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Sample records for bufo spinulosus anura

  1. The effect of short- and long-term fasting on digestive and metabolic flexibility in the Andean toad, Bufo spinulosus.

    PubMed

    Naya, Daniel E; Veloso, Claudio; Sabat, Pablo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Hibernation in ectothermic animals was historically considered as a simple cold-induced torpor state resulting from the inability to maintain a high body temperature at low ambient temperatures. During the last decades this vision changed and nowadays there is a myriad of studies showing that hibernation implies different adjustments at the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cellular levels. However, studies oriented to evaluate changes of whole organism structure and physiology still are scarce, which is particularly true for amphibians that hibernate on land. Accordingly, in the Andean toad (Bufo spinulosus), we investigated the effect of short-term fasting and hibernation on the hydrolytic activity of digestive enzymes, histology of the small intestine, gross morphology of digestive and other internal organs and standard metabolic rate. Based on the pattern of size variation, internal organs may be grouped into those that were affected by both season and feeding condition (small intestine, stomach and liver), those that were only affected by season (fat bodies), those that were only affected by feeding condition (kidneys) and, finally, those that did not change between the three groups (large intestine, heart and lungs). Hydrolytic activity of maltase, trehalase and aminopeptidase-N followed the same pattern of variation (feeding > fasting > hibernating toads), although the change for the latter enzyme was less noticeable than for the disaccharidases. Enzymatic adjustments were correlated with changes in small intestine histology: villus and enterocyte height increased from hibernating to fasting and more markedly from fasting to feeding toads. Metabolic rate decreased during hibernation to 7.8% (at 5 degrees C) and 13.6% (at 15 degrees C) of summer values, which is one of the highest metabolic depressions reported for any ectothermic vertebrate. Our results suggest that amphibian persistence in highly seasonal environments is related to a large capacity of

  2. Structural aspects of an unusual choroidal polarized hyaline cartilage in the eyeball of Bufo ictericus and Rana catesbeiana (Amphibia, Anura): morphological and physiological significance.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Santana, Andréa Souza; de Carvalho-E-Silva, Sérgio Potsch; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian eyes play an important role in vision and in several physiological processes, such as food capture and breathing. To maintain the integrity of the eyeball there is a unique cuplike hyaline cartilage as a supporting tissue. In Bufo ictericus and Rana catesbeiana the cartilage layer is located between the retina and the choroids, being designated as choroidal cartilage, important to visual performance. On the retinal surface, there is no perichondrium, and the pigmented epithelium exhibits an intimate relationship to the cartilage layer.

  3. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fellers, Gary M.; Magee, Allison; Voss, S. Randal

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  4. The genetics of amphibian declines: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H B; Fellers, G M; Magee, A; Voss, S R

    2000-03-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  5. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  6. Assessing atrazine-induced toxicities in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.

    PubMed

    Sai, Linlin; Wu, Qingbo; Qu, Binpeng; Bo, Cunxiang; Yu, Gongchang; Jia, Qiang; Xie, Lin; Li, Yuezhong; Guo, Qiming; Ng, Jack C; Peng, Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Atrazine (AZ), a widely used herbicide has drawn attentions for its potential impacts on amphibians. This study aims to investigate the toxicity of AZ in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (B. bufo gargarizans), a species of toad commonly found in China and countries in East Asia. We treated tadpoles with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/L AZ for 85 days and examined related parameters. The results showed that the mortality of the toads in the treatment group increased dramatically in a U-shaped dose-response relationship. The hindlimb extension and metamorphosis rate of the toads were significantly inhibited by AZ at 10 and 100 μg/L. Under the same condition, there were significant progressive changes in the testicular structures. Moreover, we found that AZ has no significant effects on growth, sex ratios, gonadal morphology, forelimb emergence and histology in the ovaries. Our results support the idea that environmental contaminants including AZ may be relevant to global amphibian decline.

  7. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 2. Diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of individual variation in diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton has been performed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. More than 50 skeletal anomalies have been recorded. Factual data are presented that characterize deviations from the species norm in the frequency of "background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003). Correlations between manifestations of different variants of character states are considered. The problem of norm and anomaly in individual variation is discussed.

  8. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  9. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities.

  10. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    PubMed

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L(-1) as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L(-1)) on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  11. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    PubMed Central

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1) on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (−6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (−21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in

  12. A novel cathelicidin from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor showed specific activity to its habitat bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tongyi; Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-25

    Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is still used in China as traditional Chinese medicine. However, present investigations on its skin secretions were mainly focused on the bufadienolides, the proteins/peptides contained in the secretions are largely unknown. A cDNA encoding a novel cathelicidin termed BG-CATH was identified by analysis of the toad skin transcriptome. The BG-CATH precursor was predicted to have 2 possible cleavage sites following dibasic cleavage signals at its C-terminal, which will generate two mature peptides, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that amphibian cathelicidins might evolve from common ancestors. The two predicted mature cathelicidins from B. bufo gargarizans were synthesized and both of them showed weak antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ≥ 200 μg/mL). However, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) had strong antimicrobial activities against aquatic bacteria of Vibrio splendidus, Streptococcus iniae and Aeromorus hydrophila, which were common microorganisms in the habitat of B. bufo gargarizans (MIC 3.125-40 μg/mL). BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) showed no hemolytic activity even at high concentrations (400 μg/mL). CD spectra analysis suggested that structure rigidity of BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) might play an important role to regulate their biological activities. Selective antimicrobial activity against habitat microorganisms might reflect the adaptation of amphibians to their living environments.

  13. Bufo canorus Camp 1916, Yosemite Toad.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, Carlos; Fellers, Gary M.; Lannoo, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) are endemic to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Ebbetts Pass, Alpine County to the Spanish Mountain area, Fresno County (Karlstrom 1962, 1973; Stebbins 1966; unpublished Sierra National Forest survey data, 1995, 2002). Sites occur from 1,950–3,444 m elevation, with the majority of sites between 2,590–3,048 m (Karlstrom, 1962). Jennings and Hayes (1994a) estimate that populations have disappeared from 50% of historically reported sites, although the overall range of the species may have only contracted in the far north and in western Fresno County. Disappearances have been concentrated at lower elevation sites on the western edge of the range, with greater persistence at higher elevation sites (Davidson et al., 2002).

  14. Hormonal induction of spermatozoa from amphibians with Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo as anuran models.

    PubMed

    Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; Kaurova, S A; Browne, R K; Gakhova, E N

    2012-01-01

    The use of hormonally induced spermatozoa expressed in urine (HISu) is a valuable component of reproduction technologies for amphibians. Five protocols for sampling HISu from the European common frog (Rana temporaria) were compared: (1) pituitary extracts, (2) 0.12 µg g⁻¹ luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), (3) 1.20 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa, (4) 11.7 IU g⁻¹ human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and (5) 23.4 IU g⁻¹ hCG (g⁻¹ = per gram bodyweight). From 1 to 24h after administration we assessed the number and concentration of spermatozoa in spermic urine and in holding water, and in urine the percentage of motile spermatozoa and their progressive motility. The protocol using 1.20 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa gave the highest total sperm numbers (650 × 10⁶) and the highest percentage (40%) of samples with sperm concentrations above 200 × 10⁶ mL⁻¹. The percentage motility and progressive motility was similar from all protocols. Considerable amounts of spermatozoa were expressed by R. temporaria into their holding water. We tested hormonal priming and spermiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo) using 0.13 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa administered 24h before a final spermiating dose of 12.8 IU g⁻¹ hCG. No spermatozoa were expressed in holding water. Priming resulted in 35% more spermatozoa than without; however, there were no differences in sperm concentrations. Primed B. bufo produced spermatozoa with significantly higher percentage motility, but not progressive motility, membrane integrity, or abnormal spermatozoa than unprimed males.

  15. Cardiovascular and behavioural changes during water absorption in toads, Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Arne L; Wang, Tobias; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2006-03-01

    Blood cell flux (BCF) in the pelvic skin of Bufo marinus was lower than Bufo alvarius when toads rehydrated from deionised water (DI) or 50 mmol l-1 NaCl (NaCl). Despite the lower BCF in B. marinus, water absorption was not different between the species when toads rehydrated from DI or NaCl. When fluid contact was limited to the pelvic skin, water uptake from NaCl was lower than from DI, but became greater than uptake from DI as the immersion level increased. Hydrophobic beeswax coating the lateral sides reduced absorption from NaCl but not from DI. Toads settled into water absorption response posture well after maximal BCF was attained in both DI and NaCl, indicating that the behavioural response requires neural integration beyond the increase in BCF. Water exposure increased BCF in hydrated B. alvarius with empty bladders but not in those with stored bladder water. Hydrated B. marinus with an empty bladder did not increase BCF when given water. Handling stress depressed BCF but increased central arterial flow (CAF), measured using a flow probe around the dorsal aorta. In undisturbed toads, CAF increased with the same time course as BCF while heart rate remained relatively constant, suggesting redistribution of blood flow.

  16. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  17. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 3. Limitations of individual variation and their causes].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies on the axial skeleton of the common toad (a model species) have been used to analyze factual limitations of individual variations. The results show that the states of the studied characters do not freely combine with each other but are subject to certain morphogenetic limitations. The causes of most these limitations have been revealed during the study. Classification of the main factors limiting individual variation in the course of development is presented.

  18. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): I. Timing of development and anomalies of external structure].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of development have been analyzed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. The results show that the range of developmental options for the species is much wider than it follows from the standard tables of development. "Background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003) in the external structure of developing larvae are described and their probable frequencies under nearly optimal conditions are indicated.

  19. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  20. Instream movements by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas)

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; David A. Schmetterling; Michael K. Young

    2005-01-01

    Determining the nature and extent of bufonid movements is critical to understanding the autecology of each species, as well as to developing effective conservation strategies. Within many toad (Bufo spp.) populations, individuals must migrate considerable distances to reach habitats essential for fulfilling requirements that change seasonally and...

  1. Breeding frequency of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregeon

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Cynthia Carey

    2008-01-01

    Many species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the western toad (Bufo boreas), are declining in-the western United States. The ability of this species to recover from declines depends, in part, on its reproductive success. This study examined the breeding frequency in both sexes of B. borelis in northeastern Oregon compared to...

  2. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  3. Arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids from the parotid gland secretions of common toad Bufo bufo-New agonists of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Kryukova, E V; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-05-01

    Compounds activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo venom as a result of chromatographic separation. Analysis of the structure of these compounds by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that they are arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids and represent suberylarginine, pimeloylarginine, and adipoylarginine.

  4. Sensitivity of toad tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Khangarot, B.S.; Ray, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Amphibian larval stages have several qualities which make them as a useful indicator of harmful levels of pollutants in bioassay tests. Amphibian tadpoles show a variety of sublethal responses such as changes in growth, development rates, pigmentation and expression of morphological deformities in a lesser time of exposure to the environmental pollutants. The objective of the work reported in this paper was to determine the acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, silver and zinc to the tadpoles of toad Bufo melanostictus (Schneider), which is commonly available and breed in aquatic habitats exhibiting a wide range of temperature and varying water quality.

  5. Effective number of breeding adults in Bufo bufo estimated from age-specific variation at minisatellite loci

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Arntzen, J.W.; Burke, T.

    1997-01-01

    Estimates of the effective number of breeding adults were derived for three semi-isolated populations of the common toad Bufo bufo based on temporal (i.e. adult-progeny) variance in allele frequency for three highly polymorphic minisatellite loci. Estimates of spatial variance in allele frequency among populations and of age-specific measures of genetic variability are also described. Each population was characterized by a low effective adult breeding number (N(b)) based on a large age-specific variance in minisatellite allele frequency. Estimates of N(b) (range 21-46 for population means across three loci) were ??? 55-230-fold lower than estimates of total adult census size. The implications of low effective breeding numbers for long-term maintenance of genetic variability and population viability are discussed relative to the species' reproductive ecology, current land-use practices, and present and historical habitat modification and loss. The utility of indirect measures of population parameters such as N(b) and N(e) based on time-series data of minisatellite allele frequencies is discussed relative to similar measures estimated from commonly used genetic markers such as protein allozymes.

  6. High genetic diversity of common toad (Bufo bufo) populations under strong natural fragmentation on a Northern archipelago.

    PubMed

    Roth, Steffen; Jehle, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have shown a surge in studies focusing on the interplay between fragmented habitats, genetic variation, and conservation. In the present study, we consider the case of a temperate pond-breeding anuran (the common toad Bufo bufo) inhabiting a naturally strongly fragmented habitat at the Northern fringe of the species' range: islands offshore the Norwegian coast. A total of 475 individuals from 19 populations (three mainland populations and 16 populations on seven adjacent islands) were genetically characterized using nine microsatellite markers. As expected for a highly fragmented habitat, genetic distances between populations were high (pairwise F st values ranging between 0.06 and 0.33), with however little differences between populations separated by ocean and populations separated by terrestrial habitat (mainland and on islands). Despite a distinct cline in genetic variation from mainland populations to peripheral islands, the study populations were characterized by overall high genetic variation, in line with effective population sizes derived from single-sample estimators which were on average about 20 individuals. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that spatial and temporal scales of fragmentation need to be considered when studying the interplay between landscape fragmentation and genetic erosion.

  7. Comparison of toad venoms from different Bufo species by HPLC and LC-DAD-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huimin; Zehl, Martin; Leitner, Alexander; Wu, Xiyan; Wang, Zhimin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2010-09-15

    Toad venom, called Chansu in China, has been widely used for the treatment of heart failure, sores, pains, and various cancers for a long time in clinic. The aim of the study is to investigate the chemical differences among a variety of toad venoms from different geographic locations and related Bufo species. Ten batches of commercial toad venom collected from different regions in China, one batch of fresh toad venom obtained from Bufo bufo gargarizans, and six batches of related Bufo species were analyzed by HPLC and LC-DAD-MS/MS. Individual components were identified by comparison of retention times, UV spectra, and mass spectra with authentic compounds, standard addition, as well as summarized MS fragmentation rules. Based on the profile of identified constituents and the content of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, the chemical differences observed among different samples are discussed. Overall, 43 compounds were identified in the methanolic extracts of the different samples of toad venom. Besides of suberoyl arginine, several free bufadienolides, bufadienolide sulfates, and suberoyl esters of bufadienolides were found. The total amounts of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, which are the only two control markers according to the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia, varied widely from 0.7% to 10.9% in the commercial Chansu samples collected in the different locations in China. Low levels of resibufogenin, but no cinobufagin was observed in the samples from Bufo melanosticus and Bufo marinus, and even neither of both compounds was found in the sample from Bufo viridis. The chemical profiles of the different commercial and collected toad venoms from related Bufo species differed significantly, not only in the absolute and relative contents, but also in the number and type of the constituents. The main reason for this variation are species-specific differences, but additional factors, such as the harvest and post-harvest processing, and adaption to environmental factors in

  8. Bufo toads and bufotenine: fact and fiction surrounding an alleged psychedelic.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, T; Goldstein, D; Gartz, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the supposedly psychedelic Bufo toad and the allegedly psychedelic drug bufotenine, which is contained in the skin and glands of this toad. The bufo toad has held a place in human mythologies and medicines worldwide since archaic times. Used by ancient peoples for a variety of purposes, its most spectacular effects, according to lore, involve magical and shamanic or occult uses for casting spells and for divination. In the Middle Ages, the Bufo toad was celebrated as a panacea and persecuted as a powerful poison. More recently, in the 1960s the Bufo toad was resurrected as a countercultural icon, with people purportedly licking or smoking the secretions to get high. Bufotenine has been at the center of a scientific debate since its discovery in 1893. This paper examines the extensive literature surrounding the Bufo toad and bufotenine, and untangles many of the myths and the misinformation that continue to vex both science and popular reporting. Finally, to promote further investigation, a comprehensive bibliography is provided that charts the history of the Bufo toad and bufotenine.

  9. A developmentally regulated lectin in Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Elola, M T; Fink-de-Cabutti, N E; Herkovits, H

    1987-01-01

    We report the levels of an endogenous beta-galactoside lectin activity from Bufo arenarum whole embryos extracts and specific inhibition by saccharides at different developmental stages. Specific activity measured against trypsinized rabbit red blood cells showed relatively high and fluctuating levels during early stages (up to about 76 h post-fertilization) which fell to significantly lower and more constant values at late stages (77-264 h post-fertilization). Lactose is the most potent inhibitor of this lectin activity, and saccharides having alpha-galactoside configurations are weaker inhibitors. At the last embryonic stage, the agglutinating activity showed a different sugar specificity which suggests either the modification of the preexistent lectin or the synthesis of another type of lectin. The possible physiological roles of these lectins in the blockage of polyspermy or in embryonic cell-cell interactions are discussed.

  10. Stage dependent susceptibility to lead in Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Coll, C S; Herkovits, J

    1990-01-01

    The stage dependent susceptibility to lead in amphibian development was studied by exposing Bufo arenarum embryos during neurulae, neuromuscular activity and gill circulation stages for twenty hours to 1 ppm Pb(2+). Survival, malformations and behavioral disorders were evaluated. The embryonic susceptibility to lead was markedly stage dependent. The survival at the neuromuscular activity stage was approximately half that of the other two periods; concerning malformations, the gill circulation stage was the least sensitive. The observed malformations consisted of failed closure of neural tube, hydropsy, small and cylindrical tails, reduced body size and incurvations in the body axis. Some alterations occurred in all experimental groups and therefore were considered non-dependent on the period of treatment. In all experimental embryos, neurological disorders such as trembles and loss of equilibrium were observed.

  11. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    PubMed

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  12. Age-dependent changes in sensitivity to a pesticide in tadpoles of the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Hettyey, Attila

    2017-06-01

    The worldwide en masse application of pesticides and the frequently reported malign effects on several non-target organisms underpin the importance of ecotoxicological research on these anthropogenic pollutants. Previous studies showed that sensitivity to herbicides can vary widely depending on additional stress factors, on the species and even on the population investigated. However, there is little information about how sensitivity changes during ontogeny, and how the duration of exposure is linked to the magnitude of malign effects, even though this knowledge would be important for the interpretation of toxicity test results and for formulating recommendations regarding the timing of pesticide application. We exposed tadpoles of the common toad (Bufo bufo) to three concentrations (0, 2 and 4mg a.e./L) of a glyphosate-based herbicide during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th period of larval development or during the entire experiment, and measured survival, time until metamorphosis and body mass at metamorphosis to estimate fitness-consequences. Younger tadpoles were more sensitive to the herbicide in all measured traits than older ones, and this age-dependence was especially pronounced at the high herbicide concentration. Furthermore, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide during the entire experiment developed slower than tadpoles exposed only early on, but we did not observe a similar effect either on body mass or survival. The observed age-dependence of sensitivity to herbicides draws attention to the fact that results of toxicity tests obtained for one age-class are not necessarily generalizable across ontogeny. Also, the age of test animals has to be considered when planning ecotoxicological studies and interpreting their results. Finally, taking into account the temporal breeding habits of local amphibians when planning pesticide application would be highly favourable: if tadpoles would not get exposed to the herbicide during their most sensitive early development

  13. Predation by Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) on Western toads (Bufo boreas) in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Hayes, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toads of the genus Bufo co-occur with true frogs (family Ranidae) throughout their North American ranges. Yet, Bufo are rarely reported as prey for ranid frogs, perhaps due to dermal toxins that afford them protection from some predators. We report field observations from four different localities demonstrating that Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) readily consume juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) at breeding sites in Oregon. Unpalatability thought to deter predators of selected taxa and feeding mode may not protect juvenile stages of western toads from adult Oregon spotted frogs. Activity of juvenile western toads can elicit ambush behavior by Oregon spotted frog adults. Our review of published literature suggests that regular consumption of toadlets sets Oregon spotted frogs apart from most North American ranid frogs. Importance of the trophic context of juvenile western toads as a seasonally important resource to Oregon spotted frogs needs critical investigation.

  14. Stage-dependent uptake of cadmium by Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Preez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several years, environmental contamination with cadmium has significantly increased because of its extensive use In anthropogenic activities. This heavy metal is a very toxic xenobiotic producing reproductive and developmental impairments in a wide spectrum of organisms. Within the life cycle of organisms, the embryo is the most sensitive period to adverse conditions. Moreover, stage-dependent susceptibilities to toxic agents in amphibian embryos treated with lead, cadmium and aluminium were described. In the case of cadmium, this differential sensitivity could be related to changes in the metal accumulation through development or in the induction of defense mechanisms against cadmium toxicity, such as metallothionein (Mt) synthesis, which seems to be developmentally regulated. In the case of the toad Bufo arenarum, susceptibility to cadmium seems to follow a biphasic pattern during embryonic development. From the two-cell stage to the neurula stage an increase in susceptibility occurs, whereas from the last stage onwards a gradual increase in the resistance against this heavy metal seems to be achieved. This stage reports the uptake profile of cadmium at different post-hatching stages. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Danna; Zhang, Jiayong; Zheng, Rongquan; Shao, Chen

    2012-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome of Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is a circular molecule of 20,309 bp in length, containing 39 genes (including the extra copy of ND5 and tRNA(Met) genes). The following four distinctive features are observed: the cluster of rearranged tRNA genes (TPF tRNA gene cluster), the translocation of tRNA(Leu(CUN)) and ND5 genes, the tandem duplication of tRNA(Met) genes (Met1 and Met2), and the duplicated d-loop-ND5 regions.

  16. Osteology of Atelopus muisca (Anura, Bufonidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Julio Mario; Medina, Paola; Schoch, Paulette

    2015-01-09

    The first comprehensive description of the skeleton of Atelopus muisca Rueda-Almonacid & Hoyos, 1991 (Bufonidae, Anura) from the Chingaza Natural National Park (Colombia) is provided, and comparisons with some characters described for this species by Coloma and related frogs of the group A. ignescens are done. The humerus of male presenting more developed crista ventralis and crista lateralis, and the articulation of the frontoparietal bones showed the presence of sexual dimorphism. These are character not described for species of the genus Atelopus belonging to the group A. ignescens. A. ignescens. Among the other osteological characters we did not find unique feature for the species. 

  17. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  18. Aluminum-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll

    1995-12-31

    As a result of their aquatic embryonic and larval development, many species of amphibians are potentially affected by adverse environmental conditions. In this study the possibility of reducing the lethal effect of aluminum (ALC13, Mallinckrodt) in Bufo arenarum embryos by means of simultaneous zinc (ZnSO4) treatment is reported. The aluminum hazard was evaluated in a 7 day renewal toxicity testing study conducted with batches of 10 individuals (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of aluminum plus the control at 20 C. The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100 expressed as Al(3 +) mg/L at 24 and up till 168 hours of treatment were 0.9 (the pH of the solution was 6.2 while in control Holtfreter solution the pH was 6.8). Therefore, aluminum exert a lethal effect on amphibian embryos in concentrations which reduce only slightly the pH of the maintaining solution. The lethal effect of aluminum could be reduced 100% by means of simultaneous treatment with 2 mg Zn(2 +)/L. The results point out the high sensibility of the amphibian embryos to aluminum (LC100/24hs:0.9mg Al(3 +)/L) and therefore, episodic increases in dissolved aluminum, usually concomitant with surface water pH decreases, could produce very harmful effects during embryonic stages of amphibians. The noteworthy beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of aluminum could be of practical value in reducing the harmful effects exerted by aluminum. The conspicuous Al-Zn antagonism points out the need of biological test systems for recording the integrated effects of substances released to the environment.

  19. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources.

  20. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the Mojave

    Desert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toads

    collected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  1. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  2. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  3. Sexual differences in the ecology and habitat selection of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2006-01-01

    Several species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the Western Toad (bufo boreas) have declined in the Western United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for population declines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad...

  4. Summer movements of boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in two western Montana basins

    Treesearch

    David A. Schmetterling; Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas) is widely distributed in the western United States but has declined in portions of its range. Research directed at conserving Boreal Toads has indicated that their movements are largely terrestrial and often limited after the breeding season. We used a combination of stream-based netting, PIT tagging, and radio...

  5. Species-specificity of amphibia carbohydrate chains: the Bufo viridis case study.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Alexandra; Maes, Emmanuel; Strecker, Gérard

    2002-02-05

    The jelly coat surrounding the eggs of amphibia is composed of oviducal mucins and plays an important role in the fertilization process. From a structural and chemical point of view, these jellies are very different from one species to another. Bufo viridis is the 13th amphibia species studied in term of carbohydrate structural analysis. The oligosaccharides have been released from the oviducal mucins by reductive beta elimination, purified by various chromatography procedures and analyzed by (1)H and (13)C 1D-2D NMR spectroscopy. Among the 15 compounds, ten have novel structures, although they possess some well-known structural patterns as blood group epitopes (Le(x), Le(y)) or other sequences already observed in other amphibia species. These results reinforce our hypothesis about the strict species-specificity of these carbohydrate chains. It must be noted that such species-specificity does not depend on one particular monosaccharide but it is rather due to a set of particular tri- or tetrasaccharide sequences. Hence, B. viridis species could be characterized by the simultaneous presence of a 2,3,6-trisubstituted galactosyl residue, the GlcNAc(beta 1-3)[Fuc(alpha 1-4)]GlcNAc beta sequence and the Le(x), Le(y) or Cad determinants. The anionic charge of the oligosaccharides is carried only by sialic acid alpha-(2-->6)-linked to GalNAc-ol residue as in Bufo bufo or in Bufo arenarum.

  6. Habitat modeling and movements of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    C.T. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California and is part of the world-wide amphibian declines phenomenon. The toad is thought to have disappeared from over 50% of its historic range even in seemingly undisturbed areas, and...

  7. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  8. Selection of diet by metamorphic and juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L Bull; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The decline of Bufo boreas, the Western Toad, in portions of its range has accentuated the need for more complete information on all life stages of this species. Our objectives were to describe the diet of recently metamorphosed and juvenile (one-year old) B. boreas and then compare it to the available arthropods. Metamorphs (n...

  9. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the Mojave

    Desert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toads

    collected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  10. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  11. Phylogenetic relationships linking Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) species based on 12S and 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pratihar, Suman; Bhattacharya, Manojit; Deuti, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Genus Duttaphrynus (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) is endemic to southwestern and southern China and throughout southern Asia. Duttaphrynus phylogeny was also under debate for many years. 12S and 16S rDNAs help us to elucidate Duttaphrynus phylogeny.

  12. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  13. [A shift in prey color preference in the green toad Bufo viridis Laur. after food satiation].

    PubMed

    Fal'tsman, I A; Bastakov, V A

    1999-01-01

    In the behavioural experiments when showing simultaneously coloured stimuli (food targets) and also in choosing between two stimuli, red and blue, it had been shown with a high level of reliability that the hungry Bufo viridis which had not been fed for at least a week, in the overwhelming majority of cases chose the red-coloured food targets. Within 1-3 days after an abundant feeding, in the same animals the changes occurred in their preferences of the prey colour. The percentage of choosing the blue targets by the satiated toads significantly increases. In a separate series of experiments had been demonstrated that the changing motivation is conditioned by colour, since hungry and satiated Bufo viridis under conditions of simultaneous demonstration of four stimuli, black and three different grey stimuli, chose exclusively the black stimulus.

  14. Influence of ambient ultraviolet radiation on Bufo calamita egg development in a semiarid zone (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Marquis, Olivier; Miaud, Claude; Sanuy, Delfi

    2008-01-01

    Several experiments have shown that ambient ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) has negative effects on the development of amphibians' embryos. We studied the effects of UV-B radiation on development, survival and frequency of deformity during egg development in the Natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) from a semiarid region of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). Eggs exposed to ambient levels of UV-B and those protected from UV-B with a filter exhibited similar developmental rate, mortality rate and frequency of developmental anomalies. These experiments show that eggs of Bufo calamita of the studied population are able to develop normally during embryonic period when exposed to current high levels of UV-B observed in Catalonia. These results will be used as reference for future studies on geographic variation in UV-B tolerance in this species.

  15. Characterization and properties of steroid binding protein in Bufo arenarum serum.

    PubMed

    Fernández, S N; Mansilla-Whitacre, Z C; Miceli, D C

    1994-08-01

    Serum steroid binding properties of mature Bufo arenarum females were studied. Binding data obtained using charcoal adsorption assay and equilibrium dialysis methods indicates a single protein, named Bufo arenarum sex binding protein (Ba SBP), which binds 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), and estradiol-17 beta (E2) with high affinity (10(-7) M-1 - 10(8) M-1) and fair capacity (10(-6) M). Scatchard plot analysis demonstrated the coexistence of two binding sites. Ba SBP has a sedimentation coefficient of 5.2 S in sucrose gradient centrifugation in low salt and under steady-state conditions. The specificity of this protein, determined by competitive binding experiments, is comparable to human SBP. DHT and T bind with higher affinity than E2. Estriol and estrone competed poorly, while diethylstilbestrol and C21 steroids did not compete. The binding capacity of this protein is under estrogenic control.

  16. Breeding habit of the toad Bufo coccifer in Costa Rica, with a description of the tadpole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Foster, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The breeding habits of Bufo coccifer were studied in northwestern Costa Rica between 1971 and 1974. This species breeds during the rainy season, at least from May through August. Males chorus from areas of shallow water. Their calls resemble those of Mexican representatives of the species in pulse rate and duration, but are closer to those of other Costa Rican and Panamanian populations in dominant frequency. Thus, our data do not clearly support recognition of Bufo cycladen as a distinct species for the Mexican populations. Amplexus is axillary, and two strings of eggs are extruded simultaneously during oviposition. Tadpoles, described for the first time in this paper, are secretive and do not aggregate. Development to metamorphosis requires about 5 weeks.

  17. Ultrastructural aspects of metamorphic development of sensory ganglia in Bufo calamita.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M P; Solas, M T; Fernández, B

    1993-01-01

    This EM investigation was undertaken with tadpoles of Bufo to study the fine structure of dorsal root ganglia at two different metamorphic stages. Ultrastructural examinations revealed a progressive development in the case of thoracic and lumbar sensory ganglia. The end of metamorphosis, however, did not mean the attainment of ganglion maturation which must continue through the juvenile life. By contrast, tail sensory ganglia became affected by a degenerative process that finishes at the end of metamorphosis with the total resorption of the tail.

  18. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY )

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  19. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  20. Molecular probes of phylogeny and biogeography in toads of the widespread genus Bufo.

    PubMed

    Maxson, L R

    1984-07-01

    Genetic relationships among 25 species of Central and South American Bufo and among representative North, Central, and South American, Asian, and African Bufo were probed, using the quantitative immunological technique of microcomplement fixation (MC'F) which indicated a clear separation of North, Central, and South American lineages of Bufo. The South American lineage likely diverged from the Central and North American lineages in the Eocene; the latter two lineages diverged later, probably in the mid-Oligocene. Some species groups of South American toads, defined on the basis of traditional morphological studies, are genetically quite similar within groups, whereas others are genetically divergent. The amount of albumin evolution does not appear to parallel the amount of karyotypic, morphological, ecological, or behavioral evolution documented. Comparisons suggest that the African lineages separated from the American and Asian lineages in the late Cretaceous, corresponding to the time of the final separation of Gondwanaland, the southern supercontinent including the modern continents of South America, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, and India. The Asian lineages diverged from the lineage giving rise to all of the American species in the early Paleocene.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Babina adenopleura (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Danna; Zhang, Jiayong; Zheng, Rongquan

    2012-12-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of Babina adenopleura (Anura: Ranidae) is a circular molecule of 18,982 bp in length, containing 38 genes as well as other anurans. The complete mtDNA of B. adenopleura is 18,982 bp in length, and the A+T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 58.9% (T, 29.8%; C, 26.6%; A, 29.1%; G, 14.4%). The control regions are 3159 bp in length, and the A+T content of this region is 70.2% (A, 36.6%; C, 16.8%; G, 12.9%; T, 33.6%). The control region possesses distinct repeat regions at both 5' and 3' sides. A long space region between ND5 and ND6 genes is 461 bp.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates catesbeianus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Yubo; Tao, Bofang; Fang, Xindong; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-12-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Lithobates catesbeianus (Anura: Ranidae) is sequenced to analyze the gene arrangement. It is a circular molecule of 18,241 bp in length including 37 genes typically found in other frogs. The AT content of the overall base composition of L. catesbeianus is 59.9%. The length of control region is 2783 bp with 66.0% AT content. Protein-coding genes begin with ATG as start codon except except ND1 and ATP6 began with ATA, COI and ND4L with GTG, and ND2 with ATT. COI end with AGG as stop codon, COII and ND6 end with AGA, ND2 end with TAG, ATP8. ND4L. ND5 and Cytb end with TAA, and the other five PCGs end with a incomplete stop codon (a single stop nucleotide T).

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Rana huanrensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Bingjun; Zhou, Yu; Yang, Baotian

    2016-11-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of R. huanrensis (Anura: Ranidae). The complete mtDNA sequence is 19 253 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one displacement loop. The start/stop codons of protein-coding genes are similar to which of R. chensinensis. D-loop region of R. huanrensis is 3448 bp in size, contains many tandem repeat units. The phylogenetic trees of 18 species from Ranidae were reconstructed by BI and ML analyses. The result indicated that R. huanrensis is the most closely related species with other Rana species. The molecular data are expected to provide a useful tool for population genetics studies of this species and further phylogenetic analyses of Ranidae.

  4. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

    PubMed Central

    Petrovan, Silviu O.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe’s most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. “Toads on Roads” schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species. PMID:27706154

  5. The effects of aromatase and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, antiandrogen, and sex steroids on Bidder's organs development and gonadal differentiation in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Petrini, S; Zaccanti, F

    1998-02-15

    Embryos of toads (Bufo bufo) were treated with aromatase (4-OHA) and 5 alpha-reductase (17 beta C) inhibitors, antiandrogen (CPA), estradiol-17 beta, testosterone, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone in order to study the role played by sex steroids in the development and sex differentiation of gonads. Test compounds were administered to tadpoles in water and morphometric and cytometric analyses were carried out on histological sections of the cephalic Bidder's organ (a rudimentary ovary) and of the gonadal region. In Bidder's organs, the number and size of oogonia and oocytes were modified by the treatments. However, the female commitment of the Bidder's organ occurs independently from steroid treatments that lead to an acceleration or slackening of the processes of proliferation and differentiation of oogonia. 4-OHA and androgens caused various degrees of inhibition of ovarian differentiation, with gonads maintaining an undifferentiated condition. Estrogen provoked a shift of the sex ratio towards the female sex, yet slackened gonadal growth. 17 beta C accelerated ovarian differentiation in females while CPA enhanced gonadal differentiation in both sexes by promoting the germ and somatic cell proliferation. We suggest that sex hormones may have a local regulatory role in gonadal differentiation during early developmental stages. Furthermore, the strong tendency of Bidderian germ cells to develop in the oogenetic way regardless of sex genotype and steroid treatments, and the quantitative sex differences found in the control Bidder's organs and gonads, suggest that other factors (such as intracellular mechanisms) may be involved in the initial steps of the process of germ cell differentiation.

  6. Spatial distribution of yolk platelets and fat droplets in oocytes and cleaving embryos of the common frog (Rana temporaria) and toad (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Romek, M

    1998-01-01

    Animal-vegetal gradients of fat droplets and yolk platelets have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos in two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Volume densities Vv which describe properly the amount of nutrients in embryos have been used during the measurements. The embryos till the stage of late blastula are spherical: the spherical form is not distorted even by blastocoel forming eccentrically, in the animal hemisphere. Increased diameters during cleavage, which have been observed in the two species, can be ascribed to growth of the blastocoel and increased number of blastomeres while the quantity of the cytoplasm does not increase. The volume densities of yolk platelets and fat droplets per unit of cytoplasm volume remains constant throughout the cleavage. Volume densities change along the animal-vegetal axis in accordance with the course of the 3rd polynomial depending on the distance of the area under study from the vegetative pole f: y-->Vv, f = ay3 + by2 + cy + d. Parameters of fitting functions a, b, c and d change considerably during development of the embryo, which proves reorganisation of the cytoplasm during cleavage: the most significant changes occur from fertilisation to the four-cell stage and during growth of the blastocoel from morula to late blastula stage. Distortion of the axial symmetry of yolk platelet distribution in embryos occurring after fertilisation is not extensive in the two studied species. The mathematical model of spatial distribution of yolk platelets and fat droplets in oocytes and cleaving embryos in the studied anuran species was proposed using the above data.

  7. Body size, nuptial pad size and hormone levels: potential non-destructive biomarkers of reproductive health in wild toads (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Baynes, Alice; Clare, Frances; Duffus, Amanda L J; Larroze, Severine; Scholze, Martin; Garner, Trenton W J

    2014-09-01

    Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive biomarkers of internal reproductive physiology, by analysing correlations with commonly used destructive methods in adult male toads (Bufo bufo) from a low human impact and a high human impact site. Principal component analyses revealed that size was the most important variable for explaining inter-individual differences in other measured endpoints, both non-destructive and destructive, except for hormone levels and nuptial pad, which were independent of size. Toads from the LI and the HI site differed in almost all of the measured endpoints; this was largely driven by the significantly smaller size of toads from the HI site. Correlational analyses within sites revealed that size was correlated with several reproductive endpoints in toads from the HI site but not the LI site, indicating a possible limiting effect of size on reproductive physiology. Intersex was observed in 33% of toads from the HI site and incidence was not related to any other measured endpoint. In conclusion, we provide evidence that size is associated with reproductive physiology and that nuptial pad/hormone levels have potential as additional markers due to their independence from size. We also show that human activities can have a negative effect on reproductive physiology of the common toad.

  8. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  9. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo).

    PubMed

    Petrovan, Silviu O; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe's most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. "Toads on Roads" schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species.

  10. Mercurium-zinc antagonism in Bufo arenarum embryos and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Fernandez, A.

    1995-12-31

    The identification of mercurium hazard for Cnesterodon decemmaculatus and Bufo arenarum (embryos) was evaluated in a renewal toxicity test system at 20 C and informed as LC100, LC50 and NOEC for 24 and up till 96 hours of exposure (acute Toxicity Profile -- TPa -- for mercurium). On addition the beneficial effect of zinc against the lethal effect of mercurium is reported. The test with fish were conducted maintaining 10 individuals in 1 L of EPA water (by quadruplicate) in six concentrations of Hg plus controls, while for amphibian, batches of 10 Bufo arenarum embryos at stage 25 (by quadruplicate) were maintained in 40 ml of Holtfreter`s solution in six concentration of Hg + (HgCl) plus controls. The LC100, LC50 and NOEC for fishes expressed in Hg (+) mg/L were: 0.60, 0.25 and 0.10 for 24 hours of exposure. These values increased very slightly at least up till 96 hours of exposure. Therefore, Bufo arenarum seems to be about three times more sensitive than Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to mercurium. By means of simultaneous mercurium-zinc treatment (ZnSO4) the lethal effect of mercurium could be reduced in amphibians up till 100% with 18 mg Zn2+/L, while for the fish the best result obtained was a reduction of about 50% of lethality within the first 96 hours of treatment with 20 mg Zn2+/L. As a whole the results point out the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to xenobiotics, the beneficial effect of zinc against embryos to xenobiotics, the beneficial effect of zinc against toxicity exerted by Hg and the need of biological test systems for recording the combined effects of substances released to the environment.

  11. Comparison of the susceptibility of amphibian (Bufo arenarum embryos) and fish (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) to aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Herkovits, J.; Herkovits, F.D.; Perez-Coll, C.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although crustaceans, fish and algae are receiving increasing attention as test organisms in short-term tests, it is important to note that other species could be more than order of magnitude more susceptible la xenobiotics and therefore, profitable for toxicity screening for a proper protection of the diversity and complexity of the ecosystems. In this report the sensitivity of Bufo arenarum (embryos) and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to aluminum (AIC1 3) is evaluated in a renewal toxicity test system at 20 C and informed as LC100, LC50 and NOEC for 24 and up till 96 hours of exposure (acute Toxicity Profile -- TPa -- for aluminum). The tests with fish were conducted maintaining 10 individuals in 1 liter of EPA water (by quadruplicate) in six concentration of Al(3+). The pH of the experimental solutions were measured. The LC100, LC50 and NOEC for fishes expressed in Al(3+) mg/L were: 7.5 (the pH of this solutions was 4.3), 7 and 6 at 24 as well as for 48, 72 and 96 hours of exposure, while for Bufo arenarum embryos the LC100, LC50 and NOEC were 0.9 (pH 6.2), 0.6 and 0.1 for 24 hours and up till 96 hours of exposure. Therefore, Bufo arenarum (embryos) seems to be about one order of magnitude more sensitive than the solution is adjusted from 4.3 to 6.2, no lethal effect on fish was registered. The TPa shows that the most toxic period is within the first 24 hours of exposure while on the other hand in fishes as well as in amphibian embryos the LC50 is closer to the LC100 value that to NOEC and therefore, exposure around LC50 concentrations, in the case of aluminum, represents a risk for the whole population.

  12. Metacercariae of Clinostomum attenuatum in Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium, Bufo cognatus and Spea multiplicata from west Texas.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Bursey, C R; Gray, M J; Smith, L M

    2004-12-01

    Tissues from barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium), Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) collected from 16 playa wetlands in Texas during 1999 and 2000 were examined by light microscopy. Digenean cysts were primarily distributed subcutaneously throughout the specimens and occasionally coelomic invasion was noted. The parasites within the cysts were 1.5-2 mm in diameter, with a thin (c. 10 microm wide) eosinophilic-staining tegument, two suckers (oral and ventral), posteriorly located primordial genitalia and paired digestive caeca. These digeneans were identified as the metacercariae of Clinostomum attenuatum. This is the first record of Clinostomum attenuatum in these amphibian species.

  13. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  14. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  15. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  16. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  17. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  18. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  19. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  20. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  1. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  2. Movements and habitat use of Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Treesearch

    Christina T. Liang

    2013-01-01

    The Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus (Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the central Sierra Nevada mountain range in California whose populations are in decline. There is limited information on their terrestrial movement and habitat use, which impairs our understanding of the ecology and habitat...

  3. Age-related seasonal variation in captures of stream-borne Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) in western Montana

    Treesearch

    Michael K. Young; David A. Schmetterling

    2009-01-01

    Like many species of amphibians, Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) are declining throughout portions of their range. Recent efforts have focused on describing the ecology of this species, yet few studies have evaluated demographic characteristics that may influence the persistence of Boreal Toad populations. Because Boreal Toads often...

  4. Post-breeding habitat use by adult boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Treesearch

    C. Gregory Guscio; Blake R. Hossack; Lisa A. Eby; Paul Stephen Corn

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial...

  5. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations

    Treesearch

    Kurtis R. Moseley; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo tmrestns) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands...

  6. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  7. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  8. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  9. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the boreal toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    Treesearch

    Blake R. Hossack; Paul Stephen Corn

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum...

  10. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  11. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  12. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    EPA Science Inventory


    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  13. Landing on branches in the frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Bijma, Nienke N; Gorb, Stanislav N; Kleinteich, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Frogs (Lissamphibia: Anura) are famous for their saltatory or hopping locomotion, which is related to numerous anatomical specialisations that are characteristic for the group. However, while the biomechanics of take-off in frogs have been studied in detail, much less is known on how frogs land after a jump. Besides terrestrial and aquatic species, several lineages of frogs adopted an arboreal lifestyle and especially the biomechanics of landing on challenging, small, and unpredictable substrates, such as leaves or branches, are virtually unknown. Here we studied the landing kinematics of the arboreal frog Trachycephalus resinifictrix (Hylidae) on a wooden stick that was used to mimic a small tree branch. We observed two different landing behaviours: (1) landing on the abdomen and (2) attachment with the toes of either the forelimb or the hindlimb. In the latter case, the frogs performed a cartwheel around the stick, while they were only attached by their adhesive toe pads. We estimated the forces that act on the toes during this behaviour to be up to fourteen times the body weight of the animals. This behaviour demonstrates the remarkable adhesive capabilities of the toe pads and the body control of the frogs.

  14. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-06-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Ye's spiny-vented frog Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is the only one species in the genus Yerana and the taxonomy of the Y. yei remains unresolved and controversial. The complete mitochondrial genome of Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) was sequenced in the present study, and it is a circular molecule of 17,072 bp in length and contains the 38 genes typically found in other anurans: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 23 transfer RNA genes (including an extra copy of tRNA(Met)). The order and orientation of the genes is the same as that found in other Paini species. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 58% (T, 29.4%; C, 27.3%; A, 28.6%; G, 14.7%) and the length of control region is 1580 bp with 67% A + T content.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly Hasora anura (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Juping; James John, Young; Xuan, Shanbin; Cao, Tianwen; Yuan, Xiangqun

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Hasora anura was sequenced and analyzed in the study. The mitogenome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15 290 bp, including 37 genes and a putative control region. All protein-coding genes, except for COI begins with the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans, start with a typical ATN initiation codon. Eleven genes terminate with TAA or TAG codons, and two genes use a single T residue as the termination codon. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) forms a simple loop. In the sampled species of Hesperiidae, Lobocla bifasciatus (Celaenorrhinus maculosus (Daimio Tethys, Ctenoptilum vasava)), Erynnis montanus, Carterocephalus silvicola, Ampittia dioscorides (Potanthus flavus (Ochlodes venata, Polytremis nascens)), Choaspes benjaminii (Hasora vitta, Hasora anura), are recovered in phylogenetic analyses with high supports.

  17. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  18. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M.

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  19. Lethal effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL) on amphibian Bufo arenarum embryos.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Liliana Elizabeth; Juárez, Américo Osvaldo; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2012-03-01

    The dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser which is used in popular medicine. Toxicity tests using embryos of amphibian have been widely used in order to predict toxic effects of different compounds. However, to our knowledge, there are not studies focussed on the toxic effects of dehydroleucodine on Bufo arenarum, which is an anuran widely distributed in South America. The effect of dehydroleucodine on the survival of embryos was evaluated in an acute test during the early life stage of B. arenarum embryos. Lethality and the degree of adverse effects were dehydroleucodine dose-dependent. Overall, amphibian early life stages appeared to be more susceptible to the embryotoxicity associated with exposure to dehydroleucodine, especially at concentration greater that 3mM. This increased susceptibility may result from the relatively high rate of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis that occurs at this early stage of development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD.

  1. Identification and characterization of gastrointestinal hormone immunoreactive cells in the skin and parotoids of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The skin and skin secretion of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the exact types and location of bioactive substances in Bufo gargarizans skin still have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution and density of six types of gastrointestinal (GI) hormone immunoreactive (IR) cells in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans. Immunohistochemistry was used for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of GI hormone presence in the dorsal and ventral skin, and parotoids of eight adult Chinese toads. Six types of IR cells were found: serotonin (5-HT), glucagon (GLU), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and neuropeptide Y(NPY) IR cells. They were mainly present in the epidermis and skin glands. 5-HT-IR cells were distributed in all layers of epidermis and glands, with higher density in the glands. Glucagon was prominently expressed in the epidermis and the bottle-shaped glands of parotoids; however, it was not present in the granular glands of skin and parotoids. The distributions of GAS and SS-IR cells were similar since they were present mainly in mucous, granular and bottle-shaped glands, while these cell types were absent in the differentiated glands of parotoids. PP-IR cells were predominant in the granular glands and the bottle-shaped glands. The expression of NPY was high in epidermal stratum granulosum and mucous glands of the dorsal skin, the bottle-shaped glands and differentiated glands of parotoids, while NPY-IR was rarely seen in the granular glands of ventral skin, and not present in the granular glands of dorsal skin and parotoids. The expression of several types of GI hormones in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans varies depending on tissue and type of glands.

