Science.gov

Sample records for buildings sector measures

  1. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  2. Building recycling rates through the informal sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-02-01

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  3. Building recycling rates through the informal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David C.; Araba, Adebisi O.; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-02-15

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  4. Measuring Teacher and Leader Performance: Cross-Sector Lessons for Excellent Evaluations. Building an Opportunity Culture for America's Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Hassel, Emily Ayscue

    2010-01-01

    For too long, performance measurement systems in education have failed to document and recognize real differences among educators. But a recent national push to use performance evaluations for critical personnel decisions has highlighted the shortcomings of the current systems and increased the urgency to dramatically improve them. As state and…

  5. Opportunities in the Building Sector: Managing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    We review the data documenting the value of energy efficiency measures enacted in California, largely in the buildings and appliance sectors. We compare energy savings in the state to those achieved in the US as a whole. We also compare the cost and energy savings possible with efficiency standards enacted in China with the cost and quantity of energy expected from the construction of the Three Gorges Dam there.

  6. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  7. Ship and Boat Building Sector (NAICS 3336)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the shipbuilding sector (NAICS 3336), including NESHAPs and air toxics regulations, nonroad engines and vehicles, managing used oil, and polluted runoff from marinas and boating areas.

  8. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  9. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

  10. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  11. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  12. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods.

  13. Introduction to the Buildings Sector Module of SEDS

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicholas; Bonnet, Florence; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-12-31

    SEDS is a stochastic engineering-economics model that forecasts economy-wide energy consumption in the U.S. to 2050. It is the product of multi-laboratory collaboration among the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Lumina Decision Systems. Among national energy models, SEDS is unique, as it is the only model written to explicitly incorporate uncertainty in its inputs and outputs. The primary purpose of SEDS is to estimate the impact of various US Department of Energy (DOE)R&D and policy programs on the performance and subsequent adoption rates of technologies relating to every energy consuming sector of the economy (shown below). It has previously been used to assist DOE in complying with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA). The focus of LBNL research has been exclusively on develop the buildings model (SBEAM), which is capable of running as a stand-alone forecasting model, or as a part of SEDS as a whole. The full version of SEDS, containing all sectors and interaction is also called the 'integrated' version and is managed by NREL. Forecasts from SEDS are often compared to those coming from National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The intention of this document is to present new users and developers with a general description of the purpose, functionality and structure of the buildings module within the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS). The Buildings module, which is capable of running as a standalone model, is also called the Stochastic Buildings Energy and Adoption Model (SBEAM). This document will focus exclusively on SBEAM and its interaction with other major sector modules present within SEDS. The methodologies and major assumptions employed in SBEAM will also be discussed. The organization of this report will parallel the organization of the model itself, being divided into major submodules

  14. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L.; Popelka, A.; Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V.

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  15. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  16. Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

    2012-08-26

    This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual

  17. Whole Building Cost and Performance Measurement: Data Collection Protocol Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Spees, Kathleen L.; Kora, Angela R.; Rauch, Emily M.; Hathaway, John E.; Solana, Amy E.

    2009-03-27

    This protocol was written for the Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to be used by the public as a tool for assessing building cost and performance measurement. The primary audiences are sustainable design professionals, asset owners, building managers, and research professionals within the Federal sector. The protocol was developed based on the need for measured performance and cost data on sustainable design projects. Historically there has not been a significant driver in the public or private sector to quantify whole building performance in comparable terms. The deployment of sustainable design into the building sector has initiated many questions on the performance and operational cost of these buildings.

  18. Assessment of the buildings sector efficiency resource for the City of Plzen, Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This city is considering options for providing energy services to its citizens in order to lower their energy bills and reduce pollution created by burning low quality brown coal. US AID, under the SEED program, agreed to fund an assessment of the space and water heat efficiency potential in the buildings sector in Plzen. Purpose of this assessment is to develop information on this energy efficiency potential. A significant efficiency resource exists in the space and water heating end-uses in the residential and nonresidential buildings sectors; at current prices this amounts to 27% of total buildings sector space and water heat energy consumption and increases to 29 and 34% of buildings sector consumption in two scenarios in which energy price controls and subsidies are relaxed.

  19. An assessment of the building sector efficiency resource for the Town of Handlova

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Purpose of this assessment for this town in the Slovak Republic is to develop information on the building sector energy efficiency and improvement potential for use by town management to support decisions on providing energy services to Handlova citizens. Objectives were to characterize baseline space and water heat energy use and efficiency improvement potential in the residential and nonresidential building sectors. Intention was to identify major areas of efficiency improvement potential and cost-effectiveness. Four levels of energy and fuel prices were used. A significant efficiency resource exists in the space and water heating end uses in these building sectors; it amounts to 42% of the total building sector space and water heat energy consumption.

  20. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L.; Popelka, A.; Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  1. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  2. Scale Matters: An Action Plan for Realizing Sector-Wide"Zero-Energy" Performance Goals in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Selkowitz, Stephen; Granderson, Jessica; Haves, Philip; Mathew, Paul; Harris, Jeff

    2008-06-16

    It is widely accepted that if the United States is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it must aggressively address energy end use in the building sector. While there have been some notable but modest successes with mandatory and voluntary programs, there have also been puzzling failures to achieve expected savings. Collectively, these programs have not yet reached the majority of the building stock, nor have they yet routinely produced very large savings in individual buildings. Several trends that have the potential to change this are noteworthy: (1) the growing market interest in 'green buildings' and 'sustainable design', (2) the major professional societies (e.g. AIA, ASHRAE) have more aggressively adopted significant improvements in energy efficiency as strategic goals, e.g. targeting 'zero energy', carbon-neutral buildings by 2030. While this vision is widely accepted as desirable, unless there are significant changes to the way buildings are routinely designed, delivered and operated, zero energy buildings will remain a niche phenomenon rather than a sector-wide reality. Toward that end, a public/private coalition including the Alliance to Save Energy, LBNL, AIA, ASHRAE, USGBC and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) are developing an 'action plan' for moving the U.S. commercial building sector towards zero energy performance. It addresses regional action in a national framework; integrated deployment, demonstration and R&D threads; and would focus on measurable, visible performance indicators. This paper outlines this action plan, focusing on the challenge, the key themes, and the strategies and actions leading to substantial reductions in GHG emissions by 2030.

  3. Updated Buildings Sector Appliance and Equipment Costs and Efficiency

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA works with technology experts to project the cost and efficiency of future HVAC, lighting, and other major end-use equipment rather than developing residential and commercial technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for some of the most important assumptions used for our AEO projections of buildings energy demand.

  4. DSM Electricity Savings Potential in the Buildings Sector in APP Countries

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, MIchael; Letschert, Virginie; Shen, Bo; Sathaye, Jayant; de la Ru du Can, Stephane

    2011-01-12

    The global economy has grown rapidly over the past decade with a commensurate growth in the demand for electricity services that has increased a country's vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Increasing need of reliable and affordable electricity supply is a challenge which is before every Asia Pacific Partnership (APP) country. Collaboration between APP members has been extremely fruitful in identifying potential efficiency upgrades and implementing clean technology in the supply side of the power sector as well established the beginnings of collaboration. However, significantly more effort needs to be focused on demand side potential in each country. Demand side management or DSM in this case is a policy measure that promotes energy efficiency as an alternative to increasing electricity supply. It uses financial or other incentives to slow demand growth on condition that the incremental cost needed is less than the cost of increasing supply. Such DSM measures provide an alternative to building power supply capacity The type of financial incentives comprise of rebates (subsidies), tax exemptions, reduced interest loans, etc. Other approaches include the utilization of a cap and trade scheme to foster energy efficiency projects by creating a market where savings are valued. Under this scheme, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of electricity are capped and electricity retailers are required to meet the target partially or entirely through energy efficiency activities. Implementation of DSM projects is very much in the early stages in several of the APP countries or localized to a regional part of the country. The purpose of this project is to review the different types of DSM programs experienced by APP countries and to estimate the overall future potential for cost-effective demand-side efficiency improvements in buildings sectors in the 7 APP countries through the year 2030. Overall, the savings potential is estimated to be 1

  5. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance.

  6. Building the Synergy between Public Sector and Research Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craglia, Massimo; Friis-Christensen, Anders; Ostländer, Nicole; Perego, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE is a European Directive aiming to establish a EU-wide spatial data infrastructure to give cross-border access to information that can be used to support EU environmental policies, as well as other policies and activities having an impact on the environment. In order to ensure cross-border interoperability of data infrastructures operated by EU Member States, INSPIRE sets out a framework based on common specifications for metadata, data, network services, data and service sharing, monitoring and reporting. The implementation of INSPIRE has reached important milestones: the INSPIRE Geoportal was launched in 2011 providing a single access point for the discovery of INSPIRE data and services across EU Member States (currently, about 300K), while all the technical specifications for the interoperability of data across the 34 INSPIRE themes were adopted at the end of 2013. During this period a number of EU and international initiatives has been launched, concerning cross-domain interoperability and (Linked) Open Data. In particular, the EU Open Data Portal, launched in December 2012, made provisions to access government and scientific data from EU institutions and bodies, and the EU ISA Programme (Interoperability Solutions for European Public Administrations) promotes cross-sector interoperability by sharing and re-using EU-wide and national standards and components. Moreover, the Research Data Alliance (RDA), an initiative jointly funded by the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation and the Australian Research Council, was launched in March 2013 to promote scientific data sharing and interoperability. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), besides being the technical coordinator of the implementation of INSPIRE, is also actively involved in the initiatives promoting cross-sector re-use in INSPIRE, and sustainable approaches to address the evolution of technologies - in particular, how to support Linked Data in INSPIRE and

  7. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  8. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  9. Modeling climate change impact in hospitality sector, using building resources consumption signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Armando; Bernardino, Mariana; Silva Santos, António; Pimpão Silva, Álvaro; Espírito Santo, Fátima

    2016-04-01

    Hotels are one of building types that consumes more energy and water per person and are vulnerable to climate change because in the occurrence of extreme events (heat waves, water stress) same failures could compromise the hotel services (comfort) and increase energy cost or compromise the landscape and amenities due to water use restrictions. Climate impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies require the knowledge about critical climatic variables and also the behaviour of building. To study the risk and vulnerability of buildings and hotels to climate change regarding resources consumption (energy and water), previous studies used building energy modelling simulation (BEMS) tools to study the variation in energy and water consumption. In general, the climate change impact in building is evaluated studying the energy and water demand of the building for future climate scenarios. But, hotels are complex buildings, quite different from each other and assumption done in simplified BEMS aren't calibrated and usually neglect some important hotel features leading to projected estimates that do not usually match hotel sector understanding and practice. Taking account all uncertainties, the use of building signature (statistical method) could be helpful to assess, in a more clear way, the impact of Climate Change in the hospitality sector and using a broad sample. Statistical analysis of the global energy consumption obtained from bills shows that the energy consumption may be predicted within 90% confidence interval only with the outdoor temperature. In this article a simplified methodology is presented and applied to identify the climate change impact in hospitality sector using the building energy and water signature. This methodology is applied to sixteen hotels (nine in Lisbon and seven in Algarve) with four and five stars rating. The results show that is expect an increase in water and electricity consumption (manly due to the increase in

  10. Measuring Systemic and Climate Diversity in Ontario's University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piché, Pierre Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a methodology for measuring institutional diversity and applies it to Ontario's university sector. This study first used hierarchical cluster analysis, which suggested there has been very little change in diversity between 1994 and 2010 as universities were clustered in three groups for both years. However, by adapting…

  11. Application and development of IR techniques for building and construction sector in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melballe, Jens A.

    1990-03-01

    In Denmark IR-techniques have found a widespend use in the Building and Construction sector. The applications include control of insulation level of buildings, district heating networks, transformer stations, electrical networks and water pipes in buildings, electrically heated floors, etc. In this paper is first described the Danish voluntary system for inspection of building insulation. This work is supervised by a government agency. Some examples are given on how these activities are carried out in practice. An important question is how to develop IR-techniques for new applications and how to transfer this knowledge for practical use. In this paper we describe how activities of this kind are carried out in cooperation with government bodies, research organizations and users of thermography. Important aspects discussed include the initialization of development projects, the financial aspects, the organization of projects of this kind and the technology transfer. Some examples are given from work of this kind.

  12. Energy consumed in 2010 by an energy-efficient building sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, G. D.

    1981-11-01

    The minimum practical energy consumption in the building sector in the year 2010 if an aggressive program of efficiency improvement were implemented was estimated. For the case of a 2% annual growth rate in real gross national product, an 0.8% annual growth in population, and a quadrupling of real fuel prices relative to the 1975 prices, we concluded that end-use fuel consumption by the building sector could be reduced to 7.7 exajoule (EJ) in 2010 compared to 18.0 EJ in 1977. This could be accomplished by using technologies that are available today or can be predicted with a high level of confidence to be available in 2010. No technological breakthroughs would be required, and no sacrifice in amenities would be necessary. Indeed, the real standard of living would improve. Futhermore, the results were only slightly sensitive to fuel prices; most efficiency improvements were attractive economically at today's fuel prices or at prices only slightly higher.

  13. Can life-cycle assessment produce reliable policy guidelines in the building sector?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säynäjoki, Antti; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo; Horvath, Arpad

    2017-01-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an established methodology that can provide decision-makers with comprehensive data on the environmental impacts of products and processes during the entire life cycle. However, the literature on building LCAs consists of highly varying results between the studies, even when the assessed buildings are very similar. This makes it doubtful if LCA can actually produce reliable data for supporting policy-making in the building sector. However, no prior reviews looking into this issue in the building sector exist. This study includes an extensive literature review of LCA studies on the pre-use phase of buildings. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variation between the results of different studies and find out whether the differences can be explained by the contextual differences or if it is actually the methodological choices that cause the extremely high variation. We present 116 cases from 47 scientific articles and reports that used process LCA, input-output (IO) LCA or hybrid LCA to study the construction-phase GHG emissions of buildings. The results of the reviewed studies vary between 0.03 and 2.00 tons of GHG emissions per gross area. The lowest was assessed with process LCA and highest with IO LCA, and in general the lower end was found to be dominated by process LCA studies and the higher end by IO LCA studies, hybrid LCAs being placed in between. In general, it is the methodological issues and subjective choices of the LCA practitioner that cause the vast majority of the huge variance in the results. It thus seems that currently the published building LCAs do not offer solid background information for policy-making without deep understanding of the premises of a certain study and good methodological knowledge.

  14. The composition of a quad of buildings sector energy: Physical, economic, and environmental quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1990-07-01

    In an analysis conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Building Technologies (OBT), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined the fuel type composition of energy consumed in the US buildings sector. Numerical estimates were developed for the physical quantities of fuel consumed, as well as of the fossil fuel emissions (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and nuclear spent fuel byproducts associated with that consumption. Electric generating requirements and the economic values associated with energy consumption also were quantified. These variables were quantified for a generic quad (1 quadrillion Btu) of primary energy for the years 1987 and 2010, to illustrate the impacts of a fuel-neutral reduction in buildings sector energy use, and for specific fuel types, to enable meaningful comparisons of benefits achievable through various OBT research projects or technology developments. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these conversion factors may be used to quantify the impacts of energy savings potentially achievable through OBT building energy conservation efforts. 18 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  17. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  18. Building a comprehensive mill-level database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model of the U.S. pulp and paper sector.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector.

  19. The energy investment decision in the nonresidential building sector: Research into the areas of influence

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and to characterize the decision process in the nonresidential building sector as well as the variables influencing energy investment decisions, both of which impact the development of R and D agendas for the Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). The report reviews the available information on the factors that influence energy investment decisions and identifies information gaps where additional research is needed. This report focuses on variables and combinations of these variables (descriptive states) that influence the non residential energy investment decision maker. Economic and demographic descriptors, energy investment decision maker characteristics, and variables affecting energy investments are identified. This response examines the physical characteristics of buildings, characteristics of the legal environment surrounding buildings, demographic factors, economic factors, and decision processes, all of which impact the nonresidential energy investment market. The emphasis of the report is on providing possible methodologies for projecting the future of the nonresidential energy investment market, as well as, collecting the data necessary for such projections. The use of alternate scenarios is suggested as a projection tool and suggestions for collecting the appropriate data are made in the recommendations.

  20. Measures of Student Learning: Building Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Guidebook is to describe the process and basic requirements for the student learning measures that are used as part of the building administrator evaluation and support process. For aspects of the process that have room for flexibility and school/district-level discretion, the different options have been clearly separated and…

  1. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  2. Simulation of the GHG Abatement Potentials in the U.S. Building Sector by 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; DeForest, Nicholas; Marnay, Chris; Bonnet, Florence; Lai, Judy; Phan, Trucy

    2010-10-01

    Given the substantial contribution of the U.S. building sector to national carbon emissions, it is clear that to address properly the issue of climate change, one must first consider innovative approaches to understanding and encouraging the introduction of new, low-carbon technologies to both the commercial and residential building markets. This is the motivation behind the development of the Stochastic Lite Building Module (SLBM), a long range, open source model to forecast the impact of policy decisions and consumer behavior on the market penetration of both existing and emerging building technologies and the resulting carbon savings. The SLBM, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is part of the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS) project, a multi-laboratory effort undertaken in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and private companies. The primary purpose of SEDS is to track the performance of different U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Research and Development (R&D) activities on technology adoption, overall energy efficiency, and CO{sub 2} reductions throughout the whole of the U.S. economy. The tool is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with a number of characteristics to distinguish it from existing energy forecasting models. SEDS has been written explicitly to incorporate uncertainty in its inputs leading to uncertainty bounds on the subsequent forecasts. It considers also passive building systems and their interactions with other building service enduses, including the cost savings for heating, cooling, and lighting due to different building shell/window options. Such savings can be compared with investments costs in order to model real-world consumer behavior and forecast adoption rates. The core objective of this paper is to report on the new window and shell features of SLBM and to show the implications of

  3. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  4. Tipping points for carbon dioxide and air pollution benefits: an energy systems analysis of natural gas verses electric technologies in the U.S. buildings sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our analysis examines emission trade-offs between electricity and natural gas use in the buildings sector at the system level, including upstream emissions from the electric sector and natural gas mining emissions.

  5. Overview of mitigation policies and measures in the forestry sector

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the author addresses questions on how the forestry sector can make a contribution to the general problem of greenhouse gases in the environment. Primarily this is in the form of carbon conservation and sequestering. There is a potential land area for conservation and sequestration estimated to be 700 Mha. The total carbon that could be sequestered and conserved globally by 2050 on this land is 60 - 87 GtC. Slowing deforestation, assisting regeneration, forestation and agroforestry are the primary mitigation measures for carbon conservation and sequestration. For long term success, enforcement to halt deforestation has to be accompained by economic and/or other benefits to the deforesters that equal or exceed their current remuneration. Making plantations a significant fuel for utility electricity generation will require higher biomass yields and thermal efficiency matching that of conventional plants. Significant reduction of global carbon emissions requires national governments to institute measures that provide local, national, economic and other benefits while conserving and sequestering carbon.

  6. Evaluation of the Contribution of the Building Sector to PM2.5 Emissions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Fridley, David

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we quantify the current and potential contribution of China’s building sector to direct primary and indirect PM2.5 emissions and co-benefits of key pollution reduction strategies of energy efficiency, fuel switching and pollution control technologies on PM2.5 emissions reduction. We use a bottom-up end-use accounting model to model residential and commercial buildings’ coal demand for heating and electricity demand in China’s Northern and Transition climate zones from 2010 to 2030. The model is then used to characterize the current coal-based heating (e.g., district heating, combined heat and power generation, small-scale coal-fired boilers) and power generation technologies to estimate direct and indirect PM2.5 emissions. Model scenarios are developed to evaluate and compare the potential co-benefits of efficiency improvements, fuel switching and pollution control technologies in reducing building-related direct and indirect PM2.5 emissions. An alternative pathway of development in which district heating is introduced to China’s Transition zone to meet growing demand for heat is also modeled to evaluate and quantify the potential impact on PM2.5 emissions.

  7. Transferring building energy technologies by linking government and private-sector programs

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) may wish to use existing networks and infrastructures wherever possible to transfer energy-efficiency technologies for buildings. The advantages of relying on already existing networks are numerous. These networks have in place mechanisms for reaching audiences interested in energy-efficiency technologies in buildings. Because staffs in trade and professional organizations and in state and local programs have responsibilities for brokering information for their members or client organizations, they are open to opportunities to improve their performance in information transfer. OBT, as an entity with primarily R D functions, is, by cooperating with other programs, spared the necessity of developing an extensive technology transfer program of its own, thus reinventing the wheel.'' Instead, OBT can minimize its investment in technology transfer by relying extensively on programs and networks already in place. OBT can work carefully with staff in other organizations to support and facilitate their efforts at information transfer and getting energy-efficiency tools and technologies into actual use. Consequently, representatives of some 22 programs and organizations were contacted, and face-to-face conversations held, to explore what the potential might be for transferring technology by linking with OBT. The briefs included in this document were derived from the discussions, the newly published Directory of Energy Efficiency Information Services for the Residential and Commercial Sectors, and other sources provided by respondents. Each brief has been sent to persons contacted for their review and comment one or more times, and each has been revised to reflect the review comments.

  8. The Open Source Stochastic Building Simulation Tool SLBM and Its Capabilities to Capture Uncertainty of Policymaking in the U.S. Building Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Azevedo, Ines Lima; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Lai, Judy

    2009-05-14

    The increasing concern about climate change as well as the expected direct environmental economic impacts of global warming will put considerable constraints on the US building sector, which consumes roughly 48percent of the total primary energy, making it the biggest single source of CO2 emissions. It is obvious that the battle against climate change can only be won by considering innovative building approaches and consumer behaviors and bringing new, effective low carbon technologies to the building / consumer market. However, the limited time given to mitigate climate change is unforgiving to misled research and / or policy. This is the reason why Lawrence Berkeley National Lab is working on an open source long range Stochastic Lite Building Module (SLBM) to estimate the impact of different policies and consumer behavior on the market penetration of low carbon building technologies. SLBM is designed to be a fast running, user-friendly model that analysts can readily run and modify in its entirety through a visual interface. The tool is fundamentally an engineering-economic model with technology adoption decisions based on cost and energy performance characteristics of competing technologies. It also incorporates consumer preferences and passive building systems as well as interactions between technologies (such as internal heat gains). Furthermore, everything is based on service demand, e.g. a certain temperature or luminous intensity, instead of energy intensities. The core objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the practical approach used, to start a discussion process between relevant stakeholders and to build collaborations.

  9. Connecting Measurement and Architecture: Building an Inflatable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Elizabeth D.; Tullier-Holly, Denise

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a joint effort between a mathematics educator and a middle school art teacher who wanted their students to experience first hand how construction works in the real world. It starts with students designing and building scale models for a large inflatable item in which they display their art and extends to building the…

  10. Ergonomics and design in the Brazilian agricultural sector: a proposal to build matrix of contradictions.

    PubMed

    Tosetto, Thaís; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a correlation between the parameters of classical TRIZ and variables of analysis of the EWA to construct a matrix of contradictions in ergonomics, with the objective of assisting the designing processes in the Brazilian agricultural sector. Given the representativeness of the sector in the economy, the boundary conditions in which the activities are developed and their impact on the health of workers, this proposal should contribute to the development of adaptable solutions and the promotion of Decent Work.

  11. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, C.; Maxwell, S.

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  12. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Attics in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, Casey; Maxwell, Sean

    2012-06-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for owners, builders, contractors, homeowners, and other stakeholders in the multifamily building industry, and focuses on challenges found in existing buildings for a variety of housing types. It explains why air sealing is desirable, explores related health and safety issues, and identifies common air leakage points in multifamily building attics. In addition, it also gives an overview of materials and techniques typically used to perform air sealing work.

  13. Automated measurement of anterior and posterior acetabular sector angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, Bulat; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a segmentation algorithm by which anatomical landmarks on the pelvis are extracted from computed tomography (CT) images. The landmarks are used to automatically define the anterior (AASA) and posterior acetabular sector angles (PASA) describing the degree of hip misalignment. The center of each femoral head is obtained by searching for the point at which most intensity gradient vectors defined at edge points intersect. The radius of each femoral head is computed by finding the sphere, positioned at the center of the femoral head, for which the normalized sum of gradient vector magnitudes on the sphere surface is maximal. The anterior and posterior corners of each acetabulum are searched for on a curve representing the acetabulum and defined by dynamic programming. The femoral head centers and anterior and posterior corners are used to calculate the AASA and PASA. The algorithm was applied to CT images of 120 normal subjects and the results were compared to ground truth values obtained by manual segmentation. The mean absolute difference (+/- standard deviation) between the obtained and ground truth values was 1.3 +/- 0.3 mm for the femoral head centers and 2.1 +/- 1.3 degrees for the acetabular angles.

  14. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices

    SciTech Connect

    James, T.; Goodrich, A.; Woodhouse, M.; Margolis, R.; Ong, S.

    2011-11-01

    For more than 30 years, there have been strong efforts to accelerate the deployment of solar-electric systems by developing photovoltaic (PV) products that are fully integrated with building materials. This report examines the status of building-integrated PV (BIPV), with a focus on the cost drivers of residential rooftop systems, and explores key opportunities and challenges in the marketplace.

  15. Measuring Organisational Capabilities in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobe, Belete J.; Kober, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV), the purpose of this paper is to develop a framework and instrument to measure the organisational capabilities of university schools/departments. In doing so, this study provides evidence of the way competitive resources are bundled to generate organisational capabilities that give university…

  16. Regional variations in US residential sector fuel prices: implications for development of building energy performance standards

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Secrest, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Performance Standards for New Buildings presented life-cycle-cost based energy budgets for single-family detached residences. These energy budgets varied with regional climatic conditions but were all based on projections of national average prices for gas, oil and electricity. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking indicated that further analysis of the appropriateness of various price measures for use in setting the Standards was under way. This part of that ongoing analysis addresses the availability of fuel price projections, the variation in fuel prices and escalation rates across the US and the effects of aggregating city price data to the state, Region, or national level. The study only provides a portion of the information required to identify the best price aggregation level for developing of the standards. The research addresses some of the economic efficiency considerations necessary for design of a standard that affects heterogeneous regions. The first section discusses the effects of price variation among and within regions on the efficiency of resource allocation when a standard is imposed. Some evidence of the extreme variability in fuel prices across the US is presented. In the second section, time series, cross-sectional fuel price data are statistically analyzed to determine the similarity in mean fuel prices and price escalation rates when the data are treated at increasing levels of aggregation. The findings of this analysis are reported in the third section, while the appendices contain price distributions details. The last section reports the availability of price projections and discusses some EIA projections compared with actual prices.

  17. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with ...

  18. Measuring the topological susceptibility in a fixed sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Irais; Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Dromard, Arthur; Gerber, Urs; Gonglach, Lukas; Hofmann, Christoph P.; Mejía-Díaz, Héctor; Wagner, Marc

    2015-12-01

    For field theories with a topological charge Q , it is often of interest to measure the topological susceptibility χt=(⟨Q2⟩-⟨Q ⟩2)/V . If we manage to perform a Monte Carlo simulation where Q changes frequently, χt can be evaluated directly. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattices, the autocorrelation time with respect to Q tends to be extremely long, which invalidates the direct approach. Nevertheless, the measurement of χt is still feasible, even when the entire Markov chain is topologically frozen. We test a method for this purpose, based on the correlation of the topological charge density, as suggested by Aoki, Fukaya, Hashimoto and Onogi. Our studies in nonlinear σ -models and in two-dimensional Abelian gauge theory yield accurate results for χt, which confirm that the method is applicable. We also obtain promising results in four-dimensional SU(2) Yang-Mills theory, which suggest the applicability of this method in QCD.

  19. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy savings for

  20. Adapting Washington Circle performance measures for public sector substance abuse treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garnick, Deborah W; Lee, Margaret T; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The Washington Circle, a group focused on developing and disseminating performance measures for substance abuse services, developed three such measures for private health plans. In this article, we explore whether these measures are appropriate for meeting measurement goals in the public sector and feasible to calculate in the public sector using data collected for administrative purposes by state and local substance abuse and/or mental health agencies. Working collaboratively, 12 states specified revised measures and 6 states pilot tested them. Two measures were retained from the original specifications: initiation of treatment and treatment engagement. Additional measures were focused on continuity of care after assessment, detoxification, residential or inpatient care. These data demonstrate that state agencies can calculate performance measures from routinely available information and that there is wide variability in these indicators. Ongoing research is needed to examine the reasons for these results, which might include lack of patient interest or commitment, need for quality improvement efforts, or financial issues.

  1. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting Commercial Building Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, D.; Deru, M.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure is intended to provide a standard method for measuring and characterizing the energy performance of commercial buildings. The procedure determines the energy consumption, electrical energy demand, and on-site energy production in existing commercial buildings of all types. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks to evaluate performance and verify that performance targets have been achieved.

  2. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of request..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000...

  3. Measuring Thermal Performance of Building Envelopes: Nine Case Studies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    inch P/B = 11.36, present worth factor for an es- of expanded polystyrene insulation) to the build- calating series for a 15-year period ing exterior...inch of The one MCA building roof we measured was a expanded polystyrene at R-3.6 per inch. Where the cathedral system with a sloped built-up roofing

  4. Capacity building in the health sector to improve care for child nutrition and development.

    PubMed

    Yousafzai, Aisha K; Rasheed, Muneera A; Daelmans, Bernadette; Manji, Sheila; Arnold, Caroline; Lingam, Raghu; Muskin, Joshua; Lucas, Jane E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions promoting healthy child growth and development depends upon the capacity of the health system to deliver a high-quality intervention. However, few health workers are trained in providing integrated early child-development services. Building capacity entails not only training the frontline worker, but also mobilizing knowledge and support to promote early child development across the health system. In this paper, we present the paradigm shift required to build effective partnerships between health workers and families in order to support children's health, growth, and development, the practical skills frontline health workers require to promote optimal caregiving, and the need for knowledge mobilization across multiple institutional levels to support frontline health workers. We present case studies illustrating challenges and success stories around capacity development. There is a need to galvanize increased commitment and resources to building capacity in health systems to deliver early child-development services.

  5. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Radon and radon daughter measurements in solar buildings.

    PubMed

    George, A C; Knutson, E O; Franklin, H

    1983-08-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters in 11 buildings in five states, using active or passive solar heating, showed no significant excess in concentrations over the levels measured in buildings with conventional heating systems. Radon levels in two buildings using rock storage in their active solar systems exceeded the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's limit of 3 pCi/l. for continuous exposure in uncontrolled areas. In the remainder of the buildings, radon concentrations were found to be at levels considered to be normal. It appears that the slightly elevated indoor radon concentrations result from the local geological formations and from the tightening of the buildings rather than as a result of the solar heating technology.

  7. Natural radioactivity measurements of building materials in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Caifeng; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Guang

    2012-12-01

    Natural radioactivity due to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the common building materials collected from Baotou city of Inner Mongolia, China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The radiation hazard of the studied building materials was estimated by the radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), internal hazard index (H(in)) and annual effective dose (AED). The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and Ra(eq) in the studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of other countries. The Ra(eq) values of the building materials are below the internationally accepted values (370 Bq kg(-1)). The values of H(in) in all studied building materials are less than unity. The AEDs of all measured building materials are at an acceptable level.

  8. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1: measuring inputs and outputs.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Rowena

    2003-12-01

    This is the first part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. In this first part, some approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services are examined for their suitability to provide models for the health sector. The paper summarizes some major national and collaborative initiatives to develop measures for digital libraries, and analyses these approaches in terms of their relationship to traditional measures of library performance, which are focused on inputs and outputs, and their relevance to current debates among health information specialists. The second part* looks more specifically at evaluative models based on outcomes, and models being developed in the health sector.

  9. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF MEASURED DRAWING BY DIETER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF MEASURED DRAWING BY DIETER SENGLER, 1964 ELEVATION, PLAN AND SECTION OF TYPICAL BAY SHOWING SECOND, THIRD, FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH FLOORS - Monadnock Block, 53 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF MEASURED DRAWING BY DIETER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY OF MEASURED DRAWING BY DIETER SENGLER, 1964 CROSS SECTION AND ORIGINAL JACKSON BOULEVARD ELEVATION - Monadnock Block, 53 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey 1967 SKETCH PLANS AND MEASUREMENTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey 1967 SKETCH PLANS AND MEASUREMENTS OF GATE, LOCK #2 - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Georgetown Section, East & West parallel to M Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Towards Developing a Theoretical Framework for Measuring Public Sector Managers' Career Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasdi, Roziah Mohd; Ismail, Maimunah; Uli, Jegak; Noah, Sidek Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for measuring public sector managers' career success. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical foundation used in this study is social cognitive career theory. To conduct a literature search, several keywords were identified, i.e. career success, objective and subjective…

  13. Fade Measurements into Buildings from 500 to 3000 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Slant-path fade measurements from 500 to 3000 MHz were made into six different buildings employing a vector network analyzer, a tower-mounted transmitting antenna and an automatically positioned receiving antenna. The objective of the measurements was to provide information for satellite audio broadcasting and personal communications satellite design on the correlation of fading inside buildings. Fades were measured with 5 cm spatial separation and every 0.2% of the frequency. Median fades ranged from 10 to 20 dB in woodframe houses with metal roofs and walls without and with an aluminum heatshield, respectively. The median decorrelation distance was from 0.5 to 1.1 m and was independent of frequency. The attenuation into the buildings increased only moderately with frequency in most of the buildings with a median slope of about 1 to 3 dB/GHz, but increased fastest in the least attenuating building with a slope of 5 dB/GHz. The median decorrelation bandwidth ranged from 1.2 to 3.8% of frequency in five of the buildings, and was largest in the least attenuating building, with 20.2% of frequency.

  14. Fade Measurements into Buildings from 500 to 3000 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Slant-path fade measurements from 500 to 3000 MHz were made into six different buildings employing a vector network analyzer, a tower-mounted transmitting antenna and an automatically positioned receiving antenna. The objective of the measurements was to provide information for satellite audio broadcasting and personal communications satellite design on the correlation of fading inside buildings. Fades were measured with 5 cm spatial separation and every 0.2 percent of the frequency. Median fades ranged from 10 to 20 dB in woodframe houses with metal roofs and walls without and with an aluminum heat shield, respectively. The median decorrelation distance was from 0.5 to 1.1. m and was independent of frequency. The attenuation into the buildings increased only moderately with frequency in most of the buildings with a median slope of about 1 to 3 db/GHz, but increased fastest in the least attenuating building with a slope of 5 dB/GHz. The median decorrelation bandwidth ranged from 1.2 to 3.8 percent of frequency in five of the buildings, and was largest in the least attenuating building, with 20.2 percent of frequency.

