Science.gov

Sample records for building panels production

  1. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    SciTech Connect

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production

  2. Recycled-PET fibre based panels for building thermal insulation: environmental impact and improvement potential assessment for a greener production.

    PubMed

    Ingrao, Carlo; Lo Giudice, Agata; Tricase, Caterina; Rana, Roberto; Mbohwa, Charles; Siracusa, Valentina

    2014-09-15

    A screening of Life Cycle Assessment for the evaluation of the damage arising from the production of 1 kg of recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (RPET) fibre-based panel for building heat insulation was carried out according to the ISO 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. All data used were collected on site based on observations during site visits, review of documents and interviews with technical personnel and management. These data were processed by using SimaPro 7.3.3, accessing the Ecoinvent v.2.2 database and using the Impact 2002+ method. The study showed damage to be equal to 0.000299 points mostly due to the: 1) PET thermo-bonding fibre supply from China by means of a freight-equipped intercontinental aircraft; 2) production of bottle-grade granulate PET; 3) medium voltage electricity consumption during the manufacturing of RPET fibre panel. It was also highlighted that there were environmental benefits due to recycling through mainly avoiding significant emissions and reduced resource consumption. An improvement assessment was carried out to find solutions aimed at reducing the damage coming from the most impacting phases. Furthermore, the environmental impacts due to the production of the analysed RPET fibre-based panel were compared to other materials with the same insulating function, such as polystyrene foam, rock wool and cork slab. Finally, the environmental benefits of the recycling of PET bottles for flake production were highlighted compared to other treatment scenarios such as landfill and municipal incineration.

  3. Panel on Capacity Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhadani, D.

    The demonstration was made that space technologies are an important tool for developing countries. But the fundamental question is how those countries could integrate such technologies, in an effective an operational way, in the process of resources management and administration. Capacity building is a cornerstone in any strategy to set up a national programme or infrastructure for the use of space technologies. The proposed presentation attempts to bring the first elements on the actual uses of space technology in developing countries compared to their needs, the role of training activities and programs in the capacity building process as well as the role of international cooperation and what are the required conditions to ensure sustainability of the established capacities.

  4. Reutilization of waste LCD panel glass as a building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.; Lee, H.; Seo, E.; Lee, W.

    2010-12-01

    Recently due to drastically increasing demand of liquid crystal display (LCD) panel in IT industry, waste LCD panel glass are also produced from abandoned electronic items or panel glass of poor quality during manufacturing process and should be treated properly. Waste LCD panel glass was crushed to 3 to 13mm in size and evaluated for its usefulness as aggregates in production of cement concrete brick. Cement concrete specimens with various mixing ratios of weathered granite soil, LCD panel glass and cement were cured in wetness for 28 days and then tested for uniaxial comprehensive strength (UCS)(KS F 4004 method). Specimen with a mixing ratio, 1:6:3, of weathered granite, LCD panel glass and cement, respectively, showed the highest average USC(31.3MPa) which is much higher than that(12.1MPa) of commercial brick without glass. Conclusively it is suggested that waste LCD panel glass can be reutilized economically as a raw building material of good quality.

  5. Literature review on use of nonwood plant fibers for building materials and panels

    Treesearch

    John A. Youngquist; Brent E. English; Roger C. Scharmer; Poo Chow; Steven R. Shook

    1994-01-01

    The research studies included in this review focus on the use of nonwood plant fibers for building materials and panels. Studies address (1) methods for efficiently producing building materials and panels from nonwood plant fibers; (2) treatment of fibers prior to board production; (3) process variables, such as press time and temperature, press pressure, and type of...

  6. 17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, abort button, phones, and observation window. View looking northwest. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 4. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 11. INTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 10. INTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 9. INTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR DETAIL OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 14. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 16. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 15. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. Interior building details of Building B, Room B001: single panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building B, Room B-001: single panel door to Room B-001e and plaster painted brick wall; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  18. Economical evaluation of damaged vacuum insulation panels in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. M.; Lee, H. Y.; Choi, G. S.; Kang, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    In Korea, thermal insulation standard of buildings have been tightened annually to satisfy the passive house standard from the year 2009. The current domestic policies about disseminating green buildings are progressively conducted. All buildings should be the zero energy building in the year 2025, obligatorily. The method is applied to one of the key technologies for high-performance insulation for zero energy building. The vacuum insulation panel is an excellent high performance insulation. But thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels is reduced significantly. In this paper, the thermal performance of damaged vacuum insulation panels was compared and analyzed. The measurement result of thermal performance depends on the core material type. The insulation of building envelope is usually selected by economic feasibility. To evaluate the economic feasibility of VIPs, the operation cost was analyzed by simulation according to the types and damaged ratio of VIPs

  19. 8. Interior view, industrial service building, showing breaker panels made ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view, industrial service building, showing breaker panels made of natural stone; four switches on each panel had been connected to box on wall by wires routed through conduit buried in concrete floor; view to northwest. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 4. INGERSOLLRAND AMMONIA COMPRESSOR AND CONTROL PANEL INSIDE BUILDING 2; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INGERSOLL-RAND AMMONIA COMPRESSOR AND CONTROL PANEL INSIDE BUILDING 2; LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Rath Packing Company, Engine Room, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice, truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. Technology Solutions for Existing Homes Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    For this project with the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Home Innovation Research Labs, the retrofit insulated panels relied on an enhanced expanded polystyrene (EPS) for thermal resistance of R-4.5/inch, which is an improvement of 10% over conventional (white-colored) EPS. EPS, measured by its life cycle, is an alternative to commonly used extruded polystyrene and spray polyurethane foam. It is a closed-cell product made up of 90% air, and it requires about 85% fewer petroleum products for processing than other rigid foams.

  3. Building and Operating Spacelab: Spacelab Design and Systems Engineering Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Axel; Berge, Klaus; Thirkettle, Alan; Craft, Harry G., Jr.; Benson, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This document is the transcription of the Spacelab Design and Systems Engineering Panel's discussion of the Spacelab program. It includes information on Spacelab's origin and development. The panel includes Klaus Berge, Bob Benson, Allan Thirkettle, and Harry Craft.

  4. Building America Case Study: Trade-Friendly Retrofit Insulated Panels for Existing Buildings, Albany, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  5. Low-cost production of solar-cell panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1980-01-01

    Large-scale production model combines most modern manufacturing techniques to produce silicon-solar-cell panels of low costs by 1982. Model proposes facility capable of operating around the clock with annual production capacity of 20 W of solar cell panels.

  6. Wood products used in the construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings in the United States, 2003

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever; Craig Adair; Jennifer O' Connor

    2005-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market for lumber, structural wood panels, nonstructural wood panels, and engineered wood products in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of four or fewer stories only, because buildings with five or more stories are normally severely restricted by building code from...

  7. Wood products used in the construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings in the United States, 2008

    Treesearch

    David McKeever

    2010-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market for lumber, structural wood panels, nonstructural wood panels, and engineered wood products in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of four or fewer stories only. Buildings with five or more stories are normally severely restricted by building code from being wood...

  8. SPERTI Control Building (PER601) interior. Control panel with data readout ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I Control Building (PER-601) interior. Control panel with data readout equipment in control room. Panels and equipment were fabricated elsewhere at NRTS during SPERT-I construction. Photographer: R.G. Larsen. Date: November 21, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-3208 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Building Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel: Building Capacity for State-Based Occupational Health Surveillance... initial review, discussion, and evaluation of ``Building Capacity for State- Based Occupational Health Surveillance, PAR 10-188.'' Contact Person for More Information: M. Chris Langub, PhD, Scientific Review...

  10. Mir 1 cooperative solar array photovoltaic panel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the production and on-schedule delivery to Russia of 80-watt solar array panels by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc. Ninety flight-ready panels were delivered to RSC-Energia in Kaliningrad near Moscow in November and December 1994. After assembly by the Russians they are scheduled to be delivered in October 1995 by the US Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-74) to the Russian Mir 1 module of International Space Station Alpha.

  11. Pushing the Envelope: A Case Study of Building the First Manufactured Home Using Structural Insulated Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.; Hadley, Donald L.; Sparkman, Ronald; Lubliner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    This paper for the ACEEE Summer Study describes construction of the first manufactured home ever produced from structural insulated panels. The home was built in July 2000 by Champion Enterprises at its Silverton, Oregon, plant. The house was completed on the assembly line in 9 days including a 300-mile road test. The paper examines the design and approval process leading to the project, the manufacturing process and its adjustment to SIPs, and the transportation and energy performance of the house after it was built. PNNL coordinated this project and conducted long-term monitoring on the house. The WSU Energy Program conducted building diagnostics testing once the house was occupied. PNNL’s and WSU’s involvement was funded by the U.S. DOE Building America Program. The Oregon Office of Energy conducted blower door and duct blaster tests. The completed home was estimated to reduce energy consumption by 50% and to have twice the structural strength required by HUD code for manufactured homes. The demonstration proved that the manufactured home production line could support SIPs production simultaneously with traditional construction and without major modifications, the line work in parallel with SIPs and traditional materials. The project revealed severl possibilities for further improving cost and time savings with SIPs construction, that might translate into increased capacity.

  12. Study of thermosiphon and radiant panel passive heating systems for metal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Biehl, F.A.; Schnurr, N.M.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    A study of passive-heating systems appropriate for use on metal buildings is being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California. The systems selected for study were chosen on the basis of their appropriateness for retrofit applications, although they are also suitable for new construction: simple radiant panels that communicate directly with the building interior and a backflow thermosiphon that provides heat indirectly.

  13. DEMINERALIZER BUILDING,TRA608. CAMERA FACES EAST ALONG SOUTH WALL. INSTRUMENT PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DEMINERALIZER BUILDING,TRA-608. CAMERA FACES EAST ALONG SOUTH WALL. INSTRUMENT PANEL BOARD IS IN RIGHT HALF OF VIEW, WITH FOUR PUMPS BEYOND. SMALLER PUMPS FILL DEMINERALIZED WATER TANK ON SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3997A. Unknown Photographer, 12/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 308 Building electrical load list and panel schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Giamberardini, S.J.

    1994-09-13

    This report contains two lists. The first lists equipment, load location, source of power, and breaker identification. The second compiles the same information but in a different format, namely, for each power source, the breaker, equipment, and location is given. Building 308 is part of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility which houses the Secure Automated Fabrication process line for fabrication of reactor fuels and the Breeder Processing Engineering Test for processing Fast Flux Test Facility fuel to demonstrate closure of the fuel cycle.

  15. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CONTROL PANELS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. CONTROL PANELS AND OPERATOR STATION WERE LATER ENCLOSED AS "ROOM 104." CAMERA FACING EAST. HONEYWALL GAUGES HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AS "EXCESS" PROPERTY DURING DEMOLITION OF THE FACILITY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-26-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. MTR BUILDING, TRA603. SOUTH ELEVATION. PRECAST INSULATED PANEL DETAILS. AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING, TRA-603. SOUTH ELEVATION. PRECAST INSULATED PANEL DETAILS. AIR DUCT PLENUM CHAMBER. BLAW-KNOX 3150-80-5, 9/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100564, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. CONTROL PANEL SUPPLIES STATUS INDICATORS. CARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. CONTROL PANEL SUPPLIES STATUS INDICATORS. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4219. Unknown Photographer, 2/13/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Solar heating panel: Parks and Recreation Building, Saugatuck Township Park and Recreation Commission. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-04

    This report is an account of the design and installation of a solar heating system on an existing building in Saugatuck, MI, using existing technology. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the possibilities of alternative energy, educate local craftsmen, and make the building more useful to the community. The structure of the building is described. The process of insulating the structure is described. The design of the solar panel, headers, and strong box full of rocks for heat storage is given complete with blueprints. The installation of the system is also described, including photographs of the solar panel being installed. Included is a performance report on this system by Purbolt's Inc., which describes measurements taken on the system and outlines the system's design and operation. Included also are 12 slides of the structure and the solar heating system. (LEW)

  19. Gas-Filled Panels: An update on applications in the building thermal envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.; Tuerler, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses the application of Gas-Filled Panels to the building thermal envelope. Gas-Filled Panels, or GFPs, are thermal insulating devices that retain a high concentration of a low- conductivity gas, at atmospheric pressure, within a multilayer infrared reflective baffle. The thermal performance of the panel depends on the type of gas fill and the baffle configuration. Heat- flow meter apparatus measurements have shown effective apparent thermal conductivities of 0.194 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with air as the gas fill, 0.138 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with argon, and 0.081 Btu{center_dot}in/h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F with krypton. Calorimetric measurements have also shown total resistance levels of about R-12.6 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 1.0-inch thick krypton panel, R-25.7 h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 2.0-inch krypton panel, and R-18.4 f{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}{degree}F/Btu for a 10-inch xenon panel. GFPs are flexible, self-supporting and can be made in a variety of shapes and sizes to thoroughly fill most types of cavities in building walls and roofs, although the modular nature of the panels can lead to complications in installing them, especially for irregularly shaped cavities. We present computer simulation results showing the improvement in thermal resistance resulting from using an argon-GFP in place of glass fiber batt insulation in wood-frame construction. This report also presents estimates of the quantity and cost of material components needed to manufacture GFPs using current prototype designs.

  20. 77 FR 17524 - Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, MT; Notice of Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, MT... workers and former workers of Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, Montana...

  1. 77 FR 35061 - Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana; Notice of Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Roseburg Forest Products Composite Panels Division Missoula, Montana... former workers of Roseburg Forest Products, Composite Panels Division, Missoula, Montana (subject firm...

  2. Dissemination Recommendations on and Descriptions of Exemplary Products. Panel Review of Products (PROP), 1972-1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Wesley W.; And Others

    The 23 products selected in the Panel Review of Products (PROP) in 1972-1973 and the dissemination recommendations made are discussed, and product descriptions are provided. The product descriptions present information as to what each product is, what it does, and whom it is designed to serve. Emphasis is given to evaluation evidence on…

  3. Bowing of marble panels: On-site damage analysis from the oeconomicum building at Goettingen (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, A.; Siegesmund, S.

    2003-04-01

    The use of natural stone panels or cladding material for building facades has led to some durability problems, especially with marble slabs. To examine the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters on bowing a very detailed study was performed on the Oeconomicum Building at the University of Goettingen. In total 1556 panels from the whole building were measured with respect to the bowing using a bow-meter. The variation of bowing ranges from concave (up to 23 mm/m) to convex (up to -11 mm/m). The variation is not controlled by the position with respect to the geographical coordinates, height above ground, shadows, temperature etc.. On the north facade the different rock structures visible on the panel surfaces are a result of the marble slabs being cut in different directions. The different degree in bowing is associated with the structure of the marble since all other influencing factors are relatively constant (position, temperature, moisture content, building physics). Experimental data on the expansion behaviour under dry and/or wet conditions reveal a different degree in bowing with respect to the rock fabric and may help to explain the observed differences in bowing. The effect of the rock fabric especially of the lattice preferred orientation in this case clearly controls the deterioration of the marble and the degree of bowing. The bowing is also characterized by an increase in the porosity, decreasing values of ultrasonic wave velocities and flexural strength. The loss of cohesion in the strongly deteriorated panels is clearly visible in the microstructure by the open grain boundaries which are interconnected to intergranular microcracks.

  4. VIEW OF THE PRODUCTION FLOOR OF BUILDING 460. BUILDING 460 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE PRODUCTION FLOOR OF BUILDING 460. BUILDING 460 WAS CONSTRUCTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS SUCH AS RESERVOIRS, TUBES, AND NON-FISSILE TRIGGER COMPONENTS. MANUFACTURING, TESTING, AND INSPECTION PROCESSES OCCUPIED MOST OF THE GROUND FLOOR. (2/20/96) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Jason P.

    2005-09-01

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  6. In situ inspection of inclusions in toughened glass panels of high-rise buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Fang, Zhong Ping; Reading, Ivan; Zhao, Liping; Chow, Siew Loong

    2005-04-01

    Transparent toughened glass panels are widely installed in high-rise buildings. There is a growing need for inspection to detect the presence of detrimental inclusions of Nickel Sulfide. These inclusions can cause toughened glass to shatter, possibly causing property damage or injury. Optical equipment has been developed which can detect the inclusions in-situ. Light is coupled into a glass panel and propagates along the glass by total internal reflection. An inclusion in the glass will cause the light to scatter. Once an inclusion is found, it will be observed at higher magnification and the detailed image will be processed. By the analysis of its key features, the inclusion type can be identified. The coupling medium is made of a transparent, soft and deformable material. The equipment can be attached to a glass panel by vacuum suction. The optical system can scan the whole glass panel with a constant force spring as anti-weight structure. The whole system is fast, convenient and highly effective. A patent has been filed for this apparatus.

  7. Health-related workplace productivity measurement: general and migraine-specific recommendations from the ACOEM Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Loeppke, Ronald; Hymel, Pamela A; Lofland, Jennifer H; Pizzi, Laura T; Konicki, Doris L; Anstadt, George W; Baase, Catherine; Fortuna, Joseph; Scharf, Ted

    2003-04-01

    An establishment of health-related productivity measurements and critical evaluation of health-related productivity tools is needed. An expert panel was created. A literature search was conducted to identify health-related productivity measurement tools. Each instrument was reviewed for: 1) supporting scientific evidence (e.g., reliability and validity); 2) applicability to various types of occupations, diseases, and level of severity of disease; 3) ability to translate data into a monetary unit; and 4) practicality. A modified Delphi technique was used to build consensus. The expert panel recommended absenteeism, presenteeism, and employee turnover/replacement costs as key elements of workplace health-related productivity measurement. The panel also recommended that productivity instruments should: 1) have supporting scientific evidence, 2) be applicable to the particular work setting, 3) be supportive of effective business decision-making, and 4) be practical. Six productivity measurement tools were reviewed. The panel recommended necessary elements of workplace health-related productivity measurement, key characteristics for evaluating instruments, and tools for measuring work loss. Continued research, validation, and on-going evaluation of health-related productivity instruments are needed.

  8. Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, R.

    1977-01-01

    A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

  9. The Fifth Calibration/Data Product Validation Panel Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The minutes and associated documents prepared from presentations and meetings at the Fifth Calibration/Data Product Validation Panel meeting in Boulder, Colorado, April 8 - 10, 1992, are presented. Key issues include (1) statistical characterization of data sets: finding statistics that characterize key attributes of the data sets, and defining ways to characterize the comparisons among data sets; (2) selection of specific intercomparison exercises: selecting characteristic spatial and temporal regions for intercomparisons, and impact of validation exercises on the logistics of current and planned field campaigns and model runs; and (3) preparation of data sets for intercomparisons: characterization of assumptions, transportable data formats, labeling data files, content of data sets, and data storage and distribution (EOSDIS interface).

  10. Arkoma exploration heats production builds

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1991-01-21

    This paper reports that exploratory drilling continues with fervor to Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle targets, especially in Arkansas. Pennsylvanian zones continue to yield significant gas discoveries. Gas production from Arkoma basin counties in both states has been rising and stands to climb even further with startup of several new pipelines, assuming gas prices and takes hold up.

  11. Metrication in Building Facilities for Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderville, L. E.

    1974-01-01

    Today's 868 foundries are designed around the equipment necessary for maximum production and safety. It follows that any change in the product manufactured has a definite effect on the building that houses it. Therefore, it is necessary that development of metrication in the construction industry must be coordinated with its development in…

  12. Isothiazolone emissions from building products.

    PubMed

    Nagorka, R; Gleue, C; Scheller, C; Moriske, H J; Straff, W

    2015-02-01

    Adding biocides to dispersion products is a well-known practice to control microbial deterioration. Isothiazolones are among the most commonly used preservatives, in particular a mixture of 2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (MIT) and 5-chloro-2-methyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (CIT). In recent years, for health reasons, due to its strong sensitizing effect, CIT has been replaced by 1,2-benzisothiazol-3-one (BIT). Furthermore, numerous products are now available for interiors containing the fungicidal active substance 2-octyl-2H-isothiazol-3-one (OIT). So far nearly nothing is known of the emission behavior of BIT and OIT. An analytical method was developed for these two isothiazolones and interior products containing BIT respectively OIT have been investigated in an emission chamber and in test rooms. The chamber tests revealed maximum concentrations of 6.7 μg OIT/m3, 1.9 μg BIT/m3, and 187 μg MIT/m3. Concentrations obtained in the test rooms were at levels up to 1.4 μg OIT/m3 and 29 μg MIT/m3. A noticeable finding was the very slight subsidence of OIT and BIT levels over several weeks. While MIT outgassed quickly, OIT in particular showed low concentrations, but prolonged evaporation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Resistance of Six Wood Products Used in Paneling to Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Treesearch

    Bradford M. Kard; E.J. Mallette

    1997-01-01

    Six wood products used in wall paneling were tested for resistance to feeding damage by the eastern subterranean termite, Reticuli termesflavipes (Kollar). Alaska-cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, fiber without wax and resin treatments normally used in paneling production was not a preferred food source in choice tests where all 6 wood products plus...

  14. Alaska birch for edge-glued panel production—considerations for wood products manufacturers

    Treesearch

    David. Nicholls

    2010-01-01

    Edge-glued panels could become a natural extension for the birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) lumber industry in Alaska, resulting in greater utilization of the birch resource while allowing producers to explore a wider variety of products and markets. Key advantages of edge-glued panel production include the relatively low cost of equipment, the...

  15. 75 FR 58414 - Dental Products Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Dental Products Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory... Medical Devices Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register of June 11, 2010... announced that a meeting of the Dental Products Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee would...

  16. 21 CFR 355.55 - Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. 355.55 Section 355.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 355.55 Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. In addition to the statement...

  17. 21 CFR 355.55 - Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. 355.55 Section 355.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 355.55 Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. In addition to the statement...

  18. 21 CFR 355.55 - Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. 355.55 Section 355.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 355.55 Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. In addition to the statement...

  19. 21 CFR 355.55 - Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. 355.55 Section 355.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 355.55 Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. In addition to the statement...

  20. 21 CFR 355.55 - Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. 355.55 Section 355.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 355.55 Principal display panel of all fluoride rinse drug products. In addition to the statement...

  1. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  2. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency. PMID:28787870

  3. 6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. Evaluating economic and environmental aspects of using solar panels on multi-angled facades of office buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades. In this regard, four scenarios with different facade configurations and orientations are evaluated and discussed. The method for the simulations and calculations depends on two main programs: first, IDA ICE program to calculate the energy consumption and evaluate the indoor climate of the building; and second, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2 emissions in the different scenarios.

  5. Capacity, production, and manufacturing of woodbased panels in North America

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter

    1994-01-01

    This report is an informational report about four wood-based panel industries: particleboard, oriented strandboard, medium density fiberboard, and Southern Pine plywood. Items highlighted are trends in manufacturing and new plant costs, industry manufacturing capacity, and location. Recent data show the greatest amount of growth taking place in the oriented strandboard...

  6. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  7. Capacity, production, and manufacture of woodbased panels in the United States and Canada

    Treesearch

    Henry Spelter

    1996-01-01

    Structural and nonstructural panel products have constituted the fastest growing segment of the wood products industries over the past two decades. Based on announced plans, growth will accelerate in the next 2 years. The cost of wood fiber used in these processes has been rising. To keep wood costs as low as possible, a growing share of the new production is being...

  8. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of Los Alamos National Laboratory Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Jason P.

    2005-09-01

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  9. Building productive relationships with movers and shakers.

    PubMed

    Smith, H L; Reid, R A; Piland, N F

    1991-04-01

    Movers and shakers often demonstrate capabilities that health care managers should recognize before attempting to build productive relationships with them. First, the charisma associated with outstanding leaders is reflected in superior communication skills and presence. Next, a broad experiential base coupled with penetrating analytical skills allows movers and shakers to earn exceptional authority and power. Third, movers and shakers are able to focus on strategic visions. Movers and shakers work through other team members to select and implement solutions that are consistent with organizational mission statements. Fourth, their entrepreneurial mindset enables them to take calculated risks and design creative solutions in response to formidable challenges. Finally, movers and shakers are not reticent to face facts and make tough decisions. Not all movers and shakers possess all of these characteristics equally. Nor are they all concerned about the same issues. As individuals, they bring differing interests and capabilities to health care organizations. Health care managers may strive to cultivate one or more of these characteristics themselves. Self-improvement begins with identifying personal deficiencies and systematically planning to overcome them. Until health care managers mature into movers and shakers, they can coopt the influence and power associated with movers and shakers. By establishing a trusting relationship and using borrowed power constructively, they can earn the respect and confidence of movers and shakers. A third approach promotes power transfer through a continuing viable relationship. Health care managers may need to use some combination of these methods. Additionally, they can consider tailoring various methods into a coordinated strategy. Health care managers have a variety of promising strategies available for building productive relationships with movers and shakers. Pursuit of these strategies may improve personal prospects and promote

  10. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  11. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Sensory and chemical characterization of VOC emissions from building products: impact of concentration and air velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, H. N.; Kjaer, U. D.; Nielsen, P. A.; Wolkoff, P.

    The emissions from five commonly used building products were studied in small-scale test chambers over a period of 50 days. The odor intensity was assessed by a sensory panel and the concentrations of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of concern for the indoor air quality were measured. The building products were three floor coverings: PVC, floor varnish on beechwood parquet and nylon carpet on a latex foam backing; an acrylic sealant, and a waterborne wall paint on gypsum board. The impacts of the VOC concentration in the air and the air velocity over the building products on the odor intensity and on the emission rate of VOCs were studied. The emission from each building product was studied under two or three different area-specific ventilation rates, i.e. different ratios of ventilation rate of the test chamber and building product area in the test chamber. The air velocity over the building product samples was adjusted to different levels between 0.1 and 0.3 m s -1. The origin of the emitted VOCs was assessed in order to distinguish between primary and secondary emissions. The results show that it is reasonable after an initial period of up to 14 days to consider the emission rate of VOCs of primary origin from most building products as being independent of the concentration and of the air velocity. However, if the building product surface is sensitive to oxidative degradation, increased air velocity may result in increased secondary emissions. The odor intensity of the emissions from the building products only decayed modestly over time. Consequently, it is recommended to use building products which have a low impact on the perceived air quality from the moment they are applied. The odor indices (i.e. concentration divided by odor threshold) of primary VOCs decayed markedly faster than the corresponding odor intensities. This indicates that the secondary emissions rather than the primary emissions, are likely to affect the perceived air quality in the

  13. Formaldehyde emission from particleboard and plywood paneling : measurement, mechanism, and product standards

    Treesearch

    George E. Myers

    1983-01-01

    A number of commercial panel products, primarily particleboard and hardwood plywood, were tested for their formaldehyde emission behavior using desiccator, perforator, and dynamic chamber methods. The results were analyzed in terms of the source of formaldehyde observed in the tests (free vs. hydrolytically produced) and the potential utility of the testa as product...

  14. Is health care a necessary or luxury product for Asian countries? An answer using panel approach.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, S M; Siddiqua, Salina; Huque, Rumana

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies have estimated the income elasticity of health care expenditure to identify whether health care is a necessary or luxury product. However, the issue has received less attention in developing countries, especially in Asian economies. The current study for the first time has used the panel data covering 36 Asian countries for the period 1995-2013 for revealing the nature of health care as a product. Along with conventional econometric techniques we have addressed the issue of cross section dependence and used Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration test which is robust against cross section dependence and heterogeneity for detecting the presence of panel cointegration. By applying Fully Modified OLS (FMOLS) and Dynamic OLS (DOLS) it was found that the long run elasticity of Health Care Expenditure (HCE) with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is less than unit implying that the health care can be regarded as necessary in nature for these countries.

  15. A novel heuristic for optimization aggregate production problem: Evidence from flat panel display in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kuhali, K.; Hussain M., I.; Zain Z., M.; Mullenix, P.

    2015-05-01

    Aim: This paper contribute to the flat panel display industry it terms of aggregate production planning. Methodology: For the minimization cost of total production of LCD manufacturing, a linear programming was applied. The decision variables are general production costs, additional cost incurred for overtime production, additional cost incurred for subcontracting, inventory carrying cost, backorder costs and adjustments for changes incurred within labour levels. Model has been developed considering a manufacturer having several product types, which the maximum types are N, along a total time period of T. Results: Industrial case study based on Malaysia is presented to test and to validate the developed linear programming model for aggregate production planning. Conclusion: The model development is fit under stable environment conditions. Overall it can be recommended to adapt the proven linear programming model to production planning of Malaysian flat panel display industry.

  16. Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cereal Building (1926, Albert Kahn), with corner of Meat Products Building at left, looking northeast from Heinz Street. Heinz Lofts archway added ca. 2005. The bridge in the rear connects to the Bean Building. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Panorama of the Heinz Lofts complex: Meat Products Building (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panorama of the Heinz Lofts complex: Meat Products Building (far left), Cereal Building (left, with sign), and Reservoir Building (right, 1926), looking northwest from Heinz Street and River Avenue. The Riley Research Center (1958, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) can be seen at far right, still part of the Heinz Company. - H.J. Heinz Company Factories, 300 Heinz Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Camera image processing for automated crack detection of pressed panel products (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hoyeon; Jung, Hwee Kwon; Lee, Changwon; Park, Gyuhae

    2017-04-01

    Crack detection on pressed panel during the press forming process is an important step to ensure the quality of panel products. Traditional crack detection technique has been generally performed by experienced human inspectors, which is subjective and expensive. Therefore, the implementation of automated and accurate crack detection is necessary during the press forming process. In this study, we performed an optimal camera positioning and automated crack detection using two image processing techniques with multi-view-camera system. The first technique is based on evaluation of the panel edge lines which are extracted from a percolated object image. This technique does not require a reference image for crack detection. Another technique is based on the comparison between a reference and a test image using the local image amplitude mapping. Before crack detection, multi-view images of a panel product are captured using multiple cameras and 3D shape information is reconstructed. Optimal camera positions are then determined based on the shape information. Afterwards, cracks are automatically detected using two crack detection techniques based on image processing. In order to demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique, experiments were performed in the laboratory and the actual manufacturing lines with the real panel products. Experimental results show that proposed techniques could effectively improve the crack detection rate with improved speed.