  2. Structural analysis of oligosaccharide-alditols released by reductive beta-elimination from oviducal mucins of Bufo bufo: characterization of the carbohydrate sequence Gal(alpha1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal.

    PubMed

    Morelle, W; Strecker, G

    1997-09-01

    Several tri- to hexasaccharide-alditols of the jelly coat surrounding the eggs of Bufo bufo were studied by methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As observed for six other amphibian species, these carbohydrate chains are highly species-specific. The main characteristics of the species Bufo bufo consists in the presence of the new carbohydrate sequence Gal(alpha1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal, in which a blood group A determinant is substituted with an external alpha1-3 linked galactose unit. Since the role of carbohydrates appears more and more apparent during the fertilization processes, the species-specificity of these carbohydrate moieties should be relevant to the species-specific gamete recognition which characterizes most amphibians.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two brown frogs, Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    We first determined complete mitochondrial genomes of Rana dybowskii and Rana cf. chensinensis (Anura: Ranidae). The mitogenomic lengths of R. dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis were 18,864 and 18,808 bp, respectively. The two mitogenomes have similar gene compositions including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Rana dybowskii and R. cf. chensinensis mitogenomes displayed same gene order arrangements and similar base compositions with an A + T bias. Mitogenomic data of the two species contributed to provide molecular marker for their conservative genetics and clarified their phylogenetic position under mitogenome-based phylogeny of the genus Rana.

  4. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) in Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun (Uttarakhand), India.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bursey, Charles R

    2014-03-01

    Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Duttaphrynus himalayanus (Amphibia, Anura) from Dehradun, India is described and illustrated. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. represents the 21st species assigned to the genus and the 9th species from the Oriental biogeographical region. Cosmocercoides himalayanus sp. nov. differs from the previously described Oriental species in number and position of rosette papillae; it is the only species possessing 24 or more rosette papillae to have 4 postcloacal papillae. In addition, a list of species assigned to Cosmocercoides is provided; however, C. fotedari Arya, 1992 is removed from the genus and until further study is considered a species inquirenda.

  5. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Nematoda, Onchocercidae) a new filaria parasitizing Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Luis; Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Merlo-Serna, Aldo

    2014-09-01

    A new nematode species, Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. (Onchocercidae), is described from specimens found in the body cavity of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus) (Anura, Bufonidae), in the Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, in the Pacific slope of Mexico. The new species differs from the other nine species of Foleyellides by infecting bufonid anurans and by the number and arrangement of caudal papillae. Other distinguishing feature of the new species is the size of the left spicule (0.16-0.23 long), the smallest recorded among the species included in the genus. Foleyellides rhinellae sp. nov. is the second known species of the genus recorded from amphibians of Mexico.

  6. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians.

  7. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  8. Dermatan sulfate is the major metachromatic glycosaminoglycan in the integument of the anuran Bufo ictericus.

    PubMed

    Pelli, A A; Azevedo, R A; Cinelli, L P; Mourão, P A S; de Brito-Gitirana, L

    2007-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans from the ventral and dorsal integuments of the anuran Bufo ictericus were characterized based on biochemical and histochemical methods. Dermatan sulfate is the major metachromatic glycosaminoglycan found in these tissues, but small amount of heparan sulfate was also detected. The average molecular mass of the dermatan sulfate is approximately 20 kDa, similar to the glycosaminoglycan isolated from mammalian skin. In addition, the amphibian integument contains high amounts of hyaluronic acid, especially in the ventral area. We also observed that the glycosaminoglycans occur in the anuran integument as irregular deposits through the spongious dermis and in the mast cells, as revealed by histochemical analysis using Alcian blue, dimethylmethylene blue and toluidine blue stains. The concentration and composition of glycosaminoglycans found in the amphibian integument resemble those from mammalian skin except for the higher concentration of hyaluronic acid in the amphibian tissue. Possibly, this observation indicates that the function of the sulfated glycosaminoglycan in these tissues has been preserved during evolution, although the amphibian integument and the human skin have their own particular physiology.

  9. Bidder's organ of Bufo ictericus: a light and electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Farias, C F; Carvalho-e-Silva, S P; de Brito-Gitirana, L

    2002-01-01

    Male toads of the Bufonidae Family have rudimentary ovaries designated Bidder's organs, and if the testes are removed this organ develops into a functional ovary, representing a morphological strategy for the reproduction of the species. The Bidder's organ of Bufo ictericus was examined using routine and histochemical techniques by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Each Bidder's organ presented a typical ovarian morphology, being composed of a cortex and a medulla. Bidderian follicles in different stages of development were visualized in the cortex, where they are better developed. The germ cells exhibit a large oocyte with a round-shaped nucleus. The Bidderian follicles are supported by a loose net of reticular fibers. In the medullar region, collagen fibers were immersed in the matrix rich in blood vessels that also contained a small quantity of neutral glycoproteins rich in hexose and/or sialic acid and carboxylated polymers with a characteristic distribution of glycosaminoglycans. The oocyte and the follicular cells were separated by a narrow space containing microvilli. The oocyte exhibit a well developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum, a poorly developed Golgi apparatus, and occasional lysosomes. Concentric cisternal complexes are often visualized; however, their morphological significance remains unclear. The peroxisomes display a fine granular matrix without a crystalline core, with a weak 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-reaction. Intimate association between peroxisomes, peroxisomes and lipid inclusions was observed in the oocyte, suggesting its participation in yolk metabolism.

  10. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste.

    PubMed

    Ward, Chelsea K; Appel, Arthur G; Mendonça, Mary T

    2006-03-01

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3 %) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard (x control = 0.114 +/- 0.016 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1); x (ash)=0.109 +/- 0.013 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1), p = 0.08) or exercise metabolic rates (x control = 0.53 +/- 0.06 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1); x ash =0.44 +/- 0.04 mL O2 g(-1) h(-1), p = 0.47) plasma glucose levels (p = 0.6), and hepatic or muscle percentage indices (p > 0.2 in all cases) whether food was limited or not.

  11. Vitellogenesis in Bufo arenarum: Identification, characterization and immunolocalization of high molecular mass lipovitellin during oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Emma D.; Salicioni, Ana M.; Cabada, Marcelo O.; Arranz, Silvia E.

    2009-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg), a large lipoglycophosphoprotein, is the most important precursor of the yolk proteins, and the major source of nutrients for the developing embryo in oviparous species. After its uptake by the oocytes, Vtg is converted into lipovitellins (high and light) and phosvitin, which are deposited into crystalline yolk platelets. We describe here the presence of two high molecular mass lipovitellins isoforms in Bufo arenarum mature oocytes with masses of 113 and 100 kDa, respectively. The amino acid sequence analysis of p113 and p100 peptides showed a high sequence homology between both polypeptides and the complete reported sequences of Xenopus laevis vitellogenin. Using specific antibodies, we determined that the Vtg uptake begins early during oogenesis, at the previtellogenic stage, and continues until oocytes have reached their mature status. In addition, we found that large endocytic vesicles mediate Vtg uptake in stage I oocytes, and that the size of the endocytic vesicles declines with oogenesis progression. In terms of the Vtg protein trafficking, we detected the Vtg precursor (190 kDa) in the liver of estradiol-injected females. Finally, we propose a subclassification of B. arenarum stage-II oocytes into three physiologically and morphologically distinct periods (early, mid and late). PMID:19932187

  12. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Subcellular localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity during nuclear maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Inés; Cisint, Susana B; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

    2009-08-01

    The localization of calcium and Ca-ATPase activity in Bufo arenarum oocytes was investigated by ultracytochemical techniques during progesterone-induced nuclear maturation, under in vitro conditions. No Ca2+ deposits were detected in either control oocytes or progesterone-treated ones for 1-2 h. At the time when nuclear migration started, electron dense deposits of Ca2+ were visible in vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and in the space between the annulate lamellae membranes. Furthermore, Ca-ATPase activity was also detected in these membrane structures. As maturation progressed, the cation deposits were observed in the cytomembrane structures, which underwent an important reorganization and redistribution. Thus, they moved from the subcortex and became located predominantly in the oocyte cortex area when nuclear maturation ended. Ca2+ stores were observed in vesicles surrounding or between the cortical granules, which are aligned close to the plasma membrane. The positive Ca-ATPase reaction in these membrane structures could indicate that the calcium deposit is an ATP-dependent process. Our results suggest that during oocyte maturation calcium would be stored in membrane structures where it remains available for release at the time of fertilization. Data obtained under our experimental conditions indicate that calcium from the extracellular medium would be important for the oocyte maturation process.

  14. Experimental repatriation of boreal toad (Bufo boreas) eggs, metamorphs, and adults in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Johnson, T.L.; Corn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The boreal toad (Bufo boreas) is an endangered species in Colorado and is considered a candidate species for federal listing by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Boreal toads are absent from many areas of suitable habitat in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado presumably due to a combination of causes. We moved boreal toads from existing populations and from captive rearing facilities to habitat which was historically, but is not currently, occupied by toads to experimentally examine methods of repatriation for this species. Repatriation is defined as the release of individuals into areas currently of historically occupied by that species (Dodd and Seigel, 1991). This effort was in response to one of the criteria for delisting the boreal toad in Colorado stated in the conservation plan and agreement for the management and recovery of the Southern Rocky Mountain population of the boreal toad (Loeffler, 1998:16); a??a?|there must be at least 2 viable breeding populations of boreal toads in each of at least 9 of 11 mountain ranges of its historic distribution.a?? Without moving eggs from established wild populations, or from captivity to historical localities, it is doubtful whether the recovery team will attain this ambitions goal.

  15. Chronic toxicity of copper on embryo development in Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kun; Zhao, Hongfeng; Wu, Minyao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effects of copper exposure on embryonic development of Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans. Firstly, the LC(50) values from 24 to 96 h of exposure were 3.61×10(-6) M, by means of a 4 d toxicity test with B. gargarizans embryos. Secondly, Chinese toad embryos were exposed to 10(-9)-10(-6) M copper from mid gastrula stage to operculum completion stage. Measurements included mortality, tadpole weight, tadpole total length, growth retardation, duration of different embryo stages and malformation. Embryonic survival was not affected by copper. Relative to control tadpoles, significantly decreased weight and total length were found at 10(-9)-10(-6) M reduced percentage of the embryos in right operculum stage after 10 d exposure to copper and reduced percentage of embryos in operculum completion stage after 12 d exposure to copper were also observed. Moreover, the duration of embryonic development increased at neural, circulation and operculum development stage in copper-treated groups. For the scanning microscope and histological observation, the abnormalities were malformation of wavy dorsal fin, flexural tail, curvature body axis, yolk sac oedema and reduced pigmentation in the yolk sac. Histopathological changes in olfactory, retinal epithelium and skin were also observed. DNA strand breaks exposed to the copper were analyzed by DNA ladder. In conclusion, copper induced toxic effects on B. gargarizans embryos. The present study indicated chronic toxicity tests may provide more accurate way in formulating the "safe levels" of heavy metals to amphibian.

  16. Ultrastructural and molecular changes in the developing small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Sakr, S A; Badawy, G M; El-Borm, H T

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  17. In vitro cardiotoxicity and mechanism of action of the Egyptian green toad Bufo viridis skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Sherifa Hamid; Nabil, Zohour I

    2010-03-01

    Amphibian skin secretions are considered a rich source of biologically active compounds and are known to be rich in bufadienolides, peptides and alkaloids. Bufadienolides are cardioactive steroids derived from animals and plants as well. The current study was conducted to investigate the influence of skin secretions of the Egyptian green toad Bufo viridis (SSBV) on the cardiac electrical activity. Isolated toad's heart was used to reveal the mechanism of action. Application of SSBV (40microg/ml) into isolated toad's heart significantly decreased the heart rate (HR) accompanied by an elongation in the conduction time (P-R interval). A pronounced increase of the ventricular contraction (R-wave amplitude) was observed after SSBV application. Marked electrocardiographic changes were induced within minutes (5-20min) of SSBV perfusion of the isolated hearts; such as sinus arrhythmias, junctional ectopic beats, negative QRS deflection, ventricular tachycardia and heart block. The mechanism of action of SSBV was studied by direct application of different autonomic and ion channels antagonists (atropine sulphate, propranolol and verapamil) to isolated toad's heart. Neither atropine nor verapamil could attenuate the noticed negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects. Meanwhile, post-treatment with propranolol decreased R-wave amplitude. Taken together, it can be concluded that: (i) SSBV has a negative chronotropic, dromotropic and positive inotropic effects on isolated toad's heart; (ii) the reported effects of SSBV could be due to inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and through ss-adrenergic receptors.

  18. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    PubMed Central

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-01-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [Ma] and expected heterozygosity [HE]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (Fst ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (Ma from 13.6 to 8.3, HE from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period. PMID:22957202

  19. [Effects of different stocking density and diet on development of Bufo gargarizans tadpoles].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-de; Zhao, Qun; Kang, Yan; Gao, Bo; Li, Deng-Lin; Yang, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of four different stocking densities and five different diets on the growth of Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were studied to determine the optimum stocking density and diet. For stocking density experiment, the tadpoles were fed respectively at different density of 200, 500, 1 000 and 2 000 tadpoles per square meter. For diet experiment, the tadpoles were divided into five groups fed respectively with five different diets. The body weight, snout-vent length and tail length were measured every seven days, and mortality was recorded. The results showed that: the survival rates of tadpole before metamorphosis and after metamorphosis were from 68.7% to 96.3% and from 5.7% to 36.0%, respectively; the optimum stocking density is 1 000 tadpoles per square meter for the stocking density had no effect on the survival rate of tadpole before metamorphosis, and the tadpoles had the relative large body weight and survival numbers in 1000 tadpoles per square meter; the diet Ⅱ(37.9% crude protein and 5.7% crude fat), Ⅳ (25.1% crude protein and 4.0% crude fat), and Ⅴ (egg yolk) were all the optimum diets for the diet had no effect on the survival rate of tadpole before metamorphosis and the tadpoles fed with three kinds of diet above had relatively large body weight, and one of these three diets based on their availability and cost should be adopted during breeding period. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. The effect of UV-B radiation on Bufo arenarum embryos survival and superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; D'Eramo, J L; Fridman, O

    2006-03-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m(2) resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m(2) was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m(2) at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 +/- 14.29, 74.5 +/- 13.19, 39.5 +/- 6.99 and 10.7 +/- 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 +/- 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  1. Effects of body temperature and hydration state on organismal performance of toads, Bufo americanus.

    PubMed

    Preest, Marion R; Pough, F Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Temperature and humidity are dominant environmental variables affecting performance of nocturnal, terrestrial amphibians. Toads are frequently active at body temperatures (T(b)) and hydration states (HS) that yield suboptimal performance. We investigated the combined effects of T(b) and HS on feeding, locomotion, and metabolism of Bufo americanus. More toads responded to the presence of prey when fully hydrated than when dehydrated, and times to orient to prey, maneuver around a barrier, and reach prey were less in hydrated than in dehydrated animals. Time to capture prey decreased with increasing T(b) in fully hydrated, but not dehydrated, toads, and hydrated animals caught prey more rapidly than did dehydrated animals. Distance traveled in 5 min and aerobic scope were affected by T(b). Generally, individuals that performed well in the feeding experiments at a particular T(b) and HS also performed well at a different T(b) and HS. The same was true for distance traveled and aerobic scope. However, within combinations of T(b) and HS, correlations between performance variables were minimal. Specialization of a particular variable resulting in high performance at a certain T(b) and HS does not appear to exact a cost in terms of performance at a different T(b) and HS.

  2. Chronic Effects of Fluoride Exposure on Growth, Metamorphosis, and Skeleton Development in Bufo gargarizans Larvae.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Dong, Suiming

    2017-04-01

    Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were chronically exposed to waterborne fluoride at measured concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 61.2 mg F(-)/L for 70 days from Gosner stage 26 to completion of metamorphosis. The chronic exposure caused a concentration-dependent mortality in all tested fluoride concentrations. Total length, snout-to-vent length (SVL), body mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles were significantly inhibited at 42.6 mg F(-)/L. In addition, significant metamorphic delay and increase in size at completion of metamorphosis occurred after exposure to 19.8 mg F(-)/L. Moreover, 19.8 mg F(-)/L suppressed the bone mineralization of larvae at completion of metamorphosis. However, the bone mineralization could be enhanced by 4.1 mg F(-)/L. In conclusion, our results suggested that the presence of high concentrations of fluoride could increase mortality risk, delay metamorphosis, and suppress skeletal ossification in B. gargarizans larvae.

  3. Quantifying Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park with landscape genetics.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Melanie A; Evans, Jeffrey S; Storfer, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A major objective of ecology is to understand how ecological processes limit population connectivity and species' distributions. By spatially quantifying ecological components driving functional connectivity, we can understand why some locally suitable habitats are unoccupied, resulting in observed discontinuities in distribution. However, estimating connectivity may be difficult due to population stochasticity and violations of assumptions of parametric statistics. To address these issues, we present a novel application of Random Forests to landscape genetic data. We address the effects of three key ecological components on Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park: ecological process, scale, and hierarchical organization. Habitat permeability, topographic morphology, and temperature-moisture regime are all significant ecological processes associated with B. boreas connectivity. Connectivity was influenced by growing-season precipitation, 1988 Yellowstone fires, cover, temperature, impervious surfaces (roads and development), and topographic complexity (56% variation explained). We found that habitat permeability generally operates on fine scales, while topographic morphology and temperature-moisture regime operate across multiple scales, thus demonstrating the importance of cross-scale analysis for ecological interpretation. In a hierarchical analysis, we were able to explain more variation within genetic clusters as identified using Structure (a Bayesian algorithm) (74%; dispersal cover, growing-season precipitation, impervious surfaces) as opposed to between genetic clusters (45%; ridgelines, hot, dry slopes, length of hot season, and annual precipitation). Finally, the analytical methods we developed are powerful and can be applied to any species or system with appropriate landscape and genetic data.

  4. Genetic comparison of water molds from embryos of amphibians Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas and Pseudacris regilla.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kori K; Johnson, James E; Pinkart, Holly C; Wagner, R Steven

    2012-06-13

    Water molds that cause the disease saprolegniasis have been implicated in widespread mortality of amphibian embryos. However, because of the limitations of traditional identification methods, water mold species involved in die-offs or utilized in ecological studies often remain unidentified or identified only as Saprolegnia ferax. Furthermore, water mold taxonomy requires revision, so very distinct organisms may all be called S. ferax. Recent DNA-based studies indicate that the diversity of water molds infecting amphibian embryos is significantly higher than what was previously known, but these studies rely on culture methods, which may be biased towards taxa that grow best under laboratory conditions. In this study, total embryo-associated DNA was extracted from 3 amphibian species in a pond in central Washington, USA. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of DNA was amplified with primers capable of amplifying a broad array of eukaryotic microorgansisms, and was used to construct clone libraries. Individual clones were sequenced and relationships among newly recovered sequences and previously studied taxa were analyzed using phylogenetics. These methods recovered several new taxa in association with amphibian embryos. Samples grouped into 11 distinct phylotypes with ITS sequence differences ranging from 4 to 28%. The water mold communities recovered differed among Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas, and Pseudacris regilla egg masses. Furthermore, the diversity of water molds increased as egg masses aged, and members comprising this diversity changed over time.

  5. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  6. Dermatitis in captive Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) associated with Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Trupkiewicz, John G; Armbrust, Amy L; Geiser, David M; Armstrong, Sarah; Garner, Michael M; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2010-10-01

    From May 2007 to June 2008, 30 of 49 Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) kept at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Nebraska, USA) died showing clinical signs of ventral erythema, inappetance, lethargy, and delayed righting reflex. Treatment with antifungals and antibiotics was unsuccessful in all cases. Histopathologic analyses revealed dermatitis as the primary problem in 20 of 21 toads in which skin was examined. Fungal dermatitis was present in 17 toads, with hyphae approximately 1-3 μm in diameter, and parallel cell walls and frequent septations. In 14 animals, the fungal dermatitis was the main pathologic lesion. Several species of bacteria were associated with all cases. A few animals tested positive for Ranavirus using polymerase chain reaction. Fusarium sp. was consistently cultured from skin, feces, kidneys, and from powdered food provided to crickets. Four isolates were identified as Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Fusarium verticillioides, which suggested a secondary role of fungi. A specific underlying cause of disease could not be found, although the roles of humidity and Ranavirus infection are discussed, along with the well-known susceptibility of bufonids to fungal dermatitis.

  7. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  8. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  9. Measuring energetics and behaviour using accelerometry in cane toads Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; White, Craig R

    2010-04-21

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R(2) = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species.

  10. High degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the Japanease common toad Bufo japonicus in urban Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hase, Kazuko; Shimada, Masakazu; Nikoh, Naruo

    2012-10-01

    The Japanese common toad Bufo japonicus is widely distributed across mainland Japan and is classified into two subspecies, B. japonicus japonicus and B. japonicus formosus, in the western and eastern regions, respectively. To investigate the genetic diversity of B. japonicus at the breeding pond (local population) level, we sequenced 831 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (Cyt b) from 75 individuals collected from nine ponds in urban Tokyo and the surrounding area. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed high mtDNA haplotype diversity (Hd, 0.716 (mean) ± 0.230 (SD)) within local populations (breeding ponds). Most local populations had multiple haplotypes of the mitochondrial Cyt b gene, and seven of the 18 haplotypes were identified in two or more local populations. These results indicate that mitochondrial gene flow had occurred across different breeding sites. We also identified five haplotypes that belonged to the western clade and correspond to B. japonicus japonicus. Our results provide genetic evidence that B. japonicus japonicus was introduced artificially from Western Japan to Tokyo, where it occupied the natural habitat of B. japonicus formosus. The urban Tokyo area was found to represent an admixed population consisting of both native and non-native B. japonicus subspecies.

  11. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-08-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [M(a)] and expected heterozygosity [H(E)]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (F(st) ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (M(a) from 13.6 to 8.3, H(E) from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period.

  12. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos. [Bufo arenarum

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing /sup 14/C-labeled phospholipids and /sup 3/H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth.

  13. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE URINARY BLADDER OF THE TOAD, BUFO MARINUS

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Kwon

    1963-01-01

    The urinary bladder of the toad (Bufo marinus) was studied with both the light and the electron microscope. The bladder wall consists of epithelium, submucosa, and serosa. In the epithelium, four different cell types were recognized on the basis of their fine structure and staining properties with several different dyes. These four were designated as granular cells, mitochondria-rich cells, mucous cells, and basal cells. In addition, migratory cells of a different type were found in the basal region of the epithelium. The luminal surface of the epithelial cells presents irregular microvilli and is coated by PAS-positive material which has been further investigated by histochemical procedures and radioautography. Included is a description of the fine structural details of cell membranes, cell junctions, and intracellular components. The submucosa consists of a delicate stroma of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and also contains blood and lymph vessels, unmyelinated nerves, migratory cells, and smooth muscle cells. The serosa consists of a single layer of serosal (mesothelial) cells which form an uninterrupted covering of the viscus. Possible pathways of sodium and water transport across the bladder wall are discussed. PMID:14020969

  14. Expression of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes during early embryogenesis in the amphibian Bufo arenarum.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bussy, Rodrigo; Mouguelar, Valeria; Banchio, Claudia; Coux, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    In the principal route of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis the regulatory steps are catalysed by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and choline kinase (CK). Knock-out mice in Pcyt1a (CCT gene) and Chka1 (CK gene) resulted in preimplantation embryonic lethality, demonstrating the essential role of this pathway. However, there is still a lack of detailed CCT and CK expression analysis during development. The aim of the current work was to study the expression during early development of both enzymes in the external-fertilization vertebrate Bufo arenarum. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot confirmed their presence in unfertilized eggs. Analysis performed in total extracts from staged embryos showed constant protein levels of both enzymes until the 32-cell stage: then they decreased, reaching a minimum in the gastrula before starting to recover. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase is an amphitropic enzyme that inter-converts between cytosolic inactive and membrane-bound active forms. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the cytosolic:total CCT protein ratio does not change throughout embryogenesis, suggesting a progressive decline of CCT activity in early development. However, PC (and phosphatidylethanolamine) content per egg/embryo remained constant throughout the stages analysed. In conclusion, the current data for B. arenarum suggest that net synthesis of PC mediated by CCT and CK is not required in early development and that supplies for membrane biosynthesis are fulfilled by lipids already present in the egg/embryo reservoirs.

  15. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  16. Toxic effects of NH4(+)-N on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongzhang; Chai, Lihong; Luo, Pingping; Zhou, Meimei; Nover, Daniel; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-09-01

    Although nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used worldwide, little information is currently available about NH4(+)-N toxicity on amphibians. This study determined the acute and chronic toxic effects of NH4(+)-N on two native Chinese amphibian species (Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis), and compared the negative sensitivity of different embryos to NH4(+)-N. Static renewal aqueous exposures were performed using B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos at Gosner stage 2 over 96 h. In terms of 96 h-LC50, B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos had significantly different responses to NH4(+)-N, and the latter was more sensitive to NH4(+)-N than the former. In the chronic toxicity test, exposure to 10 mg L(-1)NH4(+)-N or higher significantly decreased the hatching rate of embryos in both species. Significant increases in the abnormality rate of embryos at 50 mg L(-1)NH4(+)-N or higher were observed and morphological abnormalities were characterized by axial flexures, yolk sac edema, and hyperplasia in both species. Additionally, the total length of embryos decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to NH4(+)-N. The results indicate that NH4(+)-N exposure can increase abnormality and inhibit the hatching and development of embryos in B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New species of Prosotocus (Digenea; Pleurogenidae) and other helminths in Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Rizvi, Anjum N; Maity, Pallab

    2015-09-01

    Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. (Digenea, Pleurogenidae) from the intestine of the water skipper, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (Anura, Dicroglossidae), from Punjab, India is described and illustrated. Prosotocus punjabensis sp. nov. is the 13th Oriental species assigned to the genus and is separated from its congeners based upon the morphology of the vitellaria and cecal terminations. In addition, E. cyanophlyctis was found to harbour three species of Nematoda, Aplectana macintoshii, Cosmocerca kalesari and an unidentified species assigned to Cosmocerca.

  18. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  19. Participation of inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors in Bufo arenarum oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2011-05-01

    Calcium is considered the most important second messenger at fertilization. Transient release from intracellular stores is modulated through both agonist-gated channels, IP₃Rs and RyRs, which can be found individually or together depending on the oocyte species. Using the four commonly used compounds (thimerosal, caffeine, heparin and ruthenium red), we investigated the existence and interdependence of both IP₃Rs and RyRs in mature Bufo arenarum oocytes. We found that caffeine, a well known specific RyRs agonist, was able to trigger oocyte activation in a dose-dependent manner. Microinjection of 10 mM caffeine showed 100% of oocytes exhibiting characteristic morphological criteria of egg activation. Ruthenium red, the specific RyR blocker, was able to inhibit oocyte activation induced either by sperm or caffeine. Our present findings provide the first reported evidence of the existence of RyR in frogs. We further explored the relationship between IP₃Rs and RyRs in B. arenarum oocytes by exposing them to the agonists of one class after injecting a blocker of the other class of receptor. We found that thimerosal overcame the inhibitory effect of RyR on oocyte activation, indicating that IP₃Rs function as independent receptors. In contrast, previous injection of heparin delayed caffeine-induced calcium release, revealing a relative dependence of RyRs on functional IP₃Rs, probably through a CICR mechanism. Both receptors play a role in Ca²+ release mechanisms although their relative contribution to the activation process is unclear.

  20. Bufo arenarum egg jelly coat: purification and characterization of two highly glycosylated proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, S E; Albertali, I E; Cabada, M O

    1997-01-01

    Egg jelly coats from Bufo arenarum are formed by components secreted along the oviduct. These secretion products overlay the oocytes as they transit along the different oviductal portions. In this study, we have isolated two highly glycosylated proteins of the jelly coat, which are secreted almost all the way along the oviduct. Both glycoproteins [designated as highly glycosylated protein (HGP) and low-molecular-mass highly glycosylated protein (L-HGP)] were purified to homogeneity, from the secretion of the caudal oviduct portion, by CsCl density gradient ultracentrifugation. HGP is a high-molecular-mass protein with mucin-like characteristics: high viscosity, a high content of serine and threonine, about 70% carbohydrate by weight, and a protease-resistant domain. Cleavage of disulphide bridges with reducing agents resulted in the release of a single subunit (300000 Da). L-HGP is also a disulphide-cross-linked protein with lower apparent monomeric molecular mass, in the range 100-120 kDa and containing 50% carbohydrate by weight. HGP contains galactose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and sialic acid, but no mannose, suggesting the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides exclusively. The secretion ratio of HGP increases from cephalic (16% of total protein in pars preconvoluta) to caudal (40% of total protein in pars convoluta) oviductal portions. It appears to be the major structural component of the jelly coat. Our purification data suggest that HGP is non-covalently linked to the other egg jelly proteins. Polyclonal antiserum to each purified glycoprotein from secretion was raised in rabbits and used to localize both glycoproteins in the different oviductal portions, total egg jelly and the aqueous medium where oocyte strings were incubated. HGP forms a stable fibre matrix around the oocyte. L-HGP is present in the jelly coat and is released into the incubation medium. PMID:9173897

  1. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2002-07-01

    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport.

  2. Effect of dehydroleucodine on meiosis reinitiation in Bufo arenarum denuded oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Toranzo, G; Giordano, O S; López, L A; Bühler, M I

    2007-05-01

    In amphibian oocytes meiosis, the transition from G2 to M phase is regulated by the maturation promoting factor (MPF), a complex of the cyclin-dependent kinase p34/cdc2 and cyclin B. In immature oocytes there is an inactive complex (pre-MPF), in which cdc2 is phosphorylated on both Thr-161 and Thr-14/Tyr-15 residues. The dephosphorylation of Thr-14/Tyr-15 is necessary for the start of MPF activation and it is induced by the activation of cdc25 phosphatase. Late, to complete the activation, a small amount of active MPF induces an auto-amplification loop of MPF stimulation (MPF amplification). Dehydroleucodine (DhL) is a sesquiterpenic lactone that inhibits mammalian cell proliferation in G2. We asked whether DhL interferes with MPF activation. For this question, the effect of DhL (up to 30 microM) on the resumption of meiosis was evaluated, and visualized by germinal vesicle break down (GVBD), of Bufo arenarum oocytes induced in vitro by either: (i) removing follicle cells; (ii) progesterone stimulation; (iii) VG-content injection; or (iv) injection of mature cytoplasm. The results show that DhL induced GVBD inhibition, in a dose-dependent manner, in spontaneous and progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Nevertheless, DhL at the doses assayed had no effect on GVBD induced by mature cytoplasm injection, but exerted an inhibitory effect on GVBD induced by GV content. On the basis of these results, we interpreted that DhL does not inhibit MPF amplification and that the target of DhL is any event in the early stages of the cdc25 activation cascade.

  3. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide availability and bioconcentration across soil types is not well understood. The present study was designed to compare uptake of 5 current-use pesticides (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, and pendimethalin) in American toads (Bufo americanus) from exposure on soils with significant organic matter content differences (14.1% = high organic matter and 3.1% = low organic matter). We placed toads on high- or low-organic matter soil after applying individual current-use pesticides on the soil surface for an 8-h exposure duration. Whole body tissue homogenates and soils were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine pesticide tissue and soil concentration, as well as bioconcentration factor in toads. Tissue concentrations were greater on the low-organic matter soil than the high-organic matter soil across all pesticides (average ± standard error; 1.23 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.23 ppm, respectively), and bioconcentration was significantly higher for toads on the low-organic matter soil (analysis of covariance p = 0.002). Soil organic matter is known to play a significant role in the mobility of pesticides and bioavailability to living organisms. Agricultural soils typically have relatively lower organic matter content and serve as a functional habitat for amphibians. The potential for pesticide accumulation in amphibians moving throughout agricultural landscapes may be greater and should be considered in conservation and policy efforts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2734-2741. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Effects of nitrate on metamorphosis, thyroid and iodothyronine deiodinases expression in Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Chai, Lihong; Zhao, Hongfeng; Wu, Minyao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2015-11-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to nitrate (10, 50 and 100mg/L NO3-N) from the beginning of the larval period through metamorphic climax. We examined the effects of chronic nitrate exposure on metamorphosis, mortality, body size and thyroid gland. In addition, thyroid hormone (TH) levels, type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio3) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Results showed that significant metamorphic delay and mortality increased were caused in larvae exposed to 100mg/L NO3-N. The larvae exposed to 100mg/L NO3-N clearly exhibited a greater reduction in thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels. Moreover, treatment with NO3-N induced down-regulation of Dio2 mRNA levels and up-regulation of Dio3 mRNA levels, reflecting the disruption of thyroid endocrine. It seems that increased mass and body size may be correlated with prolonged metamorphosis. Interestingly, we observed an exception that exposure to 100mg/L NO3-N did not exhibit remarkable alterations of thyroid gland size. Compared with control groups, 100mg/L NO3-N caused partial colloid depletion in the thyroid gland follicles. These results suggest that nitrate can act as a chemical stressor inducing retardation in development and metamorphosis. Therefore, we concluded that the presence of high concentrations nitrate can influence the growth, decline the survival, impair TH synthesis and induce metamorphosis retardation of B. gargarizans larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE PAGES

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; ...

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore » affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  7. THE MATING SYSTEM GENETICALLY AFFECTS OFFSPRING PERFORMANCE IN WOODHOUSE'S TOAD (BUFO WOODHOUSEI).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sandra L

    1990-05-01

    To determine if the nonrandom, non-resource-based mating system of Bufo woodhousei affects tadpole performance, I performed a series of controlled matings and reared the tadpoles to metamorphosis in the laboratory and field. I asked whether differences in paternal identity, mating status, or body size were related to differences in tadpole mass, larval period duration, metamorphic mass, or survival of offspring. Although both laboratory and field rearings indicated that male and female parentage affected most offspring traits, no correspondence existed between either laboratory and field metamorphic mass or laboratory and field survival of offspring sired by the same male. The lack of correspondence between sire breeding values in the laboratory and field for two of three traits raises doubts as to the validity of drawing conclusions concerning how evolution might be expected to work from laboratory studies. Paternal effects were more pronounced in the field than in the laboratory, despite what is usually presumed to be a greater amount of environmental variation in the field. In the laboratory neither sire body size nor mating status affected any trait, but in the field larger males produced offspring that were 10% heavier at transformation than offspring sired by small males. This predictable relationship between sire phenotype (body size) and offspring performance means that nonrandom mating based on male body size could have a directional effect on offspring performance. Because larger males mate disproportionately often in this population (Woodward, 1982a; Mitchell, unpubl.), the mating system may exert a directional effect on metamorphic body size. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Ranking Landscape Development Scenarios Affecting Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) Population Dynamics in Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Kamila W.; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios. PMID:23734223

  9. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  10. Chronic effects of triclosan on embryonic development of Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Deng, Hongzhang

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is commonly used worldwide in a range of personal care and sanitizing products. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of TCS exposure on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans, an endemic frog species in China. Standard Gosner stage 3 B. gargarizans embryos were exposed to 10 ~ 150 μg/L TCS during embryogenesis. Survival, total length, weight, developmental stage, duration of different embryo stages, malformation, and type II and III deiodinase (D2 and D3) expression were measured. Inhibitory effects on embryo developmental stage, total length and weight were found at 30 ~ 150 μg/L TCS. Moreover, the duration of embryonic development was increased at gastrula, neural, circulation, and operculum development stage in TCS-treated groups. In addition, TCS exposure induced morphological malformations in B. gargarizans embryos, which are characterized by hyperplasia, abdominal edema, and axial flexures. Furthermore, our results showed that the expression of D2 in embryos was probably down-regulated at 60 and 150 μg/L TCS, but its spatial expression patterns was not affected by TCS. In summary, our study suggested that TCS exposure not only resulted in delayed growth and development but also caused teratogenic effects in B. gargarizans embryos, and the developmental effects of TCS at high concentrations may be associated with disruption of THs homeostasis. Although further studies are necessary, the present findings could provide a basis for understanding on harmful effects and the potential mechanisms of TCS in amphibian embryos.

  11. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) population dynamics in Central Poland.

    PubMed

    Franz, Kamila W; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  12. Agriculture Alters Gonadal Form and Function in the Toad Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Krista A.; Bortnick, Lauriel J.; Campbell, Chelsey M.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J.; St. Mary, Colette M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many agricultural contaminants disrupt endocrine systems of wildlife. However, evidence of endocrine disruption in wild amphibians living in agricultural areas has been controversial. Typically, studies on the effects of pollutants on wildlife attempt to compare polluted with unpolluted sites. Objectives We took a novel approach to address this question by explicitly quantifying the relationship between gonadal abnormalities and habitats characterized by differing degrees of agricultural activity. Methods We quantified the occurrence of gonadal abnormalities and measures of gonadal function in at least 20 giant toads (Bufo marinus) from each of five sites that occur along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use from 0 to 97%. Results The number of abnormalities and frequency of intersex gonads increased with agriculture in a dose-dependent fashion. These gonadal abnormalities were associated with altered gonadal function. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, concentrations were altered and secondary sexual traits were either feminized (increased skin mottling) or demasculinized (reduced forearm width and nuptial pad number) in intersex toads. Based on the end points we examined, female morphology and physiology did not differ across sites. However, males from agricultural areas had hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits that were intermediate between intersex toads and non-agricultural male toads. Skin coloration at the most agricultural site was not sexually dimorphic; males had female coloration. Conclusions Steroid hormone concentrations and secondary sexual traits correlate with reproductive activity and success, so affected toads likely have reduced reproductive success. These reproductive abnormalities could certainly contribute to amphibian population declines occurring in areas exposed to agricultural contaminants. PMID:19057706

  13. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  14. Abundance and reproduction of toads (Bufo) along a regulated river in the southwestern United States: Importance of flooding in riparian ecosystems

    Treesearch

    H. L. Bateman; M. J. Harner; A. Chung-MacCoubrey

    2008-01-01

    Abundance and size of toads (Bufo woodhousii and B. cognatus) were related to precipitation, river flow, and groundwater over 7 years along the Middle Rio Grande, a regulated river in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Toads were monitored in riparian areas at 12 sites spanning 140 km of river during summers 2000­2006....

  15. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  16. Heavy metal contamination in the river toad, Bufo juxtasper (Inger), near a copper mine in East Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yook Heng; Stuebing, R.B. )

    1990-08-01

    Mining of metals creates a potential source of heavy metal contamination in the environment. An open pit copper mine situated in the Northwest of Sabah, East Malaysia has been known to pollute its surroundings especially with discharges involving heavy metals. Although extensive investigations of heavy metal pollution has been carried out, none of the studies performed so far has included amphibians as indicator of heavy metal contamination in the area. As amphibians live both on land and in water, a study on the heavy metal content of these animals will thus enable a more extensive evaluation of the degree of contamination by heavy metals. Bufo juxtasper was chosen since it inhabits the rocky streams and rivers which exist in both a polluted and non-polluted condition in Sabah. Its' tadpoles are herbivorous feeding mainly on plant detritus, while adults feed principally on ants (which are polyphagous). Furthermore the large adult size of Bufo juxtasper, in which the size of the liver has an allometric relationship with body size, may allow for differentiation between larval and adult uptake through regression analysis. Thus concentration of pollutants acquired only during the larval phase should show a declining or negative slope as a function of body size in adults.

  17. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C

    2002-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  18. New species of Falcaustra (Nematoda: Kathlaniidae) in Nyctimystes cheesmani (Anura: Hylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-02-01

    Falcaustra batrachiensis n. sp. (Ascaridida, Kathlaniidae) from the large intestine of Nyctimystes cheesmani (Anura, Hylidae) is described and illustrated. Falcaustra batrachiensis represents the fifth Australo-Papuan species assigned to the genus and is distinguished from other Australo-Papuan species by the distribution pattern of the caudal papillae (8 precloacal, 2 adcloacal, 6 postcloacal, and 1 median), length of spicules (1.4-1.6 mm) and presence of pseudosuckers (5 or 6). Nyctimystes cheesmani was found to harbor 7 additional species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca novaeguineae, Maxvachonia ewersi, Meteterakis crombiei, Physalopteroides milnensis, Pseudorictularia dipsarilis, Seuratascaris numidica, larvae in cysts of Abbreviata sp., and 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus bufonis. Nyctimystes cheesmani represents a new host record for each of these helminth species.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Jie; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the green odorous frog Odorrana margaretae (Anura: Ranidae) has been studied. The 17,903 bp circular genome contains the typical complement of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The AT content of the overall base compositon of H-strand is 56% and the length of control region is 2501 bp with 63.8% AT content. The arrangement of the protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes was the same as that found in other anurans. The cluster of rearranged LTPF tRNA genes and the translocation of tRNA(His) gene into the D-loop region are observed.

  20. Phylogeography of the fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao

    2011-04-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of Taiwanese fanged dicroglossine frog, Limnonectes fujianensis (Anura, Ranidae), was conducted to examine its genetic diversification using sequence data from a portion of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b sequences. We collected genetic data from 200 individuals at 23 localities in Taiwan and three localities in China. A neighbor-joining tree of 39 haplotypes revealed two clades in Taiwan and a clade in China, each showing restricted geographical distribution. The pattern of geographical divergence suggests a single invasion into Taiwan. Divergence times between clades were inferred using molecular clock tests. The population relationship of L. fujianensis between Taiwan and mainland China, and the phylogenetic relationships with its congeners, e.g., L. bannaensis, L. fragilis and L. kuhlii, were obtained and discussed.

  1. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613

  2. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation.

  3. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  4. Seven new microendemic species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil.

  5. Water uptake by Bufo melanostictus, as affected by osmotic gradients, vasopressin and temperature.

    PubMed

    Dicker, S E; Elliott, A B

    1967-05-01

    1. The rate of water uptake across the skin was studied in the live toad, Bufo melanostictus. When toads were kept in distilled water at 29 degrees C the uptake of water amounted to 16.9 +/- 1.3 mul./cm(2)/hr; when bathed in sucrose or urea solutions, the water uptake diminished with increasing osmotic pressure. There was no water uptake observed when toads were kept in 200 m-osmolar sucrose or urea.2. Intramuscular injections of vasopressin increased the rate of water uptake from distilled water. There was a good relation between doses and responses over various time intervals. A dose of 4 m-u. vasopressin/g body wt. doubled the rate of water uptake over a period of 1 hr. The same dose of vasopressin doubled the rate of water uptake when the toads were kept in solutions of sucrose or urea of different osmolarity.3. The rate of water uptake when the toads were bathed in sodium chloride solutions was consistently 8 mul./cm(2)/hr greater than when bathed in sucrose or urea solutions of equal osmolarity. There was no water uptake when the sodium chloride solution was 285 m-osmolar.4. Vasopressin (4 m-u./g) injected intramuscularly doubled the rate of water uptake from sodium chloride solutions of different osmolarity.5. With solutions of potassium chloride, sodium nitrate, and potassium nitrate, in concentrations up to 150 m-osmoles/l., the rate of water uptake was found to be the same as with solutions of sodium chloride of the same osmolarity. Similarly, it was doubled by injection of vasopressin (4m-u./g).6. The effect of temperature on the rate of water uptake before and after injection of vasopressin was investigated in toads kept in distilled water, sucrose, or sodium chloride solutions. For temperatures between 20 and 37 degrees C, vasopressin (4 m-u./g) reduced the activation energy involved in the process of water uptake by 4000 cal.7. The results agree with the view that water uptake follows a diffusion process which is facilitated by vasopressin, possibly

  6. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. )

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  7. The King of the Dwarves: a new cryptic species of Dainty Frog (Anura: Pyxicephalidae: Cacosternum) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Conradie, Werner

    2014-04-04

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using the mitochondrial 16S marker shows the presence of a cryptic species of Cacosternum (Anura: Pyxicephalidae) from the eastern Great Escarpment of South Africa, supporting the Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany region of vertebrate endemism. Bioacoustic and morphological characteristics, in conjunction with colouration differences, allow the description of this cryptic species. Tadpoles and details of life history are described.

  8. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed Central

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7410189

  9. A new neurohypophysial peptide, seritocin ([Ser5,Ile8]-oxytocin), identified in a dryness-resistant African toad, Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, J; Michel, G; Ouedraogo, Y; Chou, J; Chait, B T; Acher, R

    1995-05-01

    From the pituitary neurointermediate lobe of the African toad Bufo regularis, vasotocin, hydrin 2 (vasotocinyl-Gly) and a mesotocin-like peptide have been isolated by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry, amino acid sequence and chromatographic coelution with synthetic peptides. The mesotocin-like peptide has been identified as [Ser5,Ile8]-oxytocin in place of mesotocin ([Ile8]-oxytocin) found in all other amphibians investigated to date. The name seritocin is suggested. The molecule is virtually devoid of oxytocic activity on rat uterus in contrast to mesotocin. On the other hand, the molar ratio of hydrin 2 to vasotocin in the pituitary reaches 2, whereas it is about 1 in toads and frogs from temperate regions. B. regularis is an anuran species able to withstand a hot and dry season by burrowing. The possible relationship between occurrence of seritocin and adaptation to arid environment remains to be demonstrated.

  10. Mortality and toxin bioaccumulation in Bufo marinus following exposure to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii cell extracts and live cultures.

    PubMed

    White, S H; Duivenvoorden, L J; Fabbro, L D; Eaglesham, G K

    2007-05-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium responsible for the production of the toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Tadpoles of the cane toad Bufo marinus were exposed to freeze-thawed whole cell extracts or live cultures of C. raciborskii containing maximum CYN concentrations of 400 microg L-1 or 232 microg L-1, respectively. Exposure to live culture treatment solutions resulted in up to 66% mortality of B. marinus, whereas tadpoles exposed to whole cell extracts containing similar toxin concentrations survived. Decreases in relative growth rates and time spent for swimming were recorded from tadpoles during both types of exposure regimes. Bioconcentration of CYN was not evident following exposure to whole cell extracts containing extracellular toxin. In contrast exposure to live cultures, which contained cell-bound toxin, resulted in maximum average tissue concentrations of 895 microg free-CYN kg-1 fresh weight. This is the first investigation of C. raciborskii exposure effects and toxin bioaccumulation in the developmental stages of an amphibian.

  11. Oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and malformation of Bufo gargarizans embryo exposed to sub-lethal cadmium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for vertebrate postembryonic development as well as embryonic development. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500μg Cd L(-1)) for 7days. Malformations were monitored daily, and growth and development of embryos were measured at day 4 and 7, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) mRNA expression were examined to evaluate the ability of scavenging ROS. Our results demonstrated a bimodal inhibitory effect of Cd on the embryo growth and development of Bufo gargarizans. Reduced mean stage, total length and weight were observed at 5, 50, 200 and 500, but not at 100μg Cd L(-1). Embryos malformation occurred in all cadmium treatments. Morphological abnormalities of embryos are characterized by axial flexures, abdominal edema, stunted growth and fin flexure. Real-time PCR results show that exposure to cadmium down-regulated TRα and Dio3 mRNA expression and up-regulated Dio2 mRNA level. SOD and GPx mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated after cadmium exposure. We concluded that cadmium could change mRNA expression of TRα, Dio2 and Dio3 leading the inhibition of growth and development of B. gargarizans embryo, which suggests that cadmium might have the endocrine-disrupting effect in embryos. Moreover, the reduced ability of scavenging ROS induced by cadmium might be responsible for the teratogenic effects of cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New genus of Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuridea) and other helminths in Platymantis nexipus (Anura: Ranidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2009-06-01

    Rokroknema novaebritanniae n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of Platymantis nexipus (Anura: Ranidae) is described and illustrated. Rokroknema represents the second Australo-Papuan genus assigned to the family Pharyngodonidae known to infect frogs. It is similar to Parathelandros (the other genus), but it is readily distinguished because the posterior pair of caudal papillae is not in the form of a rosette. Platymantis nexipus also was found to harbor 1 species of Digenea, Opisthioglyphe cophixali, and 5 additional species of Nematoda, adults of Aplectana krausi, Cosmocerca novaeguineae, Falcaustra batrachiensis, Icosiella papuensis, and larvae in cysts of Abbreviata sp., plus unidentified cystacanths of 1 species of acanthocephalan.

