and North / South America) and ecological sources (fruit, tree exudate, plant material, and grape and agave fermentations). Protein-coding genes from the mtDNA were used to construct a phylogeny, which reflected a similar, yet less resolved topology than the phylogenetic tree of 50 nuclear genes. In comparison to its sister species Lachancea kluyveri, L. thermotolerans has a smaller mt genome. This is due to shorter intergenic regions and fewer introns, of which the latter are only found in COX1. We revealed that L. kluyveri and L. thermotolerans share similar levels of intraspecific divergence concerning the nuclear genomes. However, L. thermotolerans has a more highly conserved mt genome with the coding regions characterized by low rates of nonsynonymous substitution. Thus, in the mt genomes of L. thermotolerans, stronger purifying selection and lower mutation rates potentially shape genome diversity in contract to what was found for L. kluyveri, demonstrating that the factors driving mt genome evolution are different even between closely related species. PMID:25212859

  18. Molecular architecture of the yeast Elongator complex reveals an unexpected asymmetric subunit arrangement.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva T; Cheng, Derrick Th; Lu, Shan; Hansen, Jesse M; Dalwadi, Udit; Lam, Cindy Hy; To, Jeffrey L; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yip, Calvin K

    2017-02-01

    Elongator is a ~850 kDa protein complex involved in multiple processes from transcription to tRNA modification. Conserved from yeast to humans, Elongator is assembled from two copies of six unique subunits (Elp1 to Elp6). Despite the wealth of structural data on the individual subunits, the overall architecture and subunit organization of the full Elongator and the molecular mechanisms of how it exerts its multiple activities remain unclear. Using single-particle electron microscopy (EM), we revealed that yeast Elongator adopts a bilobal architecture and an unexpected asymmetric subunit arrangement resulting from the hexameric Elp456 subassembly anchored to one of the two Elp123 lobes that form the structural scaffold. By integrating the EM data with available subunit crystal structures and restraints generated from cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry, we constructed a multiscale molecular model that showed the two Elp3, the main catalytic subunit, are located in two distinct environments. This work provides the first structural insights into Elongator and a framework to understand the molecular basis of its multifunctionality.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Yeast Yip1p Function Reveals a Requirement for Golgi-Localized Rab Proteins and Rab-Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Catherine Z.; Calero, Monica; DeRegis, Carol J.; Heidtman, Matthew; Barlowe, Charles; Collins, Ruth N.

    2004-01-01

    Yip1p is the first identified Rab-interacting membrane protein and the founder member of the YIP1 family, with both orthologs and paralogs found in all eukaryotic genomes. The exact role of Yip1p is unclear; YIP1 is an essential gene and defective alleles severely disrupt membrane transport and inhibit ER vesicle budding. Yip1p has the ability to physically interact with Rab proteins and the nature of this interaction has led to suggestions that Yip1p may function in the process by which Rab proteins translocate between cytosol and membranes. In this study we have investigated the physiological requirements for Yip1p action. Yip1p function requires Rab-GDI and Rab proteins, and several mutations that abrogate Yip1p function lack Rab-interacting capability. We have previously shown that Yip1p in detergent extracts has the capability to physically interact with Rab proteins in a promiscuous manner; however, a genetic analysis that covers every yeast Rab reveals that the Rab requirement in vivo is exclusively confined to a subset of Rab proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus. PMID:15611160

  20. Genetic analysis of yeast Yip1p function reveals a requirement for Golgi-localized rab proteins and rab-Guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Catherine Z; Calero, Monica; DeRegis, Carol J; Heidtman, Matthew; Barlowe, Charles; Collins, Ruth N

    2004-12-01

    Yip1p is the first identified Rab-interacting membrane protein and the founder member of the YIP1 family, with both orthologs and paralogs found in all eukaryotic genomes. The exact role of Yip1p is unclear; YIP1 is an essential gene and defective alleles severely disrupt membrane transport and inhibit ER vesicle budding. Yip1p has the ability to physically interact with Rab proteins and the nature of this interaction has led to suggestions that Yip1p may function in the process by which Rab proteins translocate between cytosol and membranes. In this study we have investigated the physiological requirements for Yip1p action. Yip1p function requires Rab-GDI and Rab proteins, and several mutations that abrogate Yip1p function lack Rab-interacting capability. We have previously shown that Yip1p in detergent extracts has the capability to physically interact with Rab proteins in a promiscuous manner; however, a genetic analysis that covers every yeast Rab reveals that the Rab requirement in vivo is exclusively confined to a subset of Rab proteins that are localized to the Golgi apparatus.

  1. Correlations of three-dimensional motion of chromosomal loci in yeast revealed by the double-helix point spread function microscope

    PubMed Central

    Backlund, Mikael P.; Joyner, Ryan; Weis, Karsten; Moerner, W. E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-particle tracking has been applied to study chromatin motion in live cells, revealing a wealth of dynamical behavior of the genomic material once believed to be relatively static throughout most of the cell cycle. Here we used the dual-color three-dimensional (3D) double-helix point spread function microscope to study the correlations of movement between two fluorescently labeled gene loci on either the same or different budding yeast chromosomes. We performed fast (10 Hz) 3D tracking of the two copies of the GAL locus in diploid cells in both activating and repressive conditions. As controls, we tracked pairs of loci along the same chromosome at various separations, as well as transcriptionally orthogonal genes on different chromosomes. We found that under repressive conditions, the GAL loci exhibited significantly higher velocity cross-correlations than they did under activating conditions. This relative increase has potentially important biological implications, as it might suggest coupling via shared silencing factors or association with decoupled machinery upon activation. We also found that on the time scale studied (∼0.1–30 s), the loci moved with significantly higher subdiffusive mean square displacement exponents than previously reported, which has implications for the application of polymer theory to chromatin motion in eukaryotes. PMID:25318676

  2. Comprehensive polyadenylation site maps in yeast and human reveal pervasive alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Ozsolak, Fatih; Kapranov, Philipp; Foissac, Sylvain; Kim, Sang Woo; Fishilevich, Elane; Monaghan, A Paula; John, Bino; Milos, Patrice M

    2010-12-10

    The emerging discoveries on the link between polyadenylation and disease states underline the need to fully characterize genome-wide polyadenylation states. Here, we report comprehensive maps of global polyadenylation events in human and yeast generated using refinements to the Direct RNA Sequencing technology. This direct approach provides a quantitative view of genome-wide polyadenylation states in a strand-specific manner and requires only attomole RNA quantities. The polyadenylation profiles revealed an abundance of unannotated polyadenylation sites, alternative polyadenylation patterns, and regulatory element-associated poly(A)(+) RNAs. We observed differences in sequence composition surrounding canonical and noncanonical human polyadenylation sites, suggesting novel noncoding RNA-specific polyadenylation mechanisms in humans. Furthermore, we observed the correlation level between sense and antisense transcripts to depend on gene expression levels, supporting the view that overlapping transcription from opposite strands may play a regulatory role. Our data provide a comprehensive view of the polyadenylation state and overlapping transcription.

  3. Physiological differences between bud breaking and flowering after dormancy completion revealed by DAM and FT/TFL1 expression in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Bai, Songling; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying bud breaking (scale leaf elongation) and flowering in the lateral flower buds of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai 'Kosui') are unknown. To more fully characterize these processes, we treated pear trees with different amounts of chilling initiated at different times. Chilling for ∼900 h at 6 °C always induced bud breaking (scale elongation in ≥70% lateral flower bud) when provided between October and February, whereas chilling provided earlier (between October and December) was less effective on flowering (floret growth and development) than later chilling and the flowering rate increased with longer chilling durations. During chilling, the expression of pear DAMs (PpMADS13-1, 13-2 and 13-3) in lateral flower buds decreased as chilling accumulated irrespective of the timing of chilling. In addition, pear TFL1 (PpTFL1-1a) in the lateral flower buds was expressed at higher levels when the time interval for chilling was earlier. On the other hand, during forcing at 15 °C after chilling, the expression pattern of all three PpMADS13 genes was similar among the treatments, and the expression levels seemed lower in the treatment where scale leaves of the lateral flower bud elongated faster, whereas pear FT (PpFT2a) was expressed at higher levels in the buds whose flower clusters elongated more vigorously during forcing. From these results, we infer that flowering time may be mediated via the balance of flowering-related genes FT and TFL1, whereas bud breaking may be regulated via the DAM genes in Japanese pear.

  4. Identification of S-phase DNA damage-response targets in fission yeast reveals conservation of damage-response networks

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Nicholas A.; Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E. H.; Murray, Johanne M.; Carr, Antony M.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Rhind, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The cellular response to DNA damage during S-phase regulates a complicated network of processes, including cell-cycle progression, gene expression, DNA replication kinetics, and DNA repair. In fission yeast, this S-phase DNA damage response (DDR) is coordinated by two protein kinases: Rad3, the ortholog of mammalian ATR, and Cds1, the ortholog of mammalian Chk2. Although several critical downstream targets of Rad3 and Cds1 have been identified, most of their presumed targets are unknown, including the targets responsible for regulating replication kinetics and coordinating replication and repair. To characterize targets of the S-phase DDR, we identified proteins phosphorylated in response to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced S-phase DNA damage in wild-type, rad3∆, and cds1∆ cells by proteome-wide mass spectrometry. We found a broad range of S-phase–specific DDR targets involved in gene expression, stress response, regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis, and DNA replication and repair. These targets are highly enriched for proteins required for viability in response to MMS, indicating their biological significance. Furthermore, the regulation of these proteins is similar in fission and budding yeast, across 300 My of evolution, demonstrating a deep conservation of S-phase DDR targets and suggesting that these targets may be critical for maintaining genome stability in response to S-phase DNA damage across eukaryotes. PMID:27298342

  5. Inactivation of the budding yeast cohesin loader Scc2 alters gene expression both globally and in response to a single DNA double strand break.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Emma; Hägg, Sara; Giordano, Fosco; Björkegren, Johan; Ström, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Genome integrity is fundamental for cell survival and cell cycle progression. Important mechanisms for keeping the genome intact are proper sister chromatid segregation, correct gene regulation and efficient repair of damaged DNA. Cohesin and its DNA loader, the Scc2/4 complex have been implicated in all these cellular actions. The gene regulation role has been described in several organisms. In yeast it has been suggested that the proteins in the cohesin network would effect transcription based on its role as insulator. More recently, data are emerging indicating direct roles for gene regulation also in yeast. Here we extend these studies by investigating whether the cohesin loader Scc2 is involved in regulation of gene expression. We performed global gene expression profiling in the absence and presence of DNA damage, in wild type and Scc2 deficient G2/M arrested cells, when it is known that Scc2 is important for DNA double strand break repair and formation of damage induced cohesion. We found that not only the DNA damage specific transcriptional response is distorted after inactivation of Scc2 but also the overall transcription profile. Interestingly, these alterations did not correlate with changes in cohesin binding.

  6. First BRET-based screening assay performed in budding yeast leads to the discovery of CDK5/p25 interaction inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Caroline; Wang, Qian; Bousserouel, Hadjira; Hamdi, Amel; Zhang, Bing; Lozach, Olivier; Ferandin, Yoan; Tan, Vincent B C; Guéritte, Françoise; Colas, Pierre; Couturier, Cyril; Bach, Stéphane

    2011-07-01

    The protein kinase CDK5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) is activated through its association with a cyclin-like protein p35 or p39. In pathological conditions (such as Alzheimer's disease and various other neuropathies), truncation of p35 leads to the appearance of the p25 protein. The interaction of p25 with CDK5 up-regulates the kinase activity and modifies the substrate specificity. ATP-mimetic inhibitors of CDK5 have already been developed. However, the lack of selectivity of such inhibitors is often a matter of concern. An alternative approach can be used to identify highly specific inhibitors that disrupt protein interactions involving protein kinases. We have developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based screening assay in yeast to discover protein-protein interaction inhibitors (P2I2). Here, we present the first use of BRET in yeast for the screening of small molecule libraries. This screening campaign led to the discovery of one molecule that prevents the interaction between CDK5 and p25, thus inhibiting the protein kinase activity. This molecule may give rise to high-specificity drug candidates.

  7. Molecular Phylogeny of Sequenced Saccharomycetes Reveals Polyphyly of the Alternative Yeast Codon Usage

    PubMed Central

    Mühlhausen, Stefanie; Kollmar, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The universal genetic code defines the translation of nucleotide triplets, called codons, into amino acids. In many Saccharomycetes a unique alteration of this code affects the translation of the CUG codon, which is normally translated as leucine. Most of the species encoding CUG alternatively as serine belong to the Candida genus and were grouped into a so-called CTG clade. However, the “Candida genus” is not a monophyletic group and several Candida species are known to use the standard CUG translation. The codon identity could have been changed in a single branch, the ancestor of the Candida, or to several branches independently leading to a polyphyletic alternative yeast codon usage (AYCU). In order to resolve the monophyly or polyphyly of the AYCU, we performed a phylogenomics analysis of 26 motor and cytoskeletal proteins from 60 sequenced yeast species. By investigating the CUG codon positions with respect to sequence conservation at the respective alignment positions, we were able to unambiguously assign the standard code or AYCU. Quantitative analysis of the highly conserved leucine and serine alignment positions showed that 61.1% and 17% of the CUG codons coding for leucine and serine, respectively, are at highly conserved positions, whereas only 0.6% and 2.3% of the CUG codons, respectively, are at positions conserved in the respective other amino acid. Plotting the codon usage onto the phylogenetic tree revealed the polyphyly of the AYCU with Pachysolen tannophilus and the CTG clade branching independently within a time span of 30–100 Ma. PMID:25646540

  8. ESCRT components regulate the expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 through the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunying; Du, Jingcai; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-10-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes function to form multivesicular bodies for sorting of proteins destined for the yeast vacuole or the mammalian lysosome. ESCRT components are well conserved in eukaryotes, and their mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular pathologies in humans. PMR1 is the orthologous gene of two human genes for calcium pumps secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1, ATP2C1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, ATP2A2), which are mutated in Hailey-Hailey and Darier genetic diseases, respectively. Here we show that deletion mutation of ESCRT components Snf7, Snf8, Stp22, Vps20, Vps25, Vps28, or Vps36 activates the calcium/calcineurin signaling in yeast cells, but surprisingly leads to a nearly 50% reduction in expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 independent of calcium stress. These ESCRT mutants are known to have a defect in Rim101 activation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101 or further deletion of NRG1 in these mutants partially suppresses their calcium hypersensitivity. Deletion of NRG1 also completely rescues the expression of PMR1 in these mutants to the level of the wild type. Promoter mutagenesis, gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that Nrg1 binds to two motifs in the PMR1 promoter. In addition, expression of PMR1 under the control of its promoters with mutated Nrg1-binding motifs suppresses the calcium hypersensitivity of these ESCRT mutants. Collectively, these data have uncovered a function of ESCRT components in regulating PMR1 expression through the Nrg1/Rim101 pathway. Our findings provide important clues for understanding human diseases related to calcium homeostasis.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Deep-Sea Basidiomycetous Yeast Cryptococcus sp. Strain Mo29 Reveals Its Biotechnological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Rédou, Vanessa; Kumar, Abhishek; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Record, Eric; Barbier, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus sp. strain Mo29 was isolated from the Rainbow hydrothermal site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of this basidiomycetous yeast strain, which has highlighted its biotechnological potential as revealed by the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites and biotechnologically important enzymes. PMID:27389259

  10. Digital gene expression analysis of male and female bud transition in Metasequoia reveals high activity of MADS-box transcription factors and hormone-mediated sugar pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Liang, Haiying; Li, Lan; Tang, Sha; Han, Xiao; Wang, Congpeng; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides is a famous redwood tree of ecological and economic importance, and requires more than 20 years of juvenile-to-adult transition before producing female and male cones. Previously, we induced reproductive buds using a hormone solution in juvenile Metasequoia trees as young as 5-to-7 years old. In the current study, hormone-treated shoots found in female and male buds were used to identify candidate genes involved in reproductive bud transition in Metasequoia. Samples from hormone-treated cone reproductive shoots and naturally occurring non-cone setting shoots were analyzed using 24 digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiles using Illumina, generating a total of 69,520 putative transcripts. Next, 32 differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, including the upregulation of MADS-box transcription factors involved in male bud transition and flowering time control proteins involved in female bud transition. These differentially expressed transcripts were associated with 243 KEGG pathways. Among the significantly changed pathways, sugar pathways were mediated by hormone signals during the vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Key enzymes were identified in these pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) and glutathione dehydrogenase for the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway, and glucanphosphorylase for sucrose and starch metabolism pathways. Our results increase our understanding of the reproductive bud transition in gymnosperms. In addition, these studies on hormone-mediated sugar pathways increase our understanding of the relationship between sugar and hormone signaling during female and male bud initiation in Metasequoia.

  11. Analysis of dormant bud (Banjhi) specific transcriptome of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) from cDNA library revealed dormancy-related genes.

    PubMed

    Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Prabu, Gajjeraman; Palanisamy, Senthilkumar; Chandrabose, Suresh Ramraj Subhas; Mandal, Abul Kalam Azad

    2013-02-01

    Bud dormancy is of ecological and economical interest due to its impact on tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) plant growth and yield. Growth regulation associated with dormancy is an essential element in plant's life cycle that leads to changes in expression of large number of genes. In order to identify and provide a picture of the transcriptome profile, cDNA library was constructed from dormant bud (banjhi) of tea. Sequence and gene ontology analysis of 3,500 clones, in many cases, enabled their functional categorization concerning the bud growth. Based on the cDNA library data, the putative role of identified genes from tea is discussed in relation to growth and dormancy, which includes morphogenesis, cellular differentiation, tropism, cell cycle, signaling, and various metabolic pathways. There was a higher representation of unknown processes such as unknown molecular functions (65.80 %), unknown biological processes (62.46 %), and unknown cellular components (67.42 %). However, these unknown transcripts represented a novel component of transcripts in tea plant bud growth and/or dormancy development. The identified transcripts and expressed sequence tags provides a valuable public resource and preliminary insights into the molecular mechanisms of bud dormancy regulation. Further, the findings will be the target of future expression experiments, particularly for further identification of dormancy-related genes in this species.

  12. Direct Imaging of RAB27B-Enriched Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis in Lacrimal Acinar Cells Reveals Origins on a Nascent Vesicle Budding Site

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Lilian; Karvar, Serhan; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses YFP-tagged Rab27b expression in rabbit lacrimal gland acinar cells, which are polarized secretory epithelial cells, to characterize early stages of secretory vesicle trafficking. Here we demonstrate the utility of YFP-Rab27b to delineate new perspectives on the mechanisms of early vesicle biogenesis in lacrimal gland acinar cells, where information is significantly limited. Protocols were developed to deplete the mature YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle pool in the subapical region of the cell, and confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to track vesicle replenishment. This analysis revealed a basally-localized organelle, which we termed the “nascent vesicle site,” from which nascent vesicles appeared to emerge. Subapical vesicular YFP-Rab27b was co-localized with p150Glued, a component of the dynactin cofactor of cytoplasmic dynein. Treatment with the microtubule-targeted agent, nocodazole, did not affect release of mature secretory vesicles, although during vesicle repletion it significantly altered nascent YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicle localization. Instead of moving to the subapical region, these vesicles were trapped at the nascent vesicle site which was adjacent to, if not a sub-compartment of, the trans-Golgi network. Finally, YFP-Rab27b-enriched secretory vesicles which reached the subapical cytoplasm appeared to acquire the actin-based motor protein, Myosin 5C. Our findings show that Rab27b enrichment occurs early in secretory vesicle formation, that secretory vesicles bud from a visually discernable nascent vesicle site, and that transport from the nascent vesicle site to the subapical region requires intact microtubules. PMID:22363735

  13. Budding yeast SSD1-V regulates transcript levels of many longevity genes and extends chronological life span in purified quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lihong; Lu, Yong; Qin, Li-Xuan; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Werner-Washburne, Margaret; Breeden, Linda L

    2009-09-01

    Ssd1 is an RNA-binding protein that affects literally hundreds of different processes and is polymorphic in both wild and lab yeast strains. We have used transcript microarrays to compare mRNA levels in an isogenic pair of mutant (ssd1-d) and wild-type (SSD1-V) cells across the cell cycle. We find that 15% of transcripts are differentially expressed, but there is no correlation with those mRNAs bound by Ssd1. About 20% of cell cycle regulated transcripts are affected, and most show sharper amplitudes of oscillation in SSD1-V cells. Many transcripts whose gene products influence longevity are also affected, the largest class of which is involved in translation. Ribosomal protein mRNAs are globally down-regulated by SSD1-V. SSD1-V has been shown to increase replicative life span currency and we show that SSD1-V also dramatically increases chronological life span (CLS). Using a new assay of CLS in pure populations of quiescent prototrophs, we find that the CLS for SSD1-V cells is twice that of ssd1-d cells.

  14. A Conserved Non-Canonical Docking Mechanism Regulates the Binding of Dual Specificity Phosphatases to Cell Integrity Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Budding and Fission Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sacristán-Reviriego, Almudena; Madrid, Marisa; Cansado, José; Martín, Humberto; Molina, María

    2014-01-01

    Dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are essential for the negative regulation of MAPK pathways. Similar to other MAPK-interacting proteins, most MKPs bind MAPKs through specific docking domains known as D-motifs. However, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MKP Msg5 binds the MAPK Slt2 within the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through a distinct motif (IYT). Here, we demonstrate that the IYT motif mediates binding of the Msg5 paralogue Sdp1 to Slt2 as well as of the MKP Pmp1 to its CWI MAPK counterpart Pmk1 in the evolutionarily distant yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. As a consequence, removal of the IYT site in Msg5, Sdp1 and Pmp1 reduces MAPK trapping caused by the overexpression of catalytically inactive versions of these phosphatases. Accordingly, an intact IYT site is necessary for inactive Sdp1 to prevent nuclear accumulation of Slt2. We also show that both Ile and Tyr but not Thr are essential for the functionality of the IYT motif. These results provide mechanistic insight into MKP-MAPK interplay and stress the relevance of this conserved non-canonical docking site in the regulation of the CWI pathway in fungi. PMID:24465549

  15. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species.

  16. Yeast mitochondrial protein-protein interactions reveal diverse complexes and disease-relevant functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ke; Musso, Gabriel; Vlasblom, James; Jessulat, Matthew; Deineko, Viktor; Negroni, Jacopo; Mosca, Roberto; Malty, Ramy; Nguyen-Tran, Diem-Hang; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Minic, Zoran; Freywald, Tanya; Phanse, Sadhna; Xiang, Qian; Freywald, Andrew; Aloy, Patrick; Zhang, Zhaolei; Babu, Mohan

    2015-02-06

    Although detailed, focused, and mechanistic analyses of associations among mitochondrial proteins (MPs) have identified their importance in varied biological processes, a systematic understanding of how MPs function in concert both with one another and with extra-mitochondrial proteins remains incomplete. Consequently, many questions regarding the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of human disease remain unanswered. To address this, we compiled all existing mitochondrial physical interaction data for over 1200 experimentally defined yeast MPs and, through bioinformatic analysis, identified hundreds of heteromeric MP complexes having extensive associations both within and outside the mitochondria. We provide support for these complexes through structure prediction analysis, morphological comparisons of deletion strains, and protein co-immunoprecipitation. The integration of these MP complexes with reported genetic interaction data reveals substantial crosstalk between MPs and non-MPs and identifies novel factors in endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial organization, membrane structure, and mitochondrial lipid homeostasis. More than one-third of these MP complexes are conserved in humans, with many containing members linked to clinical pathologies, enabling us to identify genes with putative disease function through guilt-by-association. Although still remaining incomplete, existing mitochondrial interaction data suggests that the relevant molecular machinery is modular, yet highly integrated with non-mitochondrial processes.

  17. Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2010-01-12

    The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

  18. Experimental Evolution Reveals Interplay between Sch9 and Polyploid Stability in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Jin; Swamy, Krishna B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidization has crucial impacts on the evolution of different eukaryotic lineages including fungi, plants and animals. Recent genome data suggest that, for many polyploidization events, all duplicated chromosomes are maintained and genome reorganizations occur much later during evolution. However, newly-formed polyploid genomes are intrinsically unstable and often quickly degenerate into aneuploidy or diploidy. The transition between these two states remains enigmatic. In this study, laboratory evolution experiments were conducted to investigate this phenomenon. We show that robust tetraploidy is achieved in evolved yeast cells by increasing the abundance of Sch9—a protein kinase activated by the TORC1 (Target of Rapamycin Complex 1) and other signaling pathways. Overexpressing SCH9, but not TOR1, allows newly-formed tetraploids to exhibit evolved phenotypes and knocking out SCH9 diminishes the evolved phenotypes. Furthermore, when cells were challenged with conditions causing ancestral cells to evolve aneuploidy, tetraploidy was maintained in the evolved lines. Our results reveal a determinant role for Sch9 during the early stage of polyploid evolution. PMID:27812096

  19. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... taste buds all the credit for your favorite flavors, it's important to thank your nose . Olfactory (say: ... with your taste buds to create the true flavor of that yummy slice of pizza by telling ...