  20. Stachybotrys atra Growth and Toxin Production in Some Building Materials and Fodder under Different Relative Humidities

    PubMed Central

    Nikulin, Marjo; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Berg, Seija; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa

    1994-01-01

    Growth of Stachybotrys atra and its toxin production on some building materials and in animal fodder were studied at relative humidities ranging from 78 to 100%. Toxins were detected by biological assays and chemical methods. Strong growth of the fungus and presence of macrocyclic trichothecenes, mainly satratoxins G and H, were detected on wallpaper and gypsum boards and in hay and straw at saturation conditions. On pine panels, S. atra grew well, but neither biological toxicity nor production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was observed. PMID:16349391

  1. Spatial panel data models of aquaculture production in West Sumatra province with random-effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartika, Wimi; Susetyo, Budi; Syafitri, Utami Dyah

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Panel Regression is a statistical model that used to analyze the effect of several independent variables on the dependent variable based on using panel data and take the spatial effect into account. There are two approaches on predicting spatial panel data, Fixed Effect Spatial Autoregressive (SAR-FE) and Random Effect Spatial Autoregressive (SAR-RE). SAR-FE has the assumption that the intercept has vary acrros spatial unit, while the SAR-RE's assumption is the interception is on residual model and it only has a general intercept. The purpose of this study is to modeling the production of West Sumatra fishery using Spatial Panel Regression. The model uses secondary data which is published by "Badan Pusat Statistik" on the results of aquaculture production in West Sumatra. The test results shown that the level of West Sumatra 2004-2012 aquaculture production was precisely modeled by the approach of Spatial Autoregressive Random Effect. From SAR-RE model, the most influence factors on aquaculture production in West Sumatra province in 2004-2012 was the number of motor boats, the area of fish seeds, fish seed production, and the number of fishermen public waters.

  2. Evaluation of Galvanized and Galvalume/Paint Duplex Coating Systems for Steel Building Panels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    more than 40 years (cf. web site for the Sustainable Building Sourcebook). Some literature sources suggest that Galvalume® may outperform galvanizing...by gloss and color retention (cf. web sites for: RSI, CBS, Sustainable Building Sourcebook). Manufacturers typically offer 20- to 30-year warranties...Paint Failures by Prohesion,” Journal of Oil and Color Chemists Association, vol 62, No. 4 (1970). Web Sites Sustainable Building Sourcebook

  3. The Impact of Educational Mismatch on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Linked Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We provide first evidence regarding the direct impact of educational mismatch on firm productivity. To do so, we rely on representative linked employer-employee panel data for Belgium covering the period 1999-2006. Controlling for simultaneity issues, time-invariant unobserved workplace characteristics, cohort effects and dynamics in the…

  4. The Impact of Educational Mismatch on Firm Productivity: Evidence from Linked Panel Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, Francois

    2012-01-01

    We provide first evidence regarding the direct impact of educational mismatch on firm productivity. To do so, we rely on representative linked employer-employee panel data for Belgium covering the period 1999-2006. Controlling for simultaneity issues, time-invariant unobserved workplace characteristics, cohort effects and dynamics in the…

  5. Production status of GaAs/Ge solar cells and panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B.; Gillanders, M.; Vijayakumar, P.; Lillington, D.; Yang, H.; Rolph, R.

    1991-01-01

    GaAs/Ge solar cells with lot average efficiencies in excess of 18 percent were produced by MOCVD growth techniques. A description of the cell, its performance and the production facility are discussed. Production GaAs/Ge cells of this type were recently assembled into circuits and bonded to aluminum honeycomb panels to be used as the solar array for the British UOSAT-F program.

  6. Engineering work plan for PFP criticality alarm panel first unit re-build

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, W.E.

    1994-09-14

    This document describes the first step in increasing the quality, reliability, and ease of maintenance of the nine Criticality Alarm Panels (CAP) at PFP. Development control practices and guidelines of WHC-CM-6-1, EP-2.4 and WHC-IP-1026, EPG-2.4 are applied to develop a prototype of a replacement Criticality Alarm Panel (CAP) with facility-use potential. During the development of the prototype CAP, the design requirements of all of PFP`s nine CAPs are considered to develop standardized hardware and detailed design drawings that are tailored to PFP maintenance needs. Increased quality and reliability is achieved through quality hardware, proven technology and design techniques, and the use of the Class 1E workmanship standards of WHC-CM-8-1. The end result of the work described by this work plan is a verified/read-to-install replacement for CAP Z4 and verified/released H-2 drawings that are formatted such that they can easily be replicated when producing design drawings for the other eight CAPs.

  7. Dent and Flint maize diversity panels reveal important genetic potential for increasing biomass production.

    PubMed

    Rincent, R; Nicolas, S; Bouchet, S; Altmann, T; Brunel, D; Revilla, P; Malvar, R A; Moreno-Gonzalez, J; Campo, L; Melchinger, A E; Schipprack, W; Bauer, E; Schoen, C-C; Meyer, N; Ouzunova, M; Dubreuil, P; Giauffret, C; Madur, D; Combes, V; Dumas, F; Bauland, C; Jamin, P; Laborde, J; Flament, P; Moreau, L; Charcosset, A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic and phenotypic analysis of two complementary maize panels revealed an important variation for biomass yield. Flowering and biomass QTL were discovered by association mapping in both panels. The high whole plant biomass productivity of maize makes it a potential source of energy in animal feeding and biofuel production. The variability and the genetic determinism of traits related to biomass are poorly known. We analyzed two highly diverse panels of Dent and Flint lines representing complementary heterotic groups for Northern Europe. They were genotyped with the 50 k SNP-array and phenotyped as hybrids (crossed to a tester of the complementary pool) in a western European field trial network for traits related to flowering time, plant height, and biomass. The molecular information revealed to be a powerful tool for discovering different levels of structure and relatedness in both panels. This study revealed important variation and potential genetic progress for biomass production, even at constant precocity. Association mapping was run by combining genotypes and phenotypes in a mixed model with a random polygenic effect. This permitted the detection of significant associations, confirming height and flowering time quantitative trait loci (QTL) found in literature. Biomass yield QTL were detected in both panels but were unstable across the environments. Alternative kinship estimator only based on markers unlinked to the tested SNP increased the number of significant associations by around 40% with a satisfying control of the false positive rate. This study gave insights into the variability and the genetic architectures of biomass-related traits in Flint and Dent lines and suggests important potential of these two pools for breeding high biomass yielding hybrid varieties.

  8. 30. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE CLEAN STEEL PRODUCTION BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE CLEAN STEEL PRODUCTION BUILDING WITH THE BOP SHOP IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. Effects of green buildings on employee health and productivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amanjeet; Syal, Matt; Grady, Sue C; Korkmaz, Sinem

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effects of improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on perceived health and productivity in occupants who moved from conventional to green (according to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ratings) office buildings. In 2 retrospective-prospective case studies we found that improved IEQ contributed to reductions in perceived absenteeism and work hours affected by asthma, respiratory allergies, depression, and stress and to self-reported improvements in productivity. These preliminary findings indicate that green buildings may positively affect public health.

  10. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings - Canada

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2014-01-01

    Low-rise nonresidential building construction is an important market in Canada for lumber, engineered wood products, structural wood panels, and nonstructural wood panels. This report examines wood products consumption in 2012 for construction of selected low-rise nonresidential buildings types that have six or fewer stories. Buildings with more than six stories are...

  11. Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Létourneau, Valérie; Nehmé, Benjamin; Mériaux, Anne; Massé, Daniel; Duchaine, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    Hog production has been substantially intensified in Eastern Canada. Hogs are now fattened in swine confinement buildings with controlled ventilation systems and high animal densities. Newly designed buildings are equipped with conventional manure handling and management systems, shallow or deep litter systems, or source separation systems to manage the large volumes of waste. However, the impacts of those alternative production systems on bioaerosol concentrations within the barns have never been evaluated. Bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected with various apparatuses. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes, as a total (culturable and nonculturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and molds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed nonstatistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with

  12. 24 CFR 200.935 - Administrator qualifications and procedures for HUD building products certification programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to HUD validate manufacturers' certifications that certain building products or materials meet... manufacturers' certifications that particular building products or materials meet applicable HUD standards. A... program validating the manufacturer's certification that a particular building product or material...

  13. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be...

  14. Applications of biopolymers and other biotechnological products in building materials.

    PubMed

    Plank, Johann

    2004-11-01

    Bio admixtures are functional molecules used in building products to optimize material properties. They include natural or modified biopolymers, biotechnological and biodegradable products. Concrete and dry-mix mortars (e.g. wall plasters or tile adhesives) represent two major applications for bio admixtures. Examples of bio products used in concrete are lignosulfonate, sodium gluconate, pine root extract, protein hydrolysates and Welan gum; and in dry-mix mortar methyl hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl starch, guar gum, tartaric acid, casein, succinoglycan and Xanthan gum. In a number of applications, bio admixtures compete well with synthetic admixtures. Sometimes, they are indispensable in the formulation of certain building products. Their market share is expected to increase because of technological advances, particularly in the field of microbial biopolymers, and because of the growing trend to use naturally based or biodegradable products in building materials.

  15. Lightweight panel study 2012: Perceptions and usage by North American wood products manufacturers

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karl D. Forth

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight panels (panels made of two thin panels on the outside and a lightweight material in the core) can offer enhanced performance, reduced material use, and new design opportunities over traditional types of panels. Opportunities exist for the adoption of lightweight panels by the secondary wood industry in North America, as 62 percent of respondents to a recent...

  16. Environmental Performance of North American Wood Panel Manufacturing

    Treesearch

    R. Bergman; D. Kaestner; A. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing building products such as wood panels has environmental impacts, including contributions to climate change. This paper is a compilation of four studies quantifying these impacts using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) method on five wood-based panel products made in North America during 2012. LCA is an internationally accepted and standardized method for...

  17. Life cycle impacts of North American wood panel Manufacturing

    Treesearch

    Richard Bergman; D. Kaestner; A. M. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Manufacturing building products such as wood panels impacts the environment, including contributing to climate change. This study is a compilation of four studies quantifying these impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method on five wood-based panel products made in North America during 2012. LCA is an internationally accepted and standardized method for...

  18. Building biochips: a protein production pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho-Kavanagh, Marianne G. S.; Albala, Joanna S.

    2004-06-01

    Protein arrays are emerging as a practical format in which to study proteins in high-throughput using many of the same techniques as that of the DNA microarray. The key advantage to array-based methods for protein study is the potential for parallel analysis of thousands of samples in an automated, high-throughput fashion. Building protein arrays capable of this analysis capacity requires a robust expression and purification system capable of generating hundreds to thousands of purified recombinant proteins. We have developed a method to utilize LLNL-I.M.A.G.E. cDNAs to generate recombinant protein libraries using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. We have used this strategy to produce proteins for analysis of protein/DNA and protein/protein interactions using protein microarrays in order to understand the complex interactions of proteins involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair. Using protein array techniques, a novel interaction between the DNA repair protein, Rad51B, and histones has been identified.

  19. Building Biochips: A Protein Production Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    de Carvalho-Kavanagh, M; Albala, J S

    2004-02-09

    Protein arrays are emerging as a practical format in which to study proteins in high-throughput using many of the same techniques as that of the DNA microarray. The key advantage to array-based methods for protein study is the potential for parallel analysis of thousands of samples in an automated, high-throughput fashion. Building protein arrays capable of this analysis capacity requires a robust expression and purification system capable of generating hundreds to thousands of purified recombinant proteins. We have developed a method to utilize LLNL-I.M.A.G.E. cDNAs to generate recombinant protein libraries using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. We have used this strategy to produce proteins for analysis of protein/DNA and protein/protein interactions using protein microarrays in order to understand the complex interactions of proteins involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair. Using protein array techniques, a novel interaction between the DNA repair protein, Rad51B, and histones has been identified.

  20. Comparison of Advanced SPF Die Technologies in the Forming of a Production Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Luckey, S. G.; Copple, W. B.; Friedman, P. A.

    2008-04-01

    Superplastic forming (SPF) is a manufacturing process that can facilitate increased use of aluminum in automobile body structures. Despite considerable advantages with regards to formability and tooling costs, the process has been mostly limited to low volume production due to relatively long cycle times and the need to use specially processed sheet alloys. To address these issues, advanced processes such as two stage gas forming (TSGF) and hot draw mechanical pre-forming (HDMP) have been developed. Advantages of these processes have been demonstrated on the forming of a complex dash panel part. Final thickness distribution and forming time on this part manufactured with these two processes were compared to that of the same panel produced with conventional SPF. The HDMP technology which combines hot stamping with SPF was found to have the capability of forming a complex shaped component with a superior thickness profile and faster forming cycle than that formed with a conventional single stage or two stage forming cycle. Additionally, the HDMP process proved to be a robust process with a wide temperature window and allowed for the forming of lower-cost, non-spf aluminum, and magnesium sheet alloys. Finally, analysis of the post-form microstructure indicated that there was essentially no cavitation in panels formed with the HDMP process and that material with a coarse grain structure could be successfully formed.

  1. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, P.; Yan, Hui; Banerjee, S.

    1997-10-01

    This progress report summarizes three accomplishments in a study of low volatile organic compound (VOC) drying of lumber and wood panel products. A mathematical model for predicting moisture emissions from particle was constructed and is being extended to VOCs. VOCs emissions from drying boards show that VOCs appear to be evenly released from all surfaces. Preliminary results from monthly analyses of loblolly pines indicate that resin acids appear to decrease between March to August, and that no consistent trends are apparent for terpenes. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effects of Green Buildings on Employee Health and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amanjeet; Syal, Matt; Korkmaz, Sinem

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) on perceived health and productivity in occupants who moved from conventional to green (according to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ratings) office buildings. In 2 retrospective–prospective case studies we found that improved IEQ contributed to reductions in perceived absenteeism and work hours affected by asthma, respiratory allergies, depression, and stress and to self-reported improvements in productivity. These preliminary findings indicate that green buildings may positively affect public health. PMID:20634460

  3. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species

    PubMed Central

    Kamileen, Mohamed O.; Conway, Megan E.; O’Connor, Sarah E.; Buell, C. Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry. PMID:28609455

  4. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    PubMed

    Leisner, Courtney P; Kamileen, Mohamed O; Conway, Megan E; O'Connor, Sarah E; Buell, C Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  5. Analysis of Palm Oil Production, Export, and Government Consumption to Gross Domestic Product of Five Districts in West Kalimantan by Panel Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistianingsih, E.; Kiftiah, M.; Rosadi, D.; Wahyuni, H.

    2017-04-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an indicator of economic growth in a region. GDP is a panel data, which consists of cross-section and time series data. Meanwhile, panel regression is a tool which can be utilised to analyse panel data. There are three models in panel regression, namely Common Effect Model (CEM), Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM). The models will be chosen based on results of Chow Test, Hausman Test and Lagrange Multiplier Test. This research analyses palm oil about production, export, and government consumption to five district GDP are in West Kalimantan, namely Sanggau, Sintang, Sambas, Ketapang and Bengkayang by panel regression. Based on the results of analyses, it concluded that REM, which adjusted-determination-coefficient is 0,823, is the best model in this case. Also, according to the result, only Export and Government Consumption that influence GDP of the districts.

  6. Flight Qualification And Production Results With Large Area Space Solar Cells And Panel Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Hanley, James; Jun, Bogim; Bardfield, Rina; Stone, Beth

    2011-10-01

    Spectrolab's product roadmap provides improvement in product performance in parallel with continuous cost reduction to maintain competitive standing in our industry. Product performance improvement is achieved by developing higher efficiency solar cells (e.g. 29.5% XTJ and 33% IMM cells).Reduced product cost is achieved historically through a variety of means including yield improvements, direct material cost reductions, process changes, and most recently, a transition to large area cell configurations (e.g. "LEONE" at 59.65 cm2). Spectrolab has successfully completed the qualification of its latest triple junction space solar cell, the 29.5% 2 XTJ (26.62 cm ), per AIAA-S-111-2005 - augmented by additional Spectrolab testing. Large area LEONE UTJ and XTJ cells (59.65 cm2 from 100 mm diameter germanium wafer) have also been qualified. Use of these large area cells has resulted in the reduction of solar panel cost, add-on mass and manufacturing cycle time for programs. This evolution to larger area cells is the result of a strategic cost reduction effort initiated in 2006; the first step of which was to manufacture the largest possible cells (LEONE) using the 100 mm germanium (Ge) wafer. In flight production since 2007, the LEONE UTJ cell has now completed rigorous qualification testing to 15,549 GEO (Geosynchronous orbit) and 66,060 LEO (Low Earth Orbit) thermal cycles. Over 53,000 LEONE UTJ cells, including more than 27,000 cells on panels delivered to flight programs, have been produced to date. The on-orbit performance of the LEONE UTJ cells is nominal. Finally, progress on the second step of our strategic cost reduction effort towards larger cells and less piece part handling is presented. This effort involves the establishment of a 150 mm Ge -based manufacturing infrastructure.

  7. The correlation between thermal comfort in buildings and fashion products.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Aline; de Mello Souza, Patrícia

    2012-01-01

    This article is about thermal comfort in the wearable product. The research correlates fashion and architecture, in so far as it elects the brise soleil - an architectural element capable of regulating temperature and ventilation inside buildings - as a study referential, in trying to transpose and adapt its mechanisms to the wearable apparel.

  8. Building a Distributed Product Description for the Joint Strike Fighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-15

    Jim Hollenbach Simulation Strategies , Inc. DPD Project Coordinator Building a Distributed Product Description for the Joint Strike Fighter... Strategies , Inc. Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name(s) and Address(es) NDIA (National Defense Industrial...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. JSF SBA Strategy for EMD • Fall 2001: Down-select to one Weapon System Contractor, enter

  9. Evaluating Fenestration Products for Zero-Energy Buildings: Issuesfor Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Arasteh, Dariush; Curcija, Charlie; Huang, Joe; Huizenga,Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2006-07-25

    Computer modeling to determine fenestration product energy properties (U-factor, SHGC, VT) has emerged as the most cost-effective and accurate means to quantify them. Fenestration product simulation tools have been effective in increasing the use of low-e coatings and gas fills in insulating glass and in the widespread use of insulating frame designs and materials. However, for more efficient fenestration products (low heat loss products, dynamic products, products with non-specular optical characteristics, light re-directing products) to achieve widespread use, fenestration modeling software needs to be improved. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Are the current properties (U, SHGC, VT) calculated sufficient to compare and distinguish between windows suitable for Zero Energy Buildings and conventional window products? If not, what data on the thermal and optical performance, on comfort, and on peak demand of windows is needed. (2) Are the algorithms in the tools sufficient to model the thermal and optical processes? Are specific heat transfer and optical effects not accounted for? Is the existing level of accuracy enough to distinguish between products designed for Zero Energy Buildings? Is the current input data adequate?

  10. VIEW FROM THE PRODUCTION FLOOR OF BUILDING 460, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM THE PRODUCTION FLOOR OF BUILDING 460, LOOKING WEST. THE BUILDING 460 HOUSED EQUIPMENT, SYSTEMS, AND PERSONNEL FOR FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY, AND TESTING OF STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS SUCH AS RESERVOIRS, TUBES, AND NON-FISSILE TRIGGER COMPONENTS. THE PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS A T-BASED LATHE WITH AN OPTICAL COMPARITOR FOR MACHINING OF STAINLESS STEEL IN THE LOWER LEFT CORNER. THE DRUM IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER CONTAINS STAINLESS STEEL TURNING COLLECTED FROM THE LATHE. (9/11/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval: a panel discussion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alyson J; Barr, Helen; Greenberg, Marna R; Safdar, Basmah; Wildgoose, Peter; Wright, David W; Hollander, Judd E

    2014-12-01

    On May 13, 2014, a 1-hour panel discussion session titled "Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval" was held during the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." The session sought to bring together leaders in emergency medicine (EM) research, authors, and reviewers in EM research publications, as well as faculty, fellows, residents, and students engaged in research and clinical practice. A panel was convened involving a representative from the Office of Women's Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, two pharmaceutical executives, and a clinical EM researcher. The moderated discussion also involved audience members who contributed significantly to the dialogue. Historical background leading up to the session along with the main themes of the discussion are reproduced in this article. These revolve around sex- and gender-specific research, statistical analysis of sex and gender, clinical practice, financial costs associated with pharmaceutical development, adaptive design, and specific recommendations on the regulatory process as it affects the specialty of EM.

  12. Gender-specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval: A Panel Discussion

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Alyson J.; Barr, Helen; Greenberg, Marna Rayl; Safdar, Basmah; Wildgoose, Peter; Wright, David W.; Hollander, Judd E.

    2015-01-01

    On May 13, 2014, a 1-hour panel discussion session titled “Gender-Specific Regulatory Challenges to Product Approval” was held during the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, “Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Medicine: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes.” The session sought to bring together leaders in emergency medicine (EM) research, authors, and reviewers in EM research publications, as well as faculty, fellows, residents, and students engaged in research and clinical practice. A panel was convened involving a representative from the Office of Women’s Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, two pharmaceutical executives, and a clinical EM researcher. The moderated discussion also involved audience members who contributed significantly to the dialogue. Historical background leading up to the session along with the main themes of the discussion are reproduced in this article. These revolve around sex- and gender-specific research, statistical analysis of sex and gender, clinical practice, financial costs associated with pharmaceutical development, adaptive design, and specific recommendations on the regulatory process as it affects the specialty of EM. PMID:25443664

  13. Design Competitions and Expert Panels: Similar Objectives, Very Different Paths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Sue Klein's comparative analysis on Design Competitions and Expert Panels (Educational Research, 1997) in which the author addresses drawbacks of the Expert Panels approach to educational product evaluation. Cautions that the approach is so minimalist a strategy that it could inhibit more serious attempts to build a system based on…

  14. Performance of fasteners in wood flour-thermoplastic composite panels

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Falk; Daniel J. Vos; Steven M. Cramer; Brent W. English

    2001-01-01

    In the building community, there is a growing demand for high-performance, low-maintenance, and low-cost building products. To meet this demand, natural fiberthermoplastic composites are being used to produce such products as decking, window and door elements, panels, roofing, and siding. In spite of the rapid growth in the use of these composites, little is known...

  15. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs. Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-04-01

    This report identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009.

  16. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  17. Comparison of tubular and panel type photobioreactors for biohydrogen production utilizing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii considering mixing time and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Oncel, S; Kose, A

    2014-01-01

    Two different photobioreactor designs; tubular and panel, were investigated for the biohydrogen production utilizing a green microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain CC124 following the two stage protocol. Mixing time and light intensity of the systems were adjusted to compare the productivity of both aerobic culture phase and the following anaerobic biohydrogen production phase. The results showed there was an effect on both phases related with the design. During the aerobic phase bigger illumination area serving more energy, tubular photobioreactor reached higher biomass productivity of 31.8±2.1 mg L(-1) h(-1) which was about 11% higher than the panel photobioreactor. On the other hand biohydrogen productivity in the panel photobioreactor reached a value of 1.3±0.05 mL L(-1) h(-1) based on the efficient removal of biohydrogen gas. According to the results it would be a good approach to utilize tubular design for aerobic phase and panel for biohydrogen production phase.

  18. With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells, a model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-18

    With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells, a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Optimal angle of polycrystalline silicon solar panels placed in a building using the ant colony optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saouane, I.; Chaker, A.; Zaidi, B.; Shekhar, C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the mathematical model used to determine the amount of solar radiation received on an inclined solar photovoltaic panel. The optimum slope angles for each month, season, and year have also been calculated for a solar photovoltaic panel. The optimization of the procedure to maximize the solar energy collected by the solar panel by varying the tilt angle is also presented. As a first step, the global solar radiation on the horizontal surface of a thermal photovoltaic panel during clear sky is estimated. Thereafter, the Muneer model, which provides the most accurate estimation of the total solar radiation at a given geographical point has been used to determine the optimum collector slope. Also, the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm was applied to obtain the optimum tilt angle settings for PV collector to improve the PV collector efficiency. The results show good agreement between calculated and predicted results. Additionally, this paper presents studies carried out on the polycrystalline silicon solar panels for electrical energy generation in the city of Ghardaia. The electrical energy generation has been studied as a function of amount of irradiation received and the angle of optimum orientation of the solar panels.

  20. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of...

  1. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... label; it may appear anywhere on that label in accord with section 502(e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  2. Production of Doctorates in the Biosciences, 1975-1980: An Experimental Forecast. Higher Education Panel Reports, No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was undertaken in 1976 to obtain short-term estimates of doctorate production directly from the heads of the science departments involved. These biosciences departments were surveyed in the 235 member institutions of the Higher Education Panel that grant doctorates: anatomy, biochemistry, biology, biometry/biostatistics/biomathematics,…

  3. Wood-based composite materials : panel products, glued-laminated timber, structural composite lumber, and wood-nonwood composite materials

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Zhiyong Cai; Charles Carll

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the general types and composition of wood-based composite products and the materials and processes used to manufacture them. It describes conventional wood-based composite panels and structural composite materials intended for general construction, interior use, or both. This chapter also describes wood–nonwood composites. Mechanical...

  4. Lumber and panel products consumption for packaging and shipping in the United States, perspective for the 1980`s

    Treesearch

    D. B. McKeever; H. E. Dickerhoof

    Trends in demand for lumber and panel products in packaging and materials handling are examined both for the past and the future. Effects of recent technological developments and innovations such as molded particleboard pallets, medium-density fiberboard pallets, and plywood pallets, are analyzed. Increased use of pallets is seen as the main reason for the expected...

  5. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUG...

  6. Mechanization and automation of production processes in turbine building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodyanyuk, V. P.

    1984-02-01

    Specialists at the All-Union Institute of Planning and Technology of Energy Machine Building are working on the problem of mechanization and automation of production processes. One of the major technological processes being worked on is the production of welded units. At the present time the Institute has designed a centralized cutting and manufacturing shop in use at several metallurgical plants, clamping devices for materials hoists based on permanent magnets, a program controlled installation for driving shaped apertures in welded diaphragm rims and an automated system for planning technological processes involved in manufacturing operations. Even in the manufacture of such individualized devices as turbines, mechanization and automation of production processes are economically justified. During the 11th Five Year Plan, the Institute will continue to develop progressive technological processes and equipment for precise shaping of turbine blade blanks, mechanical working of parts of steam, gas and hydraulic turbines, as well as nuclear powerplant turbines.

  7. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  8. Make Your Own Solar Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, David

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  9. Continuous production of diatom Entomoneis sp. in mechanically stirred tank and flat-panel airlift photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Viriyayingsiri, Thunyaporn; Sittplangkoon, Pantaporn; Powtongsook, Sorawit; Nootong, Kasidit

    2016-10-02

    Continuous production of diatom Entomonies sp. was performed in mechanically stirred tank and flat-panel airlift photobioreactors (FPAP). The maximum specific growth rate of diatom from the batch experiment was 0.98 d(-1). A series of dilution rate and macronutrient concentration adjustments were performed in a stirred tank photobioreactor and found that the dilution rate ranged from 0.7 to 0.8 d(-1) and modified F/2 growth media containing nitrate at 3.09 mg N/L, phosphate at 2.24 mg P/L, and silicate at 11.91 mg Si/L yielded the maximum cell number density. Finally, the continuous cultivation of Entomonies sp. was conducted in FPAP using the optimal conditions determined earlier, resulting in the maximum cell number density of 19.69 × 10(4) cells/mL, which was approximately 47 and 73% increase from the result using the stirred tank photobioreactor fed with modified and standard F/2 growth media, respectively.

  10. Detecting photovoltaic solar panels using hyperspectral imagery and estimating solar power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirjak, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.

  11. Influence of panel fastening on the acoustic performance of light-weight building elements: Study by sound transmission and laser scanning vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roozen, N. B.; Muellner, H.; Labelle, L.; Rychtáriková, M.; Glorieux, C.

    2015-06-01

    Structural details and workmanship can cause considerable differences in sound insulation properties of timber frame partitions. In this study, the influence of panel fastening is investigated experimentally by means of standardized sound reduction index measurements, supported by detailed scanning laser Doppler vibrometry. In particular the effect of the number of screws used to fasten the panels to the studs, and the tightness of the screws, is studied using seven different configurations of lightweight timber frame building elements. In the frequency range from 300 to 4000 Hz, differences in the weighted sound reduction index RW as large as 10 dB were measured, suggesting that the method of fastening can have a large impact on the acoustic performance of building elements. Using the measured vibrational responses of the element, its acoustic radiation efficiency was computed numerically by means of a Rayleigh integral. The increased radiation efficiency partly explains the reduced sound reduction index. Loosening the screws, or reducing the number of screws, lowers the radiation efficiency, and significantly increases the sound reduction index of the partition.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Zero Net-Energy Homes Production Builder Business Case: California/Florida Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Grupe Homes of Sacramento’s work with Building America to design California’s first production-scale community of solar homes. The homes outsold neighboring developments two to one.

  13. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F; Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Andersen, B; Thrane, U; Frisvad, J C

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and thin layer chromatography. All six isolates of C. globosum produced the toxic chaetoglobosins A and C, at levels of up to 50 and 7 microg/cm2 respectively. The quantities of secondary metabolites produced by Penicillia were generally low, and no toxin production was detected from any of the five isolates of Pen. chrysogenum. Both isolates of Pen. polonicum produced 3-methoxy-viridicatin, verrucosidin, and verrucofortine. Two of five isolates of Pen. brevicompactum produced mycophenolic acid. From five out of six isolates of Alternaria spp., altenariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were detected. From Ulocladium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Asp. ustus no known mycotoxins were detected, although the latter two are known mycotoxin producers. Asp. niger produced several naphtho-gamma-pyrones and tetra-cyclic compounds. All investigated species, especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C. globosum produced the chaetoglobosins A and C, and Pen. chrysogenum produced the antibiotic meleagrin.

  14. Perspectives of flax processing wastes in building materials production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of using the flax boons for thermal insulation materials. The solution for systematization of materials based on flax boon is suggested. It based on the principle of building materials production using the flax waste with different types of binders. The purpose of the research is to obtain heat-insulating materials with different structure based on agricultural production waste - flax boon, mineral and organic binders. The composition and properties of organic filler - flax boons - are defined using infrared spectroscopy and standard techniques. Using the method of multivariate analysis the optimal ratio of flax boons and binders in production of pressed, porous and granular materials are determined. The effect of particles size distribution of flax boons on the strength of samples with the different composition is studied. As a result, the optimized compositions of pressed, porous and granular materials based on flax boons are obtained. Data on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials are given in the paper.