  13. Concentrated evolutionary novelties in the foot musculature of Odontophrynidae (Anura: Neobatrachia), with comments on adaptations for burrowing.

    PubMed

    Blotto, Boris L; Pereyra, Martin O; Faivovich, Julián; Dias, Pedro Henrique Dos Santos; Grant, Taran

    2017-05-02

    We studied the foot musculature of the fossorial family Odontophrynidae (composed of the genera Macrogenioglottus, Odontophrynus, and Proceratophrys) plus several outgroup taxa from Hyloidea and other burrowing taxa from across Anura. We found novel character-states supporting the monophyly of Odontophrynus, Proceratophrys, and Odontophrynus + Macrogenioglottus. The character-states observed in O. cultripes support conflicting phylogenetic positions within Odontophrynus. A comparison of some novel character-states with a diverse sample of burrowing taxa suggests that some modifications of the foot musculature might be involved in digging.

  14. A new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda, Cosmocercidae) and other helminths from Barygenys atra (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2013-03-01

    Cosmocerca oroensis sp. nov. (Ascaridida, Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Barygenys atra (Anura, Microhylidae) is described and illustrated. Cosmocerca oroensis represents the 26th species assigned to the genus and the 7th from the Australo-Papuan biogeographical region. Cosmocerca oroensis sp. nov. differs from the previously described Australo-Papuan species in number of plectanes: C. oroensis with 2 pairs; C. australis, 3-4 pairs; C. archeyi, C. tyleri and C. zugi, 4 pairs; C. limnodynastes and C. novaeguineae, 5 pairs. In addition to the new nematode species, Meteterakis crombiei (Nematoda, Heterakidae) was also found.

  15. Neuroepithelial bodies in the lung of Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri (Anura, Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Hermida, G N; Farías, A; Fiorito, L E

    2003-12-01

    Electron microscopy of the lungs of Melanophryniscus stelzneri stelzneri (Anura) revealed the presence of a complex pattern of corpuscular cells (CCs). The respiratory surface over the septa presents small areas where the CCs are grouped forming neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs). These corpuscular structures can also be localized in the inner layer of the lung wall. Although in both cases NEBs protrude slightly into the airway lumen, they are separated from the airway lumen and the basal connective tissue by thin apical and basal cytoplasmic processes of neighbouring pneumocytes. Ultrastructurally, the CCs possess a large nucleus, clear cytoplasm and vesicles of variable morphology and size, containing an electron dense material surrounded by a lucent space in some cases. The size of these dense-core vesicles (DCVs) ranged from 40 to 100 nm. The NEBs are associated with afferent and efferent terminal nerves. These types of nerve endings are located between the CCs and in the basal part of the NEBs. The location of the NEBs in strategic positions on the septa and in the wall of the lung, the presence of the DCVs in the basolateral region of the CCs, the occurrence of synaptic contacts between nerve endings and the CCs and the occurrence of capillaries close to the NEBs, suggest a receptosecretory function for NEBs in the lung of M.s. stelzneri.

  16. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Martín O.; Womack, Molly C.; Barrionuevo, J. Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L.; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Coloma, Luis A.; Hoke, Kim L.; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures. PMID:27677839

  17. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-03-01

    Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required.

  18. Genetic analysis reveals candidate species in the Scinax catharinae clade (Amphibia: Anura) from Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lídia; Solé, Mirco; Siqueira, Sérgio; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Strüssmann, Christine; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Scinax (Anura: Hylidae) is a species-rich genus of amphibians (113 spp.), divided into five species groups by morphological features. Cladistic analyses however revealed only two monophyletic clades in these groups: Scinax catharinae and Scinax ruber. Most species from the S. catharinae clade are found in Atlantic rainforest, except for Scinax canastrensis,S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi,S. pombali and S. skaios. In the present work, specimens of Scinax collected in Chapada dos Guimarães, central Brazil, were morphologically compatible with species from theS. catharinae group. On the other hand, genetic analysis based on mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and nuclear (rhodopsin) sequences revealed a nucleotide divergence of 6 to 20% between Scinax sp. and other congeners from the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado). Accordingly, Bayesian inference placed Scinax sp. in the S. catharinae clade with high support values. Hence, these findings strongly indicate the presence of a new species in the S. catharinae clade from the southwestern portion of the Brazilian savannah. To be properly validated as a novel species, detailed comparative morphological and bioacustic studies with other taxa from Brazil such asS. canastrensis, S. centralis, S. luizotavioi, S. machadoi, S. pombali and S. skaios are required. PMID:27007898

  19. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Martín O; Womack, Molly C; Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M; Coloma, Luis A; Hoke, Kim L; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-09-28

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures.

  20. Comparative Phylogeography of Direct-Developing Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae: Pristimantis) in the Southern Andes of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    García-R, Juan C.; Crawford, Andrew J.; Mendoza, Ángela María; Ospina, Oscar; Cardenas, Heiber; Castro, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The Andes of South America hosts perhaps the highest amphibian species diversity in the world, and a sizable component of that diversity is comprised of direct-developing frogs of the genus Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae). In order to better understand the initial stages of species formation in these frogs, this study quantified local-scale spatial genetic structuring in three species of Pristimantis. DNA sequences of two mitochondrial gene fragments (16S and COI) were obtained from P. brevifrons, P. palmeri and P. jubatus at different locations in the Cordillera Occidental. We found high levels of genetic diversity in the three species, with highly structured populations (as measured by FST) in P. brevifrons and P. palmeri while P. jubatus showed panmixia. Large effective population sizes, inferred from the high levels of genetic diversity, were found in the three species and two highly divergent lineages were detected within P. jubatus and P. palmeri. Estimated divergence times among populations within P. brevifrons and P. palmeri coincide with the Pleistocene, perhaps due to similar responses to climatic cycling or recent geological history. Such insights have important implications for linking alpha and beta diversity, suggesting regional scale patterns may be associated with local scale processes in promoting differentiation among populations in the Andes. PMID:23049941

  1. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Blackburn, David C; Stanley, Edward L; Pie, Marcio R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Nine specimens (eight adults and a juvenile) were collected from the leaf litter of montane forests 790-835 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The new species is a member of the pernix group by its bufoniform shape and the absence of dermal co-ossification and is distinguished from all its congeners by a combination of its general coloration (dorsal region of head, dorsum, legs, arms, and flanks light, brownish green to dark, olive green, with darker region in the middle of the dorsum and a white line along the vertebral column in most specimens) and by its smooth dorsum. The geographical distribution of the new species is highly reduced (extent of occurrence estimated as 25.04 ha, or possibly 34.37 ha). In addition, its habitat has experienced some level of degradation, raising concerns about the future conservation of the species. Preliminary density estimates suggest one calling individual every 3-4 m(2) at 815-835 m a.s.l. and every 100 m(2) at 790 m a.s.l. Together with the recently described B. boticario and B. fuscolineatus, the new species is among the southernmost species of Brachycephalus known to date.

  2. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bornschein, Marcos R.; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Blackburn, David C.; Stanley, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Nine specimens (eight adults and a juvenile) were collected from the leaf litter of montane forests 790–835 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The new species is a member of the pernix group by its bufoniform shape and the absence of dermal co-ossification and is distinguished from all its congeners by a combination of its general coloration (dorsal region of head, dorsum, legs, arms, and flanks light, brownish green to dark, olive green, with darker region in the middle of the dorsum and a white line along the vertebral column in most specimens) and by its smooth dorsum. The geographical distribution of the new species is highly reduced (extent of occurrence estimated as 25.04 ha, or possibly 34.37 ha). In addition, its habitat has experienced some level of degradation, raising concerns about the future conservation of the species. Preliminary density estimates suggest one calling individual every 3–4 m2 at 815–835 m a.s.l. and every 100 m2 at 790 m a.s.l. Together with the recently described B. boticario and B. fuscolineatus, the new species is among the southernmost species of Brachycephalus known to date. PMID:27812425

  3. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  4. The effects of ambient pH on nitrogen excretion in early life stages of the American toad (Bufo americanus).

    PubMed

    Tattersall, G J; Wright, P A

    1996-04-01

    Acidification of breeding ponds has been identified as a potential threat to the survival and health of North American amphibian populations. The effects of acid exposure on ion and acid-balance are well known, but there is little information on how environmental water pH influences nitrogen balance in amphibians. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of moderately acidic water (pH 6.0) on nitrogen excretion in early life stages of the toad, Bufo americanus. Acid exposure (pH 6.0, 54 h) resulted in a 20-80% increase in ammonia-N excretion rates in embryos and early, middle and late tadpoles stages, whereas there was no significant effect on urea-N excretion. Tissue ammonia concentrations were significantly higher (+33%) in the embryos and 35-65% lower in the three groups of tadpoles exposed to water of pH 6.0 compared to control animals (pH 8.5). In embryos, ammonia excretion accounted for greater than 90% of total nitrogen excretion (ammonia-N + urea-N), but by the late tadpole stage this value had decreased to approximately 65%. These findings indicate that exposure of embryonic and larval B. americanus to moderately acidic water disrupts nitrogen balance by increasing nitrogen loss as ammonia, with no compensatory decrease in urea excretion.

  5. Long-term effect of heavy-metal pollution on diversity of gastrointestinal microbial community of Bufo raddei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenya; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-06

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. However, the effects of environmental contamination on the GI microbiota homeostasis of amphibians have not yet been reported. The present study reveals the long-term effect of natural heavy-metal pollution on the GI microbial community diversity and structural changes of Bufo raddei (B. raddei). Basing on the 16S rRNA sequencing method, the GI microbiota of B. raddei from a heavily heavy-metal-polluted area (Baiyin, (BY)) and a relatively unpolluted area (Liujiaxia, (LJX)) were profiled. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution had caused significant shifts in the composition of the GI microbiota both at the phylum and genus levels. Specifically, Bacteroidetes dominated in the GI tract of B. raddei from BY, while Tenericutes was much more common in those from LJX. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the proportion of probiotics in the GI microbiota of B. raddei from BY were reduced compared to those from LJX, as well. Heavy-metal pollution also induced in a reduction of species diversity and decreased proportion of unique operational taxonomic units in the GI tract. In short, our results demonstrate that long-term heavy-metal exposure re-shaped the composition and decreased the species diversity of GI microbiota of B. raddei; our results also represent a novel approach to uncover the toxic effects of pollution on amphibians.

  6. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-body systemic transcapillary filtration rates, coefficients, and isogravimetric capillary pressures in Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Hancock, T V; Hoagland, T M; Hillman, S S

    2000-01-01

    Whole-body and organ-level transcapillary filtration rates and coefficients are virtually unexamined in ectothermal vertebrates. These filtration rates appear to be greater than in mammals when plasma volume shifts and lymphatic function are analyzed. Gravimetric techniques monitoring whole-body mass changes were used to estimate net systemic filtration in Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana while perfusing with low-protein Ringer's and manipulating venous pressure. Capillary pressures were estimated from arterial and venous pressures after measuring the venous to arterial resistance ratio of 0.23. The capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) for the two species was 25.2+/-1.47 mL min-1 kg-1 kPa-1. Isogravimetric capillary pressure (Pci), the pressure at which net fluid is neither filtered nor reabsorbed, was 1.12+/-0.054 kPa and was confirmed by an independent method. None of these variables showed a significant interspecific difference. The anuran CFC and Pci are significantly higher than those found using the same method on rats (7.6+/-2.04 mL min-1 kg-1 kPa-1 and 0.3+/-0.37 kPa, respectively) and those commonly reported in mammals. Despite the high CFC, the high Pci predicts that little net filtration will occur at resting in vivo capillary pressures.

  8. Altitudinal variation of demographic life-history traits does not mimic latitudinal variation in natterjack toads (Bufo calamita).

    PubMed

    Oromi, Neus; Sanuy, Delfi; Sinsch, Ulrich

    2012-02-01

    In anuran amphibians, age- and size-related life-history traits vary along latitudinal and altiudinal gradients. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that altitudinal and latitudinal effects cause similar responses by assessing demographic life-history traits in nine Bufo calamita populations inhabiting elevations from sea level to 2270 m. Skeletochronologically determined age at maturity and longevity increased at elevations exceeding 2000 m, but female potential reproductive lifespan (PRLS) did not increase with altitude, as it did with latitude. Integrating the available evidence, it was found that lifetime fecundity of natterjacks decreased at the upper altitudinal range because PRLS was about the same as in lowland populations but females were smaller. In contrast, small size of northern females was compensated for by increased PRLS which minimised latitudinal variation of lifetime fecundity. Thus, this study provides evidence that altitudinal effects on life-history traits do not mimic latitudinal effects. Life-history trait variation along the altitudinal gradient seems to respond directly to the shortening of the annual activity period. As there is no evidence for increasing mortality in highland populations, reduced lifetime fecundity may be the ultimate reason for the natterjacks' inability to colonise elevations exceeding 2500 m.

  9. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Candice M; Starkweather, Peter L; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad (Bufo (Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature (T(b)) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T(b) range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T(b) as low as 3.1 degrees C and as high as 39.1 degrees C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  10. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  11. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  12. Maternal transfer of contaminants and reduced reproductive success of southern toads ( Bufo [Anaxyrus] terrestris ) exposed to coal combustion waste.

    PubMed

    Metts, Brian S; Buhlmann, Kurt A; Tuberville, Tracey D; Scott, David E; Hopkins, William A

    2013-03-19

    Bioaccumulation of contaminants and subsequent maternal transfer to offspring are important factors that affect the reproductive success of wildlife. However, maternal transfer of contaminants has rarely been investigated in amphibians. We examined maternal transfer of trace elements in southern toads ( Bufo[Anaxyrus] terrestris) residing in two locations: (1) an active coal combustion waste (CCW) disposal basin and adjacent 40-ha floodplain contaminated with CCW over 35 years ago and (2) an uncontaminated reference site. Our study is among the few to document tissue concentration-dependent maternal transfer of contaminants and associated adverse effects in amphibians. We found that females collected from the CCW-contaminated area had elevated concentrations of Ni, Se, and Sr; these females also transferred elevated levels of Cu, Pb, Se, and Sr to their eggs compared to females from the reference site. Overall reproductive success, estimated as a function of clutch size and offspring viability, was reduced by 27% in clutches collected from parents from the contaminated site compared to the reference site. Offspring viability negatively correlated with female and/or egg concentrations of Se and Ni. Reproductive success negatively correlated with Se and Cu concentrations in females, and Se concentrations in eggs. Our study highlights how exposure to CCW can negatively affect amphibian reproduction.

  13. Quantitative structure-toxicity relationship study of lethal concentration to tadpole (Bufo vulgaris formosus) for organophosphorous pesticides.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongyun; Jiang, Xin; Xu, Shaohui; Wang, Ligang; Bian, Yongrong; Yu, Guifen

    2008-05-01

    In the present study more than 1,000 structural parameters of 41 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were calculated using the software ChemOffice 8.03 and Dragon 2.1. Then, with multivariate linear regression and best subset regression analyses, different equations were derived to calculate the lethal toxicity, LC(50), for these 41 organophosphorous pesticides found in tadpoles (Bufo vulgaris formosus). An equation was developed for all selected OPs, especially those with relatively low toxicity levels (LC(50)>4.5mM) that accounted for 89.09% of the variability in the toxic effect. The equation indicated that the main contributions to OPs toxicity with tadpoles were the electrostatic contribution qH(+) (maximum net positive H atomic charge), spatial autocorrelation (MATS7 m) and hydrophobicity (lgK(ow)), with the two former being the most important parameters. For OPs with high toxicity, however, different structural parameters were introduced. The following equation was developed with LC(50)<4.5mM. These equations implied that with different levels of toxicity there could have different mechanisms in the tadpole. Furthermore, the results showed that molecular structural parameters had a particular value in modeling chemical reactivity within a homologous series of compounds.

  14. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T.

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  16. Characteristics of cathelicidin-Bg, a novel gene expressed in the ear-side gland of Bufo gargarizans.

    PubMed

    Gao, F; Xu, W F; Tang, L P; Wang, M M; Wang, X J; Qian, Y C

    2016-08-05

    The traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su (toad venom) comprises dried secretions of the ear-side gland of Bufo gargarizans. Chan Su is known for its small molecular components, which include telocinobufagin, marinobufagin, and bufalin, while in other amphibians, studies mainly focus on peptide components. Until recently, no genes expressed in the ear-side gland of B. gargarizans gland had been cloned. In this study, cathelicidin-Bg, a coding sequence of anti-microbial peptide (AMP), was cloned. The predicted amino acid sequence of cathelicidin-Bg was very similar to that from other amphibians, with a 34-amino acid mature peptide predicted in the C-terminus. The functions of this mature peptide were verified by microbe and tumor cell inhibition assays. Our results showed that the mature peptide of cathelicidin-Bg could inhibit the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mature peptide was also shown to selectively inhibit tumor cells. These results indicate that the identified coding sequence represents an active peptide of Chan Su.

  17. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  18. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Toranzo, G; López, L A; Martínez, J Zapata; Bühler, M C Gramajo; Bühler, M I

    2010-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpenic lactone, was isolated and purified from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser, a medicinal herb used in Argentina. DhL is an alpha-methylene butyro-gamma-lactone ring connected to a seven-membered ring fused to an exocyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. It has been previously shown that DhL selectively induces a dose-dependent transient arrest in G2 of both meristematic cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment with DhL induces an inhibition of spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation in a dose-dependent manner in Bufo arenarum fully grown oocytes arrested at G2, at the beginning of meiosis I. However, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the process is still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse whether DhL's alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function is responsible for the inhibition effect on meiosis reinitiation of Bufo arenarum oocytes as well as some of the transduction pathways that could be involved in this effect using a derivative of DhL inactivated for alpha-methylenelactone, the 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL). The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle content showed results similar to the ones obtained with DhL, suggesting that the hydrogenated derivative would act in a similar way to DhL. Pretreatment with DhL or 2H-DhL did not affect the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, which suggests that these lactones would act on another step of the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. The fact that both DhL and 2H-Dhl inhibit GVBD induced by okadaic acid microinjection suggests that they could act on the activity of the Myt1 kinase. This idea is supported by the experiments of injection of GV contents in which an inhibitory effect of these lactones on GVBD was also observed. Our

  19. Vocal sac development and accelerated sexual maturity in the lesser swimming frog, Pseudis minuta (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Javier; Barrasso, Diego A; Agostini, M Gabriela; Quinzio, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual maturity involves the differentiation of the reproductive system, the maturation of germ cells, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Even though this topic has received much attention, little is known about the sequence of events that encompass reproductive maturation in anurans and what it could reveal about the developmental basis of life cycle evolution. The discovery of froglets of Pseudis minuta with incipient vocal sacs calling in breeding pools alongside several larger adult specimens with fully developed vocal sacs raised the question of the timing of sexual maturity in this species. Here we describe the sequence and timing of differentiation, development and maturation of the vocal sac apparatus and the testes in P. minuta (Anura, Hylidae), in order to establish a timeline of events leading to sexual maturity. Differentiation of the vocal sac apparatus begins at the final metamorphic stages, earlier than reported for other species, and the vocal sac acquires its final shape during the early postmetamorphic period. These modifications occur after gonadal differentiation, which begins early during the larval period and proceeds with a highly accelerated rate of development (e.g., secondary spermatids appear well before metamorphic climax), a situation reported previously for other anuran species only in the genus Pseudis. These results, together with a skeletochronological analysis showing that some calling specimens presented no lines of arrested growth, indicate acceleration in the timing of sexual maturity in Pseudis, and raise questions about the interdependence/decoupling during the development of the different components involved in reaching the adult stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  1. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste.

    PubMed

    Ward, Chelsea K; Fontes, Cristiano; Breuner, Creagh W; Mendonça, Mary T

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. At least two hypotheses have been proposed: 1) CBG levels may increase in response to a stressor, thereby decreasing the amount of circulating free corticosterone, or 2) CBG levels may decline, making corticosterone available for its role in increased metabolic needs during stress. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. Toad CBG has a K(d)=20.6+/-1.0 nM and a B(max)=332.2+/-5.1 nmol/L plasma. The rank order potencies for steroid inhibition of tritiated corticosterone are: dihydrotestosterone > corticosterone > progesterone=testosterone > estrogen=dexamethasone. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  2. Effects of inhibition gastric acid secretion on arterial acid-base status during digestion in the toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2003-07-01

    Digestion affects acid-base status, because the net transfer of HCl from the blood to the stomach lumen leads to an increase in HCO3(-) levels in both extra- and intracellular compartments. The increase in plasma [HCO3(-)], the alkaline tide, is particularly pronounced in amphibians and reptiles, but is not associated with an increased arterial pH, because of a concomitant rise in arterial PCO2 caused by a relative hypoventilation. In this study, we investigate whether the postprandial increase in PaCO2 of the toad Bufo marinus represents a compensatory response to the increased plasma [HCO3(-)] or a state-dependent change in the control of pulmonary ventilation. To this end, we successfully prevented the alkaline tide, by inhibiting gastric acid secretion with omeprazole, and compared the response to that of untreated toads determined in our laboratory during the same period. In addition, we used vascular infusions of bicarbonate to mimic the alkaline tide in fasting animals. Omeprazole did not affect blood gases, acid-base and haematological parameters in fasting toads, but abolished the postprandial increase in plasma [HCO3(-)] and the rise in arterial PCO2 that normally peaks 48 h into the digestive period. Vascular infusion of HCO3(-), that mimicked the postprandial rise in plasma [HCO3(-)], led to a progressive respiratory compensation of arterial pH through increased arterial PCO2. Thus, irrespective of whether the metabolic alkalosis is caused by gastric acid secretion in response to a meal or experimental infusion of bicarbonate, arterial pH is being maintained by an increased arterial PCO2. It seems, therefore, that the elevated PCO2, occuring during the postprandial period, constitutes of a regulated response to maintain pH rather than a state-dependent change in ventilatory control.

  3. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³⁷Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d⁻¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d⁻¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  4. Mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis during Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release in gastric myocytes from Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Robert M; Mix, T Christian H; Tuft, Richard A; Walsh, John V; Fay, Fredric S

    2000-01-01

    The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to monitor mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) in gastric smooth muscle cells from Bufo marinus. In some studies, fura-2 was used in combination with rhod-2, allowing simultaneous measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and [Ca2+]m, respectively. During a short train of depolarizations, which causes Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium, there was an increase in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The half-time (t½) to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]m was considerably longer than the t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]m remained elevated for tens of seconds after [Ca2+]i had returned to its resting value. Stimulation with caffeine, which causes release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The values of t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+] in both cytoplasm and mitochondria were similar; however, [Ca2+]i returned to baseline values much faster than [Ca2+]m. Using a wide-field digital imaging microscope, changes in [Ca2+]m were monitored within individual mitochondria in situ, during stimulation of Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from the SR. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during depolarizing stimulation caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial membrane potential recovered considerably faster than the recovery of [Ca2+]m. This study shows that Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium and Ca2+ release from the SR are capable of increasing [Ca2+]m in smooth muscle cells. The efflux of Ca2+ from the mitochondria is a slow process and appears to be dependent upon the amount of Ca2+ in the SR. PMID:10713963

  5. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  6. Effects of copper, zinc and dragonfly kairomone on growth rate and induced morphology of Bufo arabicus tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    It is well documented that many amphibian species can detect chemical signals from predatory invertebrates and subsequently develop alternate phenotypes that are protective against predation. The effects of metallic pollutants on the development of predator-induced morphology have not previously been reported. Tadpoles of the Arabian toad Bufo arabicus were exposed for 20 days to copper (0, 10 or 100 μg/L), zinc (0, 10 or 100 μg/L) and kairomones of larval dragonflies (Crocothemis erythrea 1 dragonfly/12 L) in a fully crossed design. The effects of these treatments of growth and body shape were measured. Measured copper concentrations after 24 h were 4.25 μg/L±1.30 (10 μg/L nominal) and 34.9 μg/L±2.15 (100 μg/L nominal). Measured zinc concentrations were 3.04 μg/L±0.1 (10 μg/L nominal) and 26.3 μg/L±12.3 (100 μg/L nominal). Tadpoles exposed to 34.9 μg/L copper were significantly lighter and had a shorter body length than other groups. There was no direct effect of zinc on growth or tadpole shape. Tadpoles exposed to dragonfly kairomones were heavier, wider and had deeper bodies when viewed laterally and had longer tails but overall length was not affected. At 4.25 μg/L copper differences between the control and predator-exposed phenotypes increased but at 34.9 μg/L the phenotypes converged, indicating that copper may inhibit the induced response.

  7. Histological changes, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in the liver of Bufo gargarizans exposed to cadmium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-07-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500 μg Cd L(-1)) from Gosner stage 3-42. Metamorphosis rate, body weight, total length and body length were measured. Histological alterations in thyroid gland and liver were examined. Changes in hepatocyte were also examined using Transmission electron microscopic. In addition, the mRNA expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and thyroid hormones signaling pathways were also measured. Our results showed that 200 and 500 μg Cd L(-1) decreased the metamorphosis rate and inhibited the body size of B. gargarizans larvae at G42. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly exhibited that cadmium caused liver damage. Ultrastructural examination revealed lipid accumulation and abnormal mitochondria. Exposure to 200 and 500 μg Cd L(-1) significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of D2, SOD, GPx, ACC and FAE, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα, TRβ, PPARα, ACOX, CPT and SCP. However, low Cd concentration (5, 50 and 100) exposure did not cause any effect in genes expression. Thus, we conclude that high Cd concentrations could affect the normal processes of lipid metabolism though increasing lipid synthesis and reducing the ability of fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturb thyroid hormone pathways in liver, and induced oxidative stress. In addition, lipid metabolism might be regulated by THs. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report the influence of cadmium on hepatic lipid metabolism in B. gargarizans and will greatly provide new insights into cadmium hepatotoxicity in amphibian. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Phylogeographic Pattern of Endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island Is Attributed to the Genetic Variation of Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Teng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Du; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aim To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1) the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs); and (2) the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop gene (348 bp) recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp) amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities) from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S), corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades. Conclusions The multiple origins (different clades) of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent

  9. Gene expression variations in high-altitude adaptation: a case study of the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    PubMed

    Yang, Weizhao; Qi, Yin; Lu, Bin; Qiao, Liang; Wu, Yayong; Fu, Jinzhong

    2017-07-03

    Genome-wide investigation of molecular mechanisms for high-altitude adaptation has attracted great attention in the last few years. In order to understand the contribution of gene expression level variations to high-altitude adaptation in Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans), we implemented a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-altitude sites and sequenced 12 transcriptomes from brain, heart, and liver tissues. A large number of genes with expression differences (DEGs) between high- and low-altitude individuals (193 fixed and 844 plastic) were identified, and the majority of them were tissue specific. Heart displayed the largest number of DEGs, both plastic and fixed. Fixed DEGs were particularly concentrated in functions associated with muscle contraction, and the majority of them were down-regulated in high-altitude individuals. Plastic DEGs were highly concentrated in several energy metabolism related functional categories, and the majority of them were also down-regulated at high-altitude environments. In liver samples, genes associated with nutrient metabolism experienced a broad-scale expression down-regulation in high-altitude toads. These broadly suppressed expression patterns at high altitudes are in strong contrast to those of endothermic homeotherms, suggesting poikilothermic vertebrates may have adopted different strategies at high altitudes. Our results strongly support that both genotypic specialization and phenotypic plasticity play crucial role in adaptation to high altitude for Asiatic toads. Poikilothermic vertebrates are among the most hypoxia-tolerant animals known, and many molecular mechanisms remain elusive. We hope that our results will provide useful directions for future research.

  10. Andrew meets Rensch: sexual size dimorphism and the inverse of Rensch's rule in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen Bo; Liu, Wen Chao; Merilä, Juha

    2015-02-01

    Variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon and is commonly attributed to variation in sex-specific patterns of selection. According to Rensch's rule, SSD increases with increasing body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases when females are the larger sex. Using data from 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi), we tested whether the patterns of SSD conform to Rensch's rule. Using field experiments, we also evaluated the hypothesis that sexual selection favours large male body size and that fecundity selection favours large female body size. The results revealed that the degree of SSD increased with increasing mean size in females, consistent with the inverse of Rensch's rule. Although experiments revealed evidence for a large-male mating advantage, selection for large male size was weak at best, and hence unlikely to be an important source of variation in SSD. However, fecundity selection favouring large females was evident, and likely to explain the observed inverse of Rensch's rule. After correcting male and female body size for age differences, the patterns of SSD remained the same, suggesting that the intra- and interpopulational variation in SSD is not driven by sex differences in age structure. Hence, these findings suggest that the strong fecundity selection favouring large females drives the evolution of female-biased SSD in B. andrewsi, providing an explanation for the inverse of Rensch's rule. As such, the study provides an important addition to the small body of literature that uses an intraspecific approach to demonstrate the inverse of Rensch's rule.

  11. New genus of Cosmocercidae (Nematoda) and other helminths in Hylarana volkerjane (Anura: Ranidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2012-08-01

    Paraplesiohedruris rinse n. gen., n. sp. (Ascaridida; Cosmocercoidae; Cosmocercidae) from the large intestine of Hylarana volkerjane (Anura; Ranidae) is described and illustrated. The new genus is assigned to the Cosmocercinae of the Cosmocercidae based on the presence of an esophagus composed of a short pharynx, cylindrical corpus, isthmus, and valved bulb; on the presence in males of paired spicules and numerous caudal papillae; plus the presence in the female of an equatorial vulva, 2 uteri, a short tail, and thin-shelled eggs. The Cosmocercinae now contains 10 genera. Hylarana volkerjane was also found to harbor 6 additional species of Nematoda, adults of Aplectana macintoshii, Icosiella papuensis, Meteterakis crombiei, Paracapillaria spratti, Physalopteroides milnensis, and larvae of Abbreviata sp., as well as 1 species of Acanthocephala, Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis.

  12. Take time to smell the frogs: vocal sac glands of reed frogs (Anura: Hyperoliidae) contain species-specific chemical cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Poth, Dennis; Peram, Pardha Saradhi; Schulz, Stefan; Vences, Miguel; Knudsen, Jette; Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Walzl, Manfred; Hödl, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Males of all reed frog species (Anura: Hyperoliidae) have a prominent, often colourful, gular patch on their vocal sac, which is particularly conspicuous once the vocal sac is inflated. Although the presence, shape, and form of the gular patch are well-known diagnostic characters for these frogs, its function remains unknown. By integrating biochemical and histological methods, we found strong evidence that the gular patch is a gland producing volatile compounds, which might be emitted while calling. Volatile compounds were confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in the gular glands in 11 species of the hyperoliid genera Afrixalus, Heterixalus, Hyperolius, and Phlyctimantis. Comparing the gular gland contents of 17 specimens of four sympatric Hyperolius species yielded a large variety of 65 compounds in species-specific combinations. We suggest that reed frogs might use a complex combination of at least acoustic and chemical signals in species recognition and mate choice. PMID:24277973

  13. Biosystematic study of Anura in the Markazy Province of central Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Hezaveh; Fereshteh, Ghassemzadeh; Michael, Tyler

    2007-04-15

    Only recently Anuran fauna of Iran has been studied systematically. In order to study the biosystematics of Anuran in the Markazy Province, 122 specimens were collected from six stations during spring and summer 2004-2005. Samples were transferred alive to the zoology laboratory, identified and were preserved. The samples composed of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda and the green toad, Bufo viridis. The phenetic studies between populations of the two species, 14 characteristics in frog and 17 characteristics in toad were measured. T-test analysis between sexes were significant in 12 characteristics for frogs and only one characteristic for toads (p < 0.001). One way ANOVA between populations for each species were significant in 13 characteristics for frogs and 6 characteristics for toads (p < 0.001). Difference between multivariate mean vectors confirmed in T2 Hotelling for populations and sexes of marsh frog (p < 0.001 ). Length of foot and femur were discriminated distinct sexes based on discrimination analysis with 89% correct grouping for frogs and space between eyelids with 92% correct grouping for toads. Discrimination analysis between populations discriminated groups based on two functions with 78% correct grouping in frogs and 88% correct grouping in toads. Cluster analysis based on centroids grouped populations resulted from geographical and ecological conditions.

  14. Helminth infracommunities of the maculated toad Amietophrynus regularis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Moussa Ibrahim

    2008-10-16

    The objective of the present work was to study the helminth infracommunities of Amietophrynus (Bufo) regularis and the possible effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on infracommunity structure and on the infection parameters of each parasite species involved. A total of 129 A. regularis were collected from Ismailia, Egypt, over 3 seasons. Helminth infracommunities consisted of 8 helminth taxa (1 monogenean, 1 digenean, 1 cestode, 3 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans [1 adult and 1 cystacanth]). Aplectana macintoshii had the highest prevalence (82.94%), mean abundance (73.74), and mean intensity (88.91) and can be considered a core species. A. macintoshii dominated in 68.99% of the infracommunities, with a high Berger-Parker index value (0.9). Only 9 toads were uninfected; the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1 to 632 ind. Mean species richness and abundance were 2.13 +/- 0.13 and 81.34 +/- 13.60, respectively, while evenness and diversity were 0.3 and 0.44, respectively. The results revealed that season, host sex, and age played significant roles in determining infracommunity species richness. The patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in other amphibian hosts. This study indicated that the helminth community of A. regularis was depauperate.

  15. Effects of injections of calcium and EGTA into the outer segments of retinal rods of Bufo marinus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. E.; Coles, J. A.; Pinto, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from the outer segments of rods in the isolated, superfused retina of Bufo marinus. Cells were impaled under observation with a compound microscope fitted with an infra-red image converter. Changes of membrane voltage and some concomitant changes of input resistance were measured in response to light, membrane polarization and iontophoretic injections. 2. By means of a double barrel micropipette, charge was passed into a rod from a micropipette barrel that contained Ca2+ while no net current crossed the plasma membrane. In about half the cells, immediately after the injection, a hyperpolarization was observed that decayed with a time course similar to the decay of the receptor potential. 3. Membrane hyperpolarization also occurred after a depolarizing current stopped flowing into a rod through a single barrel pipette that contained only K-acetate. This hyperpolarization was accompanied by an increase of membrane conductance. The reversal potential for the conductance-increase was between the voltage in the dark and the voltage in the absence of [Na+]out. A larger hyperpolarization became evident after an equal depolarizing current stopped flowing into a rod through a pipette that also contained Ca2+; this larger after-hyperpolarization was due to both the cessation of depolarizing current and the injection of Ca2+. 4. A depolarization of 10-20 mV that lasted 2-60 sec became evident after hyperpolarizing current stopped flowing into a rod through a single-barrel pipette filled with K-EGTA. During the after-depolarization, the responses to small, dim spots of light were attenuated. No depolarization was observed after passing hyperpolarizing currents into rods through pipettes that contained either acetate-, SO2-4 or MOPS-. 5. These results show that sequestration of [Ca2+]in depolarizes the plasma membrane and that an increase in [Ca2+]in hyperpolarizes the membrane mimicking the later part of the receptor potential. These

  16. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen levels in the Common African toad Bufo regularis.

    PubMed

    Isehunwa, G O; Yusuf, I O; Alada, A Ar

    2017-03-06

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute toxicity test consisted of animals divided into six groups of 10 toads per group and were exposed to water (H2O), H2O + Tween 80, 2ml/l, 3ml/l, 5ml/l, and 10ml/l of petrol respectively for 96 hours using the static renewal bioassay system. In the Phase 2 experiment, the animals were exposed to H2O, H2O + Tween 80, 0.14ml/l, 0.3ml/l, 0.6ml/l, and 1.13ml/l of petrol respectively for 3 days; while in phase 3 experiment they were exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days. After the various exposures, the blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen contents were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the median lethal concentration of petrol (96 hours LC50) was 4.5ml/l and sub-lethal concentration of petrol caused mortality of animals. Exposure to petrol solutions for 3 days had no significant effect on blood glucose level of the animals but caused significant decrease in the liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations. In the animals exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days, there was a significant increase in glucose levels and significant reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations when compared with the control. The results show that sub-lethal concentrations of petrol can cause mortality of animals, hyperglycemia and reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels. The effects of petrol exposure on carbohydrate metabolism depend on the concentration and duration of exposure.

  17. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  18. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

  19. A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius under electric stimulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Li, Sheng-bing; Zhao, Li-na; Zhao, Yun-sheng; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Pei; Deng, Ping; Liao, Fei

    2007-12-01

    There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca(2+)-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius in vitro, in comparison to the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model. During repetitive stimulations at a 2-s interval by square pulses of a 2-ms duration at 12 V direct currency (DC), the isometric tension of Bufo gastrocnemius was recorded at 100 Hz. The relaxation curve with tensions falling from 90% of the peak to the 15th datum before next stimulation was analyzed by three exponential models using a program in MATLAB 6.5. Both the goodness of fit and the distribution of the residuals for the best fitting supported the comparable validity of this new bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of the control muscles. After CPA treatment, however, this new bi-exponential model showed an obvious statistical superiority for kinetic analysis of the muscle relaxation process, and it gave the estimated rest tension consistent to that by experimentation, whereas both the classical bi-exponential model and the single exponential model gave biased rest tensions. Moreover, after the treatment of muscles by CPA, both the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model yielded lowered relaxation rates, nevertheless, this new bi-exponential model had relaxation rates of negligible changes except much higher rest tensions. These results suggest that this novel linearly-combined bi-exponential model is desirable for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of muscles with altered Ca(2+)-pumping activity.

  20. Participation of the 39-kDa glycoprotein (gp39) of the vitelline envelope of Bufo arenarum eggs in sperm-egg interaction.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Daniel; Llanos, Ricardo J; Miceli, Dora C

    2012-05-01

    The acquisition of egg fertilizability in Bufo arenarum takes place during the oviductal transit and during this process the extracellular coelomic envelope (CE) of the eggs is converted into the vitelline envelope (VE). It has been stated that one of the necessary events leading to a fertilizable state is the proteolytic cleavage of CE glycoproteins in the oviductal pars recta by oviductin, a serine protease. Consequently, there is a marked increase in the relative quantity of glycoproteins with 39 (gp39) and 42 kDa (gp42) in the VE. In the present study, sperm-VE binding assays using heat-solubilized biotin-conjugated VE glycoproteins revealed that both gp39 and gp42 have sperm binding capacity. According to this result, our study was focused on gp39, a glycoprotein that we have previously reported as a homologue of mammalian ZPC. For this purpose, rabbit polyclonal antibodies against gp39 were generated at our laboratory. The specificity of the antibodies was confirmed with western blot of VE glycoproteins separated on SDS-PAGE. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron studies showed gp39 distributed throughout the width of the VE. In addition, immunofluorescence assays probed that gp39 bound to the sperm head. Finally, as an approach to elucidate the possible involvement of gp39 in fertilization, inhibition assays showed that pretreatment of eggs with antibodies against gp39 generated a significant decrease in the fertilization rate. Therefore, our findings suggest that gp39, which is modified by oviductal action, participates as a VE glycoprotein ligand for sperm in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

  1. Reproductive Mode of Fejervarya limnocharis (Anura: Ranidae) Caught from Mae Sot, Thailand Based on Its Gonadosomatic Indices

    PubMed Central

    OTHMAN, Mohd Sham; KHONSUE, Wichase; KITANA, Jirarach; THIRAKHUPT, Kumthorn; ROBSON, Mark Gregory; KITANA, Noppadon

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians show a variety of reproductive modes and strategies. The cyclicity and continuity of reproduction can often be predicted from the annual gonadosomatic index trends in a species specific manner. This research aims to document the female and male gonadosomatic index profiles and to ascertain the reproductive cyclicity or continuity of Fejervarya limnocharis (Anura: Ranidae) caught in Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand. Frogs were collected monthly between November 2007 and October 2009 in rice fields and their surrounding areas in the study site. For each frog, total weight and ovarian/testicular weight were measured to obtain the female and male gonadosomatic index. The number of female individuals with mature eggs (postvitellogenic eggs) was also counted. The results showed that female frogs had two main surges of increased GSI in March and September of 2008. Alternatively, male frogs showed a more gradual increase and decrease in gonadosomatic index, thus the index remaining high throughout the year. This study concluded that while F. limnocharis in this area is essentially a continuous breeder, it is more optimized for a cyclic reproduction mode with two breeding cycles during the rainy season. PMID:26389013

  2. Skeletal muscle-melanocyte association during tadpole tail resorption in a tropical frog, Clinotarsus curtipes Jerdon (Anura, Ranoidea).

    PubMed

    Divya, Lekha; Beyo, Reston S; Sreejith, Parameswaran; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Oommen, Oommen V

    2010-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that melanin has a role as a molecule within the thyroid-mediated cascade. Light microscopic and ultrastructural changes in the skeletal muscle during tail resorption in tadpoles of the tropical frog Clinotarsus curtipes Jerdon (Anura: Ranoidea) were observed. Light microscopic analysis at metamorphic stage XVIII showed a melanized epidermis. A gradual migration of melanocytes from the epidermis to the dermis and filopodia of melanocytes pervading the skeletal muscle preceded tail resorption. The invasion of melanocytes into the muscle bundles coincided with the breakdown of the muscle bundles into sarcolytes and the arrival of macrophages at this site. This would suggest that the melanocyte-sarcolyte association signals the arrival of macrophages at these sites as metamorphosis progressed. Melanophages, macrophages with melanin granules, were observed at the climax stage of XXIII. The sarcolytes and the melanin granules were phagocytosed by macrophages so as to completely cleanse the exocytic muscle debris and the melanin granules. The presence of large melanomacrophage centers in the tadpole liver at metamorphic climax suggests that these phagocytic macrophages were further processed in the liver and, likely, in the spleen. It is proposed that melanin, a byzantine molecule, has a role in the cascade of events leading to tail resorption in anuran tadpoles. (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca Ann

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  4. Environmental, land cover and land use constraints on the distributional patterns of anurans: Leptodacylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from Dry Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Regina Gabriela; Aráoz, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical dry forests are among the most vulnerable biomes to land transformation at a global scale. Among them, the Dry Chaco suffers an accelerated change due to agriculture expansion and intensification. The Dry Chaco ecoregion is characterized by high levels of endemisms and species diversity, which are the result of a variety of climates and reliefs, allowing a wide variety of environments. The amphibian group exhibits a high richness in the Dry Chaco, which has been barely studied in relation to land cover changes. We used ecological niche models (ENMs) to assess the potential geographic distribution of 10 Leptodactylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae), which are mainly distributed within the Dry Chaco. We characterized these distributions environmentally, analyzed their overlap with land cover classes, and assessed their diversity of ecoregions. Also, we evaluated how these species potential distribution is affected by the transformation of land, and quantified the proportional area of the potential distribution in protected areas. We found that temperature seasonality is the main constraint to the occurrence of the species studied, whose main habitats are savannas, grasslands and croplands. The main threats to these species are the effects of climate change over spatial patterns of seasonality, which could affect their breeding and reproduction mode; the loss of their natural habitat; the exposure to contaminants used by intensive agriculture and their underrepresentation in protected areas. PMID:27833796

  5. Environmental, land cover and land use constraints on the distributional patterns of anurans: Leptodacylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from Dry Chaco.

    PubMed

    Medina, Regina Gabriela; Ponssa, Maria Laura; Aráoz, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical dry forests are among the most vulnerable biomes to land transformation at a global scale. Among them, the Dry Chaco suffers an accelerated change due to agriculture expansion and intensification. The Dry Chaco ecoregion is characterized by high levels of endemisms and species diversity, which are the result of a variety of climates and reliefs, allowing a wide variety of environments. The amphibian group exhibits a high richness in the Dry Chaco, which has been barely studied in relation to land cover changes. We used ecological niche models (ENMs) to assess the potential geographic distribution of 10 Leptodactylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae), which are mainly distributed within the Dry Chaco. We characterized these distributions environmentally, analyzed their overlap with land cover classes, and assessed their diversity of ecoregions. Also, we evaluated how these species potential distribution is affected by the transformation of land, and quantified the proportional area of the potential distribution in protected areas. We found that temperature seasonality is the main constraint to the occurrence of the species studied, whose main habitats are savannas, grasslands and croplands. The main threats to these species are the effects of climate change over spatial patterns of seasonality, which could affect their breeding and reproduction mode; the loss of their natural habitat; the exposure to contaminants used by intensive agriculture and their underrepresentation in protected areas.

  6. Two new species of the Brachycephalus pernix group (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, David C.; Stanley, Edward L.; Pie, Marcio R.; Bornschein, Marcos R.

    2017-01-01

    We describe two new species of miniaturized toadlet in the B. pernix group of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The first new species is distinguished from all congeners by the pale red coloration from the head to the pelvic region, with sides of the body and thighs dorsally yellowish green. It is known only from the type locality in a cloud forest at altitudes ranging between 1,144–1,228 m a.s.l. The second species, although more closely related to B. izecksohni, is morphologically similar to B. brunneus in its overall brown coloration, but distinct from that species in the color of the iris (black with conspicuous golden spots, instead of entirely black). It was found on three mountains, at altitudes between 1,095–1,320 m a.s.l., and in vegetation types including cloud forest, montane forest, and secondary forest. The two new species exhibit neither vertebral fusions nor osteoderms, but one has both a distinct neopalatine and well-developed odontoids on the maxillae. We discuss the conservation status of both species. PMID:28761788

  7. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Findings Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. Conclusion The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot. PMID:19968866

  8. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Biju, Sd; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Giri, Varad B; Loader, Simon P; Bossuyt, Franky

    2009-12-07

    Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot.

  9. The role of the egg jelly coat in protecting Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus embryos from Ultraviolet B radiation during development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, L.J.; Fabacher, D.L.; Calfee, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the egg mass jelly provides photoprotection to the developing embryos. Methods. Direct spectrophotometric scans of egg jelly, scans of egg jelly methanol extracts, and experimental manipulation in a solar simulator during development were all used to assess the role of egg mass jelly as a photoprotective agent. Results/Discussion. For Hyla regilla, scans of egg jelly and methanolic extracts (for mycosporine-like amino acid content) both displayed no absorption in the UV range. Experimental manipulation (removal of egg mass jelly) with both Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus egg masses in a solar simulator demonstrated that egg mass jelly played no apparent role in photoprotection of either of these species. Conclusions. Based on the results in this study it seems unlikely that the egg jelly coat is playing a crucial role in protecting developing embryos from the impact of UVB radiation.

  10. When new human-modified habitats favour the expansion of an amphibian pioneer species: Evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in a coal basin.