  15. Impacts of irrigation network sectoring as an energy saving measure on olive grove production.

    PubMed

    Navarro Navajas, J M; Montesinos, P; Poyato, E Camacho; Rodríguez Díaz, J A

    2012-11-30

    In recent years, improving water use efficiency has been one of the most important challenges for the agricultural sector. However, such improvements have led to the installation of pressurized irrigation systems which generally require more energy to operate, especially in plantations on sloping and mountainous lands. Thus, the reduction of energy use in these systems has also become a major issue. Irrigation network sectoring has been proposed as one of the most effective energy saving measures. Typically, however, the potential benefits of this management strategy have been evaluated by means of theoretical approaches in networks that were originally designed to supply water on demand and not after water application in real irrigation districts designed following sectoring strategies. In this work, this measure is applied to an irrigation district devoted to olive grove production in a mountainous area that was designed according to this management strategy. With this aim, the WEBSO (Water and Energy Based Sectoring Operation) algorithm, which was developed in a previous work, has been modified in order to take into account the specific characteristics of the irrigation district and its actual management, as well as to analyze sensitivity to several irrigation water depths in terms of both energy demand and yields. An economic analysis of the potential benefits of this management strategy is also carried out. The results show that this measure has lead to a nearly 30% reduction in energy consumption, while increasing farmers' profits by 13% compared to traditional on-demand operations.

  16. Examining Multi-Sector Community Collaboratives as Vehicles for Building Organizational Capacity.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Branda; Foster-Fishman, Pennie

    2011-12-01

    While community collaboratives have emerged as a prominent vehicle for fostering a more coordinated community response to complex issues, research to date suggests that the success of these efforts at achieving community/population-level improvements is mixed. As a result, researchers and practitioners are increasing their focus on the intermediate outcomes accomplished by these entities. The purpose of this study is to expand upon this examination of potential intermediate outcomes by investigating the ways in which collaboratives strengthen the capacity of the organizations who participate as members. Utilizing a mixed methods design, we present an empirically-based framework of organizational outcomes associated with participation in a community collaborative. The dimensions of this framework are validated based on quantitative findings from representatives of 614 different organizations and agencies nested within 51 different community collaboratives. This article then explores how the characteristics of organizations and their representatives relate to the nature and type of impacts associated with membership. Based on study findings, we argue that community collaboratives can be effective interventions for strengthening organizational capacity across all sectors in ways that can promote greater community resiliency.

  17. Climate change, insurance, and the buildings sector: Technological synergisms between adaptation and mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2002-11-01

    Examining the intersection of risk analysis and sustainable energy strategies reveals numerous examples of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer insurance loss-prevention benefits. The growing threat of climate change provides an added motivation for the risk community to better understand this area of opportunity. While analyses of climate change mitigation typically focus on the emissions-reduction characteristics of sustainable energy technologies, less often recognized are a host of synergistic ways in which these technologies also offer adaptation benefits, e.g. making buildings more resilient to natural disasters. While there is already some relevant activity, there remain various barriers to significantly expanding these efforts. Achieving successful integration of sustainable energy considerations with risk-management objectives requires a more proactive orientation, and coordination among diverse actors and industry groups.

  18. Biosecurity Measures Applied in the United Arab Emirates - a Comparative Study Between Livestock and Wildlife Sectors.

    PubMed

    Chaber, A L; Saegerman, C

    2016-03-09

    In 2013, the livestock population in the UAE exceeded 4.3 million heads with sheep and goats accounting for 90% of this. The overall number of captive wild ungulates (gazelle types) is difficult to assess as there is no registration system in place or enforced in the UAE with regard to the possession of wildlife. Those animal collections, mainly owned by high-ranking families, are therefore not registered and kept far from public viewing. Nonetheless, some collections are housing more than 30 000 ungulates in one location. The primary objective of this study was to describe the biosecurity measures currently applied in UAE ungulate facilities for different wildlife and livestock sectors. A secondary objective was to use the output from this biosecurity survey to investigate which sector could be categorized into risk groups for disease introduction and spread. Between October 2014 and May 2015, biosecurity questionnaire data were collected in the Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah, Fujeirah, Ajman, Umm al Quwain and Sharjah from 14 wildlife collections, 30 livestock farms and 15 mixed (wildlife and livestock farms). These investigations through questionnaires allowed us to quantify and assess statistically biosecurity practices and levels for both livestock and wildlife sectors. In both sectors, biosecurity measures could be improved and only a few facilities had high biosecurity scores. The group of small unregistered farms (Ezba) represented the highest risk of disease transmission to other animals due to their lack of biosecurity awareness.

  19. Measurement Invariance: A Foundational Principle for Quantitative Theory Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes why measurement invariance is a critical issue to quantitative theory building within the field of human resource development. Readers will learn what measurement invariance is and how to test for its presence using techniques that are accessible to applied researchers. Using data from a LibQUAL+[TM] study of user…

  20. Building America Top Innovations 2012: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, which contains performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 energy retrofit measures. To date, it is used in four prominent DOE software packages to help optimize energy-efficiency recommendations.

  1. Future projections of insured losses in the German private building sector following the A1B climatic change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.; Gerstengarbe, F.-W.; Hattermann, F.; Pinto, J. G.; Ulbrich, U.; Böhm, U.; Born, K.; Büchner, M.; Donat, M. G.; Kücken, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Nissen, K.; Nocke, T.; Österle, H.; Pardowitz, T.; Werner, P. C.; Burghoff, O.; Broecker, U.; Kubik, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present an overview of a complementary-approaches impact project dealing with the consequences of climate change for the natural hazard branch of the insurance industry in Germany. The project was conducted by four academic institutions together with the German Insurance Association (GDV) and finalized in autumn 2011. A causal chain is modeled that goes from global warming projections over regional meteorological impacts to regional economic losses for private buildings, hereby fully covering the area of Germany. This presentation will focus on wind storm related losses, although the method developed had also been applied in part to hail and flood impact losses. For the first time, the GDV supplied their collected set of insurance cases, dating back for decades, for such an impact study. These data were used to calibrate and validate event-based damage functions which in turn were driven by three different types of regional climate models to generate storm loss projections. The regional models were driven by a triplet of ECHAM5 experiments following the A1B scenario which were found representative in the recent ENSEMBLES intercomparison study. In our multi-modeling approach we used two types of regional climate models that conceptually differ at maximum: a dynamical model (CCLM) and a statistical model based on the idea of biased bootstrapping (STARS). As a third option we pursued a hybrid approach (statistical-dynamical downscaling). For the assessment of climate change impacts, the buildings' infrastructure and their economic value is kept at current values. For all three approaches, a significant increase of average storm losses and extreme event return levels in the German private building sector is found for future decades assuming an A1B-scenario. However, the three projections differ somewhat in terms of magnitude and regional differentiation. We have developed a formalism that allows us to express the combined effect of multi-source uncertainty on return

  2. Building up energy efficiency: an analysis of the relationship between energy efficiency building codes and electricity consumption in the U.S. residential sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, Matthew John

    The effects of climate change caused by the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) are a growing concern for state governments in the United States. The majority of state governments have attempted to mitigate GHG emissions through energy efficiency programs to combat the rising demand for electricity. In order to manage the increasing demand for electricity, states have adopted International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) for new residential buildings to offset the demand for energy. This paper studies the relationship between state level residential building codes and electricity consumption rates. Using state-level panel data, I construct a database of state residential building code adoptions and energy use from 2000-2010 to measure the relationship between state regulation and residential electricity consumption using an OLS Fixed Effects model. My most conclusive findings suggest that there is a negative association between specific code adoption and electricity consumption, but only in states with low rates of new residential construction. I find that the adoption of the 2006 IECC building code in states with low rates of new residential construction is associated with a 1.7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents. I also find that the adoption of an up-to-date building code is associated with a .7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents in states with low rates of new residential construction.

  3. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  4. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  5. Using Whole Building Performance Measurement to Develop a Business Case

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2006-09-15

    Since 1998 the U.S. Navy?s Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) has had a policy for incorporating sustainable design principles into new building construction. The policy also states it is the intent of NAVFAC to accomplish this within the given budget constraints and while meeting customer requirements. Programming a building using a first cost approach instead of a life cycle cost approach is one of the biggest challenges for integrating sustainable design into projects at the Navy. Due to this hurdle, an attempt to develop a Navy specific business case was undertaken. Through this process, it was discovered that consistent data were not being collected for all applicable Navy buildings. Therefore, the current business case information being used by the Navy is the conglomeration of existing business case analysis in the literature. Although this business case information is useful, there is still a need for collecting and analyzing the Navy business case. To develop the Navy specific business case, NAVFAC is developing program metrics to capture the status of buildings in the design and construction phase and they have started to collect whole building cost and performance data for 14 buildings (7 sustainably designed and 7 traditionally designed buildings) to capture data on their existing inventory of sustainably design buildings. Performance measurement data are being collected on water, energy, operations and maintenance, waste generation, purchasing, occupant satisfaction, and transportation. The building cost and performance data will be collected for a minimum of 12 months. Both of these data collection and analysis efforts have offered lessons learned that will be shared alongside the current Navy business case information.

  6. Analysis of Aircraft Clusters to Measure Sector-Independent Airspace Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2005-01-01

    The Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept of operations* permits appropriately equipped aircraft to conduct Free Maneuvering operations. These independent aircraft have the freedom to optimize their trajectories in real time according to user preferences; however, they also take on the responsibility to separate themselves from other aircraft while conforming to any local Traffic Flow Management (TFM) constraints imposed by the air traffic service provider (ATSP). Examples of local-TFM constraints include temporal constraints such as a required time of arrival (RTA), as well as spatial constraints such as regions of convective weather, special use airspace, and congested airspace. Under current operations, congested airspace typically refers to a sector(s) that cannot accept additional aircraft due to controller workload limitations; hence Dynamic Density (a metric that is indicative of controller workload) can be used to quantify airspace congestion. However, for Free Maneuvering operations under DAG-TM, an additional metric is needed to quantify the airspace congestion problem from the perspective of independent aircraft. Such a metric would enable the ATSP to prevent independent aircraft from entering any local areas of congestion in which the flight deck based systems and procedures may not be able to ensure separation. This new metric, called Gaggle Density, offers the ATSP a mode of control to regulate normal operations and to ensure safety and stability during rare-normal or off-normal situations (e.g., system failures). It may be difficult to certify Free Maneuvering systems for unrestricted operations, but it may be easier to certify systems and procedures for specified levels of Gaggle Density that could be monitored by the ATSP, and maintained through relatively minor flow-rate (RTA type) restrictions. Since flight deck based separation assurance is airspace independent, the challenge is to measure congestion independent of sector

  7. A study of ventilation measurement in an office building

    SciTech Connect

    Dols, W.S.; Persily, A.K.

    1995-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology has conducted a study of ventilation and ventilation measurement techniques in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved the use of the following outdoor air ventilation measurement techniques: tracer gas decay measurements of whole-building air change rates, the determination of air change rates based on peak carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations, the determination of percent outdoor air intake using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride and occupant-generated CO{sub 2}), and direct airflow rate measurements within the air handling system. In addition, air change rate measurements made approximately three years apart with an automated tracer gas decay system were compared. Airflow rates were measured in the air handling system ductwork using pitot tube, hot-wire anemometer, and vane anemometer traverses, and good agreement was obtained between the different techniques. While accurate determinations of percent outdoor air intake were achieved using tracer gas techniques, the use of CO{sub 2} detector tubes yielded unreliable results. Reliable determinations of ventilation rates per person were made based on SF{sub 6} decay and direct airflow rate measurements, but the use of peak CO{sub 2} concentrations led to overestimations of building air change rates. The measured values of the whole-building air change rates, and their dependence on outdoor air temperature, did not change significantly over a three-year period. The whole-building air change rate under minimum outdoor air intake conditions was determined to be twice the outdoor air intake rate provided by the minimum outdoor air intake fans due to leakage through the main outdoor air intake dampers.

  8. Thermographic measurement of thermal bridges in buildings under dynamic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarini, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; De Carli, M.

    2016-05-01

    The accurate knowledge of the thermal performance could reduce significantly the impact of buildings on global energy consumption. Infrared thermography is widely recognized as one of the key technologies for building surveys, thanks to its ability to acquire at a glance thermal images of the building envelope. However, a spot measurement could be misleading when the building is under dynamic thermal conditions. In this case data should be acquired for hours or days, depending on the thermal properties of the walls. Long term thermographic monitoring are possible but imply strong challenges from a practical standpoint. This work investigates the possibilities and limitations of spot thermographic surveys coupled with contact probes, that are able to acquire continuously the thermal signal for days, to investigate the thermal bridges of a building. The goal is the estimation of the reliability and accuracy of the measurement under realistic environmental conditions. Firstly, numerical simulations are performed to determine the reference value of an experimental case. Then a long term thermographic survey is performed and integrated with the contact probe measurement, assessing the feasibility of the method.

  9. A generalised formulation of beam-shadow measurement in spiral-sector superconducting cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Jedidiah; Dey, Malay Kanti; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-06-01

    A generalised analysis of coherent radial oscillation through shadow measurements on the beam in a spiral-sector, superconducting cyclotron is discussed here. Experimental measurements of shadow cast by one beam-probe on another have been used to study beam behaviour at different radial positions of the K500 superconducting cyclotron at this institute. The correlation of radial oscillation and shadow measurements as well as the motion of orbit centre are also described. The modulation of turn separation by coherent radial oscillation is used to estimate the oscillation amplitude and dee voltage.

  10. Quality assured measurements of animal building emissions: odor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Larry D; Hetchler, Brian P; Schmidt, David R; Nicolai, Richard E; Heber, Albert J; Ni, Ji-Qin; Hoff, Steven J; Koziel, Jacek A; Zhang, Yuanhui; Beasley, David B; Parker, David B

    2008-06-01

    Standard protocols for sampling and measuring odor emissions from livestock buildings are needed to guide scientists, consultants, regulators, and policy-makers. A federally funded, multistate project has conducted field studies in six states to measure emissions of odor, coarse particulate matter (PM(10)), total suspended particulates, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide from swine and poultry production buildings. The focus of this paper is on the intermittent measurement of odor concentrations at nearly identical pairs of buildings in each state and on protocols to minimize variations in these measurements. Air was collected from pig and poultry barns in small (10 L) Tedlar bags through a gas sampling system located in an instrument trailer housing gas and dust analyzers. The samples were analyzed within 30 hr by a dynamic dilution forced-choice olfactometer (a dilution apparatus). The olfactometers (AC'SCENT International Olfactometer, St. Croix Sensory, Inc.) used by all participating laboratories meet the olfactometry standards (American Society for Testing and Materials and European Committee for Standardization [CEN]) in the United States and Europe. Trained panelists (four to eight) at each laboratory measured odor concentrations (dilution to thresholds [DT]) from the bag samples. Odor emissions were calculated by multiplying odor concentration differences between inlet and outlet air by standardized (20 degrees C and 1 atm) building airflow rates.

  11. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  12. The Building Blocks Collaborative: advancing a life course approach to health equity through multi-sector collaboration.

    PubMed

    Shrimali, Bina Patel; Luginbuhl, Jessica; Malin, Christina; Flournoy, Rebecca; Siegel, Anita

    2014-02-01

    Too many children are born into poverty, often living in disinvested communities without adequate opportunities to be healthy and thrive. Two complementary frameworks-health equity and life course-propose new approaches to these challenges. Health equity strategies seek to improve community conditions that influence health. The life course perspective focuses on key developmental periods that can shift a person's trajectory over the life course, and highlights the importance of ensuring that children have supports in place that set them up for long-term success and health. Applying these frameworks, the Alameda County Public Health Department launched the Building Blocks Collaborative (BBC), a countywide multi-sector initiative to engage community partners in improving neighborhood conditions in low-income communities, with a focus on young children. A broad cross-section of stakeholders, called to action by the state of racial and economic inequities in children's health, came together to launch the BBC and develop a Bill of Rights that highlights the diverse factors that contribute to children's health. BBC partners then began working together to improve community conditions by learning and sharing ideas and strategies, and incubating new collaborative projects. Supportive health department leadership; dedicated staff; shared vision and ownership; a flexible partnership structure; and broad collective goals that build on partners' strengths and priorities have been critical to the growth of the BBC. Next steps include institutionalizing BBC projects into existing infrastructure, ongoing partner engagement, and continued project innovation-to achieve a common vision that all babies have the best start in life.

  13. Rapid Measurement Of Asbestos Content Of Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, James R.; Grove, Cindy I.; Hoover, Gordon L.; Stephens, James B.

    1994-01-01

    Portable instrument measures asbestos content of construction materials in place. Helps building renovators determine, quickly and accurately, whether asbestos is present. Concept readily adapted to special-purpose, battery-powered instrument. Contractor using such instrument could obtain reliable information on asbestos content in minutes.

  14. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of measured drawing by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy of measured drawing by Richard Upjohn c. 1835 Original in the Upjohn Collection, Avery Library, Columbia University, New York, N. Y. EAST ELEVATION - Oaklands, South end of Dresden Street, West side of Kennebec River, Gardiner, Kennebec County, ME

  15. CO₂ mitigation measures of power sector and its integrated optimization in China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Pan; Chen, Guang; Zhou, Hao; Su, Meirong; Bao, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    Power sector is responsible for about 40% of the total CO₂ emissions in the world and plays a leading role in climate change mitigation. In this study, measures that lower CO₂ emissions from the supply side, demand side, and power grid are discussed, based on which, an integrated optimization model of CO₂ mitigation (IOCM) is proposed. Virtual energy, referring to energy saving capacity in both demand side and the power grid, together with conventional energy in supply side, is unified planning for IOCM. Consequently, the optimal plan of energy distribution, considering both economic benefits and mitigation benefits, is figured out through the application of IOCM. The results indicate that development of demand side management (DSM) and smart grid can make great contributions to CO₂ mitigation of power sector in China by reducing the CO₂ emissions by 10.02% and 12.59%, respectively, in 2015, and in 2020.

  16. CO2 Mitigation Measures of Power Sector and Its Integrated Optimization in China

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Pan; Chen, Guang; Zhou, Hao; Su, Meirong; Bao, Haixia

    2012-01-01

    Power sector is responsible for about 40% of the total CO2 emissions in the world and plays a leading role in climate change mitigation. In this study, measures that lower CO2 emissions from the supply side, demand side, and power grid are discussed, based on which, an integrated optimization model of CO2 mitigation (IOCM) is proposed. Virtual energy, referring to energy saving capacity in both demand side and the power grid, together with conventional energy in supply side, is unified planning for IOCM. Consequently, the optimal plan of energy distribution, considering both economic benefits and mitigation benefits, is figured out through the application of IOCM. The results indicate that development of demand side management (DSM) and smart grid can make great contributions to CO2 mitigation of power sector in China by reducing the CO2 emissions by 10.02% and 12.59%, respectively, in 2015, and in 2020. PMID:23213305

  17. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  18. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report.

  19. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  20. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  1. Role of Seismic Calibration as a Confidence-Building Measure

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, L A; Zucca, J JW S; Phillips, W S

    2000-07-20

    Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) address the political goal of alleviating compliance concerns raised by chemical explosions and the technical goal of calibrating the International Monitoring System (IMS; ref. Article IV, E, and Part 111 of the Protocol to the treaty). The term ''calibration'' only appears in the treaty associated with CBMs and On-Site Inspection and has different meanings in each case. This difference can be illustrated through the use of a simple, conceptual equation:

  2. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  3. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  4. Stereovision vibration measurement test of a masonry building model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Baohua; Gao, Yunli; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    To monitor 3D deformations of structural vibration response, a stereovision-based 3D deformation measurement method is proposed in paper. The world coordinate system is established on structural surface, and 3D displacement equations of structural vibration response are acquired through coordinate transformation. The algorithms of edge detection, center fitting and matching constraint are developed for circular target. A shaking table test of a masonry building model under Taft and El Centro earthquake at different acceleration peak is performed in lab, 3D displacement time histories of the model are acquired by the integrated stereovision measurement system. In-plane displacement curves obtained by two methods show good agreement, this suggests that the proposed method is reliable for monitoring structural vibration response. Out-of-plane displacement curves indicate that the proposed method is feasible and useful for monitoring 3D deformations of vibration response.

  5. Building and measuring a high performance network architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, William T.C.; Toole, Timothy; Fisher, Chuck; Dugan, Jon; Wheeler, David; Wing, William R; Nickless, William; Goddard, Gregory; Corbato, Steven; Love, E. Paul; Daspit, Paul; Edwards, Hal; Mercer, Linden; Koester, David; Decina, Basil; Dart, Eli; Paul Reisinger, Paul; Kurihara, Riki; Zekauskas, Matthew J; Plesset, Eric; Wulf, Julie; Luce, Douglas; Rogers, James; Duncan, Rex; Mauth, Jeffery

    2001-04-20

    Once a year, the SC conferences present a unique opportunity to create and build one of the most complex and highest performance networks in the world. At SC2000, large-scale and complex local and wide area networking connections were demonstrated, including large-scale distributed applications running on different architectures. This project was designed to use the unique opportunity presented at SC2000 to create a testbed network environment and then use that network to demonstrate and evaluate high performance computational and communication applications. This testbed was designed to incorporate many interoperable systems and services and was designed for measurement from the very beginning. The end results were key insights into how to use novel, high performance networking technologies and to accumulate measurements that will give insights into the networks of the future.

  6. Towards a Very Low Energy Building Stock: Modeling the U.S. Commercial Building Sector to Support Policy and Innovation Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Brian; Borgeson, Sam; Selkowitz, Stephen; Apte, Josh; Mathew, Paul; Haves, Philip

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the origin, structure and continuing development of a model of time varying energy consumption in the US commercial building stock. The model is based on a flexible structure that disaggregates the stock into various categories (e.g. by building type, climate, vintage and life-cycle stage) and assigns attributes to each of these (e.g. floor area and energy use intensity by fuel type and end use), based on historical data and user-defined scenarios for future projections. In addition to supporting the interactive exploration of building stock dynamics, the model has been used to study the likely outcomes of specific policy and innovation scenarios targeting very low future energy consumption in the building stock. Model use has highlighted the scale of the challenge of meeting targets stated by various government and professional bodies, and the importance of considering both new construction and existing buildings.

  7. Setting Whole-Building Absolute Energy Use Targets for the K-12 School, Retail, and Healthcare Sectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-08-01

    This paper helps owners' efficiency representatives to inform executive management, contract development, and project management staff as to how specifying and applying whole-building absolute energy use targets for new construction or renovation projects can improve the operational energy performance of commercial buildings.

  8. Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System. Human Development Sector Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regel, Omporn; Salmi, Jamil; Watkins, Alfred; Tan, Hong; Dawkins, John; Saroyan, Alenoush; Vestergaard, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Government of Malaysia (GOM) as a contribution to the long term development objectives for the university sector under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The GOM is considering new policy directions to make the country a more competitive player in the world economy. Such a strategy will require bold innovations…

  9. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. Measuring site-level success in brownfield redevelopments: a focus on sustainability and green building.

    PubMed

    Wedding, G Christopher; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2007-10-01

    This research has met the following four objectives within the broader research topic of characterizing and quantifying success in brownfield revitalization: (1) to define 40 total indicators that define and determine the success of brownfield redevelopments in four categories: environment-health, finance, livability, and social-economic; (2) to use these indicators to develop a partially automated tool that stakeholders in brownfield redevelopment may use to more easily assess and communicate success (or failures) in these projects; (3) to integrate "green" building as an important aspect of successful brownfield redevelopments; and (4) to develop this tool within the framework of a specific multi-attribute decision method (MADM), the analytical hierarchical process (AHP). Future research should include the operationalization and application of this tool to specific sites. Currently, no such indicator framework or automated tool is known to exist or be in use. Indicators were chosen because of their ability to reduce data into comprehensible measurements and to systematically measure success in a standardized fashion. Appropriate indicators were selected based on (1) interviews with prominent private developers and national leaders in brownfield redevelopment, (2) a review of the relevant literature, (3) objective hierarchies created in this project, and (4) the ability for each indicator to serve goals in more than one of the four categories described above. These were combined to form the Sustainable Brownfields Redevelopment (SBR) Tool. A survey was conducted to serve as a preliminary assessment and proposed methodology for judging the validity of the SBR Tool. Professionals in the academic, private, and public sector were asked to provide an evaluation of the management tool and a weighting of the relative importance of each indicator and each of the four categories listed previously. Experts rated the tool at 7.68 out of 10 suggesting that this framework will

  11. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  12. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  13. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  14. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  15. Toward a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy: residential/commercial buildings market sector workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Taul, Jr., J. W.; de Jong, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This workbook contains preliminary data and assumptions used during the preparation of inputs to a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy (NPAC). The workbook indicates the market potential, competitive position, market penetration, and technological characteristics of solar technologies for this market sector over the next twenty years. The workbook also presents projections of the mix of solar technologies by US Census Regions. In some cases, data have been aggregated to the national level. Emphasis of the workbook is on a mid-price fuel scenario, Option II, that meets about a 20% solar goal by the year 2000. The energy demand for the mid-price scenario is projected at 115 quads in the year 2000. The workbook, prepared in April 1979, represents government policies and programs anticipated at that time.

  16. Building and design defects observed in the residential sector and the types of damage observed in recent earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolga Çöğürcü, M.

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Marmara earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011, the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing, and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC, 2007). The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak column-stronger beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft story or weak story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, so to prepare for future earthquakes, they must be rehabilitated.

  17. Measuring sustainability as a programming tool for health sector investments: report from a pilot sustainability assessment in five Nepalese health districts.

    PubMed

    Sarriot, Eric; Ricca, Jim; Ryan, Leo; Basnet, Jagat; Arscott-Mills, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is a critical determinant of scale and impact of health sector development assistance programs. Working with USAID/Nepal implementing partners, we adapted a sustainability assessment framework to help USAID test how an evaluation tool could inform its health portfolio management. The essential first process step was to define the boundaries of the local system being examined. This local system-the unit of analysis of the study-was defined as the health district.We developed a standardized set of assessment tools to measure 53 indicators. Data collection was carried out over 4 weeks by a Nepalese agency. Scaling and combining indicators into six component indices provided a map of progress toward sustainable maternal, child, health, and family planning results for the five districts included in this pilot study, ranked from "no sustainability" to "beginning of sustainability."We conclude that systematic application of the Sustainability Framework could improve the health sector investment decisions of development agencies. It could also give districts an information base on which to build autonomy and accountability. The ability to form and test hypotheses about the sustainability of outcomes under various funding strategies-made possible by this approach-will be a prerequisite for more efficiently meeting the global health agenda.

  18. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... sector. This action is necessary to reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic golden tilefish resource...-Stevens Act implemented new requirements that ACLs and AMs be established to end overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being exceeded, and to correct...

  19. Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

    2016-07-12

    Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  20. Evaluating digital libraries in the health sector. Part 2: measuring impacts and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Rowena

    2004-03-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper which explores methods that can be used to evaluate digital libraries in the health sector. Part 1 focuses on approaches to evaluation that have been proposed for mainstream digital information services. This paper investigates evaluative models developed for some innovative digital library projects, and some major national and international electronic health information projects. The value of ethnographic methods to provide qualitative data to explore outcomes, adding to quantitative approaches based on inputs and outputs is discussed. The paper concludes that new 'post-positivist' models of evaluation are needed to cover all the dimensions of the digital library in the health sector, and some ways of doing this are outlined.

  1. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  2. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 4 - correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) by making comprehensive measurements, over a full calendar year, of odor emissions from five swine and four dairy rooms/buildings (subset of the total number of buildings monitored for the NAEMS project). The measurements ma...

  3. Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

    2003-04-07

    We have developed initial estimates of the potential benefits of cool roofs on federal buildings and facilities (building scale) as well as extrapolated the results to all national facilities under the administration of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). In addition, a spreadsheet ''calculator'' is devised to help FEMP estimate potential energy and cost savings of cool roof projects. Based on calculations for an average insulation level of R-11 for roofs, it is estimated that nationwide annual savings in energy costs will amount to $16M and $32M for two scenarios of increased roof albedo (moderate and high increases), respectively. These savings, corresponding to about 3.8 percent and 7.5 percent of the base energy costs for FEMP facilities, include the increased heating energy use (penalties) in winter. To keep the cost of conserved energy (CCE) under $0.08 kWh-1 as a nationwide average, the calculations suggest that the incremental cost for cool roofs should not exceed $0.06 ft-2, assuming that cool roofs have the same life span as their non-cool counterparts. However, cool roofs usually have extended life spans, e.g., 15-30 years versus 10 years for conventional roofs, and if the costs of re-roofing are also factored in, the cutoff incremental cost to keep CCE under $0.08 kWh-1 can be much higher. In between these two ends, there is of course a range of various combinations and options.

  4. Protection measures against mine subsidence taken at a building site

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.; Abdel-Maksoud, M.G.

    2006-03-15

    With little mining information, old abandoned coal workings were grouted beneath a proposed building site. Mine stabilization was found necessary after an investigation of subsidence potential was performed. The investigation indicated that the 67 m deep abandoned mine, although old, still had not collapsed and consequently presented a significant risk of subsidence in the future. Further, based on the history of subsidence over old mines in the area, mine grouting was recommended. To stabilize the mine, about 11,468 m{sup 3} of grout were pumped. The grouting was designed to account for the significant amount of rubble which existed in the mine. There were three grout mixes of different flowability characteristics specified. The 1,725 kPa grout was hatched at a slump of 10 and 20-22 cm and at a flow rate of 30-40 s. Permeation, squeeze (or intrusion), and compaction grouting was performed per the project specifications. Also, to economize on the amount of grouting necessary, subsidence resistant features were incorporated into the design of the building.

  5. Measuring hygiene and health perfomance of buildings: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, S; Buffoli, M; Oppio, A; Rizzitiello, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative and transparent methodology to support the "ASL Milano" (Local Health Agency) in the hygiene and health evaluation of construction projects, in order to highlight their positive and negative performance beyond the requirements imposed by the current laws and regulations regarding buildings' hygiene performance, which are too old and therefore unsuitable to ascertain the real quality of indoor environments. The compliance with laws or regulations, mostly out of date, and the assessment of performance involving only a part of the current emerging needs and problems, in fact, should be considered as a necessary, although not a sufficient step, to ensure high quality indoors. Consequently, it is necessary to identify and test an assessment tool which could provide an effective and flexible support for the development of hygiene and health statements regarding projects at building scale (new construction, conversion of the existing, rehabilitation, extension, change of use, etc). The assessment tool suggested by this paper is tailored for the metropolitan area of the city of Milan, but its evaluation framework could be developed and applied to other contexts.

  6. Evaluation of estimated energy conservation measure costs and benefits in the residential multifamily sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Supporting data for a policy review to determine how the multifamily buildings subsector is responding to market signals was sought. What role, if any, the federal government should play in encouraging conservation in multifamily buildings is discussed. The policy review seeks to develop an understanding of the current level of and trends in energy conservation activity in multifamily housing. The availability of the required data is determined and information in a form which facilitates its use by policy analysts is compiled. The results are presented in four parts. Part I provides an overview. Part II presents, in tabular form, the cost of selected retrofit items and the resulting energy and cost savings. As an aid to understanding the data in Part II, the salient assumptions underlying the data are also included in this part. Part III describes how the data in Part II were developed.

  7. Procedure for Measuring and Reporting the Performance of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Hayter, S.

    2005-10-01

    This procedure provides a standard method for measuring and characterizing the long-term energy performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings and the resulting implications to the building's energy use. The performance metrics determined here may be compared against benchmarks for evaluating system performance and verifying that performance targets have been achieved. Uses may include comparison of performance with the design intent; comparison with other PV systems in buildings; economic analysis of PV systems in buildings; and the establishment of long-term performance records that enable maintenance staff to monitor trends in energy performance.

  8. Energy savings modelling of re-tuning energy conservation measures in large office buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS’s capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energy’s building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated – each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  9. Standard Measurement and Verification Plan for Lighting Retrofit Projects for Buildings and Building Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2012-10-31

    This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non--lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.

  10. Time delay for aerial ammonia concentration measurements in livestock buildings.

    PubMed

    Rom, Hans Benny; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Correct measurements of ammonia concentration in air still present considerable challenges. The high water solubility and polarity can cause it to adsorb on surfaces in the entire sampling system, including sampling lines, filters, valves, pumps and instruments, causing substantial measuring errors and time delays. To estimate time delay characteristics of a Photo Acoustic Multi Gas Monitor 1312 and a Multi Point Sampler continuous measurement of aerial ammonia concentrations at different levels was performed. In order to obtain reproducible data, a wind tunnel was used to generate selected concentrations inside and a background concentration representing the air inlet of the tunnel. Four different concentration levels (0.8 ppm, 6.2 ppm, 9.7 ppm and 13.7 ppm) were used in the experiments, with an additional outdoor concentration level as background. The results indicated a substantial time delay when switching between the measuring positions with high and low concentration and vice versa. These properties may course serious errors for estimation of e.g. gas emissions whenever more than one measuring channel is applied. To reduce the measurement errors, some suggestions regarding design of the measurement setup and measuring strategies were presented.

  11. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  12. The Power of String: Building a Conceptual Foundation for Measuring Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucey, Linda Polhemus; Jennings, Sybillyn; Olson, Peter; Rubenfeld, Lester; Holmes, Aliya E.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Lego robotics, interactive multimedia, and a simple manipulative--string--can be offered to students through coordinated activities to help them build a conceptual foundation for measuring rate. (Contains 5 figures and 3 tables.)

  13. Applications of the balanced scorecard for strategic management and performance measurement in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Farshad; Shaharoun, Awaluddin Mohamed; Ma'aram, Azanizawati

    2014-05-01

    In order to attain a useful balanced scorecard (BSC), appropriate performance perspectives and indicators are crucial to reflect all strategies of the organisation. The objectives of this survey were to give an insight regarding the situation of the BSC in the health sector over the past decade, and to afford a generic approach of the BSC development for health settings with specific focus on performance perspectives, performance indicators and BSC generation. After an extensive search based on publication date and research content, 29 articles published since 2002 were identified, categorised and analysed. Four critical attributes of each article were analysed, including BSC generation, performance perspectives, performance indicators and auxiliary tools. The results showed that 'internal business process' was the most notable BSC perspective as it was included in all reviewed articles. After investigating the literature, it was concluded that its comprehensiveness is the reason for the importance and high usage of this perspective. The findings showed that 12 cases out of 29 reviewed articles (41%) exceeded the maximum number of key performance indicators (KPI) suggested in a previous study. It was found that all 12 cases were large organisations with numerous departments (e.g. national health organisations). Such organisations require numerous KPI to cover all of their strategic objectives. It was recommended to utilise the cascaded BSC within such organisations to avoid complexity and difficulty in gathering, analysing and interpreting performance data. Meanwhile it requires more medical staff to contribute in BSC development, which will result in greater reliability of the BSC.

  14. Commissioning of energy-efficiency measures: Costs and benefits for 16 buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, M.A.; Nordman, B.; Greenberg, S.