  15. Forming Process Simulation of Truss Core Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokura, Sunao; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    Honeycomb panel is widely used as flooring or wall material in various structure including buildings, aircraft, train and so on due to high stiffness and lightness at present. Honeycomb panel, however, has a disadvantage that adhesive used to glue honeycomb core and top plate may burn by fire. On the other hand truss core panel has equivalent stiffness as honeycomb panel and is expected to be an alternative to honeycomb panel as it is safer for fire. However, in general, difficulty exists to form truss core and forming techniques should be developed for practice use of truss core panel. In this paper, firstly theoretical forming limitation is discussed for tetrahedral truss core . Secondly single stage forming simulation of truss core panel using explicit FEM technique was performed for preliminary investigation to estimate formability and thickness distribution. Finally multi-stage forming simulation was presented and possibility to apply press forming for truss core panel production through the simulation. In addition some results of the simulation was compared with the experiment and good agreement of both results was shown.

  16. Joint production and substitution in timber supply: a panel data analysis

    Treesearch

    Torjus F Bolkesjo; Joseph Buongiorno; Birger Solberg

    2010-01-01

    Supply equations for sawlog and pulpwood were developed with a panel of data from 102 Norwegian municipalities, observed from 1980 to 2000. Static and dynamic models were estimated by cross-section, time-series andpanel data methods. A static model estimated by first differencing gavethe best overall results in terms of theoretical expectations, pattern ofresiduals,...

  17. Evaluation of productivity in Iranian pharmaceutical companies: A DEA-based Malmquist approach and panel data analysis.

    PubMed

    Varmaghani, Mehdi; Meshkini, Amir Hashemi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Yousefi, Mehdi; Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Varahrami, Vida; Darzi, Ehsan Rezaei; Anabi, Majid; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess comparative productivity of 21 pharmaceutical companies in Iran during 2000-2013. To evaluate the productivity trend of pharmaceutical companies in Iran, we used data envelopment analysis-based Malmquist index. "Total assets" and "capital stock" as inputs and "net sales" and "net profit" as outputs extracted from Tehran stock exchange, were selected to be included in the analysis. This method provides the possibility for analyzing the performance of each company in term of productivity changes over time. We also used an estimation generalized least square panel data model to identify the factors that might affect productivity of pharmaceutical companies in Iran using EViews 7 and Deep 2.1 software. The mean total productivity during all years of the study was 0.9829, which indicates the improvement in their overall productivity. The results, over the 13-year period, indicated that the range of productivity changes in pharmaceutical companies, that were included in this study, was between 0.884 and 1.098. Panel data model indicated that age of company could positively (t = 4.765978, P < 0.001) and being located in cities other than Tehran (the capital) could negatively (t = -5.369549, P < 0.001) affect the productivity of pharmaceutical companies. The analysis showed the new policy (brand-generic scheme) and also the type of ownership did not have a significant effect on the productivity of pharmaceutical companies. In this study, pharmaceutical productivity trends were fluctuated that could be due to the sub-optimal attention of policy makers and managers of pharmaceutical companies toward long-term strategic planning, focusing on productivity improvement.

  18. Evaluation of productivity in Iranian pharmaceutical companies: A DEA-based Malmquist approach and panel data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Varmaghani, Mehdi; Meshkini, Amir Hashemi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Yousefi, Mehdi; Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Varahrami, Vida; Darzi, Ehsan Rezaei; Anabi, Majid; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to assess comparative productivity of 21 pharmaceutical companies in Iran during 2000–2013. Methods: To evaluate the productivity trend of pharmaceutical companies in Iran, we used data envelopment analysis-based Malmquist index. “Total assets” and “capital stock” as inputs and “net sales” and “net profit” as outputs extracted from Tehran stock exchange, were selected to be included in the analysis. This method provides the possibility for analyzing the performance of each company in term of productivity changes over time. We also used an estimation generalized least square panel data model to identify the factors that might affect productivity of pharmaceutical companies in Iran using EViews 7 and Deep 2.1 software. Findings: The mean total productivity during all years of the study was 0.9829, which indicates the improvement in their overall productivity. The results, over the 13-year period, indicated that the range of productivity changes in pharmaceutical companies, that were included in this study, was between 0.884 and 1.098. Panel data model indicated that age of company could positively (t = 4.765978, P < 0.001) and being located in cities other than Tehran (the capital) could negatively (t = −5.369549, P < 0.001) affect the productivity of pharmaceutical companies. The analysis showed the new policy (brand-generic scheme) and also the type of ownership did not have a significant effect on the productivity of pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion: In this study, pharmaceutical productivity trends were fluctuated that could be due to the sub-optimal attention of policy makers and managers of pharmaceutical companies toward long-term strategic planning, focusing on productivity improvement. PMID:25984541

  19. Succinic Acid-A Model Building Block for Chemical Production from Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, John G.; Holladay, John E.

    2006-04-01

    One of the major considerations for the development of new technologies that can be utilized in a corn wet mill for the production of new chemical products is the concept of platform building blocks. This concept is based on the fact that a single building block has the potential to create a significant number of final products. Succinic acid represents a building block that can be used as a starting material for producing a large number of commodity and specialty chemicals.

  20. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  1. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub...

  2. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub...

  3. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub...

  4. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic shower receptors and stalls, plastic lavatories, plastic water closet bowls and tanks. 200.937 Section... procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub...

  5. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  6. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  7. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  8. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  9. 24 CFR 200.943 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the grademarking of lumber. 200... Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification program for the... that the lumber was green or dry at the time of dressing; (7) Indication that the lumber was...

  10. A Study on a Novel Phase Change Material Panel Based on Tetradecanol/Lauric Acid/Expanded Perlite/Aluminium Powder for Building Heat Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Enyu; Kong, Xiangfei; Rong, Xian; Yao, Chengqiang; Yang, Hua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-01

    Phase change material (PCM) used in buildings can reduce the building energy consumption and indoor temperature fluctuation. A composite PCM has been fabricated by the binary eutectic mixture of tetradecanol (TD) and lauric acid (LA) absorbed into the expanded perlite (EP) using vacuum impregnation method, and its thermal conductivity was promoted by aluminium powder (AP) additive. Besides, the styrene-acrylic emulsion has been mixed with the composite PCM particles to form the protective film, so as to solve the problem of leakage. Thus, a novel PCM panel (PCMP) has been prepared using compression moulding forming method. The thermal property, microstructure characteristic, mechanical property, thermal conductivity, thermal reliability and leakage of the composite PCM have been investigated and analysed. Meanwhile, the thermal performance of the prepared PCMP was tested through PCMPs installed on the inside wall of a cell under outdoor climatic conditions. The composite PCM has a melting temperature of 24.9 °C, a freezing temperature of 25.2 °C, a melting latent heat of 78.2 J/g and a freezing latent heat of 81.3 J/g. The thermal conductivity test exposed that the thermal conductivity has been enhanced with the addition of AP and the latent heat has been decreased, but it still remains in a high level. The leakage test result has proven that liquid PCM leaking has been avoided by the surface film method. The thermal performance experiment has shown the significant function of PCMP about adjusting the indoor temperature and reducing the heats transferring between the wall inside and outside. In view of the thermal performance, mechanical property and thermal reliability results, it can be concluded that the prepared PCMP has a promising building application potential. PMID:28774020

  11. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    PubMed

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm], or mold levels, which were tested by 7 parameters) correlated directly with individual health symptoms. Indicators of atopy or allergy (sinusitis, allergies, and asthma), when present singly, in combinations of 2 conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely

  12. Design and fabrication of composite wing panels containing a production splice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Bolted specimens representative of both upper and lower wing surface splices of a transport aircraft were designed and manufactured for static and random load tension and compression fatigue testing including ground-air-ground load reversals. The specimens were fabricated with graphite-epoxy composite material. Multiple tests were conducted at various load levels and the results were used as input to a statistical wearout model. The statically designed specimens performed very well under highly magnified fatigue loadings. Two large panels, one tension and compression, were fabricated for testing by NASA-LRC.

  13. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  14. Boards and panels aren`t just wood products anymore: Two innovative customer feedback techniques at Duke Power

    SciTech Connect

    Ireland, G.

    1994-11-01

    In their push to become truly customer-driven, utilities have come to require a greater amount of customer input and feedback than ever before. Likewise, in this changing environment, speed and cost-effectiveness have become the name of the game in all that they do. In response to these demands and pressures, Duke Power has developed two methods of getting residential customer feedback and input in a cost-effective and timely way: the Board of Customers (for qualitative feedback) and the Consumer Panel (for quantitative applications). These feedback tools have been used successfully at Duke Power for a variety of applications, including gleaning customer reaction to customer service options, concept-testing product ideas, and assessing corporate image and reputation. With both qualitative and quantitative capabilities in place, Duke Power has the ability to respond quickly to a variety of needs and situations. For example, Duke used the Consumer Panel to implement a lengthy mail survey on image and reputation in a total of 25 days. Likewise, using a regularly scheduled quarterly meeting of the Board of Customers, Duke was able to provide customer reactions to a product concept within 48 hours of the client`s request. As the nature of competition continues to change in the utility industry, the ability to gather cost-effective customer input for quick, concise decision-making will be even more vital to maintaining the competitive edge. This paper describes the design, implementation and applications of the Board of Customers and the Consumer Panel, and how these two innovative tools translate to the bottom line in cost-effective decision-making at Duke Power.

  15. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A procedure for sensory detection of androstenone in meat and meat products from entire male pigs: Development of a panel training.

    PubMed

    Garrido, M Dolores; Egea, Macarena; Linares, M Belén; Martínez, Beatriz; Viera, Ceferina; Rubio, Begoña; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc

    2016-12-01

    This study represents a proposal for training sensory panels in androstenone (AND) perception in meat and meat products. The procedure consists of four main parts: (1) selection and training of a sensory panel (11 panelists) using standards with Vaseline oil media as carriers of AND and skatole (SKA); (2) developing a training method AND detection in meat; (3) dry cured meat product and (4) cooked meat product. All candidates were able to distinguish between AND, SKA and AND+SKA in Vaseline oil, order AND solutions with different concentrations and classify them in the three categories: low, medium and high. The panel was able to differentiate the meat in the three categories, but only the high level in meat products. Due to the individual features in AND perception, specific training for each type of product is required.

  17. Clinical review: Canadian National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products - Massive Transfusion Consensus Conference 2011: report of the panel

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011 the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products sponsored an international consensus conference on transfusion and trauma. A panel of 10 experts and two external advisors reviewed the current medical literature and information presented at the conference by invited international speakers and attendees. The Consensus Panel addressed six specific questions on the topic of blood transfusion in trauma. The questions focused on: ratio-based blood resuscitation in trauma patients; the impact of survivorship bias in current research conclusions; the value of nonplasma coagulation products; the role of protocols for delivery of urgent transfusion; the merits of traditional laboratory monitoring compared with measures of clot viscoelasticity; and opportunities for future research. Key findings include a lack of evidence to support the use of 1:1:1 blood component ratios as the standard of care, the importance of early use of tranexamic acid, the expected value of an organized response plan, and the recommendation for an integrated approach that includes antifibrinolytics, rapid release of red blood cells, and a foundation ratio of blood components adjusted by results from either traditional coagulation tests or clot viscoelasticity or both. The present report is intended to provide guidance to practitioners, hospitals, and policy-makers. PMID:22188866

  18. Changes in productivity, psychological wellbeing and physical wellbeing from working in a 'green' building.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew; Milner, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Based on improvements in indoor environmental quality claims are that 'green' buildings are healthier and promote greater productivity than conventional buildings. However, the empirical evidence over the last decade has been inconclusive, usually with flawed study designs. This study explored whether a 'green' building leads to a healthier, more productive work environment. A one-year, longitudinal comparison of two groups of employees of a large commercial bank; a group that moved into a GreenStar-accredited building and a group that stayed in a conventional building, was conducted. Measures of psychological wellbeing, physical wellbeing, productivity, and perceptions of the physical environment were taken before the move, six months later, and one year later. Results indicate that the 'green' building group had significantly increased self-reported productivity and physical wellbeing. The perceptions of the physical work environment indicate that respondents in the 'green' building group experienced significant air quality improvements (specifically, reduced stale air, better ventilation, improved air movement, reduced humidity, and conditions that were not too drafty) but perceived the lighting conditions as dimmer. Despite positive findings 'green' building rating tools require amendment to focus on those qualities that actually lead to improved wellbeing and productivity.

  19. Product line development by DRG builds market strength.

    PubMed

    Block, L F; Press, C E

    1985-12-01

    In this excerpt from the book Building Market Strength Through DRGs, DRGs are divided into three categories--profit makers, break-even DRGs, and losers. It is the marketer's responsibility to attract patients with profitable DRGs, examine break-even DRGs for potential profitability, and determine whether losers should be continued.

  20. Structural wood products in onshore buildings at Naval Station Norfolk, 2000.

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever

    2003-01-01

    As of December 31, 2000, there were 603 buildings at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Norfolk with a combined floor area of nearly 17.3 million ft2. In one-third of these buildings, structural wood products were used in one or more major structural building applications, utilizing an estimated 11.6 million board feet of lumber, 0.4 million ft2 (3/8-in. basis) of structural...

  1. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Treesearch

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  2. Building a statistical emulator for prediction of crop yield response to climate change: a global gridded panel data set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Malcolm; De Cian, Enrica; Wing, Ian Sue

    2015-04-01

    There is widespread concern that trends and variability in weather induced by climate change will detrimentally affect global agricultural productivity and food supplies. Reliable quantification of the risks of negative impacts at regional and global scales is a critical research need, which has so far been met by forcing state-of-the-art global gridded crop models with outputs of global climate model (GCM) simulations in exercises such as the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP)-Fastrack. Notwithstanding such progress, it remains challenging to use these simulation-based projections to assess agricultural risk because their gridded fields of crop yields are fundamentally denominated as discrete combinations of warming scenarios, GCMs and crop models, and not as model-specific or model-averaged yield response functions of meteorological shifts, which may have their own independent probability of occurrence. By contrast, the empirical climate economics literature has adeptly represented agricultural responses to meteorological variables as reduced-form statistical response surfaces which identify the crop productivity impacts of additional exposure to different intervals of temperature and precipitation [cf Schlenker and Roberts, 2009]. This raises several important questions: (1) what do the equivalent reduced-form statistical response surfaces look like for crop model outputs, (2) do they exhibit systematic variation over space (e.g., crop suitability zones) or across crop models with different characteristics, (3) how do they compare to estimates based on historical observations, and (4) what are the implications for the characterization of climate risks? We address these questions by estimating statistical yield response functions for four major crops (maize, rice, wheat and soybeans) over the historical period (1971-2004) as well as future climate change scenarios (2005-2099) using ISIMIP-Fastrack data for five GCMs and seven crop models

  3. Multi-omic profiling -of EPO-producing Chinese hamster ovary cell panel reveals metabolic adaptation to heterologous protein production.

    PubMed

    Ley, Daniel; Seresht, Ali Kazemi; Engmark, Mikael; Magdenoska, Olivera; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-11-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred production host for many therapeutic proteins. The production of heterologous proteins in CHO cells imposes a burden on the host cell metabolism and impact cellular physiology on a global scale. In this work, a multi-omics approach was applied to study the production of erythropoietin (EPO) in a panel of CHO-K1 cells under growth-limited and unlimited conditions in batch and chemostat cultures. Physiological characterization of the EPO-producing cells included global transcriptome analysis, targeted metabolome analysis, including intracellular pools of glycolytic intermediates, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) , adenine nucleotide phosphates (ANP), and extracellular concentrations of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids. Potential impact of EPO expression on the protein secretory pathway was assessed at multiple stages using quantitative PCR (qPCR), reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blots (WB), and global gene expression analysis to assess EPO gene copy numbers, EPO gene expression, intracellular EPO retention, and differentially expressed genes functionally related to secretory protein processing, respectively. We found no evidence supporting the existence of production bottlenecks in energy metabolism (i.e., glycolytic metabolites, NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) and ANPs) in batch culture or in the secretory protein production pathway (i.e., gene dosage, transcription and post-translational processing of EPO) in chemostat culture at specific productivities up to 5 pg/cell/day. Time-course analysis of high- and low-producing clones in chemostat culture revealed rapid adaptation of transcription levels of amino acid catabolic genes in favor of EPO production within nine generations. Interestingly, the adaptation was followed by an increase in specific EPO productivity.

  4. 19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE PLATING BATHS AND CONTROL PANELS. GOLD AND SILVER WERE AMONG THE MATERIALS PLATED ONTO PARTS MADE OF COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL AND STEEL. (11/15/89) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Modifying the Existing Campus Building for Accessibility: Accessible Products Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotler, Stephen Richard

    This catalog is intended to assist architects and college administrators to select products that help physically handicapped people lead lives free of architectural barriers. The product information, obtained directly from the manufacturers, is listed on comparative matrix sheets, that can be used to achieve the design recommendations. Products of…

  6. Short- and long-run exchange rate effects on forest product trade: evidence from panel data

    Treesearch

    Torjus F. Bolksejo; Joseph Buongiorno

    2006-01-01

    Impacts of exchange rates on international forest products trade are widely debated, but the empirical evidence regarding this issue is still inconclusive. Here, we report findings of the impacts of the exchange rates on the main forest product imports and exports of the US, from January 1989 to November 2004. Export data consisted of monthly series of the main...

  7. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Applicability Flowchart

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a January 2005 document that has a flow chart to help you determine if this National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) rule for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products applies to your facility.

  8. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... fenestration products (windows and doors). (a) Applicable standards. (1) All windows and doors shall be... Windows and Glass Doors. (2) This standard has been approved by the Director of the Federal Register for...

  9. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... fenestration products (windows and doors). (a) Applicable standards. (1) All windows and doors shall be... Windows and Glass Doors. (2) This standard has been approved by the Director of the Federal Register for...

  10. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... fenestration products (windows and doors). (a) Applicable standards. (1) All windows and doors shall be... Windows and Glass Doors. (2) This standard has been approved by the Director of the Federal Register...

  11. 24 CFR 200.955 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for fenestration products (windows and... fenestration products (windows and doors). (a) Applicable standards. (1) All windows and doors shall be... Windows and Glass Doors. (2) This standard has been approved by the Director of the Federal Register...

  12. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... similar building products? 393.118 Section 393.118 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing dressed lumber or similar building products? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such...

  13. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... similar building products? 393.118 Section 393.118 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... for securing dressed lumber or similar building products? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of bundles of dressed lumber, packaged lumber, building products such...

  14. CF Mutation Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities CF Gene Mutations Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Cystic Fibrosis Genotyping; CF DNA Analysis; CF Gene Mutation Panel; ...

  15. 3D engineered fiberboard : a new structural building product

    Treesearch

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    To help meet the need for sustainable forest management tools, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory is developing an economically viable process to produce three-dimensional structural fibreboard products that can utilize a wide range of lignocellulosic fibres contained in the forest undergrowth and in underutilized timber. This will encourage the public and private...

  16. 21 CFR 352.50 - Principal display panel of all sunscreen drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... product testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) (Select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or... testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) “Very” (select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or...

  17. 21 CFR 352.50 - Principal display panel of all sunscreen drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... product testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) (Select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or... testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) “Very” (select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or...

  18. 21 CFR 352.50 - Principal display panel of all sunscreen drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... product testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) (Select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or... testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) “Very” (select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or...

  19. 21 CFR 352.50 - Principal display panel of all sunscreen drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... product testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) (Select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or... testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) “Very” (select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or...

  20. 21 CFR 352.50 - Principal display panel of all sunscreen drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... product testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) (Select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or... testing procedures in § 352.76. (1) “Very” (select one of the following: “Water,” “Water/Sweat,” or...

  1. The Influence of the Pell Grant on Four Year Degree Production: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David S., II

    2014-01-01

    An increased amount of energy and effort has been focused on higher education and degree attainment in the United States. President Obama has recently tied the Pell grants into the discussion as a central point in his proposed system of higher education accountability. However, the influence of the Pell grant on degree production has not been…

  2. The Influence of the Pell Grant on Four Year Degree Production: A Panel Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David S., II

    2014-01-01

    An increased amount of energy and effort has been focused on higher education and degree attainment in the United States. President Obama has recently tied the Pell grants into the discussion as a central point in his proposed system of higher education accountability. However, the influence of the Pell grant on degree production has not been…

  3. Simulating cosmic radiation absorption and secondary particle production of solar panel layers of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite with GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧitoǧlu, Merve; Veske, Doǧa; Nilüfer Öztürk, Zeynep; Bilge Demirköz, Melahat

    2016-07-01

    All devices which operate in space are exposed to cosmic rays during their operation. The resulting radiation may cause fatal damages in the solid structure of devices and the amount of absorbed radiation dose and secondary particle production for each component should be calculated carefully before the production. Solar panels are semiconductor solid state devices and are very sensitive to radiation. Even a short term power cut-off may yield a total failure of the satellite. Even little doses of radiation can change the characteristics of solar cells. This deviation can be caused by rarer high energetic particles as well as the total ionizing dose from the abundant low energy particles. In this study, solar panels planned for a specific LEO satellite, IMECE, are analyzed layer by layer. The Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) database and GEANT4 simulation software are used to simulate the layers of the panels. The results obtained from the simulation will be taken in account to determine the amount of radiation protection and resistance needed for the panels or to revise the design of the panels.

  4. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products: Progress report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Banerjee, Sujit; Shmulsky, Rubin; Thompson, Ashlie; Ingram, Leonard; Conners, Terry

    1997-03-01

    Studies on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from wood or wood products were conducted. Steam-induced extraction of VOC from oriented strand board (OSB) was studied using a tube furnace at 130 C which resulted in over 50% removal in 30 minutes. RF treatment of softwood lumber removed up to 68% of VOC in 20 minutes. Studies on the transport of moisture in wood confirmed that transport is greatest in the transverse surface, followed by the tangential and radial faces.

  5. Determination of native (wood derived) formaldehyde by the desiccator method in particleboards generated during panel production

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Birkeland; Linda Lorenz; James M. Wescott; Charles R. Frihart

    2010-01-01

    Hot-pressing wood, particularly in the production of wood composites, generates significant ‘‘native’’ (wood-based) formaldehyde (FA), even in the absence of adhesive. The level of native FA relates directly to the time and temperature of hot-pressing. This native FA dissipates in a relatively short time and is not part of the long-term FA emission issue commonly...

  6. Panel flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Criteria are presented for the prediction of panel flutter, determination of its occurrence, design for its prevention, and evaluation of its severity. Theoretical analyses recommended for the prediction of flutter stability boundaries, vibration amplitudes, and frequencies for several types of panels are described. Vibration tests and wind tunnel tests are recommended for certain panels and environmental flow conditions to provide information for design of verification analysis. Appropriate design margins on flutter stability boundaries are given and general criteria are presented for evaluating the severity of possible short-duration, limited-amplitude panel flutter on nonreusable vehicles.

  7. Gender Conformity and Use of Laxatives and Muscle-Building Products in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Scherer, Emily A; Jackson, Benita; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    Use of laxatives for weight loss and drugs or supplements to build muscle (eg, steroids) differs by gender and sexual orientation; little is known about factors contributing to these disparities. Conformity to gender norms concerning appearance could underlie these differences. This study examined associations between childhood gender conformity and laxative and muscle-building product use from ages 13 to 25 years in a sample of 13 683 males and females in the US prospective Growing Up Today Study. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models of repeated measures estimated odds of past-year laxative and muscle-building product use by quartiles of greater childhood gender conformity in heterosexual and sexual minority (eg, bisexual, gay) participants. By age 23 years, ∼20% of sexual minority females reported past-year laxative use. By age 19 years, 12% of all males reported past-year muscle-building product use. Sexual minority females had twice the odds of heterosexual females of using laxatives (P < .0001). The most gender-conforming females had 50% greater odds than the least-conforming females of using laxatives (P < .01). Moderate (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.58-2.75) and highly (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.33) gender-conforming males had higher odds than gender-nonconforming males of using muscle-building products. Sexual minority females are at high risk for laxative abuse. Regardless of sexual orientation, gender conformity increased the odds of laxative abuse among females and muscle-building product use among males. Findings can inform prevention efforts to target youth at risk for laxative or muscle-building product use. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Gender Conformity and Use of Laxatives and Muscle-Building Products in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Scherer, Emily A.; Jackson, Benita; Austin, S. Bryn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of laxatives for weight loss and drugs or supplements to build muscle (eg, steroids) differs by gender and sexual orientation; little is known about factors contributing to these disparities. Conformity to gender norms concerning appearance could underlie these differences. METHODS: This study examined associations between childhood gender conformity and laxative and muscle-building product use from ages 13 to 25 years in a sample of 13 683 males and females in the US prospective Growing Up Today Study. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression models of repeated measures estimated odds of past-year laxative and muscle-building product use by quartiles of greater childhood gender conformity in heterosexual and sexual minority (eg, bisexual, gay) participants. RESULTS: By age 23 years, ∼20% of sexual minority females reported past-year laxative use. By age 19 years, 12% of all males reported past-year muscle-building product use. Sexual minority females had twice the odds of heterosexual females of using laxatives (P < .0001). The most gender-conforming females had 50% greater odds than the least-conforming females of using laxatives (P < .01). Moderate (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.58–2.75) and highly (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.38–2.33) gender-conforming males had higher odds than gender-nonconforming males of using muscle-building products. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority females are at high risk for laxative abuse. Regardless of sexual orientation, gender conformity increased the odds of laxative abuse among females and muscle-building product use among males. Findings can inform prevention efforts to target youth at risk for laxative or muscle-building product use. PMID:27418416

  9. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: effect of moisture, product type, and material direction

    Treesearch

    Guangping Han; Qinglin Wu; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave velocity (SWV), bending stiffness. and bending strength of commercial oriented strandboard, plywood. particleboard. and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave verocity decreased in general with increases in panel moisture content (MC). At a given MC level. SWV varied with panel type and...

  10. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium Paper No. 1: Ship Production Committee Panel Overviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    consensus specification, we experienced sematical problems. Avondale Shipyards, Inc. requested Mr. Richard Muther , President of Richard Muther and...1978, Mr. Richard Muther addressed the panel. His primary objective was definition which would do away with the sematical problems. Mr. Richard Muther’s...COMMITTEE PANEL OVERVIEWS SP-1 - SHIPYARD FACILITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Richard A. Price Program Manager Maritime Administration Research and

  11. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S.; Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T.

    1998-07-01

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  12. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  13. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 4, annual summary

    SciTech Connect

    Boerner, J.; Su, Wei; Yan, Hui

    1997-07-01

    Heating softwood in a low-headspace environment draws out the VOCs from the wood, without removing the water. The VOCs can be collected from the headspace, and represent a valuable product. The VOC-depleted wood can then be dried conventionally with much reduced emissions. Heating can be accomplished through radiofrequency (RF) or steam. For lumber, steam is inefficient, but brief RF treatment under low-headspace conditions draws out 80% of the VOCs. The power used is quite low, since the RF energy is not used to remove water, but only to maintain the wood at a set temperature. The technology is now at the pre-pilot stage. Either steam or RF can be used for particle, OSB, and veneer, again under low-headspace conditions. Increasing steam temperature facilitates VOC removal. In order to understand the mechanism of VOC release in lumber, the transport of water and VOCs to the surface is being studied as a function of sample size and orientation. Characterization of the terpenes and resin/fatty acids from a control set of trees is underway in order to define the seasonal influence on VOCs.

  14. Precast concrete sandwich panels subjected to impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Matthew W.

    Precast concrete sandwich panels are a relatively new product in the construction industry. The design of these panels incorporates properties that allow for great resilience against temperature fluctuation as well as the very rapid and precise construction of facilities. The concrete sandwich panels investigated in this study represent the second generation of an ongoing research and development project. This second generation of panels have been engineered to construct midsized commercial buildings up to three stories in height as well as residential dwellings. The panels consist of a double-tee structural wythe, a foam core and a fascia wythe, joined by shear connectors. Structures constructed from these panels may be subjected to extreme loading including the effects of seismic and blast loading in addition to wind. The aim of this work was to investigate the behaviour of this particular sandwich panel when subjected to structural impact events. The experimental program consisted of fourteen concrete sandwich panels, five of which were considered full-sized specimens (2700 mm X 1200mm X 270 mm) and nine half-sized specimens (2700mm X 600mm X 270 mm) The panels were subjected to impact loads from a pendulum impact hammer where the total energy applied to the panels was varied by changing the mass of the hammer. The applied loads, displacements, accelerations, and strains at the mid-span of the panel as well as the reaction point forces were monitored during the impact. The behaviour of the panels was determined primarily from the experimental results. The applied loads at low energy levels that caused little to no residual deflection as well as the applied loads at high energy levels that represent catastrophic events and thus caused immediate failure were determined from an impact on the structural and the fascia wythes. Applied loads at intermediate energy levels representing extreme events were also used to determine whether or not the panels could withstand

  15. Wood-Based Paneling as Thermal Barriers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Forest Panelingi as Products Laboratory Research Thermal Barriers Paper ’> FPL 408 10 C-D Li-J _ LzstZibutio iOse flh SQe.it s V 82 1012 048 |stract...this paper, a small scale horizontal exposure furnace test for testing thermal barriers over a calcium silicate board was added to the Uniform Building...Results," by Robert H. White. United States Department of - a eArclueWood-Based Agriculture Forest Paneling as Products Laboratory, Par Thermal Barriers PaperFPL

  16. Hyperimmune products in the prevention and therapy of infectious disease: a report of a hyperimmune products expert advisory panel.

    PubMed

    Deresinski, S C

    2000-09-01

    This paper reviews a meeting at which basic pathophysiology of infections, mechanisms of action of hyperimmune products and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters, as well as currently available hyperimmunes and their potential new targets and uses, were discussed. A hyperimmune product was defined as either a monoclonal antibody or a polyclonal preparation enriched with antibody directed against one or more particular targets. A number of issues were emphasised, including: resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes; the role of hyperimmune intravenous globulins in the prevention of sepsis in low birthweight infants; hepatitis B virus infection associated with liver transplantation; combination therapy; the potential role of hyperimmunes in the prevention and treatment of hepatitis C virus; and the use of immunoglobulins for the prophylaxis of Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disease. Routes of administration were also discussed. It was concluded that the development of hyperimmunes faces numerous obstacles. It was agreed that the use of hyperimmunes in clinical trials must be standardised; clinical trials must be large enough to have sufficient power to demonstrate efficacy with clear-cut end-points, and means need to be developed, in conjunction with regulatory agencies, for the feasible evaluation of combination products. However, progress in all these aspects will provide a wide range of hyperimmunes for future use.