  20. Msa1 and Msa2 Modulate G1-Specific Transcription to Promote G1 Arrest and the Transition to Quiescence in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Croxford, Matthew W.; Abeysinghe, Amali P.; Breeden, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    Yeast that naturally exhaust their glucose source can enter a quiescent state that is characterized by reduced cell size, and high cell density, stress tolerance and longevity. The transition to quiescence involves highly asymmetric cell divisions, dramatic reprogramming of transcription and global changes in chromatin structure and chromosome topology. Cells enter quiescence from G1 and we find that there is a positive correlation between the length of G1 and the yield of quiescent cells. The Swi4 and Swi6 transcription factors, which form the SBF transcription complex and promote the G1 to S transition in cycling cells, are also critical for the transition to quiescence. Swi6 forms a second complex with Mbp1 (MBF), which is not required for quiescence. These are the functional analogues of the E2F complexes of higher eukaryotes. Loss of the RB analogue, Whi5, and the related protein Srl3/Whi7, delays G1 arrest, but it also delays recovery from quiescence. Two MBF- and SBF-Associated proteins have been identified that have little effect on SBF or MBF activity in cycling cells. We show that these two related proteins, Msa1 and Msa2, are specifically required for the transition to quiescence. Like the E2F complexes that are quiescence-specific, Msa1 and Msa2 are required to repress the transcription of many SBF target genes, including SWI4, the CLN2 cyclin and histones, specifically after glucose is exhausted from the media. They also activate transcription of many MBF target genes. msa1msa2 cells fail to G1 arrest and rapidly lose viability upon glucose exhaustion. msa1msa2 mutants that survive this transition are very large, but they attain the same thermo-tolerance and longevity of wild type quiescent cells. This indicates that Msa1 and Msa2 are required for successful transition to quiescence, but not for the maintenance of that state. PMID:27272642

  1. Identification of Cdc6 protein domains involved in interaction with Mcm2 protein and Cdc4 protein in budding yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jang, S W; Elsasser, S; Campbell, J L; Kim, J

    2001-01-01

    The Cdc6 protein (Cdc6p) has essential roles in regulating initiation of DNA replication. Cdc6p is recruited to origins of replication by the origin recognition complex (ORC) late in mitosis; Cdc6p in turn recruits minichromosome maintenance (Mcm) proteins to form the pre-replicative complex. Cdc6p is thought to interact with one or more Mcm proteins but this point has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study we observed that Cdc6p interacted significantly only with Mcm2p out of six Mcm proteins in yeast two-hybrid cells. Our results indicate that the interaction of Cdc6p with Mcm2p is specific, although we cannot exclude the possibility that the interaction might not be direct. In attempts to identify domains of Cdc6p important for interaction with Mcm2p, we tested interactions of various deleted versions of Cdc6p with Mcm2p and also with Cdc4p, which was previously known to interact with Cdc6p. The portion of Cdc6p from amino acid residues 51 to 394 was able to interact with Mcm2p. During the course of the studies we also discovered a previously undetected Cdc4p interaction domain between residues 51 and 394. Interestingly, when all six putative Cdc28 phosphorylation sites in Cdc6p were changed to alanine, a 6-7-fold increase in binding to Mcm2p was observed. This result suggests that unphosphorylated Cdc6p has higher affinity than phosphorylated Cdc6p for Mcm2p; this might partly explain the previous observation that Cdc6p failed to load Mcm proteins on replication origins during S phase when the cyclin-dependent protein kinase was active, thus helping to prevent the reinitiation of activated replicons. PMID:11237870

  2. Screening a yeast library of temperature-sensitive mutants reveals a role for actin in tombusvirus RNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, K Reddisiva; Kovalev, Nikolay; de Castro Martín, Isabel Fernández; Baker, Jannine; Nagy, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    Genetic recombination in RNA viruses drives the evolutionary arms race with host's antiviral strategies and recombination also facilitates adaptation of viruses to new hosts. In this paper, the authors used tombusvirus and a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant library of yeast to identify 40 host proteins affecting viral recombination in yeast model host. Subsequent detailed analysis with two identified actin-related proteins, Act1p and Arp3p, has revealed that the wt actin network helps TBSV to maintain low level viral recombination. Pharmacological inhibition of actin in plant protoplasts confirmed the role of the actin network in tombusvirus recombination. An in vitro approach revealed the altered activity of the tombusvirus replicase in the presence of mutated Act1p. The authors show more efficient recruitment of a cellular DEAD-box helicase, which enhances tombusvirus recombination, into the membrane-bound replicase in Act1p mutant yeast. Overall, this work shows that the actin network affects tombusvirus recombination in yeast and plant cells.

  3. Floral Initiation in Response to Planting Date Reveals the Key Role of Floral Meristem Differentiation Prior to Budding in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaofeng; Zhang, Dongqing; Yu, Huasheng; Lin, Baogang; Fu, Ying; Hua, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus, floral development is a decisive factor in silique formation, and it is influenced by many cultivation practices including planting date. However, the effect of planting date on floral initiation in canola is poorly understood at present. A field experiment was conducted using a split plot design, in which three planting dates (early, 15 September, middle, 1 October, and late, 15 October) served as main plot and five varieties differing in maturity (1358, J22, Zhongshuang 11, Zheshuang 8, and Zheyou 50) employed as subplot. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the process of floral meristem (FM) differentiation, the influence of planting date on growth period (GP) and floral initiation, and silique formation. The main stages of FM developments can be divided into four stages: first, the transition from shoot apical meristem to FM; second, flower initiation; third, gynoecium and androecium differentiation; and fourth, bud formation. Our results showed that all genotypes had increased GPs from sowing to FM differentiation as planting date was delayed while the GPs from FM differentiation to budding varied year by year except the very early variety, 1358. Based on the number of flowers present at the different reproductive stages, the flowers produced from FM differentiation to budding closely approximated the final silique even though the FM differentiated continuously after budding and peaked generally at the middle flowering stage. The ratio of siliques to maximum flower number ranged from 48 to 80%. These results suggest that (1) the period from FM differentiation to budding is vital for effective flower and silique formation although there was no significant correlation between the length of the period and effective flowers and siliques, and (2) the increased number of flowers from budding were generally ineffective. Therefore, maximizing flower numbers prior to budding will improve silique numbers, and reducing FM degeneration should

  4. High Confidence Fission Yeast SUMO Conjugates Identified by Tandem Denaturing Affinity Purification.

    PubMed

    Nie, Minghua; Vashisht, Ajay A; Wohlschlegel, James A; Boddy, Michael N

    2015-09-25

    Covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to key targets in the proteome critically regulates the evolutionarily conserved processes of cell cycle control, transcription, DNA replication and maintenance of genome stability. The proteome-wide identification of SUMO conjugates in budding yeast has been invaluable in helping to define roles of SUMO in these processes. Like budding yeast, fission yeast is an important and popular model organism; however, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe community currently lacks proteome-wide knowledge of SUMO pathway targets. To begin to address this deficiency, we adapted and used a highly stringent Tandem Denaturing Affinity Purification (TDAP) method, coupled with mass spectrometry, to identify fission yeast SUMO conjugates. Comparison of our data with that compiled in budding yeast reveals conservation of SUMO target enrichment in nuclear and chromatin-associated processes. Moreover, the SUMO "cloud" phenomenon, whereby multiple components of a single protein complex are SUMOylated, is also conserved. Overall, SUMO TDAP provides both a key resource of high confidence SUMO-modified target proteins in fission yeast, and a robust method for future analyses of SUMO function.

  5. Analysis of the hypoxia-induced ADH2 promoter of the respiratory yeast Pichia stipitis reveals a new mechanism for sensing of oxygen limitation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Cohn, Marita; Schäfer, Bernd; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Klinner, Ulrich

    2003-01-15

    We introduced a reporter gene system into Pichia stipitis using the gene for the artificial green fluorescent protein (GFP), variant yEGFP. This system was used to analyse hypoxia-dependent PsADH2 regulation. Reporter gene activity was only found under oxygen limitation on a fermentable carbon source. The promoter was not induced by oxygen limitation in the Crabtree-positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Promoter deletions revealed that a region of 15 bp contained the essential site for hypoxic induction. This motif was different from the known hypoxia response elements of S. cerevisiae but showed some similarity to the mammalian HIF-1 binding site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated specific protein binding to this region under oxygen limitation. Similar to the S. cerevisiae heme sensor system, the promoter was induced by Co(2+). Cyanide was not able to mimic the effect of oxygen limitation. The activation mechanism of PsADH2 also, in this respect, has similarities to the mammalian HIF-1 system, which is inducible by Co(2+) but not by cyanide. Thus, the very first promoter analysis in P. stipitis revealed a hitherto unknown mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast.

  6. Protein expression-yeast.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Klaus H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline.

  7. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis of polyploid giant cancer cells and budding progeny cells reveals several distinct pathways for ovarian cancer development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Hanash, Samir; Liu, Jinsong

    2013-01-01

    Polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) are a morphologically distinct subgroup of human tumor cells with increased nuclear size or multiple nuclei, but they are generally considered unimportant because they are presumed to be nondividing and thus nonviable. We have recently shown that these large cancer cells are not only viable but also can divide asymmetrically and yield progeny cancer cells with cancer stem-like properties via budding division. To further understand the molecular events involved in the regulation of PGCCs and the generation of their progeny cancer cells, we comparatively analyzed the proteomic profiles of PGCCs, PGCCs with budding daughter cells, and regular control cancer cells from the HEY and SKOv3 human ovarian cancer cell lines with and without CoCl2. We used a high-throughput iTRAQ-based proteomic methodology coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy to determine the differentiated regulated proteins. We performed Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses to validate the differences in the expression patterns of a variety of proteins between PGCCs or budding PGCCs and regular cancer cells identified by iTRAQ approach and also a selected group of proteins from the literature. The differentially regulated proteins included proteins involved in response to hypoxia, stem cell generation, chromatin remodeling, cell-cycle regulation, and invasion and metastasis. In particular, we found that HIF-1alpha and its known target STC1 are upregulated in PGCCs. In addition, we found that a panel of stem cell-regulating factors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition regulatory transcription factors were upregulated in budding PGCCs, whereas expression of the histone 1 family of nucleosomal linker proteins was consistently lower in PGCCs than in control cells. Thus, proteomic expression patterns provide valuable insight into the underlying mechanisms of PGCC formation and the relationship between PGCCs and

  8. Far3p domains involved in the interactions of Far proteins and pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fenju; Wu, Rentian; Wang, Jiafeng; Li, Chunming; Zou, Lan; Lu, Yongjun; Liang, Chun

    2011-02-01

    Far3p (factor arrest), a protein that interacts with Far7-11p, is required for the pheromone-mediated cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. We used a combination of computational and experimental strategies to identify the Far3p self-association, to map the Far3p domains that interact with Far3p itself and with other Far proteins, and to reveal the importance of the two coiled-coil motifs of Far3p in the integrity and function of the Far complex. We show that Far3p self-associates through its central region and its C-terminal coiled-coil domain, that the amino acid 61-100 region of Far3p interacts with Far7p, and that the Far3p N-terminal coiled-coil domain interacts with Far9p and Far10p. Mutation of the N-terminal coiled coil disrupts the interactions of Far3p with Far9p and Far10p, and mutation of the C-terminal domain weakens the Far3p self-interaction. Although the N- and C-terminal coiled-coil mutants reserve some of the interactions with itself and some other Far proteins, both mutants are defective in the pheromone-mediated G1 arrest, indicating that both coiled-coil motifs of Far3p are essential for the integrity and the function of the Far complex.

  9. TRFLP analysis reveals that fungi rather than bacteria are associated with premature yeast flocculation in brewing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Mandeep; Bowman, John P; Stewart, Doug C; Sheehy, Megan; Janusz, Agnieszka; Speers, R Alex; Koutoulis, Anthony; Evans, David E

    2012-12-01

    Premature yeast flocculation (PYF) is a sporadic fermentation problem in the brewing industry that results in incomplete yeast utilization of fermentable sugars in wort. Culture-independent, PCR-based fingerprinting techniques were applied in this study to identify the associations between the occurrence of the PYF problem during brewery fermentation with barley malt-associated microbial communities (both bacteria and fungi). Striking differences in the microbial DNA fingerprint patterns for fungi between PYF positive (PYF +ve) and negative (PYF -ve) barley malts were observed using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) technique. The presence of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) of 360-460 bp size range, for fungal HaeIII restriction enzyme-derived TRFLP profiles appeared to vary substantially between PYF +ve and PYF -ve samples. The source of the barley malt did not influence the fungal taxa implicated in PYF. TRFLP analysis indicates bacterial taxa are unlikely to be important in causing PYF. Virtual digestion of fungal sequences tentatively linked HaeIII TRFs in the 360-460 bp size range to a diverse range of yeast/yeast-like species. Findings from this study suggest that direct monitoring of barley malt samples using molecular methods could potentially be an efficient and viable alternative for monitoring PYF during brewery fermentations.

  10. Modeling human Coenzyme A synthase mutation in yeast reveals altered mitochondrial function, lipid content and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Camilla C.; Dallabona, Cristina; Lazzaretti, Mirca; Dusi, Sabrina; Tosi, Elena; Tiranti, Valeria; Goffrini, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in nuclear genes associated with defective coenzyme A biosynthesis have been identified as responsible for some forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), namely PKAN and CoPAN. PKAN are defined by mutations in PANK2, encoding the pantothenate kinase 2 enzyme, that account for about 50% of cases of NBIA, whereas mutations in CoA synthase COASY have been recently reported as the second inborn error of CoA synthesis leading to CoPAN. As reported previously, yeast cells expressing the pathogenic mutation exhibited a temperature-sensitive growth defect in the absence of pantothenate and a reduced CoA content. Additional characterization revealed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, higher iron content, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and reduced amount of lipid droplets, thus partially recapitulating the phenotypes found in patients and establishing yeast as a potential model to clarify the pathogenesis underlying PKAN and CoPAN diseases. PMID:28357284

  11. Active Trans-Plasma Membrane Water Cycling in Yeast Is Revealed by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yajie; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Springer, Charles S.; Balschi, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma membrane water transport is a crucial cellular phenomenon. Net water movement in response to an osmotic gradient changes cell volume. Steady-state exchange of water molecules, with no net flux or volume change, occurs by passive diffusion through the phospholipid bilayer and passage through membrane proteins. The hypothesis is tested that plasma membrane water exchange also correlates with ATP-driven membrane transport activity in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Longitudinal 1H2O NMR relaxation time constant (T1) values were measured in yeast suspensions containing extracellular relaxation reagent. Two-site-exchange analysis quantified the reversible exchange kinetics as the mean intracellular water lifetime (τi), where τi−1 is the pseudo-first-order rate constant for water efflux. To modulate cellular ATP, yeast suspensions were bubbled with 95%O2/5%CO2 (O2) or 95%N2/5%CO2 (N2). ATP was high during O2, and τi−1 was 3.1 s−1 at 25°C. After changing to N2, ATP decreased and τi−1 was 1.8 s−1. The principal active yeast ion transport protein is the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Studies using the H+-ATPase inhibitor ebselen or a yeast genetic strain with reduced H+-ATPase found reduced τi−1, notwithstanding high ATP. Steady-state water exchange correlates with H+-ATPase activity. At volume steady state, water is cycling across the plasma membrane in response to metabolic transport activity. PMID:22261073

  12. Rolling adhesion kinematics of yeast engineered to express selectins.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sujata K; Swers, Jeffrey S; Camphausen, Raymond T; Wittrup, K Dane; Hammer, Daniel A

    2003-01-01

    Selectins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate capture of leukocytes on vascular endothelium as an essential component of the inflammatory response. Here we describe a method for yeast surface display of selectins, together with a functional assay that measures rolling adhesion of selectin-expressing yeast on a ligand-coated surface. E-selectin-expressing yeast roll specifically on surfaces bearing sialyl-Lewis-x ligands. Observation of yeast rolling dynamics at various stages of their life cycle indicates that the kinematics of yeast motion depends on the ratio of the bud radius to the parent radius (B/P). Large-budded yeast "walk" across the surface, alternately pivoting about bud and parent. Small-budded yeast "wobble" across the surface, with bud pivoting about parent. Tracking the bud location of budding yeast allows measurement of the angular velocity of the yeast particle. Comparison of translational and angular velocities of budding yeast demonstrates that selectin-expressing cells are rolling rather than slipping across ligand-coated surfaces.

  13. Genome evolution in yeast reveals connections between rare mutations in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Xinchen; Hardwick, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells are riddled with mutations. Less than one percent of these are thought to be mutations that drive cancer phenotypes. However, a recent study conducted on the yeast knockout collections by Teng et al. [Mol. Cell (2013) 52: 485-494] provides hard evidence that single gene deletions/mutations in most non-essential genes can drive the selection for cancer-like mutations. PMID:28357245

  14. Hi-C in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-07-01

    Hi-C enables simultaneous detection of interaction frequencies between all possible pairs of restriction fragments in the genome. The Hi-C method is based on chromosome conformation capture (3C), which uses formaldehyde cross-linking to fix chromatin regions that interact in three-dimensional space, irrespective of their genomic locations. In the Hi-C protocol described here, cross-linked chromatin is digested with HindIII and the ends are filled in with a nucleotide mix containing biotinylated dCTP. These fragments are ligated together, and the resulting chimeric molecules are purified and sheared to reduce length. Finally, biotinylated ligation junctions are pulled down with streptavidin-coated beads, linked to high-throughput sequencing adaptors, and amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The resolution of the Hi-C data set will depend on the depth of sequencing and choice of restriction enzyme. When sufficient sequence reads are obtained, information on chromatin interactions and chromosome conformation can be derived at single restriction fragment resolution for complete genomes.

  15. Different Toxicity Mechanisms for Citrinin and Ochratoxin A Revealed by Transcriptomic Analysis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Vanacloig-Pedros, Elena; Proft, Markus; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are important mycotoxins, which frequently co-contaminate foodstuff. In order to assess the toxicologic threat posed by the two mycotoxins separately or in combination, their biological effects were studied here using genomic transcription profiling and specific live cell gene expression reporters in yeast cells. Both CIT and OTA cause highly transient transcriptional activation of different stress genes, which is greatly enhanced by the disruption of the multidrug exporter Pdr5. Therefore, we performed genome-wide transcription profiling experiments with the pdr5 mutant in response to acute CIT, OTA, or combined CIT/OTA exposure. We found that CIT and OTA activate divergent and largely nonoverlapping gene sets in yeast. CIT mainly caused the rapid induction of antioxidant and drug extrusion-related gene functions, while OTA mainly deregulated developmental genes related with yeast sporulation and sexual reproduction, having only a minor effect on the antioxidant response. The simultaneous exposure to CIT and OTA gave rise to a genomic response, which combined the specific features of the separated mycotoxin treatments. The application of stress-specific mutants and reporter gene fusions further confirmed that both mycotoxins have divergent biological effects in cells. Our results indicate that CIT exposure causes a strong oxidative stress, which triggers a massive transcriptional antioxidant and drug extrusion response, while OTA mainly deregulates developmental genes and only marginally induces the antioxidant defense. PMID:27669300

  16. Computational analysis of translational readthrough proteins in Drosophila and yeast reveals parallels to alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Pancsa, Rita; Macossay-Castillo, Mauricio; Kosol, Simone; Tompa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In translational readthrough (TR) the ribosome continues extending the nascent protein beyond the first in-frame termination codon. Due to the lack of dedicated analyses of eukaryotic TR cases, the associated functional-evolutionary advantages are still unclear. Here, based on a variety of computational methods, we describe the structural and functional properties of previously proposed D. melanogaster and S. cerevisiae TR proteins and extensions. We found that in D. melanogaster TR affects long proteins in mainly regulatory roles. Their TR-extensions are structurally disordered and rich in binding motifs, which, together with their cell-type- and developmental stage-dependent inclusion, suggest that similarly to alternatively spliced exons they rewire cellular interaction networks in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. In contrast, yeast TR proteins are rather short and fulfil mainly housekeeping functions, like translation. Yeast extensions usually lack disorder and linear motifs, which precludes elucidating their functional relevance with sufficient confidence. Therefore we propose that by being much more restricted and by lacking clear functional hallmarks in yeast as opposed to fruit fly, TR shows remarkable parallels with alternative splicing. Additionally, the lack of conservation of TR extensions among orthologous TR proteins suggests that TR-mediated functions may be generally specific to lower taxonomic levels. PMID:27561673

  17. Identification of Telomerase RNAs from Filamentous Fungi Reveals Conservation with Vertebrates and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Kuprys, Paulius V.; Davis, Shaun M.; Hauer, Tyler M.; Meltser, Max; Tzfati, Yehuda; Kirk, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are the nucleoprotein complexes at eukaryotic chromosomal ends. Telomeric DNA is synthesized by the ribonucleoprotein telomerase, which comprises a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and a telomerase RNA (TER). TER contains a template for telomeric DNA synthesis. Filamentous fungi possess extremely short and tightly regulated telomeres. Although TERT is well conserved between most organisms, TER is highly divergent and thus difficult to identify. In order to identify the TER sequence, we used the unusually long telomeric repeat sequence of Aspergillus oryzae together with reverse-transcription-PCR and identified a transcribed sequence that contains the potential template within a region predicted to be single stranded. We report the discovery of TERs from twelve other related filamentous fungi using comparative genomic analysis. These TERs exhibited strong conservation with the vertebrate template sequence, and two of these potentially use the identical template as humans. We demonstrate the existence of important processing elements required for the maturation of yeast TERs such as an Sm site, a 5′ splice site and a branch point, within the newly identified TER sequences. RNA folding programs applied to the TER sequences show the presence of secondary structures necessary for telomerase activity, such as a yeast-like template boundary, pseudoknot, and a vertebrate-like three-way junction. These telomerase RNAs identified from filamentous fungi display conserved structural elements from both yeast and vertebrate TERs. These findings not only provide insights into the structure and evolution of a complex RNA but also provide molecular tools to further study telomere dynamics in filamentous fungi. PMID:23555591

  18. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hussmann, Jeffrey A.; Patchett, Stephanie; Johnson, Arlen; Sawyer, Sara; Press, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX) to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics. PMID:26656907

  19. The Yeast V159N Actin Mutant Reveals Roles for Actin Dynamics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Belmont, Lisa D.; Drubin, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Actin with a Val 159 to Asn mutation (V159N) forms actin filaments that depolymerize slowly because of a failure to undergo a conformational change after inorganic phosphate release. Here we demonstrate that expression of this actin results in reduced actin dynamics in vivo, and we make use of this property to study the roles of rapid actin filament turnover. Yeast strains expressing the V159N mutant (act1-159) as their only source of actin have larger cortical actin patches and more actin cables than wild-type yeast. Rapid actin dynamics are not essential for cortical actin patch motility or establishment of cell polarity. However, fluid phase endocytosis is defective in act1-159 strains. act1-159 is synthetically lethal with cofilin and profilin mutants, supporting the conclusion that mutations in all of these genes impair the polymerization/ depolymerization cycle. In contrast, act1-159 partially suppresses the temperature sensitivity of a tropomyosin mutant, and the loss of cytoplasmic cables seen in fimbrin, Mdm20p, and tropomyosin null mutants, suggesting filament stabilizing functions for these actin-binding proteins. Analysis of the cables in these double-mutant cells supports a role for fimbrin in organizing cytoplasmic cables and for Mdm20p and tropomyosin in excluding cofilin from the cables. PMID:9732289

  20. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Hussmann, Jeffrey A; Patchett, Stephanie; Johnson, Arlen; Sawyer, Sara; Press, William H

    2015-12-01

    Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX) to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics.

  1. Dynamics of the yeast transcriptome during wine fermentation reveals a novel fermentation stress response

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Virginia D.; Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Erasmus, Daniel; van der Merwe, George K.; Brumm, Jochen; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Bryan, Jennifer; van Vuuren, Hennie J. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, genome-wide expression analyses were used to study the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to stress throughout a 15-day wine fermentation. Forty per cent of the yeast genome significantly changed expression levels to mediate long-term adaptation to fermenting grape must. Among the genes that changed expression levels, a group of 223 genes was identified, which was designated as fermentation stress response (FSR) genes that were dramatically induced at various points during fermentation. FSR genes sustain high levels of induction up to the final time point and exhibited changes in expression levels ranging from four- to 80-fold. The FSR is novel; 62% of the genes involved have not been implicated in global stress responses and 28% of the FSR genes have no functional annotation. Genes involved in respiratory metabolism and gluconeogenesis were expressed during fermentation despite the presence of high concentrations of glucose. Ethanol, rather than nutrient depletion, seems to be responsible for entry of yeast cells into the stationary phase. PMID:18215224

  2. The Structure of the Yeast Plasma Membrane SNARE Complex Reveals Destabilizing Water Filled Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Strop, P.; Kaiser, S.E.; Vrljic, M.; Brunger, A.T.