    PubMed

    Faucher, Leslie; Hénocq, Laura; Vanappelghem, Cédric; Rondel, Stéphanie; Quevillart, Robin; Gallina, Sophie; Godé, Cécile; Jaquiéry, Julie; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    Human activities affect microevolutionary dynamics by inducing environmental changes. In particular, land cover conversion and loss of native habitats decrease genetic diversity and jeopardize the adaptive ability of populations. Nonetheless, new anthropogenic habitats can also promote the successful establishment of emblematic pioneer species. We investigated this issue by examining the population genetic features and evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo [Epidalea] calamita) in northern France, where populations can be found in native coastal habitats and coalfield habitats shaped by European industrial history, along with an additional set of European populations located outside this focal area. We predicted contrasting patterns of genetic structure, with newly settled coalfield populations departing from migration-drift equilibrium. As expected, coalfield populations showed a mosaic of genetically divergent populations with short-range patterns of gene flow, and native coastal populations indicated an equilibrium state with an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of postglacial range expansion. However, coalfield populations exhibited (i) high levels of genetic diversity, (ii) no evidence of local inbreeding or reduced effective population size and (iii) multiple maternal mitochondrial lineages, a genetic footprint depicting independent colonization events. Furthermore, approximate Bayesian computations suggested several evolutionary trajectories from ancient isolation in glacial refugia during the Pleistocene, with biogeographical signatures of recent expansion probably confounded by human-mediated mixing of different lineages. From an evolutionary and conservation perspective, this study highlights the ecological value of industrial areas, provided that ongoing regional gene flow is ensured within the existing lineage boundaries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anup; Purkait, Bulbul

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic) drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG) was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  12. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    PubMed Central

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  13. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    PubMed

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  14. Population genetic structure of the toad Bufo woodhousii: an empirical assessment of the effects of haplotype extinction on nested cladistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Masta, S E; Laurent, N M; Routman, E J

    2003-06-01

    Nested cladistic analysis (NCA) is increasingly being used to infer historical population-level processes, including population fragmentation, range expansion and long-distance colonization. However, the effects on interpretation of NCA inferences of stochastic extinction of haplotypes due to genetic drift (lineage sorting), or of haplotype loss via localized biotic or climatic influences, have not been thoroughly explored. We provide empirical evidence suggesting that NCA may misinterpret population history when haplotypes or haplotype groups from one clade are replaced by those of another clade. We do so by using NCA to analyse mitochondrial sequences from the toad Bufo woodhousii from 45 locations spanning the Great Plains and southwestern USA. Portions of this region were glaciated and/or desertified in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene, and hence uninhabitable for plains-dwelling organisms. Although NCA inferences of isolation-by-distance and gradual range expansion in B. woodhousii are compatible with expectations based on climatic data and toad biology, NCA also detected several instances of long-distance movement. Such movement seems unlikely, given the low vagility of this species. We conclude that inferences of long-distance colonization likely result from extinction of haplotypes in intervening areas. We suggest using additional methods to look for congruent inferences, and amending the NCA inference key, to help avoid misinterpretations resulting from haplotype extinction.

  15. Geographic variation in life-history traits: growth season affects age structure, egg size and clutch size in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen Bo; Luo, Yi; Lou, Shang Ling; Lu, Di; Jehle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of variation in egg size, clutch size, age at sexual maturity, maximum age, mean age, growth rate and adult body size in relation to growth season length among 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) at different latitudes and altitudes in the Hengduan Mountains, western China. We found that egg size, age at sexual maturity, and mean age increased with decreasing length of the growth season, whereas clutch size showed a converse cline. Body size did not increase with decreasing length of the growth season, but was tightly linked to lifetime activity (i.e. the estimated number of active days during lifetime). Males and females differed in their patterns of geographic variation in growth rates, which may be the result of forces shaping the trade-off between growth and reproduction in different environments. Our findings suggest that growth season plays an important role in shaping variation in life-history traits in B. andrewsi across geographical gradients.

  16. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  17. [Apoptosis and differentiation in presumptive neural retina and presumptive retinal pigmented epithelium during early eye development in toad, Bufo raddei Strauch].

    PubMed

    Khan, V; Khan, I-P; Vang, Z-R

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis and differentiation in presumptive neural retina (PNR) and presumptive retinal pigmented epithelium (PRPE) wert investigated during early retina development of toad, Bufo raddei Strauch. TUNEL staining was used to evaluate apoptotic cells and the immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression levels ofglial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), RT97 and tyrosinase (Tyr) during early eye development respectively. The density of apoptotic cells and protein expression were quantitated with Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Apoptosis was found in both PNR and PRPE and the density of apoptotic profiles in PRPE was higher than that in PNR (most P<0.01) at the same stage during early eye development. The expression levels of GFAP and RT97 changed from low to high in PNR, but from high to low in PRPE, whereas the expression level of Tyr, was contrary to those of GFAP and RT97 in both PNR and PRPE. The point of intersection of these, increase and decrease respectively was found at 5-6 h after formation of optic vesicle (FOV). PRPE becomes thinner than PNR, one of the reasons might be due to higher density of apoptosis in PRPE than that in PNR during early eye development. Molecular differentiation, however, occurred after the contact of the optic vesicle outer wall with the overlying ectoderm which promotes the expression of specific molecules and inhibits the expression of non-specific molecules in PNR and PRPE respectively.

  18. Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Chloromyxidae) infecting the testicular tissue of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis (Amphibia: Bufonidae), and its pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Reda, Enayat Salem Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    A new myxosporean, Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp., is described from the testes of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis, captured from El Mansoura locality. C. aegypticus is identified on the basis of cytology, electron microscopy and histopathology. It is distinguished from all previously reported Chloromyxum spp. by its shape, dimensions of the mature spore (9.1 ± 0.1 (9.0-9.2) μm in length  × 7.9 ± 0.1 (7.8-8.0) μm in width), polar capsules, external ridge, sporoplasm nuclei, undulating suture, locality and host. Accumulation of several hundreds of plasmodia (0.8 ± 0.3 (0.5-1.1) mm in length × 0.5 ± 0.3 (0.2-0.7) mm in width) in the testes causes their enlargement. Parasites cause destruction of the seminiferous tubule cells and complete loss of spermatozoa. Since spermatogenesis stops, this seems to be a form of "parasitic castration". This is the first known record of the genus Chloromyxum in amphibian testes.

  19. Primary structure and developmental expression of Bufo arenarum cellular nucleic acid-binding protein: changes in subcellular localization during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Armas, P; Cabada, M O; Calcaterra, N B

    2001-02-01

    A Bufo arenarum cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (bCNBP) full-length cDNA was cloned. bCNBP is a 19.4 kDa protein containing seven CCHC zinc finger motifs, an RGG box and a Ser-rich region. Amino acid comparisons showed high values of homology in vertebrates and smaller values in insects or inferior eukaryotes. Northern blot analysis during oogenesis and early development revealed two transcripts with different expressions of pattern behavior. One of them is present in all stages analyzed, whereas the other is only detected from the beginning of zygotic transcription. Immunocytochemistry assays carried out on sections of ovary and early embryos showed that there was no specific staining of previtellogenic oocytes. In early vitellogenic oocytes, in oocytes at stages V/VI and in embryos at early blastula stage, reaction was observed inside the cytoplasm. At mid-blastula stage, CNBP was mainly detected in the epiblast. At the late gastrula stage, two layers of cells were stained in the archenteron roof, in which the internal one presented as strong staining. Nuclei in this layer were stained even stronger than the cytoplasm. Changes in mRNA expression patterns, accompanied by changes in subcellular localization, suggest that CNBP might interact with both nuclear and cytoplasmic nucleic acids.

  20. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2013-12-15

    Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum.

  1. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineoidae), new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), and other helminths in Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2005-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia costaricensis n. sp. (Strongylida: Molineidae) from the intestines and Rhabdias savagei n. sp. (Rhabditida: Rhabdiasidae) from the lungs of Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) are described and illustrated. Oswaldocruzia costaricensis represents the 77th species assigned to the genus and differs from the other Neotropical species in the genus by possessing a Type II bursa and long cervical alae. Rhabdias savagei represents the 47th species assigned to the genus and differs from other Neotropical species in the genus by possession of 4 lips and a postequatorial vulva. Rana cf. forreri was also found to harbor the trematodes, Haematoloechus parcivitellarius and Megalodiscus temperatus, the nematodes, Aplectana incerta, Aplectana itzocanensis, Cosmocerca podicipinus, Foleyellides striatus, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, and a larva of the nematode Brevimulticaecum sp. Cosmocerca panamaensis is considered to be a synonym of Cosmocerca podicipinus.

  2. Evaluation of the use of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) frog tissues as bioindicator of metal contamination in Contas River, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Lívia O; Siqueira Júnior, Sérgio; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the viability of the use of tissues of the Leptodactylus ocellatus species (Anura Leptodactylidae) as a bioindicator of metal pollution. The study is based on the determination and correlation of the concentrations of manganese, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper and iron in sediments and tissues (skin, muscles and viscera) of the frog Leptodactylus ocellatus collected in the middle region of the Contas River in Bahia, Brazil. The highest levels of the metals studied were found in the viscera of this animal. In this tissue, a higher correlation of the concentration of these metals with those found in sediments was also observed. The concentrations of elements found in the skin and muscles of these amphibians have revealed no correlation with the sediment where they were collected. According to the results obtained, the viscera of the L. ocellatus species presents itself as a good bioindicator of contamination by the metals studied.

  3. New species of Orientatractis (Nematoda: Atractidae), new species of Rondonia (Nematoda: Atractidae) and other helminths in Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Two new nematode species, Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. (Nematoda: Atractidae), from the gastrointestinal tract of Austrochaperina basipalmata (Anura: Microhylidae) collected in Papua New Guinea are described. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the cephalic end armed with 4 wellsclerotized structures, consisting of 2 "horns" extending outward and downward and immediately below a single well-sclerotized spine. It differs from 5 congeners in spicule lengths and caudal papillae arrangements. Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of a female cloaca. It differs from 2 congeners primarily in body size. Orientatractis hamabatrachos sp. nov. and Rondonia batrachogena sp. nov. represent the first species assigned to either genus found to infect anurans or to occur in the Australo-Papuan region.

  4. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Zazhigin, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. Methods and Results In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. Conclusion The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo

  5. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Vasilyan, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage

  6. Corticosteroidogenesis in the toad Bufo arenarum H: evidence for a precursor role for an aldosterone 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene analogue (3 beta, 11 beta, 21-trihydroxy-20-oxo-5-pregnen-18-al).

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, N R; Shackleton, C H; Harnik, M; Cozza, E N; Gros, E G; Lantos, C P

    1993-01-01

    A material isolated following pregnenolone incubations with toad (Bufo arenarum) inter-renal tissue at 28 degrees C has been identified as a 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene analogue of aldosterone (3 beta, 11 beta, 21-trihydroxy-20-oxo-5-pregnen-18-al). The initial identification was made by enzymic and m.s. methods, and structural confirmation was achieved through comparison with chemically synthesized authentic material. The relative efficacy of corticosterone, 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene aldosterone analogue as aldosterone precursors was evaluated. In the in vitro situation studied, the 3 beta-hydroxy-5-ene steroid was by far the best precursor. PMID:8503841

  7. Acanthocephala in amphibians (Anura) and reptiles (Squamata) from Brazil and Paraguay with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2007-04-01

    In a survey of 1,732 amphibians and reptiles collected across São Paulo Province, Brazil, and 7 provinces in Paraguay, 26 species were found infected with acanthocephalans. Of 1,510 anurans, 14 anurans, representing 11 species, were infected with cystacanths of Centrorhynchus spp. and 1 anuran with cystacanths of Oligacanthorhynchus sp. Of 107 lizards, 1 lizard was infected with cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp. and 1 lizard with cystacanths of Oligacanthorhynchus sp. Acanthocephalus caspanensis was found in 3 anurans (3 species) and Acanthocephalus lutzi in 3 anurans (2 species) and 2 snakes (2 species). The systematic position of A. lutzi cannot be resolved using presently available morphological data. Acanthocephalus saopaulensis n. sp. was found in a single individual of Bufo ictericus. The new species can be differentiated from all its congeners except A. caspanensis in having a sigmoid-shaped male posterior end and from A. caspanensis in having a proboscis armature of 16 rows of 5-7 hooks rather than 18-19 rows of 6-7 hooks and larger eggs. The status of Acanthocephalus and Pseudoacanthocephalus continues to be problematic.

  8. Turgid female toads give males the slip: a new mechanism of female mate choice in the Anura.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Bas; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2010-06-23

    In many anuran species, males vocalize to attract females but will grasp any female that comes within reach and retain their hold unless displaced by a rival male. Thus, female anurans may face strong selection to repel unwanted suitors, but no mechanism is known for doing so. We suggest that a defensive trait (the ability to inflate the body to ward off attack) has been co-opted for this role: by inflating their bodies, females are more difficult for males to grasp and hence, it is easier for another male to displace an already amplexed rival. Inflating a model female cane toad (Bufo marinus) strongly reduced a male's ability to maintain amplexus; and females who were experimentally prevented from inflating their bodies experienced no successful takeovers from rival males, in contrast to control females. Thus, the ability of a female cane toad to inflate her body may allow her to manipulate the outcome of male-male competition. This overlooked mechanism of anuran mate choice may reflect a common evolutionary pattern, whereby females co-opt defensive traits for use in sexual selection.

  9. Turgid female toads give males the slip: a new mechanism of female mate choice in the Anura

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Bas; Phillips, Benjamin L.; Shine, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In many anuran species, males vocalize to attract females but will grasp any female that comes within reach and retain their hold unless displaced by a rival male. Thus, female anurans may face strong selection to repel unwanted suitors, but no mechanism is known for doing so. We suggest that a defensive trait (the ability to inflate the body to ward off attack) has been co-opted for this role: by inflating their bodies, females are more difficult for males to grasp and hence, it is easier for another male to displace an already amplexed rival. Inflating a model female cane toad (Bufo marinus) strongly reduced a male's ability to maintain amplexus; and females who were experimentally prevented from inflating their bodies experienced no successful takeovers from rival males, in contrast to control females. Thus, the ability of a female cane toad to inflate her body may allow her to manipulate the outcome of male–male competition. This overlooked mechanism of anuran mate choice may reflect a common evolutionary pattern, whereby females co-opt defensive traits for use in sexual selection. PMID:20053661

  10. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Gerchen, Jörn F.; Reichert, Samuel J.; Röhr, Johannes T.; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  11. Cryptic Neogene vicariance and Quaternary dispersal of the red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus): insights on the evolution of North American warm desert biotas.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Jef R; Riddle, Brett R; Bradford, David F

    2005-09-01

    We define the geographical distributions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages embedded within a broadly distributed, arid-dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus. These patterns were evaluated as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of desert biotas within western North America. We assessed mtDNA sequence variation among 191 samples from 82 sites located throughout much of the species' range. Parsimony-based haplotype networks of major identified lineages were used in nested clade analysis (NCA) to further elucidate and evaluate shallow phylogeographic patterns potentially associated with Quaternary (Pleistocene-Holocene) vicariance and dispersal. Phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for three monophyletic lineages (clades) within B. punctatus. The geographical distributions of the clades showed little overlap and corresponded to the general boundaries of the Peninsular Desert, and two continental desert regions, Eastern (Chihuahuan Desert-Colorado Plateau) and Western (Mojave-Sonoran deserts), geographically separated along the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre Occidental. The observed divergence levels and congruence with postulated events in earth history implicate a late Neogene (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) time frame for separation of the major mtDNA lineages. Evaluation of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and interpretations from NCA reveal that populations on the Colorado Plateau resulted from a recent, likely post-Pleistocene, range expansion from the Chihuahuan Desert. Dispersal across historical barriers separating major continental clades appear to be recent, resulting in secondary contacts in at least two areas. Given the observed contact between major clades, we speculated as to why the observed deep phylogeographic structure has not been eroded during the multiple previous interglacials of the Pleistocene.

  12. Impact of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus) on an Australian frog (Opisthodon ornatus) depends on minor variation in reproductive timing.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Michael R; Alford, Ross A; Shine, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species are widely viewed as unmitigated ecological catastrophes, but the reality is more complex. Theoretically, invasive species could have negligible or even positive effects if they sufficiently reduce the intensity of processes regulating native populations. Understanding such mechanisms is crucial to predicting ultimate ecological impacts. We used a mesocosm experiment to quantify the impact of eggs and larvae of the introduced cane toad (Bufo marinus) on fitness-related traits (number, size and time of emergence of metamorphs) of a native Australian frog species (Opisthodon ornatus). The results depended upon the timing of oviposition of the two taxa, and hence the life-history stages that came into contact. Growth and survival of O. ornatus tadpoles were enhanced when they preceded B. marinus tadpoles into ponds, and reduced when they followed B. marinus tadpoles into ponds, relative to when tadpoles of both species were added to ponds simultaneously. The dominant tadpole-tadpole interaction is competition, and the results are consistent with competitive priority effects. However, these priority effects were reduced or reversed when O. ornatus tadpoles encountered B. marinus eggs. Predation on toxic toad eggs reduced the survival of O. ornatus and B. marinus. The consequent reduction in tadpole densities allowed the remaining O. ornatus tadpoles to grow more rapidly and to metamorphose at larger body sizes (>60% disparity in mean mass). Thus, exposure to B. marinus eggs reduced the number of O. ornatus metamorphs, but increased their body sizes. If the increased size at metamorphosis more than compensates for the reduced survival, the effective reproductive output of native anurans may be increased rather than decreased by the invasive toad. Minor interspecific differences in the seasonal timing of oviposition thus have the potential to massively alter the impact of invasive cane toads on native anurans.

  13. The effects of drought on population structure, activity, and orientation of toads Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris at a temporary pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.

    1994-01-01

    From 1985 through 1990, I monitored the populations of two species of toads, Bufo quercicus and B. terrestris, at a temporary pond in the xeric uplands of north-central Florida. A drift fence with pitfall traps completely encircled the pond basin; the fence was monitored 5 days per week throughout the year. The 5-year study coincided with a severe regional drought that resulted in generally short hydroperiods at unpredictable times of the year. More than 800 toads were captured. Successful metamorphosis never occurred at the pond although toads continued to visit it throughout the study. The sex ratio was male biased in B. quercicus but not in B. terrestris, although significant variation was observed from one year to the next. Likewise, the size-class structure and length-weight patterns varied among species, sexes, and years. Although fewer toads entered the pond basin as the study progressed, toads may have gone elsewhere to breed or they may have remained in refugia. Thus, decreased capture does not necessarily indicate that a drought-related population decline occurred. Drought may have disrupted normal arrival patterns and length of stay within the pond basin. Drought also could be responsible for variation in annual size-class structure of captured toads. The uncertainty of the hydroperiod both spatially and temporally in adjacent breeding sites, the ability of toads to move long distances with the potential for migration between breeding sites, and the lack of specificity in the choice of breeding sites (i.e. permanent versus different types of temporary wetlands) may lead to the formation of metapopulations in the xeric upland habitats of north-central Florida. Long-term monitoring under a variety of climatic conditions is needed to assess the effects of drought and other types of environmental stresses on toad populations.

  14. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52). Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis) and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1). Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene). Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids), possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates). The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20 My of divergence. PMID

  15. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P < 0.01). The degrees of FA in B. raddei populations from BY and LJX were assessed as degree 4 and 1, respectively. In short, this study suggested that FA was a more reliable and effective indicator than OS to monitor and predict long-term environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  16. Testicular myxosporidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus bufonis (Myxobolidae) infecting the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis (Bufonidae). A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Semmler, Margit; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Myxozoa comprises more than 2180 species, almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic fishes and amphibians. They are dangerous pathogens responsible for severe economic losses. From March to September 2014, 40 adult male Bufo regularis (Bufonidae) captured from different areas at Giza province, Egypt, were surveyed for myxosporean parasitic infection. Of these, 22 (55%) were infected by histozoic plasmodia, which produced spores after rupture belonging to Myxosporidia. The present investigation introduced a new data for the recorded parasite observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The infection was diagnosed as large clusters of macroscopic plasmodia embedded in the testicular tissue causing distortion at the site of infection. The host reaction was manifested by the encapsulation of the plasmodia with a thick layer of connective tissue. Plasmodia were whitish in color, elliptical to ovoid in shape measuring 0.54 ± 0.2 (0.34-0.63) mm in diameter. The spores were subspherical, reaching 7.1 ± 0.2 (6.2-8.4) μm in length and 6.3 ± 0.2 (5.8-7.0) μm in width with two equal-sized polar capsules regularly arranged at the anterior pole of each spore. They were 3.4 ± 0.2 (3.0-4.2) μm in length and 1.9 ± 0.2 (1.6-2.4) in width with 6-8 turns of polar filaments. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodia were surrounded by a plasma membrane with numerous projections and pinocytotic channels extended toward the host cell. The generative cells and the different developmental stages were arranged at the periphery of the plasmodia while immature and mature spores were centrally arranged. Sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, valvogenesis, and spore maturation of the present parasite were also described.

  17. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    PubMed

    Gerchen, Jörn F; Reichert, Samuel J; Röhr, Johannes T; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  18. Development of Nuclear Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for the Natterjack Toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita (Bufonidae), Using Next Generation Sequencing and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar).

    PubMed

    Faucher, Leslie; Godé, Cécile; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a major decline worldwide and the steady increase in the number of threatened species in this particular taxa highlights the need for conservation genetics studies using high-quality molecular markers. The natterjack toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita, is a vulnerable pioneering species confined to specialized habitats in Western Europe. To provide efficient and cost-effective genetic resources for conservation biologists, we developed and characterized 22 new nuclear microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing. We also used sequence data acquired from Sanger sequencing to develop the first mitochondrial markers for KASPar assay genotyping. Genetic polymorphism was then analyzed for 95 toads sampled from 5 populations in France. For polymorphic microsatellite loci, number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 14 and from 0.035 to 0.720, respectively. No significant departures from panmixia were observed (mean multilocus F IS = -0.015) and population differentiation was substantial (mean multilocus F ST = 0.222, P < 0.001). From a set of 18 mitochondrial SNPs located in the 16S and D-loop region, we further developed a fast and cost-effective SNP genotyping method based on competitive allele-specific PCR amplification (KASPar). The combination of allelic states for these mitochondrial DNA SNP markers yielded 10 different haplotypes, ranging from 2 to 5 within populations. Populations were highly differentiated (G ST = 0.407, P < 0.001). These new genetic resources will facilitate future parentage, population genetics and phylogeographical studies and will be useful for both evolutionary and conservation concerns, especially for the set-up of management strategies and the definition of distinct evolutionary significant units. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Luna; Paital, Biswaranjan

    2016-11-01

    Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (<10 °C). Soil and air of the sampling site, although varying seasonally, were mostly found to be unpolluted, except for suspended particulate matter and respiratory particulate matter that were above recommended value. The magnitude of both ELPx and ILPx levels in most of the tissues, for example, ELPx in liver, cerebral hemisphere and ovary, and ILPx in liver of males and ovary, were found to be higher in rainy season in comparison to the other seasons. Nevertheless, levels of both ELPx and ILPx were low in testes in rainy season in comparison to the other two seasons. No correlation was observed between temperature and the studied OS parameters except a positive correlation with SOD and negative correlations with non-enzymatic small redox regulatory molecules in some selected tissues. Conversely, discriminant function analysis reveals a clear impact of the changing season on OS physiology of the toad. It implies that season considerably modulates OS physiology which be a reflection of the toads to abiotic pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads

  20. Bicarbonate secretion and non-Na component of the short-circuit current in the isolated colonic mucosa of Bufo arenarum

    PubMed Central

    Carlisky, N. J.; Lew, V. L.

    1970-01-01

    1. In the isolated colonic mucosa of Bufo arenarum, under special circumstances, there is a variable fraction of the short-circuit current (0-38%) that is unaccounted for by either the Na or the Cl and bicarbonate transmembrane net fluxes. 2. The hypothesis that a special kind of bicarbonate transport may account for the non-Na component of the short-circuit current was investigated. According to this, bicarbonate ions formed within the membrane await transport towards the mucosal solution within a compartment that does not undergo isotopic exchange with the serosal bathing solution. This kind of transport may be detected by a lowering of mucosal specific activity of bicarbonate but would not be revealed by the classic method of comparing the difference between the unidirectional fluxes with the short-circuit current. 3. The specific activity of bicarbonate was determined in the inside solution (initially bicarbonate-free) of ten normal and four everted colonic sacs incubated in an external medium (reservoir) containing a constant specific activity of bicarbonate. Comparison between membrane-to-internal solution bicarbonate flux and non-Na component of the short-circuit current was carried out in two different ways: (a) by measuring the remaining short-circuit current in Na-free medium and (b) by determining simultaneously the Na net flux. 4. Whatever the value of the short-circuit current and its non-Na component, there is no reduction of the specific activity of the bicarbonate appearing in the inside solution of the everted colonic sacs. 5. In the normal sacs there is a reduction of the specific activity of bicarbonate which accounts for a membrane-to-mucosa bicarbonate flux which parallels the variations of the non-Na component of the short-circuit current although quantitatively representing only 68-87% of it. 6. There is no systematic decrease in the rate of reduction of the mucosal specific activity of bicarbonate in successive experimental flux periods

  1. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  2. Morphological comparison of five species of poison dart frogs of the genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae) including the skeleton, the muscle system and inner organs.

    PubMed

    Krings, Markus; Klein, Benjamin; Heneka, Markus J; Rödder, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of larvae stages of most amphibians are often completely different than in adults. Tadpole descriptions have historically been based on external characters like morphometrics, color pattern and oral disc structure. Other papers described anatomical details by the use of dissections. The increase in micro-CT scanning technology provides an opportunity to quantify and describe in detail internal characters like skeleton, musculature and organs. To date, no such tadpole descriptions exist for the well-studied Neotropical poison dart frog genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Here we provide descriptions of the internal skeletal, musculature and organ structures of five Ranitomeya species and then provide morphological comparisons. Contrary to previous observations, closely related species display several morphological differences. For example, we observed considerable variation in chondrocranial characters, the extent of cranial ossifications, the appearance of some cranial muscles and the arrangement of inner organs. Further studies on the tadpole morphology of more species of Ranitomeya and other dendrobatid genera are needed to enable us to understand the complete morphological variation in this group.

  3. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Drake, Michael C; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda; Cole, Rebecca A

    2014-10-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina , (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimile was significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  4. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rommel R; Chaparro, Juan C; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella.

  5. Morphological comparison of five species of poison dart frogs of the genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae) including the skeleton, the muscle system and inner organs

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Markus; Klein, Benjamin; Heneka, Markus J.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of larvae stages of most amphibians are often completely different than in adults. Tadpole descriptions have historically been based on external characters like morphometrics, color pattern and oral disc structure. Other papers described anatomical details by the use of dissections. The increase in micro-CT scanning technology provides an opportunity to quantify and describe in detail internal characters like skeleton, musculature and organs. To date, no such tadpole descriptions exist for the well-studied Neotropical poison dart frog genus Ranitomeya (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Here we provide descriptions of the internal skeletal, musculature and organ structures of five Ranitomeya species and then provide morphological comparisons. Contrary to previous observations, closely related species display several morphological differences. For example, we observed considerable variation in chondrocranial characters, the extent of cranial ossifications, the appearance of some cranial muscles and the arrangement of inner organs. Further studies on the tadpole morphology of more species of Ranitomeya and other dendrobatid genera are needed to enable us to understand the complete morphological variation in this group. PMID:28235032

  6. Uncovering the diversity in the Amazophrynella minuta complex: integrative taxonomy reveals a new species of Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) from southern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Rommel R.; Chaparro, Juan C.; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W.; Farias, Izeni Pires; Hrbek, Tomas; Gordo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Amazophrynella (Anura, Bufonidae) is described from the departments of Madre de Dios, Cusco and Junin in Peru. An integrative taxonomy approach is used. A morphological diagnosis, morphometrics comparisons, description of the advertisement call, and the phylogenetic relationships of the new species are provided. Amazophrynella javierbustamantei sp. n. differs from other species of Amazophrynella by: intermediate body-size (snout-vent length 14.9 mm in males, n = 26 and 19.6 mm in females, n = 20), tuberculate skin texture of body, greatest hand length of the Amazophrynella spp. (3.6 mm in males, n = 26 and 4.6 mm in females, n = 20), venter coloration yellowish, tiny rounded black points covering the venter, and thirteen molecular autapomorphies in the 16S RNA gene. Its distribution varies from 215 to 708 m a.s.l. This discovery highlights the importance of the remnant forest in preserving the biodiversity in Peru, and increase in seven the species formally described in the genus Amazophrynella. PMID:27047239

  7. A new species of Andean frog of the genus Bryophryne from southern Peru Anura: Craugastoridae) and its phylogenetic position, with notes on the diversity of the genus.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, Juan C; Padial, José M; Gutiérrez, Roberto C; De La Riva, Ignacio

    2015-07-30

    We describe a new species of terrestrial frog of the genus Bryophryne (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the wet puna and elfin forests of the Amazonian versant of the Andes. The new species seems to be restricted to high altitude environments at elevations between 3506-3651 m in the area now protected by Megantoni National Sanctuary and Manu National Park (Distrito de Echarate, Provincia La Convención, Departamento Cusco, Peru). The new species is characterized by lacking vomerine processes of vomers, by having tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane not evident through the skin, smooth dorsal skin with scattered warts, conspicuous dorsolateral, middorsal, and occipital folds, warty flanks, areolate skin on ventral surfaces of the body, and by lacking finger and toe fringes and basal web on feet. In life, specimens have bright and highly variable dorsal coloration that ranges from olive-green to red with variable combinations of red or orange marks (red or orange in the green form and olive-green in the red form). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA place the new species within the genus Bryophryne and as sister group of B. cophites. Bryophryne bustamantei, also sequenced for this study, is found as the sister group of the clade formed by B. cophites and the new species. Bryophryne is found as sister group of Psychrophrynella in maximum likelihood analyses and as the sister group of a large clade of holoadenines in parsimony analyses. The genus Bryophryne now contains nine species, all of them distributed along the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, southeast of the Apurimac River valley.

  8. A new species of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) from the Sahamalaza Peninsula, northwest Madagascar, with acoustic monitoring of its nocturnal calling activity

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Samuel G.; Andreone, Franco; Crottini, Angelica; Holderied, Marc W.; Rakotozafy, Lovasoa Sylviane; Schwitzer, Christoph; Rosa, Gonçalo M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of treefrog of the Boophis rappiodes group (Anura, Mantellidae) is described from the Sahamalaza – Iles Radama National Park in northwest Madagascar. This new species is green in colour with bright red speckling across its head and dorsum; similar in morphology to other species of this group including: B. bottae, B. rappiodes, B. erythrodactylus and B. tasymena. The new species can be distinguished by its advertisement call and by a genetic divergence of more than 4.9% in the analysed mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment. Its call consists of two note types: a trill and a click; although similar sounding to B. bottae, the trill note of the new species has a faster pulse rate while the click note is predominantly two-pulsed rather than three. All individuals were detected from the banks of two streams in Ankarafa Forest. The new species represents the only member of the B. rappiodes group endemic to Madagascar’s western coast, with the majority of other members known from the eastern rainforest belt. Despite its conspicuous call, it has not been detected from other surveys of northwest Madagascar and it is likely to be a local endemic to the peninsula. The ranges of two other amphibian species also appear restricted to Sahamalaza, and so the area seems to support a high level of endemicity. Although occurring inside a National Park, this species is highly threatened by the continuing decline in the quality and extent of its habitat. Due to these threats it is proposed that this species should be classified as Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria. PMID:25152689

  9. The genotoxic effects of the imidacloprid-based insecticide formulation Glacoxan Imida on Montevideo tree frog Hypsiboas pulchellus tadpoles (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Iglesias, J M; Ruiz de Arcaute, C; Nikoloff, N; Dury, L; Soloneski, S; Natale, G S; Larramendy, M L

    2014-06-01

    The neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) affects the insect central nervous system and is successfully applied to control pests for a variety of agricultural crops. In the current study, acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the IMI-containing commercial formulation insecticide Glacoxan Imida (35 percent IMI) was evaluated on Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae) tadpoles exposed under laboratory conditions. A lethal effect was evaluated as the end point for lethality, whereas micronucleus (MN) frequency and DNA single-strand breaks evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Sublethal end points were assayed within the 12.5-37.5mg/L IMI concentration range. Experiments were performed on tadpoles at stage 36 (range, 35-37) according to the classification proposed by Gosner. Lethality studies revealed an LC50 96h value of 52.622mg/L IMI. Increased frequency of MNs was only observed when 25.0mg/L was assayed for 96h, whereas no other nuclear abnormalities were induced. Increase of the genetic damage index was observed at 48h of treatment within the 12.5-37.5mg/L concentration range, whereas an increased frequency of DNA damage was observed only in tadpoles treated with 37.5mg/L IMI for 96h. This study represents the first evidence of the acute lethal and genotoxic effects exerted by IMI on tadpoles of an amphibian species native to Argentina under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A new species of Aplectana (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) parasite of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Monte desert, Argentina, with a key to Neotropical species of the genus Aplectana.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Mauricio D Piñeiro; González, Cynthya E; Sanabria, Eduardo A

    2017-03-27

    Here we describe a new cosmocercid nematode, Aplectana nebulosa sp. nov., from the small and large intestines of Pleurodema nebulosum (Anura: Leptodactylidae), from the Monte desert of San Juan, Argentina. The new species belongs to the Aplectana group that possesses a gubernaculum and unpaired adcloacal papilla anteriorly to cloaca. It resembles A. membranosa, A. paraelenae and A. travassosi by the presence of four adcloacal papillae, but differs from those species by the following characters: number and arrangement of precloacal papillae; number and arrangement of postcloacal papillae; shape and size of spicules and gubernaculum, and by the presence of lateral alae in caudal region of males. The description of the new species is based on light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and we also provide a key to Neotropical species of Aplectana.

  11. Evolution of Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae) in the Carpathian Basin: a history of repeated mt-DNA introgression across species.

    PubMed

    Vörös, Judit; Alcobendas, Marina; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo; García-París, Mario

    2006-03-01

    The structure and geographic location of hybrid zones change through time. Current patterns result from present and historical population-environment interactions that act on each of the hybridizing taxa. This is particularly evident for species involved in complex hybrid zones, such as that formed by the toad species Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata (Anura: Discoglossidae), which interact along extensive areas in Central Europe. We used data on external morphology and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (cox1) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotid dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4) mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) genes to analyze the current patterns of genetic structure shown by both species of Bombina along their contact zone in Hungary. Phylogenetic, phylogeographic, and historical demography analyses were applied to 1.5kb mt-DNA obtained from 119 individuals representing 24 populations from Hungary and additional specimens from Slovakia, Albania, and Bosnia-Herzegovina. We use these data to infer the evolutionary history of the isolated populations of B. variegata in Hungary and to discriminate between competing biogeographic scenarios accounting for the historical interactions between species in this region. Results from the inferred phylogenetic branching pattern and sequence divergence among species and populations support the following: (i) recent population expansion has occurred in Hungarian populations of B. bombina, which are genetically very homogeneous; (ii) the Hungarian populations of B. variegata correspond to two distinct mitochondrial lineages (Carpathian and Alpine, respectively); average maximum-likelihood-corrected sequence divergence between these lineages is 8.96% for cox1 and 10.85% for nad4; (iii) mt-DNA divergence among the three isolated western populations of B. variegata from Transdanubia is low, with four closely related haplotypes, which suggests that the isolation between these populations is the result of a recent process

  12. Antimicrobial peptides and alytesin are co-secreted from the venom of the Midwife toad, Alytes maurus (Alytidae, Anura): implications for the evolution of frog skin defensive secretions.

    PubMed

    König, Enrico; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Shaw, Chris

    2012-11-01

    The skin secretions of frogs and toads (Anura) have long been a known source of a vast abundance of bioactive substances. In the past decade, transcriptome data of the granular glands of anuran skin has given new impetus to investigations of the putative constituent peptides. Alytes obstetricans was recently investigated and novel peptides with antimicrobial activity were isolated and functionally characterised. However, genetic data for the evolutionarily ancient lineage to which Alytes belongs (midwife toads; Alytidae) remains unavailable. Here we present the first such genetic data for Alytidae, derived via the granular gland transcriptome of a closely-related species of midwife toad, Alytes maurus. First, we present nucleotide sequences of the entire peptide precursors for four novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The two precursors resemble those from Bombinatoridae in both their structural architecture and amino acid sequence. Each precursor comprises two AMPs as tandem repeats, with a member of the alyteserin-1 family (alyteserin-1Ma: GFKEVLKADLGSLVKGIAAHVAN-NH2 or alyteserin-1Mb: GFKEVLKAGLGSLVKGIPAHVAN-NH2) followed by its corresponding member from the alyteserin-2 family (alyteserin-2Ma: FIGKLISAASGLLSHL-NH2 or alyteserin-2Mb: ILGAIIPLVSGLLSHL-NH2). Synthetic replicates of the four AMPs possessed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 9.5 to 300 μM, with the most potent being alyteserin-2Ma. Second, we also cloned the cDNA encoding an alytesin precursor, with the active alytesin exhibiting high sequence identity to bombesin-related peptides from other frogs. All putative mature peptide sequences were confirmed to be present in the skin secretion via LC/MS. The close structural resemblance of the alyteserin genes that we isolated for A. maurus with those of Bombina provide independent molecular evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between these genera as well as more support for the convergent evolution of the AMP system within

  13. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

    2007-04-01

    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  14. Historical biogeography resolves the origins of endemic Arabian toad lineages (Anura: Bufonidae): Evidence for ancient vicariance and dispersal events with the Horn of Africa and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Portik, Daniel M; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2015-08-06

    The Arabian Peninsula is home to a unique fauna that has assembled and evolved throughout the course of major geophysical events, including the separation of the Arabian Plate from Africa and subsequent collision with Eurasia. Opportunities for faunal exchanges with particular continents occurred in temporally distinct periods, and the presence of African, Western Eurasian, and South Asian derived taxa on the Arabian Peninsula signifies the complexity of these historical biogeographic events. The six true toad species (family Bufonidae) endemic to Arabian Peninsula present a considerable taxonomic and biogeographic challenge because they are part of a global bufonid radiation, including several genera surrounding the Arabian Peninsula, and difficult to discriminate morphologically. As they could be derived from African, Western Eurasian, or South Asian toad groups, elucidating their evolutionary relationships has important implications for historical biogeography. Here, we analyze a global molecular data set of 243 bufonid lineages, with an emphasis on new sampling from the Horn of Africa, Western Eurasia, South Asia, and the Arabian Peninsula, to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of the Arabian species. We produce a robust time-calibrated phylogeny to infer the biogeographic history of this group on and around the Arabian Peninsula. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate two of the endemic Arabian toad species, "Bufo" tihamicus and "Bufo" arabicus, evolved independently within the African genus Amietophrynus. We confirm the Arabian species Duttaphrynus dhufarensis is of South Asian origin, but do not find evidence for the Asian genus Duttaphrynus being present in the Horn of Africa, discrediting a previously proposed Asian bufonid dispersal event to Africa. We also do not find evidence of the African genus Amietophrynus occurring in South Asia, suggesting that unlike many other vertebrate taxa, toads have not used the Arabian Peninsula as a stepping-stone for

  15. [Feeding of two amphibian species (Anura: Hylidae) during the low temperatures season and its relationship with energy storage in Santa Fe, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Carolina Elizabet; López, Javier Alejandro; Duré, Marta; Falico, Diego Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Feeding of two amphibian species (Anura: Hylidae) during the low temperatures season and its relationship with energy storage in Santa Fe, Argentina. In environments with thermal and pluvial seasonality such as those of the Middle Paraná River floodplain (Province of Santa Fe, Argentina), most amphibian species reproduce during the warm season and drastically diminish their activity during winter. Even though, a few species remain active during the cold season, such as Hypsiboas pulchellus that has its reproductive peak during the autumn-winter period (and the consequent energy demand). The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the feeding and development of fat bodies during the low temperature season for H. pulchellus and Dendropsophus nanus. We analyzed entire gastrointestinal tract contents of both species (H. pulchellus = 110 specimens; D. nanus = 114 specimens) and applied an index (IRI%) that combines prey abundance, volume and frequency to describe frogs diets; we used fat bodies weights as indicators of stored energy reserves. We compared diet between species with a niche overlap index (Ojk: 0-1) and used null models to ascribe statistical significance to evaluate overlap; and we analyzed variation in empty guts proportions through months and between species. Also, using ANCOVAs we explored differences in fat bodies, number and volume of prey consumed along months, between species and sexes. The most important preys in H. pulchellus diet during the cold season were Araneae (IRI% = 34.96), Chironomidae (IRI% = 33.08), Tipulidae (IRI% = 11.44) and Gryllidae (IR1% = 7.31); while for D. nanus, Chironomidae (IR1% = 48.14), Tipulidae (IRI% = 18.41), Psychodidae (IRI% = 7.44) and Araneae (IRI% = 7.34). Diet overlap between species was elevated (Ojk=0.78) and higher than expected by chance (mean simulated indices: Ojk = 0.04; p[observed > or = expected]<0.01; p[observed < or = expected] = 1). In H. pulchellus there was a monthly variation in number

  16. Phalangeal bone anomalies in the European common toad Bufo bufo from polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kolenda, Krzysztof; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Sośnicka, Wioletta

    2016-11-01

    Every spring, many of amphibians are killed by motor vehicles on roads. These road-killed animals can be used as valuable material for non-invasive studies showing the effect of environmental pollution on amphibian populations. The aims of our research were to check whether the phalanges of road-killed toads may be useful as material for histological analysis, and whether various degrees of human impact influence the level in bone abnormalities in the common toad. We also examined whether the sex and age structure of toads can differ significantly depending in the different sites. We chose three toad breeding sites where road-killed individuals had been observed: near the centre of a city, the outskirts of a city, and a rural site. We collected dead individuals during spring migration in 2013. The sex of each individual was determined and the toes were used to determine age using the skeletochronology method. While performing age estimates, we looked for abnormalities in relation to normal bone tissue structure. In urban site, females dominate males (sex ratio 2.6:1), but in populations from rural and semi-urban sites, sex ratio was reverse (1:2.2 and 1:1.4, respectively). However, we did not find any significant differences between age structure of all populations (average age of each population: approximately 4 years). We observed abnormalities in more than 80 % of all toads from the city, compared to approximately 20 % from the rural and semi-urban sites. In particular, we found hypertrophic bone cells, misaligned intercellular substance, and irregular outer edges of bones. We suggest that these malformations are caused by different pollution, e.g. with heavy metals.

  17. Auxetic Growth in the Javanese Toad, Bufo melanostictus.

    PubMed

    Church, G

    1961-06-23

    Morphologically, it has been found that erythrocyte size in the Javanese toad is greater in large than in small animals, and preliminary data indicate that the same is true of kidney, intestinal, and liver cells. Physiologically, the hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, specific gravity of the whole blood, and the liver glycogen concentration also increase with the size of the animals.

  18. The Skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Monachesi, Mario R; Lavilla, Esteban O; Montero, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    The hylid genus Phyllomedusa comprises charismatic frogs commonly known as monkey, leaf or green frogs, and is the most diverse genus of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae, including about 31 species. Although there is some information about the anatomy of these frogs, little is known about the osteology. Here the adult skull of Phyllomedusa sauvagii, both articulated and disarticulated, is described and the intraspecific variation is reported. Additionally, cartilage associated with the adult skull, such as the nasal capsules, auditory apparatus, and hyobranchial apparatus, are included in the analysis. Further examination of disarticulated bones reveals their remarkable complexity, specifically in the sphenethmoid and of the oocipital region. The description of disarticulated bones is useful for the identification of fossil remains as well as providing morphological characteristics that are phylogenetically informative. When comparing the skull morphology with the available information of other species of the genus, Phyllomesusa sauvagii skull resembles more that of P. vaillantii and P. venusta than P. atelopoides.

  19. The novel antidote Bezoar Bovis prevents the cardiotoxicity of Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans Canto) Venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyue; Zhou, Jing; Jiang, Jiejun; Duan, Jinao; Xu, Huiqin; Tang, Yuping; Lv, Gaohong; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhan, Zhen; Ding, Anwei

    2012-07-01

    Toad Venom, called chansu (CS) in China, is an anti-inflammatory drug used in small doses for the treatment of various types of inflammation in China. Its use is hampered by the cardiotoxicity of bufadienolides derived from Toad Venom. Bezoar Bovis is another frequently used drug in Toad Venom preparations for the treatment of inflammatory or cardiovascular diseases in Asia. We explored whether Bezoar Bovis could protect against CS-induced acute toxicity in mice. Toxicity was assessed by the general features of poisoning, electrocardiography (ECG), and levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in cardiac tissues. Toad Venom (90 mg/kg) caused opisthotonus, ventricular arrhythmias, and increases in cardiac levels of Ca(2+), CK and LDH. Pretreatment with Bezoar Bovis (120, 240 and 480 mg/kg) significantly reduced the prevalence of opisthotonus and mortality, and prevented cardiotoxicity in CS-treated mice as evidenced by decreases in the scores of arrhythmias and cardiac levels of CK, LDH and Ca(2+). Furthermore, the bilirubin, and taurine derived from Bezoar Bovis offered marked protection against the arrhythmias induced by CS or bufalin in vivo and in vitro. An anti-inflammatory study showed that Bezoar Bovis did not compromise the anti-inflammatory activity of Toad Venom on concanavalin-A (ConA)-stimulated proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results suggested that Bezoar Bovis elicited protective and anti-arrhythmic effects against Toad Venom intoxication in mice, and is a novel antidote in combination with Toad Venom therapy.

  20. The advertisement call of Ameerega pulchripecta (Silverstone, 1976)(Anura, Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Lima, Albertina Pimentel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-07-06

    The name Ameerega picta was once used to denote a lineage of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) distributed throughout most of the Amazon basin (Silverstone 1976); more recently, to describe a phenetic group involving at least 18 species, Lötters et al. (2007) pointed out that some of the lineages were indeed derived from the former A. picta. Among them, the nominal species with the widest distribution is A. hahneli (Haddad & Martins 1994; Twomey & Brown 2008), also an alleged complex of poorly defined species (Grant et al. 2006; Fouquet et al. 2007; Roberts et al. 2007). The mate-recognition signal, the advertisement call, was part of the evidence used to revalidate A. hahneli as a different species from A. picta. Although the advertisement call has been described for one or few individuals of other species in the group (Haddad & Martins 1994; Costa et al. 2006; Twomey & Brown 2008; Lötters et al. 2009), namely A. flavopicta, A. braccata and A. boehmei, and A. hahneli, we still lack a formal description for A. pulchripecta, the sister taxon of A. hahneli (Twomey & Brown 2008). Its call has been qualitatively described as similar to A. hahneli's call, but "deeper-voiced" (Lötters et al. 2007).

  1. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of temperature in acoustic components. The results suggest that acoustic variables show geographic variation to compare data with previous works.

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9.5 Ma.

  3. Morphology and metamorphosis of Eupsophus calcaratus tadpoles (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vera Candioti, M F; Ubeda, C; Lavilla, E O

    2005-05-01

    Eupsophus calcaratus, a leptodactyloid frog from the austral Andean forests of Argentina and Chile, has endotrophic, nidicolous tadpoles. We studied a metamorphic series from Stages 31 to 46 of Gosner's developmental table (1960). Other than the scarce pigmentation, proportionately large eyes, and massive developing hindlimbs, the remaining external characters are similar to those of generalized, exotrophic larvae. At the same time, internal morphology does not reveal any character state attributable to the endotrophic-nidicolous way of life; conversely, structures such as the hyobranchial skeleton and the mandibular cartilages are similar to those of exotrophic-macrophagous tadpoles. The metamorphic process is characterized by the delayed development of diverse structures (e.g., ethmoid region, palatoquadrate, and hyobranchial apparatus), and the retention of some larval characters (e.g., parietal fenestrae, overall absence of ossification) with the absence of development of some "juvenile" characters (e.g., adult otic process, several bones) in metamorphosed individuals. These heterochronic processes and truncation of larval development are related to a shorter larval life (when compared to other species of the austral Andean region) and to the small size at metamorphosis.

  4. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Haas, A

    1995-06-01

    The larval neurocranium and visceral arches of seven dendrobatid species representing four genera are described, based on cleared-and-stained and serially sectioned specimens. A variety of characters is shared by all seven species. Larval features do not substantiate the assumption of close ranoid affinities of the Dendrobatidae. Instead dendrobatid larvae share features such as the special quadripartite cartilago suprarostralis, the lack of the larval processus oticus, the presence of three foramina acustica, and the lack of a foramen perilymphaticum accessorius with many bufonoid larvae. The first of these characters is unique to bufonids, hylids, dendrobatids, and some New World leptodactylids; the other characters also occur in pelobatids and are presumably plesiomorphic for the Neobatrachia. The free proximal ends of Ceratobranchialia II and III are an autapomorphy of the Dendrobatidae supporting the monophyly of the family. Some features of the cranium are paedomorphic: low cartilago orbitalis, lack of connection between cartilage orbitalis and otic capsule (most species), and vestigal taeniae tecti. New anatomical terms are introduced.

  5. Dynamics of chromosomal evolution in the genus Hypsiboas (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M A; Rodrigues, M T; Siqueira, S; Garcia, C

    2014-09-26

    Hylidae is one of the most species-rich families of anurans, and 40% of representatives in this group occur in Brazil. In spite of such remarkable diversity, little is known about this family and its taxonomical and systematic features. Most hylids have 2n = 24, even though most of the cytogenetic data are mainly obtained based on the conventional chromosomal staining and are available for only 16% of Hypsiboas species, a genus accounting for about 10% of the hylid diversity. In this study, cytogenetic data of distinct species and populations of Hypsiboas were analyzed, and the evolutionary dynamics of chromosomal macro- and microstructure of these amphibians were discussed. Contrary to the conservativeness of 2n = 24, this genus is characterized by a high variation of chromosomal morphology with as much as 8 karyotype patterns. Differences in the number and location of nucleolus organizer regions and C-bands allowed the identification of geographical variants within nominal species and cytotaxonomical chromosomal markers. Comparative analyses revealed a strong phylogeographic relationship between chromosomal patterns in this group.

  6. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N.; de Sá, Rafael O.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. PMID:21798357

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Hylarana guentheri (Amphidia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyou; Li, Yongmin; Zhang, Huabin; Jiang, Zhiyong; Xue, Hui; Yan, Peng; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Hylarana guentheri was determined. This mitogenome was 19,053 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region (CR). The following three distinctive features were observed: there was an additional non-coding region of 561 bp between nad5 and nad6; four different tandem repeats were characteristic of the CR region for this species; a pseudogene of tRNA-His (trnH) was found in the CR downstream region.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops mantzorum (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Kakehashi, Ryosuke; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Zou, Fang-Dong; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Sichuan torrent frog, Amolops mantzorum (family Ranidae, suborder Neobatrachia), possesses heteromorphic sex chromosomes unusual characteristics among amphibians. We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the A. mantzorum mitogenome. This genome is 17,744 bp in length and contains 37 genes, 1 control region, and 1 light strand replication origin typically found in vertebrate mtDNAs. In the A. mantzorum mitogenome, a novel gene arrangement is observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region. This mt gene arrangement seems to be usable as a molecular maker to distinguish to this species from other species in the genus Amolops.

  9. A new species of Amolops (Anura: Ranidae) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Hu, Ping; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hai-Jun; Wang, Ying-Yong

    2016-09-26

    A new species, Amolops albispinus sp. nov. is described based on a series of specimens collected from Mt. Wutong, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from other known congeners by molecular divergence in the mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA gene and morphological characters including presence of white conical spines on the lips, loreal and temporal regions, excluding the tympanum; small body, SVL 36.7-42.4 mm in adult males and 43.1-51.9 mm in adult females; very rough dorsal skin of body with numerous raised large warts; olive-brown dorsum with dark brown blotches; strongly developed vomerine teeth; absence of vocal sacs; absence of tarsal glands; absence of dorsolateral folds; presence of circummarginals groove on the disk of first finger; and absence of outer metatarsal tubercles. At present, the genus Amolops contains 51 species, of which 23 occur in China.

  10. A New Species of Meristogenys (Anura: Ranidae) from Sarawak, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tomohiko; Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto; Eto, Koshiro

    2015-10-01

    A cryptic Bornean torrent frog of the genus Meristogenys, which is divergent genetically and morphologically from all known congeners, is described from mountain streams of western Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). The species occurs sympatrically with the type species of the genus, M. jerboa, but apparently differs from it in adult coloration and larval morphology, such as keratodont formulae and glands in tail fins. Females of the new species possess much larger and fewer eggs than in sympatric M. jerboa, suggesting significantly different reproductive traits between these species. A key to larvae of known species of the genus is provided.

  11. Lineage divergence in Odorrana graminea complex (Anura: Ranidae: Odorrana).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Rongchuan; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2015-05-26

    The confusing and unstable taxonomy of Odorrana livida (Rana livida) since its first record has made it a focal frog complex for systematics. In China, four species, Odorrana nebulosa, O. graminea, O. sinica, O. leporipes, were described to closely resemble O. livida or O. chloronota based on their morphological similarities, accompanied by much taxonomic confusion because of ambiguities in the wide distribution and morphological variations. Currently O. graminea is being used as the name of a provisional monotypic species group to include all the populations in China that closely resemble O. livida or O. chloronota. Here, we conducted a range-wide molecular phylogeographic analysis of the large green odorous frog (Odorrana graminea) complex across the majority of its range in China, based on 2780 bp DNA sequences of three mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, ND2) in 107 samples from 20 sites. Our data recognized three distinct phylogeographic lineages of the Odorrana graminea (lato sensu) complex in China, and they together with a Thailand lineage formed a monophyletic group. Among the four lineages within O. graminea complex, the average genetic distances based on the concatenated sequences of 12S, 16S and ND2 were 7.5-8.8% and those based on 16S rRNA alone were 4.2-5.5%. Furthermore, canonical discriminant functions in morphometric analyses showed significant separations of all the paired lineage comparisons in China. The aforementioned genetic divergence and mismatched phenotypes among the lineages within the Odorrana graminea complex, in addition to their non-overlapping geographic distributions, imply extensive lineage diversification. However, precise taxonomic status of these lineages needs more studies based on adequate type information and more thorough species delimitation based on analysis of differentiation in bioacoustic and nuclear genetic characters especially regarding gene flow and admixture in geographical contact zones.

  12. Origin and identity of Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wostl, Elijah; Smith, Eric N.; Reed, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We used morphological and molecular data to infer the identity and origin of frogs in the genus Fejervarya that have been introduced to the island of Guam. Mensural and meristic data were collected from 96 specimens from throughout their range on the island and a principal component analysis was used to investigate the distribution of these data in morphological space. We also amplified a fragment of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid mitochondrial gene from 27 of these specimens and compared it to 63 published sequences of Fejervarya and the morphologically similar Zakerana. All examined Fejervarya from Guam are morphologically indistinguishable and share an identical haplotype. The molecular data identify them as Fejervarya cancrivora with a haplotype identical to F. cancrivora from Taiwan.

  13. A new species of Odorrana (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae) from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pham, Cuong The; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-02-26

    A new species of Odorrana is described from the karst forests in northeastern Vietnam based on morphological differences and molecular divergence. Morphologically, the new species is distinguishable from its congeners on the basis of a combination of the following diagnostic characters: (1) size large (SVL 85.9-91.6 mm in males, 108.7-110.1 mm in females); (2) head longer than wide; (3) vomerine teeth present; (4) external vocal sacs absent; (5) snout short (SL/SVL 0.16-0.17); (6) tympanum large (TD/ED 0.70 in males, 0.68 in females); (7) dorsal surface of head and anterior part of body smooth, posterior part of body and flanks with small tubercles; (8) supratympanic fold present; (9) dorsolateral fold absent; (10) webbing formula I0-0II0-0III0-1/2IV1/2-0V; (11) in life, dorsum green with dark brown spots; (12) flanks greyish brown with dark brown spots; (13) throat and chest grey, underside of limbs with large dark brown spots, edged in white, forming a network. In the phylogenetic analyses, the new species is unambiguously nested within the O. andersonii group, and placed as the sister taxon to O. wuchuanensis.

  14. Phylogeny and biogeography of South Chinese brown frogs (Ranidae, Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sirui; Zhu, Hedan; Li, Pipeng; Yang, Baotian; Ma, Jianzhang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have explored the role of Cenozoic tectonic evolution in shaping the patterns and processes of extant animal distributions in and around East Asia. In this study, we selected South Chinese brown frogs as a model to examine the phylogenetic and biogeographical consequences of Miocene tectonic events within South China and its margins. We used mitochondrial and nuclear molecular data to reconstruct phylogenetic interrelationships among Chinese brown frogs using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The phylogeny results show that there are four main clades of Chinese brown frogs. Excepting the three commonly known Chinese brown frog species groups, R. maoershanensis forms an independent clade nearest to the R. japonica group. Phylogeny and P-distance analyses confirmed R. maoershanensis as a valid species. Among South Chinese brown frogs, there are four subclades associated with four geographical areas: (I) R. maoershanensis; (II) R. japonica; (III) R. chaochiaoensis; and (IV) other species of the R. longicrus species group. Divergence times, estimated using mitochondrial sequences, place the vicariance events among the four subclades in the middle to late Miocene epoch. Our results suggest that (1) South Chinese brown frogs originated due to a vicariance event separating them from the R. chensinensis species group at the time of the Geological movement (~18 million years ago, Ma) in southern Tibet and the Himalayan region; (2) the separation and speciation of R. maoershanensis from the R. japonica group occurred due to the dry climate at approximately 16 Ma; (3) South Chinese brown frogs migrated from South China to Japan at the time (~10.8 Ma) that the global sea-level fell and the East China Sea Shelf Basin was swamp facies, when a land gallery may have formed across the sea to connect the two areas; and (4) R. chaochiaoensis separated from other species of the R. longicrus species group during the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau at approximately 9.5 Ma. PMID:28369142

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Amolops ricketti (Amphidia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmin; Wu, Xiaoyou; Zhang, Huabin; Yan, Peng; Xue, Hui; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome from the South China torrent frog Amolops ricketti was determined. This mitogenome was 17,771 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (CR). All the protein-coding genes in A. ricketti were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes which were encoded on the L-strand.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Glandirana tientaiensis (Ranidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Yan, Long; Geng, Zhang-Zhen; Yan, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The Tiantai frog (Glandirana tientaiensis) is an endemic to China, which has been listed as an endangered species in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of G. tientaiensis is determined. The circle genome is 17,681 bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. Comparing with the typical mtDNA of species in the family Ranidae, no distinctive rearrangement of mtDNA genes was found. Yet a obvious feature on the use of codon were observed, that 8 of 13 protein-conding genes ended with a single stop nucleotide T except for COI, ATPase 8, ND4L, ND6 and Cyt b.

  17. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Amolops tuberodepressus (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaohua; Xia, Yun; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2016-07-01

    Amolops tuberodepressus is a vulnerable torrent frog, and only know distributed in the Wuliang Mountain in southwestern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of A. tuberodepressus was determined. The genome was 18 348 bp in length, and it contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and 22 transfer RNAs), one partial control region and one light strand replication origin. The gene rearrangement was observed within the WANCY tRNA gene cluster region, which similar to other Amolops species. In this paper, we utilized 13 protein-coding genes of A. tuberodepressus and other 10 closely ranid species to construct the species phylogenetic tree to verify the A. tuberodepressus was accuracy.

  18. A new small-sized Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Laos.

    PubMed

    Sivongxay, Niane; Davankham, Monekham; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Phoumixay, Keochay; Stuart, Bryan L

    2016-08-05

    A new species of the rhacophorid frog genus Theloderma is described from the forested shoreline of the Nam Lik Reservoir, Vientiane Province, Laos. The new species differs from its congeners by having the combination of males with SVL 17.0-20.6; pearly asperities on dorsum; no vomerine teeth; disc diameter of finger III ca. 40% of tympanum diameter; uniformly gray venter; light brown dorsum with darker brown and black markings; and a uniformly bronze iris with small black reticulations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data infers that the new species is most closely related to T. lateriticum from northern Vietnam. Evidence for the monophyly of Theloderma is reviewed.

  19. A New Species of Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) from Nilphamari, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Microhyla frog from the Nilphamari district of Bangladesh is described and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. Molecular phylogeny derived from mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed that although the new species – designated here as Microhyla nilphamariensis sp. nov. – forms a clade with M. ornate, it is highly divergent from M. ornata and all of its congeners, with 5.7 – 13.2% sequence divergence at the 16S rRNA gene. The new species can be identified phenotypically on the basis of a set of diagnostic (both qualitative and quantitative) characters as follows: head length is 77% of head width, distance from front of eyes to the nostril is roughly six times greater than nostril–snout length, internarial distance is roughly five times greater than nostril–snout length, interorbital distance is two times greater than internarial distance, and distance from back of mandible to back of the eye is 15% of head length. Furthermore, inner metacarpal tubercle is small and ovoid-shaped, whereas outer metacarpal tubercle is very small and rounded. Toes have rudimentary webbing, digital discs are absent, inner metatarsal tubercle is small and round, outer metatarsal tubercle is ovoid-shaped, minute, and indistinct. PMID:25806804

  20. The identity of Hyla leucotaenia Burmeister, 1861 (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Paulo D P; Faivovich, Julián; Langone, José A; Kwet, Axel

    2014-11-13

    The German naturalist Carl Hermann Conrad Burmeister (1807-1892) had a prolific scientific career, spanning multiple taxa from diverse insect groups and trilobites to temnospondyls, birds, and extant and fossil mammals (see Berg, 1895). His contributions to anuran taxonomy are concentrated in two books, "Erläuterungen zur Fauna Brasiliensis…" (Burmeister, 1856) and "Reise durch die La Plata-Staaten…" (Burmeister, 1861). The latter is an account of his travels in Argentina and Uruguay from 1857-1860 and includes descriptions of three new species of frogs: Leiuperus nebulosus, Cystignathus mystacinus, and Hyla leucotaenia. While the first two names currently designate valid species, with the combinations Pleurodema nebulosum and Leptodactylus mystacinus respectively, the last name has had a more complex taxonomic history. It involves confusions involving a homonym, its consideration as a junior synonym of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Duméril & Bibron, 1841)-a widely distributed species in eastern Argentina, southeastern Brazil, and Uruguay (Frost, 2014)-and its actual identity corresponding to another widespread species in the same geographic area, with which it has never before been associated: Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925). All these issues are discussed in this paper.

  1. Rediscovery of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Anura: Centrolenidae) in southeastern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Kubicki, Brian

    2004-03-01

    The Suretka glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi, has been recently rediscovered in the southeastern region of Costa Rica. This species was last reported in Costa Rica in the 1950's. H. chirripoi is distinguished from H. colymbiphyllum, which appears to be its most closely Costa Rican related taxon, by having extensive webbing between fingers II-III.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genomes resolve phylogenetic relationships within Bombina (Anura: Bombinatoridae).

    PubMed

    Pabijan, Maciej; Wandycz, Anna; Hofman, Sebastian; Węcek, Karolina; Piwczyński, Marcin; Szymura, Jacek M

    2013-10-01

    A highly resolved and time-calibrated phylogeny based on nucleotide variation in 18 complete mitochondrial genomes is presented for all extant species and major lineages of fire-bellied toads of the genus Bombina (Bombinatoridae). Two sets of divergence time estimates are inferred by applying alternative fossil constraints as minima. Divergence time estimates from both analyses differed for the two oldest nodes. The earliest phylogenetic split occurred between small- and large-bodied Bombina (subgenera Bombina and Grobina, respectively) either in the Middle Oligocene or the Early Miocene. East Asian B. orientalis and European B. bombina+B. variegata diverged in the early or Middle Miocene. Divergence times inferred using the alternative fossil calibration strategies converged for the younger nodes, with broadly overlapping HPD intervals. The split between Bombina bombina and B. variegata occurred in the Late Miocene of Europe and somewhat preceded another deep mtDNA division between the Balkan B. v. scabra and B. v. variegata inhabiting the Carpathian Mts. Concurrently, the genetically distinct B. maxima diverged from other Grobina in southeast Asia in the Late Miocene or Pliocene. Our mtDNA phylogeny and a new species-tree analysis of published data (nuclear and mtDNA) suggest that B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis and B. microdeladigitora may be conspecific geographic forms that separated due to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations in southeastern Asia. In the western Palearctic, the Late Pliocene to Pleistocene climatic vagaries most probably induced vicariant events in the evolutionary history of B. variegata that led to the formation of the two Balkan B. v. scabra lineages and the allopatric B. v. pachypus in the Apennine Peninsula. Divergence among B. bombina mtDNA lineages is low, with an Anatolian Turkey lineage as the sister group to the European mtDNA clades. In sum, Miocene diversification in the genus Bombina established six allopatrically distributed major mtDNA lineages that diversified during the Pliocene and Pleistocene and have survived until the present. The narrow habitat requirements of fire-bellied toads and extensive environmental changes throughout the Palearctic in the Neogene may have contributed to a putatively high extinction rate in these anurans resulting in the current east/west disjunction of their ranges.

  3. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group.

  4. Reproductive biology of Pleurodema guayapae (Anura: Leptodactylidae: Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Grenat, Pablo Raúl; Baraquet, Mariana; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2014-03-01

    Pleurodema guayapae is a species that inhabits saline environments and semidesert zones from central Argentina. To date, the knowledge about the reproductive biology of this species is very poor, and our aim is to contribute to its knowledge with the description of some important reproductive aspects. For this, field work was undertaken in an area near to Patquia, La Rioja province. Sampling was undertaken during three summer periods (2006-2007; 2007-2008; 2008-2009) in Chamical-Patquia area, where we could find reproductively active populations. We observed and described breeding sites, type of clutch, process of foam nest construction, clutch and egg number and sizes, and hatching time and stage. Behaviour observations were performed from the time that males began to call until the pairs ended up the foam nests building, and layed the eggs. Additionally, one amplected pair was observed and filmed in the process of foam nest construction, and four amplectant pairs were collected and separatelly placed in plastic containers, for nests observations in the laboratory. Hatching time was based on three different foam nests of known age. We found that P. guayapae populations were acoustically active only after a rainfall. Its breeding sites were represented by ephemeral ponds of fresh water, product of rains. The males emitted their calls inside or outside these ponds. A detailed description of the foam nest construction process by both females and males was made. The clutches were in dome-shaped foam nest type of 6-9cm in diameter and 1-3cm in height, some of which were in communal nests. The nests had an average of 1 137 pigmented eggs. This species showed a short hatching time. Our results allow us to conclude that this species should be considered an extreme explosive breeder. Our results are discussed with others obtained for related species.

  5. Molecular systematics of the Middle American genus Hypopachus (Anura: Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Eli; Smith, Eric N; de Sá, Rafael O

    2011-11-01

    We present the first phylogenetic study on the widespread Middle American microhylid frog genus Hypopachus. Partial sequences of mitochondrial (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes (1275 bp total) were analyzed from 43 samples of Hypopachus, three currently recognized species of Gastrophryne, and seven arthroleptid, brevicipitid and microhylid outgroup taxa. Maximum parsimony (PAUP), maximum likelihood (RAxML) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes) optimality criteria were used for phylogenetic analyses, and BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Population-level analyses were conducted with the programs NETWORK and Arlequin. Results confirm the placement of Hypopachus and Gastrophryne as sister taxa, but the latter genus was strongly supported as paraphyletic. The African phrynomerine genus Phrynomantis was recovered as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Chiasmocleis, rendering our well-supported clade of gastrophrynines paraphyletic. Hypopachus barberi was supported as a disjunctly distributed highland species, and we recovered a basal split in lowland populations of Hypopachus variolosus from the Pacific versant of Mexico and elsewhere in the Mesoamerican lowlands. Dating analyses from BEAST estimate speciation within the genus Hypopachus occurred in the late Miocene/early Pliocene for most clades. Previous studies have not found bioacoustic or morphological differences among these lowland clades, and our molecular data support the continued recognition of two species in the genus Hypopachus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Characteristics of courtship calls of Microhyla ornata (Anura: Microhylidae)].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2013-02-01

    During breeding season in May, 2012, we recorded and analyzed the courtship calls and the acoustic parameters of the male Microhyla ornate in Lishui, Zhejiang province using an IC recorder (SX950) and the sound software Praat. We observed that the male M. ornate produced calls characterized by a single harmonic call structure, multiple pulses (7, 9-16) and spindle amplitudes. Analyses of the calls revealed several interesting findings: the dominant frequency of all calls ranged from 1.22-4.09 kHz (n=233); their average values composed of different numbers of pulses were similar and that call duration increased with numbers of pulses; and pulse duration among different multi-pulse call groups was nearly identical, but it was equal or less in the last pulse than other pulses. By contrast, our analyses also showed that pulse interval was negatively correlated with call duration, i.e. the shorter in call duration, the longer in pulse interval among the different numbers of pulses call groups. Within the 7-pulse call group, calls exhibited the largest in pulse interval and the smallest in pulse rate, while those calls in 16-pulse were the opposite. Except that the 7- and 16-pulse call groups were both significantly different in pulse rate with other multi-pulse call groups, we found that pulse rates expressed different variations between pair-wise comparisons of the remaining call groups. As for call intensity, significant differences were only found between the 16-pulse call group and the other call groups, while pairwise comparisons of the remaining groups were not significant. After conducting our initial analyses, we compared the calls of the M. ornate population from Lishui with populations from five other localities-Hangzhou, Xuancheng, Karnoor, Bajipe and Padil-and found that the call structures were similar among the different populations, being single harmonic, while we observed differences in call dominant frequency, call duration, pulse duration and pulse rate among the six populations. This research should prove useful to in furthering our understanding of the acoustic properties of species-specific calls as well as their behavior and the evolution of their communication, thereby providing a robust insight into the reproductive traits among different geographical populations of a species.

  7. The genus Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae): a larval perspective.

    PubMed

    Filipe Augusto C, Do Nascimento; Tamí, Mott; José A, Langone; Christine A, Davis; Rafael O, De Sá

    2013-01-01

    The genus Odontophrynus consists of 11 species of medium-sized frogs distributed across south and east South America. This study examines and describes the chondrocrania and oral cavities of O. americanus, O. maisuma, O. carvalhoi, and O. cultripes, and review current knowledge about the larval external morphology of the genus. Twenty-one tadpoles were cleared and double-stained for chondrocranium description and five tadpoles were dissected for analysis in a scanning electron microscope. The presence of a tectum parientale may be considered here as a putative synapomorphy of the genus. The O. americanus and O. cultripes species groups were partially differentiated by the length of the processus pseudopterigoideus, shape of divergence of the hypobranchial plates, number of postnarial papillae, and number of projections of the lateral ridge papillae. The larvae of O. occidentalis species group, in turn, differed from others by presenting a greater total length.

  8. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae).

    PubMed

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes.

  9. Antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Siano, Alvaro; Húmpola, María Verónica; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Albericio, Fernando; Simonetta, Arturo C; Lajmanovich, Rafael; Tonarelli, Georgina G

    2014-04-25

    The skin of many amphibians produces a large repertoire of antimicrobial peptides that are crucial in the first line of defense against microbial invasion. Despite the immense richness of wild amphibians in Argentina, knowledge about peptides with antimicrobial properties is limited to a few species. Here we used LC-MS-MS to analyze samples of Hypsiboas pulchellus skin with the aim to identify antimicrobial peptides in the mass range of 1000 to 2000 Da. Twenty-three novel sequences were identified by MS, three of which were selected for chemical synthesis and further studies. The three synthetic peptides, named P1-Hp-1971, P2-Hp-1935, and P3-Hp-1891, inhibited the growth of two ATCC strains: Escherichia coli (MIC: 16, 33, and 17 μM, respectively) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 8, 66, and 17 μM, respectively). P1-Hp-1971 and P3-Hp-1891 were the most active peptides. P1-Hp-1971, which showed the highest therapeutic indices (40 for E. coli and 80 for S. aureus), is a proline-glycine-rich peptide with a highly unordered structure, while P3-Hp-1891 adopts an amphipathic α-helical structure in the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and anionic liposomes. This is the first peptidomic study of Hypsiboas pulchellus skin secretions to allow the identification of antimicrobial peptides.

  10. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXII. The Genus Xenopus (Anura, Pipidae).

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of 16 species of the frog genus Xenopus were prepared from kidney and lung cell cultures. In the chromosomes of 7 species, high-resolution replication banding patterns could be induced by treating the cultures with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and deoxythymidine (dT) in succession, and in 6 of these species the BrdU/dT-banded chromosomes could be arranged into karyotypes. In the 3 species of the clade with 2n = 20 and 4n = 40 chromosomes (X. tropicalis, X. epitropicalis, X. new tetraploid 1), as well as in the 3 species with 4n = 36 chromosomes (X. laevis, X. borealis, X. muelleri), the BrdU/dT-banded karyotypes show a high degree of homoeology, though differences were detected between these groups. Translocations, inversions, insertions or sex-specific replication bands were not observed. Minor replication asynchronies found between chromosomes probably involve heterochromatic regions. BrdU/dT replication banding of Xenopus chromosomes provides the landmarks necessary for the exact physical mapping of genes and repetitive sequences. FISH with an X. laevis 5S rDNA probe detected multiple hybridization sites at or near the long-arm telomeric regions in most chromosomes of X. laevis and X. borealis, whereas in X. muelleri, the 5S rDNA sequences are located exclusively at the long-arm telomeres of a single chromosome pair. Staining with the AT base pair-specific fluorochrome quinacrine mustard revealed brightly fluorescing heterochromatic regions in the majority of X. borealis chromosomes which are absent in other Xenopus species.

  11. [Meiotic chromosomes of the tree frog Smilisca baudinii (Anura: Hylidae)].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Javier; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber

    2011-03-01

    The Mexican tree frog Smilisca baudinii, is a very common frog in Central America. In spite their importance to keep the ecological equilibrium of the rainforest, its biology and genetics are poorly known. In order to contribute with its biological knowledge, we described the typical meiotic karyotype based in standard cytogenetic protocols to specimens collected in Tabasco, Mexico. The study was centered in the analysis of 131 chromosome spreads at meiotic stage from two adults of the species (one female and one male). The metaphase analysis allowed the establishment of the modal haploid number of 1n = 12 bivalent chromosomes. The chromosomic formulae from the haploid bivalent karyotype was integrated by 12 biarmed chromosomes characterized by twelve pairs of metacentric-submetacentric (msm) chromosomes. The meiotic counting gives the idea that diploid chromosome number is integrated by a complement of 2n = 24 biarmed chromosomes. The presence of sex chromosomes from female and male meiotic spreads was not observed. Current results suggest that S. baudinii chromosome structure is well shared among Hylidae family and "B" chromosomes are particular structures that have very important evolutionary consequences in species diversification.

  12. A New Species of Euphlyctis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from Barisal, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Gopalan, Sujith V.; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the genus Euphlyctis is described from the Barisal district of Bangladesh and compared with its morphologically similar and geographically proximate congeners. The new species is highly divergent in comparison to other congeneric species on basis of sequence divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences (ranging from 5.5% to 17.8% divergence). Euphlyctis kalasgramensis sp. nov. can be readily diagnosed by having the following combination of characters: snout-vent length (SVL) 30.44 – 37.88 mm, absence of mid-dorsal line, nostril–snout length 3% of SVL, nostril much closer to snout tip than eye, nostril–snout length 48% of distance from front of eyes to nostril, relative length of fingers (shortest to longest: 1 = 2 < 4 < 3), tibia length 59% of SVL, foot length 55% of SVL. PMID:25651541

  13. [Electrophoresis of native cardiac myosin in Anura amphibians].

    PubMed

    Dutartre, P; Mougin, D; Bride, M

    1983-01-01

    Electrophoresis in non dissociating conditions of native cardiac myosin was adapted to the study of Amphibian myosin. Utilization of potassium ion has allowed to obtain a good separation of myosin isoenzymes. An evolution of isoenzymic composition of cardiac myosin during metamorphosis and aging in Xenopus laevis (Daudin) was observed.

  14. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-06-04

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006).

  15. The tadpole of Hypsiboas guentheri (Boulenger) (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida-Silva, Diego; Neto, Antonio Mollo; Mendes, Humberto Fonseca; Verdade, Vanessa Kruth

    2016-10-28

    Hypsiboas guentheri is a species of treefrog that inhabits the surrounding vegetation of temporary and permanent ponds at the coastal region of Southern Brazil, in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (Langone 1997; Frost 2016). It belongs to the H. pulchellus species group (Faivovich et al. 2004, Duellman et al. 2016), this group contains 39 species (Frost 2016), but formal descriptions of tadpoles are missing for 15 of them (Kolenc et al. 2008; Pinheiro et al., 2016). Herein we describe tadpoles of H. guentheri collected in February 2014 in the accumulated water on an underpass for wildlife crossing at the RS-486 highway (29º30'44.8" S 50º06'29.9" W), Itati municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  16. Chromosomal analysis of Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni; Solé, Mirco; Faria, Renato Gomes; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract All the species of Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 karyotyped up until now have been classified as 2n = 22. The species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group analyzed by C-banding present a block of heterochromatin in the interstitial region of the short arm of pair 5. Physalaemus cicada Bokermann, 1966 has been considered to be a member of the Physalaemus cuvieri species group, although its interspecific phylogenetic relationships remain unknown. The PcP190 satellite DNA has been mapped on the chromosomes of most of the species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. For two species, Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862), however, only the chromosome number and morphology are known. Given this, the objective of the present study was to analyze the chromosomes of Physalaemus cicada and Physalaemus kroyeri, primarily by C-banding and PcP190 mapping. The results indicate that Physalaemus kroyeri and Physalaemus cicada have similar karyotypes, which were typical of Physalaemus. In both species, the NORs are located on the long arm of pair 8, and the C-banding indicated that, among other features, Physalaemus kroyeri has the interstitial band on chromosome 5, which is however absent in Physalaemus cicada. Even so, a number of telomeric bands were observed in Physalaemus cicada. The mapping of the PcP190 satellite DNA highlighted areas of the centromeric region of the chromosomes of pair 1 in both species, although in Physalaemus kroyeri, heteromorphism was also observed in pair 3. The cytogenetic evidence does not support the inclusion of Physalaemus cicada in the Physalaemus cuvieri group. In the case of Physalaemus kroyeri, the interstitial band on pair 5 is consistent with the existence of a cytogenetic synapomorphy in the Physalaemus cuvieri species group. PMID:27551351

  17. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  18. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  19. Responses to circulatory pressures, and conduction velocity, of pulmocutaneous baroreceptors in Bufo marinus.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vliet, B N; West, N H

    1987-01-01

    1. Baroreceptor activity was recorded within the recurrent laryngeal branch of the toad vagus in forty-four preparations. The receptive fields of the receptors were located in the pulmocutaneous artery (p.c.a.), generally within 5 mm of its separation from the truncus. However, the most easily recorded afferents in this nerve were mechanoreceptors which responded to punctate stimulation of the lip of the glottis. 2. The conduction velocities of p.c.a. baroreceptor and mechanoreceptive glottal afferents recorded in the recurrent laryngeal nerve ranged from 0.3-0.7 (0.5 +/- 0.1) m s-1 and 2.2-14.0 (6.8 +/- 0.8) m s-1 respectively, which suggests that baroreceptor afferent fibres are non-myelinated and that glottal afferent fibres are myelinated. 3. The p.c.a. baroreceptor discharge was largely confined to a period of systole in which systemic and p.c.a. arterial pressure profiles were identical. The maximum discharge frequency, number of spikes per cycle, and the duration of discharge increased, and the discharge latency decreased, as p.c.a. pressures were elevated. The latency of the discharge was pronounced at low p.c.a. pressures, and could be partially accounted for by the conduction time of the baroreceptor afferents to the electrodes (up to 100 ms). 4. Carotid and aortic arterial baroreceptor and pharyngeal afferents were recorded in two pharyngeal branches of the vagus nerve which were closely associated with the carotid and aortic arterial arches. 5. It is suggested that baroreceptor populations with their receptive fields in the third- (carotid) and sixth- (p.c.a. or pulmonary) arch arteries should be considered homologous in anurans and mammals, but that those of the fourth- (aorta) arch artery should not, since the vagal branches in which their afferents are carried do not appear to be equivalent in anurans and mammals. Images Fig. 8 PMID:3116216

  20. Optical quality of the eye of the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Jagger, W S

    1988-01-01

    The wide-angle optical quality of the cane toad eye was measured using a single-pass intraocular optical fibre microprobe, a double-pass projection method and high magnification ophthalmoscopy to photograph individual photoreceptors. The cane toad eye is a wide angle optical device with a horizontal field of nearly 200 deg and a large relative aperture (ca f/1). Its image quality, which is poor compared to diffraction-limited performance, decreases relatively little towards the periphery. Rough matching was found between image quality and the potential resolution of the rod array, although undersampling occurs for small pupils. Undersampling probably also occurs for the cone and ganglion cell arrays. The relative rotational symmetry of the topographic distribution of image quality precludes direct matching to the topography of the visual streak at the ganglion cell layer although it remains to be determined whether it is matched to the receptor distribution.

  1. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in montane meadows.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Susan K; Lind, Amy J; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H; Roche, Leslie M; Frost, William E; Grasso, Rob L; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  2. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  3. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was listed as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act on January 17, 1984, with a recovery plan approved in 1991. Currently the total population of the Wyoming toad includes approximately 200 animals in the captive breeding program and as few as 62 toads surviving at reintroduction sites in the Laramie Basin based upon fall 2000 survey data (after releases of more than 10,000 toads and tadpoles since 1995). Necessary conservation measures include improving reproduction and survival in the captive breeding program, improving survival at reintroduction sites, developing techniques to control the effects of the amphibian chytrid fungus, and eliminating threats and further habitat degradation in the wild.

  4. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; George W. Tanner

    2005-01-01

    We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1): did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads? (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment? (3) were...

  5. Evidence of decline for Bufo boreas and Rana luteiventris in and around the northern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wente, W.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  6. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  7. Electrolyte sensitivity of the skin in the toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel.

    PubMed

    Reboreda, J C; Segura, E T

    1984-01-01

    Experiments on the responsiveness of the skin to solutions of different electrolytes and sucrose have been done in the toad in vivo and in vitro. Brain pithed animals showed a strong flexor "on" response of the hindlimb when the foot was plunged into a saline solution. The delay of this response was strictly proportional to the concentration of the bath from 0.5 to 1 M. The flexor response was invariably elicited by solutions of different salts: NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, CaCl, MgSO4 and choline chloride, but not by a solution of sucrose with the same osmolarity. On the other hand, a contrast "off" response with strong flexion was also systematically observed when a limb adapted to electrolyte solution was displaced to distilled water. Patches of skin were also exposed to increasing concentrations of NaCl in vitro and the discharges of its afferent nerve were recorded. A clear cut correlation between the osmolarity of the bath and the rate of discharges was observed. The contrast "off" response to distilled water after exposure to NaCl was also observed in the patches of skin, as an increase in nervous discharges. The spontaneous basal firing observed in water, as well as the induced responses by electrolytes, were reversibly blocked by decreasing the temperature of the bath to 0 C. These results indicate that detectors of salinity are present in the skin of the toad. These detectors appear to be sensitive to the ionization but not to the osmolarity of the bath.

  8. Molecular characterization of the Bidder's organ in the cane toad (Bufo marinus).

    PubMed

    Abramyan, John; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter

    2010-09-15

    In toads, both males and females develop a unique gonadal structure called the Bidder's organ (BO), which resembles ovarian tissue and is attached to the anterior part of the gonad. It is not clear whether the BO is a vestigial organ, or has an endocrine function. In this study, we investigated the expression of the gonadal development genes Dmrt1, Sox9, Sf1, Dax1, and p450arom in the developing BO as compared with the gonads of male and female cane toads. We demonstrate that Sf1, Dax1, and p450arom, key genes involved in vertebrate steroidogenesis, are transcriptionally active in the BO during developmental milestones associated with sexual development and maturation. Furthermore, the pattern of transcriptional activity in the BO is completely independent of the corresponding gonads in both sexes, despite its ovary-like morphology. These results suggest that the BO likely has a steroidogenic role in the development of the cane toad, distinct from that of the gonads.

  9. β-Cyclodextrin and permeability to water in the bladder of Bufo arenarum.

    PubMed

    Orce, G; Castillo, G; Chanampa, Y

    2011-05-01

    We measured the effect of β-cyclodextrin (BCD, a cholesterol scavenger) on water flow across the isolated toad bladder exposed to an osmotic gradient (J(w)) by a gravimetric technique. BCD, when present in the solution bathing the apical side of the bladder, inhibited the increase in J(w) caused by nystatin, a polyene antibiotic that acts by directly binding apical membrane cholesterol. When present in the basolateral bath, BCD inhibited the increase in J(w) caused by basolateral exposure to oxytocin (which binds membrane receptors and stimulates the synthesis of cAMP), but did not alter the response to theophylline (which inhibits hydrolysis of cAMP by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase). The present data are consistent with the notion that agents that increase J(w) by interacting with membrane receptors, which appear to be clustered in cholesterol-rich domains of the basolateral membrane, are altered by cholesterol depletion, whereas agents that do not interact with receptors or other basolateral membrane components are not affected by this treatment. In either case, cholesterol depletion of the apical membrane does not affect the increase in J(w) brought about by an increase in intracellular cAMP concentration.

  10. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  11. Antiproliferative activity and new argininyl bufadienolide esters from the "cururú" toad Rhinella (Bufo) schneideri.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Theoduloz, Cristina; de Sousa, Paulo Teixeira; Parizotto, Carlos

    2014-09-11

    Toads known as "cururú" (Rhinella schneideri) have been used in the Brazilian Pantanal and Paraguayan Chaco wetlands to treat erysipelas and cancer. The aim of the study was to assess the antiproliferative effect of the venom obtained from Rhinella schneideri and to identify its constituents by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods. The venom was obtained by gentle pressing the parotid glands of the toads. The dry crude drug was analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS and chromatographed on Sephadex LH-20 to obtain purified compounds and fractions for spectroscopic analysis. The venom and fractions were evaluated for antiproliferative activity towards normal human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and four human cancer cell lines: gastric epithelial adenocarcinoma (AGS), lung cancer (SK-MES-1), bladder carcinoma (J82) and promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60). From the Rhinella schneideri venom, 29 compounds were isolated and/or identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Three known alkaloids and five argininyl diacids were identified in the complex mixture by HPLC-MS-MS. Nine out of fifteen argininyl diacid derivatives of the bufadienolides bufalin, marinobufagin and telocinobufagin are reported for the first time and four argininyl diacids are described for the first time as natural products. The venom and the fractions 9-13 showed a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with IC50 values in the range 0.019-0.022, 0.035-0.040, 0.028-0.064, 0.042-0.056 and 0.044-0.052 µg/mL for MRC-5, AGS, SK-MES-1, J82 and HL-60 cell lines, respectively. Under the same experimental conditions, IC50 values of the reference compound etoposide were 2.296, 0.277, 1.295, 1.884 and 1.059 µg/mL towards MRC-5, AGS, SK-MES-1, J82 and HL-60 cells, respectively. The venom showed a strong antiproliferative effect towards human cancer cells and presented a high chemical diversity in its constituents, supporting its use as anticancer agent. These findings encourage further work on the chemistry and bioactivity of South American toad venoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  13. Determining the Effects of Cattle Grazing Treatments on Yosemite Toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus) in Montane Meadows

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Lind, Amy J.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Roche, Leslie M.; Frost, William E.; Grasso, Rob L.; Tate, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA), managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY). Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010), Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models. PMID:24223919

  14. Sexual size dimorphism in anurans.

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Jean-Matthieu; Cherry, Michael I

    2002-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the direction and extent of sexual size dimorphism in anurans (in which males are usually smaller than females) as a result of sexual selection. Here, we present an analysis to test the hypothesis that sexual dimorphism in anurans is largely a function of differences between the sexes in life-history strategies. Morphological and demographic data for anurans were collected from the literature, and the mean size and age in each sex were calculated for 51 populations, across 30 species and eight genera. Comparisons across 14 Rana species, eight Bufo species and across the genera showed a highly significant relationship between size dimorphism, measured using the female-male size ratio, and mean female-male age difference. A comparison of a subset of 17 of these species for which phylogenetic information was available, using the method of independent contrasts, yielded a similar result. These results indicate that most of the variation in size dimorphism in the anura can be explained in terms of differences in the age structure between the sexes in breeding populations. If sexual selection has an effect on size dimorphism in anurans, it is likely to be only a secondary one. PMID:12495496

  15. 77 FR 16553 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... capture, removal, and release of Houston Toad (Bufo houstonensis) related to FEMA operations within... release of Houston Toad (Bufo houstonensis) related to FEMA operations within Bastrop County,...

  16. Coexistence of alpha1 and beta adrenergic receptors in the liver of the frog Rana esculenta, the toad Bufo bufo, the lizard Podarcis sicula campestris, and the turtle Pseudemys picta elegans.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, E; Barbin, L; Capuzzo, A

    1997-09-01

    In mammals and birds the characteristics of alpha1 adrenergic receptors and their biological role in liver metabolism have been clearly described, although the predominance of receptor subtypes varies with species. In contrast, the actual presence of hepatic alpha1 adrenergic receptors in fish, amphibians, and reptiles has been questioned. Only recently has their existence been demonstrated in some fish species and also in the wood frog Rana sylvatica. The present study assessed the presence of alpha1 adrenergic binding sites on hepatic membranes of frogs, toads, lizards, and turtles using the specific alpha1 adrenergic receptor antagonist [3H]prazosin; for comparison, the binding of the specific beta adrenergic receptor antagonist [3H]CGP-12177A was evaluated in the same preparations. alpha1 Adrenergic receptors are indeed present in the liver of the ectotherms examined. Specific binding is saturable, reversible, and linear as a function of tissue concentration. The binding data indicated the presence of two classes of binding sites displaying high and low affinities with Kds in the nanomolar and micromolar ranges, respectively. The present study provides the first evidence for the presence of alpha1 adrenergic receptors in the liver of toad, lizard, and turtle while confirming their existence in another species of frog, Rana esculenta.

  17. [Population demography in Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) and Physalaemus biligonigerus (Anura: Leiuperidae) in agroecosystems in the province of Córdoba, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Bionda, Clarisa; Lajmanovich, Rafael; Salas, Nancy; Martino, Adolfo; di Tada, Ismael

    2013-09-01

    The advancing agricultural frontier has led to an important loss of natural habitats, with significant consequences for biodiversity. The demography for two species of anurans, Physalaemus biligonigerus and Rhinella arenarum, both associated with agricultural systems in the central region of the C6rdoba Province, were analyzed and compared in this study. Four sites were sampled: three agroecosystems with different alteration degrees (C1, C2 and SM1) and a fourth site not cultivated (SM2). The sampling was conducted during two reproductive periods, from September 2008 to April 2009 and September 2009 to April 2010. Individuals were captured using live pitfall traps for the metamorphic, juveniles and adults; and visual encounter survey, for the capture of eggs and larvae. With the abundance data, the survival for each age class was estimated using the KNM method (Kiritani Nakasuki Manly). With survival rates and fertility population, Leslie matrices were elaborated to obtain a quantitative projection of the population size. Altered environments showed lower eggs and larvae survival. Population projections were favorable in the site SM2 and were less favorable and a tendency to extinction, in sites dominated by crops. This study showed that the agroecosystems of this region are possibly inhospitable environments for reproduction and survival of the species studied. The aquatic stages in the life cycle of both species would be the more affected, since water bodies deterioration is present or may occur in those areas. We can recognize species-specific effects of agricultural ecosystems; P. biligonigerus was the most affected species, possibly because of their life histories and habitat requirements. We suggested that environmental degradation caused by the cropland in the central region of Argentina would impact on the demographics of the anuran populations in the area.

  18. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  19. Responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis in an amphibian (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion wastes.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W A; Mendonça, M T; Congdon, J D

    1999-02-01

    To assess the responsiveness of the interrenal axis to stress, we injected toads exposed to coal combustion wastes and toads from an unpolluted reference site with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), as well as the vehicle alone (saline). Initial circulating levels of corticosterone in toads captured at the polluted area were significantly higher than levels in toads from the reference site. Corticosterone levels in toads from the polluted site remained high even after 2 weeks of laboratory acclimation and injection with saline. The results may suggest disruption of hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolic clearance of steroid hormones. Injection of toads from the polluted site with ACTH had no effect on plasma corticosterone levels, whereas a similar treatment of toads from the reference site stimulated a marked increase in corticosterone. Our study provides evidence that toads exposed to coal combustion wastes may be less efficient at responding to additional environmental stressors.

  20. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  2. Heritability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis burden and its genetic correlation with development time in a population of Common toad (Bufo spinosus).

    PubMed

    Palomar, Gemma; Bosch, Jaime; Cano, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the important threat that emerging pathogens pose for the conservation of biodiversity as well as human health, very little is known about the adaptive potential of host species to withstand infections. We studied the quantitative genetic architecture responsible for the burden of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a population of common toads in conjunction with other life-history traits (i.e., body size and development rate) that may be affected by common selective pressures. We found a significant heritable component that is associated with fungal burden, which may allow for local adaptation to this pathogen to proceed. In addition, the high genetic correlation found between fungal burden and development time suggests that both traits have to be taken into account in order to assess the adaptive response of host populations to this emerging pathogen. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Development of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in Discoglossus pictus (Discoglossidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    Královec, Karel; Žáková, Pavla; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2013-01-01

    Using histological techniques and computer-aided three-dimensional reconstructions of histological serial sections, we studied the development of the olfactory and vomeronasal organs in the discoglossid frog Discoglossus pictus. The olfactory epithelium in larval D. pictus represents one continuous unit of tissue not divided into two separate portions. However, a small pouch of olfactory epithelium (the "ventromedial diverticulum") is embedded into the roof of the buccal cavity, anteromedial to the internal naris. The lateral appendix is present in D. pictus through the entire larval period and disappears during the onset of metamorphosis. The disappearance of the lateral appendix at this time suggests that it is a typical larval organ related to aquatic life. The vomeronasal organ develops during hindlimb development, which is comparatively late for anurans. The development of the vomeronasal organ in D. pictus follows the same general developmental pattern recognized for neobatrachians. As with most anurans, the vomeronasal glands appear later than the vomeronasal organ. After metamorphosis, the olfactory organ of adult D. pictus is composed of a series of three interconnected chambers: the cavum principale, cavum medium, and cavum inferius. We suggest that the ventromedial diverticulum at the anterior border of the internal naris of larval D. pictus might be homologous with the ventral olfactory epithelium of bufonids and with the similar diverticulum of Alytes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of thermal stress on hepatic melanomacrophages of Eupemphix nattereri (Anura).

    PubMed

    De Souza Santos, Lia Raquel; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Zieri, Rodrigo; Borges, Rinneu Elias; De Oliveira, Classius

    2014-05-01

    Melanomacrophages are the pigmented cells present in the hematopoietic organs. Besides melanin, hemosiderin and lipofuscin are also observed in the melanomacrophages. For the liver, however, numerous studies relate these cells to immunological and metabolic functions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatic metabolism by quantifying melanin, hemosiderin and lipofuscin in the anuran Eupemphix nattereri submitted to varying thermal conditions. E. nattereri adult males were separated into three groups, as follows: (i) five animals in the control group were kept at room temperature (27°C); (ii) 30 animals were submitted to hyperthermic (35.1°C); and (iii) 30 to hypothermic (18.9°) conditions. In each experiment, the animals were analyzed and separated into two different treatments: (1) immediately after undergoing the stress; and, (2) after recovering from the stress caused by the stimulus, at three distinct times (12 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr). Both hyperthermia and hypothermia decreased hepatic pigmentation after thermal stress. The recovered animals of both experimental treatments showed as much pigmentation as the control animals. Thermal stress alters hemosiderin and lipofuscin as well, which may be related to liver function catabolism. In conclusion, liver pigmentation decreased due to temperature variation and duration of thermal stimulation to which the animals were exposed. The increase in temperature rather than hypothermia led to more drastic physiological disorders. In this study, we observed that thermal stress for a short period compromises the morphology and liver function, as observed by the changing pigmentation of melanomacrophages. These analyses can be used as biomarkers of environmental effects. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Phylogenomic support for evolutionary relationships of New World Direct-developing Frogs (Anura: Terraranae).

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Matthew P; Lemmon, Alan R; Moriarty Lemmon, Emily; McGrath, Kathleen; Blair Hedges, S

    2017-09-26

    Phylogenomic approaches have proven able to resolve difficult branches in the tree of life. New World direct-developing frogs (Terraranae) represent a large evolutionary radiation in which interrelationships at key points in the phylogeny have not been adequately determined, affecting evolutionary, biogeographic, and taxonomic interpretations. We employed anchored hybrid enrichment to generate a data set containing 389 loci and >600,000 nucleotide positions for 30 terraranan and several outgroup frog species encompassing all major lineages in the clade. Concatenated maximum likelihood and coalescent species-tree approaches recover nearly identical topologies with strong support for nearly all relationships in the tree. These results are similar to previous phylogenetic results but provide additional resolution at short internodes. Among taxa whose placement varied in previous analyses, Ceuthomantis is shown to be the sister taxon to all other terraranans, rather than deeply embedded within the radiation, and Strabomantidae is monophyletic rather than paraphyletic with respect to Craugastoridae. We present an updated taxonomy to reflect these results, and describe a new subfamily for the genus Hypodactylus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Three new species of Oreophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Fred

    2013-01-01

    I describe three new species of the diverse microhylid frog genus Oreophryne from Papua New Guinea. Two of these occur in two isolated mountain ranges along the northern coast of Papua New Guinea; the third is from Rossel Island in the very southeasternmost part of the country. All three are the first Oreophryne known from these areas to have a cartilaginous connection between the procoracoid and scapula, a feature usually seen in species far to the west or from the central cordillera of New Guinea. Each of the new species also differs from the many other Papuan Oreophryne in a variety of other morphological, color-pattern, and call features. Advertisement-call data for Oreophryne species from the north-coast region suggest that they represent only two of the several call types seen in regions further south, consistent with the relatively recent derivation of these northern regions as accreted island-arc systems. The distinctively different, whinnying, call type of the new species from Rossel Island occurs among other Oreophryne from southeastern Papua New Guinea but has been unreported elsewhere, raising the possibility that it may characterize a clade endemic to that region.

  8. Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Candelario; Rollins-Smith, Louise; Ibáñez, Roberto; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Gutiérrez, Marcelino

    2017-02-23

    Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers. In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented. Available information on bioactive compounds isolated from species of the family Bufonidae was obtained from ACS Publications, Google, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sciendirect and Springer. Papers written in Chinese, English, German and Spanish were considered. Recent reports show more than 30% of amphibians are in decline and some of bufonid species are considered to be extinct. For centuries, bufonids have been used as traditional folk remedies to treat allergies, inflammation, cancer, infections and other ailments, highlighting their importance as a prolific source for novel drugs and therapies. Toxins and bioactive chemical constituents from skin and parotid gland secretions of bufonid species can be grouped in five families, the guanidine alkaloids isolated and characterized from Atelopus, the lipophilic alkaloids isolated from Melanophryniscus, the indole alkaloids and bufadienolides known to be synthesized by species of bufonids, and peptides and proteins isolated from the skin and gastrointestinal extracts of some common toads. Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. In this article, the traditional uses, toxicity and pharmacological potential of chemical compounds from bufonids have been summarized. In spite of being reported to be used to treat several diseases, neither extracts nor metabolites from bufonids have been tested in such illness like acne, osteoporosis, arthritis and other illnesses. However, the cytotoxicity of these metabolites needs to be evaluated on adequate animal models due to the limited conditions of in vitro assays. Novel qualitative and quantitative tools based on MS spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is now available to study the complex secretions of bufonids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reinterpreting features of the advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885; Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Giaretta, Ariovaldo Antonio; Vo, Pacific; Herche, Jesse; Tang, Justine Nicole; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2015-06-13

    The advertisement call of Dermatonotus muelleri was originally described by Nelson (1973) in a brief section of a review on the mating calls of the Microhylinae. He used two calls from São Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil to determine that they have i) dominant frequency between 1.500-2.200 kHz (mean 1.854 + 0.216 kHz), and ii) harmonic intervals between 0.140 and 0.150 kHz (0.146 +/- 0.005 kHz). Nelson (1973) based his description on an audiospectrogram produced with high frequency resolution and did not quantify the pulse structure of the calls. More recently, Giaretta and colleagues (2013) expanded on the original description using a larger set of calls recorded from Gurinhat, state of Minas Gerais, in Brazil. They quantified the temporal structure of the call and confirmed that the dominant frequency is around 1.8 kHz. In addition, they identified a secondary low frequency band at 667 Hz.

  10. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). Results We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. Conclusions We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at the northern edge of the water frog distribution is likely to be associated with genetic particularities, including a) low genetic variability and/or b) a local loss of genes coding for genotype-dependent call differentiation under conditions where female discrimination between diploid and triploid males is not beneficial. PMID:24304922

  11. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  12. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  13. Oviposition-site selection by Phyllomedusa sauvagii (Anura: Hylidae): An arboreal nester inhabiting arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Cecilia G.; Lescano, Julián N.; Leynaud, Gerardo C.

    2013-08-01

    Breeding biology in Phyllomedusa sauvagii is related to vegetation since the species encloses its eggs in leaves above water. Considering that arid environments may represent high risks of death by desiccation for amphibians with this reproductive mode, we evaluated plant characteristics associated with sites used for oviposition in semi-permanent ponds in the Arid Chaco region of Argentina. Plant characteristics were used to fit a statistical habitat selection model that allows the prediction of nest presence. Our results show that P. sauvagii needs substrate with specific features for oviposition that would help to reduce the probability of eggs and tadpoles desiccation.

  14. Morphological Changes in Skin Glands During Development in Rhinella Arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Regueira, Eleonora; Dávila, Camila; Hermida, Gladys N

    2016-01-01

    Avoiding predation is critical to survival of animals; chemical defenses represent a common strategy among amphibians. In this study, we examined histologically the morphology of skin glands and types of secretions related to chemical skin defense during ontogeny of Rhinella arenarum. Prior to metamorphic climax the epidermis contains typical bufonid giant cells producing a mucous substance supposedly involved in triggering a flight reaction of the tadpole school. An apical layer of alcianophilic mucus covers the epidermis, which could produce the unpleasant taste of bufonid tadpoles. Giant cells disappear by onset of metamorphic climax, when multicellular glands start developing, but the apical mucous layer remains. By the end of climax, neither the granular glands of the dorsum nor the parotoid regions are completely developed. Conversely, by the end of metamorphosis the mucous glands are partially developed and secrete mucus. Adults have at least three types of granular glands, which we designate type A (acidophilic), type B (basophilic) and ventral (mucous). Polymorphic granular glands distribute differently in the body: dorsal granular glands between warts and in the periphery of parotoids contain protein; granular glands of big warts and in the central region of parotoids contain catecholamines, lipids, and glycoconjugates, whereas ventral granular glands produce acidic glycoconjugates. Mucous glands produce both mucus and proteins. Results suggest that in early juveniles the chemical skin defense mechanisms are not functional. Topographical differences in adult skin secretions suggest that granular glands from the big warts in the skin produce similar toxins to the parotoid glands. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A comparative ultrastructural analysis of spermatozoa in Pleurodema (Anura, Leptodactylidae, Leiuperinae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Julio C; Ferraro, Daiana P; Farías, Alejandro; Santos, Julio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Faivovich, Julián; Hermida, Gladys N

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the spermatozoa of 10 of the 15 species of the Neotropical frog genus Pleurodema through transmission electron microscopy. The diversity of oviposition modes coupled with a recent phylogenetic hypothesis of Pleurodema makes it an interesting group for the study of ultrastructural sperm evolution in relation to fertilization environment and egg-clutch structure. We found that Pleurodema has an unusual variability in sperm morphology. The more variable structures were the acrosomal complex, the midpiece, and the tail. The acrosomal complex has all the structures commonly reported in hyloid frogs but with different degree of development of the subacrosomal cone. Regarding the midpiece, the variability is given by the presence or absence of the mitochondrial collar. Finally, the tail is the most variable structure, ranging from single (only axoneme) to more complex (presence of paraxonemal rod, cytoplasmic sheath, and undulating membrane), with the absence of the typical axial fiber present in hyloid frogs, also shared with some other genera of Leiuperinae. J. Morphol. 277:957-977, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B.; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H.; Pombal, José P.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care. PMID:26650515

  17. A new species of flea-toad (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Condez, Thais Helena; Monteiro, Juliane Petry De Carli; Comitti, Estevão Jasper; Garcia, Paulo Christiano De Anchietta; Amaral, Ivan Borel; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2016-02-18

    We describe a new species of Brachycephalus that is morphologically similar to the flea-toads B. didactylus, B. hermogenesi, and B. pulex. The new species occurs from the sea level up to 1000 m and it is widely distributed throughout southern Atlantic Forest. Brachycephalus sulfuratus sp. nov. is distinguished from all of its congeners by the combination of the following characters: (1) small body size (SVL of adults: 7.4-8.5 mm for males and 9.0-10.8 mm for females); (2) "leptodactyliform" body; (3) pectoral girdle arciferal and less robust compared to the Brachycephalus species with "bufoniform" body; (4) procoracoid and epicoracoid fused with coracoid but separated from the clavicle by a large fenestrae; (5) toe I externally absent; toes II, III, IV, and V distinct; phalanges of toes II and V reduced; (6) skin smooth with no dermal ossifications; (7) in life, general background color brown with small dark-brown spots; skin of throat, chest, arms, and forearms with irregular yellow blotches; in ventral view, cloacal region of alive and preserved specimens surrounded by a dark-brown inverted v-shaped mark outlined with white; (8) advertisement call long, composed of a set of 4-7 high-frequency notes (6.2-7.2 kHz) repeated regularly.

  18. On the type series of Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939) (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Colaço, Gustavo; Silva, Helio Ricardo Da

    2016-08-19

    The literature regarding the type series of Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939) presents two distinct numbers for the holotype. In 1973, thirty-four years after the description, Bertha Lutz associated numbers to the type series. This numbering has been followed by subsequent reviewers of Scinax ever since, with exception of Peixoto (1987) who assigned another number to the holotype. Our reevaluation of the literature and examination of the type series allowed us to access that, in both cases, the numbers were incorrectly assigned to the specimens and determine the proper museum numbers for this series.

  19. Phylogeny of frogs from the genus Physalaemus (Anura, Leptodactylidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Luciana B; Targueta, Cíntia P; Baldo, Diego; Nascimento, Juliana; Garcia, Paulo C A; Andrade, Gilda V; Haddad, Célio F B; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M

    2015-11-01

    Although some species groups have been recognized in the leiuperine genus Physalaemus, no phylogenetic analysis has previously been performed. Here, we provide a phylogenetic study based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from 41 of the 46 species of Physalaemus. We employed the parsimony criterion using the software TNT and POY and the Bayesian criterion using the software MrBayes. Two major clades were recovered inside the monophyletic Physalaemus: (i) the highly supported Physalaemus signifer Clade, which included P. nattereri and the species previously placed in the P. deimaticus and P. signifer Groups; and (ii) the Physalaemus cuvieri Clade, which included the remaining species of Physalaemus. Five species groups were recognized in the P. cuvieri Clade: the P. biligonigerus Group, the P. cuvieri Group, the P. henselii Group, the P. gracilis Group and the P. olfersii Group. The P. gracilis Species Group was the same as that previously proposed by Nascimento et al. (2005). The P. henselii Group includes P. fernandezae and P. henselii, and was the sister group of a clade that comprised the remaining species of the P. cuvieri Clade. The P. olfersii Group included P. olfersii, P. soaresi, P. maximus, P. feioi and P. lateristriga. The P. biligonigerus Species Group was composed of P. biligonigerus, P. marmoratus, P. santafecinus and P. riograndensis. The P. cuvieri Group inferred here differed from that recognized by Nascimento et al. (2005) only by the inclusion of P. albifrons and the exclusion of P. cicada. The paraphyly of P. cuvieri with respect to P. ephippifer was inferred in all the analyses. Distinct genetic lineages were recognized among individuals currently identified as P. cuvieri and they were congruent with cytogenetic differences reported previously, supporting the hypothesis of occurrence of formally unnamed species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new species of spiny-backed treefrog (Osteocephalus) from Central Amazonian Brazil (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Jungfer, Karl-Heinz; Verdade, Vanessa K; Faivovich, Julián; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2016-05-23

    A new species of treefrog of the genus Osteocephalus is described from the Rio Abacaxis, a southern tributary of the Amazonas in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. This member of the O. buckleyi group is characterized by green dorsal colouration with irregular blotches of various shades of brown, light venter with tan spots and bold dark markings on the posterior surfaces of the thighs. It can be distinguished from its closest relative, O. helenae from the same general area, by the lack of an axillary membrane, a few indistinct tubercles on the proximal segment of Finger IV and single ulnar tubercles.

  1. A new species of the Scinax catharinae group (Anura: Hylidae) from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Ana Carolina C; Zina, Juliana; Catroli, Gaucilene F; Kasahara, Sanae; Faivovich, Julian; Haddad, Célio F B

    2016-08-23

    We describe a new species of the Scinax catharinae group from coastal forest in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We also describe the karyotype and the advertisement call of the new species, which is composed by a multipulsed note. The chromosome morphology of the new species shows the nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on Pair 6, a putative synapomorphy previously inferred for the S. catharinae clade. We report, for the first time, the presence of mental glands in a species of the genus Scinax. Additionally, we provide a brief discussion about the occurrence of glandular tissue on the mental and inguinal regions of the species of the S. catharinae clade.

  2. The First Bromeligenous Species of Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rodrigo B; Faivovich, Julián; Beard, Karen H; Pombal, José P

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new treefrog species of Dendropsophus collected on rocky outcrops in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecologically, the new species can be distinguished from all known congeners by having a larval phase associated with rainwater accumulated in bromeliad phytotelms instead of temporary or lentic water bodies. Phylogenetic analysis based on molecular data confirms that the new species is a member of Dendropsophus; our analysis does not assign it to any recognized species group in the genus. Morphologically, based on comparison with the 96 known congeners, the new species is diagnosed by its small size, framed dorsal color pattern, and short webbing between toes IV-V. The advertisement call is composed of a moderate-pitched two-note call (~5 kHz). The territorial call contains more notes and pulses than the advertisement call. Field observations suggest that this new bromeligenous species uses a variety of bromeliad species to breed in, and may be both territorial and exhibit male parental care.

  3. The vocal sac of Hylodidae (Amphibia, Anura): Phylogenetic and functional implications of a unique morphology.

    PubMed

    Elias-Costa, Agustin J; Montesinos, Rachel; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2017-07-25

    Anuran vocal sacs are elastic chambers that recycle exhaled air during vocalizations and are present in males of most species of frogs. Most knowledge of the diversity of vocal sacs relates to external morphology; detailed information on internal anatomy is available for few groups of frogs. Frogs of the family Hylodidae, which is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil and adjacent Argentina and Paraguay, have three patterns of vocal sac morphology-that is, single, subgular; paired, lateral; and absent. The submandibular musculature and structure of the vocal sac mucosa (the internal wall of the vocal sac) of exemplar species of this family and relatives were studied. In contrast to previous accounts, we found that all species of Crossodactylus and Hylodes possess paired, lateral vocal sacs, with the internal mucosa of each sac being separate from the contralateral one. Unlike all other frogs for which data are available, the mucosa of the vocal sacs in these genera is not supported externally by the mm. intermandibularis and interhyoideus. Rather, the vocal sac mucosa projects through the musculature and is free in the submandibular lymphatic sac. The presence of paired, lateral vocal sacs, the internal separation of the sac mucosae, and their projection through the m. interhyoideus are synapomorphies of the family. Furthermore, the specific configuration of the m. interhyoideus allows asymmetric inflation of paired vocal sacs, a feature only reported in species of these diurnal, stream-dwelling frogs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A De Novo Case of Floating Chromosomal Polymorphisms by Translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV) can explain the chromosomal variations among populations. PMID:23056254

  5. Eye ontogeny in Pleurodema bufoninum: A comparison with Pleurodema somuncurense (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Volonteri, Clara; Barrasso, Diego A; Cotichelli, Leonardo; Basso, Néstor G; Hermida, Gladys N

    2017-04-02

    Vision is one of the main sensory systems in amphibians, and the eye structure is highly associated with habitat conditions. The ontogeny, as well as the adult structure, of the eye has been studied in only a few species. The life change after metamorphosis is accompanied by changes in the visual environment. The aim of this work is to describe the eye ontogeny of Pleurodema bufoninum and to compare it with that of Pleurodema somuncurense. Specimens of both Pleurodema species were processed for histology analysis at different stages of development, including the tadpole, postmetamorphic, and adult forms. Eyes in both Pleurodema species are composed of the 3 tunics, tunica fibrosa, tunica vasculosa, and tunica interna, and the lens. Additionally, in both, the iris presents a projection on its dorsal and ventral free ends that screens the cornea. This structure has been reported in the eye of several anuran species and is called the umbraculum, meniscus or pupillary nodule. Our results show that the structures related to light capture (retina and lens) appear early in larval life, while the components of the terrestrial-life eye (scleral cartilage, specialized cornea, eyelids, nictitating membrane, and Harderian's gland) do not develop until the metamorphic climax, when the tadpole leaves the water. The adult eyes of P. bufoninum and P. somuncurense are very similar in structure and development.

  6. Internal oral morphology in larvae of the genus Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) .

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marianna Isabella Rosa Rodrigues; Weber, Luiz Norberto; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras

    2013-12-09

    From the 86 species allocated in the genus Rhinella, 25 have their tadpoles described and only R. arenarum, R. chrysophora, R. icterica, R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. spinulosa have aspects of the internal oral morphology evidenced. Herein, the internal oral morphology from 12 species of Rhinella distributed between the morphological groups of R. crucifer, R. granulosa, R. marina and R margaritifera is described and compared. The internal oral morphology of Rhinella is little variable in many aspects. Despite the many similarities found between the tadpoles of Rhinella, the study showed that there are characteristics that exhibit interspecific variation that can be used in the taxonomy of the genus. Important features to distinguish species were: number of infrarrostral projections; number and shape of the infralabial papillae; size, arrangement, shape and apex of the lingual papillae; shape of the buccal floor arena papillae; number of projections of the ventral velum; shape of the prenarial ridge; choanae arrangement; number and apex of the postnarial papillae; number and shape of the secondary branches on the lateral ridge papilla; buccal roof arena papillae arrangement. 

  7. Molecular phylogeny and karyotype differentiation in Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, L B; Bacci-Júnior, M; Martins, V G; Recco-Pimentel, S M; Haddad, C F B

    2008-03-01

    Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys are leptodactylid frogs endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic forest and their close phylogenetic relationship was recently inferred in an analysis that included Paratelmatobius sp. and S. sawayae. To investigate the interspecific relationships among Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys species, we analyzed a mitochondrial region (approximately 2.4 kb) that included the ribosomal genes 12S and 16S and the tRNAval in representatives of all known localities of these genera and in 54 other species. Maximum parsimony inferences were done using PAUP* and support for the clades was evaluated by bootstrapping. A cytogenetic analysis using Giemsa staining, C-banding and silver staining was also done for those populations of Paratelmatobius not included in previous cytogenetic studies of this genus in order to assess their karyotype differentiation. Our results suggested Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys formed a clade strongly supported by bootstrapping, which corroborated their very close phylogenetic relationship. Among the Paratelmatobius species, two clades were identified and corroborated the groups P. mantiqueira and P. cardosoi previously proposed based on morphological characters. The karyotypes of Paratelmatobius sp. 2 and Paratelmatobius sp. 3 described here had diploid chromosome number 2n = 24 and showed many similarities with karyotypes of other Paratelmatobius representatives. The cytogenetic data and the phylogenetic analysis allowed the proposal/corroboration of several hypotheses for the karyotype differentiation within Paratelmatobius and Scythrophrys. Namely the telocentric pair No. 4 represented a synapomorphy of P. cardosoi and Paratelmatobius sp. 2, while chromosome pair No. 5 with interstitial C-bands could be interpreted as a synapomorphy of the P. cardosoi group. The NOR-bearing chromosome No. 10 in the karyotype of P. poecilogaster was considered homeologous to chromosome No. 10 in the karyotype of Scythrophrys sp., chromosome No. 9 in the karyotype of Paratelmatobius sp. 1, chromosome No. 8 in the karyotypes of Paratelmatobius sp. 2 and of Paratelmatobius sp. 3, and chromosome No. 7 in the karyotype of P. cardosoi. A hypothesis for the evolutionary divergence of these NOR-bearing chromosomes, which probably involved events like gain in heteochromatin, was proposed.

  8. Systematics of the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex (Anura, Hylidae) from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Santiago R.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Toral, Eduardo; Morley Read; Diego A. Ortiz; Manzano, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a new phylogeny, based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, for frogs of the genus Osteocephalus with emphasis in the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Genetic, morphologic, and advertisement call data are combined to define species boundaries and describe new species. The phylogeny shows strong support for: (1) a basal position of Osteocephalus taurinus + Osteocephalus oophagus, (2) a clade containing phytotelmata breeding species, and (3) a clade that corresponds to the Osteocephalus buckleyi species complex. Our results document a large proportion of hidden diversity within a set of populations that were previously treated as a single, widely distributed species, Osteocephalus buckleyi. Individuals assignable to Osteocephalus buckleyi formed a paraphyletic group relative to Osteocephalus verruciger and Osteocephalus cabrerai and contained four species, one of which is Osteocephalus buckleyi sensu stricto and three are new. Two of the new species are shared between Ecuador and Peru (Osteocephalus vilmae sp. n. and Osteocephalus cannatellai sp. n.) and one is distributed in the Amazon region of southern Peru (Osteocephalus germani sp. n.) We discuss the difficulties of using morphological characters to define species boundaries and propose a hypothesis to explain them. PMID:23166473

  9. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic position of Osteocephalus festae (Anura, Hylidae) with description of its larva

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Santiago R.; Toral, Eduardo; Venegas, Pablo J.; Barnes, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Osteocephalus festae is an Amazonian species recently resurrected from a synonymy with Osteocephalus buckleyi. Because few specimens are known, its morphological variation, diagnostic characters, and distribution are poorly understood. Herein we determine its phylogenetic relationships and provide a complete taxonomic account based on recently collected specimens (adults and larvae) from nine localities in Ecuador and Peru. Osteocephalus festae is most similar to Osteocephalus verruciger from which it differs in having less tuberculate dorsal skin on males, smaller tympanum, and more tooth rows in the oral disk of larvae. A phylogeny based on mitochondrial DNA sequences, genes 12S and ND1, shows that Osteocephalus festae is closely related to Osteocephalus buckleyi, Osteocephalus mutabor and Osteocephalus verruciger. A clade consisting of Osteocephalus festae, Osteocephalus verruciger, and Osteocephalus buckleyi is characterized by stream dwelling tadpoles. Surprisingly, we found paraphyly among Ecuadorian populations of Osteocephalus buckleyi and Osteocephalus verruciger. The causes for paraphyly are unknown but in Osteocephalus buckleyi may result from the existence of cryptic species. PMID:21594044

  10. The 100th: An appealing new species of Dendropsophus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) from northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Argôlo, Antônio Jorge Suzart; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus Group from the Atlantic Forest of the southern region of State of Bahia, Brazil. It can be distinguished from all species of the D. leucophyllatus Group on the basis of morphological characters (especially its unique dorsal pattern and snout in dorsal view), advertisement calls and divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The inclusion of D. anceps on the group remains controversial but our phylogenetic analyses do not recover the new species as sister to syntopic species of the D. leucophyllatus Group (with or without D. anceps). These results also highlight the palimpsest that is past relation between the Atlantic and Amazon forests. PMID:28273092

  11. A new species of arboreal toad (Anura : Bufonidae : Chaunus) from Madidi National Park, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Padial, J.M.; Reichle, S.; McDiarmid, R.; De la Riva, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new arboreal species of the Chaunus veraguensis group is described for the humid montane forest of Madidi National Park, in northern Bolivia. The new species differs from other species in the group by the combination small size, long and slender extremities, webbed hands, conspicuous tympanic membrane, well developed parotoid glands, absence of large glands on dorsum and extremities, nuptial excrescences of males composed of pungent spines on dorsal surface of thumb, greenish-brown coloration on dorsum with red warts in life, and green iris. It is only known from two nearby localities in the Serran Eslabon, Department La Paz. An operational key for species in the C. veraguensis group is provided.

  12. A new Leptolalax from the mountains of Sabah, Borneo (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto; Yambun, Paul

    2014-01-09

    A new species of Leptolalax is described from Kinabalu National Park in western Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. The new species had been assigned to L. dringi, L. gracilis, or L. fritinniens in the past. It differs from all congeners, including these species, by a unique combination of morphological characters, including small body size, rounded snout, narrower interorbital than upper eyelid, basal toe webbing, smooth skin with tiny tubercles on dorsum and dorsal side of head, small pectoral glands, absence of supraaxillary glands and ventrolateral glandular ridges, spotted venter, advertisement call consisting of long series of 1-149 notes, each composed of three or four pulses, and dominant frequency at 6.90-7.35 kHz, without prominent frequency modulation.

  13. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo).

    PubMed

    Dehling, J Maximilian; Matsui, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Leptolalax from Gunung Mulu National Park in eastern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The new species had been assigned to Leptolalax dringi and Leptolalax gracilis in the past. It is shown to differ from both these species and from all other species of the genus by a unique combination of morphological characters including large body size, rounded snout, interorbital distance being smaller than width of upper eyelid, bipartite subgular vocal sac in males, basal toe webbing, shagreened skin with tiny tubercles on dorsum and dorsal side of head, angled supratympanic fold, small pectoral glands, absence of supraaxillary glands and ventrolateral glandular ridges, spotted venter, advertisement call consisting of long series of 8-289 notes, each composed of three or four pulses, and dominant frequency at 7225-9190 Hz, with prominent frequency modulation.

  14. Acoustic differentiation and behavioral response reveals cryptic species within Buergeria treefrogs (Anura, Rhacophoridae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Wei; Lee, Ko-Huan; Tseng, Hui-Yun; Lin, Yen-Po; Komaki, Shohei; Lin, Si-Min

    2017-01-01

    Buergeria japonica is a widely distributed treefrog occurring from Ryukyu Archipelago to Taiwan. Across this wide distributional range, we combined molecular, acoustic, morphological, and behavioral characters to clarify the taxonomic status among these insular populations. Genetic differentiation in mitochondrial sequences indicated an over 16% divergence among two deeply divergent clades: Japanese clade distributes in Ryukyu Archipelago and northwestern drainages of Taiwan, while Taiwanese clade distributes in the remaining drainages on Taiwan. The Taiwanese clade can be distinguished from the nominative species not only by molecular and morphological differences, but also distinguishable by considerable acoustic differentiation, which is extraordinarily noticeable for an additional type of long call that never recorded from Japanese clade. The two clades form a parapatric distribution pattern with narrow contact zones both in western and eastern Taiwan. Playback experiments indicated that male frogs show significantly stronger defensiveness against conspecific calls rather than heterospecific calls, indicating that these signals play a crucial role in species recognition. Here we describe the Taiwanese clade as a new species; the behavioral response and the magnitude of gene flow across their contact zones are especially worth for detailed studies.

  15. Unusual chromosomal distribution of a major satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Amor, N; Odierna, G; Chinali, G; Said, K; Picariello, O

    2009-01-01

    A new highly abundant satellite DNA from Discoglossus pictus (Dp-sat1) was isolated and characterized. The repetitive unit (0.51 kb) has 2 HindIII sites and only one SpeI site: digestion of genomic DNA with HindIII produces 3 fragments: HA (0.17 kb), HB (0.34 kb), and HC = HA + HB (0.51 kb), while digestion with SpeI produces the whole repetitive unit (0.51 kb) that contains both HindIII sites. Sequence analysis of cloned repeats indicates an average A + T content of 71%, with many A- and T-runs. Southern blot analysis shows an arrangement of multiple bands of the 0.51 kb monomer in SpeI-digested DNA, while HindIII-digested DNA shows a ladder composed of all the possible combinations of the 3 digested fragments. Quantitative dot-blot indicates that Dp-sat1 accounts for about 6% of the D. pictus genome: this value represents about 1.5 x 10(6) copies of repetitive units per nucleus. This satellite DNA is also a major repetitive DNA in 4 other Discoglossus species, in which the repetitive unit presents the same size and restriction sites except in D. montalentii where it contains a unique HindIII site. This satellite DNA was absent in all the other tested archaeo- and neo-bratrachian species, as well as non-amphibian species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis shows that Dp-sat1 is localized only in peri- and/or para-centromeric areas of the 7 small chromosome pairs, while no labeling was observed in the 7 large chromosome pairs. Remarkably, Dp-sat1 heterochromatin is found only at one pole of the nucleus, suggesting that during interphase all 7 small chromosome pairs are located in the same nuclear region.

  16. Phylogenetic relationships of Oriental torrent frogs in the genus Amolops and its allies (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Shimada, Tomohiko; Liu, Wan-Zhao; Maryati, Mohamed; Khonsue, Wichase; Orlov, Nikolai

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among 20 species of Oriental torrent frogs in the genus Amolops and its allies from China and Southeast Asia based on 1346-bp sequences of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes. Oriental species of the tribe Ranini form a monophyletic group containing 11 clades (Rana temporaria + Pseudoamolops, R. chalconota, four clades of Amolops, Meristogenys, three clades of Huia species, and Staurois) for which the phylogenetic relationships are unresolved. The genus Amolops consists of southern Chinese, southwestern Chinese, Thai, and Vietnamese-Malaysian lineages, but their relationships are also unresolved. The separation of southern and southwestern lineages within China conforms to previous morphological and karyological results. Species of Huia do not form a monophyletic group, whereas those of Meristogenys are monophyletic. Because P. sauteri is a sister species of R. temporaria, distinct generic status of Pseudoamolops is unwarranted.

  17. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

  18. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  19. A new species of Telmatobius (Amphibia, Anura, Telmatobiidae) from the Pacific slopes of the Andes, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; García, Víctor Vargas; Lehr, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout–vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3–55.7 mm, n = 6) in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but Telmatobius intermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from Telmatobius intermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of Telmatobius intermedius), and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in Telmatobius intermedius). The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru. PMID:25685025

  20. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-02-05

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile. 

  1. The Phyllomedusa perinesos group (Anura: Hylidae) is derived from a Miocene Amazonian Lineage.

    PubMed

    Ron, Santiago R; Almendariz, Ana; Cannatella, David C

    2013-11-27

    The Phyllomedusa perinesos group is composed of four species that inhabit cloud forests in the eastern Andean slopes. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among them and their closest relatives using mitochondrial DNA sequences. Our results confirm the monophyly of the group and a close relationship with the Amazonian species Phyllomedusa atelopoides and Phyllomedusa tomopterna. A chronogram indicates that the group originated during the Miocene and the contemporary species diverged from their closest relatives during the Miocene and early Pliocene. The timing of the group's origin suggests that its evolution was linked to the rise of the eastern Andes. Based on the phylogeny we expand the species content of the group to include P. atelopoides and P. tomopterna.

  2. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-07-06

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of diurnal, phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus (Anura: Bufonidae) based on mitogenomic data.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ströher, Patrícia R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Faircloth, Brant C; McCormack, John E

    2017-09-10

    Melanophryniscus is a bufonid frog genus with a broad geographic distribution over southeastern South America. In recent years, several new species of Melanophryniscus have been discovered in southern Brazil showing a distinctive life-history strategy for the genus - breeding in phytotelmata - as well as a strong association with high-altitude regions. In this study, we use mitogenomic data to infer the phylogenetic relationships among diurnal, phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus and to determine the timing of their divergence. We obtained the mitochondrial genomes (not including the control region) for eight individuals of Melanophryniscus representing all three described species (M. alipioi, M. milanoi, and M. xanthostomus), as well as some recently-discovered and potentially new species. Gene order was conserved in all species and corresponded to the general order found in bufonids. Although the phylogenetic relationships among the studied species was poorly supported, dating confirmed that they diverged during the Pleistocene, suggesting that phytotelm breeding could have arisen during drier periods in the glacial/interglacial cycles due to a decrease in the availability of permanent streams or ephemeral/temporary streams or ponds in which Melanophryniscus species commonly breed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A new species of Scinax Wagler (Anura: Hylidae) from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Valdujo, Paula Hanna; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-07

    A new species of the Scinax ruber Clade is described from Municipality of Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is diagnosed by its size (SVL 29.4-35.4 mm in males); dorsum with a background that varies from light and dark gray to dark brown, with round and irregular dark blotches; hidden surfaces of thigh and shank light or dark brown, with lighter, large and irregular blotches (yellow in life); and nuptial pad that covers the medial margin of Metacarpal I, and obscures the posterior portion and the outer margin of the inner metacarpal tubercle. It is most similar with Scinax rupestris, from which it differs by having larger adult males; less developed nuptial pad; and hidden surfaces of thigh and light or dark brown, with lighter, large and irregular blotches (yellow in life). The new species occurs near the headwaters of permanent or temporary streams, where males call from vegetation or rocks at the margins of small streams.

  5. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems. PMID:26788431

  6. Rhabdias kongmongthaensis sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Polypedates leucomystax (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Yuriy; Tkach, Vasyl V; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2005-11-01

    Rhabdias kongmongthaensis sp. n. is described based on specimens found in the lungs of the tree frog Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst) (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae) from Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. The new species is similar to two North-American species, Rhabdias ranae and R. americanus, by presence of two lateral pseudolabia, each with two inner submedian protuberances. R. kongmongthaensis differs from both species by relative length and shape of the tail, and by its distribution and host specificity. Presence of lateral pseudolabia distinguishes the new species from the geographically closest Rhabdias species as well as from those parasitizing other rhacophorid frogs.

  7. Terrestrialization, Miniaturization and Rates of Diversification in African Puddle Frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zimkus, Breda M.; Lawson, Lucinda; Loader, Simon P.; Hanken, James

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, are recurring trends in amphibian evolution, but the relationships among the traits that characterize these phenomena are not well understood. Furthermore, these traits have been identified as possible “key innovations” that are predicted to increase rates of speciation in those lineages in which they evolve. We examine terrestrialization and miniaturization in sub-Saharan puddle frogs (Phrynobatrachidae) in a phylogenetic context to investigate the relationship between adaptation and diversification through time. We use relative dating techniques to ascertain if character trait shifts are associated with increased diversification rates, and we evaluate the likelihood that a single temporal event can explain the evolution of those traits. Results indicate alternate reproductive modes evolved independently in Phrynobatrachus at least seven times, including terrestrial deposition of eggs and terrestrial, non-feeding larvae. These shifts towards alternate reproductive modes are not linked to a common temporal event. Contrary to the “key innovations” hypothesis, clades that exhibit alternate reproductive modes have lower diversification rates than those that deposit eggs aquatically. Adult habitat, pedal webbing and body size have no effect on diversification rates. Though these traits putatively identified as key innovations for Phrynobatrachus do not seem to be associated with increased speciation rates, they may still provide opportunities to extend into new niches, thus increasing overall diversity. PMID:22509392

  8. The karyotype of Adenomera diptyx (Boettger 1885) (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Zaracho, Víctor Hugo; Hernando, Alejandra Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the karyotype of five populations of Adenomera diptyx from Argentina after conventional staining, Ag-NOR and C-banding. All specimens presented 2n = 26 and FN = 34. The karyotype was formed by three submetacentric, one metacentric and nine telocentric pairs. Silver staining revealed that the NOR was located on a secondary constriction in pair 7. C- banding evidenced constitutive heterochromatin at the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. The karyotype of A. diptyx was similar to that of A. hylaedactyla (2n = 26, FN = 34) and different from that of A. andreae (2n = 26, FN = 40) in the fundamental number and secondary constriction position. It also differed from the karyotypes of A. marmorata (2n = 24, FN = 34 and 36) and of A. aff. bokermanni (2n = 23, FN = 34) in diploid number. Until a comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of all the species of the genus is performed, their chromosome evolution will remain poorly understood. PMID:21637549

  9. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Berneck, Bianca V. M.; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A.; Brandão, Reuber A.; Cruz, Carlos A. G.; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed. PMID:28138301

  10. Two new species of South American Centrolenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. mariae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, Glenn; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    1989-01-01

    Two new Centrolenella are described, C. azulae from the Cordillera Azul of Perú, and C. puyoensis from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Centrolenella azulae is distinguished by its moderately large size, the presence of vomerine teeth, a snout truncate in dorsal view and slightly protruding in profile, a color pattern in preservative of very diffuse lavender with small colorless spots, basal webbing on the outer fingers, and a low ulnar fold. Centrolenella puyoensis is distinguished by its moderately large size, a snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded in profile, a color pattern in preservative of purplish-gray with large cream spots, a tympanum that is three-fourths exposed, and intricate anal ornamentation. Both new species are closely related to the Peruvian C. mariae, and together the three species form the C. mariae group, definable on a number of shared, derived characters. A hypothesis of relationships within the mariae group is presented, postulating puyoensis as the most primitive and azulae as the most derived of the trio.

  11. Two new species of South American Centrorlenella (Anura: Centrolenidae) related to C. Mariae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, G.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Two new Centrolenella are described, C. azulae from the Cordillera Azul of Peru, and C. puyoensis from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. Centrolenella azulae is distinguished by its moderately large size, the presence of vomerine teeth, a snout truncate in dorsal view and slightly protruding in profile, a color pattern in preservative of very diffuse lavender with small colorless spots, basal webbing on the outer fingers, and a low ulnar fold. Centrolenella puyoensis is distinguished by its moderately large size, a snout truncate in dorsal view and rounded in profile, a color pattern in preservative of purplish-gray with large cream spots, a tympanum that is three-fourths exposed, and intricate anal ornamentation. Both new species are closely related to the Peruvian C. mariae, and together the three species form the C. mariae group, definable on a number of shared, derived characters. A hypothesis of relationships within the mariae group is presented, postulating puyoensis as the most primitive and azulae as the most derived of the trio.

  12. Frontoparietal Bone in Extinct Palaeobatrachidae (Anura): Its Variation and Taxonomic Value.

    PubMed

    Roček, Zbyněk; Boistel, Renaud; Lenoir, Nicolas; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierce, Stephanie E; Rage, Jean-Claude; Smirnov, Sergei V; Schwermann, Achim H; Valentin, Xavier; Venczel, Márton; Wuttke, Michael; Zikmund, Tomáš

    2015-11-01

    Palaeobatrachidae are extinct frogs from Europe closely related to the Gondwanan Pipidae, which includes Xenopus. Their frontoparietal is a distinctive skeletal element which has served as a basis for establishing the genus Albionbatrachus. Because little was known about developmental and individual variation of the frontoparietal, and its usefulness in delimiting genera and species has sometimes been doubted, we investigate its structure in Palaeobatrachus and Albionbatrachus by means of X-ray high resolution computer tomography (micro-CT). To infer the scope of variation present in the fossil specimens, we also examined developmental and interspecific variation in extant Xenopus. In adults of extinct taxa, the internal structure of the frontoparietal bone consists of a superficial and a basal layer of compact bone, with a middle layer of cancellous bone between them, much as in early amphibians. In Albionbatrachus, the layer of cancellous bone, consisting of small and large cavities, was connected with the dorsal, sculptured surface of the bone by a system of narrow canals; in Palaeobatrachus, the layer of cancellous bone and the canals connecting this layer with the dorsal surface of the frontoparietal were reduced. The situation in Palaeobatrachus robustus from the lower Miocene of France is intermediate-while external features support assignment to Palaeobatrachus, the inner structure is similar to that in Albionbatrachus. It may be hypothesized that sculptured frontoparietals with a well-developed layer of cancellous (i.e., vascularized) bone may indicate adaptation to a more terrestrial way of life, whereas a reduced cancellous layer might indicate a permanent water dweller. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.

    PubMed

    Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2013-07-01

    Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction.

  14. A new species of genus Fejervarya (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    SUWANNAPOOM, Chatmongkon; YUAN, Zhi-Yong; POYARKOV Jr., Nikolay A.; YAN, Fang; KAMTAEJA, Somboon; MURPHY, Robert W.; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog in the dicroglossid genus Fejervarya from Ban Monjong, Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial gene 16S, advertisement calls, and morphological distinctiveness support recognition of the new species. Matrilineal genealogy suggests that the new population from Chiang Mai is a sister taxon to the South Asian clade that includes F. syhadrensis, F. granosa, and F. pierrei. The new species, Fejervarya chiangmaiensis sp. nov., differs morphologically from its congeners by its relatively small body size and proportions and the presence of dorsal warts and dermal ridges. Discovery of this new species indicates that the biodiversity of amphibians in this region remains underestimated. PMID:28105797

  15. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67–104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  16. An Examination of Morphometric Variations in a Neotropical Toad Population (Proceratophrys cristiceps, Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Kleber S.; Arzabe, Cristina; Hernández, Malva I. M.; Vieira, Washington L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The species Proceratophrys cristiceps belongs to the genus Proceratophrys within the family Cycloramphidae. These amphibians are found exclusively in South America in the morphoclimatic domain of the semi-arid depression zones in northeastern Brazil known as the Caatinga. We examined intrapopulational variation using univariate and multivariate statistics with traditional and geometric morphometrics, which supported the existence of two morphotypes of this species. Our results indicated significant degrees of variation in skeletal characteristics between some natural populations of this species. Careful analyses of variability levels are fundamental to avoid taxonomic errors, principally in populations that demonstrate characteristics intimately associated with their area of occurrence, as is the case of Proceratophrys cristiceps. PMID:19088855

  17. REINFORCEMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT IN GASTROPHRYNE CAROLINENSIS AND G. OLIVACEA (ANURA: MICROHYLIDAE): A REEXAMINATION.

    PubMed

    Loftus-Hills, Jasper J; Littlejohn, Murray J

    1992-08-01

    Tape-recorded advertisement calls of Gastrophryne carolinensis and G. olivacea, obtained in Texas and southern Louisiana, were analyzed by means of an analogue audiospectrograph. Samples were grouped into four areas: allopatric and sympatric for G. carolinensis, and combined adjacent allopatric/shallow sympatric, and sympatric for G. olivacea. Three attributes of the advertisement call (call duration, pulse rate, and dominant frequency) were investigated, with water temperature at the calling site as the independent variable. Values for dominant frequency do not overlap between species, across the full range of recording temperatures, and those of sympatric G. carolinensis are displaced away from those of both groups of G. olivacea (which are very similar)-thus indicating a pattern of geographic variation consistent with reproductive character displacement. There is considerable overlap in the values for duration and for pulse rate of each species when considered alone, but there is only slight overlap of the scatters of points for the pairs of values. For both species, no consistent patterns of correlation were detected between the three attributes of the call and the snout-vent length of the emitter, thus reducing the likelihood that the divergence in calls is due to pleiotropic effects of body size. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Helminth infracommunity of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) within its native distribution range.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; García-Prieto, Luis; Lagunas-Calvo, Omar; Violante-González, Juan; Osorio-Sarabia, David

    2017-10-01

    During August 2010, a total of 66 cane toad Rhinella marina were collected in Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, Mexico and examined for the presence of helminths. Ninety-two percent were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. A total of 4624 individuals were found, belonging to 8 helminth taxa (1 digenean, 1 cestode and 6 nematodes). Infracommunities harbored by this host species are highly variable (mean Jaccard similarity index 0.31±0.27); mean percent similarity index 0.26±0.32) and depauperate (mean richness 1.91±0.92; mean abundance 64.4±100.34); almost 50% of them were dominated by Rhabdias fuelleborni, a skin-penetrating nematode. Differences related to host gender and size were found, since males registered infracommunities with lower species richness and diversity than females. The reproductive condition of females (collected during the breeding season) might explain the results obtained; during this season, females invest less in resistance to infection in favor of investing resources in reproduction. However, confirmation of this statement can only be made by sampling in the dry season, when the toads do not reach their reproductive peak. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Germ cell dynamics during the annual reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Lia Raquel de Souza; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; de Oliveira, Classius

    2011-11-01

    Thirty male specimens of Dendropsophus minutus Peters, 1972, were collected from April 2004 to March 2005 in the region de Sao José do Rio Preto/SP, to conduct a histological study during the seasonal and annual cycles. Testicular activity was inferred based on the volume occupied by each type of cellular cyst present in the seminiferous tubules, as well as the quantity of germ cells in the final development stage, the spermatozoids. All data analyzed were correlated with climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and photoperiod) registered in the region where specimens were collected. A significant variation was verified in the quantity of spermatozoids as well as in the volume occupied by spermatids and spermatozoids throughout the year and between the cold/dry and hot/ humid seasons. It has also been reported that environmental conditions are important factors closely related to species reproduction and that production of germ cells and volume occupied by germ cysts is independent of anatomical aspect of the gonads. Thus, it was possible to verify that although the species reproduces throughout the year, individuals exhibit a preferential reproduction season, resulting in a reproductive (October to the end of February) and a post-reproductive period.

  20. A striking new species of phytotelm-breeding tree frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Dau, Vinh Quang; Hoang, Huy Duc; Cao, Trung Tien

    2014-04-02

    We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9-41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845-2160 m elevation.

  1. Unmasking Rana okinavana Boettger, 1895 from the Ryukyus, Japan (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2007-02-01

    Examination of the lectotype and a paralectotype of Rana okinavana Boettger, 1895 revealed that the species is not a brown frog of the subgenus Rana, occurring in the middle group of the Ryukyu Archipelago, but is identical with a frog of the subgenus Nidirana from the southern group of the Archipelago and Taiwan, now called R. psaltes Kuramoto, 1985. The type locality of R. okinavana given in the original description, Okinawa of the middle Ryukyus, is highly doubtful and should be somewhere in the Yaeyama Islands of the southern Ryukyus. The name R. psaltes is relegated to a subjective junior synonym of R. okinavana Boettger, 1895, while the brown frog of the subgenus Rana from the northern Ryukyus requires a replacement name.

  2. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Firkowski, Carina R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Morato, Sérgio A.A.; Antoniazzi-Jr., Reuber L.; Reinert, Bianca L.; Meyer, Andreas L.S.; Cini, Felipe A.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2016-01-01

    Mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest can act as islands of cold and wet climate, leading to the isolation and speciation of species with low dispersal capacity, such as the toadlet species of the genus Brachycephalus. This genus is composed primarily by diurnal species, with miniaturized body sizes (<2.5 cm), inhabiting microhabitats in the leaf litter of montane forests. Still, little is known about the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, and ecological limits of most Brachycephalus species. In this study, we review the available data on the geographical and altitudinal distribution of Brachycephalus based on occurrence records compiled from literature and museums, both for the genus as a whole and separately for the three recently proposed groups of species (ephippium, didactylus, and pernix). The final ensemble dataset comprised 333 records, 120 localities, 28 described species, and six undescribed ones. Species were recorded in six relief units, the richest of which being the Serra do Mar, with 30 species. When the Serra do Mar is subdivided into three subunits, Northern, Central and Southern Serra do Mar, the number of species increase from north to the south, with records of six, nine, and 16 species, respectively. We were able to estimate the extent of occurrence of nearly half of the described species, and the resulting estimates indicate that many of them show remarkably small ranges, some of which less than 50 ha. Brachycephalus species are present from sea level to roughly 1,900 m a.s.l., with the highest richness being found between 751 and 1,000 m a.s.l. (21 spp.). The species with the broadest altitudinal range were B. didactylus (1,075 m) and Brachycephalus sp. 1 (1,035 m), both in the didactylus group, and B. ephippium (1,050 m), of the ephippium group. The broadest altitudinal amplitude for species of the pernix group was recorded for B. brunneus (535 m). The lowest altitudinal records for the pernix group were at 845 m a.s.l. in the state of Paraná and at 455 m a.s.l. in the state of Santa Catarina. The altitudinal occurrence in the pernixspecies group seems to decrease southward. Syntopy between species is also reviewed. PMID:27761312

  3. Preferences based on spectral differences in acoustic signals in four species of treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, H Carl; Martínez-Rivera, Carlos C; Schwartz, Joshua J; Marshall, Vincent T; Murphy, Christopher G

    2007-09-01

    Frogs have two inner ear organs, each tuned to a different range of frequencies. Female treefrogs (Hylidae) of three species in which males produce calls with a bimodal spectrum (Hyla chrysoscelis, H. versicolor, H. arenicolor) preferred alternatives with a bimodal spectrum to alternatives with a single high-frequency peak. By contrast, females of H. avivoca, in which males produce calls with a single, high-frequency peak, preferred synthetic calls with a single high-frequency peak to calls with a bimodal spectrum. These results are consistent with the expectations of the matched-filter hypothesis and run counter to the predictions of the pre-existing bias hypothesis. At moderate to high playback levels (85-90 dB), females of H. avivoca and of two of three mtDNA-defined lineages of H. versicolor preferred unimodal signals with a high-frequency peak to those with a low-frequency peak. Females of H. chrysoscelis, H. arenicolor and the third lineage of H. versicolor did not show a preference, indicating that receiver mechanisms may be at least as evolutionarily labile as call structure. Spectral-peak preferences of gray treefrogs from Missouri, USA were intensity-dependent. Whereas females chose low-frequency calls at 65 dB spl, there was either no preference (H. chrysoscelis) or a preference for high-frequency calls (H. versicolor) at 85 and 90 dB spl. These non-linear effects indicate that there is an increasing influence of high-frequency energy on preferences as females approach calling males, and these results serve to emphasize that playback experiments conducted at a single level may have limited generality.

  4. Phonotaxis in Hyla versicolor (Anura, Hylidae): the effect of absolute call amplitude.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Schul, Johannes

    2004-11-01

    The influence of call amplitude on phonotaxis in female Hyla versicolor was studied using a no-choice paradigm. One set of experiments estimated effects of stimulus amplitude on phonotaxis toward a synthetic model of a conspecific call. The response strength increased with amplitude from the behavioral threshold (37-43 dB SPL) up to 79 dB SPL and then decreased at higher amplitudes. Females approached the loudspeaker with short walking bouts (approximately 1 s duration) occurring immediately after call presentations. Increase in response strength was attributed to an increasing proportion of calls that elicited such walking bouts, whereas the decrease at high amplitudes resulted from decreasing distance covered per bout. The quality of orientation remained constant for all above-threshold amplitudes. A second set of experiments tested the selectivity for interval duration and pulse duration at amplitudes of 55, 70, and 85 dB SPL. Selectivity for both parameters was similar at 70 and 85 dB SPL, but tended to increase at 55 dB SPL. The results suggest that selective phonotaxis in H. versicolor is not adapted for long-distance communication. This finding differs from those of comparable studies of acoustic insects.

  5. Effects of developmental and growth history on metamorphosis in the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Beachy, C K; Surges, T H; Reyes, M

    1999-05-01

    In ecological models, the timing of amphibian metamorphosis is dependent upon rate of larval growth, e.g., tadpoles that experience a decrease in growth rate can initiate metamorphosis early. Recent authors have suggested that this plasticity may be lost at some point during the larval period. We tested this hypothesis by exposing groups of tadpoles of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor, to different growth schedules. In endocrine models, metamorphosis is dependent on thyroxine levels and thyroxine is antagonized by prolactin (amphibian larval growth hormone), consistent with the idea that a rapidly growing tadpole can delay metamorphosis. Thus, we also manipulated the rate of development by supplementing or maintaining natural thyroxine levels for half of the tadpoles in each growth treatment. All tadpoles that received thyroxine supplements metamorphosed at the same time regardless of growth history. They also metamorphosed earlier than tadpoles not treated with thyroxine. Tadpoles not given thyroxine supplements metamorphosed at different times: those growing rapidly during day 15-34 metamorphosed earlier than tadpoles growing slowly. Growth rate before day 15 and after day 34 had no effect on metamorphic timing. The difference in larval period between these rapidly growing tadpoles and their sisters given thyroxine treatments was less than the same comparison for tadpoles that grew slowly during the same period. This apparent prolactin/thyroxine antagonism did not exist after day 34. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of a loss of plasticity in metamorphic timing.

  6. Genomic effects on advertisement call structure in diploid and triploid hybrid waterfrogs (Anura, Pelophylax esculentus).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-12-04

    In anurans, differences in male mating calls have intensively been studied with respect to taxonomic classification, phylogeographic comparisons among different populations and sexual selection. Although overall successful, there is often much unexplained variation in these studies. Potential causes for such variation include differences among genotypes and breeding systems, as well as differences between populations. We investigated how these three factors affect call properties in male water frogs of Pelophylax lessonae (genotype LL), P. ridibundus (RR) and their interspecific hybrid P. esculentus which comes in diploid (LR) and triploid types (LLR, LRR). We investigated five call parameters that all showed a genomic dosage effect, i.e. they either decreased or increased with the L/R ratio in the order LL-LLR-LR-LRR-RR. Not all parameters differentiated equally well between the five genotypes, but combined they provided a good separation. Two of the five call parameters were also affected by the breeding system. Calls of diploid LR males varied, depending on whether these males mated with one or both of the parental species (diploid systems) or triploid hybrids (mixed ploidy systems). With the exception of the northernmost mixed-ploidy population, call differences were not related to the geographic location of the population and they were not correlated with genetic distances in the R and L genomes. We found an influence of all three tested factors on call parameters, with the effect size decreasing from genotype through breeding system to geographic location of the population. Overall, results were in line with predictions from a dosage effect in L/R ratios, but in three call parameters all three hybrid types were more similar to one or the other parental species. Also calls of diploid hybrids varied between breeding systems in agreement with the sexual host required for successful reproduction. The lack of hybrid call differences in a mixed-ploidy population at the northern edge of the water frog distribution is likely to be associated with genetic particularities, including a) low genetic variability and/or b) a local loss of genes coding for genotype-dependent call differentiation under conditions where female discrimination between diploid and triploid males is not beneficial.

  7. Cryptic species diversity in marsupial frogs (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca) in the Andes of northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Duellman, William E; Barley, Anthony J; Venegas, Pablo J

    2014-02-25

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of two undescribed species of the hemiphractid genus Gastrotheca in the Andes in northern Peru. Both species are similar morphologically to Gastrotheca dysprosita and G. monticola, but they differ from these species and from one another in subtleties of coloration and minor variances in size and proportions. Gastrotheca aguaruna sp. nov. (6˚10'50"S, 77˚37'01"W, 2480 m) is from humid forested areas in the northern part of the Cordillera Central, whereas G. aratia sp. nov. (6˚14'00"S, 78˚51'24"W, 2560 m ) is known from the northern part of the Cordillera Occidental.

  8. Longevity and survival curves of Rhinella icterica (Anura, Bufonidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S

    2014-05-01

    Life tables and survival curves of tadpoles from Rhinella icterica species were studied in the laboratory, under abiotic conditions controlled by a purification filter, a timer and a chiller. The survival curve for larval stage confirms a great mortality trend in the initial stages, which decreases when reaching the mature morphological condition (r = -0.94). Stages 37, 38, 39, 40 and 41 showed gradual values for their age structures, while stages 42, 43 and 44 presented high variations. Based on the results under laboratory conditions, it can be concluded that the maturity of R. icterica tadpoles development between 37 and 44 stages has a negative correlation and their predicted life expectancy is a logarithmic growth curve (y=-761.96Ln(x)+5298.5).

  9. Two new species of cosmocercids (Ascaridida) in the toad Chaunus arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramallo, Geraldine; Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R

    2007-08-01

    Aplectana tarija n. sp. and Cosmocercoides lilloi n. sp., intestinal parasites of the toad Chaunus arenarum, are described. Of the 41 nominal species of Aplectana, A. tarija n. sp. represents the 22nd Neotropical species and the second species reported from Argentina. Of the 14 nominal species of Cosmocercoides, C. lilloi n. sp. represents the 15th species and the first species reported from South America.

  10. Water loss and nitrogen excretion in sharp-nosed reed frogs (Hyperolius nasutus: anura, Hyperoliidae).

    PubMed

    Withers, P C; Hillman, S S; Drewes, R C; Sokol, O M

    1982-04-01

    Sharp-nosed African reed frogs, Hyperolius nasutus Gunther, are small (0.4 g) hyperoliids which have minimal rates of evaporative water loss (4.5 mg g-1 h-1; 0.3 mg cm-2 h-1) that are only 1/10 to 1/20 that of a typical frog, Hylaregilla, of comparable size (171 mg g-1 h-1, 4.8 mg cm-2 h-1). The surface-area-specific resistance to water flux of H. nasutus dorsal skin (96-257 sec cm-1) is similar to that of other 'waterproof' frogs (300-400), of cocooned frogs (40-500), and of desert reptiles (200-1400). However, H. nasutus can greatly increase the rate of evaporative water loss during radiative heat stress by mucous gland discharge, and by exposing the ventral skin. Urea is the principal nitrogenous waste product of H. nasutus and uric acid comprises less than 1% of the total nitrogen excretion for both H. nasutus and H. regilla. Other 'waterproof' frogs, in contrast, are uricotelic. Lethal dehydration requires less than two weeks in H. nasutus, despite its low surface-area-specific rate of water loss, because of its small size and concomitantly high surface-to-volume ratio. The rate of urea accumulation during dehydration was 23 mM g-1 day-1, which is sufficiently low that urea accumulation would not be lethal before the frog had succumbed to dehydrational death. Consequently, there appears to be little or no selective advantage for uricotely in small 'waterproof' frogs, such as H. nasutus.

  11. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Brandão, Reuber A; Cruz, Carlos A G; Haddad, Célio F B

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  12. Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coppo, José A; Mussart, Norma B; Fioranelli, Santiago A

    2005-01-01

    A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50-350 g liveweight, 50% each sex) from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (p<0.05) for PCV (28.6-31.6%), RBC (0.40-0.44 T/L), MCV (686-732 fL), hemoglobin (6.41-7.20 g/dL), MCH (151-164 pg), MCHC (22.6-24.0%), WBC (18.7-22.3 G/L), neutrophils (58.4-63.4%), lymphocytes (23.9-29.8%), monocytes (2.1-3.8%), eosinophils (4.6-7.0%), basophils (2.9-4.1%), bleeding time (289-393s), coagulation time (452-696s), prothrombin time (76-128s), urinary density (1.0061-1.0089 g/mL), urinary pH (6,38-6.96)., fibrinogen (0.59-0.99 g/dL), total protein (4.19-4.49 g/dL), albumin (1.49-1.67 g/dL), alpha-1 globulin (0.20-0.24 g/dL), alpha-2 globulin (0.48-0.54 g/dL), beta globulin (0.68-0.77 g/dL), gamma globulin (1.28-1.42 g/dL), albumin/globulin ratio (0.50-0.58), creatinine (4.09-5.56 mg/L). urea (76.1-92.4 mg/L), uric acid (11.5-15.4 mg/L), triglycerides (0.34-0.52 g/L), total cholesterol (0.56-0.67 g/L), HDL-C (0.03-0.05 g/L), LDL-C (0.34-0.44 g/L), alpha lipoprotein (6.01-8.67%). beta lipoprotein (91.3-93.9%), glucose (0.45-0.54 g/L), Na (116-121 meq/L), K (3.42-3.81 meq/L), Cl (100-116 meq/L), Ca (7.98-8.61 mg/dL). P (8.319.36 mg/dL), Mg (2.26-2.55 mg/dL), Fe (105-178 ug/dL), ALP (144-170 [U/L), ALT (10.0-14.8 IU/L), AST (42.8-53.4 IU/L), GGT (7.8-10.6 IU/L), LDH (99-135 IU/L), CHE (151-185 lU/L) and CPK (365-500 IU/L), were obtained. Some parameter ranges were similar to those obtained in amphibians, birds or mammals; others were very different. These parameters are useful to evaluate sanitary, metabolic and nutritional state on captive bullfrogs.

  13. Skeletal morphology and development of the olfactory region of Spea (Anura: Scaphiopodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pugener, L A; Maglia, A M

    2007-01-01

    The nasal capsules of anurans are formed by an intricate set of sac-like cavities that house the olfactory organ and constitute the beginning of the respiratory system. In tadpoles, nasal capsules do not have a respiratory function, but each is composed of a single soft tissue cavity lined with olfactory epithelium. Our study has revealed that in Spea the nasal cartilages and septomaxillae are de novo adult structures that form dorsal to the larval skeleton of the ethmoid region. The only element of the adult nasal capsule that is partially derived from the larval skeleton is the solum nasi. Development of the nasal skeleton begins at about Gosner Stage 31, with chondrification of the septum nasi and lamina orbitonasalis. The alary cartilage and superior prenasal cartilage are the first of the anterior nasal cartilages to chondrify at Gosner Stage 37. By Gosner Stages 40/41, the ethmoid region is composed of the larval structures ventrally and the adult structures dorsally. By Stage 44, the larval structures have eroded. The adult nasal capsule is characterized by: (1) a septum nasi that projects ventrally beyond the plane of the nasal floor; (2) a paranasal commissure that forms the ventral margin of the fenestra nasolateralis; and (3) a large skeletal support for the eminentia olfactoria formed by the nasal floor and vomer. The timing of chondrification of the anterior nasal cartilages and the development of the postnasal wall, inferior prenasal cartilage, fenestra nasolateralis, and paranasal commissure are discussed and compared with those of other anuran species. This study also includes a discussion of the morphology of the skeletal support for the eminentia olfactoria, a structure best developed in distinctly ground-dwelling frogs such as spadefoot toads. Finally, we propose a more precise restriction of the terminology that is used to designate the posterior structures of the olfactory region of anurans. PMID:18045351

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Sebastian; Pabijan, Maciej; Osikowski, Artur; Szymura, Jacek M

    2016-05-01

    We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greek marsh frog Pelophylax cretensis, a water frog species endemic to the island of Crete. The genome sequence was 17,829 bp in size, and the gene order and contents were identical to those of previously reported mitochondrial genomes of other water frog species. This is the first complete mitogenome (i.e. including control region) described for western Palaearctic water frogs.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yabin; Leng, Zheng; Zhao, Liping; Ruan, Qiping

    2017-03-01

    The dark-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) belongs to Ranidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. nigromaculatus was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 567 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the P. nigromaculatus is 29.2% A, 27.4% T, 28.4% C, and 15.0% G. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. nigromaculatus was closely related to P. plancyi and P. chosenicus. The complete mitogenome of P. nigromaculatus can provide important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  16. Identification and characterization of antimicrobial peptides from skin of Amolops ricketti (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ran, Ran; Yu, Haining; Yu, Zhijun; Hu, Yuhong; Zheng, Hongyuan; Wang, Duo; Yang, Fan; Liu, Renjie; Liu, Jingze

    2012-01-01

    As one of large amphibian group, there are a total of 45 species of Amolops in the world. However, the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) existing in this genus has not been extensively studied. In this study, cDNAs encoding five novel AMP precursors were cloned by screening the skin-derived cDNA library of Amolops ricketti, a frog species that exists in southern and western parts of China. Protein sequence analysis led to the identification of five deduced peptides, three belonging to the brevinin-1 family and two belonging to the brevinin-2 family of amphibian AMPs. Thus, they were named as brevinin-1RTa (FLPLLAGVVANFLPQIICKIARKC), brevinin-1RTb (FLGSLLGLVGKVVPTLFCKISKKC), brevinin-1RTc (FLGSLLGLVGKIVPTLICKISKKC), brevinin-2RTa (GLMSTLKDFGKTAAKEIAQSLLSTASCKLAKTC), and brevinin-2RTb (GILDTLKEFGKTAAKGIAQSLLSTASCKLAKTC), respectively. The purification of brevinin-1RTa, brevinin-1RTb, and brevinin-2RTb was carried out by RP-HPLC, and confirmed by the LC-MS/MS-based proteomics approach. All of the peptides displayed different antimicrobial potency against a variety of microorganisms. In addition, brevinin-2RTa and brevinin-2RTb were found to have relatively low hemolytic activity (>400μg/ml) against mammalian red blood cells in vitro, which could potentially be as candidates for developing novel anti-infection agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Terrestrialization, miniaturization and rates of diversification in African frogs (Anura: Phrynobatrachidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Terrestrialization, the evolution of non-aquatic oviposition, and miniaturization, the evolution of tiny adult body size, have been identified as a key features in the evolution of modern amphibians. This study examines anuran terrestrialization and miniaturization in a phylogenetic context to deter...

  18. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  19. Description of a new brown frog from Tsushima Island, Japan (Anura: Ranidae: Rana).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    Because all available evidence from allozymes, mtDNA sequences, and artificial hybridization suggests presence of high genetic differentiation between populations of East Asian brown frogs currently assigned to Rana dybowskii Günther, 1876, I compared morphological characters between specimens from Tsushima Island of Japan and Maritime territory of Russia. The population from Tsushima is slightly, but significantly different from R. dybowskii from Russia, including the holotype. I therefore consider the Tsushima population to be specifically distinct, and describe it as a new species R. uenoi. The new species also occurs in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent islands, but the distributional relationships with R. dybowskii are unclear, as detailed distribution in northern Korea is lacking.

  20. Phylogeography and Demographic History of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2012-01-01

    Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64–0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053–0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of “refugia within refugia”. PMID:22448286

  1. The prevalence of helminth parasites in Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Anura: Ranidae) from Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Men, Qifei; Han, Hongyu; Zhao, Qiping; Xia, Weili; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Wang, Ziwen; Li, Cong; Zhu, Xuelong; Huang, Bing

    2016-12-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous members of biotic communities. To investigate the infective status of helminth parasites in Pelophylax nigromaculatus from Shanghai, 90 frogs were collected from July 2013 to July 2014 and examined for the presence of internal parasites. Of these, 86.67% (78/90) of frogs were infected with parasites, the total helminth intensity within infected frogs ranged from 1 to 367, and the mean intensity was 28.49. The infection rates and intensities were 78.89% and 22.89 for trematodes, 50.00% and 5.24 for nematodes, 13.33% and 3.92 for cestodes, and 41.11% and 8.49 for acanthocephalas, respectively. The majority (60.04%) of parasites were parasitic in the intestine, followed by urinary bladder (24.8%) and lungs (7.38%). Based on morphological features, 13 different species of helminth, including 9 undetermined species, were identified. The infective status of different species was significantly different. The most prevalent species were Diplodiscus nigromaculati (64.44%), Diplodiscus sp. (37.78%), Pomphorhynchus sp. (35.56%), Strongyloides sp. (33.33%). The mean infection intensity of Diplorchis nigromaculatus (139.25) was higher than the others' species ranged from 3.57-14.63. This is the first reported discovery of Pomphorhynchus sp. (Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939) in frogs from China. These data provide the foundation for further analyses of parasites in this and other species of amphibians.

  2. A New Species of Frog (Anura: Dicroglossidae) Discovered from the Mega City of Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Howlader, Mohammad Sajid Ali; Nair, Abhilash; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of frog of the genus Zakerana discovered from the urban core of Dhaka, Bangladesh, one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Although the new species is morphologically similar to the geographically proximate congeners in the Bangladeshi cricket frog group, we show that it can be distinguished from all congeners on the basis of morphological characters, advertisement calls and variation in two mitochondrial DNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). Apart from several diagnostic differences in body proportions, the new species differs from other Zakerana species in having a flattened snout (from ventral view) projecting over the lower jaw, and diagnostic trapezoid-shaped red markings on the vocal sac in males. Molecular genetic analyses show that the new species is highly divergent (3.1-20.1% sequence divergence) from all congeneric species, and forms a well-supported clade with its sister species, Zakerana asmati. The discovery of a new amphibian species from the urban core of Dhaka together with several recent descriptions of new amphibian species from Bangladesh may indicate that more amphibian species remain to be discovered from this country.

  3. A new species of Meristogenys (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae) from Sabah, Borneo.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Shimada, Tomohiko; Sudin, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new species of torrent-dwelling ranid frog of the genus Meristogenys from the Crocker Range, western Sabah, northern Borneo. The new species, Meristogenys maryatiae, differs from congeners by the combination of: small body, males 31-37 mm and females 65-66 mm in snout-vent length; head narrower than long; eyes moderate, diameter subequal to snout; iris unicolored; legs long; ventral surface of tibia without heavy pigmentation; rear of thigh blotched dark brown and cream; toes fully webbed; outer metatarsal tubercle present; larval dental formula 7(4-7)/6(1).

  4. Phylogeography and demographic history of Babina pleuraden (Anura, Ranidae) in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zejun; Yu, Guohua; Rao, Dingqi; Yang, Junxing

    2012-01-01

    Factors that determine genetic structure of species in southwestern China remain largely unknown. In this study, sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and cyt b) were determined to investigate the phylogeography and demography of Babina pleuraden, a pond frog endemic to southwestern China. A total of 262 individuals from 22 populations across the entire range of the species were collected. Our results indicate that B. pleuraden comprises five well-supported mitochondrial lineages roughly corresponding to five geographical areas. The phylogeographic structure of B. pleuraden has been shaped primarily by the unique regional responses of the Yunnan Plateau to the rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau occurred c. 2.5 Mya (B phrase of Qingzang Movement) and climatic oscillation during middle Pleistocene (c. 0.64-0.36 Mya), rather than by the paleo-drainage systems. The present wide distribution of the species has resulted from recent population expansion (c. 0.053-0.025 Mya) from multiple refugia prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, corresponding to the scenario of "refugia within refugia".

  5. Ontogenetic changes in the epiphyseal cartilage of Rana (Pelophylax) caralitana (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Chinsamy, Anusuya

    2010-11-01

    We document histological changes through ontogeny in the epiphyseal cartilage of the third phalanx of Rana caralitana from Turkey and provide an assessment of the maturation of the epiphysis from newly metamorphosed froglets to 10-year-old individuals. The epiphysis of R. caralitana is compared to other Rana taxa previously studied, and we report on novel histological data pertaining to later stages of epiphyseal growth in this taxon. In addition, we document the development of endochondral ossification in late stages of ontogeny in R. caralitana. Our results suggest a correlation between the long lifespan of R. caralitana and the developmental changes and maturation of the epiphyseal cartilage in this taxon. This study also provides a quantitative assessment of the different regions of the epiphyseal cartilage in the epiphysis of Rana through ontogeny, and has therefore permitted quantifiable deductions about the relative maturation and differentiation of the chondrocytes of the epiphysis through time.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and diversification of the genus Odorrana (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae) inferred from two mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhuo; Jiang, Jianping; Qiao, Liang; Lu, Youqiang; Zhou, Kaiya; Zheng, Guangmei; Zhai, Xiaofei; Liu, Jianxin

    2013-12-01

    A diversity of hypotheses have been proposed for phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy within the genus Odorrana, and great progress has been made over the past several decades. However, there is still some controversy concerning relationships among Odorrana species. Here, we used many paratypes and topotypes and utilized 1.81 kb of mitochondrial sequence data to generate a phylogeny for approximately 4/5 of Odorrana species, and Odorrana haplotypes form a strongly supported monophyletic group relative to the other genera sampled. The deepest phylogenetic divergences within Odorrana separate 3 lineages whose interrelationships are not recovered with strong support. These lineages include the ancestral lineage of O. chapaensis, the ancestral lineage of a strongly supported clade comprising many western species, and the ancestral lineage of a strongly supported clade comprising all other Odorrana sampled. Within the latter clade, the first phylogenetic split separates O. ishikawae from a well-supported clade comprising its other species. These divergences likely occurred in the middle Miocene, approximately 12-15 million years ago. Separation of the ancestral lineage of Odorrana from its closest relative, Babina in our study, likely occurred in the early Miocene or possibly late Oligocene. Rates of lineage accumulation remained high from the middle Miocene through the Pleistocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Three novel antimicrobial peptides from the skin of the Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Reshmy, V; Preeji, V; Parvin, A; Santhoshkumar, K; George, S

    2011-05-01

    Amphibian skin secretion is considered as a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present work describes the successful identification of three novel peptides named brevinin-1TEa, brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb present in the skin secretion of Indian bronzed frog Hylarana temporalis. The deduced open reading frame encoding the biosynthetic precursor of brevinin-1TEa consisted of 70 amino acid residues and brevinin-2TEa and brevinin-2TEb consisted of 71 and 72 amino acids, respectively. All the three peptides showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative than against Gram-positive bacteria. On the basis of the antibacterial and haemolytic activity, brevinin-2TEb is the most potent peptide reported in the present study. Further research on these peptides may provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various microbial diseases. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Newman, Catherine E; Feinberg, Jeremy A; Rissler, Leslie J; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2012-05-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp=1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap=99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A new species of leopard frog (Anura: Ranidae) from the urban northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Catherine E.; Feinberg, Jeremy A.; Rissler, Leslie J.; Burger, Joanna; Shaffer, H. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Past confusion about leopard frog (genus Rana) species composition in the Tri-State area of the US that includes New York (NY), New Jersey (NJ), and Connecticut (CT) has hindered conservation and management efforts, especially where populations are declining or imperiled. We use nuclear and mitochondrial genetic data to clarify the identification and distribution of leopard frog species in this region. We focus on four problematic frog populations of uncertain species affiliation in northern NJ, southeastern mainland NY, and Staten Island to test the following hypotheses: (1) they are conspecific with Rana sphenocephala or R. pipiens, (2) they are hybrids between R. sphenocephala and R. pipiens, or (3) they represent one or more previously undescribed cryptic taxa. Bayesian phylogenetic and cluster analyses revealed that the four unknown populations collectively form a novel genetic lineage, which represents a previously undescribed cryptic leopard frog species, Rana sp. nov. Statistical support for R. sp. nov. was strong in both the Bayesian (pp = 1.0) and maximum-likelihood (bootstrap = 99) phylogenetic analyses as well as the Structure cluster analyses. While our data support recognition of R. sp. nov. as a novel species, we recommend further study including fine-scaled sampling and ecological, behavioral, call, and morphological analyses before it is formally described. PMID:22321689

  10. Molecular organization and chromosomal localization of 5S rDNA in Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For anurans, knowledge of 5S rDNA is scarce. For Engystomops species, chromosomal homeologies are difficult to recognize due to the high level of inter- and intraspecific cytogenetic variation. In an attempt to better compare the karyotypes of the Amazonian species Engystomops freibergi and Engystomops petersi, and to extend the knowledge of 5S rDNA organization in anurans, the 5S rDNA sequences of Amazonian Engystomops species were isolated, characterized, and mapped. Results Two types of 5S rDNA, which were readily differentiated by their NTS (non-transcribed spacer) sizes and compositions, were isolated from specimens of E. freibergi from Brazil and E. petersi from two Ecuadorian localities (Puyo and Yasuní). In the E. freibergi karyotypes, the entire type I 5S rDNA repeating unit hybridized to the pericentromeric region of 3p, whereas the entire type II 5S rDNA repeating unit mapped to the distal region of 6q, suggesting a differential localization of these sequences. The type I NTS probe clearly detected the 3p pericentromeric region in the karyotypes of E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo and the 5p pericentromeric region in the karyotype of E. petersi from Yasuní, but no distal or interstitial signals were observed. Interestingly, this probe also detected many centromeric regions in the three karyotypes, suggesting the presence of a satellite DNA family derived from 5S rDNA. The type II NTS probe detected only distal 6q regions in the three karyotypes, corroborating the differential distribution of the two types of 5S rDNA. Conclusions Because the 5S rDNA types found in Engystomops are related to those of Physalaemus with respect to their nucleotide sequences and chromosomal locations, their origin likely preceded the evolutionary divergence of these genera. In addition, our data indicated homeology between Chromosome 5 in E. petersi from Yasuní and Chromosomes 3 in E. freibergi and E. petersi from Puyo. In addition, the chromosomal location of the type II 5S rDNA corroborates the hypothesis that the Chromosomes 6 of E. petersi and E. freibergi are homeologous despite the great differences observed between the karyotypes of the Yasuní specimens and the others. PMID:22433220

  11. Unusually high genetic diversity in the Bornean Limnonectes kuhlii-like fanged frogs (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masafumi; Kuraishi, Norihiro; Eto, Koshiro; Hamidy, Amir; Nishikawa, Kanto; Shimada, Tomohiko; Yambun, Paul; Vairappan, Charles Santhanaraju; Hossman, Mohamad Yazid Bin

    2016-09-01

    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Call intercalation in dyadic interactions in natural choruses of Johnstone's whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Tárano, Zaida; Carballo, Luisana

    2016-05-01

    Communal signaling increases the likelihood of acoustic interference and impairs mate choice; consequently, mechanisms of interference avoidance are expected. Adjustment of the timing of the calls between signalers, specifically call alternation, is probably the most efficient strategy. For this reason, in the present study we analyzed call timing in dyads of males of E. johnstonei in six natural assemblages. We addressed whether males entrain their calls with those of other males at the assemblage and if they show selective attention in relation to perceived amplitude of the other males' calls, inter-male distance, or intrinsic call features (call duration, period or dominant frequency). We expected males to selectively attend to closer or louder males and/or to those of higher or similar attractiveness for females than themselves, because those would be their strongest competitors. We found that most males intercalated their calls with those of at least one male. In assemblages of 3 individuals, males seemed to attend to a fixed number of males regardless of their characteristics. In assemblages of more than 3 individuals, the perceived amplitude of the call of the neighboring male was higher, and the call periods of the males were more similar in alternating dyads than in the non-alternating ones. At the proximate level, selective attention based on perceived amplitude may relate to behavioral hearing thresholds. Selective attention based on the similarity of call periods may relate to the properties of the call oscillators controlling calling rhythms. At the ultimate level, selective attention may be related to the likelihood of acoustic competition for females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new arboreal frog of the genus Guibemantis from the southeast of Madagascar (Anura: Mantellidae).

    PubMed

    Vences, Miguel; Jovanovic, Olga; Safarek, Goran; Glaw, Frank; Köhler, Jörn

    2015-12-23

    We describe a new species of arboreal frog of the genus Guibemantis, subgenus Guibemantis, from low altitude rainforest in Manombo Special Reserve, south-eastern Madagascar. Previously published phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences have placed Guibemantis diphonus sp. nov. sister to G. timidus. The new species is distinguished from G. timidus and all other species in the subgenus by a substantial genetic differentiation (≥ 4.4% uncorrected p-distance in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene), strongly divergent advertisement call, and some limited morphological differences. It is the smallest known species in the subgenus, with 34-36 mm snout-vent length in adult males. Its advertisement call is unique among other species in the subgenus in being composed of two distinctly different note types (only one note type in the other species).

  14. Ecology of the bromeligenous frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura, Hylidae) from three restinga remnants across Brazil's coast.

    PubMed

    Motta-Tavares, Tatiana; Maia-Carneiro, Thiago; Dantas, Leonardo F; Sluys, Monique Van; Hatano, Fábio H; Vrcibradic, Davor; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we analyzed diet, sexual dimorphism and bromeliad use in three populations of the hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus from restinga habitats along the Brazilian coast. We found 13 arthropods categories in 161 stomachs. Ants and termites were the dominant prey items. The similar trophic niche across populations suggests this species has a conservative diet. We found sexual dimorphism regarding body size and jaw width. We recordedP. luteolus in five bromeliad species, but predominantly inAechmeablanchetiana (35.6% of individuals recorded). We recorded solitary individuals in 44% of occupied bromeliads, and never found two males sharing the same bromeliad. The data is suggestive that populations ofP. luteolus has a conservative diet independent of area, with ants and termites the being most relevant prey items. The sexual dimorphism in jaw and the solitary males may suggest that this species have territorial behavior.

  15. Carbaryl-induced histopathologic alterations on testes of levantine frog, Pelophylax bedriagae (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl on the testes of adult frog, Pelophylax bedriagae. Frogs were exposed to carbaryl once by oral gavage in concentrations of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/g. After 96 h, frogs were euthanized and dissected. Histopathological changes were more prominent in medium- (0.1 mg/g) and high-dose (0.2 mg/g) groups than in the low-dose (0.05 mg/g) group. In the low-dose group, shrinkage of some seminiferous tubules was observed. In the medium-dose group, an enlargement of interstitial spaces and germ cell necrosis were detected. In the high-dose group, prominent tubule deformation was determined. Germ cell necrosis in seminiferous tubules was frequently seen. In addition, congestion, hemorrhage, cellular infiltration and fibrosis were detected. According to these findings, it is clear that carbaryl affects male fertility in P. bedriagae.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of a brown frog, Rana kunyuensis (Anura: Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Yin, Wei; Xia, Rong; Lei, Guangchun; Fu, Cuizhang

    2016-01-01

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Rana sensu stricto (sensu Frost, 2013) was determined using Rana kunyuensis as a representative species. The mitogenome was 22,255 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and duplicated control regions. The mitogenome of R. kunyuensis showed novel gene order arrangement with a translocation of tRNA(Leu)((CUN)) and ND5 in comparison with published anuran mitogenomes to date. This mitogenome should contribute to understand the evolution of anuran mitochondrial gene order arrangements.

  17. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; YAN, Fang; LI, Pi-Peng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed. PMID:26828031

  18. A new species of the genus Scutiger (Anura: Megophryidae) from Medog of southeastern Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Zou, Da-Hu; Yan, Fang; Li, Pi-Peng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of Scutiger Theobald, 1868 is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species was previously identified as Scutiger nyingchiensis, but it can be differentiated from the latter and all other congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) medium adult body size, SVL 50.5-55.6 mm in males and 53.8-57.2 mm in females; (2) maxillary teeth absent; (3) web rudimentary between toes; (4) prominent, conical-shaped tubercles on dorsal and lateral surfaces of body and limbs; (5) tubercles covered by black spines in both sexes in breeding condition; (6) a pair of pectoral glands and a pair of axillary glands present and covered by black spines in males in breeding condition, width of axillary gland less than 50% of pectoral gland; (7) nuptial spines present on dorsal surface of first and second fingers, and inner side of third finger in males in breeding condition; (8) spines absent on the abdominal region; (9) vocal sac absent. In addition, the distribution and conservation status of the new species are also discussed.

  19. Galanin: presence and distribution in the brain and pituitary of Rhinella arenarum (Amphibia: Anura) during development.

    PubMed

    Heer, T; Yovanovich, C A; Pozzi, A G; Paz, D A

    2008-10-01

    The immunohistochemical distribution of galanin (Gal) in the brain and pituitary of Rhinella arenarum was studied during development. Gal-immunoreactivity was first observed in the brain just after hatching in anterior preoptic area, infundibular area, median eminence and pars distalis of the pituitary as well as in the olfactory epithelium. At the beginning of prometamorphosis new Gal-immunoreactive (ir) cells were observed in the olfactory nerve and bulb. Later in prometamorphosis new Gal-ir cells were observed in the telencephalon, suprachiasmatic nucleus, rostral rhombencephalon and in the pars nervosa of the pituitary. The most numerous accumulations of Gal-ir neurons throughout the larval development were observed in the ventral hyphothalamus where numerous Gal-ir cells of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting type were found. During metamorphic climax and soon after we did not detect Gal-ir neurons in the pallium, medial or pretectal dorsal thalamus. In the median eminence and pars distalis of the pituitary many Gal-ir fibers were found during development indicating that Gal may play a role in the modulation of hypophyseal secretion. Furthermore, the distribution of Gal-ir elements observed throughout larvae development indicates that galaninergic system maturation continues until sexual maturity.

  20. Vocalizations of eight species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) with comments on communication in the genus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocroft, R.B.; McDiarmid, R.W.; Jaslow, A.P.; Ruiz-Carranza, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Vocalizations of frogs of the genus Atelopus include three discrete types of signals: pulsed calls, pure tone calls, and short calls. Repertoire composition is conservative across species. Repertoires of most species whose calls have been recorded contain two or three of these identifiable call types. Within a call type, details of call structure are very similar across species. This apparent lack of divergence in calls may be related to the rarity of sympatry among species of Atelopus and to the relative importance of visual communication in their social interactions.

  1. An Acoustic Analysis of the Genus Microhyla (Anura: Microhylidae) of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Wijayathilaka, Nayana

    2016-01-01

    Vocalizing behavior of frogs and toads, once quantified, is useful for systematics, rapid species identification, behavioral experimentation and conservation monitoring. But yet, for many lineages vocalizations remain unknown or poorly quantified, especially in diversity rich tropical regions. Here we provide a quantitative acoustical analysis for all four Sri Lankan congeners of the genus Microhyla. Three of these species are endemic to the island, but Microhyla ornata is regionally widespread. Two of these endemics, M. karunaratnei (Critically Endangered) and M. zeylanica (Endangered), are highly threatened montane isolates; the other, M. mihintalei, is relatively common across the dry lowlands. We recorded and analyzed 100 advertisement calls from five calling males for each species, except for M. zeylanica, which only had 53 calls from three males suitable for analyses. All four species call in choruses and their vocal repertoires are simple compared to most frogs. Their calls contain multiple pulses and no frequency modulation. We quantified eight call characters. Call duration and number of pulses were higher for the two montane isolates (inhabiting cooler habitats at higher altitudes) compared to their lowland congeners. Microhyla zeylanica has the longest call duration (of 1.8 ± 0.12 s) and the highest number of pulses (of 61–92 pulses). The smallest of the species, Microhyla karunaratnei (16.2–18.3 mm), has the highest mean dominant frequency (3.3 ± 0.14 kHz) and pulse rate (77 ± 5.8 pulses per second). The calls separate well in the Principal Component space: PC1 axis is mostly explained by the number of pulses per call and call duration; PC2 is mostly explained by the pulse rate. A canonical means plot of a Discriminant Function analysis shows non-overlapping 95% confidence ellipses. This suggests that some call parameters can be used to distinguish these species effectively. We provide detailed descriptions for eight call properties and compare these with congeners for which data is available. This work provides a foundation for comparative bioacoustic analyses and species monitoring while facilitating the systematics of Microhyla across its range. PMID:27403744

  2. A new species of Telmatobius (Amphibia, Anura, Telmatobiidae) from the Pacific slopes of the Andes, Peru.

    PubMed

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; García, Víctor Vargas; Lehr, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout-vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3-55.7 mm, n = 6) in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but Telmatobiusintermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from Telmatobiusintermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of Telmatobiusintermedius), and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in Telmatobiusintermedius). The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru.

  3. The breeding behaviour, advertisement call and tadpole of Limnonectes dabanus (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; Hoang, Huy Duc; Altig, Ronald

    2014-11-04

    Fanged frogs (Limnonectes) are a group of dicroglossid frogs from Asia that often have reversed sexual dimorphism with larger males. Limnonectes dabanus is a poorly known species of fanged frog from forested habitats in southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia. Adult males exhibit an extreme degree of megacephaly and possess bizarre head ornamentation. L. dabanus breeds in shallow, non-flowing or very slow-flowing pools, puddles, and drainage ditches. Eggs are laid as a widely spaced array, and the larvae have a morphology typical of pond-dwelling tadpoles. Although males of the species lack vocal sacs, they produce a low-pitched (0.4-0.6 kHz), single-note advertisement call that sounds like a drop of water falling into water. Given the spacing of calling males, presence of multiple females near breeding sites, and reversed sexual dimorphism, the mating system of L. dabanus may be an example of resource-defense polygyny, and the massive head of the male is likely used in male combat.

  4. Larval morphology and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus Bokermann, 1966 (Anura: Hylidae) from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Thamires F; De Lima, Marcelo G; Do Nascimento, Filipe Augusto C; Dos Santos, Ednilza M

    2014-03-13

    This paper describes the tadpole and advertisement call of Phyllodytes acuminatus, based on specimens from the Parque Nacional do Catimbau, in the municipality of Buíque, State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The overall morphology of P. acuminatus tadpole is similar to that of most species of the genus. The presence of a double row of marginal papillae surrounding all the oral apparatus (except on most of the upper labium which has a dorsal gap) was a characteristic that differentiate P. acuminatus from the other species of the genus. Furthermore, the call structure of the species (unpulsed notes with harmonic structure) fits it in the group composed of P. kautskyi and P. melanomystax.

  5. Developmental and acute toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Song, Sang Ha; Kim, Dae Han; Gye, Myung Chan

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to evaluate the toxicity of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant in amphibians, we examined the developmental and acute toxicity of CPC in Bombina orientalis embryos and tadpoles. Embryonic exposure to 2.0μM (0.72mg/l) CPC for 7 days significantly decreased the survival rates and increased DNA damage in the intestine of developed tadpoles. Exposure to 1.5μM (0.54mg/l) CPC significantly decreased the growth of embryos and increased developmental abnormalities. The 168-h LC50 and EC50 values of CPC were 1.95μM (0.697mg/l) and 1.48μM (0.531mg/l) in embryos, respectively. In an extended acute toxicity test using tadpoles, the 168-h LC50 value of CPC was 5.07μM (1.82mg/l). In terms of survival and growth rates, the lowest observed effective concentration of CPC was 1.5μM. At sub-lethal concentrations (1.0 and 2.0μM) CPC treatment to embryos increased lipid peroxidation in the intestine and gills of developed tadpoles, indicating that CPC can impose oxidative stress. At 2.0μM CPC, pro-apoptotic Bax and Bak mRNA levels were significantly increased together with DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptotic cell death. CPC in freshwater system may threaten the normal development of amphibian embryos.

  6. DNA barcoding and the identification of tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Dang, Ning-Xin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Lv, Yun-Yun; Zhao, Bo-Han; Wang, Ji-Chao; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The DNA barcoding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) effectively identifies many species. Herein, we barcoded 172 individuals from 37 species belonging to nine genera in Rhacophoridae to test if the gene serves equally well to identify species of tree frogs. Phenetic neighbor joining and phylogenetic Bayesian inference were used to construct phylogenetic trees, which resolved all nine genera as monophyletic taxa except for Rhacophorus, two new matrilines for Liuixalus, and Polypedates leucomystax species complex. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.000 to 0.119 and interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.015 to 0.334. Within Rhacophorus and Kurixalus, the intra- and interspecific genetic distances did not reveal an obvious barcode gap. Notwithstanding, we found that COI sequences unambiguously identified rhacophorid species and helped to discover likely new cryptic species via the synthesis of genealogical relationships and divergence patterns. Our results supported that COI is an effective DNA barcoding marker for Rhacophoridae.

  7. Reproductive effort and the egg number vs. size trade-off in Physalaemus frogs (Anura: Leiuperidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Arley; Sarroca, Macarena; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-09-01

    Patterns of reproductive allocation are expected to differ between species according to temporally and spatially variable costs of reproduction. Even when reproductive allocation patterns are the same, species can also differ in how the reproductive effort is allocated between offspring number and size. In this study, we compared the reproductive allocation patterns and the offspring number vs. size trade-off in two frog species, Physalaemus biligonigerus and P. gracilis, using bivariate (standardized major axis) and multiple linear regressions. Both species showed a common slope between body size and reproductive effort and thus a similar allocation pattern although P. biligonigerus has a larger body size (shift along common slope) and makes a lower reproductive effort (shift in intercept) than P. gracilis. We suggest that similar allocation patterns may be related to the shared phenologies of these frogs and that the differences in reproductive effort could represent either an adaptive shift (e.g., change in body space for the clutch) or a historical constraint. There was a negative correlation between fecundity and egg size in P. biligonigerus but not in P. gracilis as predicted by the acquisition-allocation model (Y-model). This study constitutes the first valid test of the Y-model based on recent predictions derived for the trade-off between offspring size vs. number. We conclude that future studies should compare reproductive allocation patterns between species using tests of allometric slopes with appropriate phylogenetic control to detect both adaptive shifts in allocation strategies and correlations with other life-history traits.

  8. Molecular and Morphological Study of Leaping Frogs (Anura, Ranixalidae) with Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sonali; Biju, S D

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic anuran family Ranixalidae is endemic to India, with a predominant distribution in the Western Ghats, a region that is home to several unique amphibian lineages. It is also one of the three ancient anuran families that diversified on the Indian landmass long before several larger radiations of extant frogs in this region. In recent years, ranixalids have been subjected to DNA barcoding and systematic studies. Nearly half of the presently recognized species in this family have been described over the last three years, along with recognition of a new genus to accommodate three previously known members. Our surveys in the Western Ghats further suggest the presence of undescribed diversity in this group, thereby increasing former diversity estimates. Based on rapid genetic identification using a mitochondrial gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses with an additional nuclear gene and detailed morphological studies including examination of museum specimens, new collections, and available literature, here we describe two new species belonging to the genus Indirana from the Western Ghats states of Karnataka and Kerala. We also provide new genetic and morphological data along with confirmed distribution records for all the species known prior to this study. This updated systematic revision of family Ranixalidae will facilitate future studies and provide vital information for conservation assessment of these relic frogs.

  9. A new species of Andean poison frog, Andinobates (Anura: Dendrobatidae), from the northwestern Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Adolfo; Márquez, Roberto; Medina, Ricardo; Mejía-Vargas, Daniel; Kahn, Ted R; Suárez, Gustavo; Mazariegos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The poison frogs of the Colombian Andes, Pacific lowlands and Panama have been recently recognized as a new, monophyletic and well-supported genus: Andinobates. The species richness and distribution within Andinobates remain poorly understood due to the paucity of geographic, genetic and phenotypic data. Here we use a combination of molecular, bioacoustic and morphometric evidence to describe a new species of Andean poison frog: Andinobates cassidyhornae sp. nov. from the high elevation cloud forests of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental, in the northwestern Andes. The new species is associated to the bombetes group and characterized by a unique combination of ventral and dorsal color patterns. Data on 1119 bp from two mitochondrial markers allowed us to reject the null hypotheses that A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. is part of the phenotypically similar and geographically less distant species: A. opisthomelas, A. virolinensis or A. bombetes. The best available phylogenetic trees and the genetic distance to other Andinobates species further support this decision. Altogether, the advertisement call parameters unambiguously separated A. cassidyhornae sp. nov. calls from the calls of the three closest species. The new species adds to a poorly known and highly endangered genus of poison frogs that requires further studies and urgent conservation measures.

  10. Competition and feeding ecology in two sympatric Xenopus species (Anura: Pipidae).

    PubMed

    Vogt, Solveig; de Villiers, F André; Ihlow, Flora; Rödder, Dennis; Measey, John

    2017-01-01

    The widespread African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) occurs in sympatry with the IUCN Endangered Cape platanna (Xenopus gilli) throughout its entire range in the south-western Cape, South Africa. In order to investigate aspects of the interspecific competition between populations of X. laevis and X. gilli, an assessment of their niche differentiation was conducted through a comprehensive study on food composition and trophic niche structure at two study sites: the Cape of Good Hope (CoGH) and Kleinmond. A total of 399 stomach contents of X. laevis (n = 183) and X. gilli (n = 216) were obtained together with samples of available prey to determine food preferences using the Electivity index (E*), the Simpson's index of diversity (1 - D), the Shannon index (H'), and the Pianka index (Ojk ). Xenopus gilli diet was more diverse than X. laevis, particularly in Kleimond where the Shannon index was nearly double. Both species were found to consume large amounts of tadpoles belonging to different amphibian species, including congeners, with an overall higher incidence of anurophagy than previously recorded. However, X. laevis also feeds on adult X. gilli, thus representing a direct threat for the latter. While trophic niche overlap was 0.5 for the CoGH, it was almost 1 in Kleinmond, suggesting both species utilise highly congruent trophic niches. Further, subdividing the dataset into three size classes revealed overlap to be higher in small frogs in both study sites. Our study underlines the importance of actively controlling X. laevis at sites with X. gilli in order to limit competition and predation, which is vital for conservation of the south-western Cape endemic.

  11. Experimental test of intraspecific competition mechanisms among tadpoles of Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Laufer, Gabriel; Maneyro, Raúl

    2008-03-01

    Intraspecific competition is predicted to strongly influence species abundance and dynamics through two main mechanisms: consumption and interference of resources. Tadpoles were used in experiments in which we tried to elucidate the relative importance of each mechanism. Our goal was to apply this experimental procedure to Leptodactylus ocellatus, a common South American anuran, a species whose larvae exhibit aggregative behavior and receive parental care. Previous work suggests that tadpole schools should present lower levels of intraspecific competition. Tadpoles from a single nest were reared in the laboratory in three densities (1, 2, and 4 individuals/container) and three food levels (1, 2, and 4 ration multiples) in a randomized three-block design for a factorial analysis of variance, up to day eight. Contrary to previous work with other species, our results show both the absence of interference competition effects, and that larval growth depends only on per capita food availability. The differences between species in intraspecific competition mechanisms are probably related to strong differences in ecology and life history. Leptodactylus ocellatus tadpoles could be directing interference competition away from their kin, reducing schooling costs. Further studies (including kinship as a factor) would give more information about these larvae, allowing a better understanding of the evolutionary and ecological mechanisms behind the biological patterns observed in Leptodactylus species.

  12. Competition and feeding ecology in two sympatric Xenopus species (Anura: Pipidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Solveig; de Villiers, F. André; Ihlow, Flora; Rödder, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The widespread African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) occurs in sympatry with the IUCN Endangered Cape platanna (Xenopus gilli) throughout its entire range in the south-western Cape, South Africa. In order to investigate aspects of the interspecific competition between populations of X. laevis and X. gilli, an assessment of their niche differentiation was conducted through a comprehensive study on food composition and trophic niche structure at two study sites: the Cape of Good Hope (CoGH) and Kleinmond. A total of 399 stomach contents of X. laevis (n = 183) and X. gilli (n = 216) were obtained together with samples of available prey to determine food preferences using the Electivity index (E*), the Simpson’s index of diversity (1 − D), the Shannon index (H′), and the Pianka index (Ojk). Xenopus gilli diet was more diverse than X. laevis, particularly in Kleimond where the Shannon index was nearly double. Both species were found to consume large amounts of tadpoles belonging to different amphibian species, including congeners, with an overall higher incidence of anurophagy than previously recorded. However, X. laevis also feeds on adult X. gilli, thus representing a direct threat for the latter. While trophic niche overlap was 0.5 for the CoGH, it was almost 1 in Kleinmond, suggesting both species utilise highly congruent trophic niches. Further, subdividing the dataset into three size classes revealed overlap to be higher in small frogs in both study sites. Our study underlines the importance of actively controlling X. laevis at sites with X. gilli in order to limit competition and predation, which is vital for conservation of the south-western Cape endemic. PMID:28439453

  13. Chromosomal evolution in allopatric populations of the Odontophrynus occidentalis group (Amphibia, Anura) from western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I R; Ceis, J M; Beçak, W

    1982-01-01

    A karyological study of some populations of the Odontophrynus occidentalis group (2n = 22) from Argentina is reported. Ammoniacal silver (Ag-AS) and alkaline Giemsa (CBG) staining have been performed on specimens from La Rioja, Mendoza, Malargue, Tamelen, Tapiluque, Valcheta, and Meseta de Somuncura. All populations showed active ribosomal cistrons (NORs) on chromosome 11. Some metaphases of three specimens from Mendoza and five from La Rioja also showed bands on 9. Centromeric and telomeric C-bands were common to all populations, and a block of heterochromatin on both sides of the centromere of 2 was remarkable in all but the La Rioja populations. The specimens from La Rioja showed a similar block of heterochromatin on the short arm of 1. Taxonomic studies of several specimens from these localities revealed differences in larval development, glandular pattern, the size of specimens, etc. As a whole, biological as well as karyological features suggest that the isolated population at La Rioja is a separate entity, at the species level, as described elsewhere.

  14. Two new Phrynobatrachus species (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Burger, Marius; Zassi-Boulou, Ange Ghislain; Emmrich, Mike; Penner, Johannes; Barej, Michael F

    2015-10-14

    We describe two new species of puddle frogs, genus Phrynobatrachus, from the south-western Republic of the Congo. One of them, P. horsti sp. nov., occurs also in neighbouring Gabon and is morphologically most similar to the Cameroonian P. ruthbeateae. It differs from the latter species by smaller males with longer thighs and shanks. The new species comprises various colour morphs but always has less conspicuous black borders between flanks and belly than P. ruthbeateae. The distinct and large black axillary blotch of P. ruthbeateae is either much smaller in P. horsti sp. nov., or broken into numerous irregularly shaped smaller dots. Similarly, a black transversal line at the anterior ventral border of thighs and the black face mask is less distinct and irregularly delimitated in P. horsti sp. nov. when compared to P. ruthbeateae. The mean genetic difference in the sampled region of the 16S rRNA gene between P. horsti sp. nov. and 40 other western African congeners range from 3.66-18.10%. The second new species, P. mayokoensis sp. nov., differs from all other known congeners by the combination of a compact and warty body, the absence of a spiny eyelid tubercle and pedal webbing, a conspicuous black triangle on throat and anterior part of the belly, and a distinct large red blotch on the anterior-proximal surface of the thighs. It exhibited a mean genetic difference in the 16S rRNA to 40 other western African congeners ranging from 1.34-16.98%. The genetically most similar sequence stems from a GenBank entry of a Gabonese frog, determined as P. ogoensis. A comparison of the new species with P. ogoensis syntypes confirmed their specific distinctiveness, most convincingly underlined by the absence of pedal webbing in the new species and the pronounced pedal webbing in P. ogoensis. The GenBank entry thus most likely is based on a misidentification and P. mayokoensis sp. nov. may also occur in neighbouring Gabon. The discovery of the two new frog species is further evidence of the huge gap in our knowledge concerning the species richness in the Guineo-Congolian rainforests.

  15. A new species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) infecting Dermatonotus muelleri (Anura: Microhylidae) from Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo Filho, João A; Brito, Samuel V; Almeida, Waltécio De O; Morais, Drausio H; Ávila, Robson W

    2015-09-03

    Parapharyngodon silvoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) is described from the large and small intestine of the Muller's termite frog Dermatonotus muelleri (Boettger, 1885) from the biome Caatinga, Exu municipality, Pernambuco State, Brazil, Dermatonotus muelleri is a fossorial species with a specialized termite diet, and feeding and reproductive behavior occurring only during the wet season. The new species is distinguished from other species of the genus Parapharyngodon by showing ovary not coiled around the esophagus, morphology of anterior cloacal lip, spicule size and number of caudal papillae.

  16. Helminth fauna of Leptodactylus syphax (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Caatinga biome, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lins, Aline Gouveia de Souza; Aguiar, Aline; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Firmino da Silva, Lidiane Aparecida; Ávila, Robson Waldemar; Silva, Reinaldo José da

    2017-01-01

    Leptodactylus syphax is distributed in central, southeastern and northeastern Brazil, eastern Bolivia and southern Paraguay, occupying open areas and rock outcrops, in rock cavities and termite burrows. We collected 21 frogs from the Caatinga region of the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil, and 7,021 helminths were recovered from 18 of these hosts (overall prevalence = 85.7%). Six helminth taxa were recovered, as follows: Aplectana membranosa (n = 3,756); Schrankiana formosula (n = 3,176); larvae of Physaloptera sp. (n = 43); unidentified nematode larvae (n = 7); digenean metacercariae of Lophosicyadiplostomum sp. (n = 2); and cystacanths of Acanthocephala (n = 37). The similarity of helminth composition between L. syphax from the Caatinga and other species of the L. fuscus group showed that some anurans were clustered according to parasite species and others according to geographic locality. This study presents new helminth records for the Neotropical region, thus helping in understanding the pattern of species distribution, and it increases the knowledge of parasites associated with amphibians.

  17. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from the highest mountain in Indochina.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Dau, Vinh Quang; Nguyen, Tao Thien

    2013-11-21

    We describe a new species of Leptolalax from northern Vietnam. Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of (1) supra-axillary and ventrolateral glands present; (2) dark brownish red ventral surface with white speckling; (3) medium body size for the genus (29.1-32.6 mm in 7 adult males, 30.0-31.8 mm in 2 females); (4) black markings on the flanks absent; (5) toes with rudimentary webbing and weak lateral fringing; (6) large pectoral glands (1.1-1.9 mm; 4-6% SVL) and femoral glands (2.4-4.3 mm; 7-14% SVL); and (7) an advertisement call with a dominant frequency of 2.6-3.2 kHz (at 14.0º C). At present, the new species is known only from upper montane forest between 2,795-2,815 m elevation on Mount Fansipan, Hoang Lien National Park. To our knowledge, Leptolalax botsfordi sp. nov. occurs at higher elevations than any other species in the genus. If L. botsfordi sp. nov. is truly restricted to a narrow, high-elevation band, it is likely to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The new species also faces the immediate threat of habitat degradation and pollution due to tourist activity.

  18. A new caruncle-bearing Limnonectes (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aowphol, Anchalee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Taksintum, Wut; Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy; Stuart, Bryan L

    2015-05-08

    A new species of the dicroglossid frog genus Limnonectes is described from Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand. Limnonectes lauhachindai sp. nov. differs from its congeners by having males with a low-profiled, U-shaped caruncle with free posterior margin that completely occupies, but does not extend beyond, the interobital region. The new species is most closely related to L. gyldenstolpei and L. dabanus. Its description brings the total number of caruncle-bearing species of Limnonectes to five.

  19. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-11-05

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams.

  20. A new Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos allied to P. abditus Inger, Orlov & Darevsky, 1999.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Bryan L; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Seateun, Sengvilay; Sheridan, Jennifer A

    2013-12-03

    The small rhacophorid frog Philautus abditus is geographically restricted to central Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Our fieldwork in northern Laos resulted in the discovery of a Philautus species that very closely resembles P. abditus, but is at least 330 km from the nearest known locality of that species. The Laos population differs from P. abditus in mitochondrial DNA and coloration, and is described here as a new species. Philautus nianeae sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by having the combination of a hidden tympanum; no nuptial pads; smooth skin; large black spots on the hidden surfaces of the hind limbs; light venter with dark spotting; and a bronze iris. A second species of Philautus from northern Laos, P. petilus, is transferred on the basis of morphology to the genus Theloderma. 

  1. Purification and characterization of antimicrobial peptides from the Caribbean frog, Leptodactylus validus (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    King, Jay D; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Conlon, J Michael

    2008-08-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the Caribbean frog Leptodactylus validus Garman, 1888 led to the identification of three peptides with previously undescribed sequences that were structurally similar to those of antimicrobial peptides isolated from other species of leptodactylid frogs. These paralogs have been termed ocellatin-V1 (GVVDILKGAGKDLLAHALSKLSEKV.NH(2)), ocellatin-V2 (GVLDILKGAGKDLLAHALSKISEKV.NH(2)), and ocellatin-V3 (GVLDILTGAGKDLLAHALSKLSEKV.NH(2)). The very low antimicrobial potency (MIC>200microM) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus associated with the peptides is probably a consequence of their lack of amphipathicity and reduced cationicity compared with active members of the ocellatin family from related species.

  2. Pelvic and thigh musculature in frogs (Anura) and origin of anuran jumping locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Aerts, Peter; Havelková, Pavla; Herrel, Anthony; Roček, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the anuran pelvic and thigh musculoskeletal system revealed that the thigh extensors, responsible for the initial phase of jump, the propulsive stroke in swimming and, if used asynchronously, also for walking, are least affected by the transformations observed between anurans and their temnospondyl ancestors (as reflected in contemporary caudates). The iliac shaft and urostyle, two of the most important anuran apomorphies, represent skeletal support for muscles that are mostly protractors of the femur or are important in attaining a crouching position, a necessary prerequisite for rapid escape. All of these muscles originate or insert on the iliac shaft. As the orientation of the pubis, ischium and ilium is the same in anurans, caudates and by inference also in their temnospondyl ancestors, it is probable that the pelvis was shifted from the sacral vertebra posteriorly along the reduced and stiffened tail (urostyle) by the elongation of the illiac shaft. Thus, the original vertical orientation of the ilium was maintained (which is also demonstrated by stable origins of the glutaeus maximus, iliofemoralis and iliofibularis on the tuber superius) and the shaft itself is a new structure. A review of functional analysis of anuran locomotion suggests some clear differences from that in caudates, suggesting that terrestrial jumping may have been a primary locomotor activity, from which other types of anuran locomotion are derived. PMID:19166476

  3. A new genus and species of treefrog from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, Ke; YAN, Fang; WANG, Kai; ZOU, Da-Hu; LI, Cheng; CHE, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of threefrog is described from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China based on morphological and phylogenetic data. The new genus can be distinguished from other treefrog genera by the following combination of characters: (1) body size moderate, 45.0 mm in male; (2) snout rounded; (3) canthus rostralis obtuse and raised prominently, forming a ridge from nostril to anterior corner of eyes; (4) web rudimentary on fingers; (5) web moderately developed on toes; (6) phalange "Y" shaped, visible from dorsal side of fingers and toes; (7) skin of dorsal surfaces relatively smooth, scatted with small tubercles; (8) iris with a pale yellow, "X" shaped pattern of pigmentation. PMID:26828030

  4. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of Choerophryne (Anura, Microhylidae) from the central cordillera of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Amy; Richards, Stephen; Oliver, Paul

    2014-01-09

    We describe a new species of very small microhylid frog in the genus Choerophryne from the upper Strickland River area, Western and Southern Highlands Provinces, Papua New Guinea. Choerophryne gracilirostris sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: small size (SUL 13.5-14.7 mm), moderately long and narrow snout, first finger without expanded disk and advertisement call consisting of 3-5 distinctly pulsed notes repeated in long sequences. Males in the type series were calling from within leaf litter in primary hill rainforest (213-1368 m a.s.l.). The new species is the third Choerophryne known from the southern side of New Guinea's central cordillera. Measurements of a juvenile specimen (rare because most Choerophryne collected are calling males) demonstrate that the distinctive rostral projection of this genus exhibits pronounced positive allometry.

  7. Phenotypic variation of Leptodactylus cupreus Caramaschi, São-Pedro and Feio, 2008 (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Cassini, Carla S; Orrico, Victor G D; Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Solé, Mirco; Haddad, Célio F B

    2013-02-17

    This study describes for the first time the female of Leptodactylus cupreus and provides new information concerning its geographical distribution, male's morphology and bioacustics. Leptodactylus cupreus, a poorly known species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, was originally allocated in the L. mystaceus complex of the L. fuscus species group. Based on morphological observations, we infer that L. cupreus should be in fact related to L. mystacinus, a species that, although assigned to the L. fuscus species group, is not assigned to the L. mystaceus complex. Therefore, we comment the phylogenetic relationships concerning L. cupreus, L. mystaceus and L. mystacinus.

  8. Helminth infracommunities of Rana vaillanti brocchi (Anura: Ranidae) in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Calderón, Laura; León-Règagnon, Virginia; García-Prieto, Luis

    2004-08-01

    A total of 76 adult individuals of Rana vaillanti were collected in Laguna Escondida, Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico, and their helminth infracommunity structure was determined. Among the 21 helminth taxa collected (10 digeneans, 8 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans), the digenean Langeronia macrocirra reached the highest prevalence (64.4%), mean abundance (6.6), and mean intensity (10.4), as well as the highest total number of individuals (499). Only 2 frogs were uninfected, the remainder harbored between 1 and 7 helminth species and 1-102 individuals; mean species richness and abundance were 3.49 +/- 0.22 and 16.1 +/- 16.3, respectively. Langeronia macrocirra dominated in 50.6% of the infracommunities, with relatively low Berger-Parker index values (0.56); for this reason, the evenness was high (0.70 +/- 0.31), and consequently, diversity values are the highest recorded to date in species of Rana. However, patterns of helminth infracommunity richness and diversity were similar to those previously observed in amphibians. This structure is attributed to the feeding habits (between 66.7 and 81% of helminth species parasitizing R. vaillanti enter using the food web dynamics) and low vagility (the remainder species infect by host penetration).

  9. Dermocystid-chytrid coinfection in the neotropical frog Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Kolenc, Francisco; Verdes, José Manuel; Moraña, Antonio; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Kun, Alejandra; Ubilla, Martín; Okada, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    We present gross and histologic evidence of coinfection in amphibians by fungal-like parasites of the order Dermocystidia (Amphibiocystidium sp.) and the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. The condition was observed in frogs Hypsiboas pulchellus (Hylidae) from Uruguay in 2009 to 2012. This report is the first of dermocystids in Neotropical amphibians since 1940.

  10. Aspects of the reproductive ecology and behavior of the tepui toads, genus Oreophrynella (Anura: Bufonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, R.W.; Gorzula, S.

    1989-01-01

    We report direct development for toads of the bufonid genus Oreophrynella, endemic to the tepuis of the Guayanan Highlands. Tepui toads place few (9-13), large (-3 mm diameter) eggs in a single or communal terrestrial nest. One communal nest found on Kukenan-tepui contained 102 toads (70 males, 30 females, 2 hatchlings) and 321 eggs in clumps of 8-35. All viable clutches from Kukenan were attended by an adult. One clutch of 13 eggs from Ilu-tepui was without an attendant adult. Calls of Kukenan males consist of 9-16 partially pulsed notes given at a rate of 5-7 notes per second. Calls and notes were modulated and increased or decreased in frequency; dominant frequencies of the calls ranged between 2650-3650 Hz. Tepui toads are diurnal, rock dwellers with a slow, deliberate walking gait. An unusual balling and tumbling behavior and bright colored venter may be associated with predator avoidance in some populations. Remarkable parallels in reproductive ecology and behavior between Oreophynella and montane populations of the African bufonid Nectophrynoides are noted.

  11. Salinity tolerance of eggs of Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura) inhabiting coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Haramura, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    Buergeria japonica is one of a few frogs that breed in coastal areas. To understand why this species can breed in coastal areas, I tested the salinity tolerance of eggs of B. japonica collected from a coastal area of Okinawa Island, Japan. All eggs hatched within four days after oviposition. At 0%. salinity (control), over 94% of eggs hatched normally, and even at 1 per thousand salinity over 85% of eggs hatched. Survival rate of eggs was low at 2, 3, and 4 per thousand, and no eggs hatched at 5 per thousand salinity. These results indicate that low salinity, close to pure water, is necessary for successful egg development, even for populations of B. japonica that breed in coastal areas. Future studies are necessary to examine whether females of B. japonica breeding in coastal areas select appropriate oviposition sites where the environmental salinity level is sufficiently low for eggs.

  12. Development and characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Buergeria japonica (Amphibia, Anura, Rhacophoridae).

    PubMed

    Komaki, Shohei; Igawa, Takeshi; Nozawa, Masafumi; Lin, Si-Min; Oumi, Shohei; Sumida, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Buergeria japonica is a common frog species distributed throughout almost all islands in Ryukyu Archipelago. Because of their exceptionally wide distribution and higher physiological tolerance comparing to the other anurans, their demographic history and formation of distribution are intrinsic topics in the herpetological fauna of Ryukyu. Microsatellite marker is ideal genetic marker for such studies at inter- and intra-population level. We therefore developed microsatellite markers of B. japonica utilizing Ion PGM™ sequencing. As a result of the screening, we developed a total of 14 polymorphic markers. To test availabilities of these markers, we genotyped four island populations. The total number of alleles and expected hetelozygosities per locus ranged from 4 to 21 and 0.00 to 0.864, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship among the four populations based on the genetic distances of these markers was congruent with general divergence pattern of amphibians and reptiles in Ryukyu area. These markers developed in this study are considered to be useful for future studies about phylogeography and demography of this species.

  13. Larval morphology of dart-poison frogs (Anura: Dendrobatoidea: Aromobatidae and Dendrobatidae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, David A

    2013-01-01

    Tadpoles in the superfamily Dendrobatoidea (families Aromobatidae and Dendrobatidae), housed in zoological collections or illustrated in publications, were studied. For the most part, tadpoles of species within the family Aromobatidae, the subfamilies Colostethinae and Hyloxalinae (of the family Dendrobatidae), and those of the genus Phyllobates, Dendrobatinae (Dendrobatidae) have slender anterior jaw sheaths with a medial notch and slender lateral processes, triangular fleshy projections on the inner margin of the nostrils and digestive tube with constant diameter and color and its axis sinistrally directed, concealing the liver and other organs. These morphologies are different from the ones observed in tadpoles of species included in the Dendrobatinae (minus Phyllobates). Exceptions to these morphological arrangements are noted, being the digestive system arrangement and the nostril ornamentation more plastic than the shape of the upperjaw sheath. Tadpoles of all species of the Dendrobatoidea have similar disposition of digestive organs in early stages, but differentiate in late stages of development. Classifying the upper jaw sheath into the two recognized states is possible from very early stages of development, but gut disposition and nostril ornamentation cannot be determined until late in development, making classification and taxonomic assignment of tadpoles based on these morphological features challenging.

  14. The energetics of endotrophic development in the frog Geocrinia vitellina (Anura: Myobatrachinae).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, N J

    2001-01-01

    The energetics of endotrophic development, where the nutrition required to complete metamorphosis is provided solely by yolk, has seldom been quantified. The energy cost of development to metamorphosis of the endotrophic Australian frog Geocrinia vitellina was measured using bomb calorimetry and closed-system respirometry. Dry yolk had an energy density of 26.4 J x mg(-1), and an average 2.8-mm-diameter ovum contained 144 J. Incubation at 15 degrees C produced a froglet of 5.8 mm snout-vent length, containing 88 J in 87 d, with 11% of residual yolk in the gut, which is markedly less than the 50% recorded in another endotroph, Eleutherodactylus coqui. Geocrinia vitellina lost 56 J of metabolic energy during development to metamorphosis at 15 degrees C, and the total production efficiency was 61.0%. A review of published egg energy densities found a mean for amphibians of 25.1 kJ x g(-1), significantly lower than the mean of 27.1 kJ x g(-1) for reptiles. Moreover, available amphibian data suggest that endotrophic species have high yolk energy densities and low mass-specific rates of oxygen consumption relative to exotrophic species (with feeding larvae); consequently, large ovum size may not necessarily be prerequisite for endotrophic development.

  15. A new species of rainfrog of the Eleutherodactylus milesi species group (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Savage, J M

    2000-12-01

    A new rainfrog of the Eleutherodactylus milesi group is described from the Sierra de Xucaneb, Guatemala. It is compared to the other 11 upland species from southern Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras referred to the group. Within the milesi group the new species differs from the other five forms which also have toe fringes in size of the finger disks, the snout shape in profile and the amount of toe webbing and dorsal tuberculation. Difficulties in distinguishing among the character states for the tympanum (distinct, indistinct and hidden) and between toe ridges and fringes indicate that very subtle differences separate recognized species.

  16. Choice of optimal oviposition sites by Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) in an unpredictable and patchy environment.

    PubMed

    Spieler, M; Linsenmair, K E

    1997-01-01

     The rock pools on the river bank of the Comoé National Park (West Africa) provide a very diverse and unpredictable environment for anuran larval development. Because rock pools differ considerably in biotic and abiotic parameters, it should be adaptive for reproducing anurans to choose the most suitable oviposition sites. During the beginning of each rainy season (March to May), from 1991 to 1995, we investigated the allocation of breeding sites by Hoplobatrachus occipitalis, counted the number of eggs, and measured several biotic and abiotic factors that might influence the choice of a spawning site. The probability of predation by conspecific cannibalistic tadpoles and the water-holding capacity (WHC) of pools were the best predictor of number of eggs laid. We experimentally investigated the influence of these two parameters on egg-laying and showed that adults potentially can assess the presence, density, and size of tadpoles in pools by chemical cues. Likewise, manipulation of the water-holding capacity caused a rapid change in egg-laying behavior. To assess the risk of desiccation, frogs have to visit familiar pools repeatedly to monitor the decrease in volume over time and thus gain information about the pools' water-holding capacity.

  17. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Morato, Sérgio A A; Antoniazzi-Jr, Reuber L; Reinert, Bianca L; Meyer, Andreas L S; Cini, Felipe A; Pie, Marcio R

    2016-01-01

    Mountains of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest can act as islands of cold and wet climate, leading to the isolation and speciation of species with low dispersal capacity, such as the toadlet species of the genus Brachycephalus. This genus is composed primarily by diurnal species, with miniaturized body sizes (<2.5 cm), inhabiting microhabitats in the leaf litter of montane forests. Still, little is known about the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, and ecological limits of most Brachycephalus species. In this study, we review the available data on the geographical and altitudinal distribution of Brachycephalus based on occurrence records compiled from literature and museums, both for the genus as a whole and separately for the three recently proposed groups of species (ephippium, didactylus, and pernix). The final ensemble dataset comprised 333 records, 120 localities, 28 described species, and six undescribed ones. Species were recorded in six relief units, the richest of which being the Serra do Mar, with 30 species. When the Serra do Mar is subdivided into three subunits, Northern, Central and Southern Serra do Mar, the number of species increase from north to the south, with records of six, nine, and 16 species, respectively. We were able to estimate the extent of occurrence of nearly half of the described species, and the resulting estimates indicate that many of them show remarkably small ranges, some of which less than 50 ha. Brachycephalus species are present from sea level to roughly 1,900 m a.s.l., with the highest richness being found between 751 and 1,000 m a.s.l. (21 spp.). The species with the broadest altitudinal range were B. didactylus (1,075 m) and Brachycephalus sp. 1 (1,035 m), both in the didactylus group, and B. ephippium (1,050 m), of the ephippium group. The broadest altitudinal amplitude for species of the pernix group was recorded for B. brunneus (535 m). The lowest altitudinal records for the pernix group were at 845 m a.s.l. in the state of Paraná and at 455 m a.s.l. in the state of Santa Catarina. The altitudinal occurrence in the pernixspecies group seems to decrease southward. Syntopy between species is also reviewed.

  18. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons.

  19. Three new species of Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro 1920 from Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Odontophrynidae).

    PubMed

    Brandão, Reuber Albuquerque; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Vaz-Silva, Wilian; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio

    2013-12-20

    Based on the analyses of specimens collected at several areas in the Cerrado domain from Central Brazil and others housed in scientific collections and on specimens collected at the type-locality, herein we describe three new species belonging to the P. cristiceps group: Proceratophrys bagnoi sp. nov., from UHE Serra da Mesa power plant (13°49'47.5"S, 48°19'17"W; 570 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), Municipality of Minaçu, State of Goiás; Proceratophrys branti sp. nov., from Jalapão, Municipality of Mateiros (05o15'25"S, 48o12'00"W; 109 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), State of Tocantins; and Proceratophrys dibernardoi sp. nov., Municipality of Mineiros (17o33'52"S, 52o33'20"W; 803 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), State of Goiás. The diversity of Proceratophrys in Brazilian Cerrado is still underscored and several species will be described in the following years.

  20. Helminth communities of Leptodactylus latrans (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the Atlantic rainforest, south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Toledo, G M; Morais, D H; Silva, R J; Anjos, L A

    2015-03-01

    The helminth fauna associated with Leptodactylus latrans, a large frog living in a disturbed environment of Atlantic rainforest in south-eastern Brazil, was evaluated. We found eight helminth taxa, including five nematode species, Falcaustra mascula, Oswaldocruzia subauricularis, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp. and an unidentified cosmocercid, two trematodes, Gorgoderina parvicava and Haematoloechus fuelleborni, and one larval cestode. The overall prevalence of infection was 63.2% with a mean intensity of 11.3 ± 3.8. The cosmocercid nematode and O. subauricularis showed the highest prevalences, although the trematode G. parvicava was the most abundant and dominant parasite species. Host size positively influenced both the intensity of infection and parasite species richness. Our data suggest that the juvenile individuals of L. latrans are more susceptible to parasitic infection than the adults. The comparison of the similarity of this community component with that found in other studies in South America shows that, as well as the characteristics of the host, the sampling area also influences the parasitic fauna. Therefore, the results of this study agree that the helminth communities of frogs have relatively low species richness and dominance of generalist species.

  1. New genus, new species of Acanthocephala (Echinorhynchidae) from the Brazilian frog Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Vrcibradic, Davor; Hatano, Fabio H; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D

    2006-04-01

    Anuracanthorhynchus tritaxisentis n. gen., n. sp. from the intestines of the Brazilian frog Hylodes phyllodes (Leptodactylidae) is described and illustrated. Anuracanthorhynchus tritaxisentis n. gen., n. sp., is unique among the echinorhynchid Acanthocephala by possessing a spherical proboscis supporting a small number of hooks of equal size. It is the sixth acanthocephalan species reported from South American anurans.

  2. Positive Darwinian selection results in resistance to cardioactive toxins in true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Halliday, Damien C. T.; Rowell, David M.; Robinson, Anthony J.; Keogh, J. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Members of the Family Bufonidae, true toads, are famous for their endogenously synthesized cardioactive steroids that serve as defensive toxins. Evolution of resistance to these toxins is not understood. We sequenced a key region of the toxin's binding site in the Na+/K+ ATPase for relevant taxa representing Hyloidea (including bufonids), Ranoidea and Archaeobatrachia and tested for positive selection in a phylogenetic context. Bufonidae were distinct from other Hyloidea at 4–6 of 12 sites and, with one exception, had a homologous amino acid sequence. Melanophryniscus stelzneri had a distinct sequence, consistent with other independent evidence for a differentiated toxin. Tests within Bufonidae detected positive selection within the binding region, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of this type for positive selection within Amphibia. There was no evidence for positive selection on Bufonidae or M. stelzneri lineages. Sequence change in Leptodactylus ocellatus, a leptodactylid predator of Bufonidae, provides a molecular basis for predator resistance possibly associated with gene duplication. PMID:19465576

  3. New species of Parapharyngodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) in Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae) from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles; Drake, Michael; Cole, Rebecca; Sterner Iii, Mauritz; Pinckney, Rhonda; Zieger, Ulrike

    2013-06-01

    Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) from the large intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina, is described and illustrated. Parapharyngodon grenadaensis n. sp. is the 48th species assigned to the genus and the 16th species from the Neotropical region. It differs from other species in the genus by possessing 4 pairs of caudal papillae, an echinate anterior cloacal lip, and a blunt spicule of 67-104 μm. This is only the second report of R. marina harboring a species of Parapharyngodon.

  4. The cane or marine toad, Rhinella marina (Anura, Bufonidae): two genetically and morphologically distinct species.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Lampo, Margarita; Cipriani, Roberto

    2016-04-18

    Rhinella marina is a Neotropical toad that has been introduced widely worldwide. Its toxic effects to frog-eating predators threaten the native and domestic fauna of some regions where it has been introduced. Despite previous studies suggesting two genetically distinct cryptic species within R. marina, one east and one west of the Andes, its taxonomic status remained unresolved due to the absence of morphological complementary evidence. For the first time, data from two mitochondrial genes (ND3 and CR) and 23 morphometric landmarks are combined to evaluate the taxonomic status of this species. Our results support the hypothesis of two separate evolutionary lineages within R. marina and demonstrate that these lineages have significantly diverged in skull shape. We identified two distinct morphotypes, one eastern and one Andean western, with no overlapping morphospaces. The geographic pattern of genetic variation was consistent with a stable structured population with no evidence of recent demographic or geographic expansions. The concordance between the observed geographic patterns in morphometric and genic traits calls for the recognition of two species under R. marina name.

  5. Two new species of Amazophrynella (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from Loreto, Peru.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rommel R; Carvalho, Vinícius Tadeu De; Ávila, Robson W; Farias, Izeni Pires; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-04-08

    Amazophrynella is a taxonomically poorly known bufonid genus with a pan-Amazonian distribution. A large part of this ambiguity comes from taxonomic uncertainties regarding the type species A. minuta. In this study we compare morphological and molecular data of topotypic specimens of A. minuta with all other nomical congeneric species. Based on these comparisons, we describe two new species. The first species, A. amazonicola sp. nov., differs from other recognized congeners by having a tip of snout with a small triangular protrusion (in dorsal and lateral view), spiculated body and basal webbing on fingers I and II. The second species, A. matses sp. nov., differs from congeners by the smallest snout to vent length of the genus, edges of nasal protrusion dilated and elliptical shape palmar tubercles. The two species are allopatric, where the first species is known to be associated with white sand forests (=campinaranas), while the second inhabits upland (=terra firme) forests. Both species are diagnosable by a series of substitutions in the 16S rDNA, and both species are highly divergent from their sister taxa (p-distances range from 7-14%).

  6. Population traits of the burrowing toad Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957) (Anura, Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, L C; Busch, M

    2008-02-01

    Size distribution, sex ratio and use of burrows of the burrowing toad Rhinella fernandezae were studied in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Two sites separated by approximately 300 m were studied: one was a road next to a swamp, and the other a garden of a country house located further from the swamp. We identified toad burrows, and individuals were sexed, measured and given an individual mark. Burrows were examined in subsequent months after the first sampling to assess the presence of toads. We found significant differences in the size distribution between areas, being the proportion of juveniles greater at the site next to the swamp where the reproduction of the species was observed. This result may suggest that the site located near to the swamp functions as a source habitat of individuals that migrate to the other site, where recruitment would be very scarce. Sex proportion of adults did not differ from 1:1 in neither the total population nor in each site, suggesting that there was not differential mortality by sex. Some toads changed burrows throughout the study period, but there were not differences in the frequency of change between adults and juveniles.

  7. Community structure of helminth parasites of the "Cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Viviane Gularte Tavares; Amato, Suzana B; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2013-03-01

    Sixty specimens of the "cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Spix 1824) (Bufonidae), were collected in Campo Belo do Sul, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between May 2009 and January 2011, and were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nine species of adult helminths were found: Catadiscus cohni, Rudolphitrema rudolphii, Cylindrotaenia sp., Rhabdias fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., Cosmocerca rara, Cosmocerca brasiliensis, Aplectana elenae, and Oxyascaris sp., in addition to an unidentified adult nematode species. Females of cosmocercid nematodes, proteocephalan plerocercoid, and acanthocephalan cystacanth were found but not identified for lack absolute of taxonomic characters. The sex of the anurans had no influence on prevalence, abundance, and richness of helminth species. Length and body mass of hosts did not influence the prevalence and richness of helminths, while the abundance of R. fuelleborni was significantly correlated with both parameters.

  8. Antiproliferative activity and chemical composition of the venom from the Amazonian toad Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Arana, Gabriel Vargas; Theoduloz, Cristina; Urra, Félix A; Cárdenas, César

    2016-10-01

    Little is known on the composition of Peruvian Amazon toad venoms. The large toad Rhinella marina is common in the cleared tropical forests of the Iquitos region and is regarded as poisonous. The venom from two different populations of R. marina was collected in the Departamento de Loreto, Perú. The samples were assessed for antiproliferative effect and composition. Some 29 compounds were identified or tentatively identified from the venom by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. The main free bufadienolide was marinobufagin 7 while marinobufotoxin 15 and bufalitoxin 9 were the main bufadienolide argininyl diacid derivatives. The alkaloids dehydrobufotenin 28 and bufotenidin 29 were present in both venoms. The main difference in the venoms was the relative ratio of argininyl diacids from bufadienolides to free bufadienolides. The argininyl diacids included derivatives from bufalin, marinobufagin, telocinobufagin, hellebrigenin, resibufogenin and bufotalinin. Four compounds, including undecadienoyl aginine 6 and three argininyl diacids from bufadienolides were tentatively identified for the first time in the samples. The venom showed a strong antiproliferative effect towards MRC-5 normal human lung fibroblasts (0.063-0.247 μg/mL), AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (0.076-0.272 μg/mL), SK-MES-1 human lung cancer cells (0.154-0.296 μg/mL), J82 human bladder carcinoma cells (0.169-0.212 μg/mL), and HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia (0.071-0.283 μg/mL). The antiproliferative effect is mediated by ROS production and cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231). This is the first report on the composition of R. marina venom from the Peruvian Amazon pointing out the need to include different venom samples to get a better picture from the activity and composition of South American toad defense substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new species of Duttaphrynus (Anura:Bufonidae) from Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Chetia, Mitali; Dutta, Sushil Kumar; Sengupta, Saibal

    2013-01-01

    A new species of montane toad Duttaphrynus is described from Nagaland state of Northeast India. The new species is diagnosable based on following combination of characters: absence of preorbital, postorbital and orbitotympanic ridges, elongated and broad parotid gland, first finger longer than second and presence of a mid-dorsal line. The tympanum is hidden under a skin fold (in male) or absent (in female). The species is compared with its congers from India and Indo-China. We propose to consider Duttaphrynus wokhaensis as junior synonym of Duttaphrynus melanostictus.

  10. Histopathological study of toxic effects of carbaryl on digestive tract of Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2016-07-01

    Due to the negative effects of pesticide usage in environment, i.e., decline in amphibian populations, this study was designed to examine histopathologic changes following carbaryl exposure for 96 h in the digestive tract of variable toad, Bufotes variabilis. After exposure to single doses of carbaryl (low dose 50 μg/g, medium dose 100 μg/g, and high dose: 200 μg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected and digestive tract samples were quickly removed. Histopathology revealed esophageal vacuolization and necrosis in esophageal cells. Hemorrhage was also observed in the esophagus. In the stomach, necrosis in the glandular epithelium, congested blood vessels, edema among gastric glands, dilated tips of the mucosal epithelial layer, gastric glandular atrophy, and hemorrhage were found. In the intestine, edema within villi, hemorrhage, inflammation, vacuolization, and necrosis in epithelial cells of villi were detected. This study clearly showed that carbaryl caused adverse effects on the digestive tract of B. variabilis in all dose groups.

  11. Histopathologic changes in liver and kidney tissues induced by carbaryl in Bufotes variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Çakıcı, Özlem

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate for the first time histopathologic effects of carbaryl in liver and kidney tissues of Bufotes variabilis. After 96h following exposure to carbaryl (low dose: 0.05, medium dose: 0.1 and high dose: 0.2mg/g), the toads were euthanized and dissected. In liver tissue, vacuolization in hepatocytes, necrosis, mononuclear cell infiltration, an increase in melanomacrophage number, enlargement of sinusoids, hemorrhage and congestion were determined in exposed toads. In kidney tissue, mononuclear cell infiltration, hypertrophied Bowman's capsule cells, deformation, vacuolization, karyolysis and necrosis of renal tubule epithelium, brush border destruction, glomerular shrinkage, hemorrhage and fibrosis were observed in carbaryl-treated groups. According to this investigation, carbaryl caused histopathologic damages in liver and kidney tissues of B. variabilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal ecology of montane Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae): A study of intrageneric diversity.

    PubMed

    Rueda Solano, Luis Alberto; Navas, Carlos A; Carvajalino-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2016-05-01

    Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus) are among the most threatened frog genus in the world and reach very high elevations in the tropical Andes and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM). Learning about their thermal ecology is essential to infer sensitivity to environmental changes, particularly climate warming. We report on the activity temperature and thermoregulatory behavior of three high-elevation species of harlequin frogs, Atelopus nahumae, Atelopus laetissimus and Atelopus carrikeri. The first two mentioned live in streams in Andean rain forests, whereas A. carrikeri inhabits paramo streams in the SNSM. We studied the thermal ecology of these species in tree localities differing in altitude, and focused on activity body, operative, substrate and air temperature. A main trend was lower body temperature as elevation increased, so that differences among species were largely explained by differences in substrate temperature. However, this temperature variation was much lower in forest species than paramo species. The Atelopus species included in this work proved to be thermoconformers, a trend that not extended to all congenerics at high elevation. This diversity in thermal ecology poses important questions when discussing the impact of climate warming for high-elevation harlequin frogs. For example, forest species show narrow thermal ranges and, if highly specialized, may be more susceptible to temperature change. Paramo species such as A. carrikeri, in contrast, may be more resilient to temperature change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stage-dependent toxicity of bisphenol a on Rhinella arenarum (anura, bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Wolkowicz, Ianina R Hutler; Herkovits, Jorge; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2014-02-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  14. Use of Reproductive Microhabitat by Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gisela; Maneyro, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the reproductive microhabitat of Melanophryniscus montevidensis and its use in two water bodies (WBs) in Barra de la Laguna de Rocha, Uruguay. Monthly field trips were performed between March 2012 and February 2013. Variables related to the WBs and vegetation, as well as parameters linked to the usage the amphibians make of the site (e.g: distance to the border of the pond, water depth and the vegetation use) were recorded. The behavior shown by the individuals during the breeding activity was recorded. This activity occurs in shallow temporary WBs with abundant hydrophilic vegetation. The individuals were found more frequently in areas near the edge of the pond, which has denser vegetation. The calling males were found closer to the border of the pond, and they showed better body condition than the non-calling males. In addition to calling activities, males used alternative tactics to find couples, such as active search of females, and aggressive behaviors, such as male displacing and physical combat. Such behaviors are common in anurans with explosive reproductive dynamics. The characterization of the reproductive microhabitats permits the proposal of strategies for the conservation of the species in Uruguay, given that the loss and fragmentation of habitats is one of the main causes considered for the decrease in their populations.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of microhylid frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) with emphasis on relationships among New World genera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). Results One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Conclusion Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. PMID:23228209

  16. A new species of Phrynopus (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the central Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Mamani, Luis; Malqui, Sergio

    2014-07-17

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the humid grassland of Distrito de Comas, Provincia Concepcion, Department of Junin. The new species is diagnosed by the lack of dentigerous processes of vomers, tympanic annulus and membrane imperceptible through the skin, males with nuptial pads and vocal slits, warty dorsal skin, and aerolate throat, belly and ventral surfaces of thighs, by possessing pronounced subconical tubercles in the post-tympanic area, by having rounded finger and toe tips with no disc structure, and by its overall dark brown to black coloration with few white and yellow spots in the dorsum and a dark-brown belly with white to gray blotches. Specimens were found under stones at a single area of the central Peruvian Andes at elevations between 4205-4490 m.a.s.l. The eggs had an average diameter of 4.3 mm. With the description and naming of the new species, the genus Phrynopus now contains 26 species, all of them endemic to Peru, and five of which are restricted to Departamento Junin.

  17. External morphology and oral cavity of the tadpole of Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966 (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Barreto, Gilvana Santos; Ramos, Juliana Conceição; Mercês, Ednei De Almeida; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Garda, Adrian Antonio; Juncá, Flora Acuña

    2015-07-01

    The Neotropical genus Trachycephalus Tschudi currently comprises 14 species distributed in lowlands of Mexico, Central and South America east of the Andes, south until northern Argentina (Frost 2014) and throughout Brazil (IUCN 2014). Seven species of the genus have tadpoles formerly described: T. coriaceus (Peters) (Schiesari & Moreira 1996; Lescure et al. 1996), T. cunauaru Gordo, Toledo, Suárez, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ávila, Morais & Nunes (Grillitsch 1992 as Phrynohyas resinifictrix according to Gordo et al. 2013), T. jordani (Stejneger & Test) (McDiarmid & Altig 1989-1990), T. mesophaeus (Hensel) (Lutz 1973; Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2002; Prado et al. 2003), T. nigromaculatus Tschudi (Wogel et al. 2000), T. resinifictrix (Goeldi) (Hero 1990; Schiesari et al. 1996), and T. typhonius (Linnaeus) (Pyburn 1967; Duellman 1970; Schiesari et al. 1996). The oral cavity is described only for T. cunauaru (Grillitsch 1992), T. resinifictrix (Schiesari et al. 1996), and T. typhonius (Schiesari et al. 1996; Fabrezi & Vera 1997).

  18. Lipopolysaccharides induce changes in the visceral pigmentation of Eupemphix nattereri (Anura: Leiuperidae).

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; de Oliveira, Classius

    2011-10-01

    Amphibians have an extracutaneous pigmentary system composed of melanin-containing cells in various tissues and organs. The functional role of these pigment cells in visceral organs has not yet been determined, although several hypotheses have been proposed. Our aim was to describe the visceral pigmentation in the frog Eupemphix nattereri under conditions of endotoxemia induced experimentally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Escherichia coli and to analyze the pigmentation on the organs' surface. We used 60 adult males of E. nattereri and analyzed the visceral pigmentation 2 (LPS 2h), 6 (LPS 6h), 12 (LPS 12h), 24 (LPS 24h) or 48 h (LPS 48 h) after the LPS inoculation. We observed pigmentation on the surface of several abdominal organs. The highest degree of pigmentation was found only on the testes of the animals in the LPS 2h, LPS 6h and LPS 12h groups. The pigmentation decreased in the animals of the LPS 24h and LPS 48 h groups. The LPS administration produced no changes in the pigmentation of the cardio-respiratory and digestive systems. Thus, the cells appear to have responded to LPS intoxication, producing a rapid increase of pigmentation on the surface of the testes and a subsequent decrease in the pigmentation. These changes are most likely related to the bactericidal role of melanin, which neutralizes the effects of LPS.

  19. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Uscapi, Vanessa; von May, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330-2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  20. The 100th: An appealing new species of Dendropsophus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista; Argôlo, Antônio Jorge Suzart; Orrico, Victor Goyannes Dill

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of the Dendropsophus leucophyllatus Group from the Atlantic Forest of the southern region of State of Bahia, Brazil. It can be distinguished from all species of the D. leucophyllatus Group on the basis of morphological characters (especially its unique dorsal pattern and snout in dorsal view), advertisement calls and divergence in mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The inclusion of D. anceps on the group remains controversial but our phylogenetic analyses do not recover the new species as sister to syntopic species of the D. leucophyllatus Group (with or without D. anceps). These results also highlight the palimpsest that is past relation between the Atlantic and Amazon forests.