  17. Panel methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Ashok

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive description of panel methods has been given to enable an understanding of the underlying theory and the basic structure of the panel codes for aerodynamic applications. Panel methods have seen peak activity in the industry and remain as yet the sole technique for efficient and practical computations on complex-aircraft configurations. The method of the linearized approach of solving flow problems is well proven and till the turn of the century panel methods will continue to remain as the workhorse for computing aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft shapes in the industry. The alternative Euler and Navier-Stokes solvers have yet to mature for applications to complex shapes, hence panel methods will be in the light for at least another decade.

  18. Hexagon solar power panel

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, Irwin

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  19. Hexagon solar power panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  20. [Biosimilars : Current state of the build up to series production].

    PubMed

    Aringer, M; Dörner, T

    2013-11-01

    When patents expire, usually after 10 years in Germany, generic medicines routinely enter the market in place of conventional medications leading to significant reductions in prices. Currently the first biologicals are approaching patent expiry. Because of the biochemical complexities truly identical imitators are unrealistic. On the other hand, there is high socioeconomic pressure towards reduced cost of biologicals. In response to this situation the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has released a highly differentiated guidance document for the approval process of biosimilars. Biosimilars, which are already reality in other areas have to remain within a narrow biochemical variability corridor and are subsequently required to show bioequivalence to the reference product in both efficacy and safety in at least one large clinical phase III trial. In addition, post-marketing surveillance programs are mandatory in order to identify potential low frequency safety issues. In contrast to the "intended copies" used in some third world countries without such rigorous clinical testing the EMA-approved biosimilars are expected to have almost identical efficacy and safety as the reference medications. It is not yet clear how the use of specific biosimilars can be tracked and how uncontrolled exchange can be avoided. Nevertheless, biosimilars in rheumatology are likely to be available in the near future.

  1. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chunyi; Cao, Wenbin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Hongqiang

    2016-11-12

    The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP) plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) (IPCC), this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China's HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC) in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China.

  2. Carbon Balance and Contribution of Harvested Wood Products in China Based on the Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chunyi; Cao, Wenbin; Chen, Yong; Yang, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The carbon sequestration of harvested wood products (HWP) plays an important role in climate mitigation. Accounting the carbon contribution of national HWP carbon pools has been listed as one of the key topics for negotiation in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. On the basis of the revised Production Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2013) (IPCC), this study assessed the accounting of carbon stock and emissions from the HWP pool in China and then analyzed its balance and contribution to carbon mitigation from 1960 to 2014. Research results showed that the accumulated carbon stock in China’s HWP carbon pool increased from 130 Teragrams Carbon (TgC) in 1960 to 705.6 TgC in 2014. The annual increment in the carbon stock rose from 3.2 TgC in 1960 to 45.2 TgC in 2014. The category of solid wood products accounted for approximately 95% of the annual amount. The reduction in carbon emissions was approximately twelve times that of the emissions from the HWP producing and processing stage during the last decade. Furthermore, the amount of carbon stock and emission reduction increased from 23 TgC in 1960 to 76.1 TgC in 2014. The annual contribution of HWP could compensate for approximately 2.9% of the national carbon dioxide emissions in China. PMID:27845760

  3. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings in the United States 2011 Executive Summary

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever

    2013-01-01

    The construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings is an important market for lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of six or fewer stories. Those with more than six stories are normally severely restricted by building codes from being wood framed....

  4. Wood and Other Materials Used to Construct Nonresidential Buildings in the United States 2011

    Treesearch

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever; Chris Gaston; Margaret. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The construction of low-rise nonresidential buildings is an important market for lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels in the United States. This report examines low-rise nonresidential buildings of six or fewer stories. Those with more than six stories are normally severely restricted by building codes from being wood framed....

  5. Vehicle Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, Tom; Modlin, Tom; Suddreth, Jack; Wheeler, Tom; Tenney, Darrel R.; Bayless, Ernest O.; Lisagor, W. Barry; Bolstad, Donald A.; Croop, Harold; Dyer, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Vehicle Systems Panel addressed materials and structures technology issues related to launch and space vehicle systems not directly associated with the propulsion or entry systems. The Vehicle Systems Panel was comprised of two subpanels - Expendable Launch Vehicles & Cryotanks (ELVC) and Reusable Vehicles (RV). Tom Bales, LaRC, and Tom Modlin, JSC, chaired the expendable and reusable vehicles subpanels, respectively, and co-chaired the Vehicle Systems Panel. The following four papers are discussed in this section: (1) Net Section components for Weldalite Cryogenic Tanks, by Don Bolstad; (2) Build-up Structures for Cryogenic Tanks and Dry Bay Structural Applications, by Barry Lisagor; (3) Composite Materials Program, by Robert Van Siclen; (4) Shuttle Technology (and M&S Lessons Learned), by Stan Greenberg.

  6. Solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Bayles, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    A solar panel includes a base within which are mounted transversely extending conduits. A heat collector plate in the base is in heat conductive relationship with the conduits for the heating of a fluid medium. The base additionally supports a transparent cover outwardly spaced from the heat collector plate to provide a protective insulative air space over the plate. A manifold communicates one series of panels with those of an adjacent series. A modified base dispenses with a collector plate and is formed so as to define integral lengthwise extending passageways for the solar heated medium. Inserted nipples interconnect the passageways of adjacent panels.

  7. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation by Molecular-Weight Building Reactions of Biogenic Oxidation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsanti, K.; Guenther, A.; Matsunaga, S.; Smith, J.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the chemical composition of atmospheric organic aerosols (OA) remains one of the significant challenges to accurately representing OA in air quality and climate models. Meeting this challenge will require further understanding of secondary organic aerosols (SOA), of which biogenic emissions are thought to be major precursors. Of recent interest is the significance of higher-molecular weight (MW) compounds (i.e., "oligomers"). Theoretical, laboratory, and field study results suggest that relatively volatile oxidation products may contribute to SOA formation through multi-phase MW- building reactions. The significance of such reactions for biogenic SOA formation, including for newly considered precursors such as isoprene, is explored in this work. Theoretical and field studies are employed to: 1) identify MW-building reactions that may contribute to SOA formation in the atmosphere, 2) identify MW-building reaction products in ambient samples, and 3) parameterize atmospheric SOA formation by MW-building reactions of biogenic oxidation products. Likely reactions of biogenic oxidation products include ester, amide, and peroxyhemiacetal formation. Each of the proposed reactions involves known oxidation productions of biogenic precursors (e.g., carboxylic acids and aldehydes) reacting with one another and/or other atmospheric constituents (e.g., sulfuric acid and ammonia) to form higher-MW/lower-volatility products that can condense to form SOA. It has been suggested that products of MW-building reactions can revert to the parent reactants during sampling and analysis. Thus, relatively volatile compounds detected in ambient particle samples in fact may be decomposition products of higher-MW products. The contribution of relatively volatile biogenic oxidation products to SOA via ester, amide, and peroxyhemiacetal formation, as determined by studies based on fundamental thermodynamics and gas/particle partitioning theory, will be discussed; in addition to

  8. 24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for sealed insulating glass units... sealed insulating glass units. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All sealed insulating glass units shall be... standard: ASTM E-774-92 Standard Specification for Sealed Insulating Glass Units. (2) This standard has...

  9. 24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for sealed insulating glass units... sealed insulating glass units. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All sealed insulating glass units shall be... standard: ASTM E-774-92 Standard Specification for Sealed Insulating Glass Units. (2) This standard has...

  10. 24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for sealed insulating glass units... sealed insulating glass units. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All sealed insulating glass units shall be... standard: ASTM E-774-92 Standard Specification for Sealed Insulating Glass Units. (2) This standard has...

  11. 24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for sealed insulating glass units... sealed insulating glass units. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All sealed insulating glass units shall be... standard: ASTM E-774-92 Standard Specification for Sealed Insulating Glass Units. (2) This standard has...

  12. 24 CFR 200.947 - Building product standards and certification program for polystyrene foam insulation board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Building product standards and... Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  13. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... type room heaters and fireplace stoves. (a) Applicable standards. Solid fuel type room heaters and...) ANSI/UL 737 (1978), for fireplace stoves; (2) ANSI/UL 1482 (1979), for solid fuel type room heaters...

  14. 24 CFR 200.940 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standards and certification program for sealed insulating glass units... sealed insulating glass units. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All sealed insulating glass units shall be... standard: ASTM E-774-92 Standard Specification for Sealed Insulating Glass Units. (2) This standard...

  15. 77 FR 62264 - Truseal Technologies, Inc., A Division of Quanex Building Products Corporation, Barbourville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 198 (Friday, October 12, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 62264-62265] [FR Doc No: 2012-25136] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,351] Truseal Technologies, Inc., A Division of Quanex Building Products Corporation, Barbourville, Kentucky; Notice of Negative Determination...

  16. 24 CFR 200.937 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building product standards and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following standards, which are incorporated by reference: ANSI Z124.1—(1980)Plastic Bathtub Units ANSI Z124... requirements under HUD building product standards and certification program for plastic bathtub units, plastic... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.937 Supplementary specific...

  17. Sustainability and productivity of southern pine ecosystems: A thematic framework for integrating research and building partnerships

    Treesearch

    Charles K. McMahon; James P. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station (SRS) published a Strategic Plan that formed a framework for addressing the Sustainability of Southern Forest Ecosystems. Six crosscutting themes were identified to facilitate research integration and partnership building among the widely dispersed SRS research work units. The Sustainability and Productivity of...

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Affordable High Performance in Production Homes: Artistic Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Artistic Homes, a successful New Mexico production builder, who went from code-minimum to under HERS 50 standard on every home, with optional PV upgrades to HERS 35 or true net zero on every home plan offered.

  19. 24 CFR 200.935 - Administrator qualifications and procedures for HUD building products certification programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... guidelines in any quality assurance review: (1) ASQC Q9000-1-1994 Quality Management and Quality Assurance... Systems—Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test; (5) ASQC Q9004-1-1994 Quality Management... to HUD validate manufacturers' certifications that certain building products or materials...

  20. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... program for construction adhesives for wood floor systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All construction adhesives for field glued wood floor systems shall be designed, manufactured, and tested in compliance...

  1. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... program for construction adhesives for wood floor systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All construction adhesives for field glued wood floor systems shall be designed, manufactured, and tested in compliance...

  2. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... program for construction adhesives for wood floor systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All construction adhesives for field glued wood floor systems shall be designed, manufactured, and tested in compliance...

  3. Algorithm Research Exposure Dust Emissions Enterprises Of Building Production On The Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelchenko, E. V.; Trushkova, E. A.; Sidelnikov, M. V.; Pushenko, S. L.; Staseva, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithm research level of exposure to dust emissions, the organization and layout of the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise of building production on the basis of statistical data on emissions share in Russia in the Rostov region, the issues of the impact of harmful substances on the human body and developed measures to reduce air emissions.

  4. 24 CFR 200.954 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standard and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the HUD building product standard and certification program for construction adhesives for wood... program for construction adhesives for wood floor systems. (a) Applicable standards. (1) All construction adhesives for field glued wood floor systems shall be designed, manufactured, and tested in compliance...

  5. Fact Sheet: Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Pollutants from Surface Coating of Wood Building Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the February 2003 final rule fact sheet on the NESHAP for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products. This document provides a background for this rule, a summary of the benefits of this rule, who is affected by the rule, and rule costs

  6. Aspects of Production Ecologization of Machine-Building Enterprises as Part of the System Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazutina, T. V.; Tempel, Yu A.; Tempel, O. A.; Lazutin, N. К

    2017-05-01

    The paper considers the role of the machine-building industry in Russia and the impact of its activities on the ecological situation in the country. As part of the problem we identified areas of environmental pollution from different production industries, including foundry, power, metal working and welding. In addition, the paper presents a strategy for production ecologization, based on a system approach viewed as a set of measures aimed at reducing the danger of technological processes for the environment and people.

  7. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1995 Ship Production Symposium. Paper No. 4: Tee-Beam Manufacturing Analysis: Producibility of Panel Stiffening Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM January, 1995 NSRP 0439...Research Program , 1995 Ship Production Symposium: Paper No. 4: Tee-Beam Manufacturing Analysis: Producibility of Panel Stiffening Elements 5a...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  8. Impact of Xe partial pressure on the production of excimer vacuum ultraviolet emission for plasma display panels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Di; Zhang Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    In this work, the effect of the Xe partial pressure on the excimer vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission intensity of the plasma display panels is investigated, both by measuring the spectral emission directly and by two-dimensional simulations. Experimentally, we find that at the high Xe partial pressure levels, there is an supra-linear increase of excimer VUV radiation and that determines the strong increase of luminance at the high pressures and high voltage. Due to the increase of the luminance and the almost unchanged discharge current, the luminous efficacy strongly increases with the Xe partial pressure. In addition, we also investigated the dynamics of the VUV generation, by measuring the decay time of the excimer VUV light as a function of the gas pressure. It is found that the decay time decreases with the increase of gas pressure. The spatial characteristics of the excimer VUV emission are also discussed. Different from the Ne and near-infrared emission, the excimer VUV emission is generated near the surface of the electrodes and increases uniformly on both sides of the anode and cathode (i.e., the bulk plasma region). Most importantly, it is found that the VUV production occurs during the afterglow period, while it is almost zero at the moment of the discharge itself. From the simulations, it can be seen that the Xe{sub 2}*({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) excimer species, which are generated from Xe*(1s{sub 5}), play a dominant role in the excimer VUV emission output at the high Xe partial pressure. The two-dimensional simulations also show that the strong increase of Xe excimer excitation states in the case of high pressure is mainly the result of the high conversion efficiency of the Xe excimer states, especially in the afterglow period. Due to the high conversion efficiency of Xe excitation species to Xe excimer species by the high collision rate in the case of high pressure, there is a strong increase of excimer VUV production, especially from the cathode.

  9. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction

  10. 65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Use of wood in buildings and bridges

    Treesearch

    James P. Wacker

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the features of various types of building systems are described. Emphasis is placed on how these systems have adapted to the use of modern materials and techniques. For example, where floor, wall, and roof sheathing for light-frame construction were once commonly made from wood boards, sheathing is now commonly made from structural panel products, such...

  12. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    In previous reports, we have identified two potentially important issues, solutions to which would increase the attractiveness of DOE-developed technologies in commercial buildings energy systems. One issue concerns the fact that in addition to saving energy, many new technologies offer non-energy benefits that contribute to building productivity (firm profitability). The second issue is that new technologies are typically unproven in the eyes of decision makers and must bear risk premiums that offset cost advantages resulting from laboratory calculations. Even though a compelling case can be made for the importance of these issues, for building decision makers to incorporate them in business decisions and for DOE to use them in R&D program planning there must be robust empirical evidence of their existence and size. This paper investigates how such measurements could be made and offers recommendations as to preferred options. There is currently little systematic information on either of these concepts in the literature. Of the two there is somewhat more information on non-energy benefits, but little as regards office buildings. Office building productivity impacts can be observed casually, but must be estimated statistically, because buildings have many interacting attributes and observations based on direct behavior can easily confuse the process of attribution. For example, absenteeism can be easily observed. However, absenteeism may be down because a more healthy space conditioning system was put into place, because the weather was milder, or because firm policy regarding sick days had changed. There is also a general dearth of appropriate information for purposes of estimation. To overcome these difficulties, we propose developing a new data base and applying the technique of hedonic price analysis. This technique has been used extensively in the analysis of residential dwellings. There is also a literature on its application to commercial and industrial

  13. Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.

    2000-04-01

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of communicable respiratory illness, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in the estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., the estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains are $6 to $14 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $30 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $20 to $160 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  14. Application of life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology for valorization of building demolition materials and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sara, Balazs; Antonini, Ernesto; Tarantini, Mario

    2001-02-01

    The VAMP project (VAlorization of building demolition Materials and Products, LIFE 98/ENV/IT/33) aims to build an effective and innovative information system to support decision making in selective demolition activity and to manage the valorization (recovery-reuse-recycling) of waste flows produced by the construction and demolition (C&D) sector. The VAMP information system will be tested it in Italy in some case studies of selective demolition. In this paper the proposed demolition-valorization system will be compared to the traditional one in a life cycle perspective, applying LCA methodology to highlight the advantages of VAMP system from an eco-sustainability point of view. Within the system boundaries demolition processes, transport of demolition wastes and its recovery/treatment or disposal in landfill were included. Processes avoided due to reuse-recycling activities, such as extraction of natural resources and manufacture of building materials and components, were considered too. In this paper data collection procedure applied in inventory and impact assessment phases and a general overview about data availability for LCA studies in this sector are presented. Results of application of VAMP methodology to a case study are discussed and compared with a simulated traditional demolition of the same building. Environmental advantages of VAMP demolition-valorization system are demonstrated quantitatively emphasizing the special importance of reuse of building components with high demand of energy for manufacture.

  15. Screening for halogenated flame retardants in European consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Komprdová, Klára; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2017-02-01

    To fulfill national and international fire safety standards, flame retardants (FRs) are being added to a wide range of consumer products and building materials consisting of flammable materials like plastic, wood and textiles. While the FR composition of some products and materials has been identified in recent years, the limited global coverage of the data and the large diversity in consumer products necessitates more information for an overall picture of the FR composition in common products/materials. To address this issue, 137 individual samples of various consumer products, building materials and wastes were collected. To identify and characterize potential sources of FRs in indoor environment, all samples were analyzed for content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs). The most frequently detected were HBCDDs (85%), with the highest median concentration of Σ4HBCDDs of 300 mg kg(-1) in polystyrenes. The highest median concentration of Σ10PBDEs was found in recycled plastic materials, reaching 4 mg kg(-1). The lowest concentrations were observed for NFRs, where the median of Σ12NFRs reached 0.4 mg kg(-1) in the group of electrical & electronic equipment wastes. This suggests that for consumer products and building materials that are currently in-use, legacy compounds still contribute to the overall burden of FRs. Additionally, contrasting patterns of FR composition in recycled and virgin plastics, revealed using principle component analysis (PCA), suggest that legacy flame retardants are reentering the market through recycled products, perpetuating the potential for emissions to indoor environments and thus for human exposure.

  16. Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proceedings of the ASIS Mid-Year Meeting, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Lists the speakers and summarizes the issues addressed for 12 panel sessions on topics related to networking, including libraries and national networks, federal national resources and energy programs, multimedia issues, telecommuting, remote image serving, accessing the Internet, library automation, scientific information, applications of Z39.50,…

  17. Media Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The Swedish Media Panel is a research program about children and young persons and their use of mass media. The aim of the ten-year (1975-1985) project is to explain how media habits originate, how they change as children grow older, what factors on the part of children themselves and in their surroundings may be connected with a certain use of…

  18. Ozone deposition velocities, reaction probabilities and product yields for green building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamble, S. P.; Corsi, R. L.; Morrison, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    Indoor surfaces can passively remove ozone that enters buildings, reducing occupant exposure without an energy penalty. However, reactions between ozone and building surfaces can generate and release aerosols and irritating and carcinogenic gases. To identify desirable indoor surfaces the deposition velocity, reaction probability and carbonyl product yields of building materials considered green (listed, recycled, sustainable, etc.) were quantified. Nineteen separate floor, wall or ceiling materials were tested in a 10 L, flow-through laboratory reaction chamber. Inlet ozone concentrations were maintained between 150 and 200 ppb (generally much lower in chamber air), relative humidity at 50%, temperature at 25 °C and exposure occurred over 24 h. Deposition velocities ranged from 0.25 m h -1 for a linoleum style flooring up to 8.2 m h -1 for a clay based paint; reaction probabilities ranged from 8.8 × 10 -7 to 6.9 × 10 -5 respectively. For all materials, product yields of C 1 thru C 12 saturated n-aldehydes, plus acetone ranged from undetectable to greater than 0.70 The most promising material was a clay wall plaster which exhibited a high deposition velocity (5.0 m h -1) and a low product yield (

  19. Screening for perfluoroalkyl acids in consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    PubMed

    Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Vojta, Šimon; Komprdová, Klára; Klánová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of important chemical compounds with unique and useful physico-chemical properties, widely produced and used in many applications. However, due to the toxicity, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential of certain PFASs, they are of significant concern to scientists and policy makers. To assess human exposure to PFASs, it is necessary to understand the concentrations of these emerging contaminants in our environment, and particularly environments where urban population spend most of their time, i.e. buildings and vehicles. A total of 126 samples of building materials, consumer products, car interior materials and wastes were therefore analyzed for their content of key PFASs - 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). At least one of the target PFAAs was detected in 88% of all samples. The highest concentration of Σ15PFAAs was found in textile materials (77.61 μg kg(-1)), as expected, since specific PFAAs are known to be used for textile treatment during processing. Surprisingly, PFAAs were also detected in all analyzed composite wood building materials, which were dominated by perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with 5-8 carbons in the chain (Σ4PFCAs up to 32.9 μg kg(-1)). These materials are currently widely used for building refurbishment, and this is the first study to find evidence of the presence of specific PFASs in composite wood materials. Thus, in addition to consumer products treated with PFASs, materials used in the construction of houses, schools and office buildings may also play an important role in human exposure to PFASs.

  20. Panel 3 - characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu; Feldman, A.; Glass, J.T.; Kleimer, R.; Lawton, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  1. 76 FR 45296 - In the Matter of Certain Flat Panel Display Devices, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain flat panel.... Patent No. 6,281,955 (``the `955 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 7,697,093 (``the `093 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 7,286,192 (``the `192 patent''); U.S. Patent No. 6,818,967 (``the `967 patent''); U.S. Patent...

  2. Dataset of Atmospheric Environment Publication in 2016, Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants?? sorption on building materials and consumer products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The data presented in this data file is a product of a journal publication. The dataset contains OPFR sorption concentrations on building materials and consumer products and comparison to the i-SVOC model predictions.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Liu , X., M. Allen, and N. Roache. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 140: 333-341, (2016).

  3. 12. Examples of the elaborate and plain pressedsteel ceiling panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Examples of the elaborate and plain pressed-steel ceiling panels, here removed to the exterior of the building for photographing. A segment of the cornice has been placed above the larger panel. The panel on the left is comprised of four square components; the panel on the right is a single piece. Credit GADA/MRM. - Stroud Building, 31-33 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. Carbon Mitigation Impacts of Increased Softwood Lumber and Structural Panel Use for Nonresidential Construction in the United States

    Treesearch

    Prakash Nepal; Kenneth E. Skog; David B. McKeever; Richard D. Bergman; Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt

    2016-01-01

    More wood use in the United States to construct low-rise nonresidential (NR) buildings would increase consumption and production of softwood (SW) lumber, engineered wood products, and structural and nonstructural wood panels. Using a consequential life-cycle analysis, we estimated the change in net CO2 emissions thatwould be caused by increased...

  5. 61. Upper panel in cornerpower panel lcpa lower panel in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. Upper panel in corner-power panel lcpa lower panel in corner-oxygen regeneration unit, at right-air conditioner control panel, on floor-bio-pack 45 for emergency breathing, looking northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. Architectural Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  7. Architectural Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Alliance Wall Corporation's Whyteboard, a porcelain enamel on steel panels wall board, owes its color stability to a KIAC engineering background study to identify potential technologies and manufacturers of equipment which could be used to detect surface flaws. One result of the data base search was the purchase of a spectrocolorimeter which enables the company to control some 250 standard colors, and match special colors.

  8. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1996-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 cm(exp 2) coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg. This paper will address the construction details for the GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh panel configurations. These are ultimately sized to provide 75 Watts and 119 Watts respectively for smallsats or may be used as modular building blocks for larger systems. GaAs/isogrid and dual-junction GaAs/carbon mesh coupons have been fabricated and tested to successfully demonstrate critical performance parameters and results are also provided here.

  9. A novel potential source of β-carotene: Eustigmatos cf. polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae) and pilot β-carotene production in bubble column and flat panel photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Ma, Xiaoqin; Li, Aifen; Zhang, Chengwu

    2012-08-01

    Carotenoids profile of the unicellular Eustigmatos cf. polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae) and β-carotene production of the microalga in bubble column and large flat panel bioreactors were studied. The microalga which contained β-carotene, violaxanthin and vaucheriaxanthin as the major carotenoids accumulated large amount of β-carotene. The β-carotene production of this microalga in the bubble column bioreactor was considerable, with the maximum intracellular β-carotene content reaching 60.76 mg g(-1), biomass reaching 9.2 g L(-1), and β-carotene yield up to 470.2 mg L(-1). The β-carotene productions in two large flat panel bioreactors were relatively lower, whereas over 100 mg β-carotene L(-1) was achieved. Besides, high light intensity helped to accumulate intracellular β-carotene and biomass. Deficient nitrate supply inhibited biomass growth, though it helped to accumulate β-carotene. Our results first proved that E. cf. polyphem was a potential source and producer of β-carotene, making it an interesting subject for further β-carotene study or commercial exploration.

  10. Mass timber rocking panel retrofit of a four-story soft-story building with full-scale shake table validation

    Treesearch

    Pouria Bahmani; John van de Lindt; Asif Iqbal; Douglas Rammer

    2017-01-01

    Soft-story wood-frame buildings have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for decades. There are tens of thousands of these multi-family three- and four-story structures throughout California and the United States. The majority were constructed between 1920 and 1970, with many being prevalent in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The NEES Soft...

  11. Horizontal environmental assessment of building products in relation to the construction products directive (CPD).

    PubMed

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Jayr, Emmanuel; Méhu, Jacques; Barna, Ligia; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    According to the European Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC), construction products must satisfy specified essential requirements (ER). To comply with ER 3, on hygiene, health and environment, the construction works must be designed and built in such a way that they will not be a threat to the hygiene and health of the occupants and neighbours, nor to the environment. Standardised test methods for the release of substances that are hazardous to health and environment need to be developed at the European level. A horizontal approach is considered the best route for such test development and consists of the development of a test method applicable for different products used in a certain scenario (across the fields of different Technical Committees). The work presented here regards the emission of pollutants towards soil and water and has been carried out on monolith products, based on three types of matrices: concrete, wood and metal (zinc). The aim of the work is to study the parameters (nature of leachant, temperature, liquid-to-solid ratio) that could influence the release behaviour of substances in water. The knowledge acquired from these tests will allow the identification of some parameters needed for the development of a horizontal test.

  12. Optimization of key building blocks for a large-area radiographic and fluoroscopic dynamic digital x-ray detector based on a-Si:H/CsI:Tl flat panel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducourant, Thierry; Michel, Marc; Vieux, Gerard; Peppler, Tobias; Trochet, J. C.; Schulz, Reiner F.; Bastiaens, Raoul J. M.; Busse, Falko

    2000-04-01

    This paper introduces the key design optimizations which have been carried out recently in Trixell in order to prepare the future family of large area, combined static (Radiography) and dynamic (Fluoroscopy, Cardio...) digital X-ray detectors based on a-Si:H/CsI:Tl flat panel technology. These optimizations have been carried out on a 16' X 12' prototype that has been designed and built in a product-oriented way. We describe the detector technology and give some of its main characteristics, as well as some preliminary measurement results.The heart of the new prototype is a Cesium Iodide scintillating screen, directly evaporated onto a 2 K X 2.5 K pixel, array of amorphous silicon photodiodes and TFTs deposited on a glass substrate. The pixel pitch is 155 micrometer. The detective flat panel is connected to dedicated electronics which provides line addressing, low-noise column readout and multiplexing into a serial electrical signal. This signal is digitized over 14 bits to provide a direct digital image output, available for the host radiology system via an optical fiber. This type of detector (flat panel + electronics) is built into a light and thin (less than 100 mm) packaging which can be easily integrated in various x-ray equipment such as R&F tables, Angiography systems (incl. Cardiology), and mobile C-arm systems.

  13. Science supporting the economic and environmental benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Ritter; Kenneth Skog; Richard Bergman

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to summarize the scientific findings that support the environmental and economic benefits of using wood and wood products in green building construction. Despite documented advantages in many peer-reviewed scientific articles, most building professionals and members of the public do not recognize wood as a renewable resource or the role...

  14. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 10 years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been commercialized or are close to commercialization. In this paper, we review the current status of biorefinery development for the production of these platform chemicals and their derivatives. In addition, current technological advances on industrial strain development for the production of platform chemicals using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples.

  15. Building Capacity for Production of Gridded Precipitation Products in the East Africa Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.; Galu, G.; Magadzire, T.; Pedreros, D. H.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Peterson, P.; Landsfeld, M. F.; White, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) participates in the Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) activity in a number of ways. Recently, important progress has been made in meeting the need for improved precipitation data sets in East Africa. This has been done through capacity building activities with national meteorological and hydrological services (NMHS) in the region, carried out in partnership with the IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Center (ICPAC), and with support from the WMO Office for Eastern and Southern Africa. Through a series of regional gatherings and individual country workshops, scientists from the NMHS have been introduced to the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall data set and the GeoCLIM software tool. The CHIRPS data set was developed by USGS and the University of California, Santa Barbara, by blending NOAA geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations, using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2014 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution, between +/- 50 degrees latitude. The GeoCLIM software can operate on the CHIRPS to map the Standardized Precipitation Index, trends, anomalies, isohyets, and other types of spatio-temporal features. It can also produce new gridded rainfall data sets by geostatistical blending of station observations with existing rainfall grids. NMHS scientists have applied this latter capability to produce best-available national and regional gridded rainfall time-series for 1981-2014 for the East Africa Community (EAC). These data are a fundamental resource for the USAID-EAC climate change adaptation project known by the acronym PREPARED. They incorporate a larger and more complete collection of station observations than ever before. Further work is ongoing at the NMHS to take advantage of the data management capabilities of GeoCLIM, and incorporate

  16. Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) Questions and Answers (Q&A's)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This September 2004 document contains questions and answers on the Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulation. The questions cover topics such as compliance, and applicability, etc

  17. Improving medicines for children in Canada. Findings of the expert panel on therapeutic products for infants, children and youth.

    PubMed

    Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    With children being largely orphaned from the benefits of drugs, and being managed mostly by medications unapproved by Health Canada, a landmark document was published in September 2014 by the Council of Canadian Academies (CCA) to serve as a blueprint to change this grim reality. The main findings of the panel included: 1. Children take medications, many of which have not been proven safe and effective for their use. 2. Children respond to medications differently from adults; thus, medicines must be studied in children and formulated for children. 3. Studying medicines in children is always possible and in their best interests. 4. In the United States and the European Union, pediatric medicines research is encouraged, required and monitored in ways that offer lessons for Canada. 5. Pediatric medicines research is a Canadian strength, but it requires reinforcement, sustained capacity and infrastructure to realize its full potential.