    1995-04-01

    Building systems and energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) often don`t perform as well in practice as expected at the design stage. This fact has become clear to many organizations concerned with ensuring building performance. What to do about these problems is less clear. Several electric utilities around the U.S. have begun to take action to address the start-up, control, and operational problems that are found in nearly every building. One of the most beneficial periods to intervene in the building life cycle is during the start-up phase of a now building. Building commissioning during start up is such an intervention. Commissioning can be defined as: a set of procedures, responsibilities, and methods to advance a system from static installation to full working order in accordance with design intent. In broad terms, commissioning can extend from design reviews through operations and maintenance planning and training. With such a broad scope aimed at the entire building life cycle, commissioning is often likened to {open_quotes}Total Quality Management{close_quotes} Yet the heart of commissioning are the procedures developed and executed to ensure that all building systems function as intended. The incorporation of energy-efficiency criteria into building commissioning is a new development.

  15. Tracing the History of the Energy Sector Related Applications Using Specially Adapted NASA Long-Term Climate Data Sets and Measures of Their Socio-Economic Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the mid-1990's the National Renewable Energy Laboratory approached NASA Langley Research Center to gain information about the solar resource in Africa as estimated via early satellite based methods. From this began an effort that eventually involved collaboration with DOE NREL, Natural Resources Canada RETScreen International, and numerous other partners in industry and universities to make progressively improved data products available for the renewable energy and other energy related applications. In 2002, NASA Applied Science projects were initiated providing a more focused effort to accomplish the goal of empowering energy related decision support tools using NASA meteorological and climate related data sets. At this time, NASA Langley Research Center reorganized a project aimed to make long-term solar energy and meteorological data sets available to Energy sector related industries, including sustainable buildings and agroclimatology. This task involved the design and adaption of NASA derived data sets that these industries use, key partnerships, a commitment to validation, a commitment to expansion of parameters and data products over time, and a web based interface that allows energy industry specialists to obtained the needed data parameters in easy to use formats. This presentation shows the history of the NASA Langley Research Center effort to provide data sets for energy sector applications. This includes the development and usage of the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/) web interface that has been improved under the Prediction of Worldwide renewable Energy Resource Project (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Through the years the data sets provided now span more than 30 years and since 2009 include global parameters released within about 4-6 days of real time. The history of usage of this web site is discussed in terms of key partnerships and new data releases. We will present ways of categorizing the

  16. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 4-correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) with one year of comprehensive measurements of odor emission at five swine and four dairy buildings. The measurements included both standard human sensory measurements using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry and chemical an...

  17. Wind tunnel measurements of three-dimensional wakes of buildings. [for aircraft safety applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, E., Jr.; Lin, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements relevant to the effect of buildings on the low level atmospheric boundary layer are presented. A wind tunnel experiment was undertaken to determine the nature of the flow downstream from a gap between two transversely aligned, equal sized models of rectangular cross section. These building models were immersed in an equilibrium turbulent boundary layer which was developed on a smooth floor in a zero longitudinal pressure gradient. Measurements with an inclined (45 degree) hot-wire were made at key positions downstream of models arranged with a large, small, and no gap between them. Hot-wire theory is presented which enables computation of the three mean velocity components, U, V and W, as well as Reynolds stresses. These measurements permit understanding of the character of the wake downstream of laterally spaced buildings. Surface streamline patterns obtained by the oil film method were used to delineate the separation region to the rear of the buildings for a variety of spacings.

  18. Comparing EM Models to RCS Measurements for Building-Penetration Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Fasenfest, B; Ueberschaer, R

    2007-05-18

    For the DARPA VisiBuilding program, SRI International and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are using a variety of electromagnetic (EM) simulation codes and measurement techniques to analyze how radar pulses interact with building structures and materials. Of primary interest is how interior wall and corner reflections are delayed, attenuated, and dispersed by the exterior wall materials. In this paper, we compare microwave frequency-domain radar cross section (RCS) chamber measurements of scale models of simple buildings to finite-element and finite-difference full-wave time-domain and ray-tracing models. The ability to accurately reconstruct the building from these models is compared with the reconstruction from chamber measurements. We observe that careful attention to the spatial sampling in the EM models is essential to achieving good reconstruction at the higher frequencies.

  19. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end, we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.

  20. Combustion Temperature Measurement by Spontaneous Raman Scattering in a Jet-A Fueled Gas Turbine Combustor Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; DeGroot, Wilhelmus A.; Locke, Randy J.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering was used to measure temperature in an aviation combustor sector burning jet fuel. The inlet temperature ranged from 670 K (750 F) to 756 K (900 F) and pressures from 13 to 55 bar. With the exception of a discrepancy that we attribute to soot, good agreement was seen between the Raman-derived temperatures and the theoretical temperatures calculated from the inlet conditions. The technique used to obtain the temperature uses the relationship between the N2 anti-Stokes and Stokes signals, within a given Raman spectrum. The test was performed using a NASA-concept fuel injector and Jet-A fuel over a range of fuel/air ratios. This work represents the first such measurements in a high-pressure, research aero-combustor facility.

  1. Ionospheric conductances and currents of a morning sector auroral arc from Swarm-A electric and magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juusola, L.; Archer, W. E.; Kauristie, K.; Burchill, J. K.; Vanhamäki, H.; Aikio, A. T.

    2016-11-01

    We show the first ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductances derived from Swarm magnetic and electric field measurements during a crossing of a morning sector auroral arc. Only Swarm-A was used, with assumptions of negligible azimuthal gradients and vanishing eastward electric field. We find upward field-aligned current, enhanced Hall and Pedersen conductances, and relatively weak electric field coincident with the arc. Poleward of the arc, the field-aligned current was downward, conductances lower, and the electric field enhanced. The arc was embedded in a westward electrojet, immediately equatorward of the peak current density. The equatorward portion of the electrojet could thus be considered conductance dominant and the poleward portion electric field dominant. Although the electric field measured by Swarm was intense, resulting in conductances lower than those typically reported, comparable electric fields have been observed earlier. These results demonstrate how Swarm data can significantly contribute to our understanding of the ionospheric electrodynamics.

  2. HIV/AIDS in Asia: Human Rights and the Education Sector. Discussion Paper No. II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijngaarden, Jan; Shaeffer, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    An evaluation is presented on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in the Asia Pacific region. Its focus is how human rights in relation to education have been upset by the epidemic. The education sector is urged to develop more initiatives to educate about the epidemic, and to build measures that deal with both immediate and long-term…

  3. Rationale for Measuring Duct Leakage Flows in Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Diamond, Richard C.; Sherman, Max H.

    2005-07-01

    Industry-wide methods of assessing duct leakage are based on duct pressurization tests, and focus on ''high pressure'' ducts. Even though ''low pressure'' ducts can be a large fraction of the system and tend to be leaky, few guidelines or construction specifications require testing these ducts. We report here on the measured leakage flows from ten large commercial duct systems at operating conditions: three had low leakage (less than 5% of duct inlet flow), and seven had substantial leakage (9 to 26%). By comparing these flows with leakage flows estimated using the industry method, we show that the latter method by itself is not a reliable indicator of whole-system leakage flow, and that leakage flows need to be measured.

  4. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  5. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Biosourced Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Thomas; Colinart, Thibaut; Glouannec, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical works concerning the evaluation of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hemp concrete. Experimental measurements of thermal properties are performed using a hot-strip technique for temperatures ranging from 3 to 30 and relative humidities ranging from 0 % to 95 %, thus creating a large database for this material. These experimental thermal conductivities are then compared with the results from the Krischer theoretical predictive model. The comparison shows good agreement, and a predictive analytical relation between the hemp concrete thermal conductivity, temperature, and relative humidity is determined.

  6. Extraction of the Compton Form Factor H from DVCS Measurements in the Quark Sector

    SciTech Connect

    H. Moutarde

    2011-10-01

    Working at twist 2 accuracy and assuming the dominance of the Generalized Parton Distribution H we study the helicity-dependent and independent cross sections measured in Hall A, the beam spin asymmetries measured in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory and beam charge, beam spin and target spin asymmetries measured by Hermes. We extract the real and imaginary parts of the Compton Form Factor H, the latter being obtained with a 20-50% uncertainty. We pay extra attention to the estimation of systematic errors on the extraction of H. We discuss our results and compare to other extractions as well as to the popular VGG model.

  7. Train-induced field vibration measurements of ground and over-track buildings.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Moore, James A; Sanayei, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Transit-oriented development, such as metro depot and over-track building complexes, has expanded rapidly over the last 5years in China. Over-track building construction has the advantage of comprehensive utilization of land resources, ease of commuting to work, and provide funds for subway construction. But the high frequency of subway operations into and out of the depots can generate excessive vibrations that transmit into the over track buildings, radiate noise within the buildings, hamper the operation of vibration sensitive equipment, and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Field measurements of vibration during subway operations were conducted at Shenzhen, China, a city of 10.62 million people in southern China. Considering the metro depot train testing line and throat area train lines were the main vibration sources, vibration data were captured in five measurement setups. The train-induced vibrations were obtained and compared with limitation of FTA criteria. The structure-radiated noise was calculated using measured vibration levels. The vertical vibration energy directly passed through the columns on both sides of track into the platform, amplifying vibration on the platform by up to 6dB greater than ground levels at testing line area. Vibration amplification around the natural frequency in the vertical direction of over-track building made the peak values of indoor floor vibration about 16dB greater than outdoor platform vibration. We recommend to carefully examining design of new over-track buildings within 40m on the platform over the throat area to avoid excessive vertical vibrations and noise. For both buildings, the measured vertical vibrations were less than the FTA limit. However, it is demonstrated that the traffic-induced high-frequency noise has the potential to annoy occupants on the upper floors.

  8. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  9. Adjusting the Measurement of the Output of the Medical Sector for Quality: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anne E

    2016-08-11

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis recently created new price indexes for health care in its health care satellite account and now faces the problem of how to adjust them for quality. I review the literature on this topic and divide the articles that created quality-adjusted price indexes for individual medical conditions into those that use primarily outcomes-based adjustments and those that use only process-based adjustments. Outcomes-based adjustments adjust the indexes based on observed aggregate health outcomes, usually mortality. Process-based adjustments adjust the indexes based on the treatments provided and medical knowledge of their effectiveness. Outcomes-based adjustments are easier to implement, while process-based adjustments are more demanding in terms of data and medical knowledge. In general, the research literature shows adjusting for quality in the measurement of output in the medical sector to be quantitatively important.

  10. Comparison of measured and predicted sensible heating and cooling loads for six test buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, D.M.; Walton, G.N.; Licitra, B.A.; Cavanaugh, K.

    1986-06-01

    Hourly sensible heating and cooling loads for six test buildings were predicted using two computer programs, called TARP and EMPS. The predicted loads were compared to corresponding measured loads for winter heating, spring heating, and summer cooling periods. Both computer programs predicted the general trends of the measured data.

  11. Using Megaplanning in CSO Projects--Bringing Social Sectors Together for Measurable and Sustainable Social Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uranga, Silvia; Lucellas, Mariana C.

    2005-01-01

    Civil Society Organizations (CSO) can improve their effectiveness and add measurable value to society by using a megaplanning approach as the guiding criteria for their organizational planning. This article shows how Asociacion Conciencia, a leading Argentinean CSO, has used megaplanning to clarify its vision, mission, align its goals and programs…

  12. Channel probe measurements for the American sector clutter experiment, January, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-20

    The ionospheric phenomenon called Equatorial Spread F encompasses a variety of effects associated with plasma irregularities occurring in the post-sunset and nighttime ionosphere near the magnetic equator. These irregularities can seriously degrade the performance of systems which involve either of necessity or inadvertently radio propagation through the equatorial ionosphere. One such system is Over-the-Horizon (OTH) radars which operate in the high-frequency (hf) band and use ionospheric reflection for forward and backscatter propagation to ranges of thousands of kilometers. When such radars are directed towards the equator, Spread F irregularities can cause scintillation effects which may be aliased into the ranges of interest and have the effect of causing, excess clutter in which targets may be hidden. In January, 1994 Los Alamos participated in a campaign to measure Spread F effects on OTH propagation from the United States looking towards South America in conjunction with local diagnostics in Peru. During the campaign Los Alamos fielded a 1600 km bistatic path between Piura, Peru, and Arequipa, Peru-, the one-hop reflection region for this path was near the magnetic equator, We obtained four types of measurements: an oblique ionogram between Piura and Arequipa every three minutes; Doppler spread and spatial correlation for a single frequency cw path between Piura and Arequipa; Doppler spread, time-delay spread, and spatial coherence for a 10 kHz bandwidth path between Piura and Arequipa-, and Doppler spread and time-delay spread for the one-way path between the AVA radar in New York and Arequipa, Peru. This report describes the diagnostic experiments that we carried out and gives a brief description of some of the data we obtained.

  13. Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Safarov, A A; Safarov, A N; Azimov, A N; Darby, I G

    2017-04-01

    Utilizing low cost NaI(Tl) scintillation detector systems we present methodology for the rapid screening of building material samples and the determination of their Radium Equivalent Activity (Raeq). Materials from Uzbekistan as a representative developing country have been measured and a correction coefficient for Radium activity is deduced. The use of the correction coefficient offers the possibility to decrease analysis times thus enabling the express measurement of a large quantity of samples. The reduction in time, cost and the use of inexpensive equipment can democratize the practice of screening NORM in building materials in the international community.

  14. Resource based view of the firm: measures of reputation among health service-sector businesses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    Application of the strategic leverage of Resource Based View of the Firm (RBV) directly advocates that a company's competitive advantage is derived from its ability to assemble and exploit an appropriate combination of resources (both tangible and intangible assets). The three companies that were selected were Pittsburgh-based companies that were within relatively easy access, representing healthcare service-related industries, and can be reviewed for the principles of the RBV. The particular firms represented a variety of establishments and included Baptist Homes (a long-term care facility), University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC)(a provider of hospital and other health services), and GlaxoSmithKline, Consumer Healthcare, North America (GSK-CHNA)(a global provider of healthcare products and services). Through the case studies, it was found that not all intangible assets are strategic, and by extension, not all measures of reputation are strategic either. For an intangible asset to be considered strategic, in this case reputation, it must be valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-substitutable.

  15. Building new WDM regulations for the Namibian tourism sector on factors influencing current water-management practices at the enterprise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    Namibia’s aridity is forcing its water sector to resort to new water resource management approaches, including water demand management (WDM). Such a change in management approach is facilitated through the country’s opportunity at independence to rewrite and adapt its old policies, including those for water and tourism. Legal support for WDM through the Water Act and other sector-specific Acts is crucial to plan the practical implementation of WDM throughout the different water use sectors of Namibia. In order to be able to put the policy into practice, it is imperative to understand which factors motivate people to adopt WDM initiatives. Within the Namibian tourism industry three main factors have been identified which influence the water-management approaches at tourist facilities. This paper discusses how the water and tourism decision makers can consider these factors when developing new regulations to introduce WDM in the tourism sector.

  16. Neutron field measurements for alara purposes around a Van de Graaff accelerator building.

    PubMed

    Kockerols, P; Lebacq, A L; Gasparro, J; Hult, M; Janssens, H; Lövestam, G; Vanhavere, F

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements operates a 7.0 MV Van de Graaff accelerator to generate monoenergetic neutron radiation for experimental applications. Owing to increased intensities of generated neutron fields and the more stringent regulation related to the maximum dose for the public, a concrete shielding wall surrounding the experimental building was constructed. This paper presents a study aiming at evaluating the effect of the shielding on the neutron field outside the wall. For this purpose, the following measurements were carried out around the building: (1) cartography of the neutron field for different experimental conditions; (2) measurement of neutron spectra using multiple Bonner spheres; (3) activation measurements using gold discs followed by low-level gamma spectrometry. From the measurements, it can be concluded that the wall fulfils its purpose to reduce the neutron dose rate to the surrounding area to an acceptable level.

  17. Emissivity measurements on historic building materials using dual-wavelength infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moropoulou, Antonia; Avdelidis, Nicolas P.

    2001-03-01

    The most reliable method to obtain correct emissivity values for the infrared thermographic systems and applications is to determine the emissivity of the targets to be tested. Although this approach is not possible during in situ applications, samples of the targets can be collected and measured, as in this work, in the laboratory. In the present work, the emissivity values of selected historic building materials were measured at a variety of temperatures, in the 3-5.4 micrometers and 8-12 micrometers regions of the infrared spectrum. Porous stones from the Mediterranean area and marbles, used as historic building materials, were investigated. The examined materials presented different emissivity values, caused by their surface state and microstructure. In addition, the effect of temperature and wavelength on the emissivity values of such historic building materials was also considered.

  18. The absence of lithium isotope fractionation during basalt differentiation: New measurements by multicollector sector ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomascak, P.B.; Tera, F.; Helz, R.T.; Walker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We report measurements of the isotopic composition of lithium in basalts using a multicollector magnetic sector plasma-source mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). This is the first application of this analytical technique to Li isotope determination. External precision of multiple replicate and duplicate measurements for a variety of sample types averages ??1.1??? (2?? population). The method allows for the rapid (???8 min/sample) analysis of small samples (???40 ng Li) relative to commonly used thermal ionization methods. The technique has been applied to a suite of samples from Kilauea Iki lava lake, Hawaii. The samples range from olivine-rich cumulitic lava to SiO2 - and K2O-enriched differentiated liquids, and have ??7Li (per mil deviation of sample 7Li/6Li relative to the L-SVEC standard) of +3.0 to +4.8. The data indicate a lack of per mil-level Li isotope fractionation as a result of crystal-liquid fractionation at temperatures greater than 1050??C. This conclusion has been tacitly assumed but never demonstrated, and is important to the interpretation of Li isotope results from such geochemically complex environments as island arcs. Copyright ?? 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Numerical Simulations and Forecasts of Equatorial Spread F in the American Sector Based on ISR and HF Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hysell, D. L.; Milla, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    An ongoing effort to simulate plasma instability in the equatorial ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) in the American sector is described. Ionospheric state parameters including plasma number density and vector drift velocity profiles have been measured at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in campaigns in 2013 and 2014. Coherent radar backscatter from plasma irregularities has been recorded simultaneously, and images of the irregularities have been generated using aperture synthesis methods. A fully 3D numerical simulation of ionospheric irregularities, initialized and forced using parametrizations derived from measurements and empirical models, has been used in attempts to reproduce the ESF activity observed. Emphasis is placed on representing currents in the bottomside F region completely with the simulation. The simulations have been able to recover many of the features of the irregularities, although some important exceptions have been noted. ESF events in which the first appearance of radar plumes occurs either very early or very late cannot be reproduced in simulation and may be indicative of nonlocal influences. A new multistatic network of HF beacons is being deployed to estimate and track nonlocal influences on ionospheric stability. The network eploys PRN coding, Doppler discrimination, and interferometry and provides data suitable for inverse modeling. Preliminary results from the network will be presented.

  20. Triangular Ring Resonator: Direct Measurement of the Parity-Odd Parameters of the Photon Sector of SME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exirifard, Qasem

    2014-03-01

    We introduce the Triangular Ring (TR) resonator. We show that the difference between the clockwise and anti-clockwise resonant frequencies of a vacuum TR resonator is sensitive to the birefringence parity-odd parameters of the photon's sector of the minimal Standard Model Extension (mSME): the Standard Model plus all the perturbative parameters encoding the break of the Lorentz symmetry. We report that utilizing the current technology allows for direct measurement of these parameters with a sensitivity of the parity-even ones and improves the best current resonator bounds by couple of orders of magnitudes. We note that, designing an optical table that rotates perpendicular to the gravitational equipotential surface (geoid) allows for direct measurement of the constancy of the light speed at the vicinity of the earth in all directions, in particular, perpendicular to the geoid. If this table could achieve the precision of the ordinary tables, then it would improve the GPS bounds on the constancy of the light speed perpendicular to geoid by about eight orders of magnitude.

  1. Optimization of Sampling Positions for Measuring Ventilation Rates in Naturally Ventilated Buildings Using Tracer Gas

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiong; Zong, Chao; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Finding out the optimal sampling positions for measurement of ventilation rates in a naturally ventilated building using tracer gas is a challenge. Affected by the wind and the opening status, the representative positions inside the building may change dynamically at any time. An optimization procedure using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was conducted. In this method, the concentration field inside the building was estimated by a three-order RSM polynomial model. The experimental sampling positions to develop the model were chosen from the cross-section area of a pitched-roof building. The Optimal Design method which can decrease the bias of the model was adopted to select these sampling positions. Experiments with a scale model building were conducted in a wind tunnel to achieve observed values of those positions. Finally, the models in different cases of opening states and wind conditions were established and the optimum sampling position was obtained with a desirability level up to 92% inside the model building. The optimization was further confirmed by another round of experiments.

  2. Low-cost NORM concentrations measuring technique for building materials of Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarov, Akmal; Safarov, Askar; Azimov, Askarali; Darby, Iain G.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of natural radionuclides of building materials are important in order to estimate exposure of humans to radiation, who can spend up to 80% of their time indoors. One of the indicators of building materials' safety is the radium equivalent activity, which is regulated by national and international normative documents [1,2,3]. Materials with Ra(eq) =< 370 Bq/kg are considered to be safe [4,5]. We have studied the possibility of performing express analysis of building materials samples without ageing. Long measurement times including ageing of samples are major constraints for performing large number of analyses [6]. Typically ageing of samples and analysis is 40 days. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of brick, crushed stone, red sand, granite, white marble and concrete cubes was performed both before and after ageing of samples (10, 20, 30 and 40 days). Measurement times of samples were 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours. Samples were measured in 1 liter Marinelli beaker geometry, using NaI(Tl) spectrometers with crystal sizes 2.5 x 2.5 in and 3.1 x 3.1 in. Efficiency calibration of spectrometers was done using certified volumetric (1 liter Marinelli beaker) Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 sources filled with silica sand and density 1,7 kg/l. Herein we present results indicating that one hour measuring may be sufficient for samples in 1 liter Marinelli beakers offering prospect of significant time and cost improvements. References: 1. NEA-OECD (1979): Exposure to radiation from natural radioactivity in building materials. Report by Group of Experts of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Paris 2. STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) (2003): The radioactivity of building materials and ash. Regulatory Guides on Radiation Safety (ST Guides) ST 12.2 (Finland) (8 October 2003) 3. GOST 30108-94 (1995): Building materials and elements. Determination of specific activity of natural radioactive nuclei. Interstate Standard. 4. Krisiuk E.M. et al., (1971). A study on

  3. Low-Level, Measured Response of Los Alamos National Laboratories TA 16 - Building 411 and TA 8 - Building 23 to Direct Flash Attachment of Lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Dinallo, Michael A.; Holmes, Parris; Merewether, Kimball O.; Morris, Marvin E.

    1999-02-01

    On September 24, 25, 28, and 29, 1998 and on October 19 and 23, 1998, transfer impedance measurements were made on Los Alamos National Laboratories TA 16 - Building 411 and TA 8-- Building 23 to characterize their interior open-circuit voltage response to a direct lightning flash attachment to the structures. The theory, history, measurement methods and equipment, and specific measured results are detailed. The measured results demonstrate that if the remaining metallic penetrations are bonded, then the rebar of the two structures is sufficiently well connected to form a Faraday cage that reduces the maximum open-circuit voltage inside the structure to a sufficiently low level that the required standoff distance to prevent arcing to explosive assemblies is 6.8 inches for TA 16 - Building 411 and is 11.5 inches for TA 8 - Building 23.

  4. Measurement of thermophysical properties coupled with LCA assessment for the optimization of a historical building retrofit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolin, A.; Bison, P.; Cadelano, G.; Ferrarini, G.; Fortuna, S.

    2015-11-01

    Historical buildings are a significant part of the Italian building stock and, in most cases, need deep refurbishment interventions to reach the energy criteria required by the current standards. A workflow that integrates on-site surveys and building modeling is mandatory to obtain effective energy saving measures. This work describes the analysis and modeling of the San Vito alla Rivera church, a XIV century building that was damaged during 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, suffering a partial collapse of the façade and of the roof. The latter was selected for a complete restoration that could improve its thermal performance while maintaining, as much as possible, the original structure. Several elements of the roof were collected in situ in order to measure, in laboratory, its thermophysical properties applying standard techniques and alternative methods based on infrared thermography. The accurate characterization of the materials was the starting point for the estimation of the environmental impact of the retrofit aimed to reach a defined thermal transmittance. A model of the building was created with TRNSYS software to calculate the energy consumption before and after the intervention. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis was conducted on different insulation materials to determine the one with the lowest impact.

  5. Developing Common Measures in Evaluation Capacity Building: An Iterative Science and Practice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labin, Susan N.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental reason for doing evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to improve program outcomes. Developing common measures of outcomes and the activities, processes, and factors that lead to these outcomes is an important step in moving the science and the practice of ECB forward. This article identifies a number of existing ECB measurement…

  6. 36 CFR 1281.16 - What standard does NARA use for measuring building size?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What standard does NARA use for measuring building size? 1281.16 Section 1281.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.16 What...

  7. 36 CFR 1281.16 - What standard does NARA use for measuring building size?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What standard does NARA use for measuring building size? 1281.16 Section 1281.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NARA FACILITIES PRESIDENTIAL LIBRARY FACILITIES § 1281.16 What...

  8. Effect of energy-efficient measures in building construction on indoor radon in Russia.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, A; Yarmoshenko, I

    2016-06-29

    The effect of implementation of energy-efficient measures in building construction was studied. Analysis includes study of indoor radon in energy-efficient buildings in Ekaterinburg, Russia, and results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russia conducted within the regional programmes. The forecast distribution of radon concentration in Ekaterinburg was built with regard to the city development programme. With Ekaterinburg taken as representative case, forecast distribution of radon concentration in Russia in 2030 was built. In comparison with 2000, average radon concentration increases by a factor of 1.42 in 2030 year; percentage above the reference level 300 Bq/m(3) increases by a factor of 4 in 2030 year. It is necessary to perceive such an increase with all seriousness and to prepare appropriate measures for optimization of protection against indoor radon. Despite the high uncertainty, reconstructed distribution of radon concentration can be applied for justification of measures to be incorporated in the radon mitigation strategy.

  9. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.; Polly, B.

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  10. Measurements of natural carbonate rare earth elements in femtogram quantities by inductive coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wu, Chung-Che; Liu, Yi; Yu, Jimin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Lam, Doan Dinh; Chou, Chien-Ju; Lo, Li; Wei, Kuo-Yen

    2011-09-01

    A rapid and precise standard-bracketing method has been developed for measuring femtogram quantity rare earth element (REE) levels in natural carbonate samples by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry that does not require chemical separation steps. A desolvation nebulization system was used to effectively reduce polyatomic interference and enhance sensitivity. REE/Ca ratios are calculated directly from the intensities of the ion beams of (46)Ca, (139)La, (140)Ce, (141)Pr, (146)Nd, (147)Sm, (153)Eu, (160)Gd, (159)Tb, (163)Dy, (165)Ho, (166)Er, (169)Tm, (172)Yb, and (175)Lu using external matrix-matched synthetic standards to correct for instrumental ratio drifting and mass discrimination. A routine measurement time of 3 min is typical for one sample containing 20-40 ppm Ca. Replicate measurements made on natural coral and foraminiferal samples with REE/Ca ratios of 2-242 nmol/mol show that external precisions of 1.9-6.5% (2 RSD) can be achieved with only 10-1000 fg of REEs in 10-20 μg of carbonate. We show that different sources for monthly resolved coral ultratrace REE variability can be distinguished using this method. For natural slow growth-rate carbonate materials, such as sclerosponges, tufa, and speleothems, the high sample throughput, high precision, and high temporal resolution REE records that can be produced with this procedure have the potential to provide valuable time-series records to advance our understanding of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental dynamics on different time scales.

  11. Improving energy efficiency via smart building energy management systems. A comparison with policy measures

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Paula; Siddiqui, Afzal; Stadler, Michael

    2014-12-09

    In this study, to foster the transition to more sustainable energy systems, policymakers have been approving measures to improve energy efficiency as well as promoting smart grids. In this setting, building managers are encouraged to adapt their energy operations to real-time market and weather conditions. Yet, most fail to do so as they rely on conventional building energy management systems (BEMS) that have static temperature set points for heating and cooling equipment. In this paper, we investigate how effective policy measures are at improving building-level energy efficiency compared to a smart BEMS with dynamic temperature set points. To this end,more » we present an integrated optimisation model mimicking the smart BEMS that combines decisions on heating and cooling systems operations with decisions on energy sourcing. Using data from an Austrian and a Spanish building, we find that the smart BEMS results in greater reduction in energy consumption than a conventional BEMS with policy measures.« less

  12. Measuring Use and Cost of Health Sector and Related Care in a Population of Girls and Young Women with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Delia; Bebbington, Ami; Bower, Carol; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study measured use and cost of health sector and related services in Rett syndrome and effects of socio-demographic, clinical severity and genetic factors on costs. The study population consisted of individuals with Rett syndrome registered with the Australian Rett Syndrome Database in 2004. Descriptive analysis was used to examine patterns…

  13. A System for Measuring the Sway of the Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Lane, John; Simmons, Stephen; Ihlefeld, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed to measure the sway of the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center. This system was installed in the VAB and gathered more than one total year of data. The building movement was correlated with measurements provided by three wind towers in order to determine the maximum deflection of the building during high-wind events. The VAB owners were in the process of obtaining new platforms for use in assembling very tall rockets when analysis of the VAB showed that a high wind could move the building sufficiently that an upper platform might impact a rocket. The problem arises because safety requires a relatively small gap between the platform and the rocket, while a large enough gap is needed to ensure that stacking tolerances prevent contact between the rocket and the platform. This only leaves an inch or two (approximately 2 to 5 cm) of total clearance, so when the analysis showed that more than a couple of inches of motion could occur in a high wind, there was a potential for damaging the rocket. The KSC Applied Physics Laboratory was asked to install a system in the VAB that could measure the motion of the building in high winds to determine the actual building sway. The motion of the VAB roof under wind load was measured optically, and under analysis, it was determined that a relatively large-aperture optical system would be required to reduce diffraction effects to less than a small fraction of an inch (approximately mm) at a distance of 500 ft (˜150 m). A 10-in. (approximately 250 mm) telescope was placed on the floor of the building, looking at the ceiling. On the ceiling, a flat plate with three white LEDs was mounted in an "L" shape, such that the telescope was essentially looking at three stars. Software was written to track the motion of these three points using an image processing system. This provided a better than 1/10-in. (approximately 2.5-mm) 2D measurement faster than once a second. Data was downloaded once a

  14. Amplitude-sensitive modulation thermography to measure moisture in building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Walter; Buescher, Konstantin A.; Wiggenhauser, Herbert

    1998-03-01

    There have been reports about moisture detection in building walls by reflective IR-thermography. Typically, only limited results could be obtained because of the emission coefficient variations, leaking radiation or inhomogeneous illumination of the object. In addition, the quantitative relation between remission spectra and the moisture has often been unclear. Reflectometry uses constant excitation illumination which is recorded by the IR camera. With the use of the 'lock-in-technology' a low frequency modulated signal of an IR radiation source is coupled with the thermo camera and a frequency and phase sensitive signal from the thermal images can be derived. The advantage is, that emission coefficient dependencies are eliminated and that leaking radiation does not have any influence on the measured signal. The selective water measurement is possible, because there is an interference filter mounted in front of the radiator which has its transmission maximum at the wavelength of an absorption band of water. The area investigated is therefore illuminated under well defined circumstances and quantitative moisture measurement on the surface of building materials becomes a possibility. The illumination modulation is done with a sine wave to facilitate the calculation of the temporal intensity behavior of the amplitude signal. Subsequently, the amplitude image is used to determine the distribution and the level of moisture quantitatively. Point measurements in the laboratory were carried out on several building materials with changing moisture levels. It could be shown that this method successfully eliminates disturbing contributions to the measured signal like surface effects or leaking radiation.

  15. A Study on Investigation of Crustal Deformation and Block Kinematics Along the Eastern Sector of the NAF by GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozener, H.; Kagawa, D.; Gulen, L.; Arpat, E.; Yilmaz, O.; Dogru, A. G.; Ogutcu, Z.; Yilmazer, M.; Gunes, Y.; Sanli, U.; Cakmak, R.; Turgut, B.

    2003-12-01

    This study constitutes part of an integrated project that have been carried out jointly by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and the TUBITAK-MAM to investigate crustal deformation and block kinematics by Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in and around the eastern sector of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) Zone. The integrated project is also include investigation of seismicity and earthquake potential. Additionally the Radon gas emissions will also be monitored on-line, near real-time along active fault zones in an attempt to predict earthquakes. The region is an ideal choice to carry out the above mentioned investigations, because due to the northward movement of the Arabian Plate, the Erzincan-Karliova region is squeezed, crushed, and expelled westward along the NAF and East Anatolian Fault Zones. The active fault pattern indicates that maximum crustal shortening and crustal deformation in Turkey takes place in this region. Despite this, the Yedisu segment of the NAF was identifed as a seismic gap and it has not been broken entirely since the 1784 earthquake. This region is the most tectonically active region in Turkey as far as the major earthquake occurences are concerned and it is capable of generating major earthquakes in every 3-4 years. It is quite obvious that following the 1992 Erzincan and 2003 Pulumur Earthquakes the Coulomb stress loading on the Yedisu segment of the NAF have been increased significantly and the region needs to be monitored vigilantly with the full armament of geophysical techniques such as seismic (network), geodetic (GPS, InSAR), and geochemical (Radon emissions) techniques. First period GPS measurements were performed at twelve GPS stations in the area. This study reports the evaluation of this GPS data.

  16. Irish-African Partnership and Research Capacity Building for Development: Potential to Learn from Research for the Education and Lifelong Learning Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Rob; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti

    2011-01-01

    The Irish-African Partnership for Research Capacity Building (IAP) is a research consortium involving all of the nine universities on the island of Ireland together with four African universities, with the overall aim of building research capacity for poverty reduction. The project was supported by a three-year grant from Irish Aid. This article…

  17. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  18. Measurements of VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics of typical interior building materials

    SciTech Connect

    An, Y.; Zhang, J.S.; Shaw, C.Y.

    2000-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on interior building material surfaces (i.e., the sink effect) can affect the VOC concentrations in a building, and thus need to be accounted for an indoor air quality (IAQ) prediction model. In this study, the VOC adsorption/desorption characteristics (sink effect) were measured for four typical interior building materials including carpet, vinyl floor tile, painted drywall, and ceiling tile. The VOCs tested were ethylbenzene, cyclohexanone, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, benzaldehyde, and dodecane. These five VOCs were selected because they are representative of hydrocarbons, aromatics, ketones, aldehydes, and chlorine substituted compounds. The first order reversible adsorption/desorption model was based on the Langmuir isotherm was used to analyze the data and to determine the equilibrium constant of each VOC-material combination. It was found that the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, which is a measure of the sink capacity, increased linearly with the inverse of the VOC vapor pressure. For each compound, the adsorption/desorption equilibrium constant, and the adsorption rate constant differed significantly among the four materials tested. A detailed characterization of the material structure in the micro-scale would improve the understanding and modeling of the sink effect in the future. The results of this study can be used to estimate the impact of sink effect on the VOC concentrations in buildings.

  19. Challenge 21. Building Tomorrow's Public Service. Report of the Multilevel Public Sector Leadership Symposium (Lake Lanier Islands, Georgia, March 22-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    This document summarizes the discussions held at a conference of public sector executives and human resource managers designed to address the problems of attracting and keeping good workers in public service. Presentations made by the governor of Georgia, federal officials, educators, and regional representatives in three plenary sessions…

  20. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O'Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  1. Field measurement of moisture-buffering model inputs for residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Jason; Winkler, Jon

    2016-02-05

    Moisture adsorption and desorption in building materials impact indoor humidity. This effect should be included in building-energy simulations, particularly when humidity is being investigated or controlled. Several models can calculate this moisture-buffering effect, but accurate ones require model inputs that are not always known to the user of the building-energy simulation. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model. The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative-humidity profile, measure all of the moisture-transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air-conditioner condensate), and calculate the only unmeasured term—the moisture sorption into the materials. We validated this method with laboratory measurements, which we used to measure the EMPD model inputs of two houses. After deriving these inputs, we measured the humidity of the same houses during tests with realistic latent and sensible loads and demonstrated the accuracy of this approach. Furthermore, these results show that the EMPD model, when given reasonable inputs, is an accurate moisture-buffering model.

  2. Field measurement of moisture-buffering model inputs for residential buildings

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, Jason; Winkler, Jon

    2016-02-05

    Moisture adsorption and desorption in building materials impact indoor humidity. This effect should be included in building-energy simulations, particularly when humidity is being investigated or controlled. Several models can calculate this moisture-buffering effect, but accurate ones require model inputs that are not always known to the user of the building-energy simulation. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model. The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative-humidity profile, measure all of the moisture-transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air-conditioner condensate), and calculate the onlymore » unmeasured term—the moisture sorption into the materials. We validated this method with laboratory measurements, which we used to measure the EMPD model inputs of two houses. After deriving these inputs, we measured the humidity of the same houses during tests with realistic latent and sensible loads and demonstrated the accuracy of this approach. Furthermore, these results show that the EMPD model, when given reasonable inputs, is an accurate moisture-buffering model.« less

  3. Use of asbestos building materials in Malaysia: legislative measures, the management, and recommendations for a ban on use.

    PubMed

    Safitri Zen, Irina; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Gopal Rampal, Krishna; Omar, Wahid

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia has partially banned the use of asbestos. The prohibition of asbestos building materials in schools, clinics, and hospitals built by government started in 1999. Since 2005, prohibition has also been applied to all government buildings. However, asbestos construction materials such as roof and ceiling tiles are still sold in the market. There are no acts or regulations prohibiting the use of asbestos in private buildings in Malaysia. Asbestos was first used for industrial purposes in Malaysia in the 1960s and the first regulations related to asbestos have been around since the 1980s. Non-governmental organizations have been pushing the government to impose a total ban since the 1980s. Asbestos is still used in the manufacturing sector under the "control use" concept. The study found difficulties in established and validated medical record data on asbestos-related diseases. This paper reviews existing asbestos-related regulations and guidelines in Malaysia and discusses the urgency for a total ban in the use of asbestos in building materials in the country. In the meanwhile, stricter enforcement of occupational safety and health regulations related to the use and exposure of asbestos among workers in the manufacturing, construction, maintenance, and demolition sectors has been in place.

  4. Accuracy of automated measurement and verification (M&V) techniques for energy savings in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; Sohn, Michael D.; Jump, David; Fernandes, Samuel

    2016-04-16

    Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming manual data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost, with comparable or improved accuracy. These meter- and software-based approaches, increasingly referred to as “M&V 2.0”, are the subject of surging industry interest, particularly in the context of utility energy efficiency programs. Program administrators, evaluators, and regulators are asking how M&V 2.0 compares with more traditional methods, how proprietary software can be transparently performance tested, how these techniques can be integrated into the next generation of whole-building focused efficiency programs. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel M&V2.0 modeling approaches that are used in commercial technologies, as well as approaches that are documented in the literature, and/or developed by the academic building research community. We present a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of whole-building M&V methods. We then illustrate the test procedure by evaluating the accuracy of ten baseline energy use models, against measured data from a large dataset of 537 buildings. The results of this study show that the already available advanced interval data baseline models hold great promise for scaling the adoption of building measured savings calculations using Advanced Metering

  5. Accuracy of automated measurement and verification (M&V) techniques for energy savings in commercial buildings

    DOE PAGES

    Granderson, Jessica; Touzani, Samir; Custodio, Claudine; ...

    2016-04-16

    Trustworthy savings calculations are critical to convincing investors in energy efficiency projects of the benefit and cost-effectiveness of such investments and their ability to replace or defer supply-side capital investments. However, today’s methods for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings constitute a significant portion of the total costs of efficiency projects. They also require time-consuming manual data acquisition and often do not deliver results until years after the program period has ended. The rising availability of “smart” meters, combined with new analytical approaches to quantifying savings, has opened the door to conducting M&V more quickly and at lower cost,more » with comparable or improved accuracy. These meter- and software-based approaches, increasingly referred to as “M&V 2.0”, are the subject of surging industry interest, particularly in the context of utility energy efficiency programs. Program administrators, evaluators, and regulators are asking how M&V 2.0 compares with more traditional methods, how proprietary software can be transparently performance tested, how these techniques can be integrated into the next generation of whole-building focused efficiency programs. This paper expands recent analyses of public-domain whole-building M&V methods, focusing on more novel M&V2.0 modeling approaches that are used in commercial technologies, as well as approaches that are documented in the literature, and/or developed by the academic building research community. We present a testing procedure and metrics to assess the performance of whole-building M&V methods. We then illustrate the test procedure by evaluating the accuracy of ten baseline energy use models, against measured data from a large dataset of 537 buildings. The results of this study show that the already available advanced interval data baseline models hold great promise for scaling the adoption of building measured savings calculations using Advanced

  6. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  7. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements.

    PubMed

    Bjerg, Bjarne; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, Jørgen; Rom, Hans B

    2012-10-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat production and the carbon dioxide production from the animals have in several cases been utilized for estimation of the ventilation air exchange rate for the estimation of ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions. Using this method, the problem of the complicated air velocity and concentration distribution in the openings is avoided; however, there are still some important issues remained unanswered: (1) the precision of the estimations, (2) the requirement for the length of measuring periods, and (3) the required measuring point number and location. The purpose of this work was to investigate how estimated average gas emission and the precision of the estimation are influenced by different calculation procedures, measuring period length, measure point locations, measure point numbers, and criteria for excluding measuring data. The analyses were based on existing data from a 6-day measuring period in a naturally ventilated, 150 milking cow building. The results showed that the methane emission can be determined with much higher precision than ammonia or laughing gas emissions, and, for methane, relatively precise estimations can be based on measure periods as short as 3 h. This result makes it feasible to investigate the influence of feed composition on methane emission in a relative large number of operating cattle buildings and consequently it can support a development towards reduced greenhouse gas emission from cattle production.

  8. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots.

  9. Measured performance of a reflective roofing system in a Florida commercial building

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.S.; Sherwin, J.R.; Sonne, J.K.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on the first results from tests on a reflective roofing system on a commercial building in Florida. The building is a elementary school with a sloped, modified bitumen roof. Air-conditioning power was measured in a base configuration prior to the roofing system being changed to a white color. Roof, decking, and plenum air temperatures were strongly affected by the change to a white roof system. The school, which was monitored for a full year in both the pre- and post-condition, saw the measured annual chiller electric power reduced by 10%, or 13,000 kWh/yr. Cooling-load reductions during the utility summer peak were substantially greater, more than 30% during the afternoon hours.

  10. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles.

  11. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  12. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  13. Measurement Issues for Energy Efficient Commercial Buildings: Productivity and Performance Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    In previous reports, we have identified two potentially important issues, solutions to which would increase the attractiveness of DOE-developed technologies in commercial buildings energy systems. One issue concerns the fact that in addition to saving energy, many new technologies offer non-energy benefits that contribute to building productivity (firm profitability). The second issue is that new technologies are typically unproven in the eyes of decision makers and must bear risk premiums that offset cost advantages resulting from laboratory calculations. Even though a compelling case can be made for the importance of these issues, for building decision makers to incorporate them in business decisions and for DOE to use them in R&D program planning there must be robust empirical evidence of their existence and size. This paper investigates how such measurements could be made and offers recommendations as to preferred options. There is currently little systematic information on either of these concepts in the literature. Of the two there is somewhat more information on non-energy benefits, but little as regards office buildings. Office building productivity impacts can be observed casually, but must be estimated statistically, because buildings have many interacting attributes and observations based on direct behavior can easily confuse the process of attribution. For example, absenteeism can be easily observed. However, absenteeism may be down because a more healthy space conditioning system was put into place, because the weather was milder, or because firm policy regarding sick days had changed. There is also a general dearth of appropriate information for purposes of estimation. To overcome these difficulties, we propose developing a new data base and applying the technique of hedonic price analysis. This technique has been used extensively in the analysis of residential dwellings. There is also a literature on its application to commercial and industrial

  14. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building.

    PubMed

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-07-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement.

  15. Field Measurement-Based System Identification and Dynamic Response Prediction of a Unique MIT Building

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Young-Jin; Trocha, Peter; Büyüköztürk, Oral

    2016-01-01

    Tall buildings are ubiquitous in major cities and house the homes and workplaces of many individuals. However, relatively few studies have been carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of tall buildings based on field measurements. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of the Green Building, a unique 21-story tall structure located on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA), was characterized and modeled as a simplified lumped-mass beam model (SLMM), using data from a network of accelerometers. The accelerometer network was used to record structural responses due to ambient vibrations, blast loading, and the October 16th 2012 earthquake near Hollis Center (ME, USA). Spectral and signal coherence analysis of the collected data was used to identify natural frequencies, modes, foundation rocking behavior, and structural asymmetries. A relation between foundation rocking and structural natural frequencies was also found. Natural frequencies and structural acceleration from the field measurements were compared with those predicted by the SLMM which was updated by inverse solving based on advanced multiobjective optimization methods using the measured structural responses and found to have good agreement. PMID:27376303

  16. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  17. Infrared Emissivity Measurements for Mineral Materials and Materials Used for Infrastructure Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Ibos, Laurent; Marchetti, Mario; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves; Ausset, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings, civil engineering structures and soils studies is useful for two specific approaches. Firstly, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures using infrared thermography requires the emissivity value of materials in the spectral bandwidth of the camera. For instance emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors like micro-bolometers arrays. The knowledge of emissivity is in that case needed for computation of surface temperature fields. Secondly, accurate thermal balance requires the emissivity value in a large wavelength domain. This is for instance the case for computing roads surface temperature to predict ice forming. A measurement of emissivity just after construction and a regular survey of its variations due to ageing or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations like thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. For mineral materials, a lot of studies exist, but often in situ value of emissivity could be different. Mineral materials are not pure, and could be soiled. Real value obtained with a field device is required. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. Thus, two devices using the indirect measurement method were developed. The emissivity value is deduced from the measurement of the reflectivity of the material under study after calibration with a highly reflective surface. The first device uses a slow modulation frequency well adapted to laboratory measurements whereas the second one is a portable system using a faster modulation frequency authorizing outdoor measurements. Both devices allow measurements in broad band (1 to 40μm) and band III (8 to 14μm). Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. For instance at that time 180 samples of different pavement wearing course

  18. Clustering consumers based on trust, confidence and giving behaviour: data-driven model building for charitable involvement in the Australian not-for-profit sector.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  19. Clustering Consumers Based on Trust, Confidence and Giving Behaviour: Data-Driven Model Building for Charitable Involvement in the Australian Not-For-Profit Sector

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Natalie Jane; Reis, Rodrigo; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organisations in the Not-for-Profit and charity sector face increasing competition to win time, money and efforts from a common donor base. Consequently, these organisations need to be more proactive than ever. The increased level of communications between individuals and organisations today, heightens the need for investigating the drivers of charitable giving and understanding the various consumer groups, or donor segments, within a population. It is contended that `trust' is the cornerstone of the not-for-profit sector's survival, making it an inevitable topic for research in this context. It has become imperative for charities and not-for-profit organisations to adopt for-profit's research, marketing and targeting strategies. This study provides the not-for-profit sector with an easily-interpretable segmentation method based on a novel unsupervised clustering technique (MST-kNN) followed by a feature saliency method (the CM1 score). A sample of 1,562 respondents from a survey conducted by the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission is analysed to reveal donor segments. Each cluster's most salient features are identified using the CM1 score. Furthermore, symbolic regression modelling is employed to find cluster-specific models to predict `low' or `high' involvement in clusters. The MST-kNN method found seven clusters. Based on their salient features they were labelled as: the `non-institutionalist charities supporters', the `resource allocation critics', the `information-seeking financial sceptics', the `non-questioning charity supporters', the `non-trusting sceptics', the `charity management believers' and the `institutionalist charity believers'. Each cluster exhibits their own characteristics as well as different drivers of `involvement'. The method in this study provides the not-for-profit sector with a guideline for clustering, segmenting, understanding and potentially targeting their donor base better. If charities and not

  20. A New Ground Motion Intensity Measure, Peak Filtered Acceleration (PFA), to Estimate Collapse Vulnerability of Buildings in Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shiyan

    In this thesis, we develop an efficient collapse prediction model, the PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) model, for buildings subjected to different types of ground motions. For the structural system, the PFA model covers modern steel and reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame buildings (potentially reinforced concrete shear wall buildings). For ground motions, the PFA model covers ramp-pulse-like ground motions, long-period ground motions, and short-period ground motions. To predict whether a building will collapse in response to a given ground motion, we first extract long-period components from the ground motion using a Butterworth low-pass filter with suggested order and cutoff frequency. The order depends on the type of ground motion, and the cutoff frequency depends on the building's natural frequency and ductility. We then compare the filtered acceleration time history with the capacity of the building. The capacity of the building is a constant for 2-dimentional buildings and a limit domain for 3-dimentional buildings. If the filtered acceleration exceeds the building's capacity, the building is predicted to collapse. Otherwise, it is expected to survive the ground motion. The parameters used in PFA model, which include fundamental period, global ductility and lateral capacity, can be obtained either from numerical analysis or interpolation based on the reference building system proposed in this thesis. The PFA collapse prediction model greatly reduces computational complexity while archiving good accuracy. It is verified by FEM simulations of 13 frame building models and 150 ground motion records. Based on the developed collapse prediction model, we propose to use PFA (Peak Filtered Acceleration) as a new ground motion intensity measure for collapse prediction. We compare PFA with traditional intensity measures PGA, PGV, PGD, and Sa in collapse prediction and find that PFA has the best performance among all the intensity measures. We also provide a

  1. NLOS Correction/Exclusion for GNSS Measurement Using RAIM and City Building Models.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Ta; Gu, Yanlei; Kamijo, Shunsuke

    2015-07-17

    Currently, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers can provide accurate and reliable positioning service in open-field areas. However, their performance in the downtown areas of cities is still affected by the multipath and none-line-of-sight (NLOS) receptions. This paper proposes a new positioning method using 3D building models and the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) satellite selection method to achieve satisfactory positioning performance in urban area. The 3D building model uses a ray-tracing technique to simulate the line-of-sight (LOS) and NLOS signal travel distance, which is well-known as pseudorange, between the satellite and receiver. The proposed RAIM fault detection and exclusion (FDE) is able to compare the similarity between the raw pseudorange measurement and the simulated pseudorange. The measurement of the satellite will be excluded if the simulated and raw pseudoranges are inconsistent. Because of the assumption of the single reflection in the ray-tracing technique, an inconsistent case indicates it is a double or multiple reflected NLOS signal. According to the experimental results, the RAIM satellite selection technique can reduce by about 8.4% and 36.2% the positioning solutions with large errors (solutions estimated on the wrong side of the road) for the 3D building model method in the middle and deep urban canyon environment, respectively.

  2. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  3. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Moron, Carlos; Garcia-Fuentevilla, Luisa; Garcia, Alfonso; Moron, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moisture content of wood there are two types of meters on the market: on the one hand, capacitance meters which consist of two side ends and where the moisture content is measured locally between two peaks. On the other hand, there are meters based on the variation of electromagnetic transmittance of timber, which depends on the moisture of timber. The second ones are very expensive and difficult to handle. This work presents a new non-intrusive capacitive sensor that measures the global moisture content in a section of the timber frame walls and therefore its accuracy is similar to the accuracy that can be obtained with electromagnetic transmittance meters. Additionally, as it is a capacitive sensor, it is low cost and easy to operate. PMID:27187410

  4. NLOS Correction/Exclusion for GNSS Measurement Using RAIM and City Building Models

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Li-Ta; Gu, Yanlei; Kamijo, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Currently, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers can provide accurate and reliable positioning service in open-field areas. However, their performance in the downtown areas of cities is still affected by the multipath and none-line-of-sight (NLOS) receptions. This paper proposes a new positioning method using 3D building models and the receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) satellite selection method to achieve satisfactory positioning performance in urban area. The 3D building model uses a ray-tracing technique to simulate the line-of-sight (LOS) and NLOS signal travel distance, which is well-known as pseudorange, between the satellite and receiver. The proposed RAIM fault detection and exclusion (FDE) is able to compare the similarity between the raw pseudorange measurement and the simulated pseudorange. The measurement of the satellite will be excluded if the simulated and raw pseudoranges are inconsistent. Because of the assumption of the single reflection in the ray-tracing technique, an inconsistent case indicates it is a double or multiple reflected NLOS signal. According to the experimental results, the RAIM satellite selection technique can reduce by about 8.4% and 36.2% the positioning solutions with large errors (solutions estimated on the wrong side of the road) for the 3D building model method in the middle and deep urban canyon environment, respectively. PMID:26193278

  5. Measurement of Moisture in Wood for Application in the Restoration of Old Buildings.

    PubMed

    Moron, Carlos; Garcia-Fuentevilla, Luisa; Garcia, Alfonso; Moron, Alberto

    2016-05-14

    There are many historic buildings whose construction is based on timber frame walls. Most buildings built during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were based on timber frame walls with vertical support elements. These timber frame elements are affected by their moisture content and by the passage of time. If the interaction of the timber frame walls with hygrothermal fluctuations were known, the maintenance of these buildings could be improved significantly. To determine the moisture content of wood there are two types of meters on the market: on the one hand, capacitance meters which consist of two side ends and where the moisture content is measured locally between two peaks. On the other hand, there are meters based on the variation of electromagnetic transmittance of timber, which depends on the moisture of timber. The second ones are very expensive and difficult to handle. This work presents a new non-intrusive capacitive sensor that measures the global moisture content in a section of the timber frame walls and therefore its accuracy is similar to the accuracy that can be obtained with electromagnetic transmittance meters. Additionally, as it is a capacitive sensor, it is low cost and easy to operate.

  6. SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE METHOD TO MEASURE ACID DEPOSITION EFFECTS ON BUILDING STONE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kingston, Marguerite J.; Ager, Cathy M.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), the U. S. Geological Survey is cooperating with other agencies to test the effects of acid deposition on building stone. A 10-year test-site study has been organized for the purpose of correlating possible stone deterioration with environmental factors. In Summer 1984, slabs of building stone, 3 by 2 by 2 inches, were exposed to the atmosphere at four test sites where the pH of precipitation and other meteorological variables are continuously monitored. This paper examines the development of one experimental technique used in this study - the application of diffuse spectral reflectance methods for laboratory and in situ measurement of those properties of stone which may be affected by acid deposition.

  7. Characteristics of ionospheric plasma drifts as obtained from Doppler ionosonde measurements at magnetic equator over Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samireddipalle, Sripathi; Banola, Sridhar; Singh, Ram

    2016-07-01

    We present equatorial plasma drifts over Tirunelveli (8.73°N, 77.70°E; Dip 0.5°N), an equatorial site over Indian region using Doppler interferometry technique of Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) system. In the Doppler interferometry technique, it is possible to infer three dimensional bulk motion of the scatterers as reflected from the ionosphere at selected frequencies using spaced receivers arranged in mag. east-west, north-south directions. Spectral phases and amplitudes are calculated using FFT to identify the Doppler frequencies and their drifts. This technique produces reliable drifts when sharp refractive index gradients exists which produces higher scattering sources. The vertical drifts so obtained are compared with same drifts from Digisonde at Trivandrum. After having compared with Digisonde drifts, we studied the temporal and seasonal variability of these drifts during quiet periods for the year 2012. It is seen that vertical drifts exhibited equinoctial maximum in the Pre-Reversal-Enhancement (PRE) followed by winter and summer respectively. A comparison of these vertical drifts is made with drifts obtained from (a) virtual height measured at 4 MHz and (b) Fejer drift model. The comparison suggests that Doppler vertical drifts are relatively higher as compared to the drifts obtained from model and virtual height. However, the correlation seems to be good around evening PRE times. The zonal drifts, on the other hand, showed westward drifts during daytime with mean drifts of ~250 m/s, while they are eastward during nighttime with mean drifts of ~150 m/s. These drifts seems to be higher as compared to zonal drifts obtained in the South American sector. However, the zonal drifts so obtained showed good correlation with Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) strength suggesting zonal drifts are influenced by E region drifts during daytime in agreement with Woodman et al., 2013 paper. The magnitude of these drifts are comparable to other independent

  8. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  9. Overview of Commercial Building Partnerships in Higher Education

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Glenn

    2013-03-01

    Higher education uses less energy per square foot than most commercial building sectors. However, higher education campuses house energy-intensive laboratories and data centers that may spend more than this average; laboratories, in particular, are disproportionately represented in the higher education sector. The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems–including some considered too costly or technologically challenging–and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions.

  10. Neural network approach to damage detection in a building from ambient vibration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Mitsuru; Masri, Sami F.; Chassiakos, A. G.; Caughey, T. K.

    1998-04-01

    A neural network-based approach is presented for the detection of changes in the characteristics of structure- unknown systems. The approach relies on the use of vibration measurements from a `healthy' system to train a neural network for identification purposes. Subsequently, the trained network is fed comparable vibration measurements from the same structure under different episodes of response in order to monitor the health of the structure. It is shown, through simulation studies with linear as well as nonlinear models typically encountered in the applied mechanics field, that the proposed damage detection methodology is capable of detecting relatively small changes in the structural parameters. The methodology is applied to actual data obtained from ambient vibration measurements on a steel building structure, which was damaged under strong seismic motion during the Hyogo-Ken Nanbu Earthquake of January 17, 1995. The measurements were done before and after repairs to the damaged frame were made. A neural network is trained with data after the repairs, which represents `healthy' condition of the building. The trained network, which is subsequently fed data before the repairs, successfully identified the difference between damaged story and undamaged story. Through this study, it is shown that the proposed approach has the potential of being a practical tool for damage detection methodology, which leads to smart civil structures.

  11. Improving Evaluation in the Nonprofit Sector: The Promise of Evaluation Capacity Building for Nonprofit Social Service Organizations in an Age of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pejsa, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the real-world practice of evaluation capacity building (ECB) in the small-medium sized nonprofit context. The study aimed to map the activities, processes, and outcomes of ECB in these nonprofits in light of the competing external and internal evaluation contexts facing nonprofits in an age of…

  12. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  13. 1994 Triggered Lightning Test Program: Measured responses of a reinforced concrete building under direct lightning attachments

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Chael, J.; Davis, R.; Fisher, R.J.; Magnotti, P.J.

    1995-08-01

    A rocket-triggered lightning test was carried out during the summer of 1994 on a specially designed steel reinforced concrete test building located at Ft. McClellan, Alabama. Currents, voltages, and magnetic fields were measured at 24 instrumented locations during 42 return strokes triggered to designated points on the structure and its lightning protection systems. As was found during an earlier similar lightning test of an earth covered munitions storage building, the buried power service conduits carried a much larger fraction of incident stroke current away from the building than did the intended grounding elements of the lightning protection system. Electrical breakdown and subsequent arcing occurred repeatedly to create dominant current paths to earth that were not accounted for in pretest linear modeling. Potential hazard level transient voltages, surprisingly more resistive than inductive in nature, were recorded throughout the structure. Also surprisingly, strikes to a single grounded protection mast system resulted in internal environments that were generally comparable to those occurring during strikes to roof-mounted air terminals. A description of the test structure, experimental procedures, and a full set of the resultant data are presented in this two-volume report.

  14. 2-ps Hard X-Ray Streak Camera Measurements at Sector 7 Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chollet, M.; Ahr, B.; Walko, D.A.; Rose-Petruck, C.; Adams, B.

    2011-08-02

    A hard X-ray streak camera capable of 2-ps time resolution is in operation at the Sector 7 beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. It is used for laser-pump, X-ray probe experiments using the Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser system installed on the beamline. This streak camera, combined with standardized and prealigned experimental setups, can perform time-resolved liquid-phase absorption spectroscopy, reflectivity, and diffraction experiments.

  15. Extremely low frequency magnetic field measurements in buildings with transformer stations in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin; Jenni, Daniela; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an exposure assessment method that classifies apartments in three exposure categories of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room. We completed measurements in 39 apartments in 18 buildings. In each room of the apartments ELF-MF was concurrently measured with 5 to 6 EMDEX II meters for 10 min. Measured arithmetic mean ELF-MF was 0.59 μT in 8 apartments that were fully adjacent to a transformer room, either directly above the transformer or touching the transformer room wall-to-wall. In apartments that only partly touched the transformer room at corners or edges, average ELF-MF level was 0.14 μT. Average exposure in the remaining apartments was 0.10 μT. Kappa coefficient for exposure classification was 0.64 (95%-CI: 0.45-0.82) if only fully adjacent apartments were considered as highly exposed (>0.4 μT). We found a distinct ELF-MF exposure gradient in buildings with transformer. Exposure classification based on the location of the apartment relative to the transformer room appears feasible. Such an approach considerably reduces effort for exposure assessment and may be used to eliminate selection bias in future epidemiologic studies.

  16. Measurements of radioactivity and dose assessments in some building materials in Bitlis, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kayakökü, Halime; Karatepe, Şule; Doğru, Mahmut

    2016-09-01

    In this study, samples of perlite, pumice and Ahlat stones (Ignimbrite) extracted from mines in Bitlis and samples of other building materials produced in facilities in Bitlis were collected and analyzed. Activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of building materials were measured using NaI detector (NaI(Tl)) with an efficiency of 24%. The radon measurements of building material samples were determined using CR-39 nuclear track detectors. (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K radioactivity concentrations ranged from (29.6±5.9 to 228.2±38.1Bq/kg), (10.8±5.4 to 95.5±26.1Bq/kg) and (249.3±124.7 to 2580.1±266.9Bq/kg), respectively. Radon concentration, radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate, excess lifetime cancer risk and the values of hazard indices were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. Radon concentration ranged between 89.2±12.0Bq/m(3) and 1141.0±225.0Bq/m(3). It was determined that Raeq values of samples conformed to world standards except for perlite and single samples of brick and Ahlat stone. Calculated values of absorbed dose rate ranged from 81.3±20.5 to 420.6±42.8nGy/h. ELCR values ranged from (1.8±0.3)×10(-3) to (9.0±1.0)×10(-3). All samples had ELCR values higher than the world average. The values of Hin and Hex varied from 0.35±0.11 to 1.78±0.18 and from 0.37±0.09 to 1.17±0.13, respectively. The results were compared with standard radioactivity values determined by international organizations and with similar studies. There would be a radiation risk for people living in buildings made of perlite, Ahlat-1 and Brick-3.

  17. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  18. Estimation of organ dose equivalents from residents of radiation-contaminated buildings with Rando phantom measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Dong, S L; Wu, T H

    1999-05-01

    Since August 1996, a dose reconstruction model has been conducted with thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-embedded chains, belts and badges for external dose measurements on the residents in radiation-contaminated buildings. The TLD dosimeters, worn on the front of the torso, would not be adequate for dose measurement in cases when the radiation is anisotropic or the incident angles of radiation sources are not directed in the front-to-back direction. The shielding and attenuation by the body would result in the dose equivalent estimation being somewhat skewed. An organ dose estimation method with a Rando phantom under various exposure geometries is proposed. The conversion factors, obtained from the phantom study, may be applicable to organ dose estimations for residents in the contaminated buildings if the incident angles correspond to the phantom simulation results. There is a great demand for developing a mathematical model or Monte Carlo calculation to deal with complicated indoor layout geometry problems involving ionizing radiation. Further research should be directed toward conducting laboratory simulation by investigating the relationship between doses delivered from multiple radiation sources. It is also necessary to collaborate with experimental biological dosimetry, such as chromosome aberration analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and retrospective ESR-dosimetry with teeth, applied to the residents, so that the organ dose equivalent estimations may be more reliable for radio-epidemiological studies.

  19. The relationship between measured moisture conditions and fungal concentrations in water-damaged building materials.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, A L; Rautiala, S; Kasanen, J P; Raunio, P; Rantamäki, J; Kalliokoski, P

    2000-06-01

    We determined the moisture levels, relative humidity (RH) or moisture content (MC) of materials, and concentrations of culturable fungi, actinomycetes and total spores as well as a composition of fungal flora in 122 building material samples collected from 18 moisture problem buildings. The purpose of this work was to clarify if the is any correlation between the moisture parameters and microbial levels or generic composition depending on the type of materials and the time passed after a water damage. The results showed an agreement between the concentrations of total spores and culturable fungi for the wood, wood-based and gypsum board samples (r > 0.47). The concentrations of total spores and/or culturable fungi correlated with RH of materials particularly among the wood and insulation materials (r > 0.79), but not usually with MC (r < 0.45). For the samples collected from ongoing damage, there was a correlation between RH of materials and the concentrations of total spores and culturable fungi (r > 0.51), while such a relationship could not be observed for the samples taken from dry damage. A wide range of fungal species were found in the samples from ongoing damage, whereas Penicillia and in some cases yeasts dominated the fungal flora in the dry samples. This study indicates that fungal contamination can be evaluated on the basis of moisture measurements of constructions in ongoing damage, but the measurements are not solely adequate for estimation of possible microbial growth in dry damage.

  20. Cultural consensus modeling to measure transactional sex in Swaziland: Scale building and validation

    PubMed Central

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Cooper, Hannah LF; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV and gender based violence in southern Africa and around the world. However the typical quantitative operationalization, “the exchange of gifts or money for sex,” can be at odds with a wide array of relationship types and motivations described in qualitative explorations. To build on the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research streams, we used cultural consensus models to identify distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland. The process allowed us to build and validate emic scales of transactional sex, while identifying key informants for qualitative interviews within each model to contextualize women’s experiences and risk perceptions. We used logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to measure associations with condom use and social status outcomes. Fieldwork was conducted between November 2013 and December 2014 in the Hhohho and Manzini regions. We identified three distinct models of transactional sex in Swaziland based on 124 Swazi women’s emic valuation of what they hoped to receive in exchange for sex with their partners. In a clinic-based survey (n=406), consensus model scales were more sensitive to condom use than the etic definition. Model consonance had distinct effects on social status for the three different models. Transactional sex is better measured as an emic spectrum of expectations within a relationship, rather than an etic binary relationship type. Cultural consensus models allowed us to blend qualitative and quantitative approaches to create an emicly valid quantitative scale grounded in qualitative context. PMID:26647365

  1. Seismic damage diagnosis of a masonry building using short-term damping measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouris, Leonidas Alexandros S.; Penna, Andrea; Magenes, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is of considerable importance to perform dynamic identification and detect damage in existing structures. This paper describes a new and practical method for damage diagnosis of masonry buildings requiring minimum computational effort. The method is based on the relative variation of modal damping and validated against experimental data from a full scale two storey shake table test. The experiment involves a building subjected to uniaxial vibrations of progressively increasing intensity at the facilities of EUCENTRE laboratory (Pavia, Italy) up to a near collapse damage state. Five time-histories are applied scaling the Montenegro (1979) accelerogram. These strong motion tests are preceded by random vibration tests (RVT's) which are used to perform modal analysis. Two deterministic methods are applied: the single degree of freedom (SDOF) assumption together with the peak-picking method in the discrete frequency domain and the Eigen realisation algorithm with data correlations (ERA-DC) in the discrete time domain. Regarding the former procedure, some improvements are incorporated to locate rigorously the natural frequencies and estimate the modal damping. The progressive evolution of the modal damping is used as a key indicator to characterise damage on the building. Modal damping is connected to the structural mass and stiffness. A square integrated but only with two components expression for proportional (classical) damping is proposed to fit better with the experimental measurements of modal damping ratios. Using this Rayleigh order formulation the contribution of each of the damping components is evaluated. The stiffness component coefficient is proposed as an effective index to detect damage and quantify its intensity.

  2. Effect of wind-driven rain on deterioration of a tall building: Numerical modeling and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei

    Wind-driven rain is an important factor in determining the extent of calcareous stone erosion and the patterns of surface soiling on buildings. In this study, both numerical modeling and field measurements have been employed to investigate the effect of wind-driven rain on building walls. The work has been conducted at the Cathedral of Learning, a 42-story Indiana limestone building on the University of Pittsburgh campus in Pittsburgh, PA. The numerical method utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques and comprises three steps: (a) using the Re-Normalization Group (RNG) k-epsilon model to calculate the airflow field around the building, (b) simulating raindrop trajectories in the flow field by solving the force balance equations, and (c) estimating driving rain fluxes on building walls by combining raindrop trajectory results and meteorological data. To validate the model, wind-driven rain fluxes have been measured at the Cathedral for a 21-month period. Comparison of model estimates and field measurements for 94 rain events show reasonably good agreement, suggesting that the numerical method is effective in predicting driving rain fluxes on building surfaces. Both model and measurement results show that wind-driven rain is strongly influenced by rainfall intensity, wind speed, wind direction, and building geometry. Qualitative comparisons of the observed soiling patterns with the modeled and measured driving rain fluxes show that white eroded areas on the building surfaces generally receive more driving rain than soiled but less eroded areas. The current soiling patterns are most likely due to the non-uniform distribution of wind-driven rain as a result of long-term trends in wind and rain that interact with the building. This work will enhance the understanding of processes involved in the erosion of buildings by providing a quantitative tool for studying the impact of wind-driven rain on building surfaces. This tool will be useful for the selection

  3. [The risk for illegal behaviour and corruption in the healthcare sector: what preventive measures can be taken?].

    PubMed

    Rivoiro, Chiara

    2016-05-01

    In the healthcare sector risk factors for illegal behavior and corruption are peculiar and greater than in other social areas, as it plays a crucial role in the community's economical, political and cultural life. The healthcare services is a complex network that require interaction between may people, constant contacts with the industry, safety and adequate facilities that require regular maintenance, upgrade and replacement of medical technology, connection with local and regional policy makers. This provides the opportunity of being exposed to improper influence. However, illegal behaviors can be prevented: first of all supporting all professionals that everyday work to protect our health with ethics and expertise; then with all instruments that anti-corruption action plans, such as the one introduced in Italy in 2012, aim to identify and target those areas most at risk of corruption phenomena.

  4. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  5. A new procedure to measure effective molecular diffusion coefficients of salts solutions in building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, J. M. P. Q.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to present a mathematical and experimental formulation of a new simple procedure for the measurement of effective molecular diffusion coefficients of a salt solution in a water-saturated building material. This innovate experimental procedure and mathematical formulation is presented in detail and experimental values of "effective" molecular diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride in a concrete sample ( w/ c = 0.45), at five different temperatures (between 10 and 30 °C) and four different initial NaCl concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.5 M), are reported. The experimental results obtained are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental values of molecular diffusion coefficient presented in literature. An empirical correlation is presented for the prediction of "effective" molecular diffusion coefficient over the entire range of temperatures and initial salt concentrations studied.

  6. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  7. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  8. Moisture monitoring of historical buildings by long-period temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Peron, Fabio; Strada, Mauro

    1999-03-01

    A method is proposed for the moisture analysis of buildings, based on the combination of complementing monitoring techniques. A periodic IR scanning of the whole surface is combined with a visual recording, plus an automatic data logging of the environmental conditions. Thermography allows imaging the temperature pattern, while a long history of thermal hygrometric parameters come available for the fixed measurements at selected points. The used equipment is relatively simple and competitive. A very few thermographic surveys are integrated by several periodic scanning, using an IR pyrometer. The visual monitoring is of great help in rendering results and documenting surface appearance at different seasons. About 20 probes are sufficient to measure thermal hygrometric parameters and evaluate the condensation risk. A review of algorithms for the moisture testing by thermography and guidelines for the identification of the moisture sources in thick historical buildings is presented. A numerical model has been adopted to simulate the internal thermo-hygrometrical conditions. In such a way, data acquired could be significantly extended and gaps occurred during the data logging has been filled. As case study was identified a North-East Italian ancient church (Duomo of Venzone) destroyed by an earthquake in 1976 and fully restored under the patrol of the cultural heritage authority. A one year round monitoring of the church and tour, according to the proposed procedure, allowed to control the moisture levels both in time and space. This endorsed to identify the sources of the water flux and therefore to suggest the repairing guidelines. Experimental results are reported.

  9. Multi-Sector Sustainability Browser (MSSB)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A browser which lets the user navigate through text and graphics and understand the interrelationship among four key sectors of a community crucial to sustainability: Land Use, Buildings and Infrastructure, Transportation, and Materials Management.

  10. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  11. Quality-assured measurements of animal building emissions: particulate matter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Heber, Albert J; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Tao, Pei-Chun; Schmidt, Amy M; Koziel, Jacek A; Hoff, Steven J; Jacobson, Larry D; Zhang, Yuanhui; Baughman, Gerald B

    2006-12-01

    Federally funded, multistate field studies were initiated in 2002 to measure emissions of particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm (PM10) and total suspended particulate (TSP), ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and odor from swine and poultry production buildings in the United States. This paper describes the use of a continuous PM analyzer based on the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). In these studies, the TEOM was used to measure PM emissions at identical locations in paired barns. Measuring PM concentrations in swine and poultry barns, compared with measuring PM in ambient air, required more frequent maintenance of the TEOM. External screens were used to prevent rapid plugging of the insect screen in the PM10 preseparator inlet. Minute means of mass concentrations exhibited a sinusoidal pattern that followed the variation of relative humidity, indicating that mass concentration measurements were affected by water vapor condensation onto and evaporation of moisture from the TEOM filter. Filter loading increased the humidity effect, most likely because of increased water vapor adsorption capacity of added PM. In a single layer barn study, collocated TEOMs, equipped with TSP and PM10 inlets, corresponded well when placed near the inlets of exhaust fans in a layer barn. Initial data showed that average daily mean concentrations of TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations at a layer barn were 1440 +/- 182 microg/m3 (n = 2), 553 +/- 79 microg/m3 (n = 4), and 33 +/- 75 microg/m3 (n = 1), respectively. The daily mean TSP concentration (n = 1) of a swine barn sprinkled with soybean oil was 67% lower than an untreated swine barn, which had a daily mean TSP concentration of 1143 +/- 619 microg/m3. The daily mean ambient TSP concentration (n = 1) near the swine barns was 25 +/- 8 microg/m3. Concentrations of PM inside the swine barns were correlated to pig activity.

  12. Evaluation of stiffness changes in a high-rise building by measurements of lateral displacements using GPS technology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Ill Soo; Park, Jae Hwan; Kim, Yousok; Sohn, Hong Gyoo; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-11-13

    The outrigger truss system is one of the most frequently used lateral load resisting structural systems. However, little research has been reported on the effect of installation of outrigger trusses on improvement of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building through full-scale measurements. In this paper, stiffness changes of a high-rise building due to installation of outrigger trusses have been evaluated by measuring lateral displacements using a global positioning system (GPS). To confirm the error range of the GPS measurement system used in the full-scale measurement tests, the GPS displacement monitoring system is investigated through a free vibration test of the experimental model. Then, for the evaluation of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building under construction, the GPS displacement monitoring system is applied to measurements of lateral displacements of a 66-story high-rise building before and after installation of outrigger truss. The stiffness improvement of the building before and after the installation is confirmed through the changes of the natural frequencies and the ratios of the base shear forces to the roof displacements.

  13. Evaluation of Stiffness Changes in a High-Rise Building by Measurements of Lateral Displacements Using GPS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Ill Soo; Park, Jae Hwan; Kim, Yousok; Sohn, Hong Gyoo; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    The outrigger truss system is one of the most frequently used lateral load resisting structural systems. However, little research has been reported on the effect of installation of outrigger trusses on improvement of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building through full-scale measurements. In this paper, stiffness changes of a high-rise building due to installation of outrigger trusses have been evaluated by measuring lateral displacements using a global positioning system (GPS). To confirm the error range of the GPS measurement system used in the full-scale measurement tests, the GPS displacement monitoring system is investigated through a free vibration test of the experimental model. Then, for the evaluation of lateral stiffness of a high-rise building under construction, the GPS displacement monitoring system is applied to measurements of lateral displacements of a 66-story high-rise building before and after installation of outrigger truss. The stiffness improvement of the building before and after the installation is confirmed through the changes of the natural frequencies and the ratios of the base shear forces to the roof displacements. PMID:24233025

  14. Model estimation and measurement of ammonia emission from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoyuan; Li, Baoming; Zhang, Guoqiang; Rom, Hans Benny; Strøom, Jan S

    2006-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel with a model of a slurry pit to investigate the characteristics of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings with slatted floor designs. Ammonia emission at different temperatures and air velocities over the floor surface above the slurry pit was measured with uniform feces spreading and urine sprinkling on the surface daily. The data were used to improve a model for estimation of ammonia emission from dairy cattle buildings. Estimates from the updated emission model were compared with measured data from five naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings. The overall measured ammonia emission rates were in the range of 11-88 g per cow per day at air temperatures of 2.3-22.4 degrees C. Ammonia emission rates estimated by the model were in the range of 19-107 g per cow per day for the surveyed buildings. The average ammonia emission estimated by the model was 11% higher than the mean measured value. The results show that predicted emission patterns generally agree with the measured one, but the prediction has less variation. The model performance may be improved if the influence of animal activity and management strategy on ammonia emission could be estimated and more reliable data of air velocities of the buildings could be obtained.

  15. Measurement of airborne gunshot particles in a ballistics laboratory by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ernesto; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Viebig, Sônia; Saldiva, Paulo

    2012-01-10

    The present study aimed determines lead (Pb), antimony (Sb) and barium (Ba) as the major elements present in GSR in the environmental air of the Ballistics Laboratory of the São Paulo Criminalistics Institute (I.C.-S.P.), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Micro environmental monitors (mini samplers) were located at selected places. The PM(2.5) fraction of this airborne was collected in, previously weighted filters, and analyzed by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-HR-ICP-MS). The higher values of the airborne lead, antimony and barium, were found at the firing range (lead (Pb): 58.9 μg/m(3); barium (Ba): 6.9 μg/m(3); antimony (Sb): 7.3 μg/m(3)). The mean value of the airborne in this room during 6 monitored days was Pb: 23.1 μg/m(3); Ba: 2.2 μg/m(3); Sb: 1.5 μg/m(3). In the water tank room, the air did not show levels above the limits of concern. In general the airborne lead changed from day to day, but the barium and antimony remained constant. Despite of that, the obtained values suggest that the workers may be exposed to airborne lead concentration that can result in an unhealthy environment and could increase the risk of chronic intoxication.

  16. Measurements of gunshot residues by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry--further studies with pistols.

    PubMed

    Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Neto, Osvaldo N; Viebig, Sônia; Durrant, Steven F

    2007-10-02

    The most popular handgun in Brazil is the single round-barrel caliber 0.38 revolver. In recent years, however, owing to the modernization of police arms and their availability on the legal and illicit markets, pistols have become increasingly popular and currently represent about 20% of police seizures. In a previous paper we presented a novel collection method for gunshot residues (GSR) using a sampling procedure based on ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution as a complexing agent on moistened swabs with subsequent detection using sector field-high resolution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-HR-ICP-MS). In the present paper, we discuss the capability of this methodology to identify antimony (Sb), barium (Ba) and lead (Pb) on the hands of volunteers after shot tests with 9 mm and 0.40 in. caliber pistols. Two types of munitions were tested: 9 mm Taurus and clean range. The use of a technique with high sensitivity, such as SF-HR-ICP-MS, permits the identification of low concentrations (less than 1 microg/L) of metals in firearm residue and constitutes a powerful tool in forensic science. We also discuss the importance of the sampling procedure, including collection from a different body part than the gun hand of the suspect. Comparison of the analytical data obtained allows clear discrimination between samples from the hands of shooters and non-shooters.

  17. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral; Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within

  18. Measured energy performance of a US-China demonstrationenergy-efficient office building

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Jin, Ruidong; Yang, Guoxiong

    2006-08-28

    In July 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) and China's Ministry of Science of Technology (MOST) signed a Statement of Work (SOW) to collaborate on the design and construction of an energy-efficient demonstration office building and design center to be located in Beijing. The proposed 13,000 m{sup 2} (140,000 ft{sup 2}) nine-story office building would use U.S. energy-efficient materials, space-conditioning systems, controls, and design principles that were judged to be widely replicable throughout China. The SOW stated that China would contribute the land and provide for the costs of the base building, while the U.S. would be responsible for the additional (or marginal) costs associated with the package of energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements to the building. The project was finished and the building occupied in 2004. Using DOE-2 to analyze the energy performance of the as-built building, the building obtained 44 out of 69 possible points according to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating, including the full maximum of 10 points in the energy performance section. The building achieved a LEED Gold rating, the first such LEED-rated office building in China, and is 60% more efficient than ASHRAE 90.1-1999. The utility data from the first year's operation match well the analysis results, providing that adjustments are made for unexpected changes in occupancy and operations. Compared with similarly equipped office buildings in Beijing, this demonstration building uses 60% less energy per floor area. However, compared to conventional office buildings with less equipment and window air-conditioners, the building uses slightly more energy per floor area.

  19. Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays from a laser plasma accelerator with quadrant-sectored range filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jong Ho; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Kim, Hyung Taek; Rhee, Yong Joo; Pathak, Vishwa Bandhu; Cho, Myung Hoon; Shin, Jung Hun; Yoo, Byung Ju; Jo, Sung Ha; Shin, Kang Woo; Hojbota, Calin; Bae, Lee Jin; Jung, Jaehyung; Cho, Min Sang; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Cho, Byoung Ick; Choi, Il Woo; Nam, Chang Hee

    2016-07-01

    Measurement of angularly dependent spectra of betatron gamma-rays radiated by GeV electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) are presented. The angle-resolved spectrum of betatron radiation was deconvolved from the position dependent data measured for a single laser shot with a broadband gamma-ray spectrometer comprising four-quadrant sectored range filters and an unfolding algorithm, based on the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The unfolded gamma-ray spectra in the photon energy range of 0.1-10 MeV revealed an approximately isotropic angular dependence of the peak photon energy and photon energy-integrated fluence. As expected by the analysis of betatron radiation from LWFAs, the results indicate that unpolarized gamma-rays are emitted by electrons undergoing betatron motion in isotropically distributed orbit planes.

  20. The Effect of Preventive Conservation Measures on the Technical Condition of A Religious Building Located in the Mining Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barycz, Stanisław; Firek, Karol; Kocot, Wojciech; Malinowska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the case study of a historical religious building located in the area of "Bogdanka" S.A. Coal Mine. As the building lacked adequate resistance to the expected effects of mining, the Mine undertook efforts so that it was fully protected against mining impacts before the commencement of mining operations. A preventive conservation system was used, consisting of an external stiffening reinforced concrete plate at the ground level and a system of steel tie rods established at the level of vault supports. The article assesses the effect of undertaken preventive conservation measures on the current technical condition of the building. The basis for the assessment was the extent of damage to the building confirmed after the occurrence of impacts from the performed mining operations combined with the analysis of ground deformation.

  1. A Review of the Oregon and Texas Experience in Building Performance Measurement and Reporting Systems: Data Selection, Collection, and Reporting. A Publication of the Performance Measurement Reporting and Improvement System Building Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Michael D.

    Texas' and Oregon's experiences in building a performance measurement and reporting information system (PMRIS) for their adult literacy programs were compared. The Oregon PMRIS development effort was a multiyear project involving 10 programs and calling for collection/reporting of data regarding 10 of 272 benchmarks recommended by the Oregon…

  2. Exploring the possibility of a common structural model measuring associations between safety climate factors and safety behaviour in health care and the petroleum sectors.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Espen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of identifying general safety climate concepts in health care and petroleum sectors, as well as develop and test the possibility of a common cross-industrial structural model. Self-completion questionnaire surveys were administered in two organisations and sectors: (1) a large regional hospital in Norway that offers a wide range of hospital services, and (2) a large petroleum company that produces oil and gas worldwide. In total, 1919 and 1806 questionnaires were returned from the hospital and petroleum organisation, with response rates of 55 percent and 52 percent, respectively. Using a split sample procedure principal factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed six identical cross-industrial measurement concepts in independent samples-five measures of safety climate and one of safety behaviour. The factors' psychometric properties were explored with satisfactory internal consistency and concept validity. Thus, a common cross-industrial structural model was developed and tested using structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM revealed that a cross-industrial structural model could be identified among health care workers and offshore workers in the North Sea. The most significant contributing variables in the model testing stemmed from organisational management support for safety and supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting safety. These variables indirectly enhanced safety behaviour (stop working in dangerous situations) through transitions and teamwork across units, and teamwork within units as well as learning, feedback, and improvement. Two new safety climate instruments were validated as part of the study: (1) Short Safety Climate Survey (SSCS) and (2) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture-short (HSOPSC-short). Based on development of measurements and structural model assessment, this study supports the possibility of a common safety climate structural model across health

  3. RE-ENTERING BUILDING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL ATTACK: MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to re-entering a building following a chemical attack, decontamination and testing must be conducted to determine whether toxic agents have been eliminated or reduced to safe levels. Building contents must also be decontaminated and tested or destroyed. Recent incidents i...

  4. MEAN FLOW AND TURBULENCE MEASUREMENTS AROUND A 2-D ARRAY OF BUILDINGS IN A WIND TUNNEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to predict the dispersion of harmful materials released in or near an urban environment, it is important to first understand the complex flow patterns which result from the interaction of the wind with buildings and, more commonly, clusters of buildings. Recent advanc...

  5. Development of an Online Toolkit for Measuring Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Performance -- Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na

    2013-03-13

    This study analyzes the market needs for building performance evaluation tools. It identifies the existing gaps and provides a roadmap for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a toolkit with which to optimize energy performance of a commercial building over its life cycle.

  6. Developing information-space Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamin, Tughral

    2014-06-01

    The Internet has changed the world in ways hitherto unknown. The international financial system, air, land and maritime transport systems are all digitally linked. Similarly most militaries are fully or partially networked. This has not only sped up the decision making processes at all levels, it has also rendered these systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Cyber-warfare is now recognized as the most potent form of non-kinetic war fighting. In order to prevent large scale network-attacks, cyber-powers are simultaneously spending a lot of time, money and effort to erect redundant cyber-defenses and enhancing their offensive cyber capabilities. Difficulties in creating a stable environment in information-space stem from differing national perceptions regarding the freedom of the Internet, application of international law and problems associated with attribution. This paper discusses a range of Confidence Building Measures that can be created between India and Pakistan in information-space to control malicious cyber behavior and avert an inadvertent war.

  7. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-01-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  8. Response measurements for two building structures excited by noise from a large horizontal axis wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.

    1984-11-01

    Window and wall acceleration measurements and interior noise measurements ere made for two different building structures during excitation by noise from the WTS-4 horizontal axis wind turbine generator operating in a normal power generation mode. With turbine noise input pulses resulted in acceleration pulses for the wall and window elements of the two tests buildings. Response spectra suggest that natural vibration modes of the structures are excited. Responses of a house trailer were substantially greater than those for a building of sturdier construction. Peak acceleration values correlate well with similar data for houses excited by flyover noise from commercial and military airplanes and helicopters, and sonic booms from supersonic aircraft. Interior noise spectra have peaks at frequencies corresponding to structural vibration modes and room standing waves; and the levels for particular frequencies and locations can be higher than the outside levels.

  9. Technology Innovation and Building Energy Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altwies, Joy E.

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to add insight on the following general question: Has public policy stimulated energy-related technological change in buildings? Greater understanding of how policy influences technological change in the building sector can translate into better-designed policy mechanisms, ultimately accelerating innovation and adoption of energy-saving technologies. These technologies can enable building users to reduce their energy consumption and associated environmental impacts. This research addresses this general question using a case study of building controls technology, and poses the following specific research question: Has the use of building energy codes stimulated adoption of building controls? Building controls can be used in any type of building, of any vintage, and in any location; the systems come in a variety of configurations with a common objective; and they affect major sources of building energy consumption. Since they are used in both residential and commercial sectors, both of these sectors are included in the analysis. To address this research question, data are assembled from diverse sources and analyzed in multiple ways. The chapters proceed in a sequence that adds insight on individual aspects of the process of innovation in building controls. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on technological change, the characteristics of the building industry, and related energy policy. Chapter 2 uses patent citation data to characterize invention. Chapter 3 measures trends in technology prices to assess innovation. Chapter 4 uses federal commercial and residential building surveys to measure diffusion. Chapter 5 examines building energy code policies, selected for their relatively long history, widespread use, and relevance to building controls. In Chapter 6, data from Chapters 2 through 5 are used as inputs to a regression model to identify the effect of policy on adoption of the technology. Findings are discussed in

  10. Methane emissions from natural gas compressor stations in the transmission and storage sector: measurements and comparisons with the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program protocol.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, R; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Zimmerle, Daniel; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Floerchinger, Cody; Tkacik, Daniel S; Mitchell, Austin L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Dallmann, Timothy R; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Equipment- and site-level methane emissions from 45 compressor stations in the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the US natural gas system were measured, including 25 sites required to report under the EPA greenhouse gas reporting program (GHGRP). Direct measurements of fugitive and vented sources were combined with AP-42-based exhaust emission factors (for operating reciprocating engines and turbines) to produce a study onsite estimate. Site-level methane emissions were also concurrently measured with downwind-tracer-flux techniques. At most sites, these two independent estimates agreed within experimental uncertainty. Site-level methane emissions varied from 2-880 SCFM. Compressor vents, leaky isolation valves, reciprocating engine exhaust, and equipment leaks were major sources, and substantial emissions were observed at both operating and standby compressor stations. The site-level methane emission rates were highly skewed; the highest emitting 10% of sites (including two superemitters) contributed 50% of the aggregate methane emissions, while the lowest emitting 50% of sites contributed less than 10% of the aggregate emissions. Excluding the two superemitters, study-average methane emissions from compressor housings and noncompressor sources are comparable to or lower than the corresponding effective emission factors used in the EPA greenhouse gas inventory. If the two superemitters are included in the analysis, then the average emission factors based on this study could exceed the EPA greenhouse gas inventory emission factors, which highlights the potentially important contribution of superemitters to national emissions. However, quantification of their influence requires knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of superemitters across the entire T&S sector. Only 38% of the methane emissions measured by the comprehensive onsite measurements were reportable under the new EPA GHGRP because of a combination of inaccurate emission factors for leakers and

  11. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials of Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India using gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ravisankar, R; Vanasundari, K; Chandrasekaran, A; Rajalakshmi, A; Suganya, M; Vijayagopal, P; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2012-04-01

    The natural level of radioactivity in building materials is one of the major causes of external exposure to γ-rays. The primordial radionuclides in building materials are one of the sources of radiation hazard in dwellings made of these materials. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This is an important precautionary measure whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. The aim of this work was to measure the specific activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials from Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, India, using gamma-ray spectrometer. The radiation hazard due to the total natural radioactivity in the studied building materials was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium equivalent activity in studied samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  12. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo

    2000-11-01

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2 [0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof.

  13. Characteristics of postmidnight L band scintillation in the transition region from the equatorial to midlatitudes over the Indian longitude sector using COSMIC, C/NOFS, and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.; Haralambous, H.; Oikonomou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Occurrence of L band scintillations around midnight and postmidnight hours have not been well studied and reported from the higher equatorial latitudes in the transition region from the equatorial to midlatitudes over the Indian longitude sector. The present paper reports cases of postmidnight L band scintillation observations by COSMIC during March 2014 over the Indian longitude sector. GPS S4 measurements from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service station at Lucknow (26.91°N, 80.96°E geographic; magnetic dip: 39.75°N) corroborate occurrence of postmidnight scintillations. The F region vertical upward velocities around the magnetic equator during evening hours have been used to understand the possibility of impact of irregularities generated over the magnetic equator at latitudes north of 30°N. Postmidnight L band scintillations at latitudes greater than 30°N without corresponding premidnight scintillations present interesting scientific scenario and give rise to suggestions of (1) any coupling mechanism between the equatorial and midlatitudes through which irregularities seeded in the midlatitudes may affect transionospheric satellite links at low latitudes or (2) irregularity generation at midlatitudes not connected with equatorial instabilities. Long-term analysis of S4 at L band measured by COSMIC over the Indian longitudes during March 2007-2014 exhibits a well-defined longitude swath around 75-83°E of reduced (0.2 < S4 < 0.4) or no scintillations which may be attributed to the longitudinal variability of scintillation occurrence following the global four-cell pattern of ionospheric activity.

  14. Development of a couple of methods for measuring radon exhalation from building materials commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Miró, C; Andrade, E; Reis, M; Madruga, M J

    2014-07-01

    Radon is considered to be the main contributor to the worldwide population exposure to natural sources of radiation and so a lot of efforts have been made in most countries to assess indoor radon concentrations. Radon exhales from the earth's surface and is part of the radioactive decay series of uranium, which is also present in building materials. In this work, measurements of radon exhalation rates in building materials commonly used in the Iberian Peninsula have been carried out by using two different methods: active and passive techniques. In the first technique, the radon exhalation rate was measured following the radon activity growth as a function of time, by using a continuous radon monitor. The second technique is based on integrated measurements by using solid-state nuclear track detectors and a Spark Counter reading equipment. The results obtained by both measuring methods were found to be consistent.

  15. Formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials: on-site measurements and modeling approach to predict indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Delphine; Mocho, Pierre; Desauziers, Valérie; Plaisance, Hervé

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate formaldehyde emission behavior of building materials from on-site measurements of air phase concentration at material surface used as input data of a box model to estimate the indoor air pollution of a newly built classroom. The relevance of this approach was explored using CFD modeling. In this box model, the contribution of building materials to indoor air pollution was estimated with two parameters: the convective mass transfer coefficient in the material/air boundary layer and the on-site measurements of gas phase concentration at material surfaces. An experimental method based on an emission test chamber was developed to quantify this convective mass transfer coefficient. The on-site measurement of gas phase concentration at material surface was measured by coupling a home-made sampler to SPME. First results had shown an accurate estimation of indoor formaldehyde concentration in this classroom by using a simple box model.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF VOCS DESORBED FROM BUILDING MATERIALS--A HIGH TEMPERATURE DYNAMIC CHAMBER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass balance is a commonly used approach for characterizing the source and sink behavior of building materials. Because the traditional sink test methods evaluate the adsorption and desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOC) at ambient temperatures, the desorption process is...

  17. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Urumqi, China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Yang, Guang; Li, Nan

    2013-07-01

    Building materials contain natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, which cause direct radiation exposure of the public. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in commonly used building materials of Urumqi, China have been analysed using gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of (226)Ra, (40)K and (232)Th in the studied building materials range from 19.8 to 87.4, from 273.3 to 981.2 and from 11.6 to 47.7 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), gamma index (Iγ) and alpha index (Iα) were calculated to assess the radiation hazards to people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated Raeq values of all the building materials are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) for building materials. The values of Iγ and Iα of all the building materials are less than unity. The study shows that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  18. Building damage survey and microtremor measurements for the source region of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masumi; Hayashida, Takumi; Mori, Jim; Mooney, Walter D.

    2016-07-01

    We performed a damage survey of buildings and carried out microtremor observations in the source region of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Our survey area spans the Kathmandu valley and areas to the east and north of the valley. Damage of buildings in the Kathmandu valley was localized, and the percentage of the totally collapsed buildings was less than 5 %. East of the Kathmandu valley, especially in Sindhupalchok district, damage of buildings was more severe. In the center of Chautara and Bahrabise, towns in Sindhupalchok district, the percentage of the totally collapsed houses exceeded 40 %. North of the Kathmandu valley, the damage was moderate, and 20-30 % of the buildings were totally collapsed in Dhunche. Based on the past studies and our microtremor observations near the strong motion station, the H/V spectrum in Kathmandu has a peak at around 0.3 Hz, which reflects the velocity contrast of the deep sedimentary basin. The H/V spectra in Bahrabise, Chautara, and Dhunche do not show clear peaks, which suggests that the sites have stiff soil conditions. Therefore, the more severe damage outside the Kathmandu valley compared with the relatively light damage levels in the valley is probably due to the source characteristics of the earthquake and/or the seismic performance of buildings, rather than the local site conditions.

  19. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  20. Measuring and managing progress in the establishment of basic health services: the Afghanistan health sector balanced scorecard.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Peter M; Peters, David H; Niayesh, Haseebullah; Singh, Lakhwinder P; Dwivedi, Vikas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) of Afghanistan has adopted the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) as a tool to measure and manage performance in delivery of a Basic Package of Health Services. Based on results from the 2004 baseline round, the MOPH identified eight of the 29 indicators on the BSC as priority areas for improvement. Like the 2004 round, the 2005 and 2006 BSCs involved a random selection of more than 600 health facilities, 1700 health workers and 5800 patient-provider interactions. The 2005 and 2006 BSCs demonstrated substantial improvements in all eight of the priority areas compared to 2004 baseline levels, with increases in median provincial scores for presence of active village health councils, availability of essential drugs, functional laboratories, provider knowledge, health worker training, use of clinical guidelines, monitoring of tuberculosis treatment, and provision of delivery care. For three of the priority indicators-drug availability, health worker training and provider knowledge-scores remained unchanged or decreased between 2005 and 2006. This highlights the need to ensure that early gains achieved in establishment of health services in Afghanistan are maintained over time. The use of a coherent and balanced monitoring framework to identify priority areas for improvement and measure performance over time reflects an objectives-based approach to management of health services that is proving to be effective in a difficult environment.

  1. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  2. Intrasession and Between-Visit Variability of Sector Peripapillary Angioflow Vessel Density Values Measured with the Angiovue Optical Coherence Tomograph in Different Retinal Layers in Ocular Hypertension and Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Holló, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate intrasession and between-visit reproducibility of sector peripapillary angioflow vessel-density (PAFD, %) values in the optic nerve head (ONH) and radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC) layers, respectively, and to analyze the influence of the corresponding sector retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) on the results. Methods High quality images acquired with the Angiovue/RTVue-XR Avanti optical coherence tomograph (Optovue Inc., Fremont, USA) on 1 eye of 18 stable glaucoma and ocular hypertension patients were analyzed using the Optovue 2015.100.0.33 software version. Three images were acquired in one visit and 1 image 3 months later. Results PAFD image quality for all images necessary to calculate reproducibility was sufficient to analysis only in 18 of the 83 participants (21.7%) who were successfully imaged for RNFLT. Intrasession coefficient of variation (CV) ranged between 2.30 and 3.89%, and 3.51 and 5.12% for the peripapillary sectors in the ONH and RPC layers, respectively. The corresponding between-visit CV values ranged between 3.05 and 4.26%, and 4.99 and 6.90%, respectively. Intrasession SD did not correlate with the corresponding RNFLT in any sector in either layer (P≥0.170). In the ONH layer sector PAFD values did not correlate with the corresponding RNFLT values (P≥0.100). In contrast, in the RPC layer a significant positive correlation between the corresponding sector PAFD and RNFLT values was found for all but one peripapillary sectors (Pearson-r range: 0.652 to 0.771, P≤0.0046). Conclusion Though in several patients routine use of PAFD measurement may be limited by suboptimal image quality, in the successfully imaged cases (21.7% of the study eyes in the current investigation) reproducibility of sector PAFD values seems to be sufficient for clinical research. In stable patients intrasession variability explains most of the between-visit variability. Sector PAFD variability is independent from sector RNFLT, a marker

  3. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  4. What a New Energy Efficiency Measure for Commercial Buildings Means to You

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-12-19

    This article describes a new path for compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2016. The new approach will lead to increased flexibility for designers, multiple uses for the same building energy models, increased recognition of energy saving design strategies, and lower energy modeling costs.

  5. Measured energy savings from the application of reflective roofsin 2 small non-residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2003-01-14

    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in two small (14.9 m{sup 2}) non-residential buildings during the summer of 2000. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. The roofs of the buildings were then painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original solar reflectivities of the roofs were about 26%; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72%. The monitored electricity savings were about 0.5kWh per day (33 Wh/m2 per day). The estimated annual savings are about 125kWh per year (8.4 kWh/m2); at a cost of $0.1/kWh, savings are about $0.86/m2 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote locations of these buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them a white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence, a reflective roof saves energy at no incremental cost.

  6. Quantifying Littered Cigarette Butts to Measure Effectiveness of Smoking Bans to Building Perimeters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seitz, Christopher M.; Strack, Robert W.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Rosario, Carrie; Haugh, Christie; Rice, Rebecca; Wyrick, David L.; Wagner, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors estimated the number of violations of a university policy that prohibited smoking within 25 ft of all campus buildings. Participants: The project was conducted by 13 student researchers from the university and a member of the local public health department. Methods: Students quantified cigarette butts that were littered in a…

  7. Data on comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods used for fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Malak; Verriele, Marie; Mendez, Maxence; Blond, Nadège; Dusanter, Sébastien; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Blondeau, Patrice; Le Calvé, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    A test emission chamber called CLIMPAQ has been coupled to a chromatography analyzer GC to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentration during a sorption experiments (Fast sorption measurements of VOCs on building materials: Part 2 – Comparison between FLEC and CLIMPAQ methods, (Rizk et al., In press) [1]). The equations used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient and the thickness of the boundary layer developed on the surface of a material are presented. In addition, the experimental profiles obtained using the CLIMPAQ chamber is also presented in the presence and the absence of a building material. Finally, the impact of chamber size on the obtained concentration profile using different chambers is shown using 3 types of chambers having different volumes, 1 m3, 30 m3 and a micro chamber of 40 mL. PMID:27047988

  8. Using Wireless Power Meters to Measure Energy Use of Miscellaneous and Electronic Devices in Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA; Brown, Richard; Lanzisera, Steven; Cheung, Hoi Ying; Lai, Judy; Jiang, Xiaofan; Dawson-Haggerty, Stephen; Taneja, Jay; Ortiz, Jorge; Culler, David

    2011-05-24

    Miscellaneous and electronic devices consume about one-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and their energy use is increasing faster than other end-uses. Despite the success of policies, such as Energy Star, that promote more efficient miscellaneous and electronic products, much remains to be done to address the energy use of these devices if we are to achieve our energy and carbon reduction goals. Developing efficiency strategies for these products depends on better data about their actual usage, but very few studies have collected field data on the long-term energy used by a large sample of devices due to the difficulty and expense of collecting device-level energy data. This paper describes the development of an improved method for collecting device-level energy and power data using small, relatively inexpensive wireless power meters. These meters form a mesh network based on Internet standard protocols and can form networks of hundreds of metering points in a single building. Because the meters are relatively inexpensive and do not require manual data downloading, they can be left in the field for months or years to collect long time-series energy use data. In addition to the metering technology, we also describe a field protocol used to collect comprehensive, robust data on the miscellaneous and electronic devices in a building. The paper presents sample results from several case study buildings, in which all the plug-in devices for several homes were metered, and a representative sample of several hundred plug-in devices in a commercial office building were metered for several months.

  9. Vision for Future Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-19

    In the last 10 years our lives have changed so quickly, and drastically, that it's hard to imagine what the distant future might bring. Because buildings are large, long-term investments, the building sector has been slower to change. It can take more than 100 years for our cities to be renovated or rebuilt using updated methods and technologies. But to get there, we must start to conceptualize what the functions and capabilities of these future buildings could be, today.

  10. Vision for Future Buildings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In the last 10 years our lives have changed so quickly, and drastically, that it's hard to imagine what the distant future might bring. Because buildings are large, long-term investments, the building sector has been slower to change. It can take more than 100 years for our cities to be renovated or rebuilt using updated methods and technologies. But to get there, we must start to conceptualize what the functions and capabilities of these future buildings could be, today.

  11. Mathematical Models for the Education Sector, A Survey. (Les Modeles Mathematiques du Sector Enseignement.) Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The purposes of this volume are to report a survey of current practice in the construction and use of mathematical models for the education sector: to identify the most important technical and substantive problems confronting the model-building effort; and to bridge the gap between the advancing research pursuit of model-building and the lagging…

  12. Measure Guideline: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-04-01

    This report was written as a resource for professionals involved in multifamily audits, retrofit delivery, and program design, as well as for building owners and contractors. It is intended to serve as a guide for those looking to evaluate and improve the efficiency and operation of one-pipe steam heating systems. In centrally heated multifamily buildings with steam or hydronic systems, the cost of heat for tenants is typically absorbed into the owner's operating costs. Highly variable and rising energy costs have placed a heavy burden on landlords. In the absence of well-designed and relevant efficiency efforts, increased operating costs would be passed on to tenants who often cannot afford those increases. Misinvestment is a common problem with older heating systems -- multiple contractors may inadequately or inappropriately upgrade parts of systems and reduce system functionality and efficiency, or the system has not been properly maintained.

  13. Millimeter-wave radiometric measurements of a treeline and building for aircraft obstacle avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikner, David A.

    2003-08-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imagers have the potential to be used on low-flying aircraft for terrain-following / terrain-avoidance during low-visibility conditions. This potential exists because of the inherent nature of MMW radiation that allows it to penetrate many visible and IR obscurants such as fog, clouds, and smoke. The phenomenology associated with this application, however, has not been fully explored. Specifically, the radiometric signatures of the various obstacles that might be encountered during a low-altitude flight need to be thoroughly understood. The work described in this paper explores the 93-GHz passive signature of a deciduous treeline and a concrete/glass building. The data were taken from the roof of a 4-story building to simulate the view of a low-flying aircraft. The data were collected over many months with an ARL-built Stokes-vector radiometer. This radiometer is a single-beam system that raster scans over a scene to collect a calibrated 93-GHz image. The data show the effects of weather and tree lifecycle on the 93-GHz brightness temperature contrast between the horizon sky and the obstacles. For the case of trees, it is shown that the horizon sky brightness temperature is greater than that of the trees when the leaves are on because of the reflective properties of the leaves. This made the trees quite detectable to our system during the late spring, summer, and early fall. Concrete buildings are inherently low-contrast obstacles because their vertical nature reflects the horizon behind the sensor and can easily mimic the forward horizon sky. Solar loading can have a large effect on building signatures.

  14. 1994 Triggered lightning test program: Measured responses of a reinforced concrete building under direct lightning attachments, Volume 2: Test data

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Chael, J.; Davis, R.

    1995-08-01

    A rocket-triggered lightning test was carried out during the summer of 1994 on a specially designed steel reinforced concrete test building located at Ft. McClellan, Alabama. Currents, voltages, and magnetic fields were measured at 24 instrumented locations during 42 return strokes triggered to designated points on the structure and its lightning protection system. Detailed descriptions of the test structure, measurements, and test procedures are given in Volume 1 of this report. The present volume contains plots of the complete set of test data.

  15. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  16. Testing of the QUIC-plume model with wind-tunnel measurements for a high-rise building

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M. D.; Brown, M. J.; Boswell, D.; Singh, B.; Pardyjak, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    ), QUICPLUME, a model that describes dispersion near buildings (Williams et al., 2003), and a graphical user interface QUIC-GUI (Boswell et al., 2004). The QUIC dispersion code is currently being used for building scale to neighborhood scale transport and diffusion problems with domains on the order of several kilometers. Figure 1 illustrates the modeled dispersion for a release in downtown Salt Lake City. This paper describes the QUIC-PLUME randomwalk dispersion model formulation, the turbulence parameterization assumptions, and shows comparisons of model-computed concentration fields with measurements from a single-building wind-tunnel experiment. It is shown that the traditional three-term random walk model with a turbulence scheme based on gradients of the mean wind performs poorly for dispersion in the cavity of the single-building, and that model-experiment comparisons are improved significantly when additional drift terms are added and a non-local mixing scheme is implemented.

  17. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave B.; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  18. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.

  19. [Modeling of carbon dioxide measurement and optimization on building ceramic industry].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun-Xi; Zhao, Yu-Bo; Jiao, Li-Hua; Zeng, Lu; Zheng, Wei-Min

    2012-02-01

    Input-output model and low carbon programming model on building ceramic industry were established. Carbon dioxide emissions of key steps and carbon footprint of products were calculated and predicted using the input-output model. While products planning was optimized using the low carbon programming model. The results showed that CO2 emission in the enterprise reached 182 543.9 t a year and CO2 emission per unit product was 10% more than advanced level in the world. 80% of the total CO2 was emitted during the processes of firing and drying. As a result, we should focus on these two steps in order to reduce carbon dioxide emission of building ceramic industry. Carbon footprint of blank tile, polished tile, and glazed tile were 150.2 t, 168.0 t, 159.6 t respectively. Optimized by the low carbon model, The ceramic enterprise could reduce carbon dioxide emission by 5.4% while not sacrificing any profit, and also could obtain profit 5.6% higher than before while unrise the carbon dioxide emission.

  20. Spectrophotometric color measurement for early detection and monitoring of greening on granite buildings.

    PubMed

    Sanmartín, P; Vázquez-Nion, D; Silva, B; Prieto, B

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the detection and monitoring of the development of epilithic phototrophic biofilms on the granite façade of an institutional building in Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain), and reports a case study of preventive conservation. The results provide a basis for establishing criteria for the early detection of phototrophic colonization (greening) and for monitoring its development on granite buildings by the use of color changes recorded with a portable spectrophotometer and represented in the CIELAB color space. The results show that parameter b* (associated with changes of yellowness-blueness) provides the earliest indication of colonization and varies most over time, so that it is most important in determining the total color change. The limit of perception of the greening on a granite surface was also established in a psycho-physical experiment, as Δb*: +0.59 CIELAB units that correspond, in the present study, to 6.3 μg of biomass dry weight cm(-2) and (8.43 ± 0.24) × 10(-3) μg of extracted chlorophyll a cm(-2).

  1. Review of domestic and international methods of measuring radon in residential buildings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheolmin; Lee, Dajeong

    2016-01-01

    Radon, a source of natural background radiation, has been a subject of extensive studies as a major causative agent of lung cancer at the domestic and international levels. This study investigated and compared domestic and international methods of radon measurement. In the United States, radon is measured through primary and secondary testing, and a similar method is used in Canada. In the United Kingdom, only long-term radon measurements are taken with seasonal adjustments. In the Republic of Korea, both long-term and short-term measurements are taken with only primary testing. Through this study, standards for domestic radon measurement methods and improvement plans could be suggested.

  2. Building energy analysis tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  3. Description and testing of three moisture sensors for measuring surface wetness on carbonate building stones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, R.B.; Reddy, M.M.; Martin, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Three moisture sensors were tested as a means for determining the surface wetness on carbonate building stones exposed to conditions that produce deposition of moisture. A relative-humidity probe, a gypsum-coated circuit grid, and a limestone-block resistor were tested as sensors for determining surface wetness. Sensors were tested under laboratory conditions of constant relative humidity and temperature and also under on-site conditions of variable relative humidity and temperature for eight weeks at Newcomb, NY. Laboratory tests indicated that relative humidity alone did not cause sensors to become saturated with water. However, the rates of drying indicated by the sensors after an initial saturation were inversely related to the relative humidity. On-site testing of the relative-humidity probe and the gypsum-coated ciruit grid indicated that they respond to a diurnal wetting and drying cycle; the limestone-block resistor responded only to rainfall.

  4. Description and testing of three moisture sensors for measuring surface wetness on carbonate building stones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    See, R.B.; Reddy, M.M.; Martin, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Three sensors were tested on building stones exposed to conditions that produce deposition of moisture. A relative humidity probe, a gypsum collected circuit grid, and a limestone block resistor were tested as sensors for determining surface wetness. Sensors were tested under laboratory conditions of constant relative humidity and temperature and also under on-site conditions of variable relative humidity and temperature for 8 weeks at Newcomb, New York. Laboratory tests indicated that relative humidity alone did not cause sensors to become saturated. However, relative humidity did control the rate at which sensors dried after being saturated with distilled water. On-site testing of the relative humidity probe and the gypsum coated circuit grid indicated that they respond to a diurnal wetting and drying cycle; the limestone block resistor only responded to rainfall. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Robert I.; Olden, Julian D.; Opperman, Jeffrey J.; Miller, William M.; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V.; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18–24%, going from 1,993,000–2,628,000 Mm3 in 2010 to 2,359,000–3,271,000 Mm3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700–46,400 Mm3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000–58,400 Mm3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27–36 m3GJ−1 (0.1–0.5 m3GJ−1 consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4–0.7 m3GJ−1 (0.2–0.3 m3GJ−1 consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm3 (20,300 Mm3 consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur in

  6. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  7. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  8. Building capacity for national carbon measurements for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, S. J.; Laporte, N.; Horning, N.; Pelletier, J.; Jantz, P.; Ndunda, P.

    2014-12-01

    Many tropical countries are now working on developing their strategies for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, including activities that result in conservation or enhancement of forest carbon stocks and sustainable management of forests to effectively decrease atmospheric carbon emissions (i.e. REDD+). A new international REDD+ agreement is at the heart of recent negotiations of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). REDD+ mechanisms could provide an opportunity to not only diminish an important source of emissions, but also to promote large-scale conservation of tropical forests and establish incentives and opportunities to alleviate poverty. Most tropical countries still lack basic information for developing and implementing their forest carbon stock assessments, including the extent of forest area and the rate at which forests are being cleared and/or degraded, and the carbon amounts associated with these losses. These same countries also need support to conduct integrated assessments of the most promising approaches for reducing emissions, and in identifying those policy options that hold the greatest potential while minimizing potential negative impacts of REDD+ policies. The WHRC SERVIR project in East Africa is helping to provide these data sets to countries via best practice tools and methods to support cost effective forest carbon monitoring solutions and more informed decision making processes under REDD+. We will present the results of our capacity building activites in the region and planned future efforts being coordinated with the NASA-SERVIR Hub in Kenya to support to REDD+ decision support.

  9. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels.

  10. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  11. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R(2) = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R(2) = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R(2) = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R(2) = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties.

  12. Brownfields Shifting Gears: Driving Toward Auto Sector Property Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an overview of community success stories. By building strong partnerships and setting priorities for recovery and revitalization, the public and private sectors are realizing a great deal of success in addressing idle industrial brownfields.

  13. Verification of the efficiency of chemical disinfection and sanitation measures in in-building distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lenz, J; Linke, S; Gemein, S; Exner, M; Gebel, J

    2010-06-01

    Previous investigations of biofilms, generated in a silicone tube model have shown that the number of colony forming units (CFU) can reach 10(7)/cm(2), the total cell count (TCC) of microorganisms can be up to 10(8)cells/cm(2). The present study focuses on the situation in in-building distribution systems. Different chemical disinfectants were tested for their efficacy on drinking water biofilms in silicone tubes: free chlorine (electrochemically activated), chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), silver, and fruit acids. With regard to the widely differing manufacturers' instructions for the usage of their disinfectants three different variations of the silicone tube model were developed to simulate practical use conditions. First the continuous treatment, second the intermittent treatment, third the efficacy of external disinfection treatment and the monitoring for possible biofilm formation with the Hygiene-Monitor. The working experience showed that it is important to know how to handle the individual disinfectants. Every active ingredient has its own optimal application concerning its concentration, exposure time, physical parameters like pH, temperature or redox potential. When used correctly all products tested were able to reduce the CFU to a value below the detection limit. Most of the active ingredients could not significantly reduce the TCC/cm(2), which means that viable microorganisms may still be present in the system. Thus the question arises what happened with these cells? In some cases SEM pictures of the biofilm matrix after a successful disinfection still showed biofilm residues. According to these results, no general correlation between CFU/cm(2), TCC/cm(2) and the visualised biofilm matrix on the silicone tube surface (SEM) could be demonstrated after a treatment with disinfectants.

  14. General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array is in background, behind Communications Antennas, Receiver Building, and Water Storage Tank - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  15. Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  17. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  18. The Challenges of Measuring the Impact of Proposition 10. Building Community Systems for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Carol; McCroskey, Jacquelyn; Halfon, Neal

    In compliance with California's Proposition 10 (Children and Families First Act), county commissions are being asked to monitor what differences the family support programs they are funding are making in the lives of the children and families they serve. Each commission has the responsibility of selecting a set of indicators to measure the impact…

  19. The Measures of Effective Teaching Project: An Experiment to Build Evidence and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The Measures of Effective Teaching project has collected performance data using multiple indicators from over three thousand teachers across six urban districts. In the second year of the study, classes of students were randomly assigned to teachers in order to assess the impact of assignment bias on performance judgments. This article discusses…

  20. Building capacity for rigorous controlled trials in autism: the importance of measuring treatment adherence.

    PubMed

    McConachie, H; Fletcher-Watson, S

    2015-03-01

    Research groups across Europe have been networking to share information and ideas about research on preschool children with autism. The paper describes preliminary work to develop capacity for future multi-site randomized controlled trials of early intervention, with a specific focus on the need to measure treatment adherence where parents deliver therapy. The paper includes a review of randomized and controlled studies of parent-mediated early intervention from two sources, a recent Cochrane Collaboration review and a mapping of European early intervention studies in autism published since 2002. The data extracted focused on methods for describing parent adherence, that is, how and to what extent parents carry out the strategies taught them by therapists. Less than half of the 32 studies reviewed included any measure of parent adherence. Only seven included a direct assessment method. The challenges of developing pan-European early intervention evaluation studies are discussed, including choice of intervention model and of important outcomes, the need for translation of measurement tools and achievement of joint training to reliability of assessors. Measurement of parent-child interaction style and of adherence to strategies taught need further study.

  1. Building out a Measurement Model to Incorporate Complexities of Testing in the Language Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark; Moore, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of a novel and integrated way to think about the item response models (most often used in measurement applications in social science areas such as psychology, education, and especially testing of various kinds) from the viewpoint of the statistical theory of generalized linear and nonlinear mixed models. In addition,…

  2. Improved Thermal Transmittance Measurement with HFM Technique on Building Envelopes in the Mediterranean Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aversa, Patrizia; Donatelli, Antonio; Piccoli, Giuseppe; Luprano, Vincenza Anna Maria

    2016-12-01

    Although the designed theoretical value of U can be derived from the thermal parameters of layers composing an opaque element, according to ISO 6946:2007, measurements are necessary to confirm the expected behaviour. Currently, the measurements of thermal transmittance based on Heat Flow Meter method (HFM) and according to standard ISO 9869-1:2014 are widely accepted. Anyway, some issues related to difficulties in measurements are present: the roughness of wall surfaces, the proper contact between the heat flow plate and the temperature probes with wall surfaces, undesired changes in weather conditions. This work presents the results obtained in thermal transmittance measurements with a modified HFM method, widely described in this paper. Differences between U-values obtained with the modified HFM method and theoretical ones were in the range 0.6 - 6.5 %. Moreover, the modified HFM method provided a result closer to the theoretical one, when compared to that obtained with standard HFM method (discrepancy with theoretical value were 0.6% and 16.4%, respectively).

  3. Scenarios of Building Energy Demand for China with a Detailed Regional Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Zhou, Yuyu; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-02-07

    Building energy consumption currently accounts for 28% of China’s total energy use and is expected to continue to grow induced by floorspace expansion, income growth, and population change. Fuel sources and building services are also evolving over time as well as across regions and building types. To understand sectoral and regional difference in building energy use and how socioeconomic, physical, and technological development influence the evolution of the Chinese building sector, this study developed a building energy use model for China downscaled into four climate regions under an integrated assessment framework. Three building types (rural residential, urban residential, and commercial) were modeled specifically in each climate region. Our study finds that the Cold and Hot Summer Cold Winter regions lead in total building energy use. The impact of climate change on heating energy use is more significant than that of cooling energy use in most climate regions. Both rural and urban households will experience fuel switch from fossil fuel to cleaner fuels. Commercial buildings will experience rapid growth in electrification and energy intensity. Improved understanding of Chinese buildings with climate change highlighted in this study will help policy makers develop targeted policies and prioritize building energy efficiency measures.

  4. Commercial Buildings Partnerships - Overview of Higher education projects

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, Kristen; Robinson, Alastair; Regnier, Cindy

    2013-02-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP), a public/private, cost-shared program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, its national laboratories, and private-sector technical experts. These teams explored energy-saving measures across building systems – including some considered too costly or technologically challenging – and used advanced energy modeling to achieve peak whole-building performance. Modeling results were then included in new construction or retrofit designs to achieve significant energy reductions. CBP design goals aimed to achieve 50 percent energy savings compared to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2004 for new construction, while retrofits are designed to consume at least 30 percent less energy than either Standard 90.1-2004 or current consumption. After construction and commissioning of the project, laboratory staff continued to work with partners to collect and analyze data for verification of the actual energy reduction. CBP projects represent diverse building types in commercial real estate, including lodging, grocery, retail, higher education, office, and warehouse/storage facilities. Partners also commit to replicating low-energy technologies and strategies from their CBP projects throughout their building portfolios. As a result of CBP projects, five sector overviews (Lodging, Food Sales, General Merchandise, Higher Education, Offices) were created to capture successful strategies and recommended energy efficiency measures that could broadly be applied across these sectors. These overviews are supplemented with individual case studies providing specific details on the decision criteria, modeling results, and lessons learned on specific projects. Sector overviews and CBP case studies will also be updated to reflect verified data and replication strategies as they become available.

  5. Significance of the Hygiene Charter towards different sectors in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Cheng, F F K; Yuen, H S K; Ho, M; Ngan, W P; Suen, Y P; Au, S M Y; Li, S N; Tso, C Y; Ng, P P Y; Wong, Y P; Keung, M W; Lo, A S C; Wong, W S; Siu, D C H; Yuen, W K; Mok, K K; Fung, W Y; Wong, K K

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of SARS in March 2003 has resulted in an increased interest, worldwide in emerging infectious diseases. The SARS experience provided us a lesson on the importance of promoting hygienic practices among individuals and different working sectors. In Hong Kong, a voluntary organization called the UNITE proposed a Hygiene Charter which aimed at taking hygiene to new levels. This action has been supported by individuals and different sectors including the Personal and Family, Management, Buildings, Catering, Education, Finance and Commercial, Industrial, Medical and Health, Public Transportation, Social Welfare, Sports and Culture and Tourism. As promotion and maintenance of environmental health requires input from different sectors, the signing of the Hygiene Charter provides an opportunity for individuals and the public to show their pledge and commitment to good hygiene practices. As a result, with environment improvement and good infectious disease control measures, prevention of epidemics of infectious diseases is deemed to be possible.

  6. Cross-sector collaboration to improve community health: a view of the current landscape.

    PubMed

    Mattessich, Paul W; Rausch, Ela J

    2014-11-01

    Collaboration between the health and community development sectors has gained increased attention as a means of accelerating progress to improve community health. This article offers an empirical perspective on the general status of such collaboration based on results from a national survey of practitioners in the community development and health fields. Study results show that cross-sector efforts to improve health are widespread across the United States. Community development organizations, including community development financial institutions, support a wide spectrum of activities addressing both social determinants of health and the immediate needs of communities. However, the means of assessing the impacts of these joint community health improvement initiatives appear limited. We highlight opportunities for building on present momentum and for measuring results in a way that expands the evidence base on effective collaborative efforts between the two sectors.

  7. Prospects for Indian and Pakistani Arms Control and Confidence-Building Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    section examines the strategic anxieties of India and Pakistan, re- spectively; the second section reviews the treaties and CBMs that have been attempted...environment amenable to pragmatic CBMs and limited arms-control measures. STRATEGIC ANXIETIES As previously suggested, the dynamics associated with the...perceptions must be factored into the overall security equation. India’s Strategic Anxieties In general, India believes that China is encircling the country

  8. Building a measure of fatigue: the functional assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale.

    PubMed

    Smith, Eleanor; Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David

    2010-05-01

    The shared goal of all clinical disciplines is to optimize the well-being of people who become patients and find themselves diminished by illness and recovery. This goal relies on sound tools to evaluate both real and perceived deficits in a way that can be used for a particular patient over time and also across medical disciplines and patient populations. Fatigue is a critical and notoriously subjective aspect of many illnesses. Although the soundness of research is often correlated with the objectivity of data, certain clinical measures must, by definition, be patient centered, with all the complexities and challenges of patient-reported evaluations. Measurement of fatigue has been an important and evolving component of symptom management in the field of oncology. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale is a self-administered fatigue-assessment tool that has found wide application across diverse medical fields and that has demonstrated validity and utility across a broad range of populations. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale has become one in a repository of tools in the item banks that are accumulating under the auspices of The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, a National Institutes of Health initiative to deploy the most clinically relevant and technologically agile tools that we have to advance research in medicine and patient care. As much as with any other discipline, physical medicine and rehabilitation stands to gain from the collective knowledge and creative horizons in the assessment and treatment of fatigue.

  9. Acid rain and weathering damage to carbonate building stone: Results of material loss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.M.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1986-11-01

    Marble and limestone specimens were exposed to atmospheric conditions at four eastern US sites. A number of methods were employed for damage assessment; this paper describes the results of chemical and physical measurements of material loss. Good agreement was observed among results obtained with different methods. A rate of surface recession near 15 ..mu..m/y was observed for skyward surfaces of marble tested in North Carolina, and comparable results were obtained at the other test sites. Response of the porous limestone was assessed with greater difficulty; a rate of loss similar to that of marble was inferred. Initial correlations of material loss with environmental factors are briefly discussed.

  10. Acid rain and weathering damage to carbonate building stone: Results of material loss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, M.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Marble and limestone specimens were exposed to atmospheric conditions at four eastern U.S. sites. A number of methods were employed for damage assessment; this paper describes the results of chemical and physical measurements of material loss. Good agreement was observed among results obtained with different methods. A rate of surface recession near 15 ..mu..m/y was observed for skyward surfaces of marble tested in North Carolina, and comparable results were obtained at the other test sites. Response of the porous limestone was assessed with greater difficulty; a rate of loss similar to that of marble was inferred. Initial correlations of material loss with environmental factors are briefly discussed.

  11. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  12. Multidisciplinary life cycle metrics and tools for green buildings.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Jennifer F; Lippiatt, Barbara C

    2009-07-01

    Building sector stakeholders need compelling metrics, tools, data, and case studies to support major investments in sustainable technologies. Proponents of green building widely claim that buildings integrating sustainable technologies are cost effective, but often these claims are based on incomplete, anecdotal evidence that is difficult to reproduce and defend. The claims suffer from 2 main weaknesses: 1) buildings on which claims are based are not necessarily "green" in a science-based, life cycle assessment (LCA) sense and 2) measures of cost effectiveness often are not based on standard methods for measuring economic worth. Yet, the building industry demands compelling metrics to justify sustainable building designs. The problem is hard to solve because, until now, neither methods nor robust data supporting defensible business cases were available. The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory is beginning to address these needs by developing metrics and tools for assessing the life cycle economic and environmental performance of buildings. Economic performance is measured with the use of standard life cycle costing methods. Environmental performance is measured by LCA methods that assess the "carbon footprint" of buildings, as well as 11 other sustainability metrics, including fossil fuel depletion, smog formation, water use, habitat alteration, indoor air quality, and effects on human health. Carbon efficiency ratios and other eco-efficiency metrics are established to yield science-based measures of the relative worth, or "business cases," for green buildings. Here, the approach is illustrated through a realistic building case study focused on different heating, ventilation, air conditioning technology energy efficiency. Additionally, the evolution of the Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability multidisciplinary team and future plans in this area are described.

  13. Understanding Solar Induced Fluorescence: Building up from Leaf Scale Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, J. A.; Van der Tol, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Joiner, J.; Guanter, L.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence have long been a key method for probing the mechanisms of photosynthesis in laboratory studies. Recent advances in satellite spectroscopy have enabled retrieval of chlorophyll fluorescence from terrestrial ecosystems at a global scale. Analyses of these retrievals show promising potential as an indicator of photosynthetic rate and of its response to environmental stress. This talk will explore the mechanistic basis for interpreting and modeling of solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence ( SIF). SIF is essentially a leak of photons from photosynthetic membranes, and it is, therefore, related to the flux of photons absorbed by chlorophyll and to biochemical processes that regulate the processing of these photons in macromolecuar complexes associated with photosystem II. Thus: SIF = aPAR * φF, where aPAR is the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and φF, is the yield (light-use efficiency) of fluorescence. (For simplicity we will ignore the transport of fluorescence from its sources to the sensor for the moment). This expression for SIF is similar to a common expression for photosynthesis or gross primary productivity, GPP = aPAR * LUE, where LUE, is the light-use-efficiency for CO2 uptake. These equations can be combined and simplified to illustrate the relationship between SIF and GPP; GPP =SIF *LUE / φF. The extent to which GPP is proportional to SIF hinges on the stability of the ratio, LUE / φF, and it leads to the key question to be considered here. What is the relationship between the light-use-efficiency for photosynthesis and that for fluorescence? Satellite retrievals of SIF occur at mid-day, conditions where the capacity for CO2 fixation usually limits the rate of photosynthesis. Under this condition the rate of the photo-acts must be down-regulated to protect from photo-damage. This balancing the source with the sink is accomplished by opening non-photochemical trapping centers that compete with

  14. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 1: Building prototype analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of, and the baseline assumptions and simulation results for, the building prototype simulations conducted for the building types designated in the Work Plan for Demand-side Management Assessment of Hawaii`s Demand-Side Resources (HES-4, Phase 2). This report represents the second revision to the initial building prototype description report provided to DBEDT early in the project. Modifications and revisions to the prototypes, based on further calibration efforts and on comments received from DBEDT Staff have been incorporated into this final version. These baseline prototypes form the basis upon which the DSM measure impact estimates and the DSM measure data base were developed for this project. This report presents detailed information for each of the 17 different building prototypes developed for use with the DOE-21E program (23 buildings in total, including resorts and hotels defined separately for each island) to estimate the impact of the building technologies and measures included in this project. The remainder of this section presents some nomenclature and terminology utilized in the reports, tables, and data bases developed from this project to denote building type and vintage. Section 2 contains a more detailed discussion of the data sources, the definition of the residential sector building prototypes, and results of the DOE-2 analysis. Section 3 provides a similar discussion for the commercial sector. The prototype and baseline simulation results are presented in a separate section for each building type. Where possible, comparison of the baseline simulation results with benchmark data from the ENERGY 2020 model or other demand forecasting models specific to Hawaii is included for each building. Appendix A contains a detailed listing of the commercial sector baseline indoor lighting technologies included in the existing and new prototypes by building type.

  15. Harmonizing health information systems with information systems in other social and economic sectors.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Sarah B.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts to strengthen health information systems in low- and middle-income countries should include forging links with systems in other social and economic sectors. Governments are seeking comprehensive socioeconomic data on the basis of which to implement strategies for poverty reduction and to monitor achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The health sector is looking to take action on the social factors that determine health outcomes. But there are duplications and inconsistencies between sectors in the collection, reporting, storage and analysis of socioeconomic data. National offices of statistics give higher priority to collection and analysis of economic than to social statistics. The Report of the Commission for Africa has estimated that an additional US$ 60 million a year is needed to improve systems to collect and analyse statistics in Africa. Some donors recognize that such systems have been weakened by numerous international demands for indicators, and have pledged support for national initiatives to strengthen statistical systems, as well as sectoral information systems such as those in health and education. Many governments are working to coordinate information systems to monitor and evaluate poverty reduction strategies. There is therefore an opportunity for the health sector to collaborate with other sectors to lever international resources to rationalize definition and measurement of indicators common to several sectors; streamline the content, frequency and timing of household surveys; and harmonize national and subnational databases that store socioeconomic data. Without long-term commitment to improve training and build career structures for statisticians and information technicians working in the health and other sectors, improvements in information and statistical systems cannot be sustained. PMID:16184278

  16. Measurements and simulation of the radiation build-up process in a prebunched free-electron maser oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Gilutin, L.; Pinhasi, Y.; Cohen, M.

    1995-12-31

    Numerical studies of the radiation buildup process in a prebunched free-electron maser oscillator (FEM), were carried out at Tel-Aviv University (TAU) and at the University of Maryland (UMD), and compared to the experimental measurements taken on the prebunched beam FEM experiments in TAU. We present measurements of the temporal evolution of radiation excited from noise until a steady-state operation is established. The evolution of the spectral characteristics of the radiation was investigated using the data collected by a fast digitizing scope, which recorded the IF signal obtained from heterodyning the laser radiation with a stable local oscillator. The mode competition process was observed. The experimental results were compared to analytical calculations of the spontaneous emission power and small-signal gain. Nonlinear {open_quote}amplifier{close_quote} simulation codes were employed for calculation of the extraction efficiency and saturation power. Multi-frequency simulations of the mode competition process were carried out using simulation (MALT ID) code, which is based on a space-time one-dimensional model of a free-electron laser oscillator. Conditions for establishment of single-(longitudinal) mode operation were identified and compared to the experimental measurements. Prebunching of the e-beam current permits external interference in the mode competition and coherence build-up process. We found experimentally and confirmed numerically that prebunching can determine the frequency of oscillation if the e-beam is injected with a sufficient bunching power, and shortens the oscillation buildup and coherence establishment time.

  17. Building America Case Study: Measure Guideline: Guidance on Taped Insulating Sheathing Drainage Planes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This guide provides information and recommendations to the following groups: Insulation contractors, General contractors, Builders, Home remodelers, Mechanical contractors, and Homeowners as a guide to the work that needs to be done. The order of work completed during home construction and retrofit improvements is important. Health and safety issues must be addressed first and are more important than durability issues. And durability issues are more important than saving energy. Not all techniques can apply to all houses. Special conditions will require special action. Some builders or homeowners will wish to do more than the important but basic retrofit strategies outlined by this guide. The following are best practice and product recommendations from the interviewed contractors and home builders who collectively have a vast amount of experience. Three significant items were discussed with the group which are required to make taped insulating sheathing a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane: 4. Horizontal joints should be limited or eliminated wherever possible 5. Where a horizontal joint exists use superior materials 6. Frequent installation inspection and regular trade training are required to maintain proper installation Section 5 of this measure guideline contains the detailed construction procedure for the three recommended methods to effectively seal the joints in exterior insulating sheathing to create a simple, long term, and durable drainage plane.

  18. Research update, existing buildings research, 1989--1991

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.; Ternes, M.P.; Mixon, W.R.; Sharp, T.R.; Kolb, J.O.; Wilkes, K.E.; Diamond, R.C.; Judkoff, R.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    This Research Update presents the status of the Existing Buildings Research program of the Office of Building Technologies of the US Department of Energy for the period 1989-199 1. This program covers research on energy efficiency improvements for the residential and commercial buildings in this country. ne Existing Buildings Research program has contributed to significant improvements in energy efficiency of existing buildings by development of improvements to retrofit technologies, by coordinating and conducting research studies on the use of energy efficiency technologies (to reduce barriers and increase use), and by continually evaluating changes in technologies that could improve and maintain buildings energy efficiency. If the energy efficiency of the buildings sector in this country is to be dramatically improved over the next 30 years, we must improve the use of energy efficiency technologies. Improved delivery of measures, improved understanding of how buildings actually perform in the field, and methods for improving operations and maintenance of buildings and energy equipment are all examples of ways to improve the deployment (transfer) of technologies. Much has been learned about technology deployment in buildings in the first five years of the program, and our future plans will be directed at continuing the improvements and making a real contribution to the energy efficiency future of the United States.

  19. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M.

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  20. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  1. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  2. Building functional cities.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J Vernon; Venables, Anthony J; Regan, Tanner; Samsonov, Ilia

    2016-05-20

    The literature views many African cities as dysfunctional with a hodgepodge of land uses and poor "connectivity." One driver of inefficient land uses is construction decisions for highly durable buildings made under weak institutions. In a novel approach, we model the dynamics of urban land use with both formal and slum dwellings and ongoing urban redevelopment to higher building heights in the formal sector as a city grows. We analyze the evolution of Nairobi using a unique high-spatial resolution data set. The analysis suggests insufficient building volume through most of the city and large slum areas with low housing volumes near the center, where corrupted institutions deter conversion to formal sector usage.

  3. Measurements of VOC emissions from three building materials using small environmental chamber under defined standard test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Zhang, J.; Lusztyk, E.; Magee, R.J.

    1998-12-31

    VOC emission profile is an important parameter to describe the building materials and consumer products for their impact on indoor air quality (IAQ). Emission profiles are dependent on the test conditions. It is therefore very important to standardize testing conditions in order to compare emission factors and decay constants reported by various testing laboratories. Standard chamber test conditions (Chamber temperature of 23 C, relative humidity of 50 %, air change rate of 1 ACH, and specimen loading ratio of 0.4 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}) have been proposed for using small environment chamber (0.05 m{sup 3}) by an international consortium research program led by the Institute for Research in Construction, NRCC. VOC emissions (excluding formaldehyde) from three building materials, a particleboard, a carpet with rubber backing and a vinyl floor tile were measured under above defined test conditions. Samples of the chamber air were collected using multi-sorbent tubes during the chamber tests, and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) GC/FID. GC peaks were identified using TD/GC/MS. Major VOCs emitted were solvents, aldehydes, C10-and C15-terpenes for the particleboard, alkanes, alkenes and 4-phenyl cyclohexene for the carpet. VOC emissions from vinyl floor tile were dominated by a mixture of two alkyl propanoates, which eluted late (at about 230 C) on GC column. Total VOCs in the chamber air reached at 1100, 210 and 2400 m g/m3 for the particleboard, carpet and vinyl floor tile respectively. The analytical variation was around 5 to 10 % judged by a number of duplicates analyzed during the tests. First order exponential decay model and power law decay model were used to describe the emission factor decay from 12 h after the start of dynamic chamber tests. The power law model was found to better fit the experimental data than the first order decay model.

  4. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  5. Building Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Mara G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge…

  6. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  7. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  8. Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-06-29

    There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

  9. High-performance commercial building systems

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    health and performance benefits to occupants. At the same time this program can strengthen the growing energy efficiency industry in California by providing new jobs and growth opportunities for companies providing the technology, systems, software, design, and building services to the commercial sector. The broad objectives across all five program elements were: (1) To develop and deploy an integrated set of tools and techniques to support the design and operation of energy-efficient commercial buildings; (2) To develop open software specifications for a building data model that will support the interoperability of these tools throughout the building life-cycle; (3) To create new technology options (hardware and controls) for substantially reducing controllable lighting, envelope, and cooling loads in buildings; (4) To create and implement a new generation of diagnostic techniques so that commissioning and efficient building operations can be accomplished reliably and cost effectively and provide sustained energy savings; (5) To enhance the health, comfort and performance of building occupants. (6) To provide the information technology infrastructure for owners to minimize their energy costs and manage their energy information in a manner that creates added value for their buildings as the commercial sector transitions to an era of deregulated utility markets, distributed generation, and changing business practices. Our ultimate goal is for our R&D effort to have measurable market impact. This requires that the research tasks be carried out with a variety of connections to key market actors or trends so that they are recognized as relevant and useful and can be adopted by expected users. While some of this activity is directly integrated into our research tasks, the handoff from ''market-connected R&D'' to ''field deployment'' is still an art as well as a science and in many areas requires resources and a timeframe well beyond the scope of this PIER research program

  10. Building the Future: Summary of Four Studies to Develop the Private Sector, Education, Health Care, and Data for Decisionmaking for the Kurdistan Region - Iraq (with Arabic-language version).

    PubMed

    Anthony, C Ross; Hansen, Michael L; Kumar, Krishna B; Shatz, Howard J; Vernez, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) asked the RAND Corporation to undertake four studies aimed at improving the economic and social development of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. RAND's work was intended to help the KRG expand access to high-quality education and health care, increase private-sector development and employment for the expanding labor force, and design a data-collection system to support high-priority policies. The studies were carried out over the year beginning February 2010. The RAND teams worked closely with the Ministries of Planning, Education, and Health to develop targeted solutions to the critical issues faced by the KRG. This article summarizes the health care study. It is intended to provide a high-level overview of the approaches, followed by the studies, key findings, and major recommendations.

  11. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  12. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  13. Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  14. Monitoring the energy efficiency of buildings with Raman DTS and embedded optical fiber cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdinand, P.; Giuseffi, M.; Roussel, N.; Rougeault, S.; Fléchon, O.; Barentin, V.

    2014-05-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to promote energy savings in the building sector, a project named Batimetre has been set-up, to measure parameters affecting building energy consumption. For the first time, optical fibers have been deployed on internal and external faces of two experimental houses, designed for low energy consumption. With a DTS Raman system, these cables provide a distributed measurement of walls temperature every meter and every two minutes. Such instrumentation is able to deliver a very large number of data at a reduced operating cost. It allows to isolate thermal phenomena in dynamic thermal simulation tools, and to compare several intermediate predicted and measured parameters.

  15. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  16. Measurement of air kerma rates for 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field by ionisation chamber and build-up plate.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration field by the (19)F(p, αγ)(16)O reaction is to be served at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. For the determination of air kerma rates using an ionisation chamber in the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, the establishment of the charged particle equilibrium must be achieved during measurement. In addition to measurement of air kerma rates by the ionisation chamber with a thick build-up cap, measurement using the ionisation chamber and a build-up plate (BUP) was attempted, in order to directly determine air kerma rates under the condition of regular calibration for ordinary survey meters and personal dosemeters. Before measurements, Monte Carlo calculations were made to find the optimum arrangement of BUP in front of the ionisation chamber so that the charged particle equilibrium could be well established. Measured results imply that air kerma rates for the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field could be directly determined under the appropriate condition using an ionisation chamber coupled with build-up materials.

  17. Building technologies program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Building Technology Program. The report is divided into four categories: windows and daylighting, lighting systems, building energy simulation, and advanced building systems. The objective of the Building Technologies program is to assist the U.S. building industry in achieving substantial reductions in building-sector energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions while improving comfort, amenity, health, and productivity in the building sector. Past efforts have focused on windows and lighting, and on the simulation tools needed to integrate the full range of energy efficiency solutions into achievable, cost-effective design solutions for new and existing buildings. Current research is based on an integrated systems and life-cycle perspective to create cost-effective solutions for more energy-efficient, comfortable, and productive work and living environments. Sixteen subprograms are described in the report.

  18. [Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

  19. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  20. Energy-efficient rehabilitation of multifamily buildings in the Midwest

    SciTech Connect

    Katrakis, J.T.; Knight, P.A.; Cavallo, J.D.

    1994-09-01

    This report addresses the opportunities available to make multifamily housing more affordable by using energy efficiency practices in housing rehabilitation. Use of the energy conservation measures discussed in this report enables developers of multifamily housing to substantially reduce annual energy costs. The reduction in natural gas usage was found to be approximately 10 Btu per square foot per heating degree-day. The study focuses on a number of Chicago multifamily buildings. The buildings were examined to compare energy efficiency measures that are commonly found in multifamily building rehabilitation with the high-energy-efficiency (HE) techniques that are currently available to community developers but are often unused. The HE measures include R-43 insulation in attics, R-19 insulation in exterior walls, low-emissivity coatings on windows, air infiltration sealing, and HE heating systems. The report describes the HE features and their potential benefits for making housing more affordable. It also describes the factors influencing acceptance. This report makes recommendations for expanding cost-effective energy conservation in the multifamily building sector. Among the recommendations are: expand HE rehab and retrofit techniques to multifamily building rehabs in which demolition of the interior structures is not required (moderate rehabs) or buildings are not vacant (e.g., weatherization upgrades); and expand research into the special opportunities for incorporating energy conservation in low-income communities.

  1. Building Diagnostic Market Deployment - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, S.; Gayeski, N.

    2012-04-30

    provided validation data sets and the WBE software tool to validate the KGS implementation. OAE diagnostician automatically detects and diagnoses problems with outdoor air ventilation and economizer operation for air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings using data available from building automation systems (BASs). As part of this CRADA, PNNL developed implementation documentation and provided technical support to KGS to implement the tool into their software suite. PNNL also provided validation data sets and the OAE software tool to validate the KGS implementation. Finally, as part of this CRADA project, PNNL developed new processes to automate parts of the re-tuning process and transfer those process to KGS for integration into their software product. The transfer of DOE-funded technologies will transform the commercial buildings sector by making buildings more energy efficient and also reducing the carbon footprint from the buildings. As part of the CRADA with PNNL, KGS implemented the whole building energy diagnostician, a portion of outdoor air economizer diagnostician and a number of measures that automate the identification of re-tuning measures.

  2. Measurement of performance of solar-heated office buildings. Final report, June 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, L.N.; Rabl, A.; Socolow, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Prudential Insurance Company is building two new office buildings that are a showcase of innovative energy efficient design and solar energy utilization. In order for this effort to be fully successful, the actual performance of these buildings needs to be monitored. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year. A thorough theoretical analysis has been carried out, using the DOE2.1 computer simulation code. This analysis has been supplemented by shorthand calculations and by special models to provide an independent check of the coding and to evaluate certain features, e.g. the double wall, that cannot be modeled by DOE2.1. A steady state shorthand method has been developed to calculate annual energy use; it is a modification of the ASHRAE bin method and agrees with the computer simulation within about 15% for cooling and 2% for heating. Energy savings due to daylighting have been evaluated using both shorthand methods and the computer code DOE2.1b. The calculations of annual energy use that were performed at the design stage have been reproduced, and changes during later design phases, e.g. the outdoor air flow rate, have been identified. Even without a variety of further energy savings that appear feasible, these buildings promise to be among the most efficient in the current stock of office buildings. A 100-channel instrumentation and data acquisition system has been designed, and installation should be complete by February 1984. Extensive software has been prepared to confront the model predictions with field data.

  3. Diplomatic and operational adaptations to global health programmes in post-conflict settings: contributions of monitoring and evaluation systems to health sector development and 'nation-building' in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kevany, Sebastian; Hatfield, Amanda; Workneh, Nibretie Gobezie; Durrani, Bilal Aurang Zeb; Bekele, Yonas; Khan, Usma; White, Karen; Myrick, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems are an essential element of functioning and accountable global health programmes. In post-conflict settings, the role of M&E systems is also critical to ensure that health services are being delivered to those populations and regions most in need. Given the inherent challenges of health service delivery in such environments, a range of both diplomatic and operational adaptations to M&E procedures are necessary. Using the '12 components' of a functioning M&E system as a conceptual and analytical framework, we observed and reviewed the key challenges to M&E systems in South Sudan as part of a broader review of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) activities supported by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Based on additional interview-based reviews and analyses of M&E activities, a list of adaptations to standardized M&E procedures in response to post-conflict environmental challenges was developed. The study concludes that development and implementation of M&E systems in post-conflict environments requires extensive adaptations to conventional procedures. Flexible and adaptable as well as 'diplomatically sensitized' M&E systems are considered to be essential to the successful completion of M&E-related activities, and may also contribute to broader international relations, 'nation-building', and peace-keeping goals.

  4. Multi-sectoral interventions for healthy growth.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, Ma del Carmen; Lutter, Chessa K; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Kopp, Ciro; Rico, Luis; Ibiett, Gonzalo; Andia, Doris; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    The risk of stunted growth and development is affected by the context in which a child is born and grows. This includes such interdependent influences as the political economy, health and health care, education, society and culture, agriculture and food systems, water and sanitation, and the environment. Here, we briefly review how factors linked with the key sectors can contribute to healthy growth and reduced childhood stunting. Emphasis is placed on the role of agriculture/food security, especially family farming; education, particularly of girls and women; water, sanitation, and hygiene and their integration in stunting reduction strategies; social protection including cash transfers, bearing in mind that success in this regard is linked to reducing the gap between rich and poor; economic investment in stunting reduction including the work with the for-profit commercial sector balancing risks linked to marketing foods that can displace affordable and more sustainable alternatives; health with emphasis on implementing comprehensive and effective health care interventions and building the capacity of health care providers. We complete the review with examples of national and subnational multi-sectoral interventions that illustrate how critical it is for sectors to work together to reduce stunting.

  5. Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

    2005-07-01

    Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

  6. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  7. Building Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

  8. The noise environment of a school classroom due to the operation of utility helicopters. [acoustic measurements of helicopter noise during flight over building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Pegg, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Noise measurements under controlled conditions have been made inside and outside of a school building during flyover operations of four different helicopters. The helicopters were operated at a condition considered typical for a police patrol mission. Flyovers were made at an altitude of 500 ft and an airspeed of 45 miles per hour. During these operations acoustic measurements were made inside and outside of the school building with the windows closed and then open. The outside noise measurements during helicopter flyovers indicate that the outside db(A) levels were approximately the same for all test helicopters. For the windows closed case, significant reductions for the inside measured db(A) values were noted for all overflights. These reductions were approximately 20 db(A); similar reductions were noted in other subjective measuring units. The measured internal db(A) levels with the windows open exceeded published classroom noise criteria values; however, for the windows-closed case they are in general agreement with the criteria values.

  9. Sector Study Guideline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    LIMITS . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Market Groups . ................ 8 5.2 Market Group A and the Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment...9 5.3 Market Groups B and Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Market Group C and the Level of Effort Assessment 11 5.5... Market Groups Al, B1, C1 versus A2, B2, C2 (LOE) 11 6.0 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SECTOR

  10. Energy Efficiency: Transportation and Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, Michael S.; Richter, Burton

    2011-11-01

    We present a condensed version of the American Physical Society's 2008 analysis of energy efficiency in the transportation and buildings sectors in the United States with updated numbers. In addition to presenting technical findings, we include the report's recommendations for policy makers that we believe are in the best interests of the nation.

  11. Microbial Performance of Food Safety Control and Assurance Activities in a Fresh Produce Processing Sector Measured Using a Microbial Assessment Scheme and Statistical Modeling.

    PubMed

    Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Sawe, Chemutai Tonui; Onyango, Cecilia Moraa; Habib, I; Njagi, Edmund Njeru; Aerts, Marc; Molenberghs, Geert

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches such as inspections, audits, and end product testing cannot detect the distribution and dynamics of microbial contamination. Despite the implementation of current food safety management systems, foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce continue to be reported. A microbial assessment scheme and statistical modeling were used to systematically assess the microbial performance of core control and assurance activities in five Kenyan fresh produce processing and export companies. Generalized linear mixed models and correlated random-effects joint models for multivariate clustered data followed by empirical Bayes estimates enabled the analysis of the probability of contamination across critical sampling locations (CSLs) and factories as a random effect. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in the final products. However, none of the processors attained the maximum safety level for environmental samples. Escherichia coli was detected in five of the six CSLs, including the final product. Among the processing-environment samples, the hand or glove swabs of personnel revealed a higher level of predicted contamination with E. coli , and 80% of the factories were E. coli positive at this CSL. End products showed higher predicted probabilities of having the lowest level of food safety compared with raw materials. The final products were E. coli positive despite the raw materials being E. coli negative for 60% of the processors. There was a higher probability of contamination with coliforms in water at the inlet than in the final rinse water. Four (80%) of the five assessed processors had poor to unacceptable counts of Enterobacteriaceae on processing surfaces. Personnel-, equipment-, and product-related hygiene measures to improve the performance of preventive and intervention measures are recommended.

  12. China's industrial sector in an international context

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Lehman, Bryan; Sinton, Jonathan

    2000-05-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 40% of global energy use. In 1995, developing countries used an estimated 48 EJ for industrial production, over one-third of world total industrial primary energy use (Price et al., 1998). Industrial output and energy use in developing countries is dominated by China, India, and Brazil. China alone accounts for about 30 EJ (National Bureau of Statistics, 1999), or about 23% of world industrial energy use. China's industrial sector is extremely energy-intensive and accounted for almost 75% of the country's total energy use in 1997. Industrial energy use in China grew an average of 6.6% per year, from 14 EJ in 1985 to 30 EJ in 1997 (Sinton et al., 1996; National Bureau of Statistics, 1999). This growth is more than three times faster than the average growth that took place in the world during the past two decades. The industrial sector can be divided into light and heavy industry, reflecting the relative energy-intensity of the manufacturing processes. In China, about 80% of the energy used in the industrial sector is consumed by heavy industry. Of this, the largest energy-consuming industries are chemicals, ferrous metals, and building materials (Sinton et al., 1996). This paper presents the results of international comparisons of production levels and energy use in six energy-intensive subsectors: iron and steel, aluminum, cement, petroleum refining, ammonia, and ethylene. The sectoral analysis results indicate that energy requirements to produce a unit of raw material in China are often higher than industrialized countries for most of the products analyzed in this paper, reflecting a significant potential to continue to improve energy efficiency in heavy industry.

  13. Review of optimization techniques of polygeneration systems for building applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y, Rong A.; Y, Su; R, Lahdelma

    2016-08-01

    Polygeneration means simultaneous production of two or more energy products in a single integrated process. Polygeneration is an energy-efficient technology and plays an important role in transition into future low-carbon energy systems. It can find wide applications in utilities, different types of industrial sectors and building sectors. This paper mainly focus on polygeneration applications in building sectors. The scales of polygeneration systems in building sectors range from the micro-level for a single home building to the large- level for residential districts. Also the development of polygeneration microgrid is related to building applications. The paper aims at giving a comprehensive review for optimization techniques for designing, synthesizing and operating different types of polygeneration systems for building applications.

  14. Quality Assurance in Ontario's Postsecondary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Canadian postsecondary education enjoys an international reputation for quality. However, Canada does not have an accepted, national framework to understand, measure, or clearly define the actual quality of the postsecondary education sector. In this, Canada is seen as unique when compared with other developed…

  15. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  16. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    SciTech Connect

    Gordan, Frederick M.

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  17. Measurement of macrocyclic trichothecene in floor dust of water-damaged buildings using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-dust matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Saito, Rena; Park, Ju-Hyeong; LeBouf, Ryan; Green, Brett J; Park, Yeonmi

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to detect fungal secondary metabolites. Detection of verrucarol, the hydrolysis product of Stachybotrys chartarum macrocyclic trichothecene (MCT), was confounded by matrix effects associated with heterogeneous indoor environmental samples. In this study, we examined the role of dust matrix effects associated with GC-MS/MS to better quantify verrucarol in dust as a measure of total MCT. The efficiency of the internal standard (ISTD, 1,12-dodecanediol), and application of a matrix-matched standard correction method in measuring MCT in floor dust of water-damaged buildings was additionally examined. Compared to verrucarol, ISTD had substantially higher matrix effects in the dust extracts. The results of the ISTD evaluation showed that without ISTD adjustment, there was a 280% ion enhancement in the dust extracts compared to neat solvent. The recovery of verrucarol was 94% when the matrix-matched standard curve without the ISTD was used. Using traditional calibration curves with ISTD adjustment, none of the 21 dust samples collected from water damaged buildings were detectable. In contrast, when the matrix-matched calibration curves without ISTD adjustment were used, 38% of samples were detectable. The study results suggest that floor dust of water-damaged buildings may contain MCT. However, the measured levels of MCT in dust using the GC-MS/MS method could be significantly under- or overestimated, depending on the matrix effects, the inappropriate ISTD, or combination of the two. Our study further shows that the routine application of matrix-matched calibration may prove useful in obtaining accurate measurements of MCT in dust derived from damp indoor environments, while no isotopically labeled verrucarol is available.

  18. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  19. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... country, we can continue our progress in reducing power plant pollution, thereby improving public health... reduce power plant carbon pollution, building on actions already underway in States and the power sector, I hereby direct the following: Section 1. Flexible Carbon Pollution Standards for Power Plants....

  20. Coordinating Demand-Side Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Among Western States: Options for Documenting Energy and Non-Energy Impacts for the Power Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, Steven R.; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2016-06-22

    Demand-side energy efficiency (efficiency) represents a low-cost opportunity to reduce electricity consumption and demand and provide a wide range of non-energy benefits, including avoiding air pollution. Efficiency-related energy and non-energy impacts are determined and documented by implementing evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) systems. This technical brief describes efficiency EM&V coordination strategies that Western states can consider taking on together, outlines EM&V-related products that might be appropriate for multistate coordination, and identifies some implications of coordination. Coordinating efficiency EM&V activities can save both time and costs for state agencies and stakeholders engaged in efficiency activities and can be particularly beneficial for multiple states served by the same utility. First, the brief summarizes basic information on efficiency, its myriad potential benefits and EM&V for assessing those benefits. Second, the brief introduces the concept of multistate EM&V coordination in the context of assessing such benefits, including achievement of state and federal goals to reduce air pollutants.1 Next, the brief presents three coordination strategy options for efficiency EM&V: information clearinghouse/exchange, EM&V product development, and a regional energy efficiency tracking system platform. The brief then describes five regional EM&V products that could be developed on a multistate basis: EM&V reporting formats, database of consistent deemed electricity savings values, glossary of definitions and concepts, efficiency EM&V methodologies, and EM&V professional standards or accreditation processes. Finally, the brief discusses options for next steps that Western states can take to consider multistate coordination on efficiency EM&V. Appendices provide background information on efficiency and EM&V, as well as definitions and suggested resources on the covered topics. This brief is intended to inform state public

  1. Measurement of natural radioactivity in Jordanian building materials and their contribution to the public indoor gamma dose rate.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, J M; Hamideen, M S

    2013-10-01

    This study is undertaken to determine the activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in samples of commonly used building materials in Jordan. Samples of seven different materials were collected from construction sites and local agencies supplying raw construction materials and analyzed using a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer, taking into account self-attenuation in bulk samples. The average specific activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K ranged from 2.84 to 41.52, 0.78 to 58.42. and 3.74 to 897 Bq/kg, respectively. All the samples had radium equivalent activities well below the limit of 370 Bq/kg set by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 1979). External and internal hazard indices, absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate associated with the radionuclides of interest were calculated and compared with the international legislation and guidance. In general, most of the activities did not exceed the recommended international limits, except for granite and ceramic samples which are usually used as secondary building materials in Jordan.

  2. Child and Adolescent Obesity and Employment Sector in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zimmer, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a part of the economic reform in China, sectoral employment has been overlooked as a potential determinant of child and adolescent obesity (CAO). Using large-scale longitudinal data from surveys conducted from 1989 to 2006, this paper examines the relationship between the sector in which a parent is employed and CAO, with the sector being based on ownership and categorised as either state or non-state. Analyses of over 1,700 children and adolescents show that children and adolescents whose parents work in the state sector are less likely to be obese. Patterns of sectoral employment's effect are robust across time periods, in fixed-effects models, and across multiple measures of obesity. Additionally, the paper shows that socioeconomic characteristics of the parent, such as income, education, and occupation, typically thought to be important predictors of CAO, are not as important when the parental working sector is included in the models. PMID:24298293

  3. Setting the Stage with Geometry: Lessons & Worksheets to Build Skills in Measuring Perimeter, Area, Surface Area, and Volume. Poster/Teaching Guide. Expect the Unexpected with Math[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Actuarial Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Setting the Stage with Geometry" is a new math program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) standards that is designed to help students in grades 6-8 build and reinforce basic geometry skills for measuring 2D and 3D shapes. Developed by The Actuarial Foundation, this program seeks to provide skill-building math…

  4. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  5. Are neutrons responsible for the dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in the build-up region for a high-energy photon beam?

    PubMed

    Ding, George X; Duzenli, Cheryl; Kalach, Nina I

    2002-09-07

    This study presents measured neutron dose using a neutron dosimeter in a water phantom and investigates a hypothesis that neutrons in a high-energy photon beam may be responsible for the reported significant dose discrepancies between Monte Carlo calculations and measurements at the build-up region in large fields. Borated polyethylene slabs were inserted between the accelerator head and the phantom in order to remove neutrons generated in the accelerator head. The thickness of the slab ranged from 2.5 cm to 10 cm. A lead slab of 3 mm thickness was also used in the study. The superheated drop neutron dosimeter was used to measure the depth-dose curve of neutrons in a high-energy photon beam and to verify the effectiveness of the slab to remove these neutrons. Total dose measurements were performed in water using a WELLHOFER WP700 beam scanner with an IC-10 ionization chamber. The Monte Carlo code BEAM was used to simulate an 18 MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac-2100EX accelerator. Both EGS4/DOSXYZ and EGSnrc/DOSRZnrc were used in the dose calculations. Measured neutron dose equivalents as a function of depth per unit total dose in water were presented for 10 x 10 and 40 x 40 cm2 fields. The measured results have shown that a 5-10 cm thick borated polyethylene slab can reduce the neutron dose by a factor of 2 when inserted between the accelerator head and the detector. In all cases the measured neutron dose equivalent was less than 0.5% of the photon dose. In order to study if the ion chamber was highly sensitive to the neutron dose, we have investigated the disagreement between the Monte Carlo calculated and measured central-axis depth-dose curves in the build-up region when different shielding materials were used. The result indicated that the IC-10 chamber was not highly sensitive to the neutron dose. Therefore, neutrons present in a high-energy photon beam were unlikely to be responsible for the reported discrepancies in the build-up region for large fields.

  6. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  7. Integrated estimation of commercial sector end-use load shapes and energy use intensities in the PG&E service area

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Eto, J.; Konopacki, S.; Afzal, A.; Heinemeier, K.; Rainer, L.

    1993-12-01

    This project represents a unique research effort to address the commercial sector end-use energy forecasting data needs of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and the California Energy Commission (CEC). The object of the project was to develop an updated set of commercial sector end-use energy use intensity (EUI) data that has been fully reconciled with measured data. The research was conducted in two stages. First, we developed reconciled electricity end-use EUIs and load shapes for each of the 11 building types in the inland and coastal regions of the PG&E service territory using information collected in 1986. Second, we developed procedures to translate these results into a consistent set of commercial sector forecasting model inputs recognizing the separate modeling conventions used by PG&E and CEC. EUIs have been developed for: II commercial building types; up to 10 end uses; up to 3 fuel types; 2 and 5 subservice territory forecasting regions (as specified by the PG&E and CEC forecasting models, respectively); and up to 2 distinct vintages corresponding to the period prior to and immediately following the adoption of the first generation of California building and equipment standards. For the electricity end uses, 36 sets of daily load shapes have been developed representing average weekday, average weekend, and peak weekday electricity use for each month of the year by building type for both the inland and coastal climate zones.

  8. Use of the BINP HLS to measure vertical changes in the locations of the building and ground at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jin; Seo, Kwang-Won; Gil, Kye-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL), a 4 th generation light source, is currently being installed and will be completed by December 2015 so that users can be supported beginning in 2016. The PAL-XFEL equipment must continuously maintain the bunch-tobunch beam parameters (60 Hz, Energy: 10 GeV, Charge: 200 pC, Bunch Length: 60 fs, Emittance X/Y: 0.481/0.256 mm rad) in order to supply stable photons with the energy and flux appropriate for tests by beamline users. To this end, the PAL-XFEL equipment has to be kept precisely aligned (Linear Accelerator: +/- 100 μm, Undulator: +/- 50 μm). As a part of the process for installing the PAL-XFEL, a GPS-using surface geodetic network is being constructed for precise equipment measurement and alignment, and the installation of a tunnel measurement network inside the buildings is in the preparation stage; additionally, the fiducialization of major equipment is underway. After the PAL-XFEL equipment is optimized and aligned, if the ground and the buildings go through vertical changes during operation, misalignment (and tilt) of the equipment, including various magnets and RF structures, will cause errors in the electron beam's trajectory, which will lead to changes to the beam parameters. For continuous and systemic measurement of vertical changes in the buildings and monitoring of ground sinking and uplifting, the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Ultrasonic-type Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) is to be installed and operated in all sections of the PAL-XFEL for the linear accelerator, the insertion device (undulator) and the beamline. This study will introduce the operation principle, design concept, and advantages (self-calibration) of the HLS and will outline its installation plan and operation plan.

  9. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, Arthur

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants

  10. Making America's Buildings Better (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies program. Buildings use more energy than any other sector of the U.S. economy? In fact, buildings consume more than 70% of the electricity and more than 50% of the natural gas Americans use. That's why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Building Technologies Program (BTP) is working to improve building energy performance through high-impact research, out-reach, and regulatory efforts. These efforts will result in affordable, high-performance homes and commercial buildings. These grid-connected buildings will be more energy efficient than today's typical buildings, with renewable energy providing a portion of the power needs. They will combine energy-smart 'whole building' design and construction, appliances and equipment that minimize plug loads, and cost-effective photovoltaics or other on-site energy systems.

  11. Building technolgies program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Building Technologies program is to assist the U.S. building industry in achieving substantial reductions in building sector energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions while improving comfort, amenity, health, and productivity in the building sector. We have focused our past efforts on two major building systems, windows and lighting, and on the simulation tools needed by researchers and designers to integrate the full range of energy efficiency solutions into achievable, cost-effective design solutions for new and existing buildings. In addition, we are now taking more of an integrated systems and life cycle perspective to create cost-effective solutions for more energy efficient, comfortable, and productive work and living environments. More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity-factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout every space in a building, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Window and lighting systems are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program.

  12. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  13. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  14. Commercial Building Energy Asset Rating Program -- Market Research

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Molly J.; Wang, Na

    2012-04-19

    Under contract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, HaydenTanner, LLC conducted an in-depth analysis of the potential market value of a commercial building energy asset rating program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The market research objectives were to: (1) Evaluate market interest and need for a program and tool to offer asset rating and rapidly identify potential energy efficiency measures for the commercial building sector. (2) Identify key input variables and asset rating outputs that would facilitate increased investment in energy efficiency. (3) Assess best practices and lessons learned from existing national and international energy rating programs. (4) Identify core messaging to motivate owners, investors, financiers, and others in the real estate sector to adopt a voluntary asset rating program and, as a consequence, deploy high-performance strategies and technologies across new and existing buildings. (5) Identify leverage factors and incentives that facilitate increased investment in these buildings. To meet these objectives, work consisted of a review of the relevant literature, examination of existing and emergent asset and operational rating systems, interviews with industry stakeholders, and an evaluation of the value implication of an asset label on asset valuation. This report documents the analysis methodology and findings, conclusion, and recommendations. Its intent is to support and inform the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on the market need and potential value impacts of an asset labeling and diagnostic tool to encourage high-performance new buildings and building efficiency retrofit projects.

  15. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  16. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  17. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  18. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Farese, Philip; Abramson, Alexis; Phelan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Buildings sector is responsible for about 40% of the national energy expenditures. This is due in part to wasteful use of resources and limited considerations made for energy efficiency during the design and retrofit phases. Recent studies have indicated the potential for up to 30-50% energy savings in the U.S. buildings sector using currently available technologies. This paper discusses efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The tool includes a stock-and-flow model to track stock vintage and efficiency levels with time. The tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios.

  19. Uncertainty bounds using sector theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on sector-stability theory can furnish a description of the uncertainty associated with the frequency response of a model, given sector-bounds on the individual parameters of the model. The application of the sector-based approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant multivariable systems is presently explored, and the approach is applied to two generic forms of parameter uncertainty in order to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results obtained show that sector-uncertainty bounds can be used to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model.

  20. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  1. Healthy Buildings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  2. The AIRMEX study - VOC measurements in public buildings and schools/kindergartens in eleven European cities: Statistical analysis of the data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, Otmar; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Tirendi, Salvatore; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa; Larsen, Bo R.; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2011-07-01

    Indoor and outdoor air concentrations as well as personal exposure concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been measured during 2003-2008 in public buildings, schools, kindergartens and private homes in eleven cities over Europe covering geographic areas in north, central and south Europe during different seasons within the frame of the AIRMEX (European Indoor Air Monitoring and Exposure assessment) study. A database is presented containing the results for 23 VOCs based upon approximately 1000 samples taken from 182 different working environments (offices, classrooms, waiting halls) in public buildings, schools and kindergartens, from 103 private homeplaces and from adult volunteers (148 samples). The statistical analysis of the data demonstrated that sources in the indoor environment are prevailing for most of the investigated VOCs with indoor/outdoor (I/O) concentration ratios following the order: hexanal ≈ D-limonene ≫ formaldehyde > acetone > 1-butoxy-2-propanol > acetaldehyde > propanal > 1-butanol > n-undecane > methylcyclohexane > n-dodecane. For aromatic hydrocarbons the main impact was shown to be penetration from outdoor air as indicated by I/O ratios near one and is characterised by significantly higher indoor as well as outdoor concentrations in the south of Europe with respect to the north. For the terpenes, the lowest indoor concentrations were measured during the warm season, which may be explained by higher ventilation rates and reactions with ozone penetrated from outdoor air.

  3. C-history method: rapid measurement of the initial emittable concentration, diffusion and partition coefficients for formaldehyde and VOCs in building materials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yinping

    2011-04-15

    The initial emittable concentration (C(m,0)), the diffusion coefficient (D(m)), and the material/air partition coefficient (K) are the three characteristic parameters influencing emissions of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials or furniture. It is necessary to determine these parameters to understand emission characteristics and how to control them. In this paper we develop a new method, the C-history method for a closed chamber, to measure these three parameters. Compared to the available methods of determining the three parameters described in the literature, our approach has the following salient features: (1) the three parameters can be simultaneously obtained; (2) it is time-saving, generally taking less than 3 days for the cases studied (the available methods tend to need 7-28 days); (3) the maximum relative standard deviations of the measured C(m,0), D(m) and K are 8.5%, 7.7%, and 9.8%, respectively, which are acceptable for engineering applications. The new method was validated by using the characteristic parameters determined in the closed chamber experiment to predict the observed emissions in a ventilated full scale chamber experiment, proving that the approach is reliable and convincing. Our new C-history method should prove useful for rapidly determining the parameters required to predict formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building materials as well as for furniture labeling.

  4. 76 FR 63913 - Commercial Building Workforce Job/Task Analyses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Commercial Building Workforce Job/Task Analyses AGENCY... and utility ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs and private sector commercial building... INFORMATION CONTACT: Sonal Kemkar, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Office of Energy...

  5. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems.

  6. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J.

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  7. Building the Clean Energy Economy, Engaging the Private Sector

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-01

    This packet provides a list of companies with whom EERE’s program offices collaborate. Below is a list of EERE’s program managers and their contact information should you or your organization be interested in pursuing opportunities with EERE.

  8. Building Capacity in the Public Utility Sectors of Basra, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    3.4 Final Presentations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.5 Dubai Conference...Appendix C: Dubai Seminar Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Appendix D: Memo to Delegates of Basra Public Works Conference... Dubai workshop participants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 6.2 Project proposal and justification form

  9. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  10. Building a culture of health: A new framework and measures for health and health care in America.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Plough, Alonzo

    2016-09-01

    For generations, Americans' health has been unequally influenced by income, education, ethnicity, and geography. Health care systems have operated largely apart from each other and from community life. The definition of health has been the "absence of illness," rather than the recognition that all aspects of our lives should support health. Today, a growing number of communities, regions, and states are working to redefine what it means to get and stay healthy by addressing the multiple determinants of health. The requirements of federal health care reform are changing who has access to care, how care is paid for and delivered, and how patients and providers interact. Coordinated efforts to promote wellness and prevent diseases are proliferating among a diverse set of stakeholders. These developments in health and in society present a window of opportunity for real societal transformation-a chance to catalyze a national movement that demands and supports a widely shared, multifaceted vision for a Culture of Health. To address this challenge, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation has embarked on a strategic direction to use the tools of a large national philanthropy to catalyze a social movement which we are calling Building a Culture of Health. This article presents the Foundation's new model for a Culture of Health, the trans-disciplinary research that developed a set of metrics that tie to the model, and the community engagement activities undertaken in the development of both the model and metrics. The model and associated metrics and extensive communication, in addition to partnership, and grant funding strategies, represent a culture change strategy being implemented over 20 years. Addressing underlying inequities in health affirming life conditions and improving social cohesion across diverse groups to take action to improve theses condition lay at the heart of this strategy.

  11. Energy demand of the German and Dutch residential building stock under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olonscheck, Mady; Holsten, Anne; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    In order to mitigate climate change, extraordinary measures are necessary in the future. The building sector, in particular, offers considerable potential for transformation to lower energy demand. On a national level, however, successful and far-reaching measures will likely be taken only if reliable estimates regarding future energy demand from different scenarios are available. The energy demand for space heating and cooling is determined by a combination of behavioral, climatic, constructional, and demographic factors. For two countries, namely Germany and the Netherlands, we analyze the combined effect of future climate and building stock changes as well as renovation measures on the future energy demand for room conditioning of residential buildings until 2060. We show how much the heating energy demand will decrease in the future and answer the question of whether the energy decrease will be exceeded by an increase in cooling energy demand. Based on a sensitivity analysis, we determine those influencing factors with the largest impact on the future energy demand from the building stock. Both countries have national targets regarding the reduction of the energy demand for the future. We provide relevant information concerning the annual renovation rates that are necessary to reach these targets. Retrofitting buildings is a win-win option as it not only helps to mitigate climate change and to lower the dependency on fossil fuels but also transforms the buildings stock into one that is better equipped for extreme temperatures that may occur more frequently with climate change. For the Netherlands, the study concentrates not only on the national, but also the provincial level, which should facilitate directed policy measures. Moreover, the analysis is done on a monthly basis in order to ascertain a deeper understanding of the future seasonal energy demand changes. Our approach constitutes an important first step towards deeper insights into the internal dynamics

  12. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  13. Comparing Different Suicide Prevention Measures at Bridges and Buildings: Lessons We Have Learned from a National Survey in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Hemmer, Alexander; Meier, Philipp; Reisch, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the effectiveness of different suicide prevention measures implemented on bridges and other high structures in Switzerland. A national survey identified all jumping hotspots that have been secured in Switzerland; of the 15 that could be included in this study, 11 were secured by vertical barriers and 4 were secured by low-hanging horizontal safety nets. The study made an overall and individual pre-post analysis by using Mantel-Haenszel Tests, regression methods and calculating rate ratios. Barriers and safety nets were both effective, with mean suicide reduction of 68.7% (barriers) and 77.1% (safety nets), respectively. Measures that do not secure the whole hotspot and still allow jumps of 15 meters or more were less effective. Further, the analyses revealed that barriers of at least 2.3 m in height and safety-nets fixed significantly below pedestrian level deterred suicidal jumps. Secured bridgeheads and inbound angle barriers seemed to enhance the effectiveness of the measure. Findings can help to plan and improve the effectiveness of future suicide prevention measures on high structures. PMID:28060950

  14. Improved method for measuring and characterizing phthalate emissions from building materials and its application to exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yirui; Xu, Ying

    2014-04-15

    Phthalate emission from vinyl floorings was measured in specially designed stainless steel chambers. Phthalate concentrations increased and reached steady state after 2 to 5 days for all experiments. By having a high ratio of emission surface to sorption surface, avoiding mass loss of phthalates onto sampling pathways, and improving air mixing inside the chamber, the time to reach steady state was significantly reduced, compared to previous studies (1 to 5 months). An innovative approach was developed to determine y0, the gas-phase concentration of phthalates in equilibrium with the material phase, which is the key parameter controlling phthalate emissions. Target phthalate material-phase concentration (C0) and vapor pressure (Vp) were explicitly measured and found to have great influences on the y0 value. For low phthalate concentrations in materials, a simple partitioning mechanism may linearly relate y0 and C0, but cannot be evoked for high-weight phthalate percentages. In addition, the sorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of phthalates on stainless steel chamber surfaces were determined experimentally. Independently measured or calculated parameters were used to validate a semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emission model, with excellent agreement between model predictions and the observed chamber concentrations in gas and stainless steel phases. With the knowledge of y0 and emission mechanisms, human exposure to phthalates from tested floorings was assessed; the levels were comparable to previous studies. This work developed a rapid, novel method to measure phthalate emissions; emission measurement results can be connected to exposure assessment and help health professionals estimate screening-level exposures associated with SVOCs and conduct risk-based prioritization for SVOC chemicals of concern.

  15. [Evaluation experiences of the supplementary care sector: contributions of integrality].

    PubMed

    da Silva Junior, Aluísio Gomes; Alves, Marcia Guimarães de Mello; Mascarenhas, Monica Tereza Machado; Silva, Valeria Marinho Nascimento; de Carvalho, Luis Cláudio

    2008-01-01

    This work identifies aspects of comprehensiveness in the proposals for healthcare evaluation of the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar (ANS) in Brazil, and of the National Commitee Quality Assurance (NCQA) in the U.S.A. The investigation was based on a documental analysis of the proposals found in the websites of both institutions in the second semester of 2006. The data were systemized according to pre-established attributes, building an analytical matrix for evaluating the following three dimensions: management practices and service organization; quality of knowledge and of practices of the health workers; and quality of the control practices of the society. In the Brazilian case there was an emphasis on the first and the third dimensions. The evaluation focalized the operators; the health plans were not evaluated. In the American case there was a balance between the three sets of attributes and the evaluation was focused on the health plans. Both proposals measured the satisfaction of the beneficiaries and made the results of the evaluations available in their websites. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of evaluative concepts and approaches for measuring the integrality of private health plan operators in the Brazilian supplementary health sector.

  16. Measuring the value of nonwage employee benefits: building a model of the relation between benefit satisfaction and value.

    PubMed

    Weathington, Bart L; Jones, Allan P

    2006-11-01

    Researchers have commonly assumed benefits that employees view as more valuable have a greater influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Researchers have used 2 common methods to measure benefit value: attaching a monetary value to benefits and using self-reports of benefit importance. The present authors propose that the 2 approaches are conceptually distinct and have different implications. They use a social exchange perspective to justify this distinction and integrate both approaches and benefit satisfaction into a more comprehensive model of benefit perception. Results suggest that both measures have practical applications depending on the nature of the exchange relationship between the organization and employees. However, this relationship depends on the specific benefit and on employee satisfaction with that benefit. Some benefits lend themselves to a monetary estimate, whereas others lend themselves more to a nonmonetary valuation.

  17. Building a better foundation: improving root-trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M Luke; Guo, Dali; Iversen, Colleen M; Chen, Weile; Eissenstat, David M; Fernandez, Christopher W; Li, Le; Ma, Chengen; Ma, Zeqing; Poorter, Hendrik; Reich, Peter B; Zadworny, Marcin; Zanne, Amy

    2017-03-13

    Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science. These include assessment of spatiotemporal variation in fine-root traits, integration of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root-trait frameworks, and the need for improved scaling of traits measured on individual roots to ecosystem-level processes. Progress in each of these areas is providing opportunities to revisit how below-ground processes are represented in terrestrial biosphere models. Targeted measurements of fine-root traits with clear linkages to ecosystem processes and plant responses to environmental change are strongly needed to reduce empirical and model uncertainties. Further identifying how and when suites of root and whole-plant traits are coordinated or decoupled will ultimately provide a powerful tool for modeling plant form and function at local and global scales.

  18. Variable volume loading method: a convenient and rapid method for measuring the initial emittable concentration and partition coefficient of formaldehyde and other aldehydes in building materials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianyin; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Yinping

    2011-12-01

    The initial emittable formaldehyde and VOC concentration in building materials (C(0)) is a key parameter for characterizing and classifying these materials. Various methods have been developed to measure this parameter, but these generally require a long test time. In this paper we develop a convenient and rapid method, the variable volume loading (VVL) method, to simultaneously measure C(0) and the material/air partition coefficient (K). This method has the following features: (a) it requires a relatively short experimental time (less than 24 h for the cases studied); and (b) is convenient for routine measurement. Using this method, we determined C(0) and K of formaldehyde, propanal and hexanal in one kind of medium density fiberboard, and repeated experiments were performed to reduce measurement error. In addition, an extended-C-history method is proposed to determine the diffusion coefficient and the convective mass transfer coefficient. The VVL method is validated by comparing model predicted results based on the determined parameters with experimental data. The determined C(0) of formaldehyde obtained via this method is less than 10% of the total concentration using the perforator method recommended by the Chinese National Standard, suggesting that the total concentration may not be appropriate to predict emission characteristics, nor for material classification.

  19. Evaluation of accurate mass and relative isotopic abundance measurements in the LTQ-orbitrap mass spectrometer for further metabolomics database building.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Heilier, Jean-François; Madalinski, Geoffrey; Genin, Eric; Ezan, Eric; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Junot, Christophe

    2010-07-01

    Recently, high-resolution mass spectrometry has been largely employed for compound identification, thanks to accurate mass measurements. As additional information, relative isotope abundance (RIA) is often needed to reduce the number of candidates prior to tandem MS(n). Here, we report on the evaluation of the LTQ-Orbitrap, in terms of accurate mass and RIA measurements for building further metabolomics spectral databases. Accurate mass measurements were achieved in the ppm range, using external calibration within 24 h, and remained at <5 ppm over a one-week period. The experimental relative abundances of (M+1) isotopic ions were evaluated in different data sets. First of all, 137 solutions of commercial compounds were analyzed by flow injection analysis in both the positive and negative ion modes. It was found that the ion abundance was the main factor impacting the accuracy of RIA measurements. It was possible to define some intensity thresholds above which errors were systematically <20% of their theoretical values. The same type of results were obtained with analyses from two biological media. Otherwise, no significant effect of ion transmission between the LTQ ion trap and the Orbitrap analyzer on RIA measurement errors was found, whereas the reliability of RIA measurements was dramatically improved by reducing the mass detection window. It was also observed that the signal integration method had a significant impact on RIA measurement errors, with the most-reliable results being obtained with peak height integrations. Finally, automatic integrations using the data preprocessing software XCMS and MZmine gave results similar to those obtained by manual integration, suggesting that it is relevant to use the RIA information in automatic elemental composition determination software from metabolomic peak tables.

  20. Development of procedure for measurement of Pb isotope ratios in seawater by application of seaFAST sample pre-treatment system and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassileva, Emilia; Wysocka, Irena

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic Pb in the oceans, derived from high-temperature industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration can have an isotopic signature distinct from naturally occurring Pb, supplied by rock weathering. To identify the different pollution sources accurately and to quantify their relative contributions, Pb isotope ratios are widely used. Due to the high salt content (approximately 3.5% of total dissolved solids) and very low levels of Pb (typically from 1 to 100 ng L- 1) in seawater the determination of Pb isotope ratios requires preliminary matrix separation and analyte preconcentration. An analytical protocol for the measurements of Pb isotope ratios in seawater combining seaFAST sample pre-treatment system and Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (SF ICP-MS) was developed. The application of seaFAST system was advantageous, because of its completely closed working cycle and small volumes of chemicals introduced in pre-treatment step, resulting in very low detection limits and procedural blanks. The preconcentration/matrix separation step was also of crucial importance for minimizing the isobaric and matrix interferences, coming from the seawater. In order to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural Pb sources, particular attention was paid to the determination of 204Pb isotope because of its implication in some geological interpretations. The validation of the analytical procedure was effectuated according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standard. The method was validated by processing the common Pb isotope reference material NIST SRM 981. All major sources of uncertainty were identified and propagated together following the ISO/GUM guidelines. The estimation of the total uncertainty associated to each measurement result was fundamental tool for sorting the main sources of possible biases. The developed analytical procedure was applied to the coastal and open seawater samples, collected in different regions of

  1. 50 CFR 648.63 - General category Sectors and harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with all applicable law. A Sector may establish additional criteria for determining its membership... law. Any interested group that meets the eligibility criteria may submit a proposal for a Sector. To... Sector must comply with all scallop management measures of this part and other applicable law,...

  2. 77 FR 26129 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2012 Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...This final rule partially approves, and implements, 19 Northeast (NE) multispecies (groundfish) sector operations plans and contracts for fishing year (FY) 2012, and allocates quotas of NE multispecies to the sectors. This final rule does not approve certain exemptions and measures proposed in the operations plans, as explained below. Approval of sector operations plans is necessary to......

  3. Methods of Building Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presentation of symposium papers includes--(1) a study describing techniques for economic analysis of building designs, (2) three case studies of analysis techniques, (3) procedures for measuring the area and volume of buildings, and (4) an open forum discussion. Case studies evaluate--(1) the thermal economics of building enclosures, (2) an…

  4. The effective point of measurement of ionization chambers and the build-up anomaly in MV x-ray beams.

    PubMed

    McEwen, M R; Kawrakow, I; Ross, C K

    2008-03-01

    A precision experimental investigation of the effective point of measurement (EPOM) of ion chambers in megavoltage beams has been carried out. A one-dimensional scanning phantom system was developed with an overall accuracy in the positioning of a chamber of better than 0.15 mm. Depth-dose data were acquired for a 25 MV beam from an Elekta Precise linac (field sizes of 10 x 10 cm and 25 x 25 cm) for measurement depths in the range 0.6-6 cm. The results confirmed the Monte Carlo calculations of an earlier theoretical investigation by Kawrakow [Med. Phys. 33, 1829-1839 (2006)] that the standard shift for cylindrical chambers, recommended in dosimetry protocols of -0.6r (where r is the internal radius of the cavity), is incorrect. A wide range of ion chambers were investigated and it was found that errors of up to 1.4 mm could occur for certain chamber designs (although typical errors for common chambers were around 0.5 mm). A comparison between measurements and Monte Carlo simulations showed that once the correct EPOM is used, the details of the linac geometry are correct, and the parameters of the electron beam striking the bremsstrahlung target have been adequately determined, the EGSnrc Monte Carlo package is capable of reproducing the experimental data to 0.2 mm or better. The investigation also confirmed that for the highest accuracy depth-dose curves in megavoltage photon beams one should use a well-guarded parallel-plate ion chamber. Three chamber designs were tested here and found to be satisfactory-the Scanditronix-Wellhöfer NACP-02, PTW Roos and Exradin All.

  5. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fixed Gear Sector, as defined in § 648.87(d)(1) or (2), joins a new sector, or fishes pursuant to the... in a sector may only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(A... that sector to fish under the provisions of the common pool or in another sector in the year...

  6. SCENARIOS FOR MEETING CALIFORNIA'S 2050 CLIMATE GOALS California's Carbon Challenge Phase II Volume I: Non-Electricity Sectors and Overall Scenario Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey; Donovan, Sally; Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study provides an updated analysis of long-term energy system scenarios for California consistent with the State meeting its 2050 climate goal, including detailed analysis and assessment of electricity system build-out, operation, and costs across the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region. Four key elements are found to be critical for the State to achieve its 2050 goal of 80 percent greenhouse (GHG) reductions from the 1990 level: aggressive energy efficiency; clean electricity; widespread electrification of passenger vehicles, building heating, and industry heating; and large-scale production of low-carbon footprint biofuels to largely replace petroleum-based liquid fuels. The approach taken here is that technically achievable energy efficiency measures are assumed to be achieved by 2050 and aggregated with the other key elements mentioned above to estimate resultant emissions in 2050. The energy and non-energy sectors are each assumed to have the objective of meeting an 80 percent reduction from their respective 1990 GHG levels for the purposes of analysis. A different partitioning of energy and non-energy sector GHG greenhouse reductions is allowed if emission reductions in one sector are more economic or technically achievable than in the other. Similarly, within the energy or non-energy sectors, greater or less than 80 percent reduction from 1990 is allowed for sub-sectors within the energy or non-energy sectors as long as the overall target is achieved. Overall emissions for the key economy-wide scenarios are considered in this report. All scenarios are compliant or nearly compliant with the 2050 goal. This finding suggests that multiple technical pathways exist to achieve the target with aggressive policy support and continued technology development of largely existing technologies.

  7. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  8. Fast sorption measurements of volatile organic compounds on building materials: Part 1 – Methodology developed for field applications

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, M.; Verriele, M.; Dusanter, S.; Schoemaecker, C.; Le Calve, S.; Locoge, N.

    2016-01-01

    A Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) has been coupled to the outlet of a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC), to measure volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentration during a sorption experiments (Rizk et al., this issue) [1]. The limits of detection of the PTR-MS for three VOCs are presented for different time resolution (2, 10 and 20 s). The mass transfer coefficient was calculated in the FLEC cavity for the different flow rates. The concentration profile obtained from a sorption experiment performed on a gypsum board and a vinyl flooring are also presented in comparison with the profile obtained for a Pyrex glass used as a material that do not present any sorption behavior (no sink). Finally, the correlation between the concentration of VOCs adsorbed on the surface of the gypsum board at equilibrium (Cse) and the concentration of VOCs Ce measured in the gas phase at equilibrium is presented for benzene, C8 aromatics and toluene. PMID:26937475

  9. Solicitation and Selection of Partner Projects, Technical Team Leads, and Measurement and Validation Contractors for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funded Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.; Baechler, Michael C.; Iverson, Megan M.

    2010-09-30

    In March 2010, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) joined two other labs receiving ARRA funding, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable National Laboratory (NREL), to began weekly conference calls with the goal of coordinating a joint lab solicitation to support the ARRA-funded CBP project. Two solicitations were identified for: 1) new CBP Partners; 2) technical contractors to provide technical assistance and measurement and verification (M&V) contractors. The M&V contractors support the work by providing model reviews and conducting monitoring studies to verify building performance. This report documents the process used by the labs for the solicitations, and describes the process and outcomes for PNNL, selection of candidate Partners, technical teams, and M&V contractors.

  10. Thermal relics in hidden sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo E-mail: huitzut@uci.edu

    2008-10-15

    Dark matter may be hidden, with no standard model gauge interactions. At the same time, in WIMPless models (WIMP: weakly interacting massive particles) with hidden matter masses proportional to hidden gauge couplings squared, the hidden dark matter's thermal relic density may naturally be in the right range, preserving the key quantitative virtue of WIMPs. We consider this possibility in detail. We first determine model-independent constraints on hidden sectors from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. Contrary to conventional wisdom, large hidden sectors are easily accommodated. A flavour-free version of the standard model is allowed if the hidden sector is just 30% colder than the observable sector after reheating. Alternatively, if the hidden sector contains a one-generation version of the standard model with characteristic mass scale below 1 MeV, even identical reheating temperatures are allowed. We then analyse hidden sector freeze-out in detail for a concrete model, solving the Boltzmann equation numerically and explaining the results from both observable and hidden sector points of view. We find that WIMPless dark matter does indeed obtain the correct relic density for masses in the range keV{approx}

  11. General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking northeast - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  12. General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Antenna Array and building complex, looking southwest - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  13. Testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures in a controlled environment: The SERI CMFERT (Collaborative Manufactured Buildings Facility for Energy Research and Training) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Franconi, E.

    1990-03-01

    For several years the Solar Energy Research Institute has been testing the effectiveness of mobile home weatherization measures, with the support of the US DOE Office of State and Local Assistance Programs Weatherization Assistance Program, the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems, the seven states within the federal Weatherization Region 7, the Colorado Division of Housing, and the DOE Denver Support Office. During the winter of 1988--89, several weatherization measures were thermally tested on three mobile homes under controlled conditions inside a large environmental enclosure. The effects of each weatherization measure on conduction losses, infiltration losses, and combined furnace and duct-delivered heat efficiency were monitored. The retrofit options included air sealing, duct repair, furnace tune-up, interior storm panels, floor insulation, and roof insulation. The study demonstrated that cost-effective heating energy savings of about 20% to 50% are possible if weatherization techniques adapted to the special construction details in mobile homes are applied. 24 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. A rapid and accurate method, ventilated chamber C-history method, of measuring the emission characteristic parameters of formaldehyde/VOCs in building materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaodan; Xiong, Jianyin; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-10-15

    The indoor pollution caused by formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building materials poses an adverse effect on people's health. It is necessary to understand and control the behaviors of the emission sources. Based on detailed mass transfer analysis on the emission process in a ventilated chamber, this paper proposes a novel method of measuring the three emission characteristic parameters, i.e., the initial emittable concentration, the diffusion coefficient and the partition coefficient. A linear correlation between the logarithm of dimensionless concentration and time is derived. The three parameters can then be calculated from the intercept and slope of the correlation. Compared with the closed chamber C-history method, the test is performed under ventilated condition thus some commonly-used measurement instruments (e.g., GC/MS, HPLC) can be applied. While compared with other methods, the present method can rapidly and accurately measure the three parameters, with experimental time less than 12h and R(2) ranging from 0.96 to 0.99 for the cases studied. Independent experiment was carried out to validate the developed method, and good agreement was observed between the simulations based on the determined parameters and experiments. The present method should prove useful for quick characterization of formaldehyde/VOC emissions from indoor materials.

  15. Dark matter antibaryons from a supersymmetric hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean

    2012-11-01

    The cosmological origin of both dark and baryonic matter can be explained through a unified mechanism called hylogenesis where baryon and antibaryon numbers are divided between the visible sector and a GeV-scale hidden sector, while the Universe remains net baryon symmetric. The “missing” antibaryons, in the form of exotic hidden states, are the dark matter. We study model-building, cosmological, and phenomenological aspects of this scenario within the framework of supersymmetry, which naturally stabilizes the light hidden sector and electroweak mass scales. Inelastic dark matter scattering on visible matter destroys nucleons, and nucleon decay searches offer a novel avenue for the direct detection of the hidden antibaryonic dark matter sea.

  16. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  17. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings

    PubMed Central

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Verticchio, Elena; Beltrán, Pedro; Siani, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain) were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets. PMID:27537886

  18. Assessment of the Minimum Sampling Frequency to Avoid Measurement Redundancy in Microclimate Field Surveys in Museum Buildings.

    PubMed

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Verticchio, Elena; Beltrán, Pedro; Siani, Anna Maria

    2016-08-15

    Monitoring temperature and relative humidity of the environment to which artefacts are exposed is fundamental in preventive conservation studies. The common approach in setting measuring instruments is the choice of a high sampling rate to detect short fluctuations and increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. However, in recent cultural heritage standards the evaluation of variability is based on moving average and short fluctuations and therefore massive acquisition of data in slowly-changing indoor environments could end up being redundant. In this research, the sampling frequency to set a datalogger in a museum room and inside a microclimate frame is investigated by comparing the outcomes obtained from datasheets associated with different sampling conditions. Thermo-hygrometric data collected in the Sorolla room of the Pio V Museum of Valencia (Spain) were used and the widely consulted recommendations issued in UNI 10829:1999 and EN 15757:2010 standards and in the American Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers (ASHRAE) guidelines were applied. Hourly sampling proved effective in obtaining highly reliable results. Furthermore, it was found that in some instances daily means of data sampled every hour can lead to the same conclusions as those of high frequency. This allows us to improve data logging design and manageability of the resulting datasheets.

  19. Industry Research and Recommendations for New Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, B.; Leach, M.; Gregory, N.; Pless, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Matthew, P.

    2014-05-01

    Researchers evaluated industry needs and developed logic models to support possible future commercial new construction research and deployment efforts that could be led or supported by DOE's Commercial Building Integration program or other national initiatives. The authors believe that these recommendations support a proposed course of action from the current state of commercial building energy efficiency to a possible long-term goal of achieving significant market penetration of cost-effective NZE buildings in all building sectors and climates by 2030.

  20. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  1. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  2. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  3. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  4. Theory and Motivations of Dark Sector Dark Matter and Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Philip

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory and motivations underlying ``dark'' or ``hidden'' sector dark matter and new force scenarios. Dark sector scenarios with sub-GeV mass scales have attracted particular attention in the past several years, motivated in part by findings from direct detection, satellite, and LHC experiments, as well as precision measurements. Moreover, these scenarios offer some of the simplest and least explored possibilities for dark matter. As such, sub-GeV dark sector scenarios have become the focus of a broad and growing international program of experiments.

  5. Muon dynamics in a toroidal sector magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Fernow, R.C.; Palmer, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The present scenario for the cooling channel in a high brightness muon collider calls for a quasi-continuous solenoidal focusing channel. The beam line consists of a periodic array of hydrogen absorbers immersed in a solenoid with alternating focusing field and rf linacs at the zero field points. Solenoids and toroidal sectors have a natural place in muon collider design given the large emittance of the beam and consequently, the large transverse momentum of the initial pion beam or the decay muon beam. Bent solenoids as shown were studied for use at the front end of the machine, as part of the capture channel and more recently as part of a diagnostic setup to measure the position and momentum of muons. The authors present a Hamiltonian formulation of muon dynamics in toroidal sector solenoids (bent solenoid).

  6. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  7. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  8. Unpacking commercial sector opposition to European smoke-free policy: lack of unity, ‘fear of association’ and harm reduction debates

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tobacco companies have made extensive efforts to build alliances against comprehensive smoke-free legislation. This article analyses the interaction between actors who opposed the development of the European Council Recommendation on smoke-free environments. Methods Drawing on data from 200 policy documents and 32 semistructured interviews and using qualitative textual analysis and organisational network analysis, opponents’ positions on, and responses to, the policy initiative, strategies to oppose the policy, and efforts to build alliances were investigated. Results The non-binding nature of the policy, scientific evidence and clear political will to adopt EU-wide measures combined to limit the intensity of commercial sector opposition to the comprehensive EU smoke-free policy. Most tobacco companies, led by the Confederation of European Community Cigarette Manufacturers (CECCM), voiced reservations against the proposal, criticised the policy process and fought flanking measures on product regulation. However, some companies focused on instigating harm reduction debates. These divergent approaches and the reluctance of other commercial actors to demonstrate solidarity with the tobacco sector prevented the establishment of a cohesive commercial sector alliance. Conclusions The comparatively limited opposition to EU smoke-free policy contrasts with previous accounts of tobacco industry resistance to tobacco control. While context-specific factors can partially explain these differences, the paper indicates that the sector's diminished credibility and lack of unity hampered political engagement and alliance building. Industry efforts to emphasise the benefits of smokeless tobacco during smoke-free policy debates highlight the potential of harm reduction as a gateway for tobacco companies to re-enter the political arena. PMID:26055268

  9. Building Skills to Build Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Communities are at the heart of the government's vision for the Big Society. And it's the author's strongly held view that skills should be at the heart of each and every one of those communities. If one grows the skills of an individual then the community will flourish. There is a job to be done in building skills to build communities--skilled…

  10. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) Geomagnetic Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap geomagnetic fields.

  11. SECTORS Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Brown, Sherrod [D-OH

    2009-04-01

    04/01/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4192-4195) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  13. Building Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communication programs use some form of Simultaneous Communication (speaking and signing at the same time). This program includes building blocks such as Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE), Finger Spelling, Listening, Manually Coded English (MCE), ...

  14. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  15. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L.

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  16. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  17. Bioterrorism: Health sector alertness

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Violet N.

    2013-01-01

    The global events of the last two decades indicate that the threat of biological warfare is not a myth, but a harsh reality. The successive outbreaks caused by newly recognized and resurgent pathogens and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrate the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. This review article provides a concise overview of bioterrorism, the agents used, and measures to counteract it, with a relevant note on India's current scenario of surveillance systems, laboratory response network, and the need for preparedness. PMID:23633831

  18. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fixed Gear Sector, as defined in § 648.87(d)(1) or (2), joins a new sector, or fishes pursuant to the...) Areas that can be fished. Vessels in a sector may only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in... penalty shall be applied to any member permit/vessel that leaves that sector to fish under the...

  19. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fixed Gear Sector, as defined in § 648.87(d)(1) or (2), joins a new sector, or fishes pursuant to the...) Areas that can be fished. Vessels in a sector may only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in... penalty shall be applied to any member permit/vessel that leaves that sector to fish under the...

  20. Our Buildings, Ourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  1. Energy and cost analysis of commercial building shell characteristics and operating schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.S.; Pierce, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    Eight prototypical commercial buildings were considered, and estimates of the energy savings realized from various conservation measures are presented. For each of four building types (hospital, office, educational, and retail) two building designs representative of both pre- and post-embargo construction were analyzed. The ongoing program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims to develop an engineering-economic model to forecast annual energy use in the US commercial sector. This particular study was undertaken to define relationships among energy-conservation measures, energy savings, and capital costs. Buildings were modeled and analyzed using NECAP (NASA Energy-Cost Analysis Program) based on hourly weather data in Kansas City (selected as typical of the entire country). Energy-conservation measures considered include night and weekend thermostat setback, reduction in ventilation, reduction in lighting, window alterations (shading, dual panes, and size reduction), economizer cycle, reset of supply temperature based on zone demand, and improvements in equipment efficiencies. Results indicate energy savings as a function of the capital cost of each energy-conservation measure for each of the eight buildings considered.

  2. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  3. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  4. Commercial Buildings High Performance Rooftop Unit Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEAs) are releasing a new design specification for high performance rooftop air conditioning units (RTUs). Manufacturers who develop RTUs based on this new specification will find strong interest from the commercial sector due to the energy and financial savings.

  5. Buildings Energy Use Data Book, Edition 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepins, G. E.; And Others

    The stated purpose of this publication is to present a large amount of relevant data on energy use in an easily retrievable and usable format. The following topics are covered in eight chapters: (1) sector definitions; (2) buildings inventory; (3) appliance inventory; (4) heating and cooling units inventory; (5) appliance efficiencies; (6)…

  6. Building a Vision for Education in Benin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahanhanzo, Joseph; Odushin, David E.; Bibi-Adelakoun, Alice

    2006-01-01

    For the first time in Benin, the education sector has built its own vision. In the past, there were general policy laws, which provided a framework for education policy. The current building experience, arising in a particular context, is the result of a political decision to include in one document all the replies to the questions raised by the…

  7. SANCnews: Sector ffbb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardin, D.; Bondarenko, S.; Kalinovskaya, L.; Nanava, G.; Rumyantsev, L.; von Schlippe, W.

    2007-11-01

    Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Java, FORM3, PERL, FORTRAN Computer:Intel-based PCs on which Java and FORM3 are available Operating system:Linux, Windows RAM:10 MB Word size:32 Classification:11.6 Does the new version supersede the previous version?:Yes Nature of problem:Automatic calculation of pseudo- and realistic observables for various processes and decays in the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions, QCD and QED at one-loop precision level. Form factors and helicity amplitudes free of UV divergences are produced. For exclusion of IR singularities the soft photon emission is included. Solution method:Numerical computation of analytical formulae of form factors and helicity amplitudes. For simulation of two fermion radiative decays of Standard Model bosons ( W,Z) and the Higgs boson a Monte Carlo technique is used. Reasons for new version:Implementation of new processes; extension of an automatic generation of FORTRAN codes by the s2n.f package onto many more processes; bug fixes. Summary of revisions:Implementation of light-by-light scattering into QED branch; vast update of 2f2b node in EW branch; complete renovation of QCD branch. Restrictions:In the current version of SANC there are 3 and 4 particle processes and decays available at one-loop precision level. Running time:The running time depends on the selected process. For instance, the symbolic calculation of form factors (with precomputed building blocks) for H→eeZ process takes about 10 sec, helicity amplitudes—about 10 sec, and bremsstrahlung—1 min 10 sec. The relevant s2n runs take about 2 min 40 sec, 1 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The numerical computation of decay rate for this process (production of benchmark case 3 Table) takes about 5 sec (CPU 3 GHz IP4, RAM 512 Mb, L2 1024 KB).

  8. Interim Measures Report for the Headquarters Building Area Location of Concern (LOC) 2E East SWMU 104 John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit issued by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), requires identification and evaluation of all known Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Locations of Concern (LOCs) located on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) property. The KSC Headquarters Building Area (KHQA) has been identified as SWMU 104 under KSC's RCRA Program. This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) conducted by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contract NNK12CA13B at the KHQA to mitigate potential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-affected media at the eastern side of LOC 2E. The IM activities were conducted in June and July 2015 to remediate PCBs above the FDEP Residential Direct-Exposure (R-) Soil Cleanup Target Level (SCTL) of 0.5 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) established by Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code. The IM was performed in accordance with the IM Work Plan (IMWP) approved by the FDEP, dated August 2012. IM activities were conducted in accordance with the KSC Generic PCB Work Plan (NASA 2007).

  9. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  10. Ionospheric Superstorms: Polarization Terminator Effects in the Atlantic Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of the stormtime penetration electric fields, the effect of the reduced magnetic field strength in the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly, and the geographic distortion of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector contribute to the characteristics of the low-latitude polarization electric fields at the sunset terminator. This combination of effects leads to a strong localized enhancement of TEC at low-mid latitudes in the American sector during ionospheric superstorms. At dusk, the low-latitude polarization electric field effects begin on magnetic field lines when the E region at either end goes into darkness. We define the polarization terminator (PT) to be the locus of points at a given altitude for which the E-region shadow height at either end of the magnetic field line equals 100 km. Electric fields associated with the charge build-up in the conductivity-gradient region due to the effects of winds or penetration electric fields are directed perpendicular to the PT and increase in magnitude as the PT is approached from the dayside. The particular configuration of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector creates a preferred longitude/Universal Time sector (western atlantic/ 21 UT) for the build-up of enhanced TEC on field lines inside the dusk plasmapause. The electric fields associated with the PT sweep up the plasmas of the equatorial anomaly crests and redistribute it into the mid-latitude SAPS channels, forming the high total content storm enhanced density (SED) plumes observed during strong storms in the American sector. This effect is most pronounced for northern hemisphere summer conditions, as experienced during the July 15/16, 2000 superstorm.

  11. Ionospheric Superstorms: Polarization Terminator Effects in the Atlantic Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John

    A combination of the stormtime penetration electric fields, the effect of the reduced magnetic field strength in the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly, and the geographic distortion of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector contribute to the characteristics of the low-latitude polarization electric fields at the sunset terminator. This combination of effects leads to a strong localized enhancement of TEC at low-mid latitudes in the American sector during ionospheric superstorms. At dusk, the low-latitude polarization electric field effects begin on magnetic field lines when the E region at either end goes into darkness. We define the polarization terminator (PT) to be the locus of points at a given altitude for which the E-region shadow height at either end of the magnetic field line equals 100 km. Electric fields associated with the charge build-up in the conductivity-gradient region due to the effects of winds or penetration electric fields are directed perpendicular to the PT and increase in magnitude as the PT is approached from the dayside. The particular configuration of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector creates a preferred longitude/Universal Time sector (western Atlantic/ 21 UT) for the build-up of enhanced TEC on field lines inside the dusk plasmapause. The electric fields associated with the PT sweep up the plasmas of the equatorial anomaly crests and redistribute it into the mid-latitude SAPS channels, forming the high total content storm enhanced density (SED) plumes observed during strong storms in the American sector. This effect is most pronounced for northern hemisphere summer conditions, as experienced during the July 15/16, 2000 superstorm.

  12. Opportunities for Enhancing Seasonal Prediction in Ethiopia and Challenges in Addressing Sectoral Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taye, M. T.; Block, P.

    2015-12-01

    Ethiopia's National Meteorological Association (NMA) regularly issues season-ahead precipitation predictions nationally in support of sectoral applications including agriculture, reservoir management, and disaster risk management. Current NMA prediction techniques rely strongly on an analogue approach conditioned on the current El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) state. We explore simple to complex techniques for improving these ENSO-based predictions, building on current methods. We will also briefly discuss stated disconnects between NMA's predictions and adoption into sectoral decision-making.

  13. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  14. Community Energy Management Programs for Commercial Building Owners and Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Walter S.

    1987-01-01

    A voluntary program in Ontario encourages the private sector to reduce its energy consumption in commercial buildings by experimenting with innovative building operation techniques. Charts and tables illustrate the outstanding results achieved by program participants. Yearly energy management forums are convened in Toronto and Ottawa. (MLF)

  15. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  16. Engagement of Sectors Other than Health in Integrated Health Governance, Policy, and Action.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne

    2017-03-20

    Health is created largely outside the health sector. Engagement in health governance, policy, and intervention development and implementation by sectors other than health is therefore important. Recent calls for building and implementing Health in All Policies, and continued arguments for intersectoral action, may strengthen the potential that other sectors have for health. This review clarifies the conceptual foundations for integral health governance, policy, and action, delineates the different sectors and their possible engagement, and provides an overview of a continuum of methods of engagement with other sectors to secure integration. This continuum ranges from institutional (re)design to value-based narratives. Depending on the lens applied, different elements can be identified within the continuum. This review is built on insights from political science, leadership studies, public health, empirical Health in All Policy research, knowledge and evidence nexus approaches, and community perspectives. Successful integration of health governance, policy, and action depends on integration of the elements on the continuum.

  17. Study of the possibilities of more rational use of energy in the sector of trade and commerce, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersbach, K. F.; Fischer, A.; Layer, G.; Steinberger, W.; Wegner, M.; Wiesner, B.

    1982-07-01

    The energy demand in the sector of trade and commerce was registered and analyzed. Measures to improve the energy demand structure are presented. In several typical firms like hotels, office buildings, locksmith's shops, motor vehicle repair shops, butcher's shops, laundries and bakeries, detailed surveys of energy consumption were done and included in a statistic evaluation. Subjects analyzed were: development of the energy supply; technology of energy application; final energy demand broken down into demand for light, power, space heating and process heat as well as the demand for cooling; daily and annual load curves of energy consumption and their dependence on various parameters; and measures to improve the structure of energy demand. Detailed measurement points out negligences in the surveyed firms and shows possibilities for likely energy savings. In addition, standard values for specific energy consumption are obtained.

  18. Inter-Sectoral Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book contains papers discussing inter-sectoral educational planning in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Intersectoral educational