    2009-05-26

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins form a complex that leads to membrane fusion between vesicles, organelles, and plasma membrane in all eukaryotic cells. We report the 1.7{angstrom} resolution structure of the SNARE complex that mediates exocytosis at the plasma membrane in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Similar to its neuronal and endosomal homologues, the S. cerevisiae SNARE complex forms a parallel four-helix bundle in the center of which is an ionic layer. The S. cerevisiae SNARE complex exhibits increased helix bending near the ionic layer, contains water-filled cavities in the complex core, and exhibits reduced thermal stability relative to mammalian SNARE complexes. Mutagenesis experiments suggest that the water-filled cavities contribute to the lower stability of the S. cerevisiae complex.

  3. Yeast genetic analysis reveals the involvement of chromatin reassembly factors in repressing HIV-1 basal transcription.

    PubMed

    Vanti, Manuela; Gallastegui, Edurne; Respaldiza, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Jimeno-González, Silvia; Jordan, Albert; Chávez, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Rebound of HIV viremia after interruption of anti-retroviral therapy is due to the small population of CD4+ T cells that remain latently infected. HIV-1 transcription is the main process controlling post-integration latency. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription takes place at both initiation and elongation levels. Pausing of RNA polymerase II at the 5' end of HIV-1 transcribed region (5'HIV-TR), which is immediately downstream of the transcription start site, plays an important role in the regulation of viral expression. The activation of HIV-1 transcription correlates with the rearrangement of a positioned nucleosome located at this region. These two facts suggest that the 5'HIV-TR contributes to inhibit basal transcription of those HIV-1 proviruses that remain latently inactive. However, little is known about the cell elements mediating the repressive role of the 5'HIV-TR. We performed a genetic analysis of this phenomenon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after reconstructing a minimal HIV-1 transcriptional system in this yeast. Unexpectedly, we found that the critical role played by the 5'HIV-TR in maintaining low levels of basal transcription in yeast is mediated by FACT, Spt6, and Chd1, proteins so far associated with chromatin assembly and disassembly during ongoing transcription. We confirmed that this group of factors plays a role in HIV-1 postintegration latency in human cells by depleting the corresponding human orthologs with shRNAs, both in HIV latently infected cell populations and in particular single-integration clones, including a latent clone with a provirus integrated in a highly transcribed gene. Our results indicate that chromatin reassembly factors participate in the establishment of the equilibrium between activation and repression of HIV-1 when it integrates into the human genome, and they open the possibility of considering these factors as therapeutic targets of HIV-1 latency.

  4. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your taste buds for letting you appreciate the saltiness of pretzels and the sweetness of ice cream. ... allow you to experience tastes that are sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. How exactly do your taste ...

  5. Time-Lapse Video Microscopy Analysis Reveals Astral Microtubule Detachment in the Yeast Spindle Pole Mutant cnm67V⃞

    PubMed Central

    Hoepfner, Dominic; Brachat, Arndt; Philippsen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cnm67Δ cells lack the spindle pole body (SPB) outer plaque, the main attachment site for astral (cytoplasmic) microtubules, leading to frequent nuclear segregation failure. We monitored dynamics of green fluorescent protein–labeled nuclei and microtubules over several cell cycles. Early nuclear migration steps such as nuclear positioning and spindle orientation were slightly affected, but late phases such as rapid oscillations and insertion of the anaphase nucleus into the bud neck were mostly absent. Analyzes of microtubule dynamics revealed normal behavior of the nuclear spindle but frequent detachment of astral microtubules after SPB separation. Concomitantly, Spc72 protein, the cytoplasmic anchor for the γ-tubulin complex, was partially lost from the SPB region with dynamics similar to those observed for microtubules. We postulate that in cnm67Δ cells Spc72–γ-tubulin complex-capped astral microtubules are released from the half-bridge upon SPB separation but fail to be anchored to the cytoplasmic side of the SPB because of the absence of an outer plaque. However, successful nuclear segregation in cnm67Δ cells can still be achieved by elongation forces of spindles that were correctly oriented before astral microtubule detachment by action of Kip3/Kar3 motors. Interestingly, the first nuclear segregation in newborn diploid cells never fails, even though astral microtubule detachment occurs. PMID:10749924

  6. An actin-binding protein, CAP, is expressed in a subset of rat taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Y; Yasuoka, A; Asano-Miyoshi, M; Abe, K; Emori, Y

    2001-02-12

    Single cell cDNA libraries were constructed from taste bud cells of rat circumvallate papillae. Using three steps of screening, including differential hybridization, sequence analyses and in situ hybridization, a clone encoding a rat homolog of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) was identified to be highly expressed in a subset of taste bud cells.

  7. Rewiring yeast osmostress signalling through the MAPK network reveals essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 in osmoadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Furukawa, Takako; Hohmann, Stefan; Furukawa, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have a number of targets which they regulate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to mediate specific responses. The yeast Hog1 MAPK is essential for cell survival under hyperosmotic conditions and it plays multiple roles in gene expression, metabolic regulation, signal fidelity and cell cycle regulation. Here we describe essential and non-essential roles of Hog1 using engineered yeast cells in which osmoadaptation was reconstituted in a Hog1-independent manner. We rewired Hog1-dependent osmotic stress-induced gene expression under the control of Fus3/Kss1 MAPKs, which are activated upon osmostress via crosstalk in hog1Δ cells. This approach revealed that osmotic up-regulation of only two Hog1-dependent glycerol biosynthesis genes, GPD1 and GPP2, is sufficient for successful osmoadaptation. Moreover, some of the previously described Hog1-dependent mechanisms appeared to be dispensable for osmoadaptation in the engineered cells. These results suggest that the number of essential MAPK functions may be significantly smaller than anticipated and that knockout approaches may lead to over-interpretation of phenotypic data. PMID:24732094

  8. Potassium Starvation in Yeast: Mechanisms of Homeostasis Revealed by Mathematical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Kahm, Matthias; Navarrete, Clara; Llopis-Torregrosa, Vicent; Herrera, Rito; Barreto, Lina; Yenush, Lynne; Ariño, Joaquin; Ramos, Jose; Kschischo, Maik

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic ability of cells to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is a fundamental process required for survival. Potassium is the most abundant cation in living cells and is required for essential cellular processes, including the regulation of cell volume, pH and protein synthesis. Yeast cells can grow from low micromolar to molar potassium concentrations and utilize sophisticated control mechanisms to keep the internal potassium concentration in a viable range. We developed a mathematical model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the complex interplay between biophysical forces and molecular regulation facilitating potassium homeostasis. By using a novel inference method (“the reverse tracking algorithm”) we predicted and then verified experimentally that the main regulators under conditions of potassium starvation are proton fluxes responding to changes of potassium concentrations. In contrast to the prevailing view, we show that regulation of the main potassium transport systems (Trk1,2 and Nha1) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to achieve homeostasis. PMID:22737060

  9. Specific populations of the yeast Geotrichum candidum revealed by molecular typing.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Laaghouiti, Fatima; Tinsley, Colin R; Casaregola, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous yeast and an essential component in the production of many soft cheeses. We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with five retained loci (NUP116, URA1, URA3, SAPT4 and PLB3) which were sufficiently divergent to distinguish 40 sequence types (STs) among the 67 G. candidum strains tested. Phylogenetic analyses defined five main clades; one clade was restricted to environmental isolates, three other clades included distinct environmental isolates and dairy strains, while the fifth clade comprised 34 strains (13 STs), among which all but two were isolated from milk, cheese or the dairy environment. These findings suggest an adaptation to the dairy ecosystems by a group of specialized European G. candidum strains. In addition, we developed a polymerase chain reaction inter-long terminal repeat scheme, a fast and reproducible random amplification of polymorphic DNA-like method for G. candidum, to type the closely related dairy strains, which could not be distinguished by MLST. Overall, our findings distinguished two types of dairy strains, one forming a homogeneous group with little genetic diversity, and the other more closely related to environmental isolates. Neither regional nor cheese specificity was observed in the dairy G. candidum strains analysed. This present study sheds light on the genetic diversity of both dairy and environmental strains of G. candidum and thus extends previous characterizations that have focused on the cheese isolates of this species. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Potassium starvation in yeast: mechanisms of homeostasis revealed by mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Kahm, Matthias; Navarrete, Clara; Llopis-Torregrosa, Vicent; Herrera, Rito; Barreto, Lina; Yenush, Lynne; Ariño, Joaquin; Ramos, Jose; Kschischo, Maik

    2012-01-01

    The intrinsic ability of cells to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is a fundamental process required for survival. Potassium is the most abundant cation in living cells and is required for essential cellular processes, including the regulation of cell volume, pH and protein synthesis. Yeast cells can grow from low micromolar to molar potassium concentrations and utilize sophisticated control mechanisms to keep the internal potassium concentration in a viable range. We developed a mathematical model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the complex interplay between biophysical forces and molecular regulation facilitating potassium homeostasis. By using a novel inference method ("the reverse tracking algorithm") we predicted and then verified experimentally that the main regulators under conditions of potassium starvation are proton fluxes responding to changes of potassium concentrations. In contrast to the prevailing view, we show that regulation of the main potassium transport systems (Trk1,2 and Nha1) in the plasma membrane is not sufficient to achieve homeostasis.

  11. Structured illumination with particle averaging reveals novel roles for yeast centrosome components during duplication

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Shannon; Avena, Jennifer S; Unruh, Jay R; Yu, Zulin; Smith, Sarah E; Slaughter, Brian D; Winey, Mark; Jaspersen, Sue L

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the yeast centrosome (called the spindle pole body, SPB) is thought to occur through a series of discrete steps that culminate in insertion of the new SPB into the nuclear envelope (NE). To better understand this process, we developed a novel two-color structured illumination microscopy with single-particle averaging (SPA-SIM) approach to study the localization of all 18 SPB components during duplication using endogenously expressed fluorescent protein derivatives. The increased resolution and quantitative intensity information obtained using this method allowed us to demonstrate that SPB duplication begins by formation of an asymmetric Sfi1 filament at mitotic exit followed by Mps1-dependent assembly of a Spc29- and Spc42-dependent complex at its tip. Our observation that proteins involved in membrane insertion, such as Mps2, Bbp1, and Ndc1, also accumulate at the new SPB early in duplication suggests that SPB assembly and NE insertion are coupled events during SPB formation in wild-type cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08586.001 PMID:26371506

  12. Genetic analysis of yeast RPA1 reveals its multiple functions in DNA metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Umezu, K; Sugawara, N; Chen, C; Haber, J E; Kolodner, R D

    1998-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein identified as an essential factor for SV40 DNA replication in vitro. To understand the in vivo functions of RPA, we mutagenized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFA1 gene and identified 19 ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation- and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive mutants and 5 temperature-sensitive mutants. The UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants showed up to 10(4) to 10(5) times increased sensitivity to these agents. Some of the UV- and MMS-sensitive mutants were killed by an HO-induced double-strand break at MAT. Physical analysis of recombination in one UV- and MMS-sensitive rfa1 mutant demonstrated that it was defective for mating type switching and single-strand annealing recombination. Two temperature-sensitive mutants were characterized in detail, and at the restrictive temperature were found to have an arrest phenotype and DNA content indicative of incomplete DNA replication. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the mutations altered amino acids that were conserved between yeast, human, and Xenopus RPA1. Taken together, we conclude that RPA1 has multiple roles in vivo and functions in DNA replication, repair, and recombination, like the single-stranded DNA-binding proteins of bacteria and phages. PMID:9539419

  13. Complex structure of the fission yeast SREBP-SCAP binding domains reveals an oligomeric organization

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xin; Qian, Hongwu; Shao, Wei; Li, Jingxian; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Jun-Jie; Li, Wenqi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Espenshade, Peter; Yan, Nieng

    2016-01-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors are master regulators of cellular lipid homeostasis in mammals and oxygen-responsive regulators of hypoxic adaptation in fungi. SREBP C-terminus binds to the WD40 domain of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), which confers sterol regulation by controlling the ER-to-Golgi transport of the SREBP-SCAP complex and access to the activating proteases in the Golgi. Here, we biochemically and structurally show that the carboxyl terminal domains (CTD) of Sre1 and Scp1, the fission yeast SREBP and SCAP, form a functional 4:4 oligomer and Sre1-CTD forms a dimer of dimers. The crystal structure of Sre1-CTD at 3.5 Å and cryo-EM structure of the complex at 5.4 Å together with in vitro biochemical evidence elucidate three distinct regions in Sre1-CTD required for Scp1 binding, Sre1-CTD dimerization and tetrameric formation. Finally, these structurally identified domains are validated in a cellular context, demonstrating that the proper 4:4 oligomeric complex formation is required for Sre1 activation. PMID:27811944

  14. Yeast gain-of-function mutations reveal structure–function relationships conserved among different subfamilies of transient receptor potential channels

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhenwei; Zhou, Xinliang; Haynes, W. John; Loukin, Stephen H.; Anishkin, Andriy; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2007-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels found in animals, protists, and fungi are primary chemo-, thermo-, or mechanosensors. Current research emphasizes the characteristics of individual channels in each animal TRP subfamily but not the mechanisms common across subfamilies. A forward genetic screen of the TrpY1, the yeast TRP channel, recovered gain-of-function (GOF) mutations with phenotype in vivo and in vitro. Single-channel patch-clamp analyses of these GOF-mutant channels show prominent aberrations in open probability and channel kinetics. These mutations revealed functionally important aromatic amino acid residues in four locations: at the intracellular end of the fifth transmembrane helix (TM5), at both ends of TM6, and at the immediate extension of TM6. These aromatics have counterparts in most TRP subfamilies. The one in TM5 (F380L) aligns precisely with an exceptional Drosophila mutant allele (F550I) that causes constitutive activity in the canonical TRP channel, resulting in rapid and severe retinal degeneration beyond mere loss of phototaxis. Thus, this phenylalanine maintains the balance of various functional states (conformations) of a channel for insect phototransduction as well as one for fungal mechanotransduction. This residue is among a small cluster of phenylalanines found in all known subfamilies of TRP channels. This unique case illustrates that GOF mutations can reveal structure–function principles that can be generalized across different TRP subfamilies. It appears that the conserved aromatics in the four locations have conserved functions in most TRP channels. The possible mechanistic roles of these aromatics and the further use of yeast genetics to dissect TRP channels are discussed. PMID:18042709

  15. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  16. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    PubMed

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms.

  17. A Genomic Study of the Bipolar Bud Site Selection Pattern in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Li; Snyder, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A genome-wide screen of 4168 homozygous diploid yeast deletion strains has been performed to identify nonessential genes that participate in the bipolar budding pattern. By examining bud scar patterns representing the sites of previous cell divisions, 127 mutants representing three different phenotypes were found: unipolar, axial-like, and random. From this screen, 11 functional classes of known genes were identified, including those involved in actin-cytoskeleton organization, general bud site selection, cell polarity, vesicular transport, cell wall synthesis, protein modification, transcription, nuclear function, translation, and other functions. Four characterized genes that were not known previously to participate in bud site selection were also found to be important for the haploid axial budding pattern. In addition to known genes, we found 22 novel genes (20 are designated BUD13-BUD32) important for bud site selection. Deletion of one resulted in unipolar budding exclusively from the proximal pole, suggesting that this gene plays an important role in diploid distal budding. Mutations in 20 other novel BUD genes produced a random budding phenotype and one produced an axial-like budding defect. Several of the novel Bud proteins were fused to green fluorescence protein; two proteins were found to localize to sites of polarized cell growth (i.e., the bud tip in small budded cells and the neck in cells undergoing cytokinesis), similar to that postulated for the bipolar signals and proteins that target cell division site tags to their proper location in the cell. Four others localized to the nucleus, suggesting that they play a role in gene expression. The bipolar distal marker Bud8 was localized in a number of mutants; many showed an altered Bud8-green fluorescence protein localization pattern. Through the genome-wide identification and analysis of different mutants involved in bipolar bud site selection, an integrated pathway for this process is presented in

  18. High-throughput screening of a large collection of non-conventional yeasts reveals their potential for aroma formation in food fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Amparo; Quintilla, Raquel; Groenewald, Marizeth; Alkema, Wynand; Boekhout, Teun; Hazelwood, Lucie

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeast species are currently the most important yeasts involved in industrial-scale food fermentations. However, there are hundreds of other yeast species poorly studied that are highly promising for flavour development, some of which have also been identified in traditional food fermentations. This work explores natural yeast biodiversity in terms of aroma formation, with a particular focus on aromas relevant for industrial fermentations such as wine and beer. Several non-Saccharomyces species produce important aroma compounds such as fusel alcohols derived from the Ehrlich pathway, acetate esters and ethyl esters in significantly higher quantities than the well-known Saccharomyces species. These species are Starmera caribaea, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Saccharomycopsis vini and Ambrosiozyma monospora. Certain species revealed a strain-dependent flavour profile while other species were very homogenous in their flavour profiles. Finally, characterization of a selected number of yeast species using valine or leucine as sole nitrogen sources indicates that the mechanisms of regulation of the expression of the Ehrlich pathway exist amongst non-conventional yeast species.

  19. A Small Conserved Domain in the Yeast Spa2p Is Necessary and Sufficient for Its Polarized Localization

    PubMed Central

    Arkowitz, Robert A.; Lowe, Nick

    1997-01-01

    SPA2 encodes a yeast protein that is one of the first proteins to localize to sites of polarized growth, such as the shmoo tip and the incipient bud. The dynamics and requirements for Spa2p localization in living cells are examined using Spa2p green fluorescent protein fusions. Spa2p localizes to one edge of unbudded cells and subsequently is observable in the bud tip. Finally, during cytokinesis Spa2p is present as a ring at the mother–daughter bud neck. The bud emergence mutants bem1 and bem2 and mutants defective in the septins do not affect Spa2p localization to the bud tip. Strikingly, a small domain of Spa2p comprised of 150 amino acids is necessary and sufficient for localization to sites of polarized growth. This localization domain and the amino terminus of Spa2p are essential for its function in mating. Searching the yeast genome database revealed a previously uncharacterized protein which we name, Sph1p (Spa2p homolog), with significant homology to the localization domain and amino terminus of Spa2p. This protein also localizes to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells. SPH1, which is similar to SPA2, is required for bipolar budding and plays a role in shmoo formation. Overexpression of either Spa2p or Sph1p can block the localization of either protein fused to green fluorescent protein, suggesting that both Spa2p and Sph1p bind to and are localized by the same component. The identification of a 150–amino acid domain necessary and sufficient for localization of Spa2p to sites of polarized growth and the existence of this domain in another yeast protein Sph1p suggest that the early localization of these proteins may be mediated by a receptor that recognizes this small domain. PMID:9214378

  20. Expression of Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors in yeast under stress conditions reveals that HopX1 attenuates activation of the high osmolarity glycerol MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Bosis, Eran; Dar, Daniel; Nachman, Iftach; Sessa, Guido

    2012-11-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) is the causal agent of speck disease in tomato. Pst pathogenicity depends on a type III secretion system that delivers effector proteins into host cells, where they promote disease by manipulating processes to the advantage of the pathogen. Previous studies identified seven Pst effectors that inhibit growth when expressed in yeast under normal growth conditions, suggesting that they interfere with cellular processes conserved in yeast and plants. We hypothesized that effectors also target conserved cellular processes that are required for yeast growth only under stress conditions. We therefore examined phenotypes induced by expression of Pst effectors in yeast grown in the presence of various stressors. Out of 29 effectors tested, five (HopX1, HopG1, HopT1-1, HopH1 and AvrPtoB) displayed growth inhibition phenotypes only in combination with stress conditions. Viability assays revealed that the HopX1 effector caused loss of cell viability under prolonged osmotic stress. Using transcription reporters, we found that HopX1 attenuated the activation of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which is responsible for yeast survival under osmotic stress, while other MAPK pathways were mildly affected by HopX1. Interestingly, HopX1-mediated phenotypes in yeast were dependent on the putative transglutaminase catalytic triad of the effector. This study enlarges the pool of phenotypes available for the functional analysis of Pst type III effectors in yeast, and exemplifies how analysis of phenotypes detected in yeast under stress conditions can lead to the identification of eukaryotic cellular processes affected by bacterial effectors.

  1. Automated quantification of budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a novel image cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Daniel J; Kury, Alexandria L; Kuksin, Dmitry; Pirani, Alnoor; Flanagan, Kevin; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The measurements of concentration, viability, and budding percentages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are performed on a routine basis in the brewing and biofuel industries. Generation of these parameters is of great importance in a manufacturing setting, where they can aid in the estimation of product quality, quantity, and fermentation time of the manufacturing process. Specifically, budding percentages can be used to estimate the reproduction rate of yeast populations, which directly correlates with metabolism of polysaccharides and bioethanol production, and can be monitored to maximize production of bioethanol during fermentation. The traditional method involves manual counting using a hemacytometer, but this is time-consuming and prone to human error. In this study, we developed a novel automated method for the quantification of yeast budding percentages using Cellometer image cytometry. The automated method utilizes a dual-fluorescent nucleic acid dye to specifically stain live cells for imaging analysis of unique morphological characteristics of budding yeast. In addition, cell cycle analysis is performed as an alternative method for budding analysis. We were able to show comparable yeast budding percentages between manual and automated counting, as well as cell cycle analysis. The automated image cytometry method is used to analyze and characterize corn mash samples directly from fermenters during standard fermentation. Since concentration, viability, and budding percentages can be obtained simultaneously, the automated method can be integrated into the fermentation quality assurance protocol, which may improve the quality and efficiency of beer and bioethanol production processes.

  2. "Bud, Not Buddy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the award-winning book "Bud, Not Buddy" written by Christopher Paul Curtis. Lists different versions of the book; suggests learning activities; lists sources for biographical information and interviews with Curtis, teacher guides, professional articles, and other Depression era novels; and provides a citation for the author's…

  3. Centromeric chromatin in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Janet F

    2008-05-01

    A fundamental requirement for life is the ability of cells to divide properly and to pass on to their daughters a full complement of genetic material. The centromere of the chromosome is essential for this process, as it provides the DNA sequences on which the kinetochore (the proteinaceous structure that links centromeric DNA to the spindle microtubules) assembles to allow segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis. It has long been recognized that kinetochore assembly is subject to epigenetic control, and deciphering how centromeres promote faithful chromosome segregation provides a fascinating intellectual challenge. This challenge is made more difficult by the scale and complexity of DNA sequences in metazoan centromeres, thus much research has focused on dissecting centromere function in the single celled eukaryotic yeasts. Interestingly, in spite of similarities in the genome size of budding and fission yeasts, they seem to have adopted some striking differences in their strategy for passing on their chromosomes. Budding yeast have "point" centromeres, where a 125 base sequence is sufficient for mitotic propagation, whereas fission yeast centromeres are more reminiscent of the large repetitive centromeres of metazoans. In addition, the centromeric heterochromatin which coats centromeric domains of fission yeast and metazoan centromeres and is critical for their function, is largely absent from budding yeast centromeres. This review focuses on the assembly and maintenance of centromeric chromatin in the fission yeast.

  4. Structure of an endogenous yeast 26S proteasome reveals two major conformational states.

    PubMed

    Luan, Bai; Huang, Xiuliang; Wu, Jianping; Mei, Ziqing; Wang, Yiwei; Xue, Xiaobin; Yan, Chuangye; Wang, Jiawei; Finley, Daniel J; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng

    2016-03-08

    The eukaryotic proteasome mediates degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Here we report the single-particle cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the endogenous 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 4.6- to 6.3-Å resolution. The fine features of the cryo-EM maps allow modeling of 18 subunits in the regulatory particle and 28 in the core particle. The proteasome exhibits two distinct conformational states, designated M1 and M2, which correspond to those reported previously for the proteasome purified in the presence of ATP-γS and ATP, respectively. These conformations also correspond to those of the proteasome in the presence and absence of exogenous substrate. Structure-guided biochemical analysis reveals enhanced deubiquitylating enzyme activity of Rpn11 upon assembly of the lid. Our structures serve as a molecular basis for mechanistic understanding of proteasome function.