  18. Determination of odour threshold concentration ranges for some disinfectants and disinfection by-products for an Australian panel.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S; Lethorn, A; Loi, C; Joll, C; Driessen, H; Heitz, A

    2009-01-01

    Taste-and-odour complaints are a leading cause of consumer dissatisfaction with drinking water. The aim of this study was to determine odour threshold concentration ranges and descriptors, using a Western Australian odour panel, for chlorine, bromine, chlorine added to bromide ions, the four major regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and combined THMs. An odour panel was established and trained to determine odour threshold concentration ranges for odorous compounds typically found in drinking water at 25 degrees C, using modified flavour profile analysis (FPA) techniques. Bromine and chlorine had the same odour threshold concentration ranges and were both described as having a chlorinous odour by a majority of panellists, but the odour threshold concentration range of bromine expressed in free chlorine equivalents was lower that that of chlorine. It is likely that the free chlorine equivalent residuals measured in many parts of distribution systems in Western Australia are comprised of some portion of bromine and that bromine has the potential to cause chlorinous odours at a lower free chlorine equivalent concentration than chlorine itself. In fact, bromine is the likely cause of any chlorinous odours in Western Australian distributed waters when the free chlorine equivalent concentration is between 0.04 and 0.1 mg L(-1). Odour threshold concentrations for the four individual THMs ranged from 0.06-0.16 mg L(-1), and the odour threshold concentration range was 0.10 + or - 0.09 mg L(-1) when the four THMs were combined (in equal mass concentrations). These concentrations are below the maximum guideline value for total THM concentration in Australia so odours from these compounds may possibly be observed in distributed waters. However, while the presence of THMs may contribute to any sweet/fragrant/floral and chemical/hydrocarbon odours in local drinking waters, the THMs are unlikely to contribute to chlorinous odours.

  19. Production of a panel of recombinant gliadins for the characterisation of T cell reactivity in coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Arentz-Hansen, E; McAdam, S; Molberg, O; Kristiansen, C; Sollid, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Coeliac disease is a chronic intestinal disorder most probably caused by an abnormal immune reaction to wheat gliadin. The identification of the HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 as the molecules responsible for the HLA association in coeliac disease strongly implicates a role for CD4 T cells in disease pathogenesis. Indeed, CD4 T cells specific for gliadin have been isolated from the small intestine of patients with coeliac disease. However, identification of T cell epitopes within gliadin has been hampered by the heterogeneous nature of the gliadin antigen. To aid the characterisation of gliadin T cell epitopes, multiple recombinant gliadins have been produced from a commercial Nordic wheat cultivar.
METHODS—The α-gliadin and γ-gliadin genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from cDNA and genomic DNA, cloned into a pET expression vector, and sequenced. Genes encoding mature gliadins were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for recognition by T cells.
RESULTS—In total, 16 α-gliadin genes with complete open reading frames were sequenced. These genes encoded 11 distinct gliadin proteins, only one of which was found in the Swiss-Prot database. Expression of these gliadin genes produced a panel of recombinant α-gliadin proteins of purity suitable for use as an antigen for T cell stimulation.
CONCLUSION—This study provides an insight into the complexity of the gliadin antigen present in a wheat strain and has defined a panel of pure gliadin antigens that should prove invaluable for the future mapping of epitopes recognised by intestinal T cells in coeliac disease.


Keywords: gliadin; coeliac disease; small intestine; protein expression; T lymphocyte; gluten PMID:10601054

  20. Renovation of Large-Panel Buildings in Context of Urban Renewal/ Remonty Budynków Wielkopłytowych, Jako Element Rewitalizacji Miast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligęza, Wiesław

    2015-06-01

    The article presents issues connected with renovating multi-storey precast concrete buildings, resulting from the consequences of construction defects occurring over the course of the building process and use of the buildings, as well as design flaws and construction defects when insulating external partitions. Analyses and conclusions which stem from them cover issues of renovation in the light of: damage in the vertical and horizontal joints, damage to the connection of layers in three-layer load-bearing and curtain walls, the effect of the damage on the possibilities of carrying out functional modernization of residential units, the effect of the damage on the effectiveness of thermo-modernization - new problems related to faulty insulation W artykule przedstawiono zagadnienia remontowe w budynkach wielkopłytowych wynikające ze skutków wad budowlanych powstałych w czasie budowy i eksploatacji oraz wad projektowych i wykonawczych przy realizacji docieplenia przegród zewnętrznych. Analizy i wynikające z nich wnioski obejmują zagadnienia remontowe w świetle: uszkodzeń w złączach pionowych i poziomych, uszkodzeń połączenia warstw w ścianach trójwarstwowych nośnych i osłonowych, wpływu uszkodzeń na możliwości modernizacji funkcjonalnej lokali mieszkalnych, wpływu uszkodzeń na skuteczność termomodernizacji - nowe problemy w aspekcie źle wykonanego ocieplenia.

  1. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Allen, Matthew R.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2016-09-01

    Better understanding the transport mechanisms of organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) in the residential environment is important to more accurately estimate their indoor exposure and develop risk management strategies that protect human health. This study describes an improved dual small chamber testing method to characterize the sorption of OPFRs on indoor building materials and consumer products. The OPFRs studied were tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The test materials and products used as sinks include concrete, ceiling tile, vinyl flooring, carpet, latex painted gypsum wallboard, open cell polyurethane foam, mattress pad and liner, polyester clothing, cotton clothing, and uniform shirt. During the tests, the amount of OPFRs absorbed by the materials at different exposure times was determined simultaneously. OPFRs air concentrations at the inlet and inside the test chamber were monitored. The data were used to rank the sorption strength of the OPFRs on different materials. In general, building materials exhibited relatively stronger sorption strength than clothing textiles. The material-air partition and material phase diffusion coefficients were estimated by fitting a sink model to the sorption concentration data for twelve materials with three OPFRs. They are in the range of 2.72 × 105 to 3.99 × 108 (dimensionless) for the material-air partition coefficients and 1.13 × 10-14 to 5.83 × 10-9 (m2/h) for the material phase diffusion coefficients.

  2. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, Proceedings of the IREAPS Technical Symposium Paper Number 1: Ship Production Committee Panel Overviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    gains in the use of high-solid low-solvent coating. This industry effort is over and above Rule 66 compliance. Research and development of effective ...Production Effective Projects Seek productivity improvement projects which will later be implemented in the shipbuilding fabrication industry and not just...SHIP PRODUCTION COMMITTEE FACILITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS SURFACE PREPARATION AND COATINGS DESIGN/PRODUCTION INTEGRATION HUMAN RESOURCE

  3. Hydrogen production by the engineered cyanobacterial strain Nostoc PCC 7120 ΔhupW examined in a flat panel photobioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Marcus; Heidorn, Thorsten; Lindblad, Peter

    2015-12-10

    Nitrogenase based hydrogen production was examined in a ΔhupW strain of the filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120, i.e., cells lacking the last step in the maturation system of the large subunit of the uptake hydrogenase and as a consequence with a non-functional uptake hydrogenase. The cells were grown in a developed flat panel photobioreactor system with 3.0L culture volume either aerobically (air) or anaerobically (Ar or 80% N2/20% Ar) and illuminated with a mixture of red and white LED. Aerobic growth of the ΔhupW strain of Nostoc PCC 7120 at 44μmolar photons m(-2)s(-1) PAR gave the highest hydrogen production of 0.7mL H2 L(-1)h(-1), 0.53mmol H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%. Anaerobic growth using 100% argon showed a maximal hydrogen production of 1.7mLL(-1)h(-1), 0.85mmol per mg chlorophyll a(-1) h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 2.7%. Altering between argon/N2 (20/80) and 100% argon phases resulted in a maximal hydrogen production at hour 128 (100% argon phase) with 6.2mL H2L(-1)h(-1), 0.71mL H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy efficiency conversion of 4.0%. The highest buildup of hydrogen gas observed was 6.89% H2 (100% argon phase) of the total photobioreactor system with a maximal production of 4.85mL H2 L(-1)h(-1). The present study clearly demonstrates the potential to use purpose design cyanobacteria in developed flat panel photobioreactor systems for the direct production of the solar fuel hydrogen. Further improvements in the strain used, environmental conditions employed, and growth, production and collection systems used, are needed before a sustainable and economical cyanobacterial based hydrogen production can be realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. BASEMENT, A view looking southwest toward the three panel, sliding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASEMENT, A view looking southwest toward the three panel, sliding glass door of walk-in hood and dial guage - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  5. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  6. 12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF REAR OF FIRST FLOOR CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. Utilization of Electric Arc Furnace Dust as raw material for the production of ceramic and concrete building products.

    PubMed

    Sikalidis, Constantine; Mitrakas, Manassis

    2006-01-01

    The up to 20 wt% addition of the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD) hazardous waste on the properties of extruded clay-based ceramic building products fired at various temperatures (850 to 1050 degrees C), as well as of dolomite-concrete products was investigated. Chemical, mineralogical and particle size distribution analyses were performed in order to characterize the used EAFD. The results showed that the ceramic specimens prepared had water absorption, firing shrinkage, apparent density, mechanical strength, colour and leaching behaviour within accepted limits. Addition of 7.5 to 15 wt% EAFD presented improved properties, while 20 wt% seems to be the upper limit. Dolomite-concrete specimens were prepared by vibration and press-forming of mixtures containing cement, sand, dolomite, EAFD and water. Modulus of rupture values were significantly increased by the addition of EAFD. The leaching tests showed stabilization of all toxic metals within the sintered ceramic structure, while the leaching behaviour of lead in dolomite-concrete products needs further detailed study.

  8. Gross regional domestic product estimation: Application of two-way unbalanced panel data models to economic growth in East Nusa Tenggara province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, Wahyu; Sinu, Elisabeth B.; Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    The condition of East Nusa Tenggara Province which recently developed new districts can affect the number of information or data collected become unbalanced. One of the consequences of ignoring the data incompleteness is the estimator become not valid. Therefore, the analysis of unbalanced panel data is very crucial.The aim of this paper is to find the estimation of Gross Regional Domestic Product in East Nusa Tenggara Province using unbalanced panel data regression model for two-way error component which assume random effect model (REM). In this research, we employ Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) as regression coefficients estimation method. Since variance of the model is unknown, ANOVA method is considered to obtain the variance components in order to construct the variance-covariance matrix. The data used in this research is secondary data taken from Central Bureau of Statistics of East Nusa Tenggara Province in 21 districts period 2004-2013. The predictors are the number of labor over 15 years old (X1), electrification ratios (X2), and local revenues (X3) while Gross Regional Domestic Product based on constant price 2000 is the response (Y). The FGLS estimation result shows that the value of R2 is 80,539% and all the predictors chosen are significantly affect (α = 5%) the Gross Regional Domestic Product in all district of East Nusa Tenggara Province. Those variables are the number of labor over 15 years old (X1), electrification ratios (X2), and local revenues (X3) with 0,22986, 0,090476, and 0,14749 of elasticities, respectively.

  9. To direct the Librarian of Congress to obtain a stained glass panel depicting the seal of the District of Columbia and install the panel among the stained glass panels depicting the seals of States which overlook the Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2014-02-27

    02/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. To direct the Librarian of Congress to obtain a stained glass panel depicting the seal of the District of Columbia and install the panel among the stained glass panels depicting the seals of States which overlook the Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2014-02-27

    02/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. To direct the Librarian of Congress to obtain a stained glass panel depicting the seal of the District of Columbia and install the panel among the stained glass panels depicting the seals of States which overlook the Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Norton, Eleanor Holmes [D-DC-At Large

    2014-02-27

    House - 02/28/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Heat exchanger panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  13. 61. DETAIL OF COMPLEX SAFETY CONTROL PANEL IMMEDIATELY WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. DETAIL OF COMPLEX SAFETY CONTROL PANEL IMMEDIATELY WEST OF PAYLOAD PANEL SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-60. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 50. DETAIL OF TYPICAL PANELS IN ANALOG RECORD BAY. LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. DETAIL OF TYPICAL PANELS IN ANALOG RECORD BAY. LEFT PANEL CONTAINS OSCILLOGRAPH AND CONTROLS. RIGHT PANEL CONTAINS CATHODE RAY TUBE AND INK-TYPE CHART RECORDER. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 60. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL AT EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL AT EAST END OF CONSOLE IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE AMPLIFIER (LEFT PANEL, CENTER) FOR SLAVE COMMUNICTIONS PANEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  17. The Building Blocks of Digital Media Literacy: Socio-Material Participation and the Production of Media Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezuanni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the knowledge and skills students develop when they engage in digital media production and analysis in school settings. The metaphor of "digital building blocks" is used to describe the material practices, conceptual understandings and production of knowledge that lead to the development of digital media literacy.…

  18. The Building Blocks of Digital Media Literacy: Socio-Material Participation and the Production of Media Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezuanni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the knowledge and skills students develop when they engage in digital media production and analysis in school settings. The metaphor of "digital building blocks" is used to describe the material practices, conceptual understandings and production of knowledge that lead to the development of digital media literacy.…

  19. Stress-Simulating Witness Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert P.; Biegert, Lydia L.

    1995-01-01

    Special panel fixtures developed for verifying integrity of bonds between propellants and insulators in solid-fuel rocket motors by applying, to specimens of propellant and insulator material, stresses similar to those caused by shrinkage during fabrication of motors. Assemblies of fixtures and specimens called "stress-simulating witness panels." Concept also applicable to stress testing of bonds in other manufactured products subject to shrinkage or to swelling.

  20. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of... contain no alcohol (0 percent). (f) For any OTC drug product intended for oral ingestion containing over...

  1. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of... contain no alcohol (0 percent). (f) For any OTC drug product intended for oral ingestion containing over...

  2. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    little flexibility to begin long lead-time items for upgrades or contingency planning. For example, the section on computer hardware and software contains specific findings related to required longer range safety-related actions. NASA can be proud of its accomplishments this past year, but must remain ever vigilant, particularly as ISS assembly begins to accelerate. The Panel will continue to focus on both the short- and long-term aspects of risk management and safety planning. This task continues to be made manageable and productive by the excellent cooperation the Panel receives from both NASA and its contractors. Particular emphasis will continue to be directed to longer term workforce and program planning issues as well as the immediate risks associated with ISS assembly and the initial flights of the X-33 and X-34. Section 2 of this report presents specific findings and recommendations generated by ASAP activities during 1998. Section 3 contains more detailed information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendix A is a current roster of Panel members, consultants, and staff. Appendix B contains NASA's response to the findings and recommendations from the 1997 ASAP Annual Report. Appendix C details the fact-finding activities of the Panel in 1998. During the year, Mr. Richard D. Blomberg was elected chair of the Panel and Vice Admiral (VADM) Robert F Dunn was elected deputy chair. VADM Bernard M. Kauderer moved from consultant to member. Mr. Charles J. Donlan retired from the Panel after many years of meritorious service. Ms. Shirley C. McCarty and Mr. Robert L. ('Hoot') Gibson joined the Panel as consultants.

  3. Panel Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  4. Reversal of β-oxidative pathways for the microbial production of chemicals and polymer building blocks.

    PubMed

    Kallscheuer, Nicolai; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael; Marienhagen, Jan

    2017-07-01

    β-Oxidation is the ubiquitous metabolic strategy to break down fatty acids. In the course of this four-step process, two carbon atoms are liberated per cycle from the fatty acid chain in the form of acetyl-CoA. However, typical β-oxidative strategies are not restricted to monocarboxylic (fatty) acid degradation only, but can also be involved in the utilization of aromatic compounds, amino acids and dicarboxylic acids. Each enzymatic step of a typical β-oxidation cycle is reversible, offering the possibility to also take advantage of reversed metabolic pathways for applied purposes. In such cases, 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolases, which catalyze the final chain-shortening step in the catabolic direction, mediate the condensation of an acyl-CoA starter molecule with acetyl-CoA in the anabolic direction. Subsequently, the carbonyl-group at C3 is stepwise reduced and dehydrated yielding a chain-elongated product. In the last years, several β-oxidation pathways have been studied in detail and reversal of these pathways already proved to be a promising strategy for the production of chemicals and polymer building blocks in several industrially relevant microorganisms. This review covers recent advancements in this field and discusses constraints and bottlenecks of this metabolic strategy in comparison to alternative production pathways. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    SciTech Connect

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  6. 16. VIEW OF THE STATIONARY OPERATING ENGINEER CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF THE STATIONARY OPERATING ENGINEER CONTROL PANEL INSTALLATION. THE PANEL CONTROLS AIR-HANDLING EQUIPMENT AND AIR PRESSURE WITHIN THE BUILDING. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Regional-scale dominance of non-framework building corals on Caribbean reefs affects carbonate production and future reef growth.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Steneck, Robert S; Murphy, Gary N; Kench, Paul S; Edinger, Evan N; Smithers, Scott G; Mumby, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Coral cover on Caribbean reefs has declined rapidly since the early 1980's. Diseases have been a major driver, decimating communities of framework building Acropora and Orbicella coral species, and reportedly leading to the emergence of novel coral assemblages often dominated by domed and plating species of the genera Agaricia, Porites and Siderastrea. These corals were not historically important Caribbean framework builders, and typically have much smaller stature and lower calcification rates, fuelling concerns over reef carbonate production and growth potential. Using data from 75 reefs from across the Caribbean we quantify: (i) the magnitude of non-framework building coral dominance throughout the region and (ii) the contribution of these corals to contemporary carbonate production. Our data show that live coral cover averages 18.2% across our sites and coral carbonate production 4.1 kg CaCO3  m(-2)  yr(-1) . However, non-framework building coral species dominate and are major carbonate producers at a high proportion of sites; they are more abundant than Acropora and Orbicella at 73% of sites; contribute an average 68% of the carbonate produced; and produce more than half the carbonate at 79% of sites. Coral cover and carbonate production rate are strongly correlated but, as relative abundance of non-framework building corals increases, average carbonate production rates decline. Consequently, the use of coral cover as a predictor of carbonate budget status, without species level production rate data, needs to be treated with caution. Our findings provide compelling evidence for the Caribbean-wide dominance of non-framework building coral taxa, and that these species are now major regional carbonate producers. However, because these species typically have lower calcification rates, continued transitions to states dominated by non-framework building coral species will further reduce carbonate production rates below 'predecline' levels, resulting in shifts

  8. Expert Panels, Consumers, and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeldt, Thomas K.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the attributes, properties, and consumer acceptance of antiperspirant products through responses of 400 consumers (consumer data), expert panel data, and analytical data about the products. Results show how the Rasch model can provide the tool necessary to combine data from several sources. (SLD)

  9. Consensus panel's assessment and recommendations on the use of 3 botulinum toxin type A products in facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Fagien, Steven; Hirmand, Haideh; Nestor, Mark S; Sclafani, Anthony P; Sykes, Jonathan M; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2013-03-01

    In this summary article, the authors discuss the characteristics of abobotulinumtoxinA, incobotulinumtoxinA, and onabotulinumtoxinA. With 3 neuromodulators available in the US market, comparisons between and among products will invariably be made, so arguments for the most effective facial aesthetic uses of each neuromodulator are presented. Topics addressed in this article include patient expectations, toxin reconstitution and preparation, patient positioning, differences among products, the role of complexing proteins, and dosing and injection strategies. Recommendations are also provided by treatment area.

  10. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  11. Characterization and application of the Andean Diversity Panel for the improvement of common bean productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa is far below yield potential, while climate change and access to inputs are persistent challenges. In addition, the market and human nutrition needs for common bean continue to expand in the African continent, which has the highest ...

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Reduced Call-Backs with High-Performance Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes ways Building America teams have helped builders cut call-backs. Harvard University study found builders who worked with Building America had a 50% drop in call-backs. One builder reported a 50-fold reduction in the incidence of pipe freezing, a 50% reduction in drywall cracking, and a 60% decline in call-backs.

  13. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    PubMed

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  15. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  16. Making Large Suction Panels For Laminar-Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, Dal V.

    1991-01-01

    Perforated titanium panels used to identify and resolve issues related to manufacture. Recently, relatively large suction panels with aerodynamically satisfactory surface perforations and with surface contours and smoothness characteristics necessary for Laminar-Flow Control (LFC) designed, fabricated, and tested. Requirements of production lines for commercial transport airplanes carefully considered in development of panels. Sizes of panels representative of what is used on wing of commercial transport airplane. Tests of perforated panels in transonic wind tunnel demonstrated aerodynamic stability at flight mach numbers.

  17. 49 CFR 393.118 - What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or... Shifting and Falling Cargo Specific Securement Requirements by Commodity Type § 393.118 What are the rules for securing dressed lumber or similar building products? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section...

  18. Strains ofaspergillus versicolor tiraboschi synthesizing sterigmatocystin and the differentiation of mycotoxic risk dependent on their productivity in housing buildings.

    PubMed

    Piontek, M

    2007-03-01

    In biomasses from 22 moulds isolated in housing buildings a Chromatographie HPLC UV/VIS analysis was carried out to assess the production of sterigmatocystin by fungal isolates. The results are discussed with respect to mycotoxic risk for people exposed to the presence ofAspergillus versicolor. This fungus is often present on building materials, but does not always produce the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST). In this study, 19 (86%) of the 22 strains synthesized ST at detectable levels (>0.03 mg kg-1 biomass). Three of the strains (14%) were found to synthesize ST at levels exceeding 100 mg kg-1 of the air-dry mould biomass with laboratory medium. One strain proved to be highly productive and synthesized more than 500 mg kg-1 ST. Thus, it presented the highest mycotoxic danger for the dwellers of the buildings whereA. versicolor infested the walls. However, most strains are low producers of ST, with 12 of 22 isolates synthesizing less than 10 mg kg-1 biomass. Mycotoxigenic and highly productive strains that produced significant amounts of ST (>500 mg kg-1 biomass) were less frequently found, with approximately 5% of all isolates from buildings studied for ST production.

  19. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... composite and nonveneer structural-use panels shall comply with the requirements described in the APA PRP... excluding any floor finishes. Copies of the APA Standard may be obtained from the American Plywood.... E30K, “APA Design/Construction Guide-Residential and Commercial” (published by the American Plywood...

  20. A novel approach to increasing inventory with the current panel: increasing donation frequency by asking for a different blood product.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M

    2015-06-01

    Ongoing shortages of blood products may be addressed through additional donations. However, donation frequency rates are typically lower than medically possible. This preliminary study aims to determine voluntary nonremunerated whole blood (WB) and plasmapheresis donors' willingness, and subsequent facilitators and barriers, to make additional donations of a different type. Forty individual telephone interviews were conducted posing two additional donation pattern scenarios: first, making a single and, second, making multiple plasmapheresis donations between WB donations. Stratified purposive sampling was conducted for four samples varying in donation experience: no-plasma, new-to-both-WB-and-plasma, new-to-plasma, and plasma donors. Interviews were analyzed yielding excellent (κ values > 0.81) inter-rater reliability. Facilitators were more endorsed than barriers for a single but not multiple plasmapheresis donation. More new-to-both donors (n = 5) were willing to make multiple plasma donations between WB donations than others (n = 1 each) and identified fewer barriers (n = 3) than those more experienced in donation (n = 8 no plasma, n = 10 new to both, n = 11 plasma). Donors in the plasma sample were concerned about the subsequent reduced time between plasma donations by adding WB donations (n = 3). The no-plasma and new-to-plasma donors were concerned about the time commitment required (n = 3). Current donors are willing to add different product donations but donation history influences their willingness to change. Early introduction of multiple donation types, variation in inventory levels, and addressing barriers will provide blood collection agencies with a novel and cost-effective inventory management strategy. © 2015 AABB.

  1. Interior building details of Building A, Room A109 Dutch door, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, Room A109 Dutch door, room A-108 single panel wood door with wood trim northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  2. Surface-catalysed reactions on pollutant-removing building products for indoor use.

    PubMed

    Gunschera, J; Andersen, J R; Schulz, N; Salthammer, T

    2009-04-01

    In order to evaluate the potential for emission of secondary reaction products from building materials designed to remove pollutants from indoor air, four samples of ceiling tiles--three commercially available and one custom-made--were investigated in chamber experiments. The chambers were irradiated with artificial light simulating indoor conditions and formaldehyde as well as several VOCs (2-butanone, n-butanol, toluene, hexanal, n- butylacetate, 2-butoxyethanol, alpha-pinene, benzaldehyde, n-decane, limonene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene) were added. Depending on the individual substrate-substance combination, it was possible to identify secondary emissions, e.g. formaldehyde, furfural, acetophenone, n-butylbutyrate, n-butyl-i-butyrate, n-butylpropionate, 4-heptanone, acetic acid, i-butyraldehyde and crotonaldehyde. These were generated by cleavage, hydrolysis, rearrangement or radical reactions. Some of these reactions also occurred with samples not containing photocatalysts. All these secondary emissions have to be taken seriously into account when evaluating the performance of materials designed to remove pollutants from indoor air, as they can prove detrimental to human health.

  3. Optimizing lighting, thermal performance, and energy production of building facades by using automated blinds and PV cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzoubi, Hussain Hendi

    Energy consumption in buildings has recently become a major concern for environmental designers. Within this field, daylighting and solar energy design are attractive strategies for saving energy. This study seeks the integrity and the optimality of building envelopes' performance. It focuses on the transparent parts of building facades, specifically, the windows and their shading devices. It suggests a new automated method of utilizing solar energy while keeping optimal solutions for indoor daylighting. The method utilizes a statistical approach to produce mathematical equations based on physical experimentation. A full-scale mock-up representing an actual office was built. Heat gain and lighting levels were measured empirically and correlated with blind angles. Computational methods were used to estimate the power production from photovoltaic cells. Mathematical formulas were derived from the results of the experiments; these formulas were utilized to construct curves as well as mathematical equations for the purpose of optimization. The mathematical equations resulting from the optimization process were coded using Java programming language to enable future users to deal with generic locations of buildings with a broader context of various climatic conditions. For the purpose of optimization by automation under different climatic conditions, a blind control system was developed based on the findings of this study. This system calibrates the blind angles instantaneously based upon the sun position, the indoor daylight, and the power production from the photovoltaic cells. The functions of this system guarantee full control of the projected solar energy on buildings' facades for indoor lighting and heat gain. In winter, the system automatically blows heat into the space, whereas it expels heat from the space during the summer season. The study showed that the optimality of building facades' performance is achievable for integrated thermal, energy, and lighting

  4. Characterization of Asbestos Construction Products at Naval Shore Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    in building construction usually are a blend of 5% to 95% asbestos fibers combined with vermiculite, sand, mineral fibers , bentonite clay binders , or... roofing shingles , corrugated sheets, facings of acoustical products, laboratory table tops, electrical conduits, and laminated panels. Asbestos-cement...probably was never used in Navy construction. However, asbestos siding shingles have been used extensively on wood frame buildings. Asbestos roofing

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-offs: Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how some energy-efficiency measure cost increases can balance against measures that reduce up-front costs: Advanced framing cuts lumber costs, right sizing can mean downsizing the HVAC, moving HVAC into conditioned space cuts installation costs, designing on a 2-foot grid reduces materials waste, etc.

  6. Building Relationships, Yielding Results: How Superintendents Can Work with School Boards to Create Productive Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    In "Building Relationships, Yielding Results," the seasoned superintendent of an urban school district provides a clear road map for effective collaboration with school boards and the type of relationship-building required to achieve long-term, sustainable reforms. Instead of keeping school board members at arm's length or inundating…

  7. Building Relationships, Yielding Results: How Superintendents Can Work with School Boards to Create Productive Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Julie L.

    2015-01-01

    In "Building Relationships, Yielding Results," the seasoned superintendent of an urban school district provides a clear road map for effective collaboration with school boards and the type of relationship-building required to achieve long-term, sustainable reforms. Instead of keeping school board members at arm's length or inundating…

  8. Buildings That Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebenson, John

    1998-01-01

    Teachers can use "built teaching aids" or elements of the school building itself to expand teaching and enhance learning. Possibilities include bulletin boards, display cases, murals painted by local artists, permanent information panels, interior windows to classrooms, flags, and bas-reliefs on building exteriors. Playground pavement…

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program 1985 Ship Production Symposium. Volume 1, Paper Number 5: Overview of Panel SP-2 Outfitting and Production Aids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    for Zone Outfitting; Design Modeling; Pre-Contract Negotiation of Technical Matters; Product Oriented Material Management. Because of demand, " Process ... Analysis Via Accuracy Control", originally issued in February 1982, has been revised and is about to be reissued. Various papers and comments which

  10. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  11. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  12. A Phase-Change Composite for Use in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Ron S.

    1992-06-15

    The objective of this project is to develop composite thermal insulations containing phase-change materials for use in the building envelope. The use of a phase-change insulation composite in the building envelope could result in a significant increase in energy efficiency. PhD Research provided candidate phase-change composites, and ORNL performed analytical and experimental evaluations of their thermal performance. The thermal resistance of the prototype panels was somewhat less than that of commercial products, although their thermal capacity was greater. Using these results, PhD Research has been working to modify the design and to produce practical building elements that incorporate phase-change material.

  13. Structural Analysis of Sandwich Foam Panels

    SciTech Connect

    Kosny, Jan; Huo, X. Sharon

    2010-04-01

    The Sandwich Panel Technologies including Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) can be used to replace the conventional wooden-frame construction method. The main purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and SGI Venture, Inc. was to design a novel high R-value type of metal sandwich panelized technology. This CRADA project report presents design concept discussion and numerical analysis results from thermal performance study of this new building envelope system. The main objective of this work was to develop a basic concept of a new generation of wall panel technologies which will have R-value over R-20 will use thermal mass to improve energy performance in cooling dominated climates and will be 100% termite resistant. The main advantages of using sandwich panels are as follows: (1) better energy saving structural panels with high and uniform overall wall R-value across the elevation that could not be achieved in traditional walls; and (2) reducing the use of raw materials or need for virgin lumber. For better utilization of these Sandwich panels, engineers need to have a thorough understanding of the actual performance of the panels and system. Detailed analysis and study on the capacities and deformation of individual panels and its assembly have to be performed to achieve that goal. The major project activity was to conduct structural analysis of the stresses, strains, load capacities, and deformations of individual sandwich components under various load cases. The analysis simulated the actual loading conditions of the regular residential building and used actual material properties of the steel facings and foam.

  14. Advanced concentrator panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, D. M.; Bedard, R. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The prototype fabrication of a lightweight, high-quality cellular glass substrate reflective panel for use in an advanced point-focusing solar concentrator was completed. The reflective panel is a gore shaped segment of an 11-m paraboloidal dish. The overall concentrator design and the design of the reflective panels are described. prototype-specific panel design modifications are discussed and the fabrication approach and procedure outlined.

  15. 2. Exterior view of instrumentation and gauge panels on southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Exterior view of instrumentation and gauge panels on southeast wall of Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). The piping and tubing visibile in the photograph extends from the structure to the Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28) and other structures in the complex. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  16. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  17. Conclusions and recommendations of the United States Solar Energy Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.; Morse, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    The United States Solar Energy Panel was charged with assessing the potential of solar energy as a national energy resource. Three areas evolved where solar energy could supply significant amounts of the U.S. future energy needs: (1) energy for heating and cooling of buildings, (2) the production of fuels, and (3) the generation of electrical power. It was concluded that with adequate R&D support over the next 30 years, solar energy could provide at least 35 percent of the heating and cooling of future buildings, greater than 30 percent of the methane and hydrogen needed in the U.S. for gaseous fuels, and greater than 20 percent of the electrical power needs of the U.S. All of this could be done with a minimal effect on the environment and a substantial savings of nonrenewable fuels.

  18. Conclusions and recommendations of the United States Solar Energy Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.; Morse, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    The United States Solar Energy Panel was charged with assessing the potential of solar energy as a national energy resource. Three areas evolved where solar energy could supply significant amounts of the U.S. future energy needs: (1) energy for heating and cooling of buildings, (2) the production of fuels, and (3) the generation of electrical power. It was concluded that with adequate R&D support over the next 30 years, solar energy could provide at least 35 percent of the heating and cooling of future buildings, greater than 30 percent of the methane and hydrogen needed in the U.S. for gaseous fuels, and greater than 20 percent of the electrical power needs of the U.S. All of this could be done with a minimal effect on the environment and a substantial savings of nonrenewable fuels.

  19. 19. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING AIR POLICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - AIR POLICE SITE SECURITY OFFICE WITH "SITE PERIMETER STATUS PANEL" AND REAL TIME VIDEO DISPLAY OUTPUT FROM VIDEO CAMERA SYSTEM AT SECURITY FENCE LOCATIONS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. Efficient panel designs for longitudinal recurrent event studies recording panel counts.

    PubMed

    Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; Dean, C B; Balshaw, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Many clinical trials are designed to study outcome measures recorded as the number of events occurring during specific intervals, called panel data. In such data, the intervals are specified by a planned set of follow-up times. As the collection of panel data results in a partial loss of information relative to a record of the actual event times, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of the impact of panel study designs on the efficiency of the estimates of treatment effects and covariates. This understanding can then be used as a base from which to formulate appropriate designs by layering in other concerns, e.g. clinical constraints, or other practical considerations. We compare the efficiency of the analysis of panel data with respect to the analysis of data recorded precisely as times of recurrences, and articulate conditions for efficient panel designs where the focus is on estimation of a treatment effect when adjusting for other covariates. We build from the efficiency comparisons to optimize the design of panel follow-up times. We model the recurrent intensity through the common proportional intensity framework, with the treatment effect modeled flexibly as piecewise constant over panels, or groups of panels. We provide some important considerations for the design of efficient panel studies, and illustrate the methods through analysis of designs of studies of adenomas.

  1. Safety Panel Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore what resources are potentially available to safety panels and to provide some guidance on how to utilize those resources. While the examples used in this paper will concentrate on the Flight Equipment and Reliability Review Panel (FESRRP) and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) hardware that have come through that panel, as well as resources at Johnson Space Center, the paper will address how this applies to safety panels in general, and where possible cite examples for other safety panels.

  2. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  3. Production of fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitat and manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The production of a fiberglass/metal composite material suitable for building habitats and manufacturing facilities was the project for Clemson. The concept and development of the knowledge necessary to produce glass fibers originated in the spring semester. During the summer, while at Johnson Space Center, fiberglass from a rock composition similar to ones found at the Apollo 16 site on the moon was successfully produced. The project this year was a continuation of last year's studies. We addressed the following problems which emerged as the work progressed: (1) Methods for coating the fibers with a metal were explored. We manufactured composites in two stages: Glass fibers without any coating on them; and fibers coated with metals as they were made. This proved to be a difficult process. Future activities include using a chemical vapor deposition process on fibers which have been made. (2) A glass furnace was developed which relies primarily on solar energy for melting the glass. The temperature of the melted glass is maintained by electrical means. The design is for 250 kg of glass per day. An electrical engineering student developed a scheme for controlling the melting and manufacturing process from the earth. This was done to minimize the human risk. Graphite refractories are relied on to contain the melt. (3) The glass composition chosen for the project is a relatively pure anorthite which is available in the highland regions of the lunar surface. A major problems with this material is that it melts at a comparatively high temperature. This problem will be solved by using graphite refractory materials for the furnace. The advantage of this glass composition is that it is very stable and does not tend to crystallize. (4) We have also refined the experimental furnace and fiber making machinery which we will be using at Johnson Space Center this summer. We believe that we will be able to draw and coat glass fibers in a vacuum for use in composites. We intend to

  4. Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

  5. Sound radiation and transmission characteristics of finite composite panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Avinash R.

    2000-10-01

    Laminated composite and sandwich composite panels are used widely in aircraft and space structures. Corrugated panels or bead-stiffened panels are used in building structures and automobiles. In these applications, the sound transmission through such panels is an important factor in their design. Their sound radiation characteristics are also important. These panels have been analyzed earlier mostly by assuming them to be of infinite size. But in real applications, only finite panels were used. The finite size of a panel affects its sound radiation below the critical frequency and consequently it also affects the resonant sound transmission through the panel. In the present work, such panels are analyzed considering their finite size. The analysis presented in this thesis is restricted to laminated composite panels, which have no coupling between bending and twisting. Corrugated panels with corrugations in only one direction were analyzed in this work. Sandwich composite panels, which have a symmetric configuration, were analyzed as well. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) was used for this purpose. The dispersion relations for laminated composite, sandwich composite and corrugated panels were studied. The phenomenon known as 'critical frequency band' was explained. Wavenumber diagrams were plotted for various frequencies. The mode count was obtained for the panels. A frequency averaged radiation efficiency was obtained from first principles. These results were used to calculate various SEA parameters. The transmission loss of the panels was predicted by using SEA and it is compared with the experimental results obtained by other researchers. The parametric analysis and optimization of a sandwich composite panel was carried out here. The analysis in this thesis is useful in the design of panels used for various engineering applications.

  6. 77 FR 76001 - Hydrographic Services Review Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... hydrographic services, marine transportation, port administration, vessel pilotage, coastal and fishery... expertise in navigation data, products and services; coastal management; fisheries management; coastal and marine spatial planning; geodesy; water levels; and other science-related fields to apply for Panel...

  7. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly 34 includes an optical panel 10 having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides 12 stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces 16, 18. A light source 20 provides an image beam 22 to the panel first face 16 for being channeled through the waveguides 12 and emitted from the panel second face 18 in the form of a viewable light image 24a. A remote device 38 produces a response beam 40 over a discrete selection area 36 of the panel second face 18 for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides 12 toward the panel first face 16. A light sensor 42,50 is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides 12 for detecting the response beam 40 therein for providing interactive capability.

  8. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  9. Interactive optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-10-03

    An interactive optical panel assembly includes an optical panel having a plurality of ribbon optical waveguides stacked together with opposite ends thereof defining panel first and second faces. A light source provides an image beam to the panel first face for being channeled through the waveguides and emitted from the panel second face in the form of a viewable light image. A remote device produces a response beam over a discrete selection area of the panel second face for being channeled through at least one of the waveguides toward the panel first face. A light sensor is disposed across a plurality of the waveguides for detecting the response beam therein for providing interactive capability. 10 figs.

  10. ATR FTIR Mapping of Leather Fiber Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, G.; Grünewald, T.; Petutschnigg, A.; Schnabel, T.

    2015-01-01

    Leather fiber panels are very promising materials for many applications, not only for the easy availability of the constituents but also for their outstanding fi re-retardant properties. These innovative composite panels can be an excellent material for building insulation, and in recent times, the interest of industries in this composite board has considerably arisen. For this reason the discrimination of the components in the leather fiber panels is becoming fundamental in order to ensure their homogeneous properties. A method to characterize the surface of these materials is then required. An ATR FTIR mapping system for the leather fiber panels has been performed with a Perkin-Elmer microscope coupled with a Frontier FTIR spectrometer. The system has successfully allowed transforming the optical image to a chemical one. This technique can be considered as a right tool for routine controls of the surface quality, especially when the leather shavings cannot be optically distinguished.

  11. Liquid-Crystal Thermal-Control Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehaye, R. F.; Edge, T. M.; Feltner, W. R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiative temperature regulators have no moving parts. Conceptual temperature-regulating system proposed for spacecraft useful in automatic or remotely controlled regulation of solar heating in buildings, provided cost reduced sufficiently. System consists of liquid-crystal panels made to absorb or reflect sunlight.

  12. The changing market for hardwood plywood stock panels.

    Treesearch

    Gary R. Lindell

    1972-01-01

    The major end product for hardwood plywood (usually birch) stock panels in 1970 was kitchen cabinets. About 1/3 of the volume was shipped to the Pacific region. Over 1/3 of the responses by wholesalers indicated that stock panel sales had declined over the preceding 3 years, chiefly because of the inroads being made by plastic covered particleboard panels. The...

  13. 77 FR 18295 - Industry Advisory Panel: Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Industry Advisory Panel: Notice of Open Meeting The Industry Advisory Panel of the Bureau of Overseas Buildings ] Operations will meet on Tuesday, April 17, 2012 from 10 a.m. until 3:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The...

  14. 76 FR 62892 - Industry Advisory Panel: Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Industry Advisory Panel: Notice of Open Meeting The Industry Advisory Panel of the Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations will meet on Tuesday, October 18, 2011 from 9:30 a.m. until 3:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The...

  15. 76 FR 19826 - Industry Advisory Panel; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Industry Advisory Panel; Notice of Open Meeting The Industry Advisory Panel of the Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations will meet on Tuesday, April 26, 2011 from 9:30 a.m. until 3:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The...

  16. 75 FR 13643 - Industry Advisory Panel: Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Industry Advisory Panel: Notice of Open Meeting The Industry Advisory Panel of the Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations will meet on Wednesday, April 14, 2010 from 9:30 a.m. until 3:30 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time. The...

  17. 78 FR 17993 - Industry Advisory Panel; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Industry Advisory Panel; Notice of Open Meeting The Industry Advisory Group, formerly the Industry Advisory Panel, of the Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations will meet on Friday, April 19, 2013 from 10:00 a.m...

  18. 67. DETAIL OF VIDEO CAMERA CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IMMEDIATELY WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. DETAIL OF VIDEO CAMERA CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IMMEDIATELY WEST OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANEL SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-66 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. 99. DETAIL OF TYPICAL METER ADJUST PANELS LOCATED IN LAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. DETAIL OF TYPICAL METER ADJUST PANELS LOCATED IN LAST TWO CABINETS ON RIGHT IN CA-133-1-A-97 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. DETAIL OF REAR OF DEMULTIPLEX PANEL 5 SHOWING COMPONENTS OF VACUUM-TUBE OSCILLOSCOPE - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. 76. VIEW OF THE MOTOR CONTROL PANEL IN THE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF THE MOTOR CONTROL PANEL IN THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST SERVICE BUILDING FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 75. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL ON THE EASTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL ON THE EASTERN SIDE OF THE EAST SERVICE BUILDING OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 74. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL ON THE WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. VIEW OF CONTROL PANEL ON THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE EAST SERVICE BUILDING OF DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 24. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM. BASE POWER PANEL VISIBLE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM. BASE POWER PANEL VISIBLE ON RIGHT WALL OF HALLWAY. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. 29. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF CONTROL PANEL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST OF CONTROL PANEL AND VIEWING WINDOW IN ROOM 105, THE CONTROL ROOM. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel at the east end (series 4 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  7. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL, ROOM 112, FACING EAST Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL, ROOM 112, FACING EAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  8. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL, CORRIDOR 137 Cape Canaveral Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL, CORRIDOR 137 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. 30. LOCKER CAGE, CHANGE AREA, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LOCKER CAGE, CHANGE AREA, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 28. SHOWER AND URINALS, OVERHEAD TOILET STRUCTURE ABOVE ROOF PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. SHOWER AND URINALS, OVERHEAD TOILET STRUCTURE ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 29. CIRCULAR WASH BASIN, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. CIRCULAR WASH BASIN, TOILETS ABOVE ROOF PANEL STORAGE AREA. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of generator number three, oblique. Control panels on the main floor and on the mezzanine are visible behind and above the generators. - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Utility Building, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. 15. View northeast of main control panels, Arctic and Tropic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View northeast of main control panels, Arctic and Tropic Chambers, in machine area. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  14. 22. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View north of main control panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH. View north of main control panels, Artic and Tropic Chambers, ca. 1955. (Source: NRDEC). - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Decay of wood and wood-based products above ground in buildings

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Carll; Terry L. Highley

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an overview of what we know about occurrence of wood decay above ground within buildings. It presents information concerning under what conditions decay may become established. In laboratory tests involving optimum moisture and temperature conditions for decay fungi, and direct contact with large quantities of specific well-developed decay...

  16. Thermal insulating concrete wall panel design for sustainable built environment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah; Lau, Denvid

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes.

  17. Thermal Insulating Concrete Wall Panel Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ao; Wong, Kwun-Wah

    2014-01-01

    Air-conditioning system plays a significant role in providing users a thermally comfortable indoor environment, which is a necessity in modern buildings. In order to save the vast energy consumed by air-conditioning system, the building envelopes in envelope-load dominated buildings should be well designed such that the unwanted heat gain and loss with environment can be minimized. In this paper, a new design of concrete wall panel that enhances thermal insulation of buildings by adding a gypsum layer inside concrete is presented. Experiments have been conducted for monitoring the temperature variation in both proposed sandwich wall panel and conventional concrete wall panel under a heat radiation source. For further understanding the thermal effect of such sandwich wall panel design from building scale, two three-story building models adopting different wall panel designs are constructed for evaluating the temperature distribution of entire buildings using finite element method. Both the experimental and simulation results have shown that the gypsum layer improves the thermal insulation performance by retarding the heat transfer across the building envelopes. PMID:25177718

  18. Graphite/epoxy orthogrid panel fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lager, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The structural concept considered for a spacecraft body structure is a grid stiffened skin with a skin laminate configuration and the stiffener grid geometry selected to best suit the design requirements. The orthogrid panel developed weighs 0.55 lb/sq ft and resisted an ultimate in-plane shear load of 545 lbf/in. The basic concept of a grid stiffener composite panel is that a relatively thin skin is reinforced with a gridwork of stiffeners so that the overall panel can resist design loads without becoming structurally unstable or being overstressed. The main feature of the orthogrid panel design is that it provides the potential for low cost structural panels when advanced to the production phase. The most innovative part of the fabrication method is the foam/fiberglass stiffener web grid billet fabrication and machining to size.

  19. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  20. Titanium honeycomb panel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, W. L.; Thompson, Randolph C.

    The paper describes the procedures of thermal mechanical tests carried out at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility on two tianium honeycomb wing panels bonded using liquid interface diffusion (LID) technique, and presents the results of these tests. The 58.4 cm square panels consisted of two 0.152-cm-thick Ti 6-2-4-2 face sheets LID-bonded to a 1.9-cm-thick honeycomb core, with bearing plates fastened to the perimeter of the upper and the lower panel surfaces. The panels were instrumented with sensors for measuring surface temperature, strain, and deflections to 315 C and 482 C. Thermal stress levels representative of those encountered during aerodynamic heating were produced by heating the upper panel surface and restraining all four edges. After more than 100 thermal cycles from room temperature to 315 C and 50 cycles from room temperature to 482 C, no significant structural degradation was detected in the panels.

  1. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken.

  2. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... and the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Pub. L. 111- 31). 2. Program Background... to smoking. A compelling body of evidence illustrates that tobacco products are inherently dangerous... marketing of tobacco products and by educating the public, especially young people, about tobacco products...

  3. Titanium Honeycomb Panel Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance; Thompson, Randolph C.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal-mechanical tests were performed on a titanium honeycomb sandwich panel to experimentally validate the hypersonic wing panel concept and compare test data with analysis. Details of the test article, test fixture development, instrumentation, and test results are presented. After extensive testing to 900 deg. F, non-destructive evaluation of the panel has not detected any significant structural degradation caused by the applied thermal-mechanical loads.

  4. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report from the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) contains findings, recommendations, and supporting material concerning safety issues with the space station program, the space shuttle program, aeronautics research, and other NASA programs. Section two presents findings and recommendations, section three presents supporting information, and appendices contain data about the panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1993 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the past year.

  5. Recommendation Method for Build-to-Order Products Considering Substitutability of Specifications and Stock Consumption Balance of Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoda, Atsushi; Kosugi, Hidenori; Karino, Takafumi; Komoda, Norihisa

    This study focuses on a stock reduction method for build-to-order (BTO) products to flow surplus parts out to the market using sale by recommendation. A sale by recommendation is repeated in an each business negotiation using a recommended configuration selected from the inventory of parts to minimize the stock deficiency or excess at the end of a certain period of the production plan. The method is based on the potential of a customer specification to be replaced by an alternative one if the alternative one is close to the initial customer specification. A recommendation method is proposed that decides the recommended product configuration by balancing the part consumption so that the alternative specification of the configuration is close enough to the initial customer specification for substitutability. The method was evaluated by a simulation using real BTO manufacturing data and the result demonstrates that the unbalance of the consumption of parts inventory is improved.

  6. Linking research to global health equity: the contribution of product development partnerships to access to medicines and research capacity building.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe

    2013-11-01

    Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs--Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health--according to Frost and Reich's access framework. We also evaluated PDPs' capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products' registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations--high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels--remains a challenge.

  7. Advanced Modelling and Virtual Product Simulation in the Design and Build of Warships - A Practical View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Mr. John L Martin CEng. MRINA Consultant Engineer Future Engineering Methodology dept. Building A45 (second Floor) BAE SYSTEMS Marine Barrow in...to address the maturity of the evolving Virtual Reality technologies with the objective of assessing their suitability for engineering use. Following a...have access to visualisation tools on their desktop computing workstations and a purpose built Virtual Reality Suite was created for use as a design

  8. Solar reflection panels

    DOEpatents

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W.; Reshetnik, Michael

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  9. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  10. PANEL LIBRARY AND EDITOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, E.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Library and Editor is a graphical user interface (GUI) builder for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation family. The toolkit creates "widgets" which can be manipulated by the user. Its appearance is similar to that of the X-Windows System. The Panel Library is written in C and is used by programmers writing user-friendly mouse-driven applications for the IRIS. GUIs built using the Panel Library consist of "actuators" and "panels." Actuators are buttons, dials, sliders, or other mouse-driven symbols. Panels are groups of actuators that occupy separate windows on the IRIS workstation. The application user can alter variables in the graphics program, or fire off functions with a click on a button. The evolution of data values can be tracked with meters and strip charts, and dialog boxes with text processing can be built. Panels can be stored as icons when not in use. The Panel Editor is a program used to interactively create and test panel library interfaces in a simple and efficient way. The Panel Editor itself uses a panel library interface, so all actions are mouse driven. Extensive context-sensitive on-line help is provided. Programmers can graphically create and test the user interface without writing a single line of code. Once an interface is judged satisfactory, the Panel Editor will dump it out as a file of C code that can be used in an application. The Panel Library (v9.8) and Editor (v1.1) are written in C-Language (63%) and Scheme, a dialect of LISP, (37%) for Silicon Graphics 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or higher. Approximately 10Mb of disk space is required once compiled. 1.5Mb of main memory is required to execute the panel editor. This program is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format for an IRIS, and includes a copy of XScheme, the public-domain Scheme interpreter used by the Panel Editor. The Panel Library Programmer's Manual is included on the distribution media. The Panel Library and

  11. Computation of linear transmittance of thermal bridges in precast concrete sandwich panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscietti, Davide; Gervasio, Paola; Lezzi, Adriano M.

    2014-11-01

    Precast concrete lightened sandwich panels are widely used building elements. They are made by two concrete wythes separated by a layer of lightweight material: the central layer is inhomogeneous due to the presence of concrete ribs which tie the external wythe and act as thermal bridges. Computation of thermal transmittance of sandwich panels is clearly described in European Standards, but in many cases it requires numerical simulations to determine the linear transmittance ψ associated with lightweight material-concrete interfaces in the inhomogeneous layer. Although simple, these simulations represent a critical issue for many panel manufacturers and they would much rather prefer correlations to compute ψ. In this work we present a correlation based on an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate linear trasmittauce values for current Italian sandwich panel production. Five input parameters are considered: rib width, lightweight material conductivity, and thickness of the three panel layers. To obtain the data which are necessary to train and test the ANN, a fast and accurate Spectral Element Method is used to solve Laplace equation in the neighborhood of a rib. 5460 ψ values are collected which ensure an accurate network response.

  12. 7 CFR 2902.19 - Composite panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information on the BioPreferred Web site of qualifying biobased products about the intended uses of the... products. The RMAN recommendations can be found by accessing EPA's Web site http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non... composite panels. Engineered products designed for use as structural and sound deadening material suitable...

  13. 7 CFR 3201.19 - Composite panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sound deadening material suitable for office partitions and doors. (3) Interior panels. Engineered... qualifying biobased products provide information on the BioPreferred Web site of qualifying biobased products... material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the product has...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.19 - Composite panels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sound deadening material suitable for office partitions and doors. (3) Interior panels. Engineered... qualifying biobased products provide information on the BioPreferred Web site of qualifying biobased products... material, in addition to biobased ingredients, and performance standards against which the product has...

  15. Forest products industry of the future: Building a sustainable technology advantage for America`s forest products industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The US forest, wood, and paper industry ranks as one of the most competitive forest products industries in the world. With annual shipments valued at nearly $267 billion, it employs over 1.3 million people and is currently among the top 10 manufacturing employers in 46 out of 50 states. Retaining this leadership position will depend largely on the industry`s success in developing and using advanced technologies. These technologies will enable manufacturing plants and forestry enterprises to maximize energy and materials efficiency and reduce waste and emissions, while producing high-quality, competitively priced wood and paper products. In a unique partnership, leaders in the forest products industry have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to encourage cooperative research efforts that will help position the US forest products industry for continuing prosperity while advancing national energy efficiency and environmental goals.

  16. Building Training Curricula for Accelerating the Use of NOAA Climate Products and Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyeva-Livezey, M. M.; Meyers, J. C.; Stevermer, A.; Abshire, W. E.; Beller-Simms, N.; Herring, D.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) plays a leading role in U.S. intergovernmental efforts on the Climate Data Initiative and the Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT). CRT (http://toolkit.climate.gov/) is a valuable resource that provides tools, information, and subject matter expertise to decision makers in various sectors, such as agriculture, water resources and transportation, to help them build resilience to our changing climate. In order to make best use of the toolkit and all the resources within it, a training component is critical. The training section helps building users' understanding of the data, science, and impacts of climate variability and change. CRT identifies five steps in building resilience that includes use of appropriate tools to support decision makers depending on their needs. One tool that can be potentially integrated into CRT is NOAA's Local Climate Analysis Tool (LCAT), which provides access to trusted NOAA data and scientifically-sound analysis techniques for doing regional and local climate studies on climate variability and climate change. However, in order for LCAT to be used effectively, we have found an iterative learning approach using specific examples to train users. For example, for LCAT application in analysis of water resources, we use existing CRT case studies for Arizona and Florida water supply users. The Florida example demonstrates primary sensitivity to climate variability impacts, whereas the Arizona example takes into account longer- term climate change. The types of analyses included in LCAT are time series analysis of local climate and the estimated rate of change in the local climate. It also provides a composite analysis to evaluate the relationship between local climate and climate variability events such as El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Pacific North American Index, and other modes of climate variability. This paper will describe the development of a training module for use of LCAT and

  17. Prefabricated brick wall panels: Economy or nightmare?

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, M.J.

    1999-07-01

    Prefabricated wall systems are becoming a popular element of building construction. Prefabricated systems lend themselves to streamlining construction schedules and reducing overall construction costs. They offer the potential for increased quality due to assembly in controlled factory environments. This paper reviews basic principles and concepts for the design of waterproofing systems for prefabricated brick wall panels. Using a project case study, the author will show that failure to adhere to certain proven conventional practices can have serious adverse consequences with respect to the performance of prefabricated brick wall panels.

  18. Durability of structural panels

    Treesearch

    Eddie W. Price; [Editor

    1984-01-01

    Twenty papers from the proceedings of a workshop are presented on the durability of a group of structural panels for use in roof, wall, and floor sheathing applications. The panel types are waferboard,flakeboard, strandboard, oriented structural board, and structural particleboard. A summary of the proceedings is given as the final presentation.

  19. New mineral physics panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Committee on Mineral Physics has formed itself into six panels. The committee chairman is Orson L. Anderson of the Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; foreign secretary is Robert Liebermann, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, State University of New York, Stony Brook. The six panels are as follows.

  20. Stereoscopic Flat Panel Display

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    the display of stereo imagery have been demonstrated. Stereoscopic displays typically require the user to wear special headgear. Autostereoscopic ...components and the resulting changes in the encoding algorithm. Keywords: Stereoscopic display, LCD, 3D , polarization encoding, flat panel 1...panel display when viewing non-stereoscopic imagery or data. Remotely operated vehicles do not represent the only potential application for 3D

  1. SNP panels/Imputation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Participants from thirteen countries discussed services that Interbull can perform or recommendations that Interbull can make to promote harmonization and assist member countries in improving their genomic evaluations in regard to SNP panels and imputation. The panel recommended: A mechanism to shar...

  2. Flexible optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    A flexible optical panel includes laminated optical waveguides, each including a ribbon core laminated between cladding, with the core being resilient in the plane of the core for elastically accommodating differential movement thereof to permit winding of the panel in a coil.

  3. Reinventing the solar panel

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, M.

    1995-08-01

    This article discusses new technology in solar panels. PowerSource is a solar collector which not only is less expensive than conventional panels to purchase and install, but also increases the electrical output by almost 20%. This article describes the results of testing this system.

  4. Microgravity Science Research Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bradley M.; Trinh, Eugene H.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Larson, David; Koss, Matthew; Ostrach, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This document is a transcription of the Microgravity Science Research Panel's discussion about their research and about some of the contributions that they feel have been important to the field during their time with the program. The panel includes Dr. Eugene Trinh, Dr. Lawrence DeLucas, Dr. Charles Bugg, Dr. David Larson, and Dr. Simon Ostrach.

  5. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  6. Building a Relationship between Elements of Product Form Features and Vocabulary Assessment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Chi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic feature parameterization and the superiority evaluation method (SEM) in extension engineering, a product-shape design method was proposed in this study. The first step of this method is to decompose the basic feature components of a product. After that, the morphological chart method is used to segregate the ideas so as…

  7. Building a Relationship between Elements of Product Form Features and Vocabulary Assessment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Chi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Based on the characteristic feature parameterization and the superiority evaluation method (SEM) in extension engineering, a product-shape design method was proposed in this study. The first step of this method is to decompose the basic feature components of a product. After that, the morphological chart method is used to segregate the ideas so as…

  8. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Treesearch

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  9. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  10. 2. Interior view of offices in Building #4. Photo shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Interior view of offices in Building #4. Photo shows the woodworking in the offices. Wall paneling is six feet high; spindle dividers and paneling are made of maple. - Merrill Silk Mill, 233 Canisteo Street, Hornell, Steuben County, NY

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  12. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) provided oversight on the safety aspects of many NASA programs. In addition, ASAP undertook three special studies. At the request of the Administrator, the panel assessed the requirements for an assured crew return vehicle (ACRV) for the space station and reviewed the organization of the safety and mission quality function within NASA. At the behest of Congress, the panel formed an independent, ad hoc working group to examine the safety and reliability of the space shuttle main engine. Section 2 presents findings and recommendations. Section 3 consists of information in support of these findings and recommendations. Appendices A, B, C, and D, respectively, cover the panel membership, the NASA response to the findings and recommendations in the March 1992 report, a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period, and the entire ACRV study report.

  13. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  14. THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional HeatTransfer through Building Products

    SciTech Connect

    Windows and Daylighting Group

    1997-12-08

    THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in heat transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other products where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a product's energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction heat-transfer analysis is based on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building products. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of products or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and heat transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, heat-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation heat transfer. This heat-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow cavities, and some

  15. Linking Research to Global Health Equity: The Contribution of Product Development Partnerships to Access to Medicines and Research Capacity Building

    PubMed Central

    Loff, Bebe

    2013-01-01

    Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs—Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health—according to Frost and Reich’s access framework. We also evaluated PDPs’ capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products’ registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations—high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels—remains a challenge. PMID:24028246

  16. Scale Build-Up Prediction of FeS and FeCO3 in Gas Production Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, R. K.; Rahmawati, S. D.; Gadesa, A.; Wahyuningrum, D.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of passive layer is important to control the corrosion-erosion rate in gas production pipes. However, passive layer can lead to two possible conditions: corrosion-erosion protection or scale build-up. Accurate prediction of scaling tendency is needed to plan treatment and operating condition during the production from gas field. In this study, we develop mathematical model to predict the scaling tendency in gas production pipes. The model consists of two basic equations: precipitation rate and erosion equation. Precipitation rate is calculated using semi-empirical correlation and erosion is calculated using Salama (2000) equation. Then, a modified parameter of scaling tendency (ST), which is the ratio between net precipitation rate and corrosion rate, is introduced to measure the scaling tendency in each segment of production pipe. From simulation, it was found that the interaction between pressure, temperature and fluid composition affected the scaling tendency at most. However, when sand was introduced in the pipe flow, scale formation occurred at low rate. Every segment of production tubing and pipeline gave different tendency condition.

  17. Aerosol Deposition and Solar Panel Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Rollings, A.; Taylor, S. J.; Parks, J.; Barnard, J.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Passive and active solar collector farms are often located in relatively dry desert regions where cloudiness impacts are minimized. These farms may be susceptible to reduced performance due to routine or episodic aerosol deposition on collector surfaces. Intense episodes of wind blown dust deposition may negatively impact farm performance, and trigger need to clean collector surfaces. Aerosol deposition rate depends on size, morphology, and local meteorological conditions. We have developed a system for solar panel performance testing under real world conditions. Two identical 0.74 square meter solar panels are deployed, with one kept clean while the other receives various doses of aerosol deposition or other treatments. A variable load is used with automation to record solar panel maximum output power every 10 minutes. A collocated sonic anemometer measures wind at 10 Hz, allowing for both steady and turbulent characterization to establish a link between wind patterns and particle distribution on the cells. Multispectral photoacoustic instruments measure aerosol light scattering and absorption. An MFRSR quantifies incoming solar radiation. Solar panel albedo is measured along with the transmission spectra of particles collected on the panel surface. Key questions are: At what concentration does aerosol deposition become a problem for solar panel performance? What are the meteorological conditions that most strongly favor aerosol deposition, and are these predictable from current models? Is it feasible to use the outflow from an unmanned aerial vehicle hovering over solar panels to adequately clean their surface? Does aerosol deposition from episodes of nearby forest fires impact performance? The outlook of this research is to build a model that describes environmental effects on solar panel performance. Measurements from summer and fall 2015 will be presented along with insights gleaned from them.

  18. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... quality control inspections, the frequency of testing for a product shall be described in the specific... examine each manufacturer's quality control procedures to assure they are the same as or equivalent to... quality control procedures are being followed....

  19. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... quality control inspections, the frequency of testing for a product shall be described in the specific... examine each manufacturer's quality control procedures to assure they are the same as or equivalent to... quality control procedures are being followed....

  20. Engineering oxidative stress defense pathways to build a robust lipid production platform in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Qiao, Kangjian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Microbially derived lipids have recently attracted renewed interests due to their broad applications in production of green diesels, cosmetic additives, and oleochemicals. Metabolic engineering efforts have targeted a large portfolio of biosynthetic pathways to efficiently convert sugar to lipids in oleaginous yeast. In the engineered overproducing strains, endogenous cell metabolism typically generates harmful electrophilic molecules that compromise cell fitness and productivity. Lipids, particularly unsaturated fatty acids, are highly susceptible to oxygen radical attack and the resulting oxidative species are detrimental to cell metabolism and limit lipid productivity. In this study, we investigated cellular oxidative stress defense pathways in Yarrowia lipolytica to further improve the lipid titer, yield, and productivity. Specifically, we determined that coupling glutathione disulfide reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase along with aldehyde dehydrogenase are efficient solutions to combat reactive oxygen and aldehyde stress in Y. lipolytica. With the reported engineering strategies, we were able to synchronize cell growth and lipid production, improve cell fitness and morphology, and achieved industrially-relevant level of lipid titer (72.7 g/L), oil content (81.4%) and productivity (0.97 g/L/h) in controlled bench-top bioreactors. The strategies reported here represent viable steps in the development of sustainable biorefinery platforms that potentially upgrade low value carbons to high value oleochemicals and biofuels. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1521-1530. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Making Energy-Efficiency and Productivity Investments in Commercial Buildings: Choice of Investment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    This study examines the decision to invest in buildings and the types of investment decision rules that may be employed to inform the ''go--no go'' decision. There is a range of decision making tools available to help in investment choices, which range from simple rules of thumb such as payback periods, to life-cycle analysis, to decision theoretic approaches. Payback period analysis tends to point toward lower first costs, whereas life-cycle analysis tends to minimize uncertainties over future events that can affect profitability. We conclude that investment models that integrate uncertainty offer better explanations for the behavior that is observed, i.e., people tend to delay investments in technologies that life-cycle analysis finds cost-effective, and these models also lead to an alternative set of policies targeted at reducing of managing uncertainty.

  2. Decontamination of clothing and building materials associated with the clandestine production of methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Kate A; Martyny, John W; Kofford, Shalece; Contreras, John R; Van Dyke, Mike V

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to determine how easily methamphetamine can be removed from clothing and building materials, utilizing different cleaning materials and methods. The study also addressed the penetration of methamphetamine into drywall and the ability of paints to encapsulate the methamphetamine on drywall. Clothing and building materials were contaminated in a stainless steel chamber by aerosolizing methamphetamine in a beaker heater. The amount of methamphetamine surface contamination was determined by sampling a grid pattern on the material prior to attempting to clean the materials. After cleaning, the materials were again sampled, and the degree of decontamination noted. We found that household clothing and response gear worn by first responders was easily decontaminated using a household detergent in a household washing machine. A single wash removed over 95% of the methamphetamine from these materials. The study also indicated that methamphetamine-contaminated, smooth non-porous surfaces can be easily cleaned to below detectable levels using only mild cleaners. More porous surfaces such as plywood and drywall were unlikely to be decontaminated to below regulatory levels even with three washes using a mild cleaner. This may be due to methamphetamine penetration into the paint on these surfaces. Evaluation of methamphetamine contamination on drywall indicated that approximately 40% of the methamphetamine was removed using a wipe, while another 60% remained in the paint layer. Stronger cleaners such as those with active ingredients including sodium hypochlorite or quaternary ammonia and commercial decontamination agents were more effective than mild detergent-based cleaners and may reduce methamphetamine contamination to below regulatory levels. Results from the encapsulation studies indicate that sprayed on oil-based paint will encapsulate methamphetamine on drywall and plywood surfaces up to 4.5 months, while latex paints were less effective.

  3. 11. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at walkin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 7, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. Metal stair at left leads to working platform levels surrounding test cell. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 7. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Exterior view, showing instrumentation and gauge panel at the walk-in entry level (bottom) of Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking west. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 6. Interior view of control panels on wall of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior view of control panels on wall of the signal transfer room on the west side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  6. 9 CFR 355.35 - Label information to be displayed on principal panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... principal panel. 355.35 Section 355.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Label information to be displayed on principal panel. The label information required by § 355.32 shall be displayed on the principal panel or panels of the label except that label information other than...

  7. High-speed machining of space shuttle External Tank (ET) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The applicability to and advantages of the high-speed machining process for the production of Space Shuttle external tank panels by physically machining selected sample portions of an external tank panel were investigated. The panel sample configuration was selected, and potential high speed milling procedures identified. An 8 foot long panel was machined and the milling demonstration is described in detail.

  8. Flutter Research on Skin Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordes, Eldon E.; Tuovila, Weimer J.; Guy, Lawrence D.

    1960-01-01

    Representative experimental results are presented to show the current status of the panel flutter problem. Results are presented for unstiffened rectangular panels and for rectangular panels stiffened by corrugated backing. Flutter boundaries are established for all types of panels when considered on the basis of equivalent isotropic plates. The effects of Mach number, differential pressure, and aerodynamic heating on panel flutter are discussed. A flutter analysis of orthotropic panels is presented in the appendix.

  9. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, D G; Crow, S A; Simmons, R B; Price, D L; Noble, J A; Mishra, S K; Pierson, D L

    1996-05-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  10. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Noble, J. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  11. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  12. Building Automation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  13. Building Resiliency to Water Risks in Power Production in a Changing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell, J.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation covers the drivers and mechanisms to address water risks in power generation in the face of growing population, long term climate change and short term climate variability, and initiatives to promote renewable and low carbon energy. The projected impacts of climate change will amplify seasonal energy use patterns and increase water risks that threaten the security of energy supply. Water issues are becoming an increasingly critical factors in energy production operations and development plans. Aquatic species protection efforts have resulted in the proposal of new cooling regulations on both freshwater and seawater. Droughts pose problems for hydroelectric power and cooling operations in thermal power plants. During droughts or heat waves, surface water temperature can increase sufficiently to prevent the plant from discharging the water back into waterways in compliance with regulatory temperature limits. And, when river, lake or reservoir water levels fall near or below the plant's water intake level, operations must be curtailed. The need for resiliency to water risks in energy production is exemplified in recent challenges to power plant siting and incidents at existing power production facilities. Water concerns in new operations' permitting and in power production interruptions are prevalent worldwide. Examples of power plant siting and operations impacted by water issues in the past five years will be presented. Actions to adapt to the physical changes and demographic trends are warranted to secure energy supply and promote resiliency in power production. Adaptation measures can cost-effectively reduce risks and prospects of negative consequences for energy supply and use. Examples of adaptation actions will be presented for the key water challenges in climate resilient power production.

  14. 3D engineered fiberboard : engineering analysis of a new building product

    Treesearch

    John F. Hunt; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2003-01-01

    In many forests across the United States, the high forest fuel loadings are contributing to our recent forest fire problems. Many fire-prone timber stands are generally far from traditional timber markets or the timber is not economically valuable enough to cover the costs of removal. To help address this problem, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory has developed a...

  15. Laboratory Management, Academic Production, and the Building Blocks of Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Academic capitalism has been among the most influential lines of research into markets in higher education. This paper takes up the distinct but related topic of academic production. This study makes use of a theory of fields and the concept of strategic action fields Fligstein and McAdam ("Social Theory" 29:1-26, 2011; "A theory of…

  16. 3D engineered fiberboard : finite element analysis of a new building product

    Treesearch

    John F. Hunt

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents finite element analyses that are being used to analyze and estimate the structural performance of a new product called 3D engineered fiberboard in bending and flat-wise compression applications. A 3x3x2 split-plot experimental design was used to vary geometry configurations to determine their effect on performance properties. The models are based on...

  17. Laboratory Management, Academic Production, and the Building Blocks of Academic Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Academic capitalism has been among the most influential lines of research into markets in higher education. This paper takes up the distinct but related topic of academic production. This study makes use of a theory of fields and the concept of strategic action fields Fligstein and McAdam ("Social Theory" 29:1-26, 2011; "A theory of…

  18. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... E30K, “APA Design/Construction Guide-Residential and Commercial” (published by the American Plywood..., “Construction and Industrial Plywood” (published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of....935(d)(6) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the...

  19. 24 CFR 200.944 - Supplementary specific requirements under the HUD building product standards and certification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... E30K, “APA Design/Construction Guide-Residential and Commercial” (published by the American Plywood..., “Construction and Industrial Plywood” (published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of....935(d)(6) concerning labeling of a product, the administrator's validation mark and the...

  20. Using the Productive Pedagogies Framework to Build a Community of Learners Online in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnappan, Mohan

    2006-01-01

    Productive pedagogies (PP) is an influential framework for teaching and learning that has featured well in current reforms of teacher education. The present study was designed to examine principles of PP adopted by a cohort of beginning mathematics teachers. A networked online learning environment, WebCT[TM], facilitated the teachers'…

  1. The SEA of the Future: Building the Productivity Infrastructure. Volume 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Betheny, Ed.; Jochim, Ashley, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    "The SEA of the Future" is an education publication series examining how state education agencies can shift from a compliance to a performance-oriented organization through strategic planning and performance management tools to meet growing demands to support education reform while improving productivity. This volume, the third in the…

  2. Panel 4: Report of the Microbiology Panel

    PubMed Central

    Barenkamp, Stephen J.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Hakansson, Anders P.; Heikkinen, Terho; King, Samantha; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Novotny, Laura A.; Patel, Janak A.; Pettigrew, Melinda; Swords, W. Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objective To perform a comprehensive review of the literature from July 2011 until June 2015 on the virology and bacteriology of otitis media in children. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Two subpanels comprising experts in the virology and bacteriology of otitis media were created. Each panel reviewed the relevant literature in the fields of virology and bacteriology and generated draft reviews. These initial reviews were distributed to all panel members prior to meeting together at the Post-symposium Research Conference of the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media, National Harbor, Maryland, in June 2015. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by all panel members. Conclusions Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing our understanding of the microbiology of otitis media. Numerous advances were made in basic laboratory studies, in animal models of otitis media, in better understanding the epidemiology of disease, and in clinical practice. Implications for Practice (1) Many viruses cause acute otitis media without bacterial coinfection, and such cases do not require antibiotic treatment. (2) When respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, and influenza virus peak in the community, practitioners can expect to see an increase in clinical otitis media cases. (3) Biomarkers that predict which children with upper respiratory tract infections will develop otitis media may be available in the future. (4) Compounds that target newly identified bacterial virulence determinants may be available as future treatment options for children with otitis media. PMID:28372529

  3. A technical and policy analysis of building-integrated photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Bert Neal

    Concerns about the environmental impacts of energy use have focused increasing attention on the potential for solar and other renewable energy systems to provide economically priced energy services with reduced environmental impacts when compared to conventional energy sources such as fossil fuels. This research focuses on the use of photovoltaic power production for the commercial buildings sector via roof-integrated PV panels. The potential for building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) power production to reduce the current U.S. reliance on fossil fuel power generation is examined from a technical and economic analysis of prototype buildings in various U.S. locations. This research first reviews current methodology involved in simulating building energy use and photovoltaic (PV) power production. These tools are then used in a combined fashion to improve current energy simulation capability. In particular this research includes the dynamic effect of PV panels on a building's mechanical and electrical systems, and their effect on peak electrical load reduction. This improved modeling capability is applied to analyzed prototype one, two and three-story office structures. These structures are evaluated with and without PV system integration. The buildings are modeled in several different geographical regions in the United States (U.S.) to evaluate building energy use and PV energy production in different climates. Associated differences in regional fuel mixes for conventional power generation also are included in the analysis. After building energy flows are modeled and analyzed, their economic impacts are studied. The ability of the building-integrated PV system to compete financially with conventional energy production methods is evaluated for the years 2000 and 2010. The economic analysis considers the hour-by-hour production for a simulated year of operation, including the capability of the BIPV system to reduce electrical demand. The economic impact of

  4. RBSPICE in the Classroom: Building a ballistic galvanometer using common household products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Zwiener, H.

    2016-12-01

    "RBSPICE in the Classroom: Changing Magnetic Fields and Electrical Currents" is a hands-on exercise for middle school and high school science classrooms. Students build a ballistic galvanometer using inexpensive common items that can be purchased at any craft store, and make qualitative observations of changing magnetic fields and the electrical currents they create. The goal of this work is to provide teachers new materials to use in their classrooms as tools for teaching students about electricity and magnetism. The experiment relates our Earth as a planet to the role the Magnetosphere plays in protecting us from Space Weather. The experiments show the ways in which Van Allen Probes play an important part in exploring those relationships using such instruments as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE). The exercise is a vehicle for discussing electromagnetic induction, the behavior of the Earth's magnetosphere coupled with storm-time conditions that produce the Earth's ring current, and the mission objectives of the Van Allen Probes RBSPICE instrument.

  5. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  6. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  7. Blood Test: Lipid Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... HDL) and bad (LDL) cholesterol, as well as triglycerides (a certain type of fat). A lipid panel ... results for your good and bad cholesterol and triglycerides.Good (HDL) cholesterol: Your body needs good cholesterol ...

  8. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  9. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  10. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... page helpful? Also known as: CMP; Chem 12; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; SMA 12; SMA 20; SMAC (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  11. BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Was this page helpful? Also known as: BMP; Chemistry Panel; Chemistry Screen; Chem 7; SMA 7; SMAC7 (somewhat outdated ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  12. Building blocks for automated elucidation of metabolites: natural product-likeness for candidate ranking.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Kalai Vanii; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-07-05

    In metabolomics experiments, spectral fingerprints of metabolites with no known structural identity are detected routinely. Computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) has been used to determine the structural identities of unknown compounds. It is generally accepted that a single 1D NMR spectrum or mass spectrum is usually not sufficient to establish the identity of a hitherto unknown compound. When a suite of spectra from 1D and 2D NMR experiments supplemented with a molecular formula are available, the successful elucidation of the chemical structure for candidates with up to 30 heavy atoms has been reported previously by one of the authors. In high-throughput metabolomics, usually 1D NMR or mass spectrometry experiments alone are conducted for rapid analysis of samples. This method subsequently requires that the spectral patterns are analyzed automatically to quickly identify known and unknown structures. In this study, we investigated whether additional existing knowledge, such as the fact that the unknown compound is a natural product, can be used to improve the ranking of the correct structure in the result list after the structure elucidation process. To identify unknowns using as little spectroscopic information as possible, we implemented an evolutionary algorithm-based CASE mechanism to elucidate candidates in a fully automated fashion, with input of the molecular formula and 13C NMR spectrum of the isolated compound. We also tested how filters like natural product-likeness, a measure that calculates the similarity of the compounds to known natural product space, might enhance the performance and quality of the structure elucidation. The evolutionary algorithm is implemented within the SENECA package for CASE reported previously, and is available for free download under artistic license at http://sourceforge.net/projects/seneca/. The natural product-likeness calculator is incorporated as a plugin within SENECA and is available as a GUI client and

  13. Building blocks for automated elucidation of metabolites: natural product-likeness for candidate ranking

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In metabolomics experiments, spectral fingerprints of metabolites with no known structural identity are detected routinely. Computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) has been used to determine the structural identities of unknown compounds. It is generally accepted that a single 1D NMR spectrum or mass spectrum is usually not sufficient to establish the identity of a hitherto unknown compound. When a suite of spectra from 1D and 2D NMR experiments supplemented with a molecular formula are available, the successful elucidation of the chemical structure for candidates with up to 30 heavy atoms has been reported previously by one of the authors. In high-throughput metabolomics, usually 1D NMR or mass spectrometry experiments alone are conducted for rapid analysis of samples. This method subsequently requires that the spectral patterns are analyzed automatically to quickly identify known and unknown structures. In this study, we investigated whether additional existing knowledge, such as the fact that the unknown compound is a natural product, can be used to improve the ranking of the correct structure in the result list after the structure elucidation process. Results To identify unknowns using as little spectroscopic information as possible, we implemented an evolutionary algorithm-based CASE mechanism to elucidate candidates in a fully automated fashion, with input of the molecular formula and 13C NMR spectrum of the isolated compound. We also tested how filters like natural product-likeness, a measure that calculates the similarity of the compounds to known natural product space, might enhance the performance and quality of the structure elucidation. The evolutionary algorithm is implemented within the SENECA package for CASE reported previously, and is available for free download under artistic license at http://sourceforge.net/projects/seneca/. The natural product-likeness calculator is incorporated as a plugin within SENECA and is available as a

  14. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  15. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  16. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  17. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  18. Photovoltaic panel support assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.M.; Underwood, J.C.; Shingleton, J.

    1993-07-20

    A solar energy electrical power source is described comprising in combination at least two flat photovoltaic panels disposed side-by-side in co-planar relation with one another, a pivot shaft extending transversely across the panels, at least two supports spaced apart lengthwise of the pivot shaft, means for connecting the pivot shaft to the at least two supports, attachment means for connecting the at least two panels to the pivot shaft so that the panels can pivot about the longitudinal axis of the shaft, coupling means mechanically coupling all of the panels together so as to form a unified flat array, and selectively operable drive means for mechanically pivoting the unified flat array about the axis; wherein each of the flat photovoltaic panels comprises at least two modules each comprising a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells, the at least two modules being aligned along a line extending at a right angle to the pivot shaft, and the coupling means comprises (a) an elongate member extending parallel to and spaced from the pivot shaft and (b) means for attaching the elongate member to the panels; and further wherein each flat photovoltaic panel comprises a unitary frame consisting of a pair of end frame members extending parallel to the pivot shaft, a pair of side frame members extending between and connected to the end frame members, and a pair of spaced apart cross frame members, with one of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and a first one of each of the end and cross frame members, and the other of the two modules being embraced by and secured to the side frame members and the second one of each of the end and cross frame members, whereby the gap created by the spaced apart cross frame members allow air to pass between them in order to reduce the sail effect when the solar array is subjected to buffeting winds.

  19. Pop-Art Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  20. Pyridynes and indolynes as building blocks for functionalized heterocycles and natural products.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Adam E; Shah, Tejas K; Garg, Neil K

    2015-01-04

    Heterocyclic arynes, or hetarynes, have been studied for over 100 years. However, challenges associated with observing these reactive species, as well as developing synthetically useful methods for their generation and trapping, have limited their use. This review provides a brief historical perspective on the field of hetarynes, in addition to a discussion of pyridyne and indolyne methodologies. Moreover, this review highlights the use of pyridynes, indolynes, and related strained intermediates in natural product synthesis.

  1. Assessment of potential nutrient build-up around beef cattle production areas using electromagnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Marcos R C; Ranjan, Ramanathan Sri; Cicek, Nazim

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) has been used to map soil properties such as salinity and water content. The objective of this research is to use EMI to map the potential distribution of nutrients around beef cattle pens and to relate this distribution to major physiographic field features. Beef cattle farms in different physiographic locations were surveyed in Manitoba, Canada, using an EM-38 conductivity meter georeferenced with a GPS receiver. Samples were collected using a response surface design and analysed for electrical conductivity (ECe), which was used as a proxy for determining potential build-up of nutrients. Multiple linear regression models (MLR) were used for calibration of the EM readings. The results showed that areas 1 through 4 had ECe < or = 3.5 dSm(-1), but areas 5 and 6 exceeded this concentration and reached maximum values of 5.5 and 7.0 dS m(-1), respectively. Higher values in area 6 were probably due to the presence of a rocky layer at 0.3 m depth, leaving a thin soil layer to accumulate the nutrients. Micro-depressions played a major role in salt accumulation, with the depressions corresponding to higher values of ECe. The presence of features such as drainage ditches and compacted soils beneath roads strongly affected the direction of the plumes. Based on these results, the location of the pens on high elevations and the provision to collect the run-off from the pens were identified as good design criteria. Highly permeable soils may require a low permeability liner to capture the deep percolation and redirect it towards a collection area.

  2. Production and use of regional climate model projections - A Swedish perspective on building climate services.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars; Nikulin, Grigory; Nilsson, Carin; Persson, Gunn; Strandberg, Gustav

    2016-09-01

    We describe the process of building a climate service centred on regional climate model results from the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA4. The climate service has as its central facility a web service provided by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute where users can get an idea of various aspects of climate change from a suite of maps, diagrams, explaining texts and user guides. Here we present the contents of the web service and how this has been designed and developed in collaboration with users of the service in a dialogue reaching over more than a decade. We also present the ensemble of climate projections with RCA4 that provides the fundamental climate information presented at the web service. In this context, RCA4 has been used to downscale nine different coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to 0.44° (c. 50 km) horizontal resolution over Europe. Further, we investigate how this ensemble relates to the CMIP5 ensemble. We find that the iterative approach involving the users of the climate service has been successful as the service is widely used and is an important source of information for work on climate adaptation in Sweden. The RCA4 ensemble samples a large degree of the spread in the CMIP5 ensemble implying that it can be used to illustrate uncertainties and robustness in future climate change in Sweden. The results also show that RCA4 changes results compared to the underlying AOGCMs, sometimes in a systematic way.

  3. AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTORTECHNICAL PANEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.

    2010-12-03

    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  4. Utilization of CO2 in High Performance Building and Infrastructure Products

    SciTech Connect

    DeCristofaro, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of DE-FE0004222 was to demonstrate that calcium silicate phases, in the form of either naturally-occuring minerals or synthetic compounds, could replace Portland cement in concrete manufacturing. The calcium silicate phases would be reacted with gaseous CO2 to create a carbonated concrete end-product. If successful, the project would offer a pathway to a significant reduction in the carbon footprint associated with the manufacture of cement and its use in concrete (approximately 816 kg of CO2 is emitted in the production of one tonne of Portland cement). In the initial phases of the Technical Evaluation, Rutgers University teamed with Solidia Technologies to demonstrate that natural wollastonite (CaSiO3), milled to a particle size distribution consistent with that of Portland cement, could indeed fit this bill. The use of mineral wollastonite as a cementitious material would potentially eliminate the CO2 emitted during cement production altogether, and store an additional 250 kg of CO2 during concrete curing. However, it was recognized that mineral wollastonite was not available in volumes that could meaningfully impact the carbon footprint associated with the cement and concrete industries. At this crucial juncture, DE-FE0004222 was redirected to use a synthetic version of wollastonite, hereafter referred to as Solidia Cement™, which could be manufactured in conventional cement making facilities. This approach enables the new cementitious material to be made using existing cement industry raw material supply chains, capital equipment, and distribution channels. It would also offer faster and more complete access to the concrete marketplace. The latter phases of the Technical Evaluation, conducted with Solidia Cement made in research rotary kilns, would demonstrate that industrially viable CO2-curing practices were possible. Prototypes of full-scale precast concrete products such as pavers, concrete masonry units, railroad ties, hollow

  5. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  6. Fungal colonization of air filters and insulation in a multi-story office building: production of volatile organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary air filters in the air-handling units on four floors of a multi-story office building with a history of fungal colonization of insulation within the air distribution system were examined for the presence of growing fungi and production of volatile organic compounds. Fungal mycelium and conidia of Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were observed on insulation from all floors and both sides of the air filters from one floor. Lower concentrations of volatile organics were released from air filter medium colonized with fungi as compared with noncolonized filter medium. However, the volatiles from the colonized filter medium included fungal metabolites such as acetone and a carbonyl sulfide-like compound that were not released from noncolonized filter medium. The growth of fungi in air distribution systems may affect the content of volatile organics in indoor air.

  7. Vaccine production training to develop the workforce of foreign institutions supported by the BARDA influenza vaccine capacity building program.

    PubMed

    Tarbet, E Bart; Dorward, James T; Day, Craig W; Rashid, Kamal A

    2013-03-15

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, vaccination will be the best method to limit virus spread. However, lack of vaccine biomanufacturing capacity means there will not be enough vaccine for the world's population. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) provides support to the World Health Organization to enhance global vaccine production capacity in developing countries. However, developing a trained workforce in some of those countries is necessary. Biomanufacturing is labor-intensive, requiring unique skills not found in traditional academic programs. Employees must understand the scientific basis of biotechnology, operate specialized equipment, and work in an environment regulated by good manufacturing practices (cGMP). Therefore, BARDA supported development of vaccine biomanufacturing training at Utah State University. The training consisted of a three-week industry-focused course for participants from institutions supported by the BARDA and WHO influenza vaccine production capacity building program. The curriculum was divided into six components: (1) biosafety, (2) cell culture and growth of cells in bioreactors, (3) virus assays and inactivation, (4) scale-up strategies, (5) downstream processing, and (6) egg- and cell-based vaccine production and cGMP. Lectures were combined with laboratory exercises to provide a balance of theory and hands-on training. The initial course included sixteen participants from seven countries including: Egypt, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. The participant's job responsibilities included: Production, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Research; and their education ranged from bachelors to doctoral level. Internal course evaluations utilized descriptive methods including surveys, observation of laboratory activities, and interviews with participants. Generally, participants had appropriate academic backgrounds, but

  8. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society San Francisco, California Photo: ca. 1875 MIRROR PANELED BALLROOM - Ralston Hall, Ralston Avenue, Belmont, San Mateo County, CA

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society San Francisco, California Photo: ca. 1885 MIRROR PANELED BALLROOM - Ralston Hall, Ralston Avenue, Belmont, San Mateo County, CA

  10. Study, Development, and Design of Replaceable Shear Yielding Steel Panel Damper

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Katsuhide; Keii, Michio

    2008-07-08

    For middle-high rise buildings, vibration controlled structures to reduce the damage of main frames are recently becoming general in Japan. A steel material damper is low price and excellent in the energy absorption efficiency at a large earthquake. Though the exchange of the dampers are necessary when an excessive accumulation of plasticity deformation occurs, a steel material damping system, which received an excessive accumulation of plasticity deformation after a large earthquake, can recover a seismic-proof performance and property value of the building after the replacement. In the paper, shear yielding steel panel dampers installed in the web of a beam connected with high tension bolt joint is introduced. This damper is made of low-yield point steel, and the advantages of this system are low cost, easy-production and easy-replacement. For this steel panel damper, the finite element method (FEM) analysis using the shell element model adjusted to 1/2 of 6.4 m beam span is executed to make the design most effective. Yielding property of the beam installing this damper, shape of the splice plate and the bolt orientation for the connecting are examined in this analysis. As a result, we found that the plastic strain extends uniformly to the entire damping panel when making the splice plate a trapezoidal shape. The basic performance confirmation examination was also done using the real scale examination model besides the FEM analysis, and the performance of the system was confirmed. In addition, design of a high rise building in which the steel shear-yielding panel dampers and oil dampers were adopted without disturbing an architectural plan is also introduced.

  11. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) continued its safety reviews of NASA's human space flight and aeronautics programs. Efforts were focused on those areas that the Panel believed held the greatest potential to impact safety. Continuing safe Space Shuttle operations and progress in the manufacture and testing of primary components for the International Space Station (ISS) were noteworthy. The Panel has continued to monitor the safety implications of the transition of Space Shuttle operations to the United Space Alliance (USA). One area being watched closely relates to the staffing levels and skill mix in both NASA and USA. Therefore, a section of this report is devoted to personnel and other related issues that are a result of this change in NASA's way of doing business for the Space Shuttle. Attention will continue to be paid to this important topic in subsequent reports. Even though the Panel's activities for 1997 were extensive, fewer specific recommendations were formulated than has been the case in recent years. This is indicative of the current generally good state of safety of NASA programs. The Panel does, however, have several longer term concerns that have yet to develop to the level of a specific recommendation. These are covered in the introductory material for each topic area in Section 11. In another departure from past submissions, this report does not contain individual findings and recommendations for the aeronautics programs. While the Panel devoted its usual efforts to examining NASA's aeronautic centers and programs, no specific recommendations were identified for inclusion in this report. In lieu of recommendations, a summary of the Panel's observations of NASA's safety efforts in aeronautics and future Panel areas of emphasis is provided. With profound sadness the Panel notes the passing of our Chairman, Paul M. Johnstone, on December 17, 1997, and our Staff Assistant, Ms. Patricia M. Harman, on October 5, 1997. Other

  12. Geothermal Energy Production from Oil/Gas Wells and Application for Building Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Honggang; Liu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    One significant source of low-temperature geothermal energy is the coproduced hot water from oil/gas field production. In the United States, daily oil production has reached above 8 million barrels in recent years. Considering various conditions of wells, 5-10 times or more water can be coproduced in the range of temperature 120 F to 300 F. Like other geothermal resources, such energy source from oil/gas wells is under-utilized for its typical long distance from consumption sites. Many oil/gas fields, however, are relatively close (less than 10 miles) to consumers around cities. For instance, some petroleum fields in Pennsylvania are only a few miles away from the towns in Pittsburg area and some fields in Texas are quite close to Houston. In this paper, we evaluate geothermal potential from oil/gas wells by conducting numerical simulation and analysis of a fractured oil well in Hastings West field, Texas. The results suggest that hot water can be continuously coproduced from oil wells at a sufficient rate (about 4000 gallons/day from one well) for more than 100 years. Viable use of such geothermal source requires economical transportation of energy to consumers. The recently proposed two-step geothermal absorption (TSGA) system provides a promising energy transport technology that allows large-scale use of geothermal energy from thousands of oil/gas wells.

  13. Engineering an enantioselective amine oxidase for the synthesis of pharmaceutical building blocks and alkaloid natural products.

    PubMed

    Ghislieri, Diego; Green, Anthony P; Pontini, Marta; Willies, Simon C; Rowles, Ian; Frank, Annika; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J

    2013-07-24

    The development of cost-effective and sustainable catalytic methods for the production of enantiomerically pure chiral amines is a key challenge facing the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. This challenge is highlighted by the estimate that 40-45% of drug candidates contain a chiral amine, fueling a demand for broadly applicable synthetic methods that deliver target structures in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Herein we describe the development and application of a "toolbox" of monoamine oxidase variants from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) which display remarkable substrate scope and tolerance for sterically demanding motifs, including a new variant, which exhibits high activity and enantioselectivity toward substrates containing the aminodiphenylmethane (benzhydrylamine) template. By combining rational structure-guided engineering with high-throughput screening, it has been possible to expand the substrate scope of MAO-N to accommodate amine substrates containing bulky aryl substituents. These engineered MAO-N biocatalysts have been applied in deracemization reactions for the efficient asymmetric synthesis of the generic active pharmaceutical ingredients Solifenacin and Levocetirizine as well as the natural products (R)-coniine, (R)-eleagnine, and (R)-leptaflorine. We also report a novel MAO-N mediated asymmetric oxidative Pictet-Spengler approach to the synthesis of (R)-harmicine.

  14. Heat Pipe Thermal Conditioning Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1973-01-01

    The development, fabrication, and evaluation of heat pipe thermal conditioning panels are discussed. The panels were designed and fabricated to be compatible with several planned NASA space vehicles, in terms of panel size, capacity, temperature gradients, and integration with various heat exchangers and electronic components. It was satisfactorily demonstrated that the heat pipe thermal conditioning panel meets the thermal efficiency and heat transport requirements.

  15. Automated solar panel assembly line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    The initial stage of the automated solar panel assembly line program was devoted to concept development and proof of approach through simple experimental verification. In this phase, laboratory bench models were built to demonstrate and verify concepts. Following this phase was machine design and integration of the various machine elements. The third phase was machine assembly and debugging. In this phase, the various elements were operated as a unit and modifications were made as required. The final stage of development was the demonstration of the equipment in a pilot production operation.

  16. Pressure Testing of a Minimum Gauge PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew J.; Rouse, Marshall; Linton, Kim A.; Li, Victor P.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced aircraft configurations that have been developed to increase fuel efficiency require advanced, novel structural concepts capable of handling the unique load conditions that arise. One such concept is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) developed by the Boeing Company. The PRSEUS concept is being investigated by NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program for use in a hybrid-wing body (HWB) aircraft. This paper summarizes the analysis and test of a PRSEUS panel subjected to internal pressure, the first such pressure test for this structural concept. The pressure panel used minimum gauge skin, with stringer and frame configurations consistent with previous PRSEUS tests. Analysis indicated that for the minimum gauge skin panel, the stringer locations exhibit fairly linear response, but the skin bays between the stringers exhibit nonlinear response. Excellent agreement was seen between nonlinear analysis and test results in the critical portion at the center of the panel. The pristine panel was capable of withstanding the required 18.4 psi pressure load condition without exhibiting any damage. The impacted panel was capable of withstanding a pressure load in excess of 28 psi before initial failure occurred at the center stringer, and the panel was capable of sustaining increased pressure load after the initial failure. This successful PRSEUS panel pressure panel test was a critical step in the building block approach for enabling the use of this advanced structural concept on future aircraft, such as the HWB.

  17. Feasibility of producing value-added wood products from reclaimed hemlock lumber

    Treesearch

    John J. Janowiak; Robert H. Falk; Jeffery D. Kimmel

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of producing value-added wood products from hemlock lumber salvaged from building deconstruction. About 6,000 board feet of lumber, ranging in size from 3 in. by 8 in. to 3 in. by 12 in., was remilled into four products including log cabin siding, V-groove paneling, beadboard (wainscoting), and tongue and groove flooring. The...

  18. Optimization of aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Roper, Willard D.

    1986-01-01

    Eight different graphite composite panels were fabricated using four different resin matrices. The resin matrices included Hercules 71775, a blend of vinylpolystyrpyridine and bismaleimide, H795, a bismaleimide, Cycom 6162, a phenolic, and PSP 6022M, a polystyrylpyridine. Graphite panels were fabricated using fabric or unidirectional tape. This report describes the processes for preparing these panels and some of their mechanical, thermal and flammability properties. Panel properties are compared with state-of-the-art epoxy fiberglass composite panels.

  19. Building block style recipes for productivity improvement in OPC, RET and ILT flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linghui; Kwa, Denny; Wan, Jinyin; Wang, Tom; St. John, Matt; Deeth, Steven; Chen, Xiaohui; Cecil, Tom; Meng, Xiaodong; Lucas, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Traditional model-based Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and rule-based Resolution Enhancement Technology (RET) methods have been the workhorse mask synthesis methods in volume production for logic and memory devices for more than 15 years. Rule-based OPC methods have been in standard use for over 20 years now. With continuous technical enhancements, these methods have proven themselves robust, flexible and fast enough to meet many of the technical needs of even the most advanced nodes. Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) methods are well known to have strong benefits in finding flexible mask pattern solutions to improve process window for the most advanced design locations where traditional methods are not sufficient. However, OPC/RET requirements at each node have changed radically in the last 20 years beyond just technical requirements. The volume of engineering work to be done has also skyrocketed. The number of device layers which need OPC/RET can be 10X higher than in earlier nodes. Additionally, the number of mask layers per device layer is often 2X or more times higher with multiple patterning. Finally, the number of features to correct per mask increases ~2X with each node. These factors led to a large increase in the number of OPC engineers needed to develop the complex new OPC/RET recipes for advanced nodes. In this paper, we describe new developments which significantly improve the productivity of OPC engineers to deploy Rule Based OPC (RBOPC), Model Based OPC (MBOPC), AF, and ILT recipes in modern manufacturing flows. In addition to technical improvements such as novel multiple segment hotspot fixing solvers and ILT hot-spot fixing necessary to support correction needs, we have re-architected the entire flow based on how OPC engineers now develop and maintain OPC/RET recipes. The re-architecture of the flow takes advantages of more recent developments in modular and structured programming methods which are known to benefit ease engineering software

  20. Aerospace safety advisory panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) monitored NASA's activities and provided feedback to the NASA Administrator, other NASA officials and Congress throughout the year. Particular attention was paid to the Space Shuttle, its launch processing and planned and potential safety improvements. The Panel monitored Space Shuttle processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and will continue to follow it as personnel reductions are implemented. There is particular concern that upgrades in hardware, software, and operations with the potential for significant risk reduction not be overlooked due to the extraordinary budget pressures facing the agency. The authorization of all of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Block II components portends future Space Shuttle operations at lower risk levels and with greater margins for handling unplanned ascent events. Throughout the year, the Panel attempted to monitor the safety activities related to the Russian involvement in both space and aeronautics programs. This proved difficult as the working relationships between NASA and the Russians were still being defined as the year unfolded. NASA's concern for the unique safety problems inherent in a multi-national endeavor appears appropriate. Actions are underway or contemplated which should be capable of identifying and rectifying problem areas. The balance of this report presents 'Findings and Recommendations' (Section 2), 'Information in Support of Findings and Recommendations' (Section 3) and Appendices describing Panel membership, the NASA response to the March 1994 ASAP report, and a chronology of the panel's activities during the reporting period (Section 4).

  1. Panel methods: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    Panel methods are numerical schemes for solving (the Prandtl-Glauert equation) for linear, inviscid, irrotational flow about aircraft flying at subsonic or supersonic speeds. The tools at the panel-method user's disposal are (1) surface panels of source-doublet-vorticity distributions that can represent nearly arbitrary geometry, and (2) extremely versatile boundary condition capabilities that can frequently be used for creative modeling. Panel-method capabilities and limitations, basic concepts common to all panel-method codes, different choices that were made in the implementation of these concepts into working computer programs, and various modeling techniques involving boundary conditions, jump properties, and trailing wakes are discussed. An approach for extending the method to nonlinear transonic flow is also presented. Three appendices supplement the main test. In appendix 1, additional detail is provided on how the basic concepts are implemented into a specific computer program (PANAIR). In appendix 2, it is shown how to evaluate analytically the fundamental surface integral that arises in the expressions for influence-coefficients, and evaluate its jump property. In appendix 3, a simple example is used to illustrate the so-called finite part of the improper integrals.

  2. Design of panel heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bohle, J.; Klan, H.

    2000-07-01

    Panel heating and cooling systems use controlled temperature surfaces in the floor, walls, or ceiling of a conditioned space. The temperature is maintained by a circulating fluid through a circuit embedded in the panel. Heat transfer occurs by radiation and convection to or from a room. The performance of these systems may be determined by design calculations or testing. Thermal testing and system analysis by experiments are costly and inefficient. For different closed panel systems, finite element-based models and programs were developed by which temperature distribution in the construction, interdependence between performance and mean carrier fluid temperature, panel surface temperature, and room temperature can be calculated. One single power function product of all relevant parameters has been derived as an algorithm for performance calculations of panel heating and cooling systems, which can be adapted for other systems. Findings have been verified by experiment for floor heating panels with best results. These basic equations provided the design standards for German Standard DIN 4725, ''Thermal Output of Floor Heating'', which has been adopted as European Standard EN 1264. Finite element method calculation results were also compared with results from design calculations based on the ASHRAE method.

  3. Building Bridges: Biocatalytic C–C-Bond Formation toward Multifunctional Products

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Carbon–carbon bond formation is the key reaction for organic synthesis to construct the carbon framework of organic molecules. The review gives a selection of biocatalytic C–C-bond-forming reactions which have been investigated during the last 5 years and which have already been proven to be applicable for organic synthesis. In most cases, the reactions lead to products functionalized at the site of C–C-bond formation (e.g., α-hydroxy ketones, aminoalcohols, diols, 1,4-diketones, etc.) or allow to decorate aromatic and heteroaromatic molecules. Furthermore, examples for cyclization of (non)natural precursors leading to saturated carbocycles are given as well as the stereoselective cyclopropanation of olefins affording cyclopropanes. Although many tools are already available, recent research also makes it clear that nature provides an even broader set of enzymes to perform specific C–C coupling reactions. The possibilities are without limit; however, a big library of variants for different types of reactions is required to have the specific enzyme for a desired specific (stereoselective) reaction at hand. PMID:27398261

  4. Building Bridges: Biocatalytic C-C-Bond Formation toward Multifunctional Products.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nina G; Eger, Elisabeth; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Carbon-carbon bond formation is the key reaction for organic synthesis to construct the carbon framework of organic molecules. The review gives a selection of biocatalytic C-C-bond-forming reactions which have been investigated during the last 5 years and which have already been proven to be applicable for organic synthesis. In most cases, the reactions lead to products functionalized at the site of C-C-bond formation (e.g., α-hydroxy ketones, aminoalcohols, diols, 1,4-diketones, etc.) or allow to decorate aromatic and heteroaromatic molecules. Furthermore, examples for cyclization of (non)natural precursors leading to saturated carbocycles are given as well as the stereoselective cyclopropanation of olefins affording cyclopropanes. Although many tools are already available, recent research also makes it clear that nature provides an even broader set of enzymes to perform specific C-C coupling reactions. The possibilities are without limit; however, a big library of variants for different types of reactions is required to have the specific enzyme for a desired specific (stereoselective) reaction at hand.

  5. CamMedNP: Building the Cameroonian 3D structural natural products database for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We present CamMedNP - a new database beginning with more than 2,500 compounds of natural origin, along with some of their derivatives which were obtained through hemisynthesis. These are pure compounds which have been previously isolated and characterized using modern spectroscopic methods and published by several research teams spread across Cameroon. Description In the present study, 224 distinct medicinal plant species belonging to 55 plant families from the Cameroonian flora have been considered. About 80 % of these have been previously published and/or referenced in internationally recognized journals. For each compound, the optimized 3D structure, drug-like properties, plant source, collection site and currently known biological activities are given, as well as literature references. We have evaluated the “drug-likeness” of this database using Lipinski’s “Rule of Five”. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Conclusion CamMedNP could be highly useful for database screening and natural product lead generation programs. PMID:23590173

  6. Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: Building an empirical basis for effective regulation

    PubMed Central

    Donny, Eric C.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Sved, Alan F.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Cassidy, Rachel N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both the Tobacco Control Act in the U.S. and Article 9 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enable governments to directly address the addictiveness of combustible tobacco by reducing nicotine through product standards. Although nicotine may have some harmful effects, the detrimental health effects of smoked tobacco are primarily due to non-nicotine constituents. Hence, the health effects of nicotine reduction would likely be determined by changes in behavior that result in changes in smoke exposure. Methods Herein, we review the current evidence on nicotine reduction and discuss some of the challenges in establishing the empirical basis for regulatory decisions. Results To date, research suggests that very low nicotine content cigarettes produce a desirable set of outcomes, including reduced exposure to nicotine, reduced smoking, and reduced dependence, without significant safety concerns. However, much is still unknown, including the effects of gradual versus abrupt changes in nicotine content, effects in vulnerable populations, and impact on youth. Discussion A coordinated effort must be made to provide the best possible scientific basis for regulatory decisions. The outcome of this effort may provide the foundation for a novel approach to tobacco control that dramatically reduces the devastating health consequences of smoked tobacco. PMID:24967958

  7. Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: building an empirical basis for effective regulation.

    PubMed

    Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Benowitz, Neal L; Sved, Alan F; Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N

    2014-11-01

    Both the Tobacco Control Act in the U.S. and Article 9 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enable governments to directly address the addictiveness of combustible tobacco by reducing nicotine through product standards. Although nicotine may have some harmful effects, the detrimental health effects of smoked tobacco are primarily due to non-nicotine constituents. Hence, the health effects of nicotine reduction would likely be determined by changes in behavior that result in changes in smoke exposure. Herein, we review the current evidence on nicotine reduction and discuss some of the challenges in establishing the empirical basis for regulatory decisions. To date, research suggests that very low nicotine content cigarettes produce a desirable set of outcomes, including reduced exposure to nicotine, reduced smoking, and reduced dependence, without significant safety concerns. However, much is still unknown, including the effects of gradual versus abrupt changes in nicotine content, effects in vulnerable populations, and impact on youth. A coordinated effort must be made to provide the best possible scientific basis for regulatory decisions. The outcome of this effort may provide the foundation for a novel approach to tobacco control that dramatically reduces the devastating health consequences of smoked tobacco. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  9. Production of carbohydrate building blocks from red seaweed polysaccharides. Efficient conversion of galactans into C-glycosyl aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Ducatti, Diogo R B; Massi, Alessandro; Noseda, Miguel D; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Dondoni, Alessandro

    2009-02-07

    Agarans and carrageenans are abundant natural polysaccharides which are obtained on a large scale by water extraction from a variety of red seaweeds. These galactans, in addition to being valuable products for the pharmaceutical and food industries, are low cost starting materials for the preparation of useful and rare carbohydrate-based building blocks whose access by total synthesis is difficult and expensive. The semisynthesis of two sets of C-glycosyl aldehydes with l- and d-configuration from agarose and kappa-carrageenan respectively is described. Succinctly, the partial acid-catalyzed mercaptolysis of the two galactans under mild conditions afforded agarobiose and carrabiose (beta-d-Galp-(1-->4)-3,6-anhydro-aldehydo-l- and d-galactose, respectively) derivatives. Complete depolymerization of agarose and kappa-carrageenan under harsher conditions produced 3,6-anhydro l- and d-galactose aldehyde derivatives. Chain shortening of these products via alditol formation and oxidative carbon-carbon bond cleavage furnished C-formyl alpha-l- and alpha-d-threofuranosides. The above C-glycosyl aldehydes were all prepared on a meaningful preparative scale starting from gram quantities of galactans. Finally, a new procedure for the preparation of the 2,3-O-benzyl l-threofuranose was established by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the benzylated C-formyl alpha-l-threofuranoside here prepared from agarose.

  10. Land Management Panel: Army’s Net Zero Installation Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-24

    Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Energy & Environment) DRAFT DECK 1 Land Management Panel Army’s Net Zero Installation...00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Land Management Panel Army’s Net Zero Installation Initiative 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...water in new / renovated federal buildings from solar power • 30% by FY2015 if life cycle cost-effective Fossil fuel use in new / renovated

  11. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  12. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  13. Attenuation of urban agricultural production potential and crop water footprint due to shading from buildings and trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Tooke, Thoreau R.; Coops, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    Urban agriculture requires local water to replace ‘hydrologic externalities’ associated with food produced outside of the local area, with an accompanying shift of the water footprint (WF) for agricultural production from rural to urban areas. Water requirements of urban agriculture have been difficult to estimate due to the heterogeneity of shading from trees and buildings within urban areas. We developed CityCrop, a plant growth and evapotranspiration (ET) model that couples a 3D model of tree canopies and buildings derived from LiDAR with a ray-casting approach to estimate spatially-explicit solar inputs in combination with local climate data. Evaluating CityCrop over a 1 km2 mixed use, residential neighborhood of Vancouver Canada, we estimated median light attenuation to result in 12% reductions in both reference ET (ETo) and crop ET (ETc). However, median crop yields were reduced by only 3.5% relative to potential yield modeled without any light attenuation, while the median crop WF was 9% less than the WF for areas unimpeded by shading. Over the 75 day cropping cycle, median crop water requirements as ETc were 17% less than that required for a well-watered grass (as ETo). If all lawns in our modeled area were replaced with crops, we estimate that about 37% of the resident population could obtain the vegetable portion of their diet from within the local area over a 150 day growing season. However doing so would result in augmented water demand if watering restrictions apply to lawns only. The CityCrop model can therefore be useful to evaluate trade-offs related to urban agriculture and to inform municipal water policy development.

  14. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  15. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  16. Advanced solar panel designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  17. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood beams and interrupted dentil course cornice resulting from the removal of the third floor tuberculosis ward, yard level paneled Dutch door, second level two a typical six-light wood casement windows over a single-panel wood door with four light exits to fire escape; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  18. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  19. Analysis of Panel Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Cheng

    2003-02-01

    Panel data models have become increasingly popular among applied researchers due to their heightened capacity for capturing the complexity of human behavior, as compared to cross-sectional or time series data models. This second edition represents a substantial revision of the highly successful first edition (1986). Recent advances in panel data research are presented in an accessible manner and are carefully integrated with the older material. The thorough discussion of theory and the judicious use of empirical examples make this book useful to graduate students and advanced researchers in economics, business, sociology and political science.

  20. Low concentration solar louvres for building integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzi, D.; Aldegheri, F.; Baricordi, S.; Bernardoni, P.; Calabrese, G.; Guidi, V.; Pozzetti, L.

    2013-09-01

    The building integration of CPV modules offers several advantages over the integration of flat panel systems, but the decreasing price trend of standard modules observed in the last years has hampered the market expansion of CPV systems, which still don't rely on a low-cost mass production supply chain. To overcome this contingent issue and to foster the diffusion of innovative PV systems we developed a low concentration BIPV module with added functionalities, such as sunlight shading and building illumination. The electrical performances, retrieved under outdoor conditions, and the lighting performances of the Solar F-Light are shown. The latter indicate that it is suitable for ambient lighting, with a very limited power draw.

  1. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, October 15, 1957 EAST WING DETAIL SHOWING GOTHIC PANELLING IN DOORS AND HARDWARE. - Jayne Building, 242-244 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, July, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Theodore F. Dillon, Photographer, July, 1959 DETAIL OF CAST TERRA COTTA PANELS AND CORNICE. - Mutual Fire Insurance Company Building, Germantown Avenue & School House Lane, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. 2, 1936 PANELS AND VAULTED CEILING IN DRAWING ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Emerson & Holmes Building, 556 Mulberry Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  4. Proposed first edition of the standard for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels, UL 1703

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-12

    The tentative requirements provided cover flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels intended for installation on or integral with buildings or to be freestanding (that is, not attached to buildings). Modules and panels intended for use in systems with a maximum system voltage of 1000 volts or less are covered. Also covered are components intended to provide electrical connection to and mounting facilities for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. The requirements do not cover equipment intended to accept the electrical output from the array (such as inverters and batteries), tracking mechanisms, cell assemblies intended to operate under concentrated sunlight, optical concentrators, or combination photovoltaic-thermal modules or panels. (LEW)

  5. Comprehensive metabolic panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 References McPherson RA, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Advanced Solar Panel Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E. B.

    1995-01-01

    Solar panel designs that utilize new high-efficiency solar cells and lightweight rigid panel technologies are described. The resulting designs increase the specific power (W/kg) achievable in the near-term and are well suited to meet the demands of higher performance small satellites (smallsats). Advanced solar panel designs have been developed and demonstrated on two NASA SBIR contracts at Applied Solar. The first used 19% efficient, large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells with a lightweight rigid graphite epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 60 W/kg with a high potential of achieving 80 W/kg. The second panel design used new 22% efficiency, dual-junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with a lightweight aluminum core/graphite fiber mesh facesheet substrate. A 1,445 sq cm coupon was fabricated and tested to demonstrate 105 W/kg with the potential of achieving 115 W/kg.

  7. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  8. Stepped inlet optical panel

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.

    2001-01-01

    An optical panel includes stacked optical waveguides having stepped inlet facets collectively defining an inlet face for receiving image light, and having beveled outlet faces collectively defining a display screen for displaying the image light channeled through the waveguides by internal reflection.

  9. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  10. The Panel Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the views of panel members at a symposium on the place of inorganic chemistry in the undergraduate curriculum. Suggests one semester of intermediate inorganic chemistry, followed by a year of physical chemistry and a semester of advanced inorganic chemistry as a reasonable prescription for the modern undergraduate curriculum. (Author/JN)

  11. Panels: Papers and Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besser, Howard; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Contains student papers and abstracts of panel discussions on the following topics: (1) social impact of networked communications; (2) text authenticity issues; (3) geographic information systems; (4) the dilemma of open networks versus information accuracy and personal rights; and (5) empowering medical applications via the network. (KRN)

  12. Compliance Timeline, Compliance Options, and Required Notifications for Surface Coating of Wood Building Products National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This January 2005 document contains a diagram of dates and events for compliance with the NESHAP for surface coating of wood building products. Also on this page is a January 2005 document with flow charts to demonstrate compliance options for the NESHAP

  13. Creativity Fostering Behaviour as an Index of Productivity and Capacity Building among Lecturers in Selected Universities in Ogun and Oyo States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olawale, Sunday G.; Adeniyi, Emmanuel O.; Olubela, OpeOluwa I.

    2010-01-01

    The need for creative thinking and behaviour is more acute in our contemporary society than before. Therefore, this study tried to investigate creativity fostering behaviour as an index of productivity and capacity building among lecturers in selected universities in Ogun and Oyo States. To achieve this, multi-stage sampling technique was…

  14. Creativity Fostering Behaviour as an Index of Productivity and Capacity Building among Lecturers in Selected Universities in Ogun and Oyo States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olawale, Sunday G.; Adeniyi, Emmanuel O.; Olubela, OpeOluwa I.

    2010-01-01

    The need for creative thinking and behaviour is more acute in our contemporary society than before. Therefore, this study tried to investigate creativity fostering behaviour as an index of productivity and capacity building among lecturers in selected universities in Ogun and Oyo States. To achieve this, multi-stage sampling technique was…

  15. Assessment of phthalates/phthalate alternatives in children's toys and childcare articles: Review of the report including conclusions and recommendation of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel of the Consumer Product Safety Commission.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Paul J; Hauser, Russ; Gennings, Chris; Koch, Holger M; Mirkes, Philip E; Schwetz, Bernard A; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) convened a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on Phthalates found in children's toys, and childcare products, and in products used by women of childbearing age. The CHAP conducted a risk assessment on phthalates and phthalate substitutes, and made recommendations to either ban, impose an interim ban, or allow the continued use of phthalates and phthalate substitutes in the above products. After a review of the literature, the evaluation included toxic end points of primary concern, biomonitoring results, extant exposure reconstruction, and epidemiological results. The health end points chosen were associated with the rat phthalate syndrome, which is characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), and by cryptorchidism (undescended testes), retention of nipples/areolae, and demasculinization (~incomplete masculinization) of the perineum, resulting in reduced anogenital distance. Risk assessment demonstrated that some phthalates should be permanently banned, removed from the banned list, or remain interim banned. Biomonitoring and toxicology data provided the strongest basis for a mixture risk assessment. In contrast, external exposure data were the weakest and need to be upgraded for epidemiological studies and risk assessments. Such studies would focus on routes and sources. The review presents recommendations and uncertainties.

  16. Optimization of the curing process of a sandwich panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phyo Maung, Pyi; Tatarnikov, O.; Malysheva, G.

    2016-10-01

    This study presented finite element modelling and experimental measurements of temperatures during the autoclave curing of the T-50 aircraft wing sandwich panel. This panel consists of upper and lower carbon fibre based laminates and an aluminium foil honeycomb. The finite element modelling was performed using the Femap-Nastran product. During processing, the temperature at various points on the surface of the panel was measured using the thermocouples. The finite element method simulated the thermal conditions and determined the temperatures in the different parts of the panel for a full cycle of the curing process. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that their difference does not exceed 6%.

  17. Automatic Color Sorting of Hardwood Edge-Glued Panel Parts

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Richard Conners; Qiang Lu; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic color sorting system for red oak edge-glued panel parts. The color sorting system simultaneously examines both faces of a panel part and then determines which face has the "best" color, and sorts the part into one of a number of color classes at plant production speeds. Initial test results show that the system generated over...

  18. At-line validation of a process analytical technology approach for quality control of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin in composite wood-panel production using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meder, Roger; Stahl, Wolfgang; Warburton, Paul; Woolley, Sam; Earnshaw, Scott; Haselhofer, Klaus; van Langenberg, Ken; Ebdon, Nick; Mulder, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The reactivity of melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins is of key importance in the manufacture of engineered wood products such as medium density fibreboard (MDF) and other wood composite products. Often the MDF manufacturing plant has little available information on the resin reactivity other than details of the resin specification at the time of batch manufacture, which often occurs off-site at a third-party resin plant. Often too, fresh resin on delivery at the MDF plant is mixed with variable volume of aged resin in storage tanks, thereby rendering any specification of the fresh resin batch obsolete. It is therefore highly desirable to develop a real-time, at-line or on-line, process analytical technology to monitor the quality of the resin prior to MDF panel manufacture. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been calibrated against standard quality methods and against (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measures of molecular composition in order to provide at-line process analytical technology (PAT), to monitor the resin quality, particularly the formaldehyde content of the resin. At-line determination of formaldehyde content in the resin was made possible using a six-factor calibration with an R (2)(cal) value of 0.973, and R (2)(CV) value of 0.929 and a root-mean-square error of cross-validation of 0.01. This calibration was then used to generate control charts of formaldehyde content at regular four-hourly periods during MDF panel manufacture in a commercial MDF manufacturing plant.

  19. Formaldehyde emission monitoring from a variety of solid wood, plywood, blockboard and flooring products manufactured for building and furnishing materials.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Martin; Salem, Mohamed Z M; Srba, Jaromír

    2012-06-30

    The measurements of formaldehyde emission (FE) from solid wood, plywood, flooring and blockboard used for building and furnishing materials were obtained using the European small-scale chamber (EN 717-1) and gas analysis (EN 717-2) methods to identify the major sources of formaldehyde among construction and wood products in the Czech Republic. The differences in the FE values reported for various wood products were a function of their structural differences. These results showed that the wood species, plywood type and thickness significantly affected the FE measured by EN 717-2 (P<0.001). The FE values from solid wood ranged between 0.0068 and 0.0036ppm and 0.084-0.014mg/m(2)h. The initial FE ranged from 0.006mg/m(3) for engineered flooring with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) to 0.048mg/m(3) for painted birch blockboard. Furthermore, the FE dropped noticeably by the end of the measuring period, ranging between 0.006mg/m(3) for engineered flooring with PVAc and 0.037mg/m(3) for painted beech blockboard. Additionally, the initial FE was higher for the painted blockboard (0.035-0.048mg/m(3)) than for the uncoated boards (0.022-0.032mg/m(3)). In the first week after manufacturing, the FE was high, but the decrease in FE was noticeable at the two-week measurement for all of the materials, especially for the painted blockboards.

  20. The CpAL Quorum Sensing System Regulates Production of Hemolysins CPA and PFO To Build Clostridium perfringens Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens strains produce severe diseases, including myonecrosis and enteritis necroticans, in humans and animals. Diseases are mediated by the production of potent toxins that often damage the site of infection, e.g., skin epithelium during myonecrosis. In planktonic cultures, the regulation of important toxins, such as CPA, CPB, and PFO, is controlled by the C. perfringens Agr-like (CpAL) quorum sensing (QS) system. Strains also encode a functional LuxS/AI-2 system. Although C. perfringens strains form biofilm-like structures, the regulation of biofilm formation is poorly understood. Therefore, our studies investigated the role of CpAL and LuxS/AI-2 QS systems and of QS-regulated factors in controlling the formation of biofilms. We first demonstrate that biofilm production by reference strains differs depending on the culture medium. Increased biomass correlated with the presence of extracellular DNA in the supernatant, which was released by lysis of a fraction of the biofilm population and planktonic cells. Whereas ΔagrB mutant strains were not able to produce biofilms, a ΔluxS mutant produced wild-type levels. The transcript levels of CpAL-regulated cpa and pfoA genes, but not cpb, were upregulated in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. Accordingly, Δcpa and ΔpfoA mutants, in type A (S13) or type C (CN3685) backgrounds, were unable to produce biofilms, whereas CN3685Δcpb made wild-type levels. Biofilm formation was restored in complemented Δcpa/cpa and ΔpfoA/pfoA strains. Confocal microscopy studies further detected CPA partially colocalizing with eDNA on the biofilm structure. Thus, CpAL regulates biofilm formation in C. perfringens by increasing levels of certain toxins required to build biofilms. PMID:25824838