Science.gov

Sample records for budget dwdm radio-over-fibre

  1. Enterprise virtual private network (VPN) with dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Aparicio

    An innovative computer simulation and modeling tool for metropolitan area optical data communication networks is presented. These models address the unique requirements of Virtual Private Networks for enterprise data centers, which may comprise a mixture of protocols including ESCON, FICON, Fibre Channel, Sysplex protocols (ETR, CLO, ISC); and other links interconnected over dark fiber using Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). Our models have the capability of designing a network with minimal inputs; to compute optical link budgets; suggest alternative configurations; and also optimize the design based on user-defined performance metrics. The models make use of Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) wherever possible for lower data rate traffics. Simulation results for several configurations are presented and they have been validated by means of experiments conducted on the IBM enterprise network testbed in Poughkeepsie, N.Y.

  2. Planning and deployment of DWDM systems: a reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Data S.

    2001-10-01

    The new definition and implementation of new communication network architectures and elements in the present data-centric world are due to dramatic change in technology, explosive growth in bandwidth requirement and de-regulated, privatized and competitive telecommunication market. Network Convergence, Disruptive Technology and Convulsive Market are the basic forces who are pushing the future network towards Packet based Optical Core Network and varieties of Access Network along with integrated NMS. Well-known Moore's law governs the result of progress in silicon processing and accordingly the present capacity of network must be multiplied by 100 times in 10 years. To build a global network which is 100 times powerful than present one by scaling up today's technology can not be a practical solution due to requirement of 100 fold increase in cost, power and size. Today's two network (Low delay, fixed bandwidth, Poisson voice traffic based, circuit-switched PSTN/PLMN and variable delay, variable bandwidth, no-guaranteed QoS based packet switched internet) are converging towards two-layer network (IP and ATM in lower layer; DWDM in network layer). SDH Network which was well drafted before explosive data traffic and was best suitable for Interoperability, Survivability, Reliability and Manageability will be taken over by DWDM Network by 2005 due to 90% of data traffic. This paper describes the way to build the Communication Network (either by migration or by overlay) with an overview of the equipment and technologies required to design the DWDM Network. Service Providers are facing tough challenges for selection of emerging technologies and advances in network standard for bandwidth hungry, valued customers. The reduction of cost of services due to increased competition , explosive growth of internet and 10GbE Ethernet (which is being considered as an end-to-end network solution) have given surprise to many network architects and designers. To provide transparency to

  3. Fiber-based devices for DWDM optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Claire; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Yisi; Pan, Jing-Jong; Zhou, Fengqing; Dong, Liang; He, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Photonic devices with low insertion loss are important in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems. Currently most of these devices, such as variable optical attenuators (VOA), switches, filters, and dispersion compensators, etc., involve bulk (or micro-optic) components that require conversions between fibers and free-space optical elements leading to high insertion loss. Recently, we have proposed, analyzed, and demonstrated several fiber based devices for DWDM optical communication systems. Here we present an in-line fiber VOA, a 2x2 switchable wavelength add/drop filter, and high performance dispersion compensators. The VOA is built with a side-polished fiber covered with a liquid crystal overlay. By varying the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules using an applied electric field, the loss of the device can be controlled. The 2x2 wavelength switch is designed by recording electrically switchable holographic gratings in a layer of holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) sandwiched between two side-polished fibers. The dispersion compensators are based on high precision fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). A unique method for writing FBGs with arbitrary phase and amplitude distributions is demonstrated. All of these devices are analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Both theoretical and experimental results will be presented and discussed. These devices are suitable for DWDM optical information transmission and network management.

  4. Symmetric reconfigurable capacity assignment in a bidirectional DWDM access network.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José; Puerto, Gustavo; Capmany, José

    2007-12-10

    This paper presents a novel architecture for DWDM bidirectional access networks providing symmetric dynamic capacity allocation for both downlink and uplink signals. A foldback arrayed waveguide grating incorporating an optical switch enables the experimental demonstration of flexible assignment of multiservice capacity. Different analog and digital services, such as CATV, 10 GHz-tone, 155Mb/s PRBS and UMTS signals have been transmitted in order to successfully test the system performance under different scenarios of total capacity distribution from the Central Station to different Base Stations with two reconfigurable extra channels for each down and upstream direction. PMID:19550967

  5. Wavelength-Agile External-Cavity Diode Laser for DWDM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Bomse, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A prototype external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) has been developed for communication systems utilizing dense wavelength- division multiplexing (DWDM). This ECDL is an updated version of the ECDL reported in Wavelength-Agile External- Cavity Diode Laser (LEW-17090), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 11 (November 2001), page 14a. To recapitulate: The wavelength-agile ECDL combines the stability of an external-cavity laser with the wavelength agility of a diode laser. Wavelength is modulated by modulating the injection current of the diode-laser gain element. The external cavity is a Littman-Metcalf resonator, in which the zeroth-order output from a diffraction grating is used as the laser output and the first-order-diffracted light is retro-reflected by a cavity feedback mirror, which establishes one end of the resonator. The other end of the resonator is the output surface of a Fabry-Perot resonator that constitutes the diode-laser gain element. Wavelength is selected by choosing the angle of the diffracted return beam, as determined by position of the feedback mirror. The present wavelength-agile ECDL is distinguished by design details that enable coverage of all 60 channels, separated by 100-GHz frequency intervals, that are specified in DWDM standards.

  6. Coexistence of continuous variable QKD with intense DWDM classical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rupesh; Qin, Hao; Alléaume, Romain

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of continuous variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) in dense-wavelength-division multiplexing networks (DWDM), where QKD will typically have to coexist with several co-propagating (forward or backward) C-band classical channels whose launch power is around 0 dBm. We have conducted experimental tests of the coexistence of CV-QKD multiplexed with an intense classical channel, for different input powers and different DWDM wavelengths. Over a 25 km fiber, a CV-QKD operated over the 1530.12 nm channel can tolerate the noise arising from up to 11.5 dBm classical channel at 1550.12 nm in the forward direction (9.7 dBm in backward). A positive key rate (0.49 kbits s-1) can be obtained at 75 km with classical channel power of respectively -3 and -9 dBm in forward and backward. Based on these measurements, we have also simulated the excess noise and optimized channel allocation for the integration of CV-QKD in some access networks. We have, for example, shown that CV-QKD could coexist with five pairs of channels (with nominal input powers: 2 dBm forward and 1 dBm backward) over a 25 km WDM-PON network. The obtained results demonstrate the outstanding capacity of CV-QKD to coexist with classical signals of realistic intensity in optical networks.

  7. Digital services using quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) over CATV analog DWDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, JengRong; Selker, Mark D.; Trail, J.; Piehler, David; Levi, Israel

    2000-04-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has recently gained great popularity as it provides a cost effective way to increase the transmission capacity of the existing fiber cable plant. For a long time, Dense WDM was exclusively used for baseband digital applications, predominantly in terrestrial long haul networks and in some cases in metropolitan and enterprise networks. Recently, the performance of DWDM components and frequency-stabilized lasers has substantially improved while the costs have down significantly. This makes a variety of new optical network architectures economically viable. The first commercial 8- wavelength DWDM system designed for Hybrid Fiber Coax networks was reported in 1998. This type of DWDM system utilizes Sub-Carrier Multiplexing (SCM) of Quadrature Amplitude Modulated (QAM) signals to transport IP data digital video broadcast and Video on Demand on ITU grid lightwave carriers. The ability of DWDM to provide scalable transmission capacity in the optical layer with SCM granularity is now considered by many to be the most promising technology for future transport and distribution of broadband multimedia services.

  8. Limits of DWDM with gratings and Fabry-Perots and alternate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Lee, DongIk; Jiang, Yongyuan; Kittaka, Shigeo; Nara, Masatoshi; Serikov, Vladimir V.; Oikawa, Masahiro

    2003-08-01

    High resolution DWDM devices based on the principles of gratings (planar, Bragg, AWG, etc.) and Fabry-Perots (etalon, Lummer-Gehrke plate, etc.) suffer from inherent limitations due to (i) temporal pulse stretching of data, and (ii) broadening of time integrated spectral (demuxed) fringes. While the relation, dνFdt >1, can account for these limitations, our analysis imply that dnF does not represent real, physical frequencies. We explain the broader implications of this interpretation in designing DWDM devices based on gratings and Fabry-Perots and illustrate how to use prisms, photonic crystals and non-linear devices for very high data rate per channel.

  9. Numerical simulation of current experimental 100 Gbit s{sup -1} DWDM communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O V; Redyuk, A A; Fedoruk, M P; Nanii, O E; Treshchikov, V N

    2015-01-31

    We report the results of experimental and numerical studies of the maximum length of multi-span DP-QPSK DWDM communication lines (channel rate of 100 Gbit s{sup -1}) with 100-kmlong uniform and combined spans. The use of the combined spans (50 km of SSMF fibre and 50 km of NZDSF fibre) has allowed the maximum line length to be increased up to 6700 km, which is 60% higher than in the case of homogeneous SSMF- and NZDSF-based spans. (optical transmission of information)

  10. A novel DWDM method to design a 100-kW Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Santanu

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I will present the design analysis of a novel concept that may be used to generate a diffraction-limited beam from an aperture so that as much as 450 kW of laser power can be efficiently deposited on a diffraction-limited spot at a range. The laser beam will be comprised of many closely spaced wavelength channels as in a DWDM. The technique relies on the ability of an angular dispersion amplifier to multiplex a large number of high power narrow frequency lasers, wavelengths of which may be as close as 0.4 nm.

  11. The benefits of converged packet/TDM/DWDM switching in metro aggregation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar On, Dror; Voll, Stefan; Au-Yang, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Next generation metro aggregation systems are expected to use integrated lambda, circuit and packet switching platforms. We analyzed a typical Tier 1 aggregation scenario using a converged transport platform offering OTN, MPLS-TP and lambda switching. Vertical integration (multiple transport technologies) and horizontal integration (multiple service types) yielded about one third savings over a traditional L3 over DWDM approach. The number of wavelengths needed was roughly halved. The usage of hybrid interfaces which allow sharing the wavelength between OTN and MPLS services leads to additional savings which will increase as the line rate shifts from 10G to 40G and 100G.

  12. 80-Channel Multiplexer-Demultiplexer Module for DWDM Communications using Hybrid AWG -- Interleaver Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rablau, Corneliu; Bredthauer, Lance

    2007-10-01

    Aside from the more traditional data, voice and e-mail communications, new bandwidth intensive applications in the larger consumer markets, such as music, digital pictures and movies, have led to an explosive increase in the demand for transmission capacity for optical communications networks. This has resulted in a widespread deployment of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) as a means of increasing the communications capacity by multiplexing and transmitting signals of different wavelengths (establishing multiple communication channels) through a single strand of fiber. We report on the design, assembly and characterization of a 50-GHz, 80-channel Mux-Demux module for DWDM systems. The module has been assembled from two commercially available 100 GHz, 40-channel Array Waveguide Grating (AWG) modules and a 50-GHz to 100-GHz interleaver. Relevant performance parameters such as insertion loss, channel uniformity, next-channel isolation (crosstalk) and integrated cross-talk are presented and discussed in contrast with the performance of other competing technologies such as Thin-Film-Filter-based Mux-Demux devices.

  13. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to describe the budgeting process in school districts. Discusses general budget calendars and explains the process of constructing a Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart of the budgeting process. Presents a detailed list of activities to be included in the budgeting process and a PERT chart indicating how these activities…

  14. Distributed Grooming in Multi-Domain IP/MPLS-DWDM Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qing

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies distributed multi-domain, multilayer provisioning (grooming) in IP/MPLS-DWDM networks. Although many multi-domain studies have emerged over the years, these have primarily considered 'homogeneous' network layers. Meanwhile, most grooming studies have assumed idealized settings with 'global' link state across all layers. Hence there is a critical need to develop practical distributed grooming schemes for real-world networks consisting of multiple domains and technology layers. Along these lines, a detailed hierarchical framework is proposed to implement inter-layer routing, distributed grooming, and setup signaling. The performance of this solution is analyzed in detail using simulation studies and future work directions are also high-lighted.

  15. Impact of nonlinearity phenomenon FWM in DWDM optical link considering dispersive fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puche, William S.; Amaya, Ferney O.; Sierra, Javier E.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing demand of network traffic requires new research centers; improve their communications networks, due to the excessive use of mobile and portable devices wanting to have greater access to the network by downloading interactive content quickly and effectively. For our case analyze optical network link through simulation results assuming a DWDM (Dense wavelength Division Multiplexing) optical link, considering the nonlinearity phenomenon FWM (Four Mixed Wavelength) in order to compare their performance, assuming transmission bit rates to 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps, using three primary wavelengths of 1450 nm, 1550 nm and 1650 nm for the transmission of information, whose separation is 100 GHz to generate 16 channels or user information. Tests were conducted to analyze optical amplifiers EDFAs link robustness at a maximum distance of 200 km and identify parameters OSNR, SNR and BER, for a robust and effective transmission

  16. More than 100 channel supercontinuum CW optical source with precise 25GHz spacing for 10Gbit/s DWDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianping; Nan, Yinbo; Zhou, Xianwei

    2006-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of supercontinuum (SC) with a 12.5GHz DFB/EAM ultrashort optical pulse broadened in the high nonlinear fiber (HNLF). Through longitudinal mode-carving of the SC spectrum, a novel multiwavelength continuous wave (CW) optical source with precise 25GHz channel spacing is realized. The bit error rate (BER) curve and eye diagram show that the multiwavelength CW optical source is promising for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems.

  17. Budget Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clowes, Darrel A.

    Following a discussion of the factors to be considered in constructing feasible college budgets, an exercise in budget development is presented involving a hypothetical community college with 2,500 full-time equivalent (FTE) students, 500 in developmental education, 750 each in transfer and technical programs, and 500 undecided. Exercise…

  18. Budget timetable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  19. Effect of the degree of phase-correlation of laser sources on the transmission and optical coherent detection in radio-over-fibre systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Basilio, Ramón; Li, Ran; Abdul-Majid, Sawsan; Nikkhah, Hamdam; Leong, Kin-Wai; Hall, Trevor J.

    2013-01-01

    The deployment of high capacity Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems rely, among many aspects, on the capability to efficiently generate, transport, and detect millimeter-wave carriers modulated at high data rates. Photonic approaches based on the heterodyne beating of two free-running laser sources have been proposed as an alternative to generate multi-Gbps quadrature phase modulated signals imposed on millimeter wave carriers. Implementing photonic approaches in the down-link avoids the need for electronic generation of high frequency carriers and decreases the requirements at the base band electronics. In addition, implementing complex modulation formats overcomes some of the typical issues found in intensity modulation direct detection approaches such as non­ linearity, receiver sensitivity and dynamic range. In this work, the performance improvement of a coherent RoF system carrying 10 Gbps QPSK signals is numerically analyzed in terms of both the frequency linewidth and the degree of phase correlation between the lasers utilised at the down-link (for the optical heterodyne beating) and at the up-link (for the optical coherent detection). Relative to phase correlated lasers featuring linewidths of 5 MHz, the peak power of the 60 G Hz carrier generated at the down-link is reduced by 8 dB for un-correlated lasers. In addition, the error vector magnitude of the received signal at the up-link is improved from over 20% (for un-correlated lasers and linewidths of 5 MHz) to around 15% (for correlated lasers) at an optical received power of -30 dBm. The results obtained reinforce the idea of using coherent comb laser sources with phase correlated modes located at the Central Office. It also motivates the eventual deployment of techniques to control the degree of phase correlation between the lasers used as signal and local oscillator at the optical coherent receivers.

  20. Channel-reuse bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s/λ in long-reach DWDM-PON employing self wavelength managed tunable laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Jiahe; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Xue; Wang, Liqian

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a channel-reuse, bidirectional, 10 Gb/s/λ, long-reach dense wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (DWDM-PON) and an optical beat noise-based automatic wavelength control method for a tunable laser used in a colorless optical network unit (ONU). A 42 km reach, channel-reuse, full-duplex, 10 Gb/s transmission on a 50 GHz DWDM grid is achieved. Transmission performance is also measured with different optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-backscattering-noise ratios (OSRBNRs) and different central wavelength shifts (WSs) between upstream signal and downstream signal in the channel-reuse system.

  1. Long reach DWDM-PON with 12.5 GHz channel spacing based on comb source seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhao; Nie, Hai-tao; Wang, Yao-jun

    2016-07-01

    A long reach dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (DWDM-PON) with 12.5 GHz channel spacing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical frequency comb source is used to provide the multiwavelength seeding light, while reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) are installed in both optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network units (ONUs) as colorless transmitter. The experimental results show that the bidirectional transmission for 1.2 Gbit/s data rate is achieved over 80 km single mode fiber (SMF).

  2. Semi-analytic modeling of FWM noise in dispersion-managed DWDM systems with DQPSK/DPSK/OOK channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianxin; Teng, Zhiyu; Shen, Ninghang

    2016-01-01

    Semi-analytic models are developed to deterministically calculate the variances of degenerate and non-degenerate four-wave-mixing (FWM) noises for dispersion-managed dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems with pure and mixed differential quadrature-phase-shift keying (DQPSK)/differential phase-shift keying (DPSK)/on-off-keying (OOK) channels. The semi-analytic models include various important propagation effects for exact numerical results. The novel dispersion map used here for dispersion management is composed of effective-area-enlarged positive dispersion fiber (EE-PDF), dispersion slope and dispersion compensating fiber (SCDCF) and nonzero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZ-DSF). It is numerically validated with the new models that, under the condition that all channels have the same average launch powers and baud rates, the impact of FWM noise for mixed DQPSK/OOK channels are more severe than that for pure DQPSK and mixed DQPSK/DPSK channels. It is also shown that the FWM efficiency is strongly dependent on the peak power of launched optical pulse for a large number of channels, as can be mainly attributed to the quasi-linear evolution of pulse shapes in pump channels induced by cross-phase modulation (XPM). Compared with some commercial optical-fiber transmission simulators, massive time-consuming can be avoided by using the newly derived semi-analytic models when transmission performances of such DWDM systems are numerically optimized and evaluated.

  3. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses steps three and four in a budgeting process that uses Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). Step three involves developing time estimates and scheduling each of the activities in the PERT chart. Step four involves responsibility identification and coordination. (Author/JF)

  4. Battling Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    Higher-education institutions are facing financial crises in their capital programs. Constant increases in the cost of oil, combined with material shortages in copper, steel and gypsum products, have contributed to an inexorable rise in the cost of construction. At the same time, capital budgets are decreasing. The result is that the education…

  5. Budget management.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G

    1997-05-01

    Budgetary responsibility gives you more control. Take time to master the fine detail, ask questions of your management and finance colleagues about anything you do not understand (you will not lose face), and develop the skills of lateral thinking and creative accountancy. Even if your budget is repeatedly overspent do not take it personally, ensure that management are aware of it and have a good night's sleep. Do not worry about it.

  6. Simultaneous signal transmission of different data-rates in a DWDM system employing external injection locking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindya Sundar; Patra, Ardhendu Sekhar

    2014-12-01

    A novel architecture of DWDM-PON is proposed and demonstrated for downlink transmission of different data-rates of 622 Mbps, 1 Gbps, 1.25 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps simultaneously over a long-haul single mode fiber (SMF). The data rates are directly modulated by Fabry-Pérot laser diodes (FPLD), which are externally injection locked by asynchronous spontaneous emission (ASE) source. The transmission performances are checked by the bit error rate (BER), Quality (Q) factor and clear eye-diagrams. Since this proposed system consists of one ASE source, FPLDs and depends on the direct modulation technique, it reveals a prominent alternative with advantages in simplicity and cost.

  7. Reduction of mode partition noise of FP-LD by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer for RSOA-based DWDM applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang-Hwa; Moon, Sang-Rok; Kye, Myeonggyun; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2016-06-27

    We investigate reduction of mode partition noise of a spectrally sliced Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) for application to seeded DWDM systems. The proposed scheme for the noise reduction incorporates a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). The MZI enables to reduce a relative intensity noise (RIN) more than 3 dB with better noise distributions. Experimental results of 10-Gb/s signal transmission exhibit a considerable bit-error-rate (BER) reduction by three orders of magnitude at the given received power. After the noise reduction, the FP-LD is applied to a 10-Gb/s DWDM system as a seed-light-source. In a local-seeding scheme, return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed (CS)-RZ signal formats are compared as a function of transmission distance. Furthermore, a back-reflection induced impairment is evaluated in a remote-seeding scheme. We also count the number of useable channels to show the feasibility of DWDM transmission. PMID:27410602

  8. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  9. Investigation on the upgrade of existing 10Gbps metro DWDM networks to 40Gbps based on measured PMD data of deployed fiber in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairi, K.; Lambak, Z.; Ahmad, A.; Abdul Kadir, M. Z.; Hamzah, Z.; Tarsono, D.; Abd. Manaf, Z.; Mohamad, R.; Abd. Rahman, M. N.; Samsuri, N.; Fong, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    We present analysis of different modulation formats using actual Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) data of deployed fiber links in the metro area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Simulations have been conducted for comparing the performance of Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ), Return-to-Zero (RZ), Carrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero (CSRZ), Phase Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT) and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation formats for possible future upgrade to 40Gbps from an existing 10Gbps DWDM system. The performance in terms of BER is presented to illustrate the limitations attributed to PMD based on current existing network configurations.

  10. Federal budget timetable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  11. School Budget Seminars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State School Boards Association, Albany.

    This report is a compilation of the presentations made at three New York State School Boards Association seminars on school budgets. The programs consisted of presentations on the relationship of the school district's program to the budget and to budget development, timetable, control, and presentation, as well as to other considerations such as…

  12. School District Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  13. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  14. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  15. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form NIFA-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  16. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14... Preparation of an Application § 3402.14 Budget and budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget narrative identifying all costs associated with the application....

  17. Water-budget methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  18. Performance Evaluation of N × 80 Gb/s DWDM Optical System over SSMF for CSRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK Signals with Optimized Alternate Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Richa; Sharma, Ajay K.; Saxena, Jyoti

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the performance of N×80 Gb/s Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed (DWDM) optical system is evaluated. Improved performance has been reported for CSRZ-DPSK signal with optimized alternate polarization (al-P), over 3120 km of SSMF using 80-km amplified spans in comparison to al-P RZ-DPSK. Investigations were conducted at 0.8 nm and 0.64 nm channel spacing. The results show that the CSRZ-DPSK signal with optimized al-P offers excellent performance for lower line width lasers. Orthogonal polarization and narrow spectrum of CSRZ-DPSK offer 5 dB improvement in quality factor for high-input power per channel with consistent performance over wider line widths.

  19. Budgeting Approaches in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Several budgeting approaches have been initiated as alternatives to the traditional, incremental process. These include formula budgeting; zero-base budgeting; planning, programming, and budgeting systems; and responsibility center budgeting. Each is premised on assumptions about how organizations might best make resource allocation decisions.…

  20. Colorado Children's Budget 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

  1. Reading Institutional Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabot, Barry

    2001-01-01

    Prepares two tables to illustrate how it is helpful to place worries about much smaller sums in the context of Miami University's overall academic budget; One table summarizes the academic budgets for every department during the 1997-98 academic year and a second contains the income-expense ratios for all Oxford departments over a five-year…

  2. Budgeting Based on Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  3. Colorado Children's Budget 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…

  4. Colorado Children's Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…

  5. PROGRAM BUDGETING FOR EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIRSCH, WERNER Z.

    THE APPLICATION OF PROGRAM BUDGETING TO EDUCATION IS RECOMMENDED. A NATIONAL-LEVEL PROGRAM BUDGET EXAMPLE IS PRESENTED, WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR OBTAINING MORE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION. FINANCING OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES IS CURRENTLY UNDERTAKEN BY MORE THAN 40 AGENCIES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 50 STATE GOVERNMENTS, AND MORE THAN…

  6. Budget brief, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The FY DOE budge totals $12.6 billion in budget authority and $11.1 billion in budget outlays. The budget authority being requested consists of $10.3 billion in new authority and a $2.3 billion reappropriation of expiring funds for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Areas covered in the Energy budget are: energy conservation; research, development, and applications; regulation and information; direct energy production; strategic energy production; and energy security reserve. Other areas include: general science, defense activities; departmental administration; and legislative proposal - spent fuel. Budget totals are compared for 1980 and 1981. A detailed discussion of the FY 1981 activities to be undertaken to carry out these activities is provided. (MCW)

  7. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization. PMID:12577658

  8. Who needs budgets?

    PubMed

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  9. Fiscal 1983 Science Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Support for science generally is strong in President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal, released last week; agency budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), however, did not beat inflation.Total federal funding for research and development and related facilities rose 9.6% to $44.3 billion, beating the 7.3% inflation rate estimated for 1982 by the Office of Management and Budget. Obligations for basic research by various departments and agencies also topped inflation. The President proposes federal funding of $5.82 billion in fiscal 1983, compared with $5.35 billion in 1982.

  10. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Castillo, Jerel Nelson

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentation of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file

  11. Model Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

  12. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  13. Congress trims NSF budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The last-minute spending bill adopted by Congress just before its 1987 holiday recess provides $1,717 billion for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1988. The approved figure is more than 9% lower than the request in President Reagan's budget plan. In addition, wording in the House version of the bill that mandated protection of ocean science and women and minorities programs did not appear in the final product that was approved by Congress and signed into law.In absolute terms, NSF's budget will be 6% more than in 1987, far less than expected by the agency and the White House, which had proposed a doubling of NSF's budget over the next several years. The Research and Related Activities section of the budget, out of which comes the bulk of NSF's support of basic research, was funded at $1,453 billion, $200 million less than its $1,653 billion request, and the Antarctic Research section received $124.8 million of $143 million in the President's budget. Science Education, on the other hand, was budgeted for $139.2 million, $25 million more than requested.

  14. Outyear Budgeting Tool

    2010-12-31

    OBTool performs the following: • Consistent method and tool to develop/estimate fiscal year (FY) 2010 and outyear budget/estimates • Maintain configuration control on resource rates and changes to outyear budget estimates, while allowing for accessibility, accountability, and tracking shared access between program managers, facility managers (FMs), project managers (PMs), cost account managers (CAMs), and project controls engineers (PCEs) • Consistency in budget estimating methodology, including scope, requirements, basis of estimates, resources, activities, escalation, and presentationmore » of documentation in tasks and execution plans and reports • Ability to sync (i.e. export) and import data into Primavera and Cobra to the lifecycle baseline file« less

  15. The Clinton military budget

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J. )

    1993-05-01

    In February, the Clinton administration presented the overall contours, if not the details, of its military budget plans for the next five years. $263.5 billion was requested in new budget authority for fiscal 1994. By fiscal 1995, according to the administration blueprint, the budget would be reduced to about $250 billion annually. The three points that stand out, apart from the modest nature of the reductions from the previous administration's five-year Pentagon plan, are discussed in this article. First, the Clinton team downplayed the magnitude of the cutbacks. Second, the Clinton reductions generated great confusion, as an extraordinary range of numbers was banded about. Third, the pro-military members of Congress were remarkably quiet about the Clinton defense plan. Explanations and implications of these points are explained.

  16. Simultaneous frequency stabilization and high-power dense wavelength division multiplexing (HP-DWDM) using an external cavity based on volume Bragg gratings (VBGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesbach, Stefan; Klein, Sarah; Holly, Carlo; Witte, Ulrich; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Multiplexing technologies enable the development of high-brightness diode lasers for direct industrial applications. We present a High-Power Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (HP-DWDM) with an average channel spacing of 1.7 (1.5) nm and a subsequent external cavity mirror to provide feedback for frequency stabilization and multiplexing in one step. The "self-optimizing" multiplexing unit consists of four reflective Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) with 99% diffraction efficiency and seven dielectric mirrors to overlay the radiation of five input channels with an adjustable channel spacing of 1-2 nm. In detail, we focus on the analysis of the overall optical efficiency, the change of the beam parameter product and the spectral width. The performance is demonstrated using five 90 μm multimode 9xx single emitters with M2<=17. Because of the feedback the lateral (multimodal) spatial and angular intensity distribution changes strongly and the beam parameter product decreases by a factor of 1.2 to 1.9. Thereby the angular intensity distribution is more affected than the width of the beam waist. The spectral width per emitter decreases to 3-200 pm (FWHM) depending on the injection current and the reflectance of the feedback mirror (0.75%, 1.5%, 4%, 6% or 8%). The overall optical multiplexing efficiency ranges between 77% and 86%. With some modifications (e.g. enhanced AR-coatings) we expect 90-95%.

  17. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  18. Battling Budget Woes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how various school districts are addressing school quality on tight budgets. Options discussed include use of portable classrooms, streamlining non-educational services, leasing and performance contracting, and energy improvements and working with power utilities to cut costs. Argues for adopting and enforcing ISO 9000 standards to…

  19. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  20. Colorado Children's Budget 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…

  1. Marbling on a Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Provides historical information on the art technique called marbling. Includes floating paints on water and transferring the patterns formed in the water to paper. Discusses how teachers can teach this technique with materials that fit their budgets. Describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  2. Obama Budget Choices Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Following an unprecedented increase for education aid in the federal economic-stimulus package, President Barack Obama's fiscal 2010 budget request for the U.S. Department of Education is being met with a tepid response from some school advocates. While few complained outright about the overall funding level, some educators are opposed to specific…

  3. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  4. The Global Energy Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jax, Daniel W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan about greenhouse effect and global warming. Includes diagrams and graphs from which students are asked to make inferences. Provides background information about how energy enters and leaves the earth system, the energy budget, consequences of obstructing the energy balance, and the greenhouse effect. (three references) (MCO)

  5. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  6. Colorado Children's Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

  7. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  8. Integrated Budget Office Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rushing, Douglas A.; Blakeley, Chris; Chapman, Gerry; Robertson, Bill; Horton, Allison; Besser, Thomas; McCarthy, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Budget Office Toolbox (IBOT) combines budgeting, resource allocation, organizational funding, and reporting features in an automated, integrated tool that provides data from a single source for Johnson Space Center (JSC) personnel. Using a common interface, concurrent users can utilize the data without compromising its integrity. IBOT tracks planning changes and updates throughout the year using both phasing and POP-related (program-operating-plan-related) budget information for the current year, and up to six years out. Separating lump-sum funds received from HQ (Headquarters) into separate labor, travel, procurement, Center G&A (general & administrative), and servicepool categories, IBOT creates a script that significantly reduces manual input time. IBOT also manages the movement of travel and procurement funds down to the organizational level and, using its integrated funds management feature, helps better track funding at lower levels. Third-party software is used to create integrated reports in IBOT that can be generated for plans, actuals, funds received, and other combinations of data that are currently maintained in the centralized format. Based on Microsoft SQL, IBOT incorporates generic budget processes, is transportable, and is economical to deploy and support.

  9. Pakistan boosts science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  10. Budgeting for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. E.

    Empirically and rationally derived bases for determining the costs for industrial libraries are suggested. Taken into consideration is the fact that recent accounting procedures and the advent of new technologies have introduced costs into the library budget so that literature and personnel costs may now account for only 75-80 percent of the…

  11. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  12. Budget and Appropriations - Congressional Justification

    Cancer.gov

    The Congressional Justification is prepared when the President submits an annual budget to Congress, to justify the President's request by explaining NCI's mission, objectives for the coming fiscal year, and providing comparative budget data and analysis.

  13. Reagan Administration Prepares Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Colin

    1981-01-01

    Describes tentative federal budget cuts affecting science education in the National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Department of Energy, National Institutes of Health, and the specific areas these budget cuts will affect. (DS)

  14. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  15. 1.92 Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Neda; Huang, Ming-Fang; Ip, Ezra; Shao, Yin; Huang, Yue-Kai; Cvijetic, Milorad; Wang, Ting

    2011-11-21

    Record 1.92-Tb/s (40λ × 48 Gb/s/λ) coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON without high-speed ONU-side ADCs/DACs/DSP/RF clock sources is demonstrated over 100 km straight SSMF with a 1:64 passive split. Novel optical-domain OFDMA sub-band selection, coherent detection, and simple RF components are exploited. As the first experimental verification of a next-generation optical platform capable of delivering 1 Gb/s to 1000(+) users over 100 km, the new architecture is promising for future optical access/metro systems.

  16. 1.92 Tb/s coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON with no high-speed ONU-side electronics over 100 km SSMF and 1:64 passive split.

    PubMed

    Cvijetic, Neda; Huang, Ming-Fang; Ip, Ezra; Shao, Yin; Huang, Yue-Kai; Cvijetic, Milorad; Wang, Ting

    2011-11-21

    Record 1.92-Tb/s (40λ × 48 Gb/s/λ) coherent DWDM-OFDMA-PON without high-speed ONU-side ADCs/DACs/DSP/RF clock sources is demonstrated over 100 km straight SSMF with a 1:64 passive split. Novel optical-domain OFDMA sub-band selection, coherent detection, and simple RF components are exploited. As the first experimental verification of a next-generation optical platform capable of delivering 1 Gb/s to 1000(+) users over 100 km, the new architecture is promising for future optical access/metro systems. PMID:22109481

  17. NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The House of Representatives has authorized $161.7 million more than President Ronald Reagan proposed for the fiscal 1984 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget. The House NASA authorization bill (H.R. 2065) passed by voice vote on April 26. Five days earlier, the Senate Commerce, Science, and Technology Committee marked up S. 1096, the Senate's NASA authorization bill, and recommended $171.6 million more than the Reagan proposal. The Senate is expected to vote on the bill in mid May, after which time a conference committee will iron out the differences between the House and Senate versions.President Reagan requested a total NASA budget of $7.1065 billion: $5.7085 billion for research and development, $150.5 million for construction of facilities, and $1.2475 billion for research and program management (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65).

  18. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  19. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  20. Conference OKs science budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the budget process all but complete for next fiscal year, the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration observers were saying that science had not done that badly in Congress, for an election year. NSF got half the budget increase it requested, NASA two-thirds. The Space Station did well, at the expense of environmental and social programs, which are funded by Congress from the same pot of money as NASA and NSF.A House-Senate conference finished work on a $59 billion appropriations bill for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and independent agencies, including EPA, NASA, and NSF, in early August. The House and Senate then quickly passed the measure before their recess; the President is expected to sign it soon. Included in the Fiscal Year 1989 spending bill are $1,885 billion for NSF, a 9.8% increase over FY 1988, and $10.7 billion for NASA, 18.5% more than the year before.

  1. Integrating Academic Planning and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClenney, Byron N.; Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    1985-01-01

    Argues that effective college management depends upon the budget implementing the important values of the institution. Suggests a model integrating strategic and operational planning and resource allocation. (AYC)

  2. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES NATIONAL...

  3. Budgeting Time to Teach about the School Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, the author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, the school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. In this article, the author…

  4. Debating personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  5. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  6. Program Budgeting for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramberg, Merlyn Ludwig

    In recognition of the increasing concern for the expenditure of tax dollars and the resulting need for accountability in budgeting, this study provides a model for program budgeting at the collegiate level in industrial education. Course outlines for drafting and woodworking at the University of Northern Colorado were analyzed and activities were…

  7. Carbon budgets in symbiotic associations

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatine, L.; Falkowski, P.G.; Dubinsky, Z.

    1983-01-01

    Methods are described which permit the estimation of daily budgets for photosynthetically fixed carbon in any alga-invertebrate symbiosis. Included is a method for estimating total daily translocation which does not involve the use of C-14. A daily carbon budget for a shallow water symbiotic reef coral is presented.

  8. FY 1986 science budget overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.; Robb, David W.

    Continental lithosphere research, scientific ocean drilling, investigative surveys in the Exclusive Economic Zone, and the Mars Observer were among those programs that fared best in the federal budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1986 that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress last week. However, the Sea Grant and Coastal Zone Management programs were among those that fell victim to the budget ax once again.

  9. Health Cost Strain School Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how the rising cost of health insurance is being picked as the top budget concern of school businesses. These data were the result of a survey conducted by the Association of School Business Officials International. Schools report that the cost of insuring employees is outpacing increases in state and local budgets that…

  10. Budgeting for Efficiency and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    For most districts, budgeting has become a cost-cutting exercise designed to close the gap between revenues and expenses. During this process, decision makers inherently assume that existing operations are efficient and effective--an assumption that is rarely validated by facts. Cutting programs and services balances budgets but does not…

  11. Service Increases Fueling Budget Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Reactionary stances against pending budget cuts should be considered to be less favorable positioning for library leaders versus more proactive and anticipatory strategies. By changing the attitudinal and service posturing of library staff and services, libraries can show themselves as a more essential function to their colleges. Budget cuts…

  12. The Bush Education Budget Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Luebchow, Lindsey; Rieman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Next week, President George W. Bush will submit his eighth and final budget request to the Congress. How has he fared with respect to education budget proposals thus far? Answer: although President Bush made the No Child Left Behind Act, which deals with elementary and secondary education, the hallmark of his education policy, from a federal…

  13. Budgeting Based on Student Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jason; Hill, Matt

    2011-01-01

    School finance reform has become a key component for transforming public schools in the United States. Over the last decade, a growing number of districts have turned to an approach known by different names--student-based budgeting, weighted student funding and fair student funding, among others--in which budgets are allocated to schools in…

  14. Education Takes Hit in Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    After months of arduous negotiation and partisan squabbling, states across the country have produced budgets for the new fiscal year that in many cases will bring deep cuts to state spending, including money for schools. The budget blueprints adopted by numerous states were postscripts to divisive legislative sessions that saw newly elected…

  15. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  16. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  17. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  18. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE PAGES

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  20. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  1. Global carbon budget 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  2. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from

  3. Budget Risk & Prioritization Analysis Tool

    2010-12-31

    BRPAtool performs the following: •Assists managers in making solid decisions on what scope/activities to reduce and/or eliminate, to meet constrained budgets, based on multiple risk factors •Enables analysis of different budget scenarios •Can analyze risks and cost for each activity based on technical, quantifiable risk criteria and management-determined risks •Real-time analysis •Enables managers to determine the multipliers and where funding is best applied •Promotes solid budget defense

  4. Federal budget process: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.

    Much geophysical research funding originates from the federal government, and many who obtain federal funding consider the executive branch to be its source. In fact, the federal budget results from a complex ballet between the executive and legislative branches. Because it is both little understood and essential to our work, this report will review the fundamentals of the three-year budgetary process.The Constitution assigns the power of the purse to the Congress. Before the 1920s, executive branch agencies and departments submitted their own separate budgets to Congress, and deliberate planning and priority setting was minimal. In 1921 Congress empowered the president to submit an executive branch budget reflecting his priorities for the next fiscal year. Following this protocol, former President Reagan submitted his budget for Fiscal Year 1990 in January, and President Bush outlined his FY'90 priorities in February.

  5. Carter Revises the Science Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviews budget changes made by President Carter in the following science areas: basic science research; fusion research and breeder reactor projects; oil and gas recovery; coal conversion techniques; and space exploration. (CS)

  6. Reaction to Global Change Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.

    A recent hearing of the Subcommittee on Veterans Administration/Department of Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies of the Senate Committee on Appropriations provided an early glimpse of congressional reaction to the administration's global change research budget.

  7. Budget priorities of the nation.

    PubMed

    Ooms, V D

    1992-12-11

    Changes in the federal budget over the last several decades have raised current consumption at the expense of the investment needed for stronger economic growth. These changes have occurred in the budget's fiscal policy, which has reduced national saving and private investment; in its expenditure policy, which has emphasized short-term benefits rather than public investments; and in its transfer policy, which has not adequately addressed the increasing child poverty that threatens the productivity of our future labor force. PMID:17831654

  8. Evolution of Triton's volatile budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.

    1993-01-01

    Triton's volatile budget provides important links to planetary formation processes in the cold outer solar nebula. However, the budget has been modified by processes subsequent to the accretion of this body. It is of interest to assess whether certain formation environments can be ruled out for Triton on the basis of its current volatile abundances, and also to quantify some of the post-accretional processes by which the abundances have been modified.

  9. Budget variance analysis using RVUs.

    PubMed

    Berlin, M F; Budzynski, M R

    1998-01-01

    This article details the use of the variance analysis as management tool to evaluate the financial health of the practice. A common financial tool for administrators has been a simple calculation measuring the difference between actual financials vs. budget financials. Standard cost accounting provides a methodology known as variance analysis to better understand the actual vs. budgeted financial streams. The standard variance analysis has been modified by applying relative value units (RVUs) as standards for the practice. PMID:10387247

  10. How To Develop an Effective Budget Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1999-01-01

    An effective college or university budget process is dependent on the culture of the institution. Different processes and budget types are appropriate to different institutions. Understanding the interrelationships of budgeting, planning, and financial modeling can help make the budget more predictable and relevant to the college's values and…

  11. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  12. 24 CFR 968.225 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revisions. 968.225 Section... Fewer Than 250 Units) § 968.225 Budget revisions. (a) A PHA shall not incur any modernization cost in excess of the total HUD-approved CIAP budget. A PHA shall submit a budget revision, in a form...

  13. Budget Brief: 2015 Proposed Budget Milwaukee Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vanessa; Chapman, Anne; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the major changes in revenue and expenditures in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) 2015 proposed budget, and the manner in which MPS has responded to recent legislative changes and turbulent workforce challenges. The objective is to provide an independent assessment of the district's…

  14. Outcome Based Budgeting: Connecting Budget Development, Allocation and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderes, Thomas

    This plan for outcome-based budgeting (OBB) is the result of growing demands for increased fiscal accountability, measurable outcomes, strengthened assessment processes, and more meaningful performance indicators as mandated by many State and Federal legislators. OBB focuses on linking funding with outputs and outcomes. Higher education…

  15. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS..., and revision requirements for the State Food Stamp Program Budget shall be as specified in §...

  16. 7 CFR 277.3 - Budgets and budget revision procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 277.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PAYMENTS OF CERTAIN ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS..., and revision requirements for the State Food Stamp Program Budget shall be as specified in §...

  17. Programme Budgets for Graduate Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelquist, Claes G.; And Others

    The development of a methodological framework for planning, programming, and budgeting which is specific to graduate training and research activities at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden is described. This pilot project is regarded as a step towards developing and implementing a generalized approach to an output-oriented finance…

  18. Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jocelyn, Ed.; Ellerson, Noelle, Ed.; Jones, Lindsay, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 85 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2012 budget for recognizing the importance of investing in education to our nation's economic growth and competitiveness. Within a constrained fiscal…

  19. Geology on a Sand Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  20. Congress Wraps Up 2011 Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Education advocates are already bracing for protracted budget battles in the coming year, even as they sort the winners and losers in the bill approved by Congress late last week financing the U.S. Department of Education and the rest of the federal government through September. The hard-fought agreement followed months of wrangling between…

  1. Rational Budgeting? The Stanford Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    The budget decision making process at Stanford University, California, from 1970 through 1979 was evaluated in relation to the allocation of general funds to 38 academic departments. Using Simon's theory of bounded rationality and an organizational level of analysis, the Stanford decision process was tested for its rationality through…

  2. Reconceptualization of the Budget Envelope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    This paper reconceptualizes the purposes of education's budget envelope. Citing numerous examples of how policymakers consider resource allocations apart from the main concerns of individual programs, the people reallocations affect, and education's most important programs, it suggests that policymakers and finance officers reemphasize program and…

  3. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  4. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  5. Federal Budget Considerations for Colleges, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    This document highlights federal budget considerations for colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario, Canada. A key focus of the budget is the Federal Government's Canadian Opportunities Strategy, which supports the acquisition of skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. The budget's emphasis on education over other social…

  6. Planning to Communicate: A Budget Companion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Failing to have a plan to communicate with stakeholders during the budget process is a plan to fail. Without community support, getting budget approval can be difficult. Thus, school business officials must have a plan to ensure the appropriate budget message is conveyed throughout all communication channels. In fact, a communication plan is the…

  7. Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, David L.

    Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…

  8. Predictive Modeling: Linking Enrollment and Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusheim, Dale; Rylee, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The hard choices that must be made to balance budgets at higher education institutions can be painful and have dramatic consequences that may linger for years. If enrollment projections and therefore tuition income/budgeting projections for future years are inaccurate, then the result may be unnecessary or insufficient budget reductions, both of…

  9. Community College Budgeting and Financing Demystified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David S.; Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    The topic of budgeting and financial resources often strikes fear in the hearts of community college administrators and faculty, as they believe it is an arcane and complex art understood only by accountants and financial specialists. This chapter attempts to demystify the basic concepts involved in budgeting and addresses approaches to budgeting,…

  10. Teaching Budget Cuts to Third Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Dale

    2011-01-01

    As a teacher in the Milwaukee Public Schools (MPS) for the past 16 years, this author has grown used to dismal budget cut news arriving each February. Although cuts are always frustrating and their results burdensome, his school has been able to "hang on" reasonably well. This year, however, the budget cuts were extreme. The school's budget was…

  11. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.

  12. 25 CFR 276.14 - Budget revision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Budget revision. 276.14 Section 276.14 Indians BUREAU OF... UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS § 276.14 Budget revision. Criteria and procedures to be followed by grantees in reporting deviations from grant budgets and requesting approval for...

  13. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  14. NASA Science Budget Choices Criticized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-03-01

    NASA's decision to focus its science efforts on large missions at the expense of smaller missions and research is misguided and will have a long-term negative impact on attracting and retaining scientists and engineers to NASA-related science, several scientists testified at a 2 March hearing. Witnesses at the hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee included NASA Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Mary Cleave and members or chairs of four U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) decadal surveys of various aspects of NASA science. The witnesses discussed cuts and delays to NASA projects proposed in the agency's Fiscal Year 2007 budget request. NASA's science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007, and then by just one percent per year in 2008-2011 (see Eos 87(9), 2006).

  15. U.S. science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Science agency budgets were slashed July 30 by the U.S. House of Representatives Appropriations Committee, which voted significant cuts to the proposed fiscal year 2000 budgets of NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and other agencies.While the funding levels may change in early September when the Senate takes up the appropriations bill for NASA, EPA, and NSF— which funds the Veterans Administration (VA), Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and independent agencies—Congress appears to be trying to maintain budgetary caps established in 1997. A separate House appropriations bill covering the Commerce Department cut research funding at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) by 10%.

  16. Vibration budget for observatory equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Thompson, Hugh

    2015-07-01

    Vibration from equipment mounted on the telescope and in summit support buildings has been a source of performance degradation at existing astronomical observatories, particularly for adaptive optics performance. Rather than relying only on best practices to minimize vibration, we present here a vibration budget that specifies allowable force levels from each source of vibration in the observatory (e.g., pumps, chillers, cryocoolers, etc.). This design tool helps ensure that the total optical performance degradation due to vibration is less than the corresponding error budget allocation and is also useful in design trade-offs, specifying isolation requirements for equipment, and tightening or widening individual equipment vibration specifications as necessary. The vibration budget relies on model-based analysis of the optical consequences that result from forces applied at different locations and frequencies, including both image jitter and primary mirror segment motion. We develop this tool here for the Thirty Meter Telescope but hope that this approach will be broadly useful to other observatories, not only in the design phase, but for verification and operations as well.

  17. 2001 BUDGET: Research Gets Hefty Boost in 2001 Defense Budget.

    PubMed

    Malakoff, D

    2000-09-01

    Next year's $289 billion defense budget, which President Bill Clinton signed last month, includes big boosts for a host of science programs, from endangered species research to developing laser weapons. And with the two major presidential candidates pledging further boosts, the Pentagon's portfolio is attracting increasing attention from the life sciences community as well. But some analysts worry that Congress and the Pentagon may be shortchanging long-term, high-risk research in favor of projects with a more certain payoff. PMID:17811142

  18. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  19. Network interdiction with budget constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Santhi, Nankakishore; Pan, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for efficient network interdiction algorithms. Applications are varied, including computer network security, prevention of spreading of Internet worms, policing international smuggling networks, controlling spread of diseases and optimizing the operation of large public energy grids. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particularly interesting practical form of the interdiction question which we show to be computationally tractable. A polynomial time algorithm is then presented for this problem.

  20. AGU testifies on NASA Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Witnesses from outside the U.S. government—including Frank Eden, representing AGU—testified about the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's budget on March 12 before the House Science Committee's subcommittee on space. One major topic of the hearing was familiar: what should NASA's top priority be, space science or human exploration of space.“Obviously this committee has a huge job of trying to set priorities—consistent with the budget restraints—that will end up giving the American taxpayer the most bang for his buck, as well as providing direction for our space program,” said F. James Sensenbrenner, Jr. (R-Wis.), the subcommittee's ranking Republican. Another recurring topic, cited by the subcommittee's new chairman, Ralph M. Hall (D-Tex.), as well as by other committee members, was how to translate NASA-developed technologies into commercial gain for the U.S. in the global marketplace. Hall and others also posed a number of questions on a topic the chairman called a special concern of his: whether it would be economically and scientifically plausible for the U.S. to use the Soviet space station Mir for certain activities, such as medical applications.

  1. The NASA budget in Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Patricia H.

    I would like to make the members of AGU aware of the recent happenings in Congress with regard to the fiscal year (FY) 1986 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA was scheduled for modest increases from FY 1985 levels in the President's budget (Eos, February 19, 1985, p. 73), which was approved by the House Science and Technology Committee. However, when the authorization bill (H.R. 1714) “hit the floor” on April 3, amendments were offered and overwhelmingly passed to freeze funding at FY 1985 levels. (A similar fate met the National Science Foundation bill, H.R. 1210, on April 17.) The process is under way in the Senate, and the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, which is the authorizing committee (under the chairmanship of Slade Gorton), plans to mark up its NASA bill in the next few days; the full committee—the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee—will then offer it to the floor.

  2. Most science spared big budget bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Most science budgets emerged unscathed from President Ronald Reagan's fiscal 1983 budget proposal. Total funding for research and development came out slightly ahead of inflation, as did funding for basic research (Eos, February 16, p. 162). The National Science Foundation (NSF) edged past the projected 7.3% inflation rate for 1982, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) budget is to be increased by 10.6%. However, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is budgeted for a 4.2% increase in funding, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will take an 8.3% cut.

  3. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following criteria: (1) The State's method of determining the budget allocation is objective and evidence based utilizing valid, reliable cost data. (2) The State's method is applied consistently...

  4. Advance Appropriations: A Needless and Confusing Education Budget Technique. Federal Education Budget Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2007-01-01

    This report argues that advance appropriations serve no functional purpose for schools, but they create a loss of transparency, comparability, and simplicity in federal education budgeting. It allocates spending before future budgets have been established. The approach was originally used to skirt spending limits and budget procedures in place…

  5. FY 1984 Science Budget overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astronomy, engineering, and the physical sciences as a whole were among the best funded programs in the fiscal 1984 budget that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress last week. In addition, science education got a shot in the arm: The Reagan proposal includes plans for the nation's universities to upgrade scientific instrumentation and to attract and support high caliber scientists and engineers.Reagan proposes that federal funding for research and development, including R&D facilities, total $47 billion in fiscal 1984, up 17% from the fiscal 1983 level. Defense research and development programs would be increased 29%; nondefense R&D would be increased 0.4%. Total basic research would be boosted 10%.

  6. NASA Budget Focuses on Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    NASA has decided to rebalance its priorities following several years of healthy growth for science, turning its focus instead towards expanding support for manned space exploration, explained NASA Administrator Michael Griffin at a 16 February hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science. The Bush Administration has requested $16.8 billion for NASA in Fiscal Year 2007, an increase of 3.2 percent over the previous year. Most of the benefit would go to the exploration program, which would get a 55 percent increase in funding-for a total of $3.9 billion-primarily for the development of the new Crew Exploration Vehicle and Crew Launch Vehicle. The science budget would grow by 1.5 percent in FY2007-to $5.3 billion-and then is projected to grow by just one percent per year in 2008-2011.

  7. House cuts NASA, NSF budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The House passed its version of the Fiscal Year 1990 spending bill July 20, voting less money than requested for NASA, NSF, and other independent agencies. An appropriation of $1.6 billion was approved for the space station despite an effort to cut funding for the project on the House floor.With a voice vote the House approved a Veterans Affairs-Housing and Urban Development- Independent Agencies subcommittee (VAHUDIA) package totaling $65.1 billion, nearly $2.5 billion more than requested in President Bush's budget. NSF received $1.99 billion in the bill, $150 million less than requested, and NASA $12.26 billion, more than a billion less than the President asked for. The Department of Housing and Urban Development ($2.23 billion more than requested) and the Department of Veteran's Affairs ($908 million more than requested) were the big winners in the bill.

  8. NSF budget for fiscal 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Congress recently passed its first authorization bill for the National Science Foundation (NSF) since fiscal year (FY) 1981. As part of specifying how NSF should spend its money, the bill (H.R. 1210) directs NSF to conduct biannual assessments of universities' needs for research facilities, as called for in the proposed University Research Facilities Revitalization Act (H.R. 2823) (Eos, September 17, 1985, p. 660).The NSF appropriation was of another bill (H.R. 3038) that provided more than $50 billion for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and for 17 independent agencies. The appropriation bill calls for NSF to receive $45.6 million less for research and related activities than the budget request, $5 million less than the request for the U.S. Antarctic Program, but $5 million more than the request for science and engineering education (see Table 1).

  9. 1996 Budget picture still clouded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Four months and three work stoppages into fiscal 1996, whole departments and agencies of the United States federal government remain in budgetary limbo. Five annual spending bills still await approval, and parts of nine federal departments and several agencies face the possibility of yet another shutdown, as the current continuing resolution for temporary funding expires on March 15.In the wake of the recent three-week shutdown of the federal government, congressional leaders worked in January to ease future political pain by funding a list of “essential services” for the remainder of the fiscal year. Deemed essential were government programs with the most immediate and conspicuous public impact, such as the National Parks Service and the Passport Services Office. Included on that list of essential services was the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which not only received full funding for the entire fiscal year but also got a 5.7% increase over its 1995 budget.

  10. The Carbon Budget of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    The carbon budget of a region can be defined as the sum of annual fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane greenhouse gases (GHGs) into and out of the regional surface coverage area. According to the state government’s recent inventory, California's carbon budget is presently dominated by fossil fuel emissions of CO2 (at >85% of total annual GHG emissions) to meet energy and transportation requirements. Other notable (non-ecosystem) sources of carbon GHG emissions in 2004 were from cement- and lime-making industries, livestock-based agriculture, and waste treatment activities. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover (including those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - MODIS) has been used to estimate net ecosystem fluxes and vegetation biomass production over the period 1990-2004. California's annual NPP for all ecosystems in the early 2000s, estimated by CASA at 120 million metric tons of carbon equivalent (MMTCE) per year, was roughly equal to its annual fossil fuel emission rates for carbon. However, since natural ecosystems can accumulate only a small fraction of this annual NPP total in long-term storage pools, the net ecosystem sink flux for atmospheric carbon across the state was estimated at a maximum rate of between 15-24 MMTCE per year under favorable precipitation conditions. Under less favorable precipitation conditions, such as those experienced during the early 1990s, ecosystems statewide were estimated to have lost nearly 15 MMTCE per year to the atmosphere. Considering the large amounts of carbon stored in standing biomass of forests, shrublands, and rangelands across the state, the implications of changing climate and land use practices on ecosystems must be factored into the state’s planning to reduce overall GHG emissions.

  11. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  12. 2005 Budget Drops below Bush Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education will see its smallest budget increase in nearly a decade under the catchall spending plan approved by the Republican-controlled Congress in a lame-duck session. For the first time since President Bush entered office, the budget will fall short of his overall request for education funding. The final fiscal 2005…

  13. Zero Based Budgeting for Voc Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Ying C.

    1977-01-01

    To help vocational education budget planners take a good look each year at where they are going, what they are trying to accomplish, and where to put their money, this article describes the 12 steps in a model commonly used for zero based budgeting. (Author/HD)

  14. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  15. Becoming a Leader in University Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlotta, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explains what senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) and those aspiring to the position should know and do in terms of budgeting to make the transition from division to university leadership. Before SSAOs can help lead any university-wide budget process, particularly ones that unfold amid fiscal decline, they must master divisional…

  16. Performance Based Budgeting Update. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashford, Joanne

    The report shows the performance of Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) (Florida) on the measures stipulated for the 2000-01 allocation of Performance Based Budgeting (PBB). Of the total state funds allocated for Performance Based Budgeting, a certain percentage is designated for each of the measures. Colleges earn "points" according to the…

  17. Building Budgets and Trust through Superintendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, James J.; Wang, Chuang; Murray, Louise M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we surveyed school district superintendents in a southeastern state about their budget-building strategies. The majority of responding superintendents had worked with their most senior principals and business managers for less than three years. Patterns of variance along the openness of budget-building processes, information…

  18. Activity-Based Budgeting in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szatmary, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As other universities across the country struggle with their financial challenges, continuing education units can serve the same pioneering role in the development of new financial and budget systems. Confronted by serious financial shortfalls during the last three decades, university administrators started to focus on new budget and revenue…

  19. Uncertainty Propagation in an Ecosystem Nutrient Budget.

    EPA Science Inventory

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated error for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of fr...

  20. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Budget

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2012-03-16

    Budget information for hydrogen and fuel cell research, development, and other activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is provided here. Included are budgets for DOE's Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Nuclear Energy, and Science.

  1. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  2. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Dennis

    The Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO) inaugurated the Meritorious Budget Awards Program (MBA) in July 1995. ASBO specifically created this program to help school business administrators achieve a standard of excellence in budget presentation. This book is intended to serve as a practical guide to the MBA program and…

  3. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  4. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget preparation. 917.8 Section 917.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget...

  5. Reading a District Budget: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Every school budget tells a story--about a district's spending plan, its priorities, goals, and financial health. The challenge is to wade through the jargon and numbers to unlock that story. Although budgets can vary significantly from district to district, and state to state, this primer seeks to introduce reporters to the fundamental components…

  6. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  7. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  8. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  9. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  10. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  11. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant...

  12. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  13. Setting National Priorities: The 1974 Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Edward R.; And Others

    This book attempts to make the problem of budgetary choice at the federal level more intelligible by classifying, analyzing, and projecting into the future the components of the budget in a way which makes it possible to put together several comprehensive alternative budgets, each illustrating from a different view how the Federal Government could…

  14. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  15. Dealing with Budget Cuts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Virtually every school district in the country is dealing with the need to reduce their budget. The process used to make those decisions varies from state to state but almost always includes a combination of short and long-term approaches. In many school districts the emphasis is on reducing individual budget line items and not filling vacant…

  16. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  17. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  18. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  19. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  20. Understanding the Recent Methane Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhwiler, L.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Masarie, K.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources are thought to account for roughly 2/3 of the global atmospheric methane budget, with natural sources making up the other 1/3. Emissions from wetlands are the largest contribution from natural sources while agriculture (rice and ruminants) and waste dominate anthropogenic emissions. Fugitive emissions from fossil fuel extraction are thought to make up about 20% of the global atmospheric methane budget. It is generally recognized that observed inter-annual variability in global network observations can be attributed to natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning, while longer-term trends likely indicate changes in anthropogenic sources. Exceptions include an abrupt decrease in fossil fuel emissions in the early 1990s associated with political changes in the Former Soviet Union, and long-term trends in emissions from the Arctic due to a warming climate. The growth rate of global average atmospheric methane since the 1980s shows a steady decline until recent years when it started to increase again. Superimposed on these trends are episodes of higher growth rates. The cause of the recent increase is not currently well-understood, although climate-driven increases in wetland emissions likely played an important role, especially in the tropics. Recent increases in anthropogenic emissions, especially from rapidly expanding Asian economies cannot be ruled out. In addition, trends in the photochemical lifetime of methane must also be considered. In this paper we use both traditional data analysis of observations of methane and related species, and a state-of-the-art ensemble data assimilation system (CarbonTracker-CH4) to attribute methane variability and trends to anthropogenic and natural source processes. We pay particular attention to the Arctic, where some recent years have been the warmest on record, and to the tropics and the potential role of ENSO in driving variability of wetland emissions. Finally, we explore whether a signal in

  1. In Congress NOAA budget set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In late November, President Ronald Reagan signed into law the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) budget, which is part of the appropriations bill for the Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and related agencies; at the same time, he also signed into law an amendment attached to that bill that prohibits the sale of the weather satellites (Eos, May 17, 1983, p. 377, and March 22, 1983, p. 113). Commercialization of the land remote sensing satellite system is still being considered, however.As a result of the conference between the House of Representatives and the Senate appropriations committees, the appropriation for NOAA totals $1020.6 million, with a program level of $1073.1 million. The appropriation is the money that comes from the federal treasury; the program level represents all of the funds—including treasury funds, transfers, residuals, etc.—actually available for the program. Strictly in terms of dollars, the total fiscal 1984 NOAA appropriation is almost level with the fiscal 1983 appropriation of $1000.9 million. In fiscal 1984, NOAA's research core, called Operations, Research, and Facilities (ORF), receives an appropriation of $988.2 million, with a program level of $1014.8 million

  2. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  3. Preparing to introduce personal health budgets.

    PubMed

    Porter, Zoe; Simpson, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    A large-scale study ( Forder et al 2012 ) piloting personal health budgets for people with long-term conditions found that they improved patients' quality of life and psychological wellbeing. They were cost-effective and reduced the use of other healthcare services. From April next year, people receiving NHS continuing healthcare funding will have the right to ask for personal health budgets. Some clinical commissioning groups are also introducing them for mental health service users and patients with other long-term conditions. This article outlines the benefits and challenges of introducing personal health budgets, and suggests how nursing managers can begin to consider their role in implementing them.

  4. Radiation budget measurement/model interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Ciesielski, P.; Randel, D.; Stevens, D.

    1983-01-01

    This final report includes research results from the period February, 1981 through November, 1982. Two new results combine to form the final portion of this work. They are the work by Hanna (1982) and Stevens to successfully test and demonstrate a low-order spectral climate model and the work by Ciesielski et al. (1983) to combine and test the new radiation budget results from NIMBUS-7 with earlier satellite measurements. Together, the two related activities set the stage for future research on radiation budget measurement/model interfacing. Such combination of results will lead to new applications of satellite data to climate problems. The objectives of this research under the present contract are therefore satisfied. Additional research reported herein includes the compilation and documentation of the radiation budget data set a Colorado State University and the definition of climate-related experiments suggested after lengthy analysis of the satellite radiation budget experiments.

  5. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  6. Fiscal 1982 Budget highlights R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Geophysical research and development programs show growth beyond inflation in the $739.3 billion budget for fiscal 1982 that Jimmy Carter sent to Congress 5 days before completing his term. Included in the budget are provisions for increased support for the Ocean Margin Drilling Program and funds for an interagency Geological Applications Program, funds for an agriculture and resource surveys program that relies on remote sensing, and funds for the Venus Orbiting Imaging Radar mission.Ronald Reagan is expected to make changes in the budget as early as late February, although in mid January the heads of the scientific agencies could not characterize possible changes. Some Washingtonians say sharp cuts are inevitable, with basic research a prime candidate. Others, however, contend that the Reagan administration's push for productivity and innovation could prevent severe carving. Eos will track the FY 1982 budget changes through congressional approval.

  7. Teaching Home Economics on a Low Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Describes how a home economics teacher developed a low budget home economics program for elementary students aged six to twelve. Includes class activities in clothing construction, baby care, foods and nutrition, crafts, and shopping. (EM)

  8. Excerpts from President Bush's Budget Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Excerpts from George Bush's fiscal 1990 federal budget documents include a summary of principles underlying his education policy and initiatives and statements on alternative certification for teachers and principals and on historically Black colleges and universities. (MSE)

  9. Clinton Administration announces FY 2001 budget request

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Blessed with a strong US. economy the Clinton Administration on February 7 released a fiscal year 2001 federal budget request totaling a whopping $1,835 billion. Most of the funding request is slated for big ticket items including Social Security defense spending, Medicaid, Medicare, and paying down the federal debt. However, within the 19% of the budget that funds non-defense discretionary programs,science agencies receive fairly healthy increases.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request would increase NSF funding by 17.3% $675 million and bring the total budget request to $4.6 billion. This includes significant increases for several initiatives: biocomplexity in the environment, information technology research, nanoscale science and engineering, and 21st century workforce. Among the major Earth science projects are launching the Earthscope initiative which includes the US Array and San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON).

  10. Biogeochemistry: Rebalancing the global methane budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Grant

    2016-10-01

    A database of the carbon-isotope 'fingerprints' of methane has been used to constrain the contributions of different sources to the global methane budget. The surprising results have implications for climate prediction. See Letter p.88

  11. Earth radiation budget experiment software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Computer programming and analysis efforts were carried out in support of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) at NASA/Langley. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment is described as well as data acquisition, analysis and modeling support for the testing of ERBE instruments. Also included are descriptions of the programs developed to analyze, format and display data collected during testing of the various ERBE instruments. Listings of the major programs developed under this contract are located in an appendix.

  12. Reagan's budget slashes geophysics R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    When President Ronald Reagan outlined to a joint session of Congress his proposed revisions to the Carter fiscal 1982 budget (Eos, February 10, p. 49), Congress responded with 13 bursts of applause and one standing ovation. Geophysicists, however, may not greet the budget pruning with equal fanfare. Reagan's across-the-board cuts include proposals for slashing research and development funds. Among those hardest hit are NASA, NOAA, and NSF.

  13. Budgeting, funding, and managing clinical research projects.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Elizabeth; Dicks, Elizabeth; Parfrey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. Sources of funding are identified; budget development, justification, reporting, financial governance, and accountability are described; in addition to the creation and management of the multidisciplinary team that will implement the research plan. PMID:19160746

  14. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment - Preliminary seasonal results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and from the operational NOAA-9 satellite being placed in the archive of the earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) are discussed. The results of the ERBE data validation effort are reviewed along with ERBE solar constant observations and earth-viewing results. The latter include monthly average results for July 1985, annual average clear-sky fluxes, and annual average, zonal, and global results.

  15. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  16. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  17. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  18. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  19. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  20. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  1. A Primer on the Budget Resolution's Impact on Education Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The budget resolution put forward by Congress each year--which sets out the congressional budget plan for the next five years--and the ensuing budget process itself are enormously significant for education funding. However, the arcane procedures under which Congress produces and acts upon the budget resolution are often confusing to the media and…

  2. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  3. What Is Your Budget Saying about Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Leslie; Strouse, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses budgeting for corporate libraries and how to keep budgets from getting cut. Topics include whether the budget is considered corporate overhead; recovering costs; models for content cost recovery; showing return on library investment; marketing library value to senior management; user needs and satisfaction; and comparing budgets to other…

  4. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  5. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  6. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  7. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  8. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  9. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  10. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  11. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  12. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  13. 40 CFR 96.25 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 96.25... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.25 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating...

  14. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24 NOX Budget permit revisions. (a) For a NOX Budget source with a title V operating permit, except as...

  15. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  16. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  17. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  18. 45 CFR 233.31 - Budgeting methods for AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Budgeting methods for AFDC. 233.31 Section 233.31... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.31 Budgeting methods for AFDC. (a) Requirements for State... report for the month designated as the budget month under the State's retrospective budgeting...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the mobile emissions budget contained in the maintenance plan for the horizon years 2015 and beyond adopted..., 1996. (b) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Richmond maintenance area adjusting the...

  20. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the mobile emissions budget contained in the maintenance plan for the horizon years 2015 and beyond adopted..., 1996. (b) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Richmond maintenance area adjusting the...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting the mobile emissions budget contained in the maintenance plan for the horizon years 2015 and beyond adopted..., 1996. (b) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Richmond maintenance area adjusting the...

  2. Responsibility-Centred Budgeting: An Emerging Trend in Higher Education Budget Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierdt, Ginger LuAnne

    2009-01-01

    Higher education institutions in the United States are entering a new era in budgeting. Therefore, institutions are actively engaging in dialogues about the budgeting tools that will most effectively assist them in achieving institutional goals and objectives within their strategic plans and being accountable for the use of scarce resources, as…

  3. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  4. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  5. Key Questions on the Obama Administration's 2013 Education Budget Request: Federal Education Budget Project. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    President Barack Obama submitted his third budget request to Congress on February 13th, 2012. The budget request includes proposed funding levels for all federal programs and agencies in aggregate for the upcoming 10 fiscal years, and specific fiscal year 2013 funding levels for programs subject to the annual appropriations process. It is…

  6. Proposed FY 2001 Budget Overview: Ryan Administration's Second Budget Request Introduces Funding Preferences. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matakis, Brian

    This special report discusses the budget allocations of the proposed Illinois Fiscal Year (FY) 2001 budget. The report highlights two critical issues with far-reaching implications: the use of tobacco settlement monies and phased-in tax relief measures. The report describes steady growth across most agency-level appropriations, with the Department…

  7. Toward the Improvement of the Budgeting Process and Policy Realization Through Zero-Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myroon, John L.

    Zero-base budgeting (ZBB), a systematically structured approach to budgeting, has the potential to improve policy attainment, resource reallocation, program review, and information systems. Some 300 businesses, a dozen states, one municipality, and one school district in the United States have operationalized the concept. Many private and public…

  8. Budget Cuts: Financial Aid Offices Face Budget Cuts and Increasing Workload. Quick Scan Survey Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The majority of college financial aid offices have seen cuts to their operating budgets this year compared to the 2007-08 academic year when the recession began, according to the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrator's latest QuickScan Survey. Sixty-two percent of financial aid offices reported operating budget cuts this year…

  9. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  10. New budget highlights coordinated science ventures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo; Ireton, M. Frank Watt

    1992-02-01

    Five presidential initiatives highlighted in the new federal budget proposal reflect the growing role of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology in setting the nation's science funding agenda. “This marks the greatest involvement of FCCSET to date in shaping federal R&D spending,” said D. Allan Bromley, the president's science advisor, when the fiscal year 1993 budget was released.FCCSET committees drawn from various federal agencies developed interagency budget programs in five areas this year: High Performance Computing and Communications, Advanced Materials and Processing, Biotechnology Research, Global Change Research, and Mathematics and Science Education. All the programs have long-range goals, and some are interrelated. Three of these initiatives are discussed here.

  11. Budget for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The major projects have been directed to schedule work activities with Primavera (P3). Previously, project budgets were developed and resourced within the P3 Primavera scheduling system, the PX scheduling system and other spreadsheet tools. These budgets for the execution year were then loaded manually into the system and other spreadsheet tools. These budgets for the execution year were then loaded manually into the Financial Data System. The closing process currently consists of the running of a preliminary close on the first working day following the last day of the fiscal month. The year end close is run with several preliminary closes prior to fiscal year end with a hard close predicated on receipt of a final obligation letter from DOE.

  12. Water Budget of East Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shade, Patricia J.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-water recharge is estimated from six monthly water budgets calculated using long-term average rainfall and streamflow data, estimated pan-evaporation and fog-drip data, and soil characteristics. The water-budget components are defined seasonally, through the use of monthly data, and spatially by broad climatic and geohydrologic areas, through the use of a geographic information system model. The long-term average water budget for east Maui was estimated for natural land-use conditions. The average rainfall, fog-drip, runoff, evapotranspiration, and ground-water recharge volumes for the east Maui study area are 2,246 Mgal/d, 323 Mgal/d, 771 Mgal/d, 735 Mgal/d, and 1,064 Mgal/d, respectively.

  13. Earth radiation budget experiment and smart sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. R.; Kibler, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the data analysis requirements for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment and potential needs for a follow-on radiation budget system. The present requirements for determining the earth's radiation budget on scales from 250 by 250-km regions to global require two broadband measurements on each of three satellites. The instrument system is composed of wide- and medium-field-of-view radiometers and a narrow-field-of-view scanning radiometer. Modeled directional functions are required to interpret the data in terms of earth radiation fluxes. Meeting more stringent science requirements for a follow-on mission will require nine broadband channels with increased spatial and temporal sampling, resulting in six satellites and a fourfold increase in data transmission rates and ground-based data storage. Smart sensors can reduce the data and ground storage requirements by orders of magnitude with onboard processing, calibration, and attitude and ephemeris determination.

  14. Spatial energy budgets in alpine tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenland, D.

    1993-12-01

    Modelling and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology are employed in order to extend spatially, estimated and observed growing season values of the components of the surface heat energy budget for an area of alpine tundra in the Colorado Front Range. A surface equilibrium temperature model is calibrated for one sub-class of vegetation surface and is used to model surface heat energy budget component values for other sub-classes of vegetation. The model values compare favorably with values independently estimated or observed. The data are spatially displayed using the Idrisi GIS. At the microclimatic scale the presence of different sub-classes of vegetation plays a large role in controlling the actual values of the surface heat budget components. This is in contrast to the larger scale at which climatic variables such as air temperature control the overall vegetation type found in the area.

  15. Tough budget year ahead, says NASA's Fisk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    1992-02-01

    Lennard Fisk, head of NASA's space science and applications division, painted a bleak picture for space scientists on February 14 as the Bush administration's fiscal 1993 budget headed to Congress. Speaking at the annual meeting of the Space Science Working Group in Washington, D.C., Fisk said “It's going to take a miracle to get the $2,985 billion request” for space science in this year's NASA budget.Fisk held out no hope that programs already cut from the budget, such as the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission, would be reinstated. The CRAF cancellation was “a $50 million issue in fiscal 1993,” said Fisk, “and it was $50 million that simply wasn't there.” His office “was under enormous pressure to take something off the plate,” he said.

  16. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Smith, G. Louis; Green, Richard N.; Kibler, James F.; Cess, Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 4 years, data from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) have been undergoing detailed examination. There is no direct source of groundtruth for the radiation budget. Thus, this validation effort has had to rely heavily upon intercomparisons between different types of measurements. The ERBE SCIENCE Team chose 10 measures of agreement as validation criteria. Late in August 1988, the Team agreed that the data met these conditions. As a result, the final, monthly averaged data products are being archived. These products, their validation, and some results for January 1986 are described. Information is provided on obtaining the data from the archive.

  17. Budgeted phylogenetic diversity on circular split systems.

    PubMed

    Minh, Bui Quang; Pardi, Fabio; Klaere, Steffen; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) has gained interest in the community of conservation biologists as a surrogate measure for assessing biodiversity. We have recently proposed two approaches to select taxa for maximizing PD, namely PD with budget constraints and PD on split systems. In this paper, we will unify these two strategies and present a dynamic programming algorithm to solve the unified framework of selecting taxa with maximal PD under budget constraints on circular split systems. An improved algorithm will also be given if the underlying split system is a tree.

  18. FY 1988 Budget: A brief look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Research funding fared relatively well in the abbreviated budget proposal for fiscal year (FY) 1988 that was submitted to Congress by the Reagan administration on January 5, 1987. Under the plan, funding of civilian basic research is proposed to increase by 4.5% over the FY 1987 level. This budget proposal, the first ever to top the $1-trillion mark, was released 1 month earlier than past proposals, in compliance with the new timetable established by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit control legislation passed in 1985. Because of the earlier deadline, the proposal was presented in abbreviated form, with a promise that more details will be made available in late January.

  19. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment - Preliminary seasonal results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1990-01-01

    Over the previous four years the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments have been gathering data on two satellites, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the the operational NOAA-9 satellite. The ERBE science team recently completed the validation of an initial sampling of these data involving intensive examination of data in four months during 1985 and 1986. The data being placed in the National Space Science Data Center to acquaint the scientific community with their availability are discussed. The ERBE archival data products are also presented.

  20. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion.

  1. [The department budget, in the context of the hospital global budget. Initial results in general medicine].

    PubMed

    Besançon, F

    1984-02-23

    In a general hospital (Hôtel-Dieu, in the center of Paris), run with a global budget, budgets determined for each unit were introduced as an experiment in 1980. Physicians were in charge of certain expenses, mainly: linen, drugs, transportation of patients to and from other hospitals within Paris, and blood fractions. The whole does not exceed 4% of the turnover (FF 20 millions in 1980) of a 67 bed internal medicine unit. Other accounts deal with the stays, admissions, prescriptions of technical acts, laboratory analyses, and X-rays. In 1980, expenses were 11% more than budgeted, but the increase in stays and particularly in admissions was significantly greater. The resulting savings were 8.8% and 18.7% for stays and admissions respectively. Psychic reactions were variable. The subsequent budgets followed the fluctuations of recorded expenses, which were fairly important in both directions. The unit budget may be an advance or a regression, in a restrictive and past-perpetuating context. The coherence between the unit budget and the global hospital budget is questionable. Physicians were willing to take part in accounting and saving. They have good reason for not enlarging their financial responsibilities. Conversely, they may give more attention to diseases of public opinion. PMID:6324373

  2. Radiative Energy Budget Studies Using Observations from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, R.; Shie, M.; Olson, R.; Collimore, C.; Friedman, M.

    1997-01-01

    Our research activities under this NASA grant have focused on two broad topics associated with the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE): (1) the role of clouds and the surface in modifying the radiative balance; and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of the earth's radiation budget. Each of these broad topics is discussed separately in the text that follows. The major points of the thesis are summarized in section 3 of this report. Other dissertation focuses on deriving the radiation budget over the TOGA COARE region.

  3. Allocating the Book Budget: A Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Joseph D.

    1974-01-01

    Inflation is currently affecting library book budgets, particularly the acquisition of serials. This model would balance the purchase of serials against the purchase of monographs by individual funding units within the academic library. Consideration is given to inflation as a cost factor. The model is applied to a specific example. (Author/LS)

  4. Program Budgeting Model for Small Research Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Edward K.

    Where research activities operate under "fixed" budgetary and resource conditions, allocations of funds must be carefully planned for effective program implementation. Although relatively little information is available on how small research units could use the principles of programed budgeting, a technique for ascertaining program operating costs…

  5. Kinetic energy budgets in areas of convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Synoptic scale budgets of kinetic energy are computed using 3 and 6 h data from three of NASA's Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE's). Numerous areas of intense convection occurred during the three experiments. Large kinetic energy variability, with periods as short as 6 h, is observed in budgets computed over each entire experiment area and over limited volumes that barely enclose the convection and move with it. Kinetic energy generation and transport processes in the smaller volumes are often a maximum when the enclosed storms are near peak intensity, but the nature of the various energy processes differs between storm cases and seems closely related to the synoptic conditions. A commonly observed energy budget for peak storm intensity indicates that generation of kinetic energy by cross-contour flow is the major energy source while dissipation to subgrid scales is the major sink. Synoptic scale vertical motion transports kinetic energy from lower to upper levels of the atmosphere while low-level horizontal flux convergence and upper-level horizontal divergence also occur. Spatial fields of the energy budget terms show that the storm environment is a major center of energy activity for the entire area.

  6. More Students + Budget Cuts = Tough Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, student enrollment is exploding, while budgets are being slashed to the bone. A March 2010 report by the League for Innovation and the Campus Computing Project says it all: "Still Doing More With Less." In a survey of 128 community college campus presidents and district chancellors for the report, 94 percent of respondents said…

  7. Your Money: Budget, Banking, Credit, Taxes, & Insurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Liz

    Information and accompanying exercises in this learning module are provided to reinforce basic reading, spelling, writing, and math skills while at the same time introducing the fundamentals of personal money management. Written at an elementary level, the module covers five areas of personal finance: (1) planning a household budget on the basis…

  8. Eight Budget-Stretching Renovation Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides eight tips on how to save money during school district renovation when budgets are tight. Suggestions discussed include the use of volunteers for some basic work, offering summer maintenance positions to existing employees, adding an energy monitoring system, replacing older heating and lighting systems, and renting classroom space during…

  9. Developing guidance for budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Trueman, P; Drummond, M; Hutton, J

    2001-01-01

    The role of economic evaluation in the efficient allocation of healthcare resources has been widely debated. Whilst economic evidence is undoubtedly useful to purchasers, it does not address the issue of affordability which is an increasing concern. Healthcare purchasers are concerned not just with maximising efficiency but also with the more simplistic goal of remaining within their annual budgets. These two objectives are not necessarily consistent. This paper examines the issue of affordability, the relationship between affordability and efficiency and builds the case for why there is a growing need for budget impact models to complement economic evaluation. Guidance currently available for such models is also examined and it is concluded that this guidance is currently insufficient. Some of these insufficiencies are addressed and some thoughts on what constitutes best practice in budget impact modelling are suggested. These suggestions include consideration of transparency, clarity of perspective, reliability of data sources, the relationship between intermediate and final end-points and rates of adoption of new therapies. They also include the impact of intervention by population subgroups or indications, reporting of results, probability of re-deploying resources, the time horizon, exploring uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and decision-maker access to the model. Due to the nature of budget impact models, the paper does not deliver stringent methodological guidance on modelling. The intention was to provide some suggestions of best practice in addition to some foundations upon which future research can build. PMID:11456210

  10. School Attendance and the District Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joubert-Guillory, Julie

    2009-01-01

    House Bill 1 became a major piece of legislation in Texas a few years ago. It was designed primarily to address public school finance, property tax relief, public school accountability, and education-related matters. This piece of legislation has forced districts to manage their finances very differently, undergo budget reductions, and continue…

  11. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations under title I of the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978 shall be...

  12. 25 CFR 41.12 - Annual budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY COLLEGE Tribally Controlled Community Colleges § 41.12 Annual budget. Appropriations under title I of the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act of 1978 shall be...

  13. Don't Camouflage Budget Cuts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Nicholas M.

    1982-01-01

    Instead of shielding the public from the effects of budget cuts by making small across-the-board cuts on many programs, school administrators should slash whole programs. This will maintain the system's overall educational effectiveness while making clear the consequences of the public's political actions. (Author/RW)

  14. In Congress Budget Update for NOAA, USGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Among the agenda items facing Congress as it reconvenes this week are the fiscal 1984 budgets for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which is part of the Department of Commerce, and for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which is within the Department of the Interior. Fiscal year 1984 begins October 1, 1983. As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.Both House and Senate appropriations committees have finished their work on the NOAA budget, which had been targeted by President Ronald Reagan for a $799.8 million appropriation request (program level of $843.2 million) in his proposed fiscal 1984 budget (Eos, February 15, 1983, p. 65). The House appropriation for NOAA (H.R. 3134 and H.R. 3222) is $998.5 million, with a program level of $1043.9 million. The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation (S. 1721) at $987.8 million, with a program level of $1041.0 million.

  15. Budget Pain Dampening K-12 Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Governors and state lawmakers are poised to kick off their toughest legislative sessions in years, with the hope of sparing K-12 education from deep budget cuts in the face of mounting deficits--a far cry from the more typical push for new policy initiatives and school programs. Simply holding the line may prove difficult. Together, 31 states face…

  16. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  17. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  18. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  19. New law to cut 1986 budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are among the agencies whose budgets are likely to be cut 4.3% on March 1, 1986, when the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 makes its first impact.Under the law, the cuts will be implemented across the board by an order from the president. Unless Congress passes legislation to make its own cuts sometime between now and March 1, these cuts will automatically take an equal percentage from every nondefense program, project, and activity not protected from “sequestration” of funds and will automatically take a slightly higher percentage from the unprotected portions of the defense budget. Individual agencies could circumvent the across-the-board cuts by formulating their own plans to distribute their share of the reductions; however, these plans would need congressional approval. These cuts will affect budgets for the federal government in fiscal year (FY) 1986, which began on October 1, 1985. Unless revenues increase substantially, additional and mone severe belt-tightening is in store for FY 1987 and beyond.

  20. Collegiate Connections: Music Education Budget Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaton, Emily Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Due to the current recession, the American economy within the last few years has taken a nosedive, making it difficult for national, state, and local governments to support all the programs they currently have in place. There are difficult choices that need to be made about where to make sacrifices in their budgets so things can still run…

  1. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  2. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  3. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  4. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  5. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  6. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  7. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  8. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  9. 7 CFR 955.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 955.41 Section 955.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Expenses...

  10. 7 CFR 956.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 956.41 Section 956.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA...

  11. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and the deployment of low-carbon technology. Here, we show typical values for these indicators for different carbon budgets, using the recently compiled IPCC scenario database, and discuss how these vary as a function of non-CO2 forcing, energy use and policy delay. For carbon budgets of 2000 GtCO2 and less over the 2010–2100 period, supply of low carbon technologies needs to be scaled up massively from today’s levels, unless energy use is relatively low. For the subgroup of scenarios with a budget below 1000 GtCO2 (consistent with >66% chance of limiting global warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels), the 2050 contribution of low-carbon technologies is generally around 50%–75%, compared to less than 20% today (range refers to the 10–90th interval of available data).

  12. Uncertainty propagation in an ecosystem nutrient budget.

    PubMed

    Lehrter, John C; Cebrian, Just

    2010-03-01

    New aspects and advancements in classical uncertainty propagation methods were used to develop a nutrient budget with associated uncertainty for a northern Gulf of Mexico coastal embayment. Uncertainty was calculated for budget terms by propagating the standard error and degrees of freedom. New aspects include the combined use of Monte Carlo simulations with classical error propagation methods, uncertainty analyses for GIS computations, and uncertainty propagation involving literature and subjective estimates of terms used in the budget calculations. The methods employed are broadly applicable to the mathematical operations employed in ecological studies involving step-by-step calculations, scaling procedures, and calculations of variables from direct measurements and/or literature estimates. Propagation of the standard error and the degrees of freedom allowed for calculation of the uncertainty intervals around every term in the budget. For scientists and environmental managers, the methods developed herein provide a relatively simple framework to propagate and assess the contributions of uncertainty in directly measured and literature estimated variables to calculated variables. Application of these methods to environmental data used in scientific reporting and environmental management will improve the interpretation of data and simplify the estimation of risk associated with decisions based on ecological studies.

  13. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  14. Education Budget Plan Wielded as Policy Lever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed $49.7 billion budget for the U.S. Department of Education is more than just a spending blueprint: Department officials portray it as a fundamental reimagining of the agency's structure and management. Under the fiscal 2011 proposal unveiled last week, a roster of 38 relatively small, targeted grant programs would…

  15. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  16. Beyond Budgets: Changing for the Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Better budgeting, better forecasting, and new revenue sources will not eliminate the strains on postsecondary education today. Forces driving this situation include the trend toward part-time and lower-division learners, low graduation rates of low-income students, and failure to meet student needs. Development of "adult-friendly" colleges and…

  17. Budget Eliminates Emergency Grants; Districts Regroup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    Emergency training programs aimed to prepare schools for events like Columbine are losing their funding amid budget cuts. "Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools" grants from the federal office of safe and drug-free schools, has evaporated. After paying for hundreds of school districts to prepare for a Columbine-like event, the roughly…

  18. Bush Budget Would Boost NCLB Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that President Bush's fiscal 2008 budget request for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is being criticized by two key congressional Democrats as they believe that the plan falls short of what schools need to get on track to meet the measure's ambitious achievement goals. Rep. George Miller, D-Calif., and Sen. Edward…

  19. How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jane

    This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social…

  20. Carbon budgets and energy transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vuuren, Detlef P.; van Soest, Heleen; Riahi, Keywan; Clarke, Leon; Krey, Volker; Kriegler, Elmar; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Tavoni, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Scenarios from integrated assessment models can provide insights into how carbon budgets relate to other policy-relevant indicators by including information on how fast and by how much emissions can be reduced. Such indicators include the peak year of global emissions, the decarbonisation rate and the deployment of low-carbon technology. Here, we show typical values for these indicators for different carbon budgets, using the recently compiled IPCC scenario database, and discuss how these vary as a function of non-CO2 forcing, energy use and policy delay. For carbon budgets of 2000 GtCO2 and less over the 2010-2100 period, supply of low carbon technologies needs to be scaled up massively from today’s levels, unless energy use is relatively low. For the subgroup of scenarios with a budget below 1000 GtCO2 (consistent with >66% chance of limiting global warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels), the 2050 contribution of low-carbon technologies is generally around 50%-75%, compared to less than 20% today (range refers to the 10-90th interval of available data).

  1. Differences between carbon budget estimates unravelled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan P.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Riahi, Keywan; Allen, Myles; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    Several methods exist to estimate the cumulative carbon emissions that would keep global warming to below a given temperature limit. Here we review estimates reported by the IPCC and the recent literature, and discuss the reasons underlying their differences. The most scientifically robust number -- the carbon budget for CO2-induced warming only -- is also the least relevant for real-world policy. Including all greenhouse gases and using methods based on scenarios that avoid instead of exceed a given temperature limit results in lower carbon budgets. For a >66% chance of limiting warming below the internationally agreed temperature limit of 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels, the most appropriate carbon budget estimate is 590-1,240 GtCO2 from 2015 onwards. Variations within this range depend on the probability of staying below 2 °C and on end-of-century non-CO2 warming. Current CO2 emissions are about 40 GtCO2 yr-1, and global CO2 emissions thus have to be reduced urgently to keep within a 2 °C-compatible budget.

  2. Lawmakers seek end to budget stalemate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    On March 15, President Bill Clinton signed into law the tenth short-term spending measure of the now-sixmonth-old 1996 fiscal year (FY'96), funding the federal government through March 22. At the same time, budget negotiators from both the Republican and Democratic parties scurried to put the finishing touches on a $166 billion-omnibus appropriations bill, H.R. 3019, to pay the government's bills for the rest of the fiscal year.As of March 21, parts of a dozen federal cabinet-level departments and agencies still did not have a definitive budget allocation for FY'96. Nearly all national science research and development programs, agencies, and departments remained tied up by that budget struggle, though very little of the debate has anything to do with those programs (Eos, February 20). H.R. 3019 is designed to end the string of short-term spending measures and to fund all federal departments for the remaining six months of the fiscal year. Congressional leaders hoped to have the bill passed by March 22, though many representatives anticipated that at least one more short-term spending resolution would have to be passed before budget negotiations with the President could be completed.

  3. Alternate Budgetary Sources during Budget Rescissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keppler, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes revenue-generating and cost-saving strategies that student affairs divisions may consider during periods of budget rescissions and categorizes them according to the decision-making entities involved in each. The chapter also explains why particular examples are well suited to individual institutions.

  4. States' Budgets Reflect Rising Tax Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Many state budgets are reaping the benefits of tax revenues that are rising faster than at any time since the economic slowdown ended. Overall tax collections by states rose by 11.7 percent in the first quarter of 2005, giving the legislatures extra cash to shore up school aid, increase teacher pay, and finance new initiatives such as full-day…

  5. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  6. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  7. Keeping Schools Safe during Tight Budget Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Tight budgets are no excuse for failing to be proactive with school safety. In fact, school leaders must be especially committed to prevention and security programs during times when economic woes are increasing stress on kids, their families and school staff. Parents will forgive educators if their school's test scores drop. But they are much…

  8. School District Budgeting and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckbuchler, Scott Alan

    2009-01-01

    Public education is the cornerstone of a working, progressive, democratic society. Therefore, it matters where education dollars are spent. Budgeting decisions take on added significance in light of fulfilling the objectives of the No Child Left Behind Act, which is characterized as the most far-reaching piece of education legislation in decades.…

  9. President's Budget Would Cut Education Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's budget cut on education spending. The president's blueprint for federal education spending in the next fiscal year includes a high-profile plan to boost math and science education, new money for private school vouchers, a renewed push to improve high schools--and the most drastic cut in Department of…

  10. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... business community from the proposed travel. A specific projected amount, based on the SBDC's...

  11. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT... business community from the proposed travel. A specific projected amount, based on the SBDC's...

  12. Higher Education in California: Performance Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick; Cook, Kevin; Johnson, Hans; Weston, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    As California begins to reinvest in public higher education after several years of budget cuts, it could opt to tie funding more closely with outcomes--for example, the number of students educated or degrees awarded. This approach, known as performance-based funding, has the potential to incentivize investment by the state's higher education…

  13. The Difference Between Conventional Budgeting and PPB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturtz, Charles

    The architects of public resource allocation systems have put forth Planning Programming Budgeting Systems (PPBS) as a more rational method of managing the Federal establishment because PPBS allows identification of governmental objectives and reduces the opportunity for perpetuation of an enterprise which may no longer be necessary. Advantages of…

  14. Proposed NIH Budget Includes Mandatory Funding.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    President Obama has proposed an overall budget increase of $825 million for the NIH in fiscal year 2017 compared with 2016. That money would be reserved for three efforts: the NCI's "moonshot" initiative, the Precision Medicine Initiative cohort program, and the BRAIN program. PMID:26984350

  15. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  16. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  17. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  18. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  19. 7 CFR 966.41 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget. 966.41 Section 966.41 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order...

  20. Budget Philosophy 101: Encouraging Utility Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that nearly all college and university business and facilities officers can find utility efficiency projects on campus that have at least a 20 percent rate of return on investment, and successfully incorporate them into budgets. These projects are generally more successful when plant operations can retain some or all of the…

  1. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  2. 42 CFR 457.140 - Budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES Introduction; State Plans for Child Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.140 Budget. The State plan, or plan... administrative costs, such as outreach, child health initiatives, and evaluation; and (3) Assumptions on...

  3. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, Ken; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Global Energy and Water Budgets in MERRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Chen, Junye

    2010-01-01

    Reanalyses, retrospectively analyzing observations over climatological time scales, represent a merger between satellite observations and models to provide globally continuous data and have improved over several generations. Balancing the Earth s global water and energy budgets has been a focus of research for more than two decades. Models tend to their own climate while remotely sensed observations have had varying degrees of uncertainty. This study evaluates the latest NASA reanalysis, called the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), from a global water and energy cycles perspective. MERRA was configured to provide complete budgets in its output diagnostics, including the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU), the term that represents the observations influence on the analyzed states, alongside the physical flux terms. Precipitation in reanalyses is typically sensitive to the observational analysis. For MERRA, the global mean precipitation bias and spatial variability are more comparable to merged satellite observations (GPCP and CMAP) than previous generations of reanalyses. Ocean evaporation also has a much lower value which is comparable to observed data sets. The global energy budget shows that MERRA cloud effects may be generally weak, leading to excess shortwave radiation reaching the ocean surface. Evaluating the MERRA time series of budget terms, a significant change occurs, which does not appear to be represented in observations. In 1999, the global analysis increments of water vapor changes sign from negative to positive, and primarily lead to more oceanic precipitation. This change is coincident with the beginning of AMSU radiance assimilation. Previous and current reanalyses all exhibit some sensitivity to perturbations in the observation record, and this remains a significant research topic for reanalysis development. The effect of the changing observing system is evaluated for MERRA water and energy budget terms.

  5. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014 (tons) State trading budget for 2015 and thereafter (tons) Alabama 32,182 26,818 Arkansas 11,515...

  6. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allocations of CAIR NOX allowances for the control periods in 2009 through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014 (tons) State trading budget for 2015...

  7. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allocations of CAIR NOX allowances for the control periods in 2009 through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014 (tons) State trading budget for 2015...

  8. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowances for the control periods in 2009 through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014 (tons) State trading budget for 2015 and...

  9. 40 CFR 97.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014 (tons) State trading budget for 2015 and thereafter (tons) Alabama 32,182 26,818 Arkansas 11,515...

  10. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for the control periods in 2009 through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014 (tons) State trading budget for 2015 and...

  11. National Science Foundation proposed budget could see another increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    President Barack Obama's proposed budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 would provide the agency with $7.37 billion, a $340 million increase, 4.8% above the FY 2012 estimated budget under which NSF has been operating. NSF has fared well during previous budget cycles, and the Obama administration's budget document for FY 2013 states that “NSF plays a critical role in the implementation of the President's Plan for Science and Technology.” With federal agencies operating under tighter budgets in a difficult financial climate, NSF director Subra Suresh said the budget includes substantial increases for core programs, frontier science, education, and human resources. “I am confident that NSF merits the $7.4 billion the president proposed. I'm optimistic Congress will approve the budget,” Suresh said at a 13 February NSF budget briefing.

  12. Budgeting--A Management Approach for the '80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodel, Ross A.

    1980-01-01

    Zero-base budgeting is a management tool that provides a system that is responsive to change, incorporates sound principles of management, satisfies the need to effectively shift resources, and does not overload the budget staff. (Author/MLF)

  13. Developing Planning and Budgeting Strategies for Internal Recycling of Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozier, G. Gregory; Althouse, P. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Following six years of across-the-board internal budget reallocations, Penn State initiated a rolling five-year planning and budget process. It provides for more selective budgetary decisions based on careful analysis of university priorities. (Author/MLW)

  14. Improving hospital budgeting and accountability a best practice approach.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jonathan J

    2005-07-01

    Best practices in setting and managing healthcare organization budgets include: Using comparative benchmarks. Setting accurate, high-performance department budgets. Establishing a culture of accountability. Managing expenses. Monitoring variances and requiring corrective action plans. Employing a balanced scorecard. PMID:16060103

  15. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.40 Trading program budget. In accordance with §§ 97.41 and 97.42, the Administrator will allocate to the...

  16. University Library Book Budgets, 1860, 1910, and 1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danton, J. Periam

    1987-01-01

    Examination of whether annual book budgets have kept pace with demands compares academic library book budgets in Germany and the United States in the mid-20th century with budgets of earlier years, taking into account annual book and serial production; costs of books; and the number of courses, faculty, and students. (Author/CLB)

  17. Meritorious Budget Award: An Opportunity to Enhance Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Anne; Bishop, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic uncertainty, local budgets undergo increased scrutiny. School boards and district administrators must collaborate to ensure the highest standards of budget development, implementation, and oversight. Those charged with the fiscal management of school districts must gain the public's confidence in their budgeting abilities.…

  18. Managing Highway Maintenance: Budget Preparation, Unit 9, Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit describes the essential steps in developing a maintenance budget, or performance budget, based on the work to be done. It is designed for field engineers and supervisors who assist department officials in preparing work programs and budgets. The format is a programed, self-instructional…

  19. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adherence to original budget...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Adherence to original budget estimates....

  1. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates. (a) Although NASA assumes no responsibility for budget overruns, the recipient may spend grant funds without... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adherence to original budget...

  2. A Budget Primer and Worksheets for Proposal Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Craig E.

    The workbook for proposal writers treats budget writing as an integral part of the proposal-writing process rather than an afterthought. Working out the budget implications of the proposal as the idea evolves is encouraged. The workbook is designed to assist in developing budgets for federal grant programs. It consists of an introductory section…

  3. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program...

  4. Budget Update: June 3, 2010. Report 10-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On May 14, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger released the May Revision to the proposed budget for the current year (2009-10) and budget year (2010-11). State finances have continued a three-year decline, with anticipated General Fund spending of $83 billion, their lowest in six years. To address the budget shortfall, the Governor proposes major…

  5. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... planning data and models have been submitted and EPA has found the budgets to be adequate for conformity... conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated planning data and models have been submitted and... planning data and models have been submitted and EPA has found the budgets to be adequate for...

  6. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., plans, and projects designed to strengthen the position of the Hass avocado industry in the domestic... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budgets, programs, plans, and projects. 1219.50... Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.50 Budgets, programs, plans, and projects. (a) The...

  7. 7 CFR 1219.50 - Budgets, programs, plans, and projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., plans, and projects designed to strengthen the position of the Hass avocado industry in the domestic... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budgets, programs, plans, and projects. 1219.50... Order Budgets, Expenses, and Assessments § 1219.50 Budgets, programs, plans, and projects. (a) The...

  8. 5 CFR 1320.17 - Information collection budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information collection budget. 1320.17 Section 1320.17 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CONTROLLING PAPERWORK BURDENS ON THE PUBLIC § 1320.17 Information collection budget. Each agency's Senior Official,...

  9. Budgeting: The Basics and Beyond. Learn at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska-Cue, Kathy; Sugden, Marilyn

    Designed as an at-home course to help users develop a realistic budget plan and set up a workable record-keeping system, these course materials provide practical tips, ideas, and suggestions for budgeting. The course begins with a nine-step budgeting process which emphasizes communicating among family members, considering personal or family…

  10. 40 CFR 96.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 96.23 Section 96.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Permits § 96.23 NOX Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit (including any draft or...

  11. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23 Section 97.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Budget permit contents. (a) Each NOX Budget permit will contain, in a format prescribed by the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... attainment SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated... conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated planning data and models have been submitted and... maintenance SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on...

  13. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attainment SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated... conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated planning data and models have been submitted and... maintenance SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on...

  14. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... attainment SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated... conformity purposes only until new budgets based on updated planning data and models have been submitted and... maintenance SIPs will apply for transportation conformity purposes only until new budgets based on...

  15. 40 CFR 52.244 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52.244... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.244 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Approval of the motor vehicle emissions budgets for the following ozone rate-of-progress...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2424 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2424 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) Motor vehicle emissions budget for the Hampton Roads maintenance area adjusting...

  18. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of NOX emissions apportioned to the NOX Budget units under § 96.4 in the State for the control period... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program...

  19. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of NOX emissions apportioned to the NOX Budget units under § 96.4 in the State for the control period... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program...

  20. 7 CFR 1218.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed expenditures for each program, plan, or project; and (4... (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget shall provide adequate funds to defray its...

  1. 7 CFR 1212.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... comparative data or at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A summary of proposed... comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget). (b) Each budget...

  2. Estimated energy budget along drifting buoys trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Planton, S.; Caniaux, G.; Roquet, H.

    1994-12-31

    The heat budget of upper ocean is strongly constrained by ocean-atmosphere heat exchange. The energy surface fluxes are poorly determined by the classical empirical formulae. These determinations also need good quality atmospheric and surface observations which are sparse over the global ocean. Surface solar incoming radiation is now routinely retrieved from satellite observation with a satisfactory level of confidence. The calculation of satellite-derived infrared incoming radiation gives promising results when compared to direct observation at sea. A new method of determination of the last component of the energy budget which avoid a calculation through bulk formulae, has been experimented with oceanic data. It is applied here to drifting buoys measurements collected in 1992 and 1993 in the Azores region.

  3. Proposed NASA budget cuts planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-02-01

    President Barack Obama's fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget request for NASA would sharply cut planetary science while maintaining other science and exploration priorities. The total proposed FY 2013 budget for NASA is $17.7 billion, a slight decrease (0.33%) from the previous year (see Table 1). This includes $4.9 billion for the Science directorate, a decrease of about 3.2% from the previous year, and about $3.9 billion for the Human Exploration directorate, a n increase of about $200 million over FY 2012. The latter would include about $2.8 million for development of a new heavy-lift rocket system, known as the Space Launch System (SLS), to take humans beyond low-Earth orbit, along with the Orion crew vehicle.

  4. Statistical mechanics of budget-constrained auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, F.; Braunstein, A.; Realpe-Gomez, J.; Zecchina, R.

    2009-07-01

    Finding the optimal assignment in budget-constrained auctions is a combinatorial optimization problem with many important applications, a notable example being in the sale of advertisement space by search engines (in this context the problem is often referred to as the off-line AdWords problem). On the basis of the cavity method of statistical mechanics, we introduce a message-passing algorithm that is capable of solving efficiently random instances of the problem extracted from a natural distribution, and we derive from its properties the phase diagram of the problem. As the control parameter (average value of the budgets) is varied, we find two phase transitions delimiting a region in which long-range correlations arise.

  5. Analyzing Content about the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit in High School and College-Level Economics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marri, Anand R.; Gaudelli, William; Cohen, Aviv; Siegel, Brad; Wylie, Scott; Crocco, Margaret S.; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify content on the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in the 12 most commonly used high school and college-level economics textbooks. Our systematic review of these sources leads to two key findings: (1) Textbooks are similar in how they represent fiscal policy yet treat the federal budget, deficit, and…

  6. The Water Budget of a Simulated Hurricane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model MM5 is used to simulate Hurricane Bonnie at high resolution (2-km spacing) in order to examine budgets of water vapor, cloud condensate, and precipitation. Virtually all budget terms are derived directly from the model (except for the effects of storm motion). The water vapor budget reveals that a majority of the condensation in the eyewall occurs in convective hot towers, while outside of the eyewall most of the condensation occurs in weaker updrafts, indicative of a larger role of stratiform precipitation processes. The ocean source of water vapor in the eyewall region is only a very small fraction of that transported inward in the boundary layer inflow or that condensed in the updrafts. In contrast, in the outer regions, the ocean vapor source is larger owing to the larger area, counters the drying effect of low-level subsidence, and enhances the moisture transported in toward the eyewall. In this mature storm, cloud condensate is consumed as rapidly as it is produced. Cloud water peaks at the top of the boundary layer and within the melting layer, where cooling from melting enhances condensation. Unlike in squall lines, in the hurricane, very little condensate produced in the eyewall convection is transported outward into the surrounding precipitation area. Most of the mass ejected outward is likely in the form of small snow particles that seed the outer regions and enhance in situ stratiform precipitation development through additional growth by vapor deposition and aggregation. We examine artificial source terms for cloud and precipitation mass associated with setting to zero negative mixing ratios that arise from numerical advection errors. Although small at any given point and time, the cumulative effect of these terms contributes an amount of mass equivalent to 13% of the total condensation and 15-20% of the precipitation. Thus, these terms must be accounted for to

  7. Bankrupting america: President Carter's military budget.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tax burden that will be imposed on U.S. taxpayers over the next five years as a result of President Carter's proposed $1 trillion 16.4 billion military budget. Data are provided for states and selected metropolitan areas. The destructive impact of this enormous expenditure--including further inflation, soaring interest rates, and continued impoverishment of the civilian economy and American society as a whole--is stressed. PMID:7429691

  8. Bankrupting america: President Carter's military budget.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1980-01-01

    This paper analyzes the tax burden that will be imposed on U.S. taxpayers over the next five years as a result of President Carter's proposed $1 trillion 16.4 billion military budget. Data are provided for states and selected metropolitan areas. The destructive impact of this enormous expenditure--including further inflation, soaring interest rates, and continued impoverishment of the civilian economy and American society as a whole--is stressed.

  9. Surface radiation budget for climate applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suttles, J. T. (Editor); Ohring, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) consists of the upwelling and downwelling radiation fluxes at the surface, separately determined for the broadband shortwave (SW) (0 to 5 micron) and longwave (LW) (greater than 5 microns) spectral regions plus certain key parameters that control these fluxes, specifically, SW albedo, LW emissivity, and surface temperature. The uses and requirements for SRB data, critical assessment of current capabilities for producing these data, and directions for future research are presented.

  10. Cloud variations and the Earth's energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessler, A. E.

    2011-10-01

    The question of whether clouds are the cause of surface temperature changes, rather than acting as a feedback in response to those temperature changes, is explored using data obtained between 2000 and 2010. An energy budget calculation shows that the radiative impact of clouds accounts for little of the observed climate variations. It is also shown that observations of the lagged response of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) energy fluxes to surface temperature variations are not evidence that clouds are causing climate change.

  11. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems.

  12. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems. PMID:25003558

  13. Keynote: Beyond Budgeting in a Lean and Agile World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogsnes, Bjarte

    We suggest that we need a fundamentally different philosophy and a concept for how organisations are led and managed. We believe that it is time to challenge the traditional management myths. The main goal of Beyond Budgeting is not get rid of budgets. The budget must go, but it is more the budgeting mindset we need to get rid of, because it represents the old thinking that needs to be changed. Based on the works of The Beyond Budgeting Round Table, we review a set of 12 principles for a new style of contemporary leadership and management.

  14. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    PubMed

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated.

  15. Budget goal commitment, clinical managers' use of budget information and performance.

    PubMed

    Macinati, Manuela S; Rizzo, Marco G

    2014-08-01

    Despite the importance placed on accounting as a means to influence performance in public healthcare, there is still a lot to be learned about the role of management accounting in clinical managers' work behavior and their link with organizational performance. The article aims at analyzing the motivational role of budgetary participation and the intervening role of individuals' mental states and behaviors in influencing the relationship between budgetary participation and performance. According to the goal-setting theory, SEM technique was used to test the relationships among variables. The data were collected by a survey conducted in an Italian hospital. The results show that: (i) budgetary participation does not directly influence the use of budget information, but the latter is encouraged by the level of budget goal commitment which, as a result, is influenced by the positive motivational consequences of participative budgeting; (ii) budget goal commitment does not directly influence performance, but the relationship is mediated by the use of budget information. This study contributes to health policy and management accounting literature and has significant policy implications. Mainly, the findings prove that the introduction of business-like techniques in the healthcare sector can improve performance if attitudinal and behavioral variables are adequately stimulated. PMID:24929475

  16. Station focus of NASA budget hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    One of the most important events in this year's consideration of the NASA fiscal year 1994 budget request occurred on April 28 with the appearance of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin and his senior staff before the House VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee, which largely determines the space agency's funding. Subcommittee chairman Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) said that “we face some very special problems this year.” He cautioned that the subcommittee is “totally dependent on the allocation which we are given,” referring to the money his subcommittee is given to fund all of the programs under its jurisdiction.

  17. Geophysical science in the 1996 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Clinton released on February 6 his fiscal year 1996 budget for $1.6 million. In light of the prevailing move toward a leaner government, science and technology seemed to fare relatively well with a $72.9 billion slice of the pie, which would essentially keep spending at current levels barring inflation.Director of the office of Science and Technology Policy Jack Gibbons commented that the budget—which amounts to a real cut of about 3%—“reflects the President's commitment to investing in science and technology and education.”

  18. Net Operating Working Capital, Capital Budgeting, and Cash Budgets: A Teaching Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuner, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Many introductory finance texts present information on the capital budgeting process, including estimation of project cash flows. Typically, estimation of project cash flows begins with a calculation of net income. Getting from net income to cash flows requires accounting for non-cash items such as depreciation. Also important is the effect of…

  19. The Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2013. CEF's Position Statement on President Obama's FY 2013 Budget Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandlawitz, Myrna, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 90 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2013 budget for prioritizing investment in education as a proven strategy to increase jobs and improve our nation's economic growth and competitiveness.…

  20. A Children's Defense Budget: An Analysis of the FY 1987 Federal Budget and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This analysis of the implications for children of the FY 1987 Federal budget begins by criticizing the Reagan administration's policy on poor children and families and recommending needed action. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for investing in children and families. Specific attention is given to costs of child poverty, declining Federal help for…

  1. Budget Increases Proposed for NOAA and Energy Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    In addition to the Obama administration's proposed budget increases for NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009, and 90(20), 175, 2009), other federal Earth and space science agencies also would receive boosts in the proposed fiscal year (FY) 2010 budget. The proposed budget comes on top of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act's (ARRA) US$18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development that can be apportioned between the FY 2009 and FY 2010 budgets. This news item focuses on the budget proposals for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Next week, Eos will look at the budget proposal for the National Science Foundation.

  2. Conference reviews R&D budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    About 85 university officials, laboratory directors, industrial research executives, scientists, and engineers gathered in Washington, D.C., at the invitation of National Academy of Sciences President Frank Press, to discuss the outlook for and the implications of the federal research and development budget for fiscal 1982 and beyond. The consensus of the group is that President Reagan's proposed 12% across-the-board cut, if effected, would severely damage science; that the White House should review research funding to make more productive use of research dollars; that science and technology are vital to the Reagan administration's goals; and that basic research should take priority over development.George A. Keyworth, director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), and Fred Khedouri, associate director for natural resources, energy, and science in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), also attended the meeting on October 26 and 27. They advised the group to be realistic and not assume the worst case. In addition they told the conference that during this period of fiscal restraint growth will be restricted; nevertheless, science will be treated with sensitivity.

  3. Glacier mass budget measurements by hydrologic means

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tangborn, Wendell V.

    1966-01-01

    Ice storage changes for the South Cascade Glacier drainage basin were determined for the 1957–1964 period using basin runoff and precipitation measurements. Measurements indicate that evaporation and condensation are negligible compared with the large runoff and precipitation values. Runoff, measured by a stream discharge station, averaged 4.04 m/yr; precipitation, determined by snow accumulation measurements at a central point on the glacier and by storage gages, averaged 3.82 m/yr, resulting in a basin net loss of about 0.22 m/yr. During the same period, South Cascade Glacier net budgets were determined by ablation stakes, snow density-depth profiles, and maps. The average glacier net budget for the period was −0.61sol;yr of water. This amount is equivalent to −0.26 m of water when averaged over the drainage basin (43% glacier-covered), which is in fair agreement with the net storage change measured by hydrologic methods. Agreement between the two methods for individual years is slightly less perfect. (Key words: Glaciers; water balance.)

  4. Home studio acoustic treatments on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverstick, Gavin A.

    2003-04-01

    Digital technology in the recording industry has evolved and expanded, allowing it to be widely available to the public at a significantly lower cost than in previous years. Due to this fact, numerous home studios are either being built inside or converted from bedrooms, dens, and basements. Hobbyists and part-time musicians that typically do not have the advantage of a large recording budget operate the majority of these home studios. Along with digital equipment, acoustic treatment has become more affordable over the years giving many musicians the ability to write, record, and produce an entire album in the comfort of their own home without having to sacrifice acoustical quality along the way. Three separate case studies were conducted on rooms with various sizes, applications, and budgets. Acoustical treatment such as absorption, diffusion, and bass trapping were implemented to reduce the effects of issues such as flutter echo, excessive reverberation, and bass build-up among others. Reactions and subjective comments from each individual studio owner were gathered and assessed to determine how effective home studios can be on a personal and professional level if accurately treated acoustically.

  5. Water budgets of martian recurring slope lineae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Harrison, Keith P.; Stillman, David E.

    2014-05-01

    Flowing water, possibly brine, has been suggested to cause seasonally reappearing, incrementally growing, dark streaks on steep, warm slopes on Mars. We modeled these Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) as isothermal water flows in thin surficial layers driven by gravity and capillary suction, with input from sources in the headwall and loss to evaporation. The principal observables are flow duration and length. At 40% porosity, we find that flow thicknesses reaching saturation can be just 50 mm or so and freshwater RSL seasonally require 2-10 m3 of H2O per m of source headwall. Modeled water budgets are larger for brines because they are active for a longer part of each day, but this could be partly offset by lower evaporation rates. Most of the discharged water is lost to evaporation even while RSL are actively lengthening. The derived water volumes, while small, exceed those that can be supplied by annual melting of near-surface ice (0.2-2 m3/m for a 200-mm melt depth over 1-10 m height). RSL either tap a liquid reservoir startlingly close to the surface, or the actual water budget is several times smaller. The latter is possible if water never fully saturates RSL along their length. Instead, they would advance like raindrops on a window, as intermittent slugs of water that overrun prior parts of the flow at residual saturation. Annual recharge by vapor cold trapping might then be supplied from the atmosphere or subsurface.

  6. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  7. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  8. Geophysics Funding Healthy in FY 1986 Federal Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.; Robb, David W.

    Continued support for many geophysics projects is part of the fiscal year (FY) 1986 budget proposal that President Ronald Reagan sent to Congress earlier this month. Unlike many other programs that took deep cuts or were eliminated, overall funding for science held steady in the proposed budget. This budget proposal, however, did not offer the large increases that had been proposed for FY 1985 (Eos, February 14, 1984, p. 49). Figure 1 shows the trend for science outlays during the past several years.

  9. Hydrologic processes and the water budget: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Winter, Thomas C.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the hydrological setting of Mirror Lake and its water budget. It first describes the glacial deposits and bedrock topography in the Mirror Lake area. It then provides an overview of the hydrologic processes associated with Mirror Lake and examines the field and analytical methods used to determine its water budget. It presents results from the hydrologic studies, which are based on monthly and annual water budgets for the calendar years 1981 through 2000.

  10. Science budgets speed through the U.S. House

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the spring and summer, the House of Representatives has been racing toward completion of the Fiscal Year 1996 (FY96) federal budget. As political momentum moves toward a balanced budget, spending cuts have become inevitable, and as shown in the accompanying box, the budget process is complex. Currently, two bills affecting funding for geosciences have been finalized by the House, and two—covering NASA and NSF, and NOAA—were being considered late last week.

  11. Monitoring Health Spending Increases: Incremental Budget Analyses Reveal Challenging Tradeoffs

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Micah; Smith, Cynthia; Heffler, Stephen; Freeland, Mark

    2006-01-01

    With each passing decade, health care has consumed a larger share of gross domestic product (GDP) and Federal budgets. By the 2000-2004 period, society was willing to devote over 20 percent of the cumulative increase in GDP and the cumulative increase in Federal outlays towards health care. The financing challenges are expected to become more acute for private payers as well as Federal, State, and local budgets. With the implementation of Part D in 2006, the U.S. Office of Management and Budget projects that Federal budget pressures will heighten, bringing increased attention to Medicare's long-term fiscal outlook. PMID:17290667

  12. Evaluation of methods and uncertanties in the chemical budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Likens, Gene E.; LaBaugh, James W.; Winter, Thomas C.; Likens, Gene E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the uncertainties inherent in the water and chemical budgets of the lake in relation to the differences between chemical mass change in storage and to the balance between solute inputs and solute outputs associated with water fluxes. It begins by discussing uncertainty in the water budgets used to determine chemical budgets. It then examines uncertainties in chemical analyses of precipitation samples, surface water samples, and groundwater samples. It also discusses alternative approaches to determining chemical budgets. It describes the methods used to calculate chemical mass input from the tributaries, chemical mass loss by surface outflow, chemical mass input from groundwater, and chemical mass loss by flow through groundwater.

  13. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses,...

  14. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses,...

  15. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses,...

  16. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume II. Budget highlights, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    DOE budget requests for FY 1982 is summarized and then detailed. Budget highlights of the energy programs include: conservation; research, development, and applications (fossil energy, solar, electric energy and energy storage systems, magnetic fusion, nuclear fission, environment); regulation and energy information; direct energy production, and strategic petroleum reserves. Additional programs and their budget requests are given for: general science, defense activities, and departmental administration. The FY 1981 supplemental and recission request is indicated. Special budget analyses are given for Federal fossil, Federal solar, nuclear waste, conservation, and alternative fuels activities programs. The organizational table is presented. Extensive statistics are presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  17. Design concept for an optimized earth radiation budget sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carman, S. L.; Hansen, M. Z.; Arking, A.; Hoffman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Program has the objective to measure and model the terrestrial radiation budget and obtain a better understanding of the climate and its changes. A multisensor, multisatellite system with high and midinclination orbits will be needed for implementing this program. Various approaches for conducting sensing operations have been evaluated. The present investigation considers a method of sampling with a unique multidirectional array mosaic sensor to fulfill the requirements of earth radiation budget measurements. Previous and present generation earth radiation budget (ERB) satellite instruments are discussed, and attention is given to instrument design tradeoffs and the baseline instrument concept.

  18. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses,...

  19. Clinton administration budget includes mixed bag for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The $1,766 trillion federal budget proposal that the Clinton Administration rolled out on February 1—which promises to protect Social Security and Medicare and work within mandated budget caps—generally provides favorable news for federally funded science research and development.Within the 17% ($592 billion) of the federal budget earmarked for discretionary spending, the Administration's budget proposal increases funding for nondefense research and development for the seventh year in a row. This includes increased funding for a number of science accounts and money for a series of new science initiatives.

  20. 7 CFR 1219.53 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Budgets, Expenses,...

  1. The global carbon budget 1959-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Quéré, C.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T.; Conway, T.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Marland, G.; Peters, G. P.; van der Werf, G.; Ahlström, A.; Andrew, R. M.; Bopp, L.; Canadell, J. G.; Ciais, P.; Doney, S. C.; Enright, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Huntingford, C.; Jain, A. K.; Jourdain, C.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Levis, S.; Levy, P.; Lomas, M.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Schwinger, J.; Sitch, S.; Stocker, B. D.; Viovy, N.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. Here we describe datasets and a methodology developed by the global carbon cycle science community to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, and methodology and data limitations. Based on energy statistics, we estimate that the global emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and cement production were 9.5 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, 3.0 percent above 2010 levels. We project these emissions will increase by 2.6% (1.9-3.5%) in 2012 based on projections of Gross World Product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the economy. Global net CO2 emissions from Land-Use Change, including deforestation, are more difficult to update annually because of data availability, but combined evidence from land cover change data, fire activity in regions undergoing deforestation and models suggests those net emissions were 0.9 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and reached 391.38 ± 0.13 ppm at the end of year 2011, increasing 1.70 ± 0.09 ppm yr-1 or 3.6 ± 0.2 PgC yr-1 in 2011. Estimates from four ocean models suggest that the ocean CO2 sink was 2.6 ± 0.5 PgC yr-1 in 2011, implying a global residual terrestrial CO2 sink of 4.1 ± 0.9 PgC yr-1. All uncertainties are reported as ±1 sigma (68% confidence assuming Gaussian error distributions that the real value lies within the given interval), reflecting the current capacity to characterise the

  2. Global change in FY 1991 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Global change studies will have increased support in Fiscal Year 1991 if Congress accepts the budget that President George Bush sent to Capitol Hill January 29. Global change research by federal agencies would receive 57% more money, from $659 million in FY 1990 to $1,034 billion in FY 1991.FY 1991 highlights of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, which was announced as a Presidential Initiative in January 1989, were reviewed January 29 at a news briefing in Washington, D.C., by the Committee on Earth Sciences of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology. The committee advises the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President.

  3. Health needs, budget cuts & military spending.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A healthy, well-fed, educated populace is synonymous with a prospering economy. Yet, when planning their budgets, governments tend to emphasize infrastructural/industrial projects and defence rather than investing in health, education and other social programmes to eliminate the widespread poverty and high mortality of its population, which would assure a more promising future in the long-term. As citizens, nurses are responsible for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public. And in keeping with ICN's 1989 resolution on nuclear war, INR presents some facts on social and defence spending to show how health needs are often being deprived by emphasis on others sectors, particularly defence. The aim is "to encourage nurses to critically appraise expenditure on health and welfare at a national and global level in relation to that spent on conventional and nuclear arms and to assist nurses to develop strategies of action to contribute to international peace." PMID:2045232

  4. Health needs, budget cuts & military spending.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A healthy, well-fed, educated populace is synonymous with a prospering economy. Yet, when planning their budgets, governments tend to emphasize infrastructural/industrial projects and defence rather than investing in health, education and other social programmes to eliminate the widespread poverty and high mortality of its population, which would assure a more promising future in the long-term. As citizens, nurses are responsible for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public. And in keeping with ICN's 1989 resolution on nuclear war, INR presents some facts on social and defence spending to show how health needs are often being deprived by emphasis on others sectors, particularly defence. The aim is "to encourage nurses to critically appraise expenditure on health and welfare at a national and global level in relation to that spent on conventional and nuclear arms and to assist nurses to develop strategies of action to contribute to international peace."

  5. Simulated wood budgets in two mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Marwan A.; Bird, Stephen; Reid, David; Hogan, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Large wood (LW) recruitment, transport, and storage were evaluated over a century in Gregory and Riley creeks (Haida Gwaii, British Columbia) by modeling a reach-scale LW budget using two frameworks for output: LW loss through decay and downstream transport, and loss through depletion. At reach and at watershed scales, mass movement and bank erosion dominated inputs, and fluvial transport was an important flux term in several reaches. Large wood recruitment by mortality was relatively minor in comparison. Large proportions of the in-channel LW were stored in jams with a mean age of 40-50 years. Overall, both modeling approaches yielded reasonable stored LW predictions in the study creeks, with the omission/inclusion of transport responsible for the largest differences between models. Modeled storage generally was within 30% of that measured in the field, and our results illustrate the large temporal variation in storage resulting from episodic inputs of LW from hillslopes.

  6. Power Budget Analysis for High Altitude Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Elliott, James R.; King, Glen C.

    2006-01-01

    The High Altitude Airship (HAA) has various potential applications and mission scenarios that require onboard energy harvesting and power distribution systems. The energy source considered for the HAA s power budget is solar photon energy that allows the use of either photovoltaic (PV) cells or advanced thermoelectric (ATE) converters. Both PV cells and an ATE system utilizing high performance thermoelectric materials were briefly compared to identify the advantages of ATE for HAA applications in this study. The ATE can generate a higher quantity of harvested energy than PV cells by utilizing the cascaded efficiency of a three-staged ATE in a tandem mode configuration. Assuming that each stage of ATE material has the figure of merit of 5, the cascaded efficiency of a three-staged ATE system approaches the overall conversion efficiency greater than 60%. Based on this estimated efficiency, the configuration of a HAA and the power utility modules are defined.

  7. An Earth radiation budget climate model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-D Earth Radiation Budget Climate Model has been constructed from an OLWR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) model and an Earth albedo model. Each of these models uses the same cloud cover climatology modified by a factor GLCLC which adjusts the global annual average cloud cover. The two models are linked by a set of equations which relate the cloud albedos to the cloud top temperatures of the OLWR model. These equations are derived from simultaneous narrow band satellite measurements of cloud top temperature and albedo. Initial results include global annual average values of albedo and latitude/longitude radiation for 45 percent and 57 percent global annual average cloud cover and two different forms of the cloud albedo-cloud top temperature equations.

  8. NSF, NASA budgets approved by Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The final fiscal year 1991 appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation contained both good news and bad for geophysical research in the year ahead. On the positive side, the House/Senate conference committee report on H.R. 5158, the VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies appropriations bill, provided new start funding for NASA's Earth Observing System program, more than doubled the allocation for NASA's Earth Probes, and restored most of the requested funding for the Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby mission, which the Senate version of the bill had deleted.The Earth Observing System received $67 million and a separate budget line was created for the EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS), which will be funded at $36 million this year. The Earth Probes received an additional $31 million to its $25 million request, and the CRAF/Cassini project received $145 million, $3 million less than its full request.

  9. SOT project cut from NASA Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    About a decade ago, the solar physics community decided that its next major project should be the building of a Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) that would be flown on the space shuttle as a Spacelab payload. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) deemed the project “facility class instrumentation,” issued an announcement of opportunity, chose investigators, contractors, and a science working group, and began funding SOT planning efforts. After what one source involved with the project called “a long and lusty history,” SOT was cut out of the agency's budget request for fiscal year (FY) 1987, released last month (Eos, February 25, 1986, p. 95). The project may be revived, planners say, but in a scaled-down, renamed form.

  10. Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers.

    PubMed

    Dlugokencky, Edward J; Nisbet, Euan G; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David

    2011-05-28

    A factor of 2.5 increase in the global abundance of atmospheric methane (CH(4)) since 1750 contributes 0.5 Wm(-2) to total direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases (2.77 Wm(-2) in 2009), while its role in atmospheric chemistry adds another approximately 0.2 Wm(-2) of indirect forcing. Since CH(4) has a relatively short lifetime and it is very close to a steady state, reductions in its emissions would quickly benefit climate. Sensible emission mitigation strategies require quantitative understanding of CH(4)'s budget of emissions and sinks. Atmospheric observations of CH(4) abundance and its rate of increase, combined with an estimate of the CH(4) lifetime, constrain total global CH(4) emissions to between 500 and 600 Tg CH(4) yr(-1). While total global emissions are constrained reasonably well, estimates of emissions by source sector vary by up to a factor of 2. Current observation networks are suitable to constrain emissions at large scales (e.g. global) but not at the regional to national scales necessary to verify emission reductions under emissions trading schemes. Improved constraints on the global CH(4) budget and its break down of emissions by source sector and country will come from an enhanced observation network for CH(4) abundance and its isotopic composition (δ(13)C, δD(D=(2)H) and δ(14)C). Isotopic measurements are a valuable tool in distinguishing among various sources that contribute emissions to an air parcel, once fractionation by loss processes is accounted for. Isotopic measurements are especially useful at regional scales where signals are larger. Reducing emissions from many anthropogenic source sectors is cost-effective, but these gains may be cancelled, in part, by increasing emissions related to economic development in many parts of the world. An observation network that can quantitatively assess these changing emissions, both positive and negative, is required, especially in the context of emissions trading schemes.

  11. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M. C.

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension). We model that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95%) and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%). We model transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we underestimate the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match), while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional) aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  12. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aan de Brugh, J. M. J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestimation of PM10 due to missing emissions (e.g. resuspension). We observe that a little less than half of the anthropogenic aerosols emitted in Europe are exported and the rest is removed by deposition. The anthropogenic aerosols are removed mostly by rain (95%) and only 5% is removed by dry deposition. For the larger natural aerosols, especially sea salt, a larger fraction is removed by dry processes (sea salt: 70%, mineral dust: 35%). We observe transport of aerosols in the jet stream in the higher atmosphere and an import of Sahara dust from the south at high altitudes. Comparison with optical measurements shows that the model reproduces the Ångström parameter very well, which indicates a correct simulation of the aerosol size distribution. However, we observe an underestimation of the aerosol optical depth. Because the surface concentrations are close to the observations, the shortage of aerosol in the model is probably at higher altitudes. We show that the discrepancies are mainly caused by an overestimation of wet-removal rates. To match the observations, the wet-removal rates have to be scaled down by a factor of about 5. In that case the modelled ground-level concentrations of sulphate and sea salt increase by 50% (which deteriorates the match), while other components stay roughly the same. Finally, it is shown that in particular events, improved fire emission estimates may significantly improve the ability of the model to simulate the aerosol optical depth. We stress that discrepancies in aerosol models can be adequately analysed if all models would provide (regional) aerosol budgets, as presented in the current study.

  13. Redwoods, restoration, and implications for carbon budgets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) of California have several unique characteristics that influence interactions between vegetation and geomorphic processes. Case studies, using a combination of in-channel wood surveys and an air photo inventory of landslides, illustrate current conditions in a redwood-dominated watershed undergoing restoration work, and the influence of wood loading and landslides on the carbon budget. Redwood trees have extremely large biomass (trunk wood volumes of 700 to 1000 m3) and are very decay-resistant; consequently, they have a large and persistent influence on in-channel wood loading. Large wood surveys indicate high wood loading in streams in uncut forests (0.3-0.5 m3/m2 of channel), but also show that high wood loading can persist in logged basin with unlogged riparian buffers because of the slow decay of fallen redwoods. Through a watershed restoration program, Redwood National Park increases in-channel wood loading in low-order streams, but the effectiveness of this technique has not yet been tested by a large flood. Another unique characteristic of redwood is its ability to resprout from basal burls after cutting, so that root strength may not decline as sharply following logging as in other types of forests. An air photo inventory of landslides following a large storm in 1997 indicated: 1) that in the Redwood Creek watershed the volume of material displaced by landslides in harvested areas was not related to the time elapsed since logging, suggesting that the loss of root strength was not a decisive factor in landslide initiation, 2) landslide production on decommissioned logging roads was half that of untreated roads, and 3) landslides removed an estimated 28 Mg of organic carbon/km2 from hillslopes. The carbon budget of a redwood-dominated catchment is dominated by the vegetative component, but is also influenced by the extent of mass movement, erosion control work, and in-channel storage of wood.

  14. Regional Climatology and Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The climatology and surface radiation budget (SRB) of a region are intimately related. This paper presents a brief examination of this relationship. An 8-year surface radiation budget data set has been developed based on satellite measurements. In that data set and in this paper a region is defined as a quasi-square 2.5o in latitude and approximately the same physical distance in longitude. A pilot study by Wilber et al. (1998) showed a variety of behaviors of the annual cycles for selected regions. Selected desert regions form a loop in a specific part of the plot, with large NLW and large NSW. Tropical wet regions form much smaller loops in a different part of the plot, with small NLW and large NSW. For regions selected in high latitude the annual cycles form nearly linear figures in another part of the plot. The question arises as to whether these trajectories are characteristic of the climatology of the region or simply the behavior of the few regions selected from the set of 6596 regions. In order to address this question, it is necessary to classify the climatology of the each region, e.g. as classified by Koeppen (1936) or Trenwarthe and Horne (1980). This paper presents a method of classifying climate of the regions on the basis of the surface radiation behavior such that the results are very similar to the classification of Trenwarthe and Horne. The characteristics of the annual cycle of SRB components can then be investigated further, based on the climate classification of each region.

  15. GEWEX Water and Energy Budget Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, J.; Bainto, E.; Masuda, K.; Rodell, Matthew; Rossow, W. B.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the global water and energy budgets has been an elusive Global Energy and Water-cycle Experiment (GEWEX) goal. It has been difficult to gather many of the needed global water and energy variables and processes, although, because of GEWEX, we now have globally gridded observational estimates for precipitation and radiation and many other relevant variables such as clouds and aerosols. Still, constrained models are required to fill in many of the process and variable gaps. At least there are now several atmospheric reanalyses ranging from the early National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) and NCEP/Department of Energy (DOE) reanalyses to the more recent ERA40 and JRA-25 reanalyses. Atmospheric constraints include requirements that the models state variables remain close to in situ observations or observed satellite radiances. This is usually done by making short-term forecasts from an analyzed initial state; these short-term forecasts provide the next guess, which is corrected by comparison to available observations. While this analysis procedure is likely to result in useful global descriptions of atmospheric temperature, wind and humidity, there is no guarantee that relevant hydroclimate processes like precipitation, which we can observe and evaluate, and evaporation over land, which we cannot, have similar verisimilitude. Alternatively, the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), drives uncoupled land surface models with precipitation, surface solar radiation, and surface meteorology (from bias-corrected reanalyses during the study period) to simulate terrestrial states and surface fluxes. Further constraints are made when a tuned water balance model is used to characterize the global runoff observational estimates. We use this disparate mix of observational estimates, reanalyses, GLDAS and calibrated water balance simulations to try to characterize and close global and terrestrial atmospheric

  16. 40 CFR 60.4120 - General Hg budget trading program permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Hg budget trading program... budget trading program permit requirements. (a) For each Hg Budget source required to have a title V... source covered by the Hg Budget permit, all applicable Hg Budget Trading Program requirements and...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.105 - What are self-governance base budgets?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are self-governance base budgets? 1000.105 Section... Base Budgets § 1000.105 What are self-governance base budgets? (a) A Tribe/Consortium self-governance base budget is the amount of recurring funding identified in the President's annual budget request...

  2. The Fiscal Year 1993 Bush Budget: Still Not Tackling the Nation's Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Robert; Leonard, Paul A.

    On January 29, 1992, the Bush Administration unveiled its fiscal year 1993 budget. An examination of the budget reveals a substantial gap between the administration's rhetoric concerning the budget and what the budget actually contains. An analysis reveals a budget that continues to give priority to defense over domestic spending, one that favors…

  3. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX Ozone Season...,987 14,989 (b) If a permitting authority issues additional CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance...

  4. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX Ozone Season...,987 14,989 (b) If a permitting authority issues additional CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance...

  5. 40 CFR 96.340 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.340 State trading budgets. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX Ozone Season...,987 14,989 (b) If a permitting authority issues additional CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance...

  6. Unchanged Priorities: The Fiscal Year 1992 Bush Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Robert; Leonard, Paul A.

    This report analyzes the impact of the 1992 budget proposed by the Bush Administration on Americans of different income levels. Several of the proposals merit consideration, but the overall impact of the budget would continue to favor upper-income individuals and place lower-income individuals increasingly at risk. The following findings are…

  7. On Average: How Your Library Budget Stacks Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Last fall, Information Today, Inc.'s research division, Unisphere Research, conducted a survey of more than 1,200 public, academic, government, and special librarians with budget authority in North America. The study determined that after a couple of devastating years, most libraries are projecting budget stabilization in 2011. Naturally,…

  8. 2020 Vision: Rethinking Budget Priorities under the LCFF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    After years of painful budget cuts, new revenues will begin to flow to California school districts in 2014. Thanks to the voters' approval of Proposition 30 and the adoption of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF), nearly all districts can expect budget increases over the next several years. In this report PACE offers guidance on…

  9. How to Communicate Your Budget to Nonfinance People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A school district's budget tells the community a story about the district's visions for its students. It is also a planning vehicle that outlines the district's goals and objectives by showing the degree to which its priorities are being supported. Communicating one's district budget to the community--especially to nonfinancial people--in…

  10. Kids' Share 2008: How Children Fare in the Federal Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carasso, Adam; Steuerle, C. Eugene; Reynolds, Gillian; Vericker, Tracy; Macomber, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    "Kids' Share 2008," a second annual report, looks comprehensively at trends in federal spending and tax expenditures on children. This report updates the previous year's report, "Kids' Share 2007," adding in actual (rather than projected) budget numbers for 2007 and projections of spending within the children's budget against other federal…

  11. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A...

  12. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A...

  13. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A...

  14. The Link between Planning and Budgeting. NCHEMS Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Administrators in higher education feel mounting pressure to link planning and budgeting as resources become more scarce and environments more uncertain. Instead of turning to theoretically prescribed planning/budgeting systems as solutions, microeconomics provides a means of thinking about individual consumption that helps shed light on the…

  15. Engaging Faculty Senates in the Budget Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, James G.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple rounds of budget cuts have created tensions on many campuses, prompting questions from faculty about whether institutions are using resources wisely and spending funds appropriately (Minor 2003). As institutions respond to fiscal challenges, it is important that administrators and faculty have a common understanding of budget issues and…

  16. AV Rising: Demand, Budgets, and Circulation Are All Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 486 public libraries found that audiovisual (AV) budgets have increased 53% in the last five years. Provides data on average size of AV collections; budget break downs; circulation; audiobook, video, and music CD purchases; popular authors and titles in abridged and unabridged audiobooks; and problems with audiobook, video, and music…

  17. 40 CFR 52.2532 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2532 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) EPA approves the following revised 2009 and 2018 motor vehicle...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2532 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor vehicle emissions budgets. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2532 Motor vehicle emissions budgets. (a) EPA approves the following revised 2009 and 2018 motor vehicle...

  19. 40 CFR 97.40 - Trading program budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trading program budget. 97.40 Section 97.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations §...

  20. 40 CFR 97.24 - NOX Budget permit revisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX Budget permit revisions. 97.24 Section 97.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.24...

  1. 40 CFR 97.23 - NOX Budget permit contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX Budget permit contents. 97.23 Section 97.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Permits § 97.23...

  2. Some Chemistry Departments Manage Well on Lean Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how chemistry departments at three campuses of the University of California (Berkeley, Davis, and Irvine) and at the University of Michigan have fared during the years of lean budgets. Indicates that these universities are helped by healthy research funding, academic strengths, service roles, and selective budget cuts. (JN)

  3. The Federal Budget Process - Lessons That Can Be Learned

    ScienceCinema

    Goldberg, Stephen

    2016-07-12

    The talk will provide up-to-date information on the Federal budget process and present three informative case studies regarding the intersection of budget decisions with important National policy decisions. In conclusion, the lecture will provide a preview of topics that may be interest for future study.

  4. Behind Closed Doors: The Making of a Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penning, Nick

    1991-01-01

    The 13 congressional subcommittees of the House Appropriations Committee divide up the federal budget, showing little regard for budget resolution priorities. Education usually fares favorably in this process. The Senate has a similar procedure, but Robert C. Bird, D-West Virginia, decides how the money will be spent. A less private appropriation…

  5. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,807 14,839 Missouri 59,871 49,892 New Jersey 12,670 10,558 New York 45,617 38,014 North Carolina 62... for the control periods in 2009 through 2014 and in 2015 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State State trading budget for 2009-2014(tons) State trading budget for 2015 and...

  6. DOE conservation/solar applications FY 79 budget program

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The FY 1979 DOE budget is presented pictorially and graphically. Information on the programs in the organization (solar applications, residential and commercial, industrial, transportation, state and local, and multisector) is included for such areas as major markets; energy contribution; development; strategies; standards; research; energy conservation; and commercialization. A final chart on funding depicts comparisons of the 1978 and 1979 budgets briefly.

  7. Developing a variable budget for occupational therapy contract work.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, A

    1990-09-01

    Contract occupational therapists need to develop a financial plan for improved control of their business. The variable budget allows financial planning according to actual performance volume. This paper describes a step-by-step method for the development of a variable budget through the illustration of a case example. PMID:2220999

  8. A Budget Simulation Model for Times of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Alfred Norris

    The Florida Community College Inter-Institutional Research Council (IRC) has developed a computerized budget simulation model which can help administrators determine the general fiscal impact of alternate approaches to resource utilization. This model uses three basic systems and one generalized subroutine, based on the budget requirements of the…

  9. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired... budgets for annual allocations of Hg allowances for the control periods in 2010 through 2017 and in 2018 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State Annual EGU Hg budget(tons) 2010-2017 2018...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4140 - State trading budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired... budgets for annual allocations of Hg allowances for the control periods in 2010 through 2017 and in 2018 and thereafter are respectively as follows: State Annual EGU Hg budget(tons) 2010-2017 2018...

  11. The Legal Implications of Site-Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Augustina H.

    This paper defines site-based budgeting as a tool for restructuring schools through meaningful participation. It also describes the legal dimensions of site-based budgeting, with an emphasis on Texas. The following legal principles are discussed: public oversight of public dollars, deregulation of governmental powers, equal protection,…

  12. Analysis of President Bush's Education Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    President George W. Bush submitted his eighth and final budget request to the Congress on Monday. Under the proposal, fiscal year 2009 discretionary spending--spending subject to annual appropriations--would be at the same level as in the prior year for domestic programs and agencies not involved in homeland security efforts. The budget request…

  13. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS). TAEG Report No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    This document describes the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System (CABS), which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. A guide provided for Naval Education and Training Command…

  14. Principles of Budget Allocation at the Institutional Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Chris

    1996-01-01

    Several types of institutional budgeting systems are examined, focusing on one type, revenue attribution budgeting. Implementation of such a system at the University of Utrecht (Netherlands) is described. Approaches to decentralization of operational units in the institution, as a means of reducing costs, and its advantages and disadvantages, are…

  15. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17 Section 273.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is...

  16. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17 Section 273.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is...

  17. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A...

  18. 42 CFR 441.470 - Service budget elements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service budget elements. 441.470 Section 441.470 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Optional Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.470 Service budget elements. A...

  19. School-Based Budgeting: A Cost-Benefit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lionel

    The objective of school-based budgeting (SBB) is to improve school funding by increasing revenues and reducing systemwide costs. To see whether this approach is more efficient than a centralized budgeting and spending plan, a cost-benefit model is presented here. The paper differentiates between SBB and school-based management, claiming that any…

  20. California Bus Aid Still in Budget Cross Hairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    California legislators swiftly passed a budget bill last week aimed at sheltering school busing dollars from a midyear budget cut many districts and advocates said particularly hurt rural school systems, along with urban districts with desegregation plans. While the measure, which Gov. Jerry Brown was expected to sign into law, would restore $248…

  1. 40 CFR 52.2532 - Motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) West Virginia § 52.2532 Motor... budgets (MVEBs) for the Charleston, West Virginia 8-hour ozone maintenance area submitted by the Secretary... 2018 motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for the Huntington, West Virginia 8-hour ozone...

  2. Capital Construction Budget Recommendations and Prioritization, 2005-2007 Biennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Capital Construction Budget Recommendations and Prioritization 2005-2007 Biennium provides the Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education's funding and priority recommendations on capital construction budget requests from the Nebraska State Colleges, the University of Nebraska, and the Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture at…

  3. State Budgets and Federal Stimulus: A First Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    U.S. has slipped into a recession greater and deeper than anyone expected. At least 47 states are grappling with budget shortfalls, and 46 states already anticipate problems into 2010 and 2011. State legislatures have the daunting task of balancing budgets as revenues drop and the need for services increases. Whether one participates in a child…

  4. Proposed State Budget Lacks Needed Focus on Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Administration's January proposal for the 2014-15 state budget projects a surplus, due to painful budget cutting in recent years combined with the economic recovery and voter approval of new revenues. While the proposal invests some of the additional revenue in children, it falls well short of what is needed. California's kids have borne a…

  5. Budget Update--June 5, 2009. Report 09-13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    With the failure of most of the May 19 ballot measures, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has released additional proposed revisions to the current year (2008-09) and budget year (2009-10) state spending plans. The Governor and Legislature adopted an 18-month spending plan in late February, but that budget now has a $24 billion deficit. The…

  6. 14 CFR 152.323 - Budget revision: Airport development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revision: Airport development. 152... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Accounting and Reporting Requirements § 152.323 Budget revision: Airport development. (a) If any performance review conducted by the sponsor discloses a need...

  7. School Budgeting: Problems and Solutions. AASA Critical Issues Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, Donald L.

    School budget problems are discussed in 13 chapters, and solutions are suggested. Case studies present successful experiences with various problems while brief subsections summarize recommended actions. The first two chapters note that budget problems are worsening and trace the causes to tax revolts, state involvement in education, and the…

  8. 45 CFR 233.22 - Determining eligibility under prospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining eligibility under prospective budgeting. 233.22 Section 233.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... eligibility under prospective budgeting. In States which compute the amount of the assistance...

  9. 45 CFR 233.22 - Determining eligibility under prospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining eligibility under prospective budgeting. 233.22 Section 233.22 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... eligibility under prospective budgeting. In States which compute the amount of the assistance...

  10. 45 CFR 233.27 - Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting. 233.27 Section 233.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... payments under retrospective budgeting. (a) General requirements. A State plan which provides for...

  11. 45 CFR 233.27 - Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental payments under retrospective budgeting. 233.27 Section 233.27 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY... payments under retrospective budgeting. (a) General requirements. A State plan which provides for...

  12. 32 CFR 989.6 - Budgeting and funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budgeting and funding. 989.6 Section 989.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.6 Budgeting and funding. Contract EIAP efforts are...

  13. 20 CFR 638.601 - Applied VST budgeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applied VST budgeting. 638.601 Section 638.601 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM... Applied VST budgeting. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to ensure that center...

  14. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  15. Proposed Department of Energy Budget Increases Support for Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    In the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, the Department of Energy (DOE) would get a total of 28.4 billion, up from 26.3 billion in FY 2012, an 8% increase (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  16. Research Funding Cut in Proposed Environmental Protection Agency Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-04-01

    The Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014 provides a total of 8.153 billion to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a decrease of 296 million from FY 2012 spending (comparisons are to FY 2012 because final appropriations for 2013 were not available when the president released his proposed FY 2014 budget).

  17. Decentralized Budgeting in Education: Model Variations and Practitioner Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George; Metsinger, Jackie; McGinnis, Patricia

    In educational settings, decentralized budgeting refers to various fiscal practices that disperse budgeting responsibility away from central administration to the line education units. This distributed decision-making is common to several financial management models. Among the many financial management models that employ decentralized budgeting…

  18. Oakton Community College Annual Budget, Fiscal Year 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakton Community Coll., Des Plaines, IL.

    This report provides the annual budget for Oakton (Illinois) Community College's fiscal year 1998. It opens with a letter from the president, followed by an addendum and a copy of a GFOA Certificate for Distinguished Budget Presentation, awarded in 1996. Four sections follow: (1) an introduction, which includes a chart of organization for Oakton…

  19. FY 2011 Federal Budget Process Begins with Bold Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The federal government's annual budget process was kick-started this year with a bold proposal that has implications for anyone who provides child care. But keeping child care front and center in Washington will take a lot of effort in 2010. On February 1, the Administration released the Budget Proposal for Federal Fiscal Year 2011. It calls for…

  20. Big Gains for R&D in Carter's Final Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Janice R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes President Carter's 1982 budget proposal for research and development (R and D) in science, technology, and related areas, with largest increases going to defense, and NASA. Indicates that R and D money could be affected by the Reagan Administration budget cuts. (SK)

  1. The Budget Enforcement Act: Implications for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehler, Karen

    This analysis of the Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 (BEA) and its implications for public financing of education and other children's services notes that voters want more and better education and related services, and at the same time want to pay less in taxes and balance budgets at every governmental level. The first section details recent…

  2. State Higher Education Budgeting Mechanisms in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Kensuke; Yoshida, Kana; Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between certain characteristics of US states and their budgeting systems for higher education (HE), and to derive implications for Japanese HE budgeting policy from the results. (Methodology) The US's State Higher Education Executive Officers (SHEEO) conducted a 30-item…

  3. 32 CFR 989.6 - Budgeting and funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Budgeting and funding. 989.6 Section 989.6... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.6 Budgeting and funding. Contract EIAP efforts are proponent... unforeseen requirements, the proponent offices must provide the remaining funding....

  4. 32 CFR 989.6 - Budgeting and funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Budgeting and funding. 989.6 Section 989.6... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.6 Budgeting and funding. Contract EIAP efforts are proponent... unforeseen requirements, the proponent offices must provide the remaining funding....

  5. Executive Decision Making: Using Microcomputers in Budget Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Roslyn; Robinson, Lucinda

    The successful integration of microcomputer support to help prepare for an anticipated budget crisis at the University of Illinois at Chicago is described. The IBM Personal Computer and VisiCalc software were key tools in the decision support system. When campus executives were instructed to cut budgets and reallocate funds to produce a "Doomsday…

  6. In Search of a Consensus Team Decision Budget Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Philip S.; Runyon, Lowell R.

    2004-01-01

    In searching for a new budget formula for the College of Business at California State University at Long Beach, a major university in the west, several rational budget formulas were explored. This report develops an explanation in quantitative terms of the reasoning process pursued by the department chairs in arriving at the compromise budget…

  7. 14 CFR 1260.72 - Adherence to original budget estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adherence to original budget estimates. 1260.72 Section 1260.72 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Post-Award Requirements § 1260.72 Adherence to original budget estimates....

  8. 7 CFR 1216.50 - Budget and expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... revenue, with comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget); (3) A... expense breakdowns, with comparative data for at least one preceding year (except for the initial budget... reserve as set forth in this subpart. (c) Subject to this section, any amendment or addition to...

  9. School-Based Budgets: Getting, Spending, and Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry L.; Herman, Janice L.

    With the advent of large interest in school-based management came the task of inventing a different type of budgeting system--one that delegated the many tasks of developing a budget, expending the allocated funds, and controlling those expenditures in a way that did not exceed the allocation to the site level. This book explores the various means…

  10. Keeping Pace: Budgets Continue Moving up, but Challenges Await

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a survey examining the current performances of libraries. The libraries that were surveyed this year reported a solid performance in 2005, with a budget growth of 4.7 percent. For the next fiscal year, libraries predicted a 5.5 percent increase in budgets which exceeded the inflation. Many of them, however,…

  11. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  12. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    PubMed

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic. PMID:23288060

  13. Federal budget: Look out 1996; here comes fiscal '97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The contradictions are everywhere. A 1997 federal budget proposal has been issued, but the 1996 budget still has not been passed. All of Washington is in a budget-cutting mood, but thinking in a election year mode. And while discretionary funding—particularly for science—is under siege, just about every federal agency is asking for more money.On March 18, President Bill Clinton delivered a detailed budget request for fiscal 1997 (FY '97) and a plan for 1998-2002. The Executive Branch and all its agencies are asking Congress for $1.65 trillion to spend in FY '97, roughly 4% more than is expected to be spent in FY '96. The budget deficit for FY '97 is estimated to be about $140 billion.

  14. [Congressional amendments to the Brazilian Federal health budget].

    PubMed

    Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; Lima, Luciana Dias de; Garcia, Marcia; Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Gerassi, Camila Duarte

    2012-12-01

    The public budget in Brazil has undergone significant changes since enactment of the 1988 Federal Constitution. Mechanisms for integration of planning activities and budget execution have been created, and Legislative participation in budgeting has increased. Congressional amendments appeared in this context. The article discusses the participation of Congressional amendments in the Federal health budget from 1997 to 2006, combining elements for discussion of funding mechanisms and health planning. Such amendments played a significant role in the budget process, accounting for over half of health funds in some years. The North was the region of Brazil that received most resources resulting from Congressional amendments, suggesting the need for further studies on the relationship between the amendments' enforcement and political party coalitions. The article concludes that the amendments cannot be understood solely as a funding mechanism, but mainly as a political instrument, and that they are not necessarily subject to health planning logic.

  15. Tough choices in proposed budget for Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    President Obama's proposed budget for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fiscal year (FY) 2013 is $8.34 billion, a 1.2% decrease from the agency's 2012 enacted budget. "This budget is focused on fulfilling EPA's core mission to protect health and the environment for millions of American families. It demonstrates the fiscal responsibility called for at this moment, while still supporting clean air, healthy waters, and innovative safeguards that are essential to an America built to last," said EPA administrator Lisa Jackson in a 13 February briefing announcing the budget proposal. Balancing tight funding environments with EPA's goals "has required taking a step back from programs we have worked on for years, programs were we have had great success," she said. "There are difficult choices throughout this budget, but they enable us to do what is required for our immediate priorities as well as challenges down the road."

  16. Budget Development, Budget Monitoring, Accounting and Financial Reporting: A Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    A school district's governing board, superintendent, and business manager should work as an effective fiscal policy team with good communication. This self-assessment guide is designed to assist in the overall evaluation of fiscal policy team communication. Four sections (budget development, budget monitoring, financial reporting, and…

  17. 40 CFR 97.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 97.83 Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit. (a) Applying for initial NO X Budget...

  18. 40 CFR 96.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE... initial NO X Budget opt-in permit. In order to apply for an initial NOX Budget opt-in permit, the...

  19. 40 CFR 97.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Individual Unit Opt-ins § 97.83 Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit. (a) Applying for initial NO X Budget...

  20. 40 CFR 96.83 - Applying for NOX Budget opt-in permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE... initial NO X Budget opt-in permit. In order to apply for an initial NOX Budget opt-in permit, the...

  1. Soil erosion and the global carbon budget.

    PubMed

    Lal, R

    2003-07-01

    Soil erosion is the most widespread form of soil degradation. Land area globally affected by erosion is 1094 million ha (Mha) by water erosion, of which 751 Mha is severely affected, and 549 Mha by wind erosion, of which 296 Mha is severely affected. Whereas the effects of erosion on productivity and non-point source pollution are widely recognized, those on the C dynamics and attendant emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are not. Despite its global significance, erosion-induced carbon (C) emission into the atmosphere remains misunderstood and an unquantified component of the global carbon budget. Soil erosion is a four-stage process involving detachment, breakdown, transport/redistribution and deposition of sediments. The soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is influenced during all four stages. Being a selective process, erosion preferentially removes the light organic fraction of a low density of <1.8 Mg/m(3). A combination of mineralization and C export by erosion causes a severe depletion of the SOC pool on eroded compared with uneroded or slightly eroded soils. In addition, the SOC redistributed over the landscape or deposited in depressional sites may be prone to mineralization because of breakdown of aggregates leading to exposure of hitherto encapsulated C to microbial processes among other reasons. Depending on the delivery ratio or the fraction of the sediment delivered to the river system, gross erosion by water may be 75 billion Mg, of which 15-20 billion Mg are transported by the rivers into the aquatic ecosystems and eventually into the ocean. The amount of total C displaced by erosion on the earth, assuming a delivery ratio of 10% and SOC content of 2-3%, may be 4.0-6.0 Pg/year. With 20% emission due to mineralization of the displaced C, erosion-induced emission may be 0.8-1.2 Pg C/year on the earth. Thus, soil erosion has a strong impact on the global C cycle and this component must be considered while assessing the global C budget. Adoption of

  2. The Surface Energy Budget in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. This difference in temperature is proportional to the size of the city and can be in excess of 2-5°C during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. UHIs can exacerbate the warming during heat waves and play a role in additional heat-related mortality, an increase in tropospheric ozone, and economic losses that total in the billions of dollars from excess energy consumption. Many cities are experimenting with strategies to reduce urban warming. A number of mitigation strategies involve manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. Methods include analysis of global remotely sensed datasets, the development of a reduced-complexity urban model, and evaluation of measurements made in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA). The TCMA is a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Mitigation of the UHI in northern latitude cities, such as the TCMA, is a challenge because (1) residents in more northerly cities are more likely to suffer heat-related illness

  3. FY 1987 Federal Budget Proposal: Mixed outlook for geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A new emphasis on “global geosciences” and a new start for the Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) were among the highlights for geophysics in the federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 1987 that the Reagan administration submitted to Congress on February 5, 1986. Budget increases planned for the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), however, contrasted with cuts planned for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Under the proposed budget, funding for research and development (R&D) would increase significantly in FY 1987, rising 16.9% over the funding that will remain in the FY 1986 budget after March 1, 1986. On that date, cuts in the FY 1986 budget will take effect under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, better known as Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Eos, January 28, 1986, p. 41). Although that law was recently found unconstitutional by a special federal judicial panel, their ruling will not go into effect unless and until it is upheld by the Supreme Court, so the March 1 cuts are expected to go forward as planned. (If the Supreme Court hears the appeal, they will probably rule before early July, according to The Washington Post.) Under Gramm-Rudman-Hollings, the FY 1986 budgets of non-defense programs not protected in the law's provisions will be cut by 4.3%. Unprotected defense programs will be cut by close to 5%.

  4. U.S. Science Agency Budgets Slated for Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-05-01

    The Obama administration released more details on 7 May about its proposed US$3.6 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2010 and the planned significant increases for science agencies and for research and development (see Eos, 90(10), 83, 2009). The budget, which needs to be approved by Congress, includes $147.6 billion for research and development, an increase of $555 million, or 0.4%, above the enacted 2009 budget. In addition, the 2009 budget includes $18.3 billion in stimulus spending for research and development through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, said the FY 2009 and proposed 2010 budgets are among the two largest research and development investments in the nation's history, in real terms. “We in the science and technology community have done better than just about any other constituency in the budget,” Holdren explained in a 7 May budget overview briefing, noting that virtually every science agency is doing better now than it was doing 2 years ago. “We have, in the White House, a president who gets it, believes and gets that investments in science and technology are just that: investments that will pay off.”

  5. CO2 Budget and Rectification Airborne Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grainger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this award was to supply a platform for the airborne measurements of gases associated with the CO2 Budget and Regional Airborne Study (COBRA). The original program was to consist of three field programs: the first was to be in 1999, the second in 2000, and the third in 2001. At the end of the second field program, it was agreed that the science could better be served by making the measurements in northern Brazil, rather than in North America. The final North American program would be postponed until after two field programs in Brazil. A substantial amount of effort was diverted into making plans and preparations for the Brazil field programs. The Brazil field programs were originally scheduled to take place in the Fall of 2002 and Spring of 2003. Carrying out the field program in Brazil was going to logistically much more involved than a program in the US. Shipping of equipment, customs, and site preparations required work to begin many months prior to the actual measurement program. Permission to fly in that country was also not trivial and indeed proved to be a major obstacle. When we were not able to get permission to fly in Brazil for the 2002 portion of the experiment, the program was pushed back to 2003. When permission by the Brazilian government was not given in time for a Spring of 2003 field program, the experiment was postponed again to begin in the Fall of 2003.

  6. Global Dust Budgets of the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2013-03-01

    Within galaxies, gas and dust are constantly exchanged between stars and the interstellar medium (ISM). The life-cycle of gas and dust is the key to the evolution of galaxies. Despite its importance, it is has been very difficult to trace the life-cycle of gas and dust via observations. The Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have provided a great opportunity to study the life-cycle of the gas and dust in very nearby galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds. AGB stars are more important contributors to the dust budget in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), while in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SNe are dominant. However, it seems that the current estimates of the total dust production from AGB stars is insufficient to account for dust present in the ISM. Other dust sources are needed, and supernovae are promising sources. Alternatively the time scale of dust lifetime itself needs some revisions, potentially because they could be unevenly distributed in the ISM or clumps.

  7. Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Forecasting model.

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert

    2009-10-01

    This report documents The Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Water Forecasting model. The model has been constructed using Powersim Studio (PS), a software package designed to investigate complex systems where flows and accumulations are central to the system. Here PS has been used as a platform for modeling various aspects of Nambe Pueblo's current and future water use. The model contains three major components, the Water Forecast Component, Irrigation Scheduling Component, and the Reservoir Model Component. In each of the components, the user can change variables to investigate the impacts of water management scenarios on future water use. The Water Forecast Component includes forecasting for industrial, commercial, and livestock use. Domestic demand is also forecasted based on user specified current population, population growth rates, and per capita water consumption. Irrigation efficiencies are quantified in the Irrigated Agriculture component using critical information concerning diversion rates, acreages, ditch dimensions and seepage rates. Results from this section are used in the Water Demand Forecast, Irrigation Scheduling, and the Reservoir Model components. The Reservoir Component contains two sections, (1) Storage and Inflow Accumulations by Categories and (2) Release, Diversion and Shortages. Results from both sections are derived from the calibrated Nambe Reservoir model where historic, pre-dam or above dam USGS stream flow data is fed into the model and releases are calculated.

  8. Budget constrained non-monotonic feature selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiqin; Xu, Zenglin; Lyu, Michael R; King, Irwin

    2015-11-01

    Feature selection is an important problem in machine learning and data mining. We consider the problem of selecting features under the budget constraint on the feature subset size. Traditional feature selection methods suffer from the "monotonic" property. That is, if a feature is selected when the number of specified features is set, it will always be chosen when the number of specified feature is larger than the previous setting. This sacrifices the effectiveness of the non-monotonic feature selection methods. Hence, in this paper, we develop an algorithm for non-monotonic feature selection that approximates the related combinatorial optimization problem by a Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) problem. We justify the performance guarantee for the derived solution when compared to the global optimal solution for the related combinatorial optimization problem. Finally, we conduct a series of empirical evaluation on both synthetic and real-world benchmark datasets for the classification and regression tasks to demonstrate the promising performance of the proposed framework compared with the baseline feature selection approaches.

  9. Vibration Budget for SuperB

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsche, K; Wittmer, W.; Bolzon, B.; Brunetti, L.; Jeremie, A.; Esposito, M.; Tomassini, S.; /Frascati

    2011-04-05

    We present a vibration budget for the SuperB accelerator. We include ground motion data, motion sensitivity of machine components, and beam feedback system requirements. The SuperB accelerator design attains at least 50 times higher than current B-factories due to smaller beam sizes and a crabbed waist crossing angle scheme at the IP (interaction point). The beam size (1{sigma}) at the IP will be about 10 {micro}m (horizontal) by 40 nm (vertical). These small beam sizes will make the luminosity very sensitive to mechanical vibration and electrical noise. Relative vertical misalignment of the two beams at the IP by only 8 nm will result in a 1% reduction in luminosity. The corresponding horizontal alignment tolerance of is 250x looser (2 {micro}m). The vertical beam angle at the IP for a 1% luminosity loss is fairly loose at 200 {micro}rad, and the horizontal beam angle tolerance is looser still. We will focus on vertical beam position at the IP, since this presents the greatest alignment challenge. The values presented here are for a closed orbit with tunes near a half-integer in the SuperB v.12 lattice.

  10. A tritium budget for the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Scott C.; Jenkins, Wllliam J.; Östlund, H. G.

    1993-10-01

    We develop a new model bomb-3H budget for the North Atlantic between 1950 and 1986. The model, which calculates the atmospheric and continental 3H delivery as well as the advective 3H transports from the South Atlantic and Arctic, agrees within about 10% with the 3H inventories computed from the 1972 GEOSECS and the 1981-1983 Transient Tracers in the Ocean (TTO) observations. The decay-corrected 3H inventory for the North Atlantic increased by about 43% between the GEOSECS and TTO programs (1972 to 1981), and the inflow of high 3H polar water from the Arctic into the North Atlantic is found to be crucial for correctly simulating this increase. Key aspects of the model that differ from previous studies include the treatment of vapor/rain isotopic equilibrium, the continental vapor flux, and the downward flux of water vapor into the ocean. The sensitivity of the atmospheric 3H delivery to model parameters and to seasonal and interannual variability are explored.

  11. Estimative of energy budget in Brazilian Savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate the sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux using the eddy covariance method in a Cerrado "Campo Sujo" area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 2m height. The geographical position of the Cerrado, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Cerrado presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 25% and the latent heat flux (LE) 54%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 42% and the latent heat flux (LE) 30% of the energy budget.

  12. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  13. Role of budget impact in drug reimbursement decisions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua Parsons; Stolk, Elly; Niezen, Maartje

    2008-04-01

    There are three known criteria that underlie drug reimbursement decisions: therapeutic value, cost-effectiveness, and burden of disease. However, evidence from recent reimbursement decisions in several jurisdictions points to residual, unexplained variables, among which is budget impact. Budget impact refers to the total costs that drug reimbursement and use entail with respect to one part of the health care system, pharmaceutical care, or to the entire health care system, taking into account the possible reallocation of resources across budgets or sectors of the health care system. The economic and equity rationale for carrying out budget impact analyses is opportunity cost, or benefits forgone, measured in terms of utility or equitable distribution, by using resources in one way rather than another. In other words, by choosing to draw down the budget in one way, decision makers forgo other opportunities to use the same resources. Under a set of unrealistic assumptions, cost-effectiveness analysis accounts for opportunity cost while conveying to the decision maker the price of maximizing health gains, subject to a budget or resource constraint. However, the underlying assumptions are implausible, particularly in the context of pharmaceutical care. Moreover, budget impact analysis is more useful to the decision maker than cost-effectiveness analysis if the objective is not to maximize health gains subject to a budget or resource constraint, but to reduce variance in health gains. With respect to equitable distribution, budget impact analyses lay bare the individuals or groups who lose out - those who bear the opportunity cost of spending resources in accordance with one decision rule rather than another. PMID:18325899

  14. A model for analysis of TDA budget allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need to achieve greater efficiency in the operation of the Deep Space Network (DSN), i.e., increased productivity at reduced cost. One of the tools used in the course of a planning workshop on this subject was a methodology for budget allocation applicable to long-range planning. This article presents a model for analysis of the TDA budget allocation. For the 1994 through 1999 period, the percentage of the total TDA budget allocated to capacity and capability is being cut in half, whereas the percentage spent on efficiency of delivery will be increasing.

  15. Clinton delivers bare bones plan for 1997 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    1996-02-01

    Congress and the White House have yet to finish negotiating and haggling over the U.S. federal budget for 1996, but the calendar and the law say that they ought to start thinking about 1997. On February 5, President Bill Clinton issued a preliminary budget plan for 1997 that reflected his fiscal priorities as they were last stated in January, before budget talks with congressional Republicans broke down. Required by law to propose a spending plan by the first Monday in February, Clinton delivered to Congress what he termed a "thematic document," one that gives a minimally detailed outline of how the federal government should spend the taxpayers' money in 1997.

  16. White House Budget Proposal Supports Science Agencies and Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The proposed federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2014, which the Obama administration sent to Congress on 10 April, would provide overall strong support for federal science agencies in a tight budget environment. The proposal calls for 142.8 billion for federal research and development (R&D), an increase of almost 1.9 billion, or 1.3%, above the 2012 enacted level in current dollars. However, the proposed budget is a slight decrease when factoring in an expected 4% inflation between 2012 and 2014.

  17. Uncertainty in Analyzed Water and Energy Budgets at Continental Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Robertson, F. R.; Mocko, D.; Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Operational analyses and retrospective-analyses provide all the physical terms of mater and energy budgets, guided by the assimilation of atmospheric observations. However, there is significant reliance on the numerical models, and so, uncertainty in the budget terms is always present. Here, we use a recently developed data set consisting of a mix of 10 analyses (both operational and retrospective) to quantify the uncertainty of analyzed water and energy budget terms for GEWEX continental-scale regions, following the evaluation of Dr. John Roads using individual reanalyses data sets.

  18. The work budget of rough faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Patrick J.; Ashley Griffith, W.

    2014-12-01

    Faults in nature have measurable roughness at many scales and are not planar as generally idealized. We utilize the boundary element method to model the geomechanical response of synthetic rough faults in an isotropic, linear elastic continuum to external tectonic loading in terms of the work budget. Faults are generated with known fractal roughness parameters, including the root mean square slope (β), a measure of roughness amplitude, and the Hurst exponent (H), a measure of geometric self-similarity. Energy within the fault models is partitioned into external work (Wext), internal elastic strain energy (Wint), gravitational work (Wgrav), frictional work (Wfric), and seismic energy (Wseis). Results confirm that Wext, or work done on the external model boundaries, is smallest for a perfectly planar fault, and steadily increases with increasing β. This pattern is also observed in Wint, the energy expended in deforming the host rock. The opposite is true for gravitational work, or work done against gravity in uplifting host rock, as well as with frictional work, or energy dissipated with frictional slip on the fault, and Wseis, or seismic energy released during slip events. Effects of variation in H are not as large as for β, but Wgrav, Wfric, and Wseis increase with increasing H, with Wint and Wext decreasing across the same range. Remarkably, however, for a narrow range of roughness amplitudes which are commonly observed along natural faults, the total work of the system remains approximately constant, while slightly larger than the total work of a planar fault. Faults evolve toward the most mechanically efficient configuration; therefore we argue that this range of roughness amplitudes may represent an energy barrier, preventing faults from removing asperities and evolving to smooth, planar discontinuities. A similar conclusion is drawn from simulations at relatively shallow depths, with results showing that shallower faults have larger energy barriers, and can

  19. Tropical deforestation and the global carbon budget

    SciTech Connect

    Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Houghton, R.A.; McGuire, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} concentration of the atmosphere has increased by almost 30% since 1800. This increase is due largely to two factors: the combustion of fossil fuel and deforestation to create croplands and pastures. Deforestation results in a net flux of carbon to the atmospheric because forests contain 20--50 times more carbon per unit area than agricultural lands. In recent decades, the tropics have been the primary region of deforestation.The annual rate of CO{sub 2} released due to tropical deforestation during the early 1990s has been estimated at between 1.2 and 2.3 gigatons C. The range represents uncertainties about both the rates of deforestation and the amounts of carbon stored in different types of tropical forests at the time of cutting. An evaluation of the role of tropical regions in the global carbon budget must include both the carbon flux to the atmosphere due to deforestation and carbon accumulation, if any, in intact forests. In the early 1990s, the release of CO{sub 2} from tropical deforestation appears to have been mostly offset by CO{sub 2} uptake occurring elsewhere in the tropics, according to an analysis of recent trends in the atmospheric concentrations of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. Interannual variations in climate and/or CO{sub 2} fertilization may have been responsible for the CO{sub 2} uptake in intact forests. These mechanisms are consistent with site-specific measurements of net carbon fluxes between tropical forests and the atmosphere, and with regional and global simulations using process-based biogeochemistry models. 86 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  20. Homeland security R&D budgets and conference overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Theodore T.

    2007-04-01

    Homeland Security R&D budgets will be summarized with an emphasis on the FY 2007 and comparisons to FY 2006 and the proposed FY 2008 budget. A summary of the federal budget process is given with insights into the specific omnibus bill funding FY 2007 for most of the federal budget and the omnibus bill's impact on organizations included in the American Competitiveness Initiative. Projections for FY 2008 Homeland Security Research, as analyzed by AAAS, show that ~80% of R&D funding is outside the Department of Homeland Security. An overview of the conference includes insights into the Drinking Water Security, Border Security, Transportation Security (including an update from the MANPADS program office), Port and Harbor Security, Health Security, and Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies sessions.