  5. Structure of an endogenous yeast 26S proteasome reveals two major conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Bai; Huang, Xiuliang; Wu, Jianping; Mei, Ziqing; Wang, Yiwei; Xue, Xiaobin; Yan, Chuangye; Wang, Jiawei; Finley, Daniel J.; Shi, Yigong; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic proteasome mediates degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Here we report the single-particle cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the endogenous 26S proteasome from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 4.6- to 6.3-Å resolution. The fine features of the cryo-EM maps allow modeling of 18 subunits in the regulatory particle and 28 in the core particle. The proteasome exhibits two distinct conformational states, designated M1 and M2, which correspond to those reported previously for the proteasome purified in the presence of ATP-γS and ATP, respectively. These conformations also correspond to those of the proteasome in the presence and absence of exogenous substrate. Structure-guided biochemical analysis reveals enhanced deubiquitylating enzyme activity of Rpn11 upon assembly of the lid. Our structures serve as a molecular basis for mechanistic understanding of proteasome function. PMID:26929360

  6. Efficient Reverse Genetics Reveals Genetic Determinants of Budding and Fusogenic Differences between Nipah and Hendra Viruses and Enables Real-Time Monitoring of Viral Spread in Small Animal Models of Henipavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tatyana; Park, Arnold; Hill, Terence E.; Pernet, Olivier; Beaty, Shannon M.; Juelich, Terry L.; Smith, Jennifer K.; Zhang, Lihong; Wang, Yao E.; Vigant, Frederic; Gao, Junling; Wu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    the growing numbers of novel henipavirus-like viruses. IMPORTANCE Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are recently emergent zoonotic and highly lethal pathogens with pandemic potential. Although differences have been observed between NiV and HeV replication and pathogenesis, the molecular basis for these differences has not been examined. In this study, we established a highly efficient system to reverse engineer changes into replication-competent NiV and HeV, which facilitated the generation of reporter-expressing viruses and recombinant NiV-HeV chimeras with substitutions in the genes responsible for viral exit (the M gene, critical for assembly and budding) and viral entry (the G [attachment] and F [fusion] genes). These chimeras revealed differences in the budding and fusogenic properties of the M and G proteins, respectively, which help explain previously observed differences between NiV and HeV. Finally, to facilitate future in vivo studies, we monitored the replication and spread of a bioluminescent reporter-expressing NiV in susceptible mice; this is the first time such in vivo imaging has been performed under BSL-4 conditions. PMID:25392218

  7. Mechanisms of Contractile-Ring Assembly in Fission Yeast and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Damien; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Most eukaryotes including fungi, amoebas, and animal cells assemble an actin/myosin-based contractile ring during cytokinesis. The majority of proteins implied in ring formation, maturation, and constriction are evolutionarily conserved, suggesting that common mechanisms exist among these divergent eukaryotes. Here, we review the recent advances in positioning and assembly of the actomyosin ring in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and animal cells. In particular, major findings have been made recently in understanding ring formation in genetically tractable S. pombe, revealing a dynamic and robust search, capture, pull, and release mechanism. PMID:20708088

  8. Multiple Orientation-Dependent, Synergistically Interacting, Similar Domains in the Ribosomal DNA Replication Origin of the Fission Yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Mi; Huberman, Joel A.

    1998-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has DNA replication origins (500 to 1500 bp) that are larger than those in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (100 to 150 bp). Deletion and linker substitution analyses of two fission yeast origins revealed that they contain multiple important regions with AT-rich asymmetric (abundant A residues in one strand and T residues in the complementary strand) sequence motifs. In this work we present the characterization of a third fission yeast replication origin, ars3001, which is relatively small (∼570 bp) and responsible for replication of ribosomal DNA. Like previously studied fission yeast origins, ars3001 contains multiple important regions. The three most important of these regions resemble each other in several ways: each region is essential for origin function and is at least partially orientation dependent, each region contains similar clusters of A+T-rich asymmetric sequences, and the regions can partially substitute for each other. These observations suggest that ars3001 function requires synergistic interactions between domains binding similar proteins. It is likely that this requirement extends to other fission yeast origins, explaining why such origins are larger than those of budding yeast. PMID:9819416

  9. Global analysis of transcriptionally engaged yeast RNA polymerase III reveals extended tRNA transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Turowski, Tomasz W.; Leśniewska, Ewa; Delan-Forino, Clementine; Sayou, Camille; Boguta, Magdalena; Tollervey, David

    2016-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) synthesizes a range of highly abundant small stable RNAs, principally pre-tRNAs. Here we report the genome-wide analysis of nascent transcripts attached to RNAPIII under permissive and restrictive growth conditions. This revealed strikingly uneven polymerase distributions across transcription units, generally with a predominant 5′ peak. This peak was higher for more heavily transcribed genes, suggesting that initiation site clearance is rate-limiting during RNAPIII transcription. Down-regulation of RNAPIII transcription under stress conditions was found to be uneven; a subset of tRNA genes showed low response to nutrient shift or loss of the major transcription regulator Maf1, suggesting potential “housekeeping” roles. Many tRNA genes were found to generate long, 3′-extended forms due to read-through of the canonical poly(U) terminators. The degree of read-through was anti-correlated with the density of U-residues in the nascent tRNA, and multiple, functional terminators can be located far downstream. The steady-state levels of 3′-extended pre-tRNA transcripts are low, apparently due to targeting by the nuclear surveillance machinery, especially the RNA binding protein Nab2, cofactors for the nuclear exosome, and the 5′-exonuclease Rat1. PMID:27206856

  10. Splicing Functions and Global Dependency on Fission Yeast Slu7 Reveal Diversity in Spliceosome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Shataparna; Khandelia, Piyush; Melangath, Geetha; Bashir, Samirul; Nagampalli, Vijaykrishna

    2013-01-01

    The multiple short introns in Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes with degenerate cis sequences and atypically positioned polypyrimidine tracts make an interesting model to investigate canonical and alternative roles for conserved splicing factors. Here we report functions and interactions of the S. pombe slu7+ (spslu7+) gene product, known from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human in vitro reactions to assemble into spliceosomes after the first catalytic reaction and to dictate 3′ splice site choice during the second reaction. By using a missense mutant of this essential S. pombe factor, we detected a range of global splicing derangements that were validated in assays for the splicing status of diverse candidate introns. We ascribe widespread, intron-specific SpSlu7 functions and have deduced several features, including the branch nucleotide-to-3′ splice site distance, intron length, and the impact of its A/U content at the 5′ end on the intron's dependence on SpSlu7. The data imply dynamic substrate-splicing factor relationships in multiintron transcripts. Interestingly, the unexpected early splicing arrest in spslu7-2 revealed a role before catalysis. We detected a salt-stable association with U5 snRNP and observed genetic interactions with spprp1+, a homolog of human U5-102k factor. These observations together point to an altered recruitment and dependence on SpSlu7, suggesting its role in facilitating transitions that promote catalysis, and highlight the diversity in spliceosome assembly. PMID:23754748

  11. Plasma Metabolomic Profiling to Reveal Antipyretic Mechanism of Shuang-Huang-Lian Injection on Yeast-Induced Pyrexia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Long; Liu, Haiyu; Zhang, Li; Bai, Xu; Wang, Yingxin; Li, Jian; Cai, Chengke

    2014-01-01

    Shuang-huang-lian injection (SHLI) is a famous Chinese patent medicine, which has been wildly used in clinic for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, influenza, etc. The existing randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies suggested that SHLI could afford a certain anti-febrile action. However, seldom does research concern the pharmacological mechanisms of SHLI. In the current study, we explored plasma metabolomic profiling technique and selected potential metabolic markers to reveal the antipyretic mechanism of SHLI on yeast-induced pyrexia rat model using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis and pattern recognition techniques. We discovered a significant perturbance of metabolic profile in the plasma of fever rats and obvious reversion in SHLI-administered rats. Eight potential biomarkers, i.e. 1) 3-hydeoxybutyric acid, 2) leucine, 3) 16∶0 LPC, 4) allocholic acid, 5) vitamin B2, 6) Cys-Lys-His, 7) 18∶2 LPC, and 8) 3-hydroxychola-7, 22-dien-24-oic acid, were screened out by OPLS-DA approach. Five potential perturbed metabolic pathways, i.e. 1) valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, 2) glycerophospholipid metabolism, 3) ketone bodies synthesis and degradation, 4) bile acid biosynthesis, and 5) riboflavin metabolism, were revealed to relate to the antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI. Overall, we investigated antipyretic mechanisms of SHLI at metabolomic level for the first time, and the obtained results highlights the necessity of adopting metabolomics as a reliable tool for understanding the holism and synergism of Chinese patent drug. PMID:24940599

  12. Human Antibodies against a Purified Glucosylceramide from Cryptococcus neoformans Inhibit Cell Budding and Fungal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Miranda, Kildare R.; Franzen, Anderson J.; Rozental, Sonia; de Souza, Wanderley; Alviano, Celuta S.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2000-01-01

    A major ceramide monohexoside (CMH) was purified from lipidic extracts of Cryptococcus neoformans. This molecule was analyzed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry. The cryptococcal CMH is a β-glucosylceramide, with the carbohydrate residue attached to 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid. Sera from patients with cryptococcosis and a few other mycoses reacted with the cryptococcal CMH. Specific antibodies were purified from patients' sera by immunoadsorption on the purified glycolipid followed by protein G affinity chromatography. The purified antibodies to CMH (mainly immunoglobulin G1) bound to different strains and serological types of C. neoformans, as shown by flow cytofluorimetry and immunofluorescence labeling. Transmission electron microscopy of yeasts labeled with immunogold-antibodies to CMH and immunostaining of isolated cell wall lipid extracts separated by HPTLC showed that the cryptococcal CMH predominantly localizes to the fungal cell wall. Confocal microscopy revealed that the β-glucosylceramide accumulates mostly at the budding sites of dividing cells with a more disperse distribution at the cell surface of nondividing cells. The increased density of sphingolipid molecules seems to correlate with thickening of the cell wall, hence with its biosynthesis. The addition of human antibodies to CMH to cryptococcal cultures of both acapsular and encapsulated strains of C. neoformans inhibited cell budding and cell growth. This process was complement-independent and reversible upon removal of the antibodies. The present data suggest that the cryptococcal β-glucosylceramide is a fungal antigen that plays a role on the cell wall synthesis and yeast budding and that antibodies raised against this component are inhibitory in vitro. PMID:11083830

  13. Molecular events of apical bud formation in white spruce, Picea glauca.

    PubMed

    El Kayal, Walid; Allen, Carmen C G; Ju, Chelsea J-T; Adams, Eri; King-Jones, Susanne; Zaharia, L Irina; Abrams, Suzanne R; Cooke, Janice E K

    2011-03-01

    Bud formation is an adaptive trait that temperate forest trees have acquired to facilitate seasonal synchronization. We have characterized transcriptome-level changes that occur during bud formation of white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss], a primarily determinate species in which preformed stem units contained within the apical bud constitute most of next season's growth. Microarray analysis identified 4460 differentially expressed sequences in shoot tips during short day-induced bud formation. Cluster analysis revealed distinct temporal patterns of expression, and functional classification of genes in these clusters implied molecular processes that coincide with anatomical changes occurring in the developing bud. Comparing expression profiles in developing buds under long day and short day conditions identified possible photoperiod-responsive genes that may not be essential for bud development. Several genes putatively associated with hormone signalling were identified, and hormone quantification revealed distinct profiles for abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, auxin and their metabolites that can be related to morphological changes to the bud. Comparison of gene expression profiles during bud formation in different tissues revealed 108 genes that are differentially expressed only in developing buds and show greater transcript abundance in developing buds than other tissues. These findings provide a temporal roadmap of bud formation in white spruce.

  14. Life cycle of yeast prions: propagation mediated by amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    Currently, prion phenomena have been detected in various organisms, in addition to mammals affected by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, various proteins have prion properties and adopt atypical phenotypes as genetic elements, such as the Sup35 and Ure2 proteins, corresponding to the [PSI+] and [URE3] phenotypes, respectively. Each yeast prion protein has a prion-forming region rich in glutamines and/or asparagines, and can form amyloid fibrils in its prion conformation. Studies on yeast prions have revealed that the amyloid fibrils play critical roles in the life cycle of the yeast prion. First, the amyloid fibril binds the normal prion protein and catalyzes a structural conversion into the abnormal form, the key event of the prion phenomenon. Second, the amyloid fibril is related to the strain differences of the prion phenotypes, by its substructural differences. Third, the number of prion elements multiplies by the fragmentation of amyloid fibrils, which is mediated by a chaperone system in which Hsp104 plays a central role, and the prion elements are distributed to the daughter cells during cell division. Moreover, heterologous prion-prion communications may occur, probably by cross-seeding of amyloid fibrils among different prion proteins in the same yeast cell. Findings achieved by yeast prion studies are making great contributions toward understanding the characteristics of amyloid fibrils and prions.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of translational efficiency reveals distinct but overlapping functions of yeast DEAD-box RNA helicases Ded1 and eIF4A

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Neelam Dabas; Zhou, Fujun; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    DEAD-box RNA helicases eIF4A and Ded1 are believed to promote translation initiation by resolving mRNA secondary structures that impede ribosome attachment at the mRNA 5′ end or subsequent scanning of the 5′ UTR, but whether they perform unique or overlapping functions in vivo is poorly understood. We compared the effects of mutations in Ded1 or eIF4A on global translational efficiencies (TEs) in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ribosome footprint profiling. Despite similar reductions in bulk translation, inactivation of a cold-sensitive Ded1 mutant substantially reduced the TEs of >600 mRNAs, whereas inactivation of a temperature-sensitive eIF4A variant encoded by tif1-A79V (in a strain lacking the ortholog TIF2) yielded <40 similarly impaired mRNAs. The broader requirement for Ded1 did not reflect more pervasive secondary structures at low temperature, as inactivation of temperature-sensitive and cold-sensitive ded1 mutants gave highly correlated results. Interestingly, Ded1-dependent mRNAs exhibit greater than average 5′ UTR length and propensity for secondary structure, implicating Ded1 in scanning through structured 5′ UTRs. Reporter assays confirmed that cap-distal stem–loop insertions increase dependence on Ded1 but not eIF4A for efficient translation. While only a small fraction of mRNAs shows a heightened requirement for eIF4A, dependence on eIF4A is correlated with requirements for Ded1 and 5′ UTR features characteristic of Ded1-dependent mRNAs. Our findings suggest that Ded1 is critically required to promote scanning through secondary structures within 5′ UTRs, and while eIF4A cooperates with Ded1 in this function, it also promotes a step of initiation common to virtually all yeast mRNAs. PMID:26122911

  16. Yeast population dynamics reveal a potential 'collaboration' between Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum for the production of reduced alcohol wines during Shiraz fermentation.

    PubMed

    Contreras, A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-02-01

    The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 was able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration when used in sequential inoculation with a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, different inoculation regimes were explored to study the effect of yeast population dynamics and potential yeast interactions on the metabolism of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 during fermentation of non-sterile Shiraz must. Of all inoculation regimes tested, only ferments inoculated with M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 showed reduced ethanol concentration. Population dynamics revealed the presence of several indigenous yeast species and one of these, Saccharomyces uvarum (AWRI 2846), was able to produce wine with reduced ethanol concentration in sterile conditions. Both strains however, were inhibited when a combination of three non-Saccharomyces strains, Hanseniaspora uvarum AWRI863, Pichia kluyveri AWRI1896 and Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI2845 were inoculated into must, indicating that the microbial community composition might impact on the growth of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI 2846. Our results indicate that mixed cultures of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI2846 enable an additional reduction of wine ethanol concentration compared to the same must fermented with either strain alone. This work thus provides a foundation to develop inoculation regimes for the successful application of non-cerevisiae yeast to the production of wines with reduced alcohol.

  17. Analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pan-genome reveals a pool of copy number variants distributed in diverse yeast strains from differing industrial environments

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barbara; Richter, Chandra; Kvitek, Daniel J.; Pugh, Tom; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Although the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably one of the most well-studied organisms on earth, the genome-wide variation within this species—i.e., its “pan-genome”—has been less explored. We created a multispecies microarray platform containing probes covering the genomes of several Saccharomyces species: S. cerevisiae, including regions not found in the standard laboratory S288c strain, as well as the mitochondrial and 2-μm circle genomes–plus S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. kluyveri, and S. castellii. We performed array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) on 83 different S. cerevisiae strains collected across a wide range of habitats; of these, 69 were commercial wine strains, while the remaining 14 were from a diverse set of other industrial and natural environments. We observed interspecific hybridization events, introgression events, and pervasive copy number variation (CNV) in all but a few of the strains. These CNVs were distributed throughout the strains such that they did not produce any clear phylogeny, suggesting extensive mating in both industrial and wild strains. To validate our results and to determine whether apparently similar introgressions and CNVs were identical by descent or recurrent, we also performed whole-genome sequencing on nine of these strains. These data may help pinpoint genomic regions involved in adaptation to different industrial milieus, as well as shed light on the course of domestication of S. cerevisiae. PMID:22369888

  18. Hypermutation signature reveals a slippage and realignment model of translesion synthesis by Rev3 polymerase in cisplatin-treated yeast.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Romulo; Shen, Yaoqing; Lujan, Scott A; Jones, Steven J M; Stirling, Peter C

    2017-03-07

    Gene-gene or gene-drug interactions are typically quantified using fitness as a readout because the data are continuous and easily measured in high throughput. However, to what extent fitness captures the range of other phenotypes that show synergistic effects is usually unknown. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and focusing on a matrix of DNA repair mutants and genotoxic drugs, we quantify 76 gene-drug interactions based on both mutation rate and fitness and find that these parameters are not connected. Independent of fitness defects, we identified six cases of synthetic hypermutation, where the combined effect of the drug and mutant on mutation rate was greater than predicted. One example occurred when yeast lacking RAD1 were exposed to cisplatin, and we characterized this interaction using whole-genome sequencing. Our sequencing results indicate mutagenesis by cisplatin in rad1Δ cells appeared to depend almost entirely on interstrand cross-links at GpCpN motifs. Interestingly, our data suggest that the following base on the template strand dictates the addition of the mutated base. This result differs from cisplatin mutation signatures in XPF-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans and supports a model in which translesion synthesis polymerases perform a slippage and realignment extension across from the damaged base. Accordingly, DNA polymerase ζ activity was essential for mutagenesis in cisplatin-treated rad1Δ cells. Together these data reveal the potential to gain new mechanistic insights from nonfitness measures of gene-drug interactions and extend the use of mutation accumulation and whole-genome sequencing analysis to define DNA repair mechanisms.

  19. Reconstruction of ancestral chromosome architecture and gene repertoire reveals principles of genome evolution in a model yeast genus

    PubMed Central

    Vakirlis, Nikolaos; Sarilar, Véronique; Drillon, Guénola; Fleiss, Aubin; Agier, Nicolas; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Blanpain, Lou; Carbone, Alessandra; Devillers, Hugo; Dubois, Kenny; Gillet-Markowska, Alexandre; Graziani, Stéphane; Huu-Vang, Nguyen; Poirel, Marion; Reisser, Cyrielle; Schott, Jonathan; Schacherer, Joseph; Lafontaine, Ingrid; Llorente, Bertrand; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Fischer, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing genome history is complex but necessary to reveal quantitative principles governing genome evolution. Such reconstruction requires recapitulating into a single evolutionary framework the evolution of genome architecture and gene repertoire. Here, we reconstructed the genome history of the genus Lachancea that appeared to cover a continuous evolutionary range from closely related to more diverged yeast species. Our approach integrated the generation of a high-quality genome data set; the development of AnChro, a new algorithm for reconstructing ancestral genome architecture; and a comprehensive analysis of gene repertoire evolution. We found that the ancestral genome of the genus Lachancea contained eight chromosomes and about 5173 protein-coding genes. Moreover, we characterized 24 horizontal gene transfers and 159 putative gene creation events that punctuated species diversification. We retraced all chromosomal rearrangements, including gene losses, gene duplications, chromosomal inversions and translocations at single gene resolution. Gene duplications outnumbered losses and balanced rearrangements with 1503, 929, and 423 events, respectively. Gene content variations between extant species are mainly driven by differential gene losses, while gene duplications remained globally constant in all lineages. Remarkably, we discovered that balanced chromosomal rearrangements could be responsible for up to 14% of all gene losses by disrupting genes at their breakpoints. Finally, we found that nonsynonymous substitutions reached fixation at a coordinated pace with chromosomal inversions, translocations, and duplications, but not deletions. Overall, we provide a granular view of genome evolution within an entire eukaryotic genus, linking gene content, chromosome rearrangements, and protein divergence into a single evolutionary framework. PMID:27247244

  20. Polarized Growth Controls Cell Shape and Bipolar Bud Site Selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Yi-Jun; Barral, Yves; Snyder, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We examined the relationship between polarized growth and division site selection, two fundamental processes important for proper development of eukaryotes. Diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exhibit an ellipsoidal shape and a specific division pattern (a bipolar budding pattern). We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth. Deleting these genes results in round cells and diminishes bud elongation in mutants that exhibit pronounced apical growth. Examination of distribution of the polarized secretion marker Sec4 demonstrates that spa2Δ, pea2Δ, bud6Δ, and bni1Δ mutants fail to concentrate Sec4 at the bud tip during apical growth and at the division site during repolarization just prior to cytokinesis. Moreover, cell surface expansion is not confined to the distal tip of the bud in these mutants. In addition, we found that the p21-activated kinase homologue Ste20 is also important for both apical growth and bipolar bud site selection. We further examined how the duration of polarized growth affects bipolar bud site selection by using mutations in cell cycle regulators that control the timing of growth phases. The grr1Δ mutation enhances apical growth by stabilizing G1 cyclins and increases the distal-pole budding in diploids. Prolonging polarized growth phases by disrupting the G2/M cyclin gene CLB2 enhances the accuracy of bud site selection in wild-type, spa2Δ, and ste20Δ cells, whereas shortening the polarized growth phases by deleting SWE1 decreases the fidelity of bipolar budding. This study reports the identification of components required for apical growth and demonstrates the critical role of polarized growth in bipolar bud site selection. We propose that apical growth and repolarization at the site of cytokinesis are crucial for establishing spatial cues used by diploid yeast cells to position division planes. PMID:10866679

  1. Yeast Biological Networks Unfold the Interplay of Antioxidants, Genome and Phenotype, and Reveal a Novel Regulator of the Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Udatha, D. B. R. K. Gupta; Nielsen, Jens; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    Background Identifying causative biological networks associated with relevant phenotypes is essential in the field of systems biology. We used ferulic acid (FA) as a model antioxidant to characterize the global expression programs triggered by this small molecule and decipher the transcriptional network controlling the phenotypic adaptation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methodology/Principal Findings By employing a strict cut off value during gene expression data analysis, 106 genes were found to be involved in the cell response to FA, independent of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Network analysis of the system guided us to a key target node, the FMP43 protein, that when deleted resulted in marked acceleration of cellular growth (∼15% in both minimal and rich media). To extend our findings to human cells and identify proteins that could serve as drug targets, we replaced the yeast FMP43 protein with its human ortholog BRP44 in the genetic background of the yeast strain Δfmp43. The conservation of the two proteins was phenotypically evident, with BRP44 restoring the normal specific growth rate of the wild type. We also applied homology modeling to predict the 3D structure of the FMP43 and BRP44 proteins. The binding sites in the homology models of FMP43 and BRP44 were computationally predicted, and further docking studies were performed using FA as the ligand. The docking studies demonstrated the affinity of FA towards both FMP43 and BRP44. Conclusions This study proposes a hypothesis on the mechanisms yeast employs to respond to antioxidant molecules, while demonstrating how phenome and metabolome yeast data can serve as biomarkers for nutraceutical discovery and development. Additionally, we provide evidence for a putative therapeutic target, revealed by replacing the FMP43 protein with its human ortholog BRP44, a brain protein, and functionally characterizing the relevant mutant strain. PMID:21049050

  2. Two active states of the Ras-related Bud1/Rsr1 protein bind to different effectors to determine yeast cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hay-Oak; Bi, Erfei; Pringle, John R.; Herskowitz, Ira

    1997-01-01

    Cells of budding yeast organize their cytoskeleton in a highly polarized manner during vegetative growth. Selection of a site for polarization requires a group of proteins including a Ras-like GTPase, Bud1, and its regulators. Another group of proteins, which includes a Rho-like GTPase (Cdc42), its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Cdc24), and Bem1, is necessary for organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for cell polarization. We have proposed previously that the Bud1 protein, through its GTPase cycle, determines the localization of one or more of the cell polarity proteins to the bud site. Herein we demonstrate that Bud1 directly interacts with Cdc24 and Bem1: Bud1 in its GTP-bound form associates preferentially with Cdc24, whereas the GDP-bound form of Bud1 associates with Bem1. We also present subcellular fractionation data for Bud1 that is consistent with the idea that Bud1 can travel between the site for budding on the plasma membrane and the cytosol. We propose that Bud1 can exist in two active states for association with different partners and that the switch from Bud1–GTP to Bud1–GDP provides a regulatory device for ordered assembly of a macromolecular complex at the bud site. PMID:9114012

  3. Yeast Cells Expressing the Human Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase Reveal Correlations between Polymerase Fidelity and Human Disease Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yufeng; Kachroo, Aashiq H.; Yellman, Christopher M.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial polymerase (polymerase-γ (Pol-γ)) are associated with various mitochondrial disorders, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, Alpers syndrome, and progressive external opthamalplegia. To correlate biochemically quantifiable defects resulting from point mutations in Pol-γ with their physiological consequences, we created “humanized” yeast, replacing the yeast mtDNA polymerase (MIP1) with human Pol-γ. Despite differences in the replication and repair mechanism, we show that the human polymerase efficiently complements the yeast mip1 knockouts, suggesting common fundamental mechanisms of replication and conserved interactions between the human polymerase and other components of the replisome. We also examined the effects of four disease-related point mutations (S305R, H932Y, Y951N, and Y955C) and an exonuclease-deficient mutant (D198A/E200A). In haploid cells, each mutant results in rapid mtDNA depletion, increased mutation frequency, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mutation frequencies measured in vivo equal those measured with purified enzyme in vitro. In heterozygous diploid cells, wild-type Pol-γ suppresses mutation-associated growth defects, but continuous growth eventually leads to aerobic respiration defects, reduced mtDNA content, and depolarized mitochondrial membranes. The severity of the Pol-γ mutant phenotype in heterozygous diploid humanized yeast correlates with the approximate age of disease onset and the severity of symptoms observed in humans. PMID:24398692

  4. Phenotypic and chemotypic studies using Arabidopsis and yeast reveal that GHB converts to SSA and induce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku; Ludewig, Frank

    2016-07-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound. It is detected in organisms such as yeasts, plants and mammals. GHB is produced from the reduction of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) by the activity of GHB dehydrogenase. Arabidopsis genome contains two GHB dehydrogenase encoding genes. The accumulation of GHB in ssadh mutants led to the speculation that GHB is the cause of aberrant phenotypes. Conversely, the accumulation of GHB in Arabidopsis plants subjected to abiotic stresses was described as a way of avoiding SSA induced damage. To resolve these contrasting views on GHB, we examined the effect of exogenous GHB and SSA on the growth of yeast and Arabidopsis plants. GHB concentrations up to 1.5 mM didn't affect shoots of Arabidopsis plants; however, root growth was inhibited. In contrast, 0.3 mM SSA has severely affected the growth of plants. Treatment of yeast wild-type strain with 10 mM SSA and 10 mM GHB didn't affect the growth. However, the growth of yeast uga2 mutant was greatly inhibited by the same concentration of SSA, but not GHB. Metabolic analysis and enzyme activity assay on native gel showed that Arabidopsis, but not yeast, possesses a GHB dehydrogenase activity that converts GHB back to SSA. The enzymatic assay has also indicated the existence of an additional GHB dehydrogenase encoding gene(s) in Arabidopsis genome. Taken together, we conclude that GHB is less toxic than SSA. Its accumulation in ssadh mutants and during abiotic stresses is a response to avoid the SSA induced damage.

  5. Novel low abundance and transient RNAs in yeast revealed by tiling microarrays and ultra high-throughput sequencing are not conserved across closely related yeast species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Bullard, James; Dudoit, Sandrine; Sherlock, Gavin

    2008-12-01

    A complete description of the transcriptome of an organism is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of how it functions and how its transcriptional networks are controlled, and may provide insights into the organism's evolution. Despite the status of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as arguably the most well-studied model eukaryote, we still do not have a full catalog or understanding of all its genes. In order to interrogate the transcriptome of S. cerevisiae for low abundance or rapidly turned over transcripts, we deleted elements of the RNA degradation machinery with the goal of preferentially increasing the relative abundance of such transcripts. We then used high-resolution tiling microarrays and ultra high-throughput sequencing (UHTS) to identify, map, and validate unannotated transcripts that are more abundant in the RNA degradation mutants relative to wild-type cells. We identified 365 currently unannotated transcripts, the majority presumably representing low abundance or short-lived RNAs, of which 185 are previously unknown and unique to this study. It is likely that many of these are cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs), which are rapidly degraded and whose function(s) within the cell are still unclear, while others may be novel functional transcripts. Of the 185 transcripts we identified as novel to our study, greater than 80 percent come from regions of the genome that have lower conservation scores amongst closely related yeast species than 85 percent of the verified ORFs in S. cerevisiae. Such regions of the genome have typically been less well-studied, and by definition transcripts from these regions will distinguish S. cerevisiae from these closely related species.

  6. Analysis of Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using the Budding Index and Tubulin Staining.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrera, Marta; Monje-Casas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The budding index and the morphology of the spindle and the nucleus are excellent markers for the analysis of the progression through the different stages of the cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we describe a protocol to evaluate the budding index in this model organism using phase contrast microscopy. We also describe an indirect immunofluorescence method designed for the visualization of microtubules and the nucleus in S. cerevisiae. Finally, we explain how both methodologies can be used in order to analyze cell cycle progression in the budding yeast.

  7. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  8. Cadmium-induced activation of high osmolarity glycerol pathway through its Sln1 branch is dependent on the MAP kinase kinase kinase Ssk2, but not its paralog Ssk22, in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linghuo; Cao, Chunlei; Zhang, Lilin; Lin, Wei; Xia, Jing; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium ions disrupt reactive oxygen species/Ca(2+) homeostasis and subsequently elicit cell death and adaptive signaling cascades in eukaryotic cells. Through a functional genomics approach, we have identified deletion mutants of 106 yeast genes, including three MAP kinase genes (HOG1, SLT2, and KSS1), are sensitive to a sublethal concentration of cadmium, and 64 mutants show elevated intracellular cadmium concentrations upon exposure to cadmium. Hog1 is phosphorylated, reaching a peak 30 min after the cadmium treatment. Both Sln1 and Sho1 upstream branches are involved in the cadmium-induced activation of high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. Cadmium-induced HOG activation is dependent on the MAP kinase kinase kinase Ssk2, but not its paralog Ssk22, in the Sln1 branch.

  9. Characterization of hexose transporters in Yarrowia lipolytica reveals new groups of Sugar Porters involved in yeast growth.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Zbigniew; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Rossignol, Tristan; Devillers, Hugo; Morin, Nicolas; Robak, Małgorzata; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie

    2017-03-01

    Sugar assimilation has been intensively studied in the model yeast S. cerevisiae, and for two decades, it has been clear that the homologous HXT genes, which encode a set of hexose transporters, play a central role in this process. However, in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which is well-known for its biotechnological applications, sugar assimilation is only poorly understood, even though this yeast exhibits peculiar intra-strain differences in fructose uptake: some strains (e.g., W29) are known to be slow-growing in fructose while others (e.g., H222) grow rapidly under the same conditions. Here, we retrieved 24 proteins of the Sugar Porter family from these two strains, and determined that at least six of these proteins can function as hexose transporters in the heterologous host Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000. Transcriptional studies and deletion analysis in Y. lipolytica indicated that two genes, YHT1 and YHT4, are probably the main players in both strains, with a similar role in the uptake of glucose, fructose, and mannose at various concentrations. The other four genes appear to constitute a set of 'reservoir' hexose transporters with an as-yet unclear physiological role. Furthermore, through examining Sugar Porters of the entire Yarrowia clade, we show that they constitute a dynamic family, within which hexose transport genes have been duplicated and lost several times. Our phylogenetic analyses support the existence of at least three distinct evolutionary groups of transporters which allow yeasts to grow on hexoses. In addition to the well-known and widespread Hxt-type transporters (which are not essential in Y. lipolytica), we highlight a second group of transporters, represented by Yht1, which are phylogenetically related to sensors that play a regulatory role in S. cerevisiae, and a third group, represented by Yht4, previously thought to contain only high-affinity glucose transporters related to Hgt1of Kluyveromyces lactis.

  10. Large-scale phenotypic analysis reveals identical contributions to cell functions of known and unknown yeast genes.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M M; Ngo, S; Vandenbol, M; Sartori, G; Morlupi, A; Ricci, C; Stefani, S; Morlino, G B; Hilger, F; Carignani, G; Slonimski, P P; Frontali, L

    2001-11-01

    Sequencing of the yeast genome has shown that about one-third of the yeast ORFs code for unknown proteins. Many other have similarity to known genes, but still the cellular functions of the gene products are unknown. The aim of the B1 Consortium of the EUROFAN project was to perform a qualitative phenotypic analysis on yeast strains deleted for functionally orphan genes. To this end we set up a simple approach to detect growth defects of a relatively large number of strains in the presence of osmolytes, ethanol, high temperature, inhibitory compounds or drugs affecting protein biosynthesis, phosphorylation level or nucleic acids biosynthesis. We have now developed this procedure to a semi-quantitative level, we have included new inhibitors, such as hygromycin B, benomyl, metals and additional drugs interfering with synthesis of nucleic acids, and we have performed phenotypic analysis on the deleted strains of 564 genes poorly characterized in respect to their cellular functions. About 30% of the deleted strains showed at least one phenotype: many of them were pleiotropic. For many gene deletions, the linkage between the deletion marker and the observed phenotype(s) was studied by tetrad analysis and their co-segregation was demonstrated. Co-segregation was found in about two-thirds of the analysed strains showing phenotype(s).

  11. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis reveals YRF1 gene copy number variation that modulates genetic stability in distillery yeasts.

    PubMed

    Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-10-13

    Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains.

  12. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis reveals YRF1 gene copy number variation that modulates genetic stability in distillery yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Rawska, Ewa; Skoneczna, Adrianna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial yeasts, economically important microorganisms, are widely used in diverse biotechnological processes including brewing, winemaking and distilling. In contrast to a well-established genome of brewer's and wine yeast strains, the comprehensive evaluation of genomic features of distillery strains is lacking. In the present study, twenty two distillery yeast strains were subjected to electrophoretic karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The strains analyzed were assigned to the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex and grouped into four species categories: S. bayanus, S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The genomic diversity was mainly revealed within subtelomeric regions and the losses and/or gains of fragments of chromosomes I, III, VI and IX were the most frequently observed. Statistically significant differences in the gene copy number were documented in six functional gene categories: 1) telomere maintenance via recombination, DNA helicase activity or DNA binding, 2) maltose metabolism process, glucose transmembrane transporter activity; 3) asparagine catabolism, cellular response to nitrogen starvation, localized in cell wall-bounded periplasmic space, 4) siderophore transport, 5) response to copper ion, cadmium ion binding and 6) L-iditol 2- dehydrogenase activity. The losses of YRF1 genes (Y' element ATP-dependent helicase) were accompanied by decreased level of Y' sequences and an increase in DNA double and single strand breaks, and oxidative DNA damage in the S. paradoxus group compared to the S. bayanus group. We postulate that naturally occurring diversity in the YRF1 gene copy number may promote genetic stability in the S. bayanus group of distillery yeast strains. PMID:26384347

  13. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  14. Anti-aging and anti-microbial effects of melleolide on various types of yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Kobori, Hajime; Sekiya, Atsushi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we found that the sesquiterpene aryl ester melleolide expands the CLS of budding yeast. In contrast, melleolide compromised the CLS of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This indicates that melleolide might have a potential anti-aging activity against some types of cell, and that it might be useful as a selective anti-fungal drug.

  15. SIR-nucleosome interactions: structure-function relationships in yeast silent chromatin.

    PubMed

    Oppikofer, Mariano; Kueng, Stephanie; Gasser, Susan M

    2013-09-15

    Discrete regions of the eukaryotic genome assume a heritable chromatin structure that is refractory to gene expression, referred to as heterochromatin or "silent" chromatin. Constitutively silent chromatin is found in subtelomeric domains in a number of species, ranging from yeast to man. In addition, chromatin-dependent repression of mating type loci occurs in both budding and fission yeasts, to enable sexual reproduction. The silencing of chromatin in budding yeast is characterized by an assembly of Silent Information Regulatory (SIR) proteins-Sir2, Sir3 and Sir4-with unmodified nucleosomes. Silencing requires the lysine deacetylase activity of Sir2, extensive contacts between Sir3 and the nucleosome, as well as interactions among the SIR proteins, to generate the Sir2-3-4 or SIR complex. Results from recent structural and reconstitution studies suggest an updated model for the ordered assembly and organization of SIR-dependent silent chromatin in yeast. Moreover, studies of subtelomeric gene expression reveal the importance of subtelomeric silent chromatin in the regulation of genes other than the silent mating type loci. This review covers recent advances in this field.

  16. DNA replication in yeast is stochastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Rhind, Nicholas; Bechhoefer, John

    2010-03-01

    Largely on the basis of a simple --- perhaps too simple --- analysis of microarray-chip experiments, people have concluded that DNA replication in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) is a nearly deterministic process, in which the position and activation time of each origin of replication is pre-determined. In this talk, we introduce a more quantitative approach to the analysis of microarray data. Applying our new methods to budding yeast, we show that the microarray data imply a picture of replication where the timing of origin activation is highly stochastic. We then propose a physical model (the ``multiple-initiator model") to account for the observed probability distributions of origin- activation timing.

  17. Mimicking a SURF1 allele reveals uncoupling of cytochrome c oxidase assembly from translational regulation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Robert; Bareth, Bettina; Balleininger, Martina; Wissel, Mirjam; Rehling, Peter; Mick, David U

    2011-06-15

    Defects in mitochondrial energy metabolism lead to severe human disorders, mainly affecting tissues especially dependent on oxidative phosphorylation, such as muscle and brain. Leigh Syndrome describes a severe encephalomyopathy in infancy, frequently caused by mutations in SURF1. SURF1, termed Shy1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a conserved assembly factor for the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, cytochrome c oxidase. Although the molecular function of SURF1/Shy1 is still enigmatic, loss of function leads to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency and reduced expression of the central subunit Cox1 in yeast. Here, we provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to disease through missense mutations in codons of the most conserved amino acids in SURF1. Mutations affecting G(124) do not compromise import of the SURF1 precursor protein but lead to fast turnover of the mature protein within the mitochondria. Interestingly, an Y(274)D exchange neither affects stability nor localization of the protein. Instead, SURF1(Y274D) accumulates in a 200 kDa cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate. Using yeast as a model, we demonstrate that the corresponding Shy1(Y344D) is able to overcome the stage where cytochrome c oxidase assembly links to the feedback regulation of mitochondrial Cox1 expression. However, Shy1(Y344D) impairs the assembly at later steps, most apparent at low temperature and exhibits a dominant-negative phenotype upon overexpression. Thus, exchanging the conserved tyrosine (Y(344)) with aspartate in yeast uncouples translational regulation of Cox1 from cytochrome c oxidase assembly and provides evidence for the dual functionality of Shy1.

  18. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of anaerobic and aerobic yeast cultures reveals post-transcriptional regulation of key cellular processes.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Marco J L; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; van Breukelen, Bas; Knijnenburg, Theo A; de Hulster, Erik A F; Reinders, Marcel J T; Pronk, Jack T; Heck, Albert J R; Slijper, Monique

    2007-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unique among yeasts in its ability to grow rapidly in the complete absence of oxygen. S. cerevisiae is therefore an ideal eukaryotic model to study physiological adaptation to anaerobiosis. Recent transcriptome analyses have identified hundreds of genes that are transcriptionally regulated by oxygen availability but the relevance of this cellular response has not been systematically investigated at the key control level of the proteome. Therefore, the proteomic response of S. cerevisiae to anaerobiosis was investigated using metabolic stable-isotope labelling in aerobic and anaerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures, followed by relative quantification of protein expression. Using independent replicate cultures and stringent statistical filtering, a robust dataset of 474 quantified proteins was generated, of which 249 showed differential expression levels. While some of these changes were consistent with previous transcriptome studies, many of the responses of S. cerevisiae to oxygen availability were, to our knowledge, previously unreported. Comparison of transcriptomes and proteomes from identical cultivations yielded strong evidence for post-transcriptional regulation of key cellular processes, including glycolysis, amino-acyl-tRNA synthesis, purine nucleotide synthesis and amino acid biosynthesis. The use of chemostat cultures provided well-controlled and reproducible culture conditions, which are essential for generating robust datasets at different cellular information levels. Integration of transcriptome and proteome data led to new insights into the physiology of anaerobically growing yeast that would not have been apparent from differential analyses at either the mRNA or protein level alone, thus illustrating the power of multi-level studies in yeast systems biology.

  19. Eukaryotic-Like Virus Budding in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Quemin, Emmanuelle R. J.; Chlanda, Petr; Sachse, Martin; Forterre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Similar to many eukaryotic viruses (and unlike bacteriophages), viruses infecting archaea are often encased in lipid-containing envelopes. However, the mechanisms of their morphogenesis and egress remain unexplored. Here, we used dual-axis electron tomography (ET) to characterize the morphogenesis of Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus 1 (SSV1), the prototype of the family Fuselloviridae and representative of the most abundant archaea-specific group of viruses. Our results show that SSV1 assembly and egress are concomitant and occur at the cellular cytoplasmic membrane via a process highly reminiscent of the budding of enveloped viruses that infect eukaryotes. The viral nucleoprotein complexes are extruded in the form of previously unknown rod-shaped intermediate structures which have an envelope continuous with the host membrane. Further maturation into characteristic spindle-shaped virions takes place while virions remain attached to the cell surface. Our data also revealed the formation of constricted ring-like structures which resemble the budding necks observed prior to the ESCRT machinery-mediated membrane scission during egress of various enveloped viruses of eukaryotes. Collectively, we provide evidence that archaeal spindle-shaped viruses contain a lipid envelope acquired upon budding of the viral nucleoprotein complex through the host cytoplasmic membrane. The proposed model bears a clear resemblance to the egress strategy employed by enveloped eukaryotic viruses and raises important questions as to how the archaeal single-layered membrane composed of tetraether lipids can undergo scission. PMID:27624130

  20. A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    Gryaznova, Yuliya; Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Malengo, Gabriele; Sourjik, Victor; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-01-01

    The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a spindle pole body (SPB, equivalent of mammalian centrosome) associated surveillance mechanism that halts mitotic exit upon spindle mis-orientation. Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the γ-tubulin receptor Spc72. Spindle misalignment specifically disrupts Bfa1-Spc72 interaction by a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3-family protein Bmh1 and the MARK/PAR-kinase Kin4. Dissociation of Bfa1 from Spc72 prevents the inhibitory phosphorylation of Bfa1 by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. We propose Spc72 as a regulatory hub that coordinates the activity of Kin4 and Cdc5 towards Bfa1. In addition, analysis of spc72∆ cells shows that a mitotic-exit-promoting dominant signal, which is triggered upon elongation of the spindle into the bud, overrides the SPOC. Our data reinforce the importance of daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulations in mitotic exit and SPOC control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14029.001 PMID:27159239

  1. A FRET-based study reveals site-specific regulation of spindle position checkpoint proteins at yeast centrosomes.

    PubMed

    Gryaznova, Yuliya; Koca Caydasi, Ayse; Malengo, Gabriele; Sourjik, Victor; Pereira, Gislene

    2016-05-09

    The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a spindle pole body (SPB, equivalent of mammalian centrosome) associated surveillance mechanism that halts mitotic exit upon spindle mis-orientation. Here, we monitored the interaction between SPB proteins and the SPOC component Bfa1 by FRET microscopy. We show that Bfa1 binds to the scaffold-protein Nud1 and the γ-tubulin receptor Spc72. Spindle misalignment specifically disrupts Bfa1-Spc72 interaction by a mechanism that requires the 14-3-3-family protein Bmh1 and the MARK/PAR-kinase Kin4. Dissociation of Bfa1 from Spc72 prevents the inhibitory phosphorylation of Bfa1 by the polo-like kinase Cdc5. We propose Spc72 as a regulatory hub that coordinates the activity of Kin4 and Cdc5 towards Bfa1. In addition, analysis of spc72∆ cells shows that a mitotic-exit-promoting dominant signal, which is triggered upon elongation of the spindle into the bud, overrides the SPOC. Our data reinforce the importance of daughter-cell-associated factors and centrosome-based regulations in mitotic exit and SPOC control.

  2. Stuck at work? Quantitative proteomics of environmental wine yeast strains reveals the natural mechanism of overcoming stuck fermentation.

    PubMed

    Szopinska, Aleksandra; Christ, Eva; Planchon, Sebastien; König, Helmut; Evers, Daniele; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    During fermentation oenological yeast cells are subjected to a number of different stress conditions and must respond rapidly to the continuously changing environment of this harsh ecological niche. In this study we gained more insights into the cell adaptation mechanisms by linking proteome monitoring with knowledge on physiological behaviour of different strains during fermentation under model winemaking conditions. We used 2D-DIGE technology to monitor the proteome evolution of two newly discovered environmental yeast strains Saccharomyces bayanus and triple hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces kudriavzevii × S. bayanus and compared them to data obtained for the commercially available S. cerevisiae strain. All strains examined showed (i) different fermentative behaviour, (ii) stress resistance as well as (iii) susceptibility to stuck fermentation which was reflected in significant differences in protein expression levels. During our research we identified differentially expressed proteins in 155 gel spots which correspond to 70 different protein functions. Differences of expression between strains were observed mainly among proteins involved in stress response, proteins degradation pathways, cell redox homeostasis and amino acids biosynthesis. Interestingly, the newly discovered triple hybrid S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii × S. bayanus strain which has the ability to naturally restart stuck fermentation showed a very strong induction of expression of two proteolytic enzymes: Pep4 and Prc1 that appear as numerous isoforms on the gel image and which may be the key to its unique properties. This study is an important step towards the better understanding of wine fermentations at a molecular level.

  3. Structural studies of the yeast DNA damage-inducible protein Ddi1 reveal domain architecture of this eukaryotic protein family

    PubMed Central

    Trempe, Jean-François; Šašková, Klára Grantz; Sivá, Monika; Ratcliffe, Colin D. H.; Veverka, Václav; Hoegl, Annabelle; Ménade, Marie; Feng, Xin; Shenker, Solomon; Svoboda, Michal; Kožíšek, Milan; Konvalinka, Jan; Gehring, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic Ddi1 family is defined by a conserved retroviral aspartyl protease-like (RVP) domain found in association with a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. Ddi1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae additionally contains a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain. The substrate specificity and role of the protease domain in the biological functions of the Ddi family remain unclear. Yeast Ddi1 has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression, DNA-damage repair, and exocytosis. Here, we investigated the multi-domain structure of yeast Ddi1 using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The crystal structure of the RVP domain sheds light on a putative substrate recognition site involving a conserved loop. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms that both UBL and UBA domains bind ubiquitin, and that Ddi1 binds K48-linked diubiquitin with enhanced affinity. The solution NMR structure of a helical domain that precedes the protease displays tertiary structure similarity to DNA-binding domains from transcription regulators. Our structural studies suggest that the helical domain could serve as a landing platform for substrates in conjunction with attached ubiquitin chains binding to the UBL and UBA domains. PMID:27646017

  4. Genetic Interaction Mapping Reveals a Role for the SWI/SNF Nucleosome Remodeler in Spliceosome Activation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Kristin L.; Ryan, Colm J.; Xu, Jiewei; Lipp, Jesse J.; Nissen, Kelly E.; Roguev, Assen; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J.; Guthrie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous regulatory connections between pre-mRNA splicing and chromatin have been demonstrated, the precise mechanisms by which chromatin factors influence spliceosome assembly and/or catalysis remain unclear. To probe the genetic network of pre-mRNA splicing in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed an epistatic mini-array profile (E-MAP) and discovered many new connections between chromatin and splicing. Notably, the nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF had strong genetic interactions with components of the U2 snRNP SF3 complex. Overexpression of SF3 components in ΔSWI/SNF cells led to inefficient splicing of many fission yeast introns, predominantly those with non-consensus splice sites. Deletion of SWI/SNF decreased recruitment of the splicing ATPase Prp2, suggesting that SWI/SNF promotes co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly prior to first step catalysis. Importantly, defects in SWI/SNF as well as SF3 overexpression each altered nucleosome occupancy along intron-containing genes, illustrating that the chromatin landscape both affects—and is affected by—co-transcriptional splicing. PMID:25825871

  5. Yeast diversity in a traditional French cheese "Tomme d'orchies" reveals infrequent and frequent species with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Ceugniez, Alexandre; Drider, Djamel; Jacques, Philippe; Coucheney, Françoise

    2015-12-01

    This study is aimed at unrevealing the yeast diversity of handmade cheese, Tomme d'orchies, produced and marketed in the north of France. A total of 185 yeast colonies were isolated from the surface and core of this cheese. From these, 80 morphologically different colonies were selected and subjected to rep-PCR analysis. The isolates were clustered into six distinct groups based on their DNA fingerprints. From each group, at least 30% of isolates were selected and identified to species level by biochemical characteristics (ID32C Api system) and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 26S rDNA regions. The isolates belonged to Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces lactis and Kluyveromyces marxianus, frequently isolated, and less frequently isolated Saturnispora mendoncae and Clavispora lusitaniae. Two isolates designated as Kluyveromyces lactis (isolate S-3-05) and Kluyveromyces marxianus (isolate S-2-05) were non-hemolytic, sensitive to antifungal compounds and able to inhibit the growth of pathogens including Candida albicans, Listeria monocytogenes and some bacilli.

  6. Genetic interaction mapping reveals a role for the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeler in spliceosome activation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kristin L; Ryan, Colm J; Xu, Jiewei; Lipp, Jesse J; Nissen, Kelly E; Roguev, Assen; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J; Guthrie, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous regulatory connections between pre-mRNA splicing and chromatin have been demonstrated, the precise mechanisms by which chromatin factors influence spliceosome assembly and/or catalysis remain unclear. To probe the genetic network of pre-mRNA splicing in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed an epistatic mini-array profile (E-MAP) and discovered many new connections between chromatin and splicing. Notably, the nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF had strong genetic interactions with components of the U2 snRNP SF3 complex. Overexpression of SF3 components in ΔSWI/SNF cells led to inefficient splicing of many fission yeast introns, predominantly those with non-consensus splice sites. Deletion of SWI/SNF decreased recruitment of the splicing ATPase Prp2, suggesting that SWI/SNF promotes co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly prior to first step catalysis. Importantly, defects in SWI/SNF as well as SF3 overexpression each altered nucleosome occupancy along intron-containing genes, illustrating that the chromatin landscape both affects--and is affected by--co-transcriptional splicing.

  7. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  8. Early epithelial signaling center governs tooth budding morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Thesleff, Irma

    2016-01-01

    During organogenesis, cell fate specification and patterning are regulated by signaling centers, specialized clusters of morphogen-expressing cells. In many organs, initiation of development is marked by bud formation, but the cellular mechanisms involved are ill defined. Here, we use the mouse incisor tooth as a model to study budding morphogenesis. We show that a group of nonproliferative epithelial cells emerges in the early tooth primordium and identify these cells as a signaling center. Confocal live imaging of tissue explants revealed that although these cells reorganize dynamically, they do not reenter the cell cycle or contribute to the growing tooth bud. Instead, budding is driven by proliferation of the neighboring cells. We demonstrate that the activity of the ectodysplasin/Edar/nuclear factor κB pathway is restricted to the signaling center, and its inactivation leads to fewer quiescent cells and a smaller bud. These data functionally link the signaling center size to organ size and imply that the early signaling center is a prerequisite for budding morphogenesis. PMID:27621364

  9. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  10. Construction of the first compendium of chemical-genetic profiles in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and comparative compendium approach

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Sangjo; Lee, Minho; Chang, Hyeshik; Nam, Miyoung; Park, Han-Oh; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Ha, Hye-jeong; Kim, Dongsup; Hwang, Sung-Ook; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •The first compendium of chemical-genetic profiles form fission yeast was generated. •The first HTS of drug mode-of-action in fission yeast was performed. •The first comparative chemical genetic analysis between two yeasts was conducted. -- Abstract: Genome-wide chemical genetic profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae since the budding yeast deletion library construction have been successfully used to reveal unknown mode-of-actions of drugs. Here, we introduce comparative approach to infer drug target proteins more accurately using two compendiums of chemical-genetic profiles from the budding yeast S. cerevisiae and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. For the first time, we established DNA-chip based growth defect measurement of genome-wide deletion strains of S. pombe, and then applied 47 drugs to the pooled heterozygous deletion strains to generate chemical-genetic profiles in S. pombe. In our approach, putative drug targets were inferred from strains hypersensitive to given drugs by analyzing S. pombe and S. cerevisiae compendiums. Notably, many evidences in the literature revealed that the inferred target genes of fungicide and bactericide identified by such comparative approach are in fact the direct targets. Furthermore, by filtering out the genes with no essentiality, the multi-drug sensitivity genes, and the genes with less eukaryotic conservation, we created a set of drug target gene candidates that are expected to be directly affected by a given drug in human cells. Our study demonstrated that it is highly beneficial to construct the multiple compendiums of chemical genetic profiles using many different species. The fission yeast chemical-genetic compendium is available at (http://pombe.kaist.ac.kr/compendium)

  11. Complementation of the Yeast Model System Reveals that Caenorhabditis elegans OCT-1 Is a Functional Transporter of Anthracyclines

    PubMed Central

    Brosseau, Nicolas; Andreev, Emil; Ramotar, Dindial

    2015-01-01

    The yeast plasma membrane protein Agp2 belongs to the family of amino acid transporters. It acts as a regulator that controls the expression of several uptake transporter genes such as DUR3 and SAM3 encoding two high-affinity polyamine permeases. agp2Δ mutants display extreme resistance to several cationic compounds including polyamines, the anticancer agent bleomycin, and cationic antifungal peptides. We propose that Agp2 might be involved in regulating the uptake of other cationic anticancer drugs. To date, an uptake transporter has not been reported for anthracyclines, a family of chemotherapeutic agents that are used for treating adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Herein, we develop assay conditions to monitor the uptake of the anthracycline doxorubicin into yeast cells and demonstrate for the first time that Agp2 is required for the drug uptake. Deletion of both the DUR3 and SAM3 genes reduced doxorubicin uptake, but not the deletion of either gene alone, while the agp2Δ mutant was severely compromised, suggesting that Agp2 controls the drug uptake via Dur3 and Sam3 and at least one additional transporter. Overexpression of DUR3 or SAM3 from the endogenous promoter rescued doxorubicin uptake into the sam3Δdur3Δ double mutant, consistent with a role for these transporters in the uptake of anthracyclines. We further show by cross-species complementation analysis that expression of the Caenorhabditis elegans oct-1 gene encoding an organic cation transporter restored full doxorubicin uptake in the agp2Δ mutant. Four separate variants of CeOCT-1 derived by substituting the amino acid residues Gln15, Cys31, Gln109 and Lys300 with alanine were stably expressed, but did not mediate doxorubicin uptake into the agp2Δ mutant. Moreover, we show that overexpression of CeOCT-1 sensitized parent yeast cells to doxorubicin, suggesting that CeOCT-1 related members might be key transporters to facilitate entry of anthracyclines into human cells. PMID:26177450

  12. Carotenoid-based phenotypic screen of the yeast deletion collection reveals new genes with roles in isoprenoid production.

    PubMed

    Özaydın, Bilge; Burd, Helcio; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    Beside their essential cellular functions, isoprenoids have value as pharmaceuticals, nutriceuticals, pesticides, and fuel alternatives. Engineering microorganisms for production of isoprenoids is relatively easy, sustainable, and cost effective in comparison to chemical synthesis or extraction from natural producers. We introduced genes encoding carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes into the haploid yeast deletion collection to identify gene deletions that improved isoprenoid production. Deletions that showed significant improvement in carotenoid production were further screened for production of bisabolene, an isoprenoid alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. Combining those deletions with other mevalonate pathway modifications increased production of bisabolene from 40mg/L to 800mg/L in shake-flask cultures. In a fermentation process, this engineered strain produced 5.2g/L of bisabolene.

  13. Yeast and bacterial diversity along a transect in an acidic, As-Fe rich environment revealed by cultural approaches.

    PubMed

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2013-10-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMDs) are often thought to harbour low biodiversity, yet little is known about the diversity distribution along the drainages. Using culture-dependent approaches, the microbial diversity from the Carnoulès AMD sediment was investigated for the first time along a transect showing progressive environmental stringency decrease. In total, 20 bacterial genera were detected, highlighting a higher bacterial diversity than previously thought. Moreover, this approach led to the discovery of 16 yeast species, demonstrating for the first time the presence of this important phylogenetic group in this AMD. All in all, the location of the microbes along the transect helps to better understand their distribution in a pollution gradient.

  14. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively.

  15. Analysis of aging in lager brewing yeast during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Bühligen, Franziska; Lindner, Patrick; Fetzer, Ingo; Stahl, Frank; Scheper, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Susann

    2014-10-10

    Serial repitching of brewing yeast inoculates is an important economic factor in the brewing industry, as their propagation is time and resource intensive. Here, we investigated whether replicative aging and/or the population distribution status changed during serial repitching in three different breweries with the same brewing yeast strain but different abiotic backgrounds and repitching regimes with varying numbers of reuses. Next to bud scar numbers the DNA content of the Saccharomyces pastorianus HEBRU cells was analyzed. Gene expression patterns were investigated using low-density microarrays with genes for aging, stress, storage compound metabolism and cell cycle. Two breweries showed a stable rejuvenation rate during serial repitching. In a third brewery the fraction of virgin cells varied, which could be explained with differing wort aeration rates. Furthermore, the number of bud scars per cell and cell size correlated in all 3 breweries throughout all runs. Transcriptome analyses revealed that from the 6th run on, mainly for the cells positive gene expression could be seen, for example up-regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism genes. Additionally, the cells' settling in the cone was dependent on cell size, with the lowest and the uppermost cone layers showing the highest amount of dead cells. In general, cells do not progressively age during extended serial repitching.

  16. DNA microarray analyses reveal a post-irradiation differential time-dependent gene expression profile in yeast cells exposed to X-rays and {gamma}-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shinzo; Ishidou, Emi; Kurita, Sakiko; Suzuki, Yoshiteru; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep . E-mail: rakwal-68@aist.go.jp; Iwahashi, Hitoshi

    2006-07-21

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is the most enigmatic of genotoxic stress inducers in our environment that has been around from the eons of time. IR is generally considered harmful, and has been the subject of numerous studies, mostly looking at the DNA damaging effects in cells and the repair mechanisms therein. Moreover, few studies have focused on large-scale identification of cellular responses to IR, and to this end, we describe here an initial study on the transcriptional responses of the unicellular genome model, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C), by cDNA microarray. The effect of two different IR, X-rays, and gamma ({gamma})-rays, was investigated by irradiating the yeast cells cultured in YPD medium with 50 Gy doses of X- and {gamma}-rays, followed by resuspension of the cells in YPD for time-course experiments. The samples were collected for microarray analysis at 20, 40, and 80 min after irradiation. Microarray analysis revealed a time-course transcriptional profile of changed gene expressions. Up-regulated genes belonged to the functional categories mainly related to cell cycle and DNA processing, cell rescue defense and virulence, protein and cell fate, and metabolism (X- and {gamma}-rays). Similarly, for X- and {gamma}-rays, the down-regulated genes belonged to mostly transcription and protein synthesis, cell cycle and DNA processing, control of cellular organization, cell fate, and C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism categories, respectively. This study provides for the first time a snapshot of the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in X- and {gamma}-ray post-irradiated yeast cells and comparatively interprets/discusses the changed gene functional categories as effects of these two radiations vis-a-vis their energy levels.

  17. Yeast Interspecies Comparative Proteomics Reveals Divergence in Expression Profiles and Provides Insights into Proteome Resource Allocation and Evolutionary Roles of Gene Duplication.

    PubMed

    Kito, Keiji; Ito, Haruka; Nohara, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Mihoko; Ishibashi, Yuko; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Omics analysis is a versatile approach for understanding the conservation and diversity of molecular systems across multiple taxa. In this study, we compared the proteome expression profiles of four yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces mikatae, Kluyveromyces waltii, and Kluyveromyces lactis) grown on glucose- or glycerol-containing media. Conserved expression changes across all species were observed only for a small proportion of all proteins differentially expressed between the two growth conditions. Two Kluyveromyces species, both of which exhibited a high growth rate on glycerol, a nonfermentative carbon source, showed distinct species-specific expression profiles. In K. waltii grown on glycerol, proteins involved in the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis were expressed in high abundance. In K. lactis grown on glycerol, the expression of glycolytic and ethanol metabolic enzymes was unexpectedly low, whereas proteins involved in cytoplasmic translation, including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors, were highly expressed. These marked differences in the types of predominantly expressed proteins suggest that K. lactis optimizes the balance of proteome resource allocation between metabolism and protein synthesis giving priority to cellular growth. In S. cerevisiae, about 450 duplicate gene pairs were retained after whole-genome duplication. Intriguingly, we found that in the case of duplicates with conserved sequences, the total abundance of proteins encoded by a duplicate pair in S. cerevisiae was similar to that of protein encoded by nonduplicated ortholog in Kluyveromyces yeast. Given the frequency of haploinsufficiency, this observation suggests that conserved duplicate genes, even though minor cases of retained duplicates, do not exhibit a dosage effect in yeast, except for ribosomal proteins. Thus, comparative proteomic analyses across multiple species may reveal not only species-specific characteristics of metabolic processes under

  18. Yeast Interspecies Comparative Proteomics Reveals Divergence in Expression Profiles and Provides Insights into Proteome Resource Allocation and Evolutionary Roles of Gene Duplication*

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Keiji; Ito, Haruka; Nohara, Takehiro; Ohnishi, Mihoko; Ishibashi, Yuko; Takeda, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Omics analysis is a versatile approach for understanding the conservation and diversity of molecular systems across multiple taxa. In this study, we compared the proteome expression profiles of four yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces mikatae, Kluyveromyces waltii, and Kluyveromyces lactis) grown on glucose- or glycerol-containing media. Conserved expression changes across all species were observed only for a small proportion of all proteins differentially expressed between the two growth conditions. Two Kluyveromyces species, both of which exhibited a high growth rate on glycerol, a nonfermentative carbon source, showed distinct species-specific expression profiles. In K. waltii grown on glycerol, proteins involved in the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis were expressed in high abundance. In K. lactis grown on glycerol, the expression of glycolytic and ethanol metabolic enzymes was unexpectedly low, whereas proteins involved in cytoplasmic translation, including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors, were highly expressed. These marked differences in the types of predominantly expressed proteins suggest that K. lactis optimizes the balance of proteome resource allocation between metabolism and protein synthesis giving priority to cellular growth. In S. cerevisiae, about 450 duplicate gene pairs were retained after whole-genome duplication. Intriguingly, we found that in the case of duplicates with conserved sequences, the total abundance of proteins encoded by a duplicate pair in S. cerevisiae was similar to that of protein encoded by nonduplicated ortholog in Kluyveromyces yeast. Given the frequency of haploinsufficiency, this observation suggests that conserved duplicate genes, even though minor cases of retained duplicates, do not exhibit a dosage effect in yeast, except for ribosomal proteins. Thus, comparative proteomic analyses across multiple species may reveal not only species-specific characteristics of metabolic processes under

  19. Influence of Zero-Shear on Yeast Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinnis, Michael R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the research was to begin evaluating the effect of zero-shear on the development of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing the High Aspect Rotating-Wall Vessel (HARV) NASA bioreactor. This particular yeast has enormous potential for research as a model eukaryotic system on the International Space Station, as well as the production of food stuffs' at the future lunar colony. Because the cell wall is the barrier between the cell and the environment, its form and function as influenced by microgravity is of great importance. Morphologic studies revealed that the circularity and total area of the individual yeast cells were essentially the same in both the control and test HARV's. The growth rates were also essentially the same. In zero-shear, the yeast grew in clumps consisting of rudimentary pseudohyphae in contrast to solitary budding cells in the control. Based upon mechanical and sonic shear applied to the yeast cells, those grown in zero-shear had stronger cell walls and septa. This suggests that there are structural differences, most likely related to the chitin skeleton of the cell wall. From this research further NASA support was obtained to continue the work. Investigations will deal with gene expression and ultrastructure. These will lead to a clearer assessment of the value of S. cerevisiae eukaryotic as a model for space station research.

  20. Mitochondrial inheritance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Westermann, Benedikt

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondria are the site of oxidative phosphorylation, play a key role in cellular energy metabolism, and are critical for cell survival and proliferation. The propagation of mitochondria during cell division depends on replication and partitioning of mitochondrial DNA, cytoskeleton-dependent mitochondrial transport, intracellular positioning of the organelle, and activities coordinating these processes. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be a valuable model organism to study the mechanisms that drive segregation of the mitochondrial genome and determine mitochondrial partitioning and behavior in an asymmetrically dividing cell. Here, I review past and recent advances that identified key components and cellular pathways contributing to mitochondrial inheritance in yeast. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Guest Editors: Manuela Pereira and Miguel Teixeira.

  1. Population structure and comparative genome hybridization of European flor yeast reveal a unique group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with few gene duplications in their genome.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Erny, Claude; Charpentier, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation.

  2. A yeast two-hybrid screen reveals a strong interaction between the Legionella chaperonin Hsp60 and the host cell small heat shock protein Hsp10.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Gheyath K

    2015-06-01

    L. pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium that replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole called Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), where it plentifully liberates its HtpB chaperonin. From LCV, HtpB reaches the host cell cytoplasm, where it interacts with SAMDC, a cytoplasmic protein required for synthesis of host polyamines that are important for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Additionally, cytoplasmic expression of HtpB in S. cerevisiae induces pseudohyphal growth, and in mammalian cells recruits mitochondria to LCV, and modifies actin microfilaments organization. This led us to hypothesize here that HtpB recruits a protein(s) from eukaryotic cells that is involved in the emergence of the aforementioned phenotypes. To identify this protein, a commercially available HeLa cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid system. Approximately 5×10(6) yeast clones carrying HeLa cDNA library plasmid were screened. Twenty-one positive clones were identified. DNA sequence analysis revealed that all of these positive clones encoded the mammalian small heat shock protein Hsp10. Based on the fact that chaperonions are required to interact with co-chaperonins to function properly in protein folding, we believe that HtpB recruits the host cell Hsp10 to appropriately interact with SAMDC and to induce the multifunction phenotypes deemed important in L. pneumophila pathogenesis.

  3. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  4. Population Structure and Comparative Genome Hybridization of European Flor Yeast Reveal a Unique Group of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains with Few Gene Duplications in Their Genome

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Erny, Claude; Charpentier, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Wine biological aging is a wine making process used to produce specific beverages in several countries in Europe, including Spain, Italy, France, and Hungary. This process involves the formation of a velum at the surface of the wine. Here, we present the first large scale comparison of all European flor strains involved in this process. We inferred the population structure of these European flor strains from their microsatellite genotype diversity and analyzed their ploidy. We show that almost all of these flor strains belong to the same cluster and are diploid, except for a few Spanish strains. Comparison of the array hybridization profile of six flor strains originating from these four countries, with that of three wine strains did not reveal any large segmental amplification. Nonetheless, some genes, including YKL221W/MCH2 and YKL222C, were amplified in the genome of four out of six flor strains. Finally, we correlated ICR1 ncRNA and FLO11 polymorphisms with flor yeast population structure, and associate the presence of wild type ICR1 and a long Flo11p with thin velum formation in a cluster of Jura strains. These results provide new insight into the diversity of flor yeast and show that combinations of different adaptive changes can lead to an increase of hydrophobicity and affect velum formation. PMID:25272156

  5. Novel glutaredoxin activity of the yeast prion protein Ure2 reveals a native-like dimer within fibrils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zai-Rong; Perrett, Sarah

    2009-05-22

    Ure2 is the protein determinant of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae prion [URE3]. Ure2 has structural similarity to glutathione transferases, protects cells against heavy metal and oxidant toxicity in vivo, and shows glutathione-dependent peroxidase activity in vitro. Here we report that Ure2 (which has no cysteine residues) also shows thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activity similar to that of glutaredoxin enzymes. This demonstrates that disulfide reductase activity can be independent of the classical glutaredoxin CXXC/CXXS motif or indeed an intrinsic catalytic cysteine residue. The kinetics of the glutaredoxin activity of Ure2 showed positive cooperativity for the substrate glutathione in both the soluble native state and in amyloid-like fibrils, indicating native-like dimeric structure within Ure2 fibrils. Characterization of the glutaredoxin activity of Ure2 sheds light on its ability to protect yeast from heavy metal ion and oxidant toxicity and suggests a role in reversible protein glutathionylation signal transduction. Observation of allosteric enzyme behavior within amyloid-like Ure2 fibrils not only provides insight into the molecular structure of the fibrils but also has implications for the mechanism of [URE3] prion formation.

  6. Structures of yeast glutathione-S-transferase Gtt2 reveal a new catalytic type of GST family

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao-Xiao; Jiang, Yong-Liang; He, Yong-Xing; Bao, Rui; Chen, Yuxing; Zhou, Cong-Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous detoxification enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to glutathione. Here, we present the crystal structures of Gtt2, a GST of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in apo and two ligand-bound forms, at 2.23 Å, 2.20 Å and 2.10 Å, respectively. Although Gtt2 has the overall structure of a GST, the absence of the classic catalytic essential residues—tyrosine, serine and cysteine—distinguishes it from all other cytosolic GSTs of known structure. Site-directed mutagenesis in combination with activity assays showed that instead of the classic catalytic residues, a water molecule stabilized by Ser129 and His123 acts as the deprotonator of the glutathione sulphur atom. Furthermore, only glycine and alanine are allowed at the amino-terminus of helix-α1 because of stereo-hindrance. Taken together, these results show that yeast Gtt2 is a novel atypical type of cytosolic GST. PMID:19851333

  7. Microarray-based method for monitoring yeast overexpression strains reveals small-molecule targets in TOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Bhullar, Bhupinder S; Perlstein, Ethan O; Marsischky, Gerald; LaBaer, Joshua; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2006-02-01

    Identification of the cellular targets of small-molecule hits in phenotypic screens is a central challenge in the development of small molecules as biological tools and potential therapeutics. To facilitate the process of small-molecule target identification, we developed a global, microarray-based method for monitoring the growth of pools of yeast strains, each overexpressing a different protein, in the presence of small molecules. Specifically, the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring approximately 3,900 different overexpression plasmids was monitored in the presence of rapamycin, which inhibits the target of rapamycin (TOR) proteins. TOR was successfully identified as a candidate rapamycin target, and many additional gene products were implicated in the TOR signaling pathway. We also characterized the mechanism of LY-83583, a small-molecule suppressor of rapamycin-induced growth inhibition. These data enabled functional links to be drawn between groups of genes implicated in the TOR pathway, identified several candidate targets for LY-83583, and suggested a role for mitochondrial respiration in mediating rapamycin sensitivity.

  8. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Pathways for Coordination of Cell Growth and Division by the Conserved Fission Yeast Kinase Pom1*

    PubMed Central

    Kettenbach, Arminja N.; Deng, Lin; Wu, Youjun; Baldissard, Suzanne; Adamo, Mark E.; Gerber, Scott A.; Moseley, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Complex phosphorylation-dependent signaling networks underlie the coordination of cellular growth and division. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Dual specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase (DYRK) family protein kinase Pom1 regulates cell cycle progression through the mitotic inducer Cdr2 and controls cell polarity through unknown targets. Here, we sought to determine the phosphorylation targets of Pom1 kinase activity by SILAC-based phosphoproteomics. We defined a set of high-confidence Pom1 targets that were enriched for cytoskeletal and cell growth functions. Cdr2 was the only cell cycle target of Pom1 kinase activity that we identified in cells. Mutation of Pom1-dependent phosphorylation sites in the C terminus of Cdr2 inhibited mitotic entry but did not impair Cdr2 localization. In addition, we found that Pom1 phosphorylated multiple substrates that function in polarized cell growth, including Tea4, Mod5, Pal1, the Rho GAP Rga7, and the Arf GEF Syt22. Purified Pom1 phosphorylated these cell polarity targets in vitro, confirming that they are direct substrates of Pom1 kinase activity and likely contribute to regulation of polarized growth by Pom1. Our study demonstrates that Pom1 acts in a linear pathway to control cell cycle progression while regulating a complex network of cell growth targets. PMID:25720772

  9. Next-generation sequencing analysis of lager brewing yeast strains reveals the evolutionary history of interspecies hybridization.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Miki; Kajitani, Rei; Ryusui, Rie; Morimoto, Hiroya; Kodama, Yukiko; Itoh, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    The lager beer yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus is considered an allopolyploid hybrid species between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus. Many S. pastorianus strains have been isolated and classified into two groups according to geographical origin, but this classification remains controversial. Hybridization analyses and partial PCR-based sequence data have indicated a separate origin of these two groups, whereas a recent intertranslocation analysis suggested a single origin. To clarify the evolutionary history of this species, we analysed 10 S. pastorianus strains and the S. eubayanus type strain as a likely parent by Illumina next-generation sequencing. In addition to assembling the genomes of five of the strains, we obtained information on interchromosomal translocation, ploidy, and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs). Collectively, these results indicated that the two groups of strains share S. cerevisiae haploid chromosomes. We therefore conclude that both groups of S. pastorianus strains share at least one interspecific hybridization event and originated from a common parental species and that differences in ploidy and SNVs between the groups can be explained by chromosomal deletion or loss of heterozygosity.

  10. Mechanistic aspects of DnaA–RepA interaction as revealed by yeast forward and reverse two-hybrid analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul; Kachroo, Aardra; Bastia, Deepak

    2001-01-01

    Using yeast forward and reverse two-hybrid analysis and biochemical techniques, we present novel and definitive in vivo and in vitro evidence that both the N-terminal domain I and C-terminal domain IV of the host-encoded DnaA initiator protein of Escherichia coli interact physically with plasmid-encoded RepA initiator of pSC101. The N-terminal, but not the C-terminal, region of RepA interacted with DnaA in vitro. These protein–protein interactions are critical for two very early steps of replication initiation, namely origin unwinding and helicase loading. Neither domain I nor IV of DnaA could individually collaborate with RepA to promote pSC101 replication. However, when the two domains are co-expressed within a common cell milieu and allowed to associate non-covalently with each other via a pair of leucine zippers, replication of the plasmid was supported in vivo. Thus, the result shows that physical tethering, either non-covalent or covalent, of domain I and IV of DnaA and interaction of both domains with RepA, are critical for replication initiation. The results also provide the molecular basis for a novel, potential, replication-based bacterial two-hybrid system. PMID:11500384

  11. Inhibition of copper uptake in yeast reveals the copper transporter Ctr1p as a potential molecular target of saxitoxin

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Kathleen D.; Minkin, Steven C.; Dodani, Sheel C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Wilhelm, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Saxitoxin is a secondary metabolite produced by several species of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria which targets voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels in higher vertebrates. However, its molecular target in planktonic aquatic community members that co-occur with the toxin producers remains unknown. Previous microarray analysis with yeast identified copper and iron-homeostasis genes as being differentially regulated in response to saxitoxin. This study sought to identify the molecular target in microbial cells by comparing the transcriptional profiles of key copper and iron homeostasis genes (CTR1, FRE1, FET3, CUP1, CRS5) in cells exposed to saxitoxin, excess copper, excess iron, an extracellular Cu(I) chelator, or an intracellular Cu(I) chelator. Protein expression and localization of Ctr1p (copper transporter), Fet3p (multicopper oxidase involved in high-affinity iron uptake), and Aft1p (iron regulator) were also compared among treatments. Combined transcript and protein profiles suggested saxitoxin inhibited copper uptake. This hypothesis was confirmed by intracellular Cu(I) imaging with a selective fluorescent probe for labile copper. Based on the combined molecular and physiological results, a model is presented in which the copper transporter Ctr1p serves as a molecular target of saxitoxin and these observations couched in the context of the eco-evolutionary role this toxin may serve for species that produce it. PMID:22304436

  12. Adaptive response to acetic acid in the highly resistant yeast species Zygosaccharomyces bailii revealed by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Joana F; Mira, Nuno P; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-08-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is the most tolerant yeast species to acetic acid-induced toxicity, being able to grow in the presence of concentrations of this food preservative close to the legal limits. For this reason, Z. bailii is the most important microbial contaminant of acidic food products but the mechanisms behind this intrinsic resistance to acetic acid are very poorly characterized. To gain insights into the adaptive response and tolerance to acetic acid in Z. bailii, we explored an expression proteomics approach, based on quantitative 2DE, to identify alterations occurring in the protein content in response to sudden exposure or balanced growth in the presence of an inhibitory but nonlethal concentration of this weak acid. A coordinate increase in the content of proteins involved in cellular metabolism, in particular, in carbohydrate metabolism (Mdh1p, Aco1p, Cit1p, Idh2p, and Lpd1p) and energy generation (Atp1p and Atp2p), as well as in general and oxidative stress response (Sod2p, Dak2p, Omp2p) was registered. Results reinforce the concept that glucose and acetic acid are coconsumed in Z. bailii, with acetate being channeled into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. When acetic acid is the sole carbon source, results suggest the activation of gluconeogenic and pentose phosphate pathways, based on the increased content of several proteins of these pathways after glucose exhaustion.

  13. Characterization of the peroxide sensitivity of COX-deficient yeast strains reveals unexpected relationships between COX assembly proteins.

    PubMed

    Veniamin, Simona; Sawatzky, Luanne G; Banting, Graham S; Glerum, D Moira

    2011-10-15

    A number of distinct cuproproteins of the mitochondrial inner membrane are required for the assembly of cytochrome oxidase (COX), thought to function in a "bucket brigade" fashion to provide copper to the Cu(A) and Cu(B) sites. In yeast, the loss of two these proteins, Sco1p and Cox11p, leads to respiratory deficiency and a specific inability to survive exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Using a quantitative assay, we have identified subtle differences in the peroxide-sensitive phenotypes between sco1 and cox11 mutant strains. Interestingly, the peroxide sensitivity of the sco1 null strain can be suppressed by overexpressing either SCO2 or COX11, although overexpression of neither SCO1 nor SCO2 can rescue the cox11 null strain. We also find that overexpression of either CTT1, encoding the cytosolic catalase T, or CTA1, encoding the mitochondrial matrix catalase, suppresses the peroxide sensitivity in both the sco1 and the cox11 null mutants. Direct measurement of peroxide metabolism shows that sco1 and cox11 null strains fail to degrade a significant amount of exogenously provided H(2)O(2). Taken together, our data demonstrate that although Cox11p and Sco1p play distinct roles in COX assembly, they seem to play overlapping or related roles in peroxide metabolism that require further investigation.

  14. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; ...

    2009-11-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  15. Trk1 and Trk2 Define the Major K+ Transport System in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Fernando; Gómez, Néstor; Ariño, Joaquín; Ramos, José

    2000-01-01

    The trk1+ gene has been proposed as a component of the K+ influx system in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Previous work from our laboratories revealed that trk1 mutants do not show significantly altered content or influx of K+, although they are more sensitive to Na+. Genome database searches revealed that S. pombe encodes a putative gene (designated here trk2+) that shows significant identity to trk1+. We have analyzed the characteristics of potassium influx in S. pombe by using trk1 trk2 mutants. Unlike budding yeast, fission yeast displays a biphasic transport kinetics. trk2 mutants do not show altered K+ transport and exhibit only a slightly reduced Na+ tolerance. However, trk1 trk2 double mutants fail to grow at low K+ concentrations and show a dramatic decrease in Rb+ influx, as a result of loss of the high-affinity transport component. Furthermore, trk1 trk2 cells are very sensitive to Na+, as would be expected for a strain showing defective potassium transport. When trk1 trk2 cells are maintained in K+-free medium, the potassium content remains higher than that of the wild type or trk single mutants. In addition, the trk1 trk2 strain displays increased sensitivity to hygromycin B. These results are consistent with a hyperpolarized state of the plasma membrane. An additional phenotype of cells lacking both Trk components is a failure to grow at acidic pH. In conclusion, the Trk1 and Trk2 proteins define the major K+ transport system in fission yeast, and in contrast to what is known for budding yeast, the presence of any of these two proteins is sufficient to allow growth at normal potassium levels. PMID:10629185

  16. Dynamic Positioning of Mitotic Spindles in Yeast:

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Elaine; Yang, Charlie; Chin, Elaine; Maddox, Paul; Salmon, E. D.; Lew, Daniel J.; Bloom, Kerry

    2000-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, movement of the mitotic spindle to a predetermined cleavage plane at the bud neck is essential for partitioning chromosomes into the mother and daughter cells. Astral microtubule dynamics are critical to the mechanism that ensures nuclear migration to the bud neck. The nucleus moves in the opposite direction of astral microtubule growth in the mother cell, apparently being “pushed” by microtubule contacts at the cortex. In contrast, microtubules growing toward the neck and within the bud promote nuclear movement in the same direction of microtubule growth, thus “pulling” the nucleus toward the bud neck. Failure of “pulling” is evident in cells lacking Bud6p, Bni1p, Kar9p, or the kinesin homolog, Kip3p. As a consequence, there is a loss of asymmetry in spindle pole body segregation into the bud. The cytoplasmic motor protein, dynein, is not required for nuclear movement to the neck; rather, it has been postulated to contribute to spindle elongation through the neck. In the absence of KAR9, dynein-dependent spindle oscillations are evident before anaphase onset, as are postanaphase dynein-dependent pulling forces that exceed the velocity of wild-type spindle elongation threefold. In addition, dynein-mediated forces on astral microtubules are sufficient to segregate a 2N chromosome set through the neck in the absence of spindle elongation, but cytoplasmic kinesins are not. These observations support a model in which spindle polarity determinants (BUD6, BNI1, KAR9) and cytoplasmic kinesin (KIP3) provide directional cues for spindle orientation to the bud while restraining the spindle to the neck. Cytoplasmic dynein is attenuated by these spindle polarity determinants and kinesin until anaphase onset, when dynein directs spindle elongation to distal points in the mother and bud. PMID:11071919

  17. Time course gene expression profiling of yeast spore germination reveals a network of transcription factors orchestrating the global response

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Spore germination of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multi-step developmental path on which dormant spores re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and resume vegetative growth. Upon addition of a fermentable carbon source and nutrients, the outer layers of the protective spore wall are locally degraded, the tightly packed spore gains volume and an elongated shape, and eventually the germinating spore re-enters the cell cycle. The regulatory pathways driving this process are still largely unknown. Here we characterize the global gene expression profiles of germinating spores and identify potential transcriptional regulators of this process with the aim to increase our understanding of the mechanisms that control the transition from cellular dormancy to proliferation. Results Employing detailed gene expression time course data we have analysed the reprogramming of dormant spores during the transition to proliferation stimulated by a rich growth medium or pure glucose. Exit from dormancy results in rapid and global changes consisting of different sequential gene expression subprograms. The regulated genes reflect the transition towards glucose metabolism, the resumption of growth and the release of stress, similar to cells exiting a stationary growth phase. High resolution time course analysis during the onset of germination allowed us to identify a transient up-regulation of genes involved in protein folding and transport. We also identified a network of transcription factors that may be regulating the global response. While the expression outputs following stimulation by rich glucose medium or by glucose alone are qualitatively similar, the response to rich medium is stronger. Moreover, spores sense and react to amino acid starvation within the first 30 min after germination initiation, and this response can be linked to specific transcription factors. Conclusions Resumption of growth in germinating spores is characterized by a highly synchronized

  18. Functional complementation in yeast reveals a protective role of chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxin against reactive nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Tsukamoto, Shigefumi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ueda-Hashimoto, Manami; Takahashi, Misa; Suzuki, Hitomi; Morikawa, Hiromichi

    2003-03-01

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) as a signaling molecule to various plant physiological and pathophysiological processes is becoming increasingly evident. However, little is known about how plants protect themselves from nitrosative and oxidative damage mediated by NO and NO-derived reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Peroxynitrite, the product of the reaction between NO and superoxide anion, is considered to play a central role in RNS-induced cytotoxicity, as a result of its potent ability to oxidize diverse biomolecules. Employing heterologous expression in bacteria and yeast, we investigated peroxynitrite-scavenging activity in plants of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2CPRX), originally identified as a hydroperoxide-reducing peroxidase that is ubiquitously distributed among organisms. The putative mature form of a chloroplast-localized 2CPRX from Arabidopsis thaliana was overproduced in Escherichia coli as an amino-terminally hexahistidine-tagged fusion protein. The purified recombinant 2CPRX, which was catalytically active as peroxidase, efficiently prevented the peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of a sensitive compound. We also examined in vivo the ability of the Arabidopsis 2CPRX to complement the 2CPRX deficiency of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant. Functional expression in the mutant strain of the Arabidopsis 2CPRX not only increased cellular tolerance to hydrogen peroxide, but also complemented the hypersensitive growth defect induced by nitrite-mediated cytotoxicity. The complemented cells significantly enhanced the capacity to reduce RNS-mediated oxidative damages. The results presented here demonstrate a new role of plant 2CPRX as a critical determinant of the resistance to RNS, and support the existence of a plant enzymatic basis for RNS metabolism.

  19. A Bni4-Glc7 Phosphatase Complex That Recruits Chitin Synthase to the Site of Bud EmergenceV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kozubowski, Lukasz; Panek, Heather; Rosenthal, Ashley; Bloecher, Andrew; DeMarini, Douglas J.; Tatchell, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Bni4 is a scaffold protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that tethers chitin synthase III to the bud neck by interacting with septin neck filaments and with Chs4, a regulatory subunit of chitin synthase III. We show herein that Bni4 is also a limiting determinant for the targeting of the type 1 serine/threonine phosphatase (Glc7) to the bud neck. Yeast cells containing a Bni4 variant that fails to associate with Glc7 fail to tether Chs4 to the neck, due in part to the failure of Bni4V831A/F833A to localize properly. Conversely, the Glc7-129 mutant protein fails to bind Bni4 properly and glc7-129 mutants exhibit reduced levels of Bni4 at the bud neck. Bni4 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner and Bni4V831A/F833A is both hyperphosphorylated and mislocalized in vivo. Yeast cells lacking the protein kinase Hsl1 exhibit increased levels of Bni4-GFP at the bud neck. GFP-Chs4 does not accumulate at the incipient bud site in either a bni4::TRP1 or a bni4V831A/F833A mutant but does mobilize to the neck at cytokinesis. Together, these results indicate that the formation of the Bni4-Glc7 complex is required for localization to the site of bud emergence and for subsequent targeting of chitin synthase. PMID:12529424

  20. Population perspectives on functional genomic variation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M

    2016-03-01

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing have facilitated large-scale surveys of genomic variation in the budding yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae These surveys have revealed extensive sequence variation between yeast strains. However, much less is known about how such variation influences the amount and nature of variation for functional genomic traits within and between yeast lineages. We review population-level studies of functional genomic variation, with a particular focus on how population functional genomic approaches can provide insights into both genome function and the evolutionary process. Although variation in functional genomics phenotypes is pervasive, our understanding of the consequences of this variation, either in physiological or evolutionary terms, is still rudimentary and thus motivates increased attention to appropriate null models. To date, much of the focus of population functional genomic studies has been on gene expression variation, but other functional genomic data types are just as likely to reveal important insights at the population level, suggesting a pressing need for more studies that go beyond transcription. Finally, we discuss how a population functional genomic perspective can be a powerful approach for developing a mechanistic understanding of the processes that link genomic variation to organismal phenotypes through gene networks.

  1. Foamy Virus Budding and Release

    PubMed Central

    Hütter, Sylvia; Zurnic, Irena; Lindemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Like all other viruses, a successful egress of functional particles from infected cells is a prerequisite for foamy virus (FV) spread within the host. The budding process of FVs involves steps, which are shared by other retroviruses, such as interaction of the capsid protein with components of cellular vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) machinery via late domains identified in some FV capsid proteins. Additionally, there are features of the FV budding strategy quite unique to the spumaretroviruses. This includes secretion of non-infectious subviral particles and a strict dependence on capsid-glycoprotein interaction for release of infectious virions from the cells. Virus-like particle release is not possible since FV capsid proteins lack a membrane-targeting signal. It is noteworthy that in experimental systems, the important capsid-glycoprotein interaction could be bypassed by fusing heterologous membrane-targeting signals to the capsid protein, thus enabling glycoprotein-independent egress. Aside from that, other systems have been developed to enable envelopment of FV capsids by heterologous Env proteins. In this review article, we will summarize the current knowledge on FV budding, the viral components and their domains involved as well as alternative and artificial ways to promote budding of FV particle structures, a feature important for alteration of target tissue tropism of FV-based gene transfer systems. PMID:23575110

  2. A model of yeast cell-cycle regulation based on multisite phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Barik, Debashis; Baumann, William T; Paul, Mark R; Novak, Bela; Tyson, John J

    2010-01-01

    In order for the cell's genome to be passed intact from one generation to the next, the events of the cell cycle (DNA replication, mitosis, cell division) must be executed in the correct order, despite the considerable molecular noise inherent in any protein-based regulatory system residing in the small confines of a eukaryotic cell. To assess the effects of molecular fluctuations on cell-cycle progression in budding yeast cells, we have constructed a new model of the regulation of Cln- and Clb-dependent kinases, based on multisite phosphorylation of their target proteins and on positive and negative feedback loops involving the kinases themselves. To account for the significant role of noise in the transcription and translation steps of gene expression, the model includes mRNAs as well as proteins. The model equations are simulated deterministically and stochastically to reveal the bistable switching behavior on which proper cell-cycle progression depends and to show that this behavior is robust to the level of molecular noise expected in yeast-sized cells (∼50 fL volume). The model gives a quantitatively accurate account of the variability observed in the G1-S transition in budding yeast, which is governed by an underlying sizer+timer control system. PMID:20739927

  3. Exogenous folates stimulate growth and budding of Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Porzoor, Afsaneh; Macreadie, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B9, is well recognized as being essential for cell growth. The utilization of folate is common to all cells, but the source of it may be quite different. For example, mammalian cells depend on exogenous uptake of folates, while plants and microbes can synthesize them. There has been little consideration of uptake of folate in microbial cells, and studies on the effects of folates in mammalian cells, where conditions are restricted. This study shows that exogenous folates (folic acid or folinic acid), causes Candida glabrata cells suspended in water alone to undergo two cycles of cell division and to form multiple buds. The effect was limited to cells in the stationary phase and more profound in quiescent cells. These data indicate a novel response of yeast to folates that may increase the utility of yeast as a model to study folate transport and signaling. PMID:28357288

  4. O-Glycosylation of Axl2/Bud10p by Pmt4p Is Required for Its Stability, Localization, and Function in Daughter Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Sylvia L.; Gentzsch, Martina; Tanner, Widmar; Herskowitz, Ira

    1999-01-01

    Cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae choose bud sites in a manner that is dependent upon cell type: a and α cells select axial sites; a/α cells utilize bipolar sites. Mutants specifically defective in axial budding were isolated from an α strain using pseudohyphal growth as an assay. We found that a and α mutants defective in the previously identified PMT4 gene exhibit unipolar, rather than axial budding: mother cells choose axial bud sites, but daughter cells do not. PMT4 encodes a protein mannosyl transferase (pmt) required for O-linked glycosylation of some secretory and cell surface proteins (Immervoll, T., M. Gentzsch, and W. Tanner. 1995. Yeast. 11:1345–1351). We demonstrate that Axl2/Bud10p, which is required for the axial budding pattern, is an O-linked glycoprotein and is incompletely glycosylated, unstable, and mislocalized in cells lacking PMT4. Overexpression of AXL2 can partially restore proper bud-site selection to pmt4 mutants. These data indicate that Axl2/Bud10p is glycosylated by Pmt4p and that O-linked glycosylation increases Axl2/ Bud10p activity in daughter cells, apparently by enhancing its stability and promoting its localization to the plasma membrane. PMID:10366591

  5. Monitoring Chitin Deposition During Septum Assembly in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Arcones, Irene; Roncero, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of the septum is a critical step during cytokinesis in the fungal cell. Moreover, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae septum assembly depends mostly on the proper synthesis and deposition of chitin and, accordingly, on the timely regulation of chitin synthases. In this chapter, we will see how to follow chitin synthesis by two complementary approaches: monitoring chitin deposition in vivo at the septum by calcofluor staining and fluorescence microscopy, and measuring the chitin synthase activities responsible for this synthesis.

  6. Role of transcription at centromeres in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohkuni, Kentaro; Kitagawa, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    Centromeres are specialized chromosomal loci that are essential for proper chromosome segregation. Recent data show that a certain level of active transcription, regulated by transcription factors Cbf1 and Ste12, makes a direct contribution to centromere function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we discuss the requirement and function of transcription at centromeres.

  7. Chromosome Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Belton, Jon-Matthew; Dekker, Job

    2015-06-01

    Chromosome conformation capture carbon copy (5C) is a high-throughput method for detecting ligation products of interest in a chromosome conformation capture (3C) library. 5C uses ligation-mediated amplification (LMA) to generate carbon copies of 3C ligation product junctions using single-stranded oligonucleotide probes. This procedure produces a 5C library of short DNA molecules which represent the interactions between the corresponding restriction fragments. The 5C library can be amplified using universal primers containing the Illumina paired-end adaptor sequences for subsequent high-throughput sequencing.

  8. A Discrete Class of Intergenic DNA Dictates Meiotic DNA Break Hotspots in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Hugh P; Farah, Joseph A; Grewal, Shiv I. S; Smith, Gerald R

    2007-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) made by Spo11 (Rec12 in fission yeast), which becomes covalently linked to the DSB ends. Like recombination events, DSBs occur at hotspots in the genome, but the genetic factors responsible for most hotspots have remained elusive. Here we describe in fission yeast the genome-wide distribution of meiosis-specific Rec12-DNA linkages, which closely parallel DSBs measured by conventional Southern blot hybridization. Prominent DSB hotspots are located ∼65 kb apart, separated by intervals with little or no detectable breakage. Most hotspots lie within exceptionally large intergenic regions. Thus, the chromosomal architecture responsible for hotspots in fission yeast is markedly different from that of budding yeast, in which DSB hotspots are much more closely spaced and, in many regions of the genome, occur at each promoter. Our analysis in fission yeast reveals a clearly identifiable chromosomal feature that can predict the majority of recombination hotspots across a whole genome and provides a basis for searching for the chromosomal features that dictate hotspots of meiotic recombination in other organisms, including humans. PMID:17722984

  9. Fission yeast Cdk7 controls gene expression through both its CAK and C-terminal domain kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm; Hermand, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity.

  10. Fission Yeast Cdk7 Controls Gene Expression through both Its CAK and C-Terminal Domain Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity. PMID:25691663

  11. In Situ Analysis of Metabolic Characteristics Reveals the Key Yeast in the Spontaneous and Solid-State Fermentation Process of Chinese Light-Style Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yu; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The in situ metabolic characteristics of the yeasts involved in spontaneous fermentation process of Chinese light-style liquor are poorly understood. The covariation between metabolic profiles and yeast communities in Chinese light-style liquor was modeled using the partial least square (PLS) regression method. The diversity of yeast species was evaluated by sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1/D2 domains of cultivable yeasts, and the volatile compounds in fermented grains were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Eight yeast species and 58 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. The modulation of 16 of these volatile compounds was associated with variations in the yeast population (goodness of prediction [Q2] > 20%). The results showed that Pichia anomala was responsible for the characteristic aroma of Chinese liquor, through the regulation of several important volatile compounds, such as ethyl lactate, octanoic acid, and ethyl tetradecanoate. Correspondingly, almost all of the compounds associated with P. anomala were detected in a pure culture of this yeast. In contrast to the PLS regression results, however, ethyl lactate and ethyl isobutyrate were not detected in the same pure culture, which indicated that some metabolites could be generated by P. anomala only when it existed in a community with other yeast species. Furthermore, different yeast communities provided different volatile patterns in the fermented grains, which resulted in distinct flavor profiles in the resulting liquors. This study could help identify the key yeast species involved in spontaneous fermentation and provide a deeper understanding of the role of individual yeast species in the community. PMID:24727269

  12. In situ analysis of metabolic characteristics reveals the key yeast in the spontaneous and solid-state fermentation process of Chinese light-style liquor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yu; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    The in situ metabolic characteristics of the yeasts involved in spontaneous fermentation process of Chinese light-style liquor are poorly understood. The covariation between metabolic profiles and yeast communities in Chinese light-style liquor was modeled using the partial least square (PLS) regression method. The diversity of yeast species was evaluated by sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1/D2 domains of cultivable yeasts, and the volatile compounds in fermented grains were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Eight yeast species and 58 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. The modulation of 16 of these volatile compounds was associated with variations in the yeast population (goodness of prediction [Q(2)]>20%). The results showed that Pichia anomala was responsible for the characteristic aroma of Chinese liquor, through the regulation of several important volatile compounds, such as ethyl lactate, octanoic acid, and ethyl tetradecanoate. Correspondingly, almost all of the compounds associated with P. anomala were detected in a pure culture of this yeast. In contrast to the PLS regression results, however, ethyl lactate and ethyl isobutyrate were not detected in the same pure culture, which indicated that some metabolites could be generated by P. anomala only when it existed in a community with other yeast species. Furthermore, different yeast communities provided different volatile patterns in the fermented grains, which resulted in distinct flavor profiles in the resulting liquors. This study could help identify the key yeast species involved in spontaneous fermentation and provide a deeper understanding of the role of individual yeast species in the community.

  13. Breaking-bud pollination: a new pollination process in partially opened flowers by small bees.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2015-09-01

    Plant-pollinator interactions have usually been researched in flowers that have fully opened. However, some pollinators can visit flowers before full opening and contribute to fruit and seed sets. In this paper, we researched the pollination biology of flowers just starting to open in four field experiments. We observed the insect visitors to Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea for 3 years at five sites. These observations revealed that only small bees, Lasioglossum japonicum, often entered through tiny spaces between the tepals of 'breaking buds' (i.e. partially opened flowers) and collected pollen. We hypothesized that they can pollinate this species at the breaking-bud stage, when the stigma is located near the anthers. To measure the pollination effect of small bees at the breaking-bud stage, we bagged several breaking buds after small bees had visited them and examined whether these buds were pollinated. In bagging experiments, 30% of the breaking buds set fruit and seeds. Fruit-set ratios of the breaking buds did not differ significantly from those of the fully opened flowers, which had been visited by several insect species. We also counted the pollen grain numbers on the body of L. japonicum and on the anthers of randomly-selected and manipulated flowers. These experiments revealed that all of the captured bees had some pollen of target plants and that L. japonicum collected most of the pollen grains at the breaking-bud stage. Our results showed that the new pollination process, breaking-bud pollination, happened in breaking buds by L. japonicum, although there is no evidence to reveal that this is the most effective pollination method for L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. In principle, this new pollination process can occur in other flowering plants and our results are a major contribution to studies of plant-pollinator interactions.

  14. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  15. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of MISR nadir-camera images.

    The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image.

    The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 6552). Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image.

    Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation.

    Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Tropical Storms Bud and Dera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like dancers pirouetting in opposite directions, the rotational patterns of two different tropical storms are contrasted in this pair of Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images. The left-hand image is of Tropical Storm Bud, acquired on June 17, 2000 (Terra orbit 2656) as the storm was dissipating. Bud was situated in the eastern Pacific Ocean between Socorro Island and the southern tip of Baja California. South of the storm's center is a vortex pattern caused by obstruction of the prevailing flow by tiny Socorro Island. Sonora, Mexico and Baja California are visible at the top of the image. The right-hand image is of Tropical Cyclone Dera, acquired on March 12, 2001. Dera was located in the Indian Ocean, south of Madagascar. The southern end of this large island is visible in the top portion of this image. Northern hemisphere tropical storms, like Bud, rotate in a counterclockwise direction, whereas those in the southern hemisphere, such as Dera, rotate clockwise. The opposite spins are a consequence of Earth's rotation. Each image covers a swath approximately 380 kilometers wide. Image courtesy NASA/JPL/GSFC/LaRC, MISR Team

  17. Structure of the Bro1 Domain Protein BROX and Functional Analyses of the ALIX Bro1 Domain in HIV-1 Budding

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Q.; Robinson H.; Landesman M. B.; Sundquist W. I.; Hill C. P.

    2011-12-01

    Bro1 domains are elongated, banana-shaped domains that were first identified in the yeast ESCRT pathway protein, Bro1p. Humans express three Bro1 domain-containing proteins: ALIX, BROX, and HD-PTP, which function in association with the ESCRT pathway to help mediate intraluminal vesicle formation at multivesicular bodies, the abscission stage of cytokinesis, and/or enveloped virus budding. Human Bro1 domains share the ability to bind the CHMP4 subset of ESCRT-III proteins, associate with the HIV-1 NC{sup Gag} protein, and stimulate the budding of viral Gag proteins. The curved Bro1 domain structure has also been proposed to mediate membrane bending. To date, crystal structures have only been available for the related Bro1 domains from the Bro1p and ALIX proteins, and structures of additional family members should therefore aid in the identification of key structural and functional elements. We report the crystal structure of the human BROX protein, which comprises a single Bro1 domain. The Bro1 domains from BROX, Bro1p and ALIX adopt similar overall structures and share two common exposed hydrophobic surfaces. Surface 1 is located on the concave face and forms the CHMP4 binding site, whereas Surface 2 is located at the narrow end of the domain. The structures differ in that only ALIX has an extended loop that projects away from the convex face to expose the hydrophobic Phe105 side chain at its tip. Functional studies demonstrated that mutations in Surface 1, Surface 2, or Phe105 all impair the ability of ALIX to stimulate HIV-1 budding. Our studies reveal similarities in the overall folds and hydrophobic protein interaction sites of different Bro1 domains, and show that a unique extended loop contributes to the ability of ALIX to function in HIV-1 budding.

  18. The Role of Coa2 in Hemylation of Yeast Cox1 Revealed by Its Genetic Interaction with Cox10 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bestwick, Megan; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Pierrel, Fabien; Winge, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) assembly factor Coa2 are impaired in Cox1 maturation and exhibit a rapid degradation of newly synthesized Cox1. The respiratory deficiency of coa2Δ cells is suppressed either by the presence of a mutant allele of the Cox10 farnesyl transferase involved in heme a biosynthesis or through impaired proteolysis by the disruption of the mitochondrial Oma1 protease. Cox10 with an N196K substitution functions as a robust gain-of-function suppressor of the respiratory deficiency of coa2Δ cells but lacks suppressor activity for two other CcO assembly mutant strains, the coa1Δ and shy1Δ mutants. The suppressor activity of N196K mutant Cox10 is dependent on its catalytic function and the presence of Cox15, the second enzyme involved in heme a biosynthesis. Varying the substitution at Asn196 reveals a correlation between the suppressor activity and the stabilization of the high-mass homo-oligomeric Cox10 complex. We postulate that the mutant Cox10 complex has enhanced efficiency in the addition of heme a to Cox1. Coa2 appears to impart stability to the oligomeric wild-type Cox10 complex involved in Cox1 hemylation. PMID:19841065

  19. Chemical genetic screen in fission yeast reveals roles for vacuolar acidification, mitochondrial fission, and cellular GMP levels in lifespan extension.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Jessica; Franke, Jacqueline; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E

    2013-08-01

    The discovery that genetic mutations in several cellular pathways can increase lifespan has lent support to the notion that pharmacological inhibition of aging pathways can be used to extend lifespan and to slow the onset of age-related diseases. However, so far, only few compounds with such activities have been described. Here, we have conducted a chemical genetic screen for compounds that cause the extension of chronological lifespan of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We have characterized eight natural products with such activities, which has allowed us to uncover so far unknown anti-aging pathways in S. pombe. The ionophores monensin and nigericin extended lifespan by affecting vacuolar acidification, and this effect depended on the presence of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) subunits Vma1 and Vma3. Furthermore, prostaglandin J₂ displayed anti-aging properties due to the inhibition of mitochondrial fission, and its effect on longevity required the mitochondrial fission protein Dnm1 as well as the G-protein-coupled glucose receptor Git3. Also, two compounds that inhibit guanosine monophosphate (GMP) synthesis, mycophenolic acid (MPA) and acivicin, caused lifespan extension, indicating that an imbalance in guanine nucleotide levels impinges upon longevity. We furthermore have identified diindolylmethane (DIM), tschimganine, and the compound mixture mangosteen as inhibiting aging. Taken together, these results reveal unanticipated anti-aging activities for several phytochemicals and open up opportunities for the development of novel anti-aging therapies.

  20. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  1. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-03

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium.

  2. Involvement of EARLY BUD-BREAK, an AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Gene, in Bud Break in Japanese Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) Lateral Flower Buds: Expression, Histone Modifications and Possible Target Genes.

    PubMed

    Anh Tuan, Pham; Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-05-01

    In the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) 'Kosui', three developmental stages of lateral flower buds have been proposed to occur during ecodormancy to the flowering phase, i.e. rapid enlargement, sprouting and flowering. Here, we report an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene, named pear EARLY BUD-BREAK (PpEBB), which was highly expressed during the rapid enlargement stage occurring prior to the onset of bud break in flower buds. Gene expression analysis revealed that PpEBB expression was dramatically increased during the rapid enlargement stage in three successive growing seasons. PpEBB transcript levels peaked 1 week prior to onset of bud break in 'Kosui' potted plants treated with hydrogen cyanamide or water under forcing conditions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR showed that higher levels of active histone modifications (trimethylation of the histone H3 tail at Lys4) in the 5'-upstream and start codon regions of the PpEBB gene were associated with the induced expression level of PpEBB during the rapid enlargement stage. In addition, we provide evidence that PpEBB may interact with and regulate pear four D-type cyclin (PpCYCD3) genes during bud break in 'Kosui' lateral flower buds. PpEBB significantly increased the promoter activities of four PpCYCD3 genes in a dual-luciferase assay using tobacco leaves. Taken together, our findings uncovered aspects of the bud break regulatory mechanism in the Japanese pear and provided further evidence that the EBB family plays an important role in bud break in perennial plants.

  3. Yeast DNA ligase IV mutations reveal a nonhomologous end joining function of BRCT1 distinct from XRCC4/Lif1 binding.

    PubMed

    Chiruvella, Kishore K; Renard, Brian M; Birkeland, Shanda R; Sunder, Sham; Liang, Zhuobin; Wilson, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    LIG4/Dnl4 is the DNA ligase that (re)joins DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), an activity supported by binding of its tandem BRCT domains to the ligase accessory protein XRCC4/Lif1. We screened a panel of 88 distinct ligase mutants to explore the structure–function relationships of the yeast Dnl4 BRCT domains and inter-BRCT linker in NHEJ. Screen results suggested two distinct classes of BRCT mutations with differential effects on Lif1 interaction as compared to NHEJ completion. Validated constructs confirmed that D800K and GG(868:869)AA mutations, which target the Lif1 binding interface, showed a severely defective Dnl4–Lif1 interaction but a less consistent and often small decrease in NHEJ activity in some assays, as well as nearly normal levels of Dnl4 accumulation at DSBs. In contrast, mutants K742A and KTT(742:744)ATA, which target the β3-α2 region of the first BRCT domain, substantially decreased NHEJ function commensurate with a large defect in Dnl4 recruitment to DSBs, despite a comparatively greater preservation of the Lif1 interaction. Together, these separation-of-function mutants indicate that Dnl4 BRCT1 supports DSB recruitment and NHEJ in a manner distinct from Lif1 binding and reveal a complexity of Dnl4 BRCT domain functions in support of stable DSB association.

  4. High confidence proteomic analysis of yeast LDs identifies additional droplet proteins and reveals connections to dolichol synthesis and sterol acetylation[S

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Erin; Guo, Xiuling; Christiano, Romain; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Kory, Nora; Harrison, Kenneth; Haas, Joel; Walther, Tobias C.; Farese, Robert V.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate protein inventories are essential for understanding an organelle’s functions. The lipid droplet (LD) is a ubiquitous intracellular organelle with major functions in lipid storage and metabolism. LDs differ from other organelles because they are bounded by a surface monolayer, presenting unique features for protein targeting to LDs. Many proteins of varied functions have been found in purified LD fractions by proteomics. While these studies have become increasingly sensitive, it is often unclear which of the identified proteins are specific to LDs. Here we used protein correlation profiling to identify 35 proteins that specifically enrich with LD fractions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these candidates, 30 fluorophore-tagged proteins localize to LDs by microscopy, including six proteins, several with human orthologs linked to diseases, which we newly identify as LD proteins (Cab5, Rer2, Say1, Tsc10, YKL047W, and YPR147C). Two of these proteins, Say1, a sterol deacetylase, and Rer2, a cis-isoprenyl transferase, are enzymes involved in sterol and polyprenol metabolism, respectively, and we show their activities are present in LD fractions. Our results provide a highly specific list of yeast LD proteins and reveal that the vast majority of these proteins are involved in lipid metabolism. PMID:24868093

  5. Crystal structures of yeast beta-alanine synthase complexes reveal the mode of substrate binding and large scale domain closure movements.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Stina; Andersen, Birgit; Piskur, Jure; Dobritzsch, Doreen

    2007-12-07

    Beta-alanine synthase is the final enzyme of the reductive pyrimidine catabolic pathway, which is responsible for the breakdown of uracil and thymine in higher organisms. The fold of the homodimeric enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri identifies it as a member of the AcyI/M20 family of metallopeptidases. Its subunit consists of a catalytic domain harboring a di-zinc center and a smaller dimerization domain. The present site-directed mutagenesis studies identify Glu(159) and Arg(322) as crucial for catalysis and His(262) and His(397) as functionally important but not essential. We determined the crystal structures of wild-type beta-alanine synthase in complex with the reaction product beta-alanine, and of the mutant E159A with the substrate N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, revealing the closed state of a dimeric AcyI/M20 metallopeptidase-like enzyme. Subunit closure is achieved by a approximately 30 degrees rigid body domain rotation, which completes the active site by integration of substrate binding residues that belong to the dimerization domain of the same or the partner subunit. Substrate binding is achieved via a salt bridge, a number of hydrogen bonds, and coordination to one of the zinc ions of the di-metal center.

  6. Structure, cell wall elasticity and polysaccharide properties of living yeast cells, as probed by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsteens, David; Dupres, Vincent; McEvoy, Kevin; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2008-09-01

    Although the chemical composition of yeast cell walls is known, the organization, assembly, and interactions of the various macromolecules remain poorly understood. Here, we used in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) in three different modes to probe the ultrastructure, cell wall elasticity and polymer properties of two brewing yeast strains, i.e. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and S. cerevisiae. Topographic images of the two strains revealed smooth and homogeneous cell surfaces, and the presence of circular bud scars on dividing cells. Nanomechanical measurements demonstrated that the cell wall elasticity of S. carlsbergensis is homogeneous. By contrast, the bud scar of S. cerevisiae was found to be stiffer than the cell wall, presumably due to the accumulation of chitin. Notably, single molecule force spectroscopy with lectin-modified tips revealed major differences in polysaccharide properties of the two strains. Polysaccharides were clearly more extended on S. cerevisiae, suggesting that not only oligosaccharides, but also polypeptide chains of the mannoproteins were stretched. Consistent with earlier cell surface analyses, these findings may explain the very different aggregation properties of the two organisms. This study demonstrates the power of using multiple complementary AFM modalities for probing the organization and interactions of the various macromolecules of microbial cell walls.

  7. [Impact of TDZ and NAA on adventitious bud induction and cluster bud multiplication in Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Fang; Xu, Chao; Zhu, Zai-Biao; Yang, He-Tong; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Hong-jian; Ma, Hong-Jian; Zhao, Gui-Hua

    2014-08-01

    To explore the method of explants directly induced bud and establish the tissue culture system of mutiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis, core bud and daughter bulbs (the top of bud stem expanded to form daughter bulb) of T. edulis were used as explants and treated with thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). The results showed that the optimal medium for bud inducted form core bud and daughter bulb were MS + TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 4.0 mg x L(-1) and MS +TDZ 2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 2.0 mg x L(-1) respectively, both of them had a bud induction rate of 72.92%, 79.22%. The optimal medium for cluster buds multiplication was MS + TDZ 0.2 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.2 mg x L(-1), and proliferation coefficient was 2.23. After proliferation, cluster buds rooting occurred on MS medium with IBA 1.0 mg x L(-1) and the rooting rate was 52.6%, three to five seedlings in each plant. Using core bud and daughter bulb of T. edulis, the optimum medium for adventitious bud directly inducted from daughter bulb, core bud and cluster bud multiplication were screened out and the tissue culture system of multiple shoot by means of direct organogenesis was established.

  8. Bud-Localization of CLB2 mRNA Can Constitute a Growth Rate Dependent Daughter Sizer

    PubMed Central

    Spiesser, Thomas W.; Kühn, Clemens; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular size is a fundamental systems level process that requires balancing of cell growth with proliferation. This is achieved via the cell division cycle, which is driven by the sequential accumulation and destruction of cyclins. The regulatory network around these cyclins, particularly in G1, has been interpreted as a size control network in budding yeast, and cell size as being decisive for the START transition. However, it is not clear why disruptions in the G1 network may lead to altered size rather than loss of size control, or why the S-G2-M duration also depends on nutrients. With a mathematical population model comprised of individually growing cells, we show that cyclin translation would suffice to explain the observed growth rate dependence of cell volume at START. Moreover, we assess the impact of the observed bud-localisation of the G2 cyclin CLB2 mRNA, and find that localised cyclin translation could provide an efficient mechanism for measuring the biosynthetic capacity in specific compartments: The mother in G1, and the growing bud in G2. Hence, iteration of the same principle can ensure that the mother cell is strong enough to grow a bud, and that the bud is strong enough for independent life. Cell sizes emerge in the model, which predicts that a single CDK-cyclin pair per growth phase suffices for size control in budding yeast, despite the necessity of the cell cycle network around the cyclins to integrate other cues. Size control seems to be exerted twice, where the G2/M control affects bud size through bud-localized translation of CLB2 mRNA, explaining the dependence of the S-G2-M duration on nutrients. Taken together, our findings suggest that cell size is an emergent rather than a regulatory property of the network linking growth and proliferation. PMID:25910075

  9. Insights into the Life Cycle of Yeasts from the CTG Clade Revealed by the Analysis of the Millerozyma (Pichia) farinosa Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Noémie; Leh-Louis, Véronique; Sacerdot, Christine; Casaregola, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Among ascomycetous yeasts, the CTG clade is so-called because its constituent species translate CTG as serine instead of leucine. Though the biology of certain pathogenic species such as Candida albicans has been much studied, little is known about the life cycles of non-pathogen species of the CTG clade. Taking advantage of the recently obtained sequence of the biotechnological Millerozyma (Pichiasorbitophila) farinosa strain CBS 7064, we used MLST to better define phylogenic relationships between most of the Millerozyma farinosa strains available in public collections. This led to the constitution of four phylogenetic clades diverging from 8% to 15% at the DNA level and possibly constituting a species complex (M. farinosa) and to the proposal of two new species:Millerozyma miso sp. nov. CBS 2004T ( = CLIB 1230T) and Candida pseudofarinosa sp. nov.NCYC 386T( = CLIB 1231T).Further analysis showed that M. farinosa isolates exist as haploid and inter-clade hybrids. Despite the sequence divergence between the clades, secondary contacts after reproductive isolation were evidenced, as revealed by both introgression and mitochondria transfer between clades. We also showed that the inter-clade hybrids do sporulate to generate mainly viable vegetative diploid spores that are not the result of meiosis, and very rarely aneuploid spores possibly through the loss of heterozygosity during sporulation. Taken together, these results show that in this part of the CTG clade, non-Mendelian genetic exchanges occur at high rates through hybridization between divergent strainsfrom distinct clades and subsequent massive loss of heterozygosity. This combination of mechanisms could constitute an alternative sexuality leading to an unsuspected biodiversity. PMID:22574125

  10. Mutational analysis of the intramembranous H10 loop of yeast Nhx1 reveals a critical role in ion homoeostasis and vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanchita; Kallay, Laura; Brett, Christopher L; Rao, Rajini

    2006-08-15

    Yeast Nhx1 [Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger 1] is an intracellular Na+(K+)/H+ exchanger, localizing to the late endosome where it is important for ion homoeostasis and vesicle trafficking. Phylogenetic analysis of NHE (Na+/H+ exchanger) sequences has identified orthologous proteins, including HsNHE6 (human NHE6), HsNHE7 and HsNHE9 of unknown physiological role. These appear distinct from well-studied mammalian plasma membrane isoforms (NHE1-NHE5). To explore the differences between plasma membrane and intracellular NHEs and understand the link between ion homoeostasis and vesicle trafficking, we examined the consequence of replacing residues in the intramembranous H10 loop of Nhx1 between transmembrane segments 9 and 10. The critical role for the carboxy group of Glu355 in ion transport is consistent with the invariance of this residue in all NHEs. Surprisingly, residues specifically conserved in the intracellular isoforms (such as Phe357 and Tyr361) could not be replaced with closely similar residues (leucine and phenylalanine) found in the plasma membrane isoforms without loss of function, revealing unexpected side chain specificity. The trafficking phenotypes of all Nhx1 mutants, including hygromycin-sensitivity and missorting of carboxypeptidase Y, were found to directly correlate with pH homoeostasis defects and could be proportionately corrected by titration with weak base. The present study demonstrates the importance of the H10 loop of the NHE family, highlights the differences between plasma membrane and intracellular isoforms and shows that trafficking defects are tightly coupled with pH homoeostasis.

  11. Analysis of Leigh syndrome mutations in the yeast SURF1 homolog reveals a new member of the cytochrome oxidase assembly factor family.

    PubMed

    Bestwick, Megan; Jeong, Mi-Young; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Kim, Hyung; Winge, Dennis R

    2010-09-01

    Three missense SURF1 mutations identified in patients with Leigh syndrome (LS) were evaluated in the yeast homolog Shy1 protein. Introduction of two of the Leigh mutations, F(249)T and Y(344)D, in Shy1 failed to significantly attenuate the function of Shy1 in cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) biogenesis as seen with the human mutations. In contrast, a G(137)E substitution in Shy1 results in a nonfunctional protein conferring a CcO deficiency. The G(137)E Shy1 mutant phenocopied shy1Delta cells in impaired Cox1 hemylation and low mitochondrial copper. A genetic screen for allele-specific suppressors of the G(137)E Shy1 mutant revealed Coa2, Cox10, and a novel factor designated Coa4. Coa2 and Cox10 are previously characterized CcO assembly factors. Coa4 is a twin CX(9)C motif mitochondrial protein localized in the intermembrane space and associated with the inner membrane. Cells lacking Coa4 are depressed in CcO activity but show no impairment in Cox1 maturation or formation of the Shy1-stabilized Cox1 assembly intermediate. To glean insights into the functional role of Coa4 in CcO biogenesis, an unbiased suppressor screen of coa4Delta cells was conducted. Respiratory function of coa4Delta cells was restored by the overexpression of CYC1 encoding cytochrome c. Cyc1 is known to be important at an ill-defined step in the assembly and/or stability of CcO. This new link to Coa4 may begin to further elucidate the role of Cyc1 in CcO biogenesis.

  12. Principles of chromosomal organization: lessons from yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The spatial organization of genes and chromosomes plays an important role in the regulation of several DNA processes. However, the principles and forces underlying this nonrandom organization are mostly unknown. Despite its small dimension, and thanks to new imaging and biochemical techniques, studies of the budding yeast nucleus have led to significant insights into chromosome arrangement and dynamics. The dynamic organization of the yeast genome during interphase argues for both the physical properties of the chromatin fiber and specific molecular interactions as drivers of nuclear order. PMID:21383075

  13. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties.

  14. Quantitative 1H-NMR-Metabolomics Reveals Extensive Metabolic Reprogramming and the Effect of the Aquaglyceroporin FPS1 in Ethanol-Stressed Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Artur B.; Roque, Filipa C.; Teixeira, Miguel C.; Ascenso, José R.; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    A metabolomic analysis using high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used to characterize the alterations in the endo- and exo-metabolome of S. cerevisiae BY4741 during the exponential phase of growth in minimal medium supplemented with different ethanol concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 6% v/v). This study provides evidence that supports the notion that ethanol stress induces reductive stress in yeast cells, which, in turn, appears to be counteracted by the increase in the rate of NAD+ regenerating bioreactions. Metabolomics data also shows increased intra- and extra-cellular accumulation of most amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates in yeast cells growing under ethanol stress suggesting a state of overflow metabolism in turn of the pyruvate branch-point. Given its previous implication in ethanol stress resistance in yeast, this study also focused on the effect of the expression of the aquaglyceroporin encoded by FPS1 in the yeast metabolome, in the absence or presence of ethanol stress. The metabolomics data collected herein shows that the deletion of the FPS1 gene in the absence of ethanol stress partially mimics the effect of ethanol stress in the parental strain. Moreover, the results obtained suggest that the reported action of Fps1 in mediating the passive diffusion of glycerol is a key factor in the maintenance of redox balance, an important feature for ethanol stress resistance, and may interfere with the ability of the yeast cell to accumulate trehalose. Overall, the obtained results corroborate the idea that metabolomic approaches may be crucial tools to understand the function and/or the effect of membrane transporters/porins, such as Fps1, and may be an important tool for the clear-cut design of improved process conditions and more robust yeast strains aiming to optimize industrial fermentation performance. PMID:23408980

  15. Cytokinins Are Initial Targets of Light in the Control of Bud Outgrowth1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Girault, Tiffanie; Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Pěnčík, Aleš; Sakr, Soulaiman; Lothier, Jérémy

    2016-01-01

    Bud outgrowth is controlled by environmental and endogenous factors. Through the use of the photosynthesis inhibitor norflurazon and of masking experiments, evidence is given here that light acts mainly as a morphogenic signal in the triggering of bud outgrowth and that initial steps in the light signaling pathway involve cytokinins (CKs). Indeed, in rose (Rosa hybrida), inhibition of bud outgrowth by darkness is suppressed solely by the application of CKs. In contrast, application of sugars has a limited effect. Exposure of plants to white light (WL) induces a rapid (after 3–6 h of WL exposure) up-regulation of CK synthesis (RhIPT3 and RhIPT5), of CK activation (RhLOG8), and of CK putative transporter RhPUP5 genes and to the repression of the CK degradation RhCKX1 gene in the node. This leads to the accumulation of CKs in the node within 6 h and in the bud at 24 h and to the triggering of bud outgrowth. Molecular analysis of genes involved in major mechanisms of bud outgrowth (strigolactone signaling [RwMAX2], metabolism and transport of auxin [RhPIN1, RhYUC1, and RhTAR1], regulation of sugar sink strength [RhVI, RhSUSY, RhSUC2, and RhSWEET10], and cell division and expansion [RhEXP and RhPCNA]) reveal that, when supplied in darkness, CKs up-regulate their expression as rapidly and as intensely as WL. Additionally, up-regulation of CKs by WL promotes xylem flux toward the bud, as evidenced by Methylene Blue accumulation in the bud after CK treatment in the dark. Altogether, these results suggest that CKs are initial components of the light signaling pathway that controls the initiation of bud outgrowth. PMID:27462085

  16. Genome and transcriptome analyses reveal that MAPK- and phosphatidylinositol-signaling pathways mediate tolerance to 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde for industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The industrial ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a promising biocatalyst for next-generation advanced biofuels applications including lignocellulose-to-ethanol conversion. Here we present the first insight into the genomic background of NRRL Y-12632, a type strain from a worldwide coll...

  17. Molecular Structures and Interactions in the Yeast Kinetochore

    PubMed Central

    Cho, U.-S.; Corbett, K.D.; Al-Bassam, J.; Bellizzi, J.J.; De Wulf, P.; Espelin, C.W.; Miranda, J.J.; Simons, K.; Wei, R.R.; Sorger, P.K.; Harrison, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Kinetochores are the elaborate protein assemblies that attach chromosomes to spindle microtubules in mitosis and meiosis. The kinetochores of point-centromere yeast appear to represent an elementary module, which repeats a number of times in kinetochores assembled on regional centromeres. Structural analyses of the discrete protein subcomplexes that make up the budding-yeast kinetochore have begun to reveal principles of kinetochore architecture and to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying functions such as transmission of tension and establishment and maintenance of bipolar attachment. The centromeric DNA is probably wrapped into a compact organization, not only by a conserved, centromeric nucleosome, but also by interactions among various other DNA-bound kinetochore components. The rod-like, heterotetrameric Ndc80 complex, roughly 600 Å long, appears to extend from the DNA-proximal assembly to the plus end of a microtubule, to which one end of the complex is known to bind. Ongoing structural studies will clarify the roles of a number of other well-defined complexes. PMID:21467141

  18. Mechanism of iron uptake by the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, A.

    1986-01-01

    C. albicans requires iron for growth and phenotypic development. When deprived of iron, mycelium and bud formation was suppressed. Survival of the organism was also reduced under iron-limiting conditions. The combination of elevated temperature and iron-deprivation further reduced phenotypic development and survival of the yeast. The combination of elevated temperature and iron starvation resulted in a decrease in both the growth rate and siderophore production. However, with time, the cells were able to show partial recovery in the growth rate which occurred concomitantly with an increase in siderophore production. In order for siderophores to be utilized, ferri-siderophore receptors must be produced. The receptor was shown to be located in the plasma membrane of the yeast. Scatchard analysis of the binding of ferri-siderophores to plasma membrane receptors showed an increase in receptor affinity and number of binding sites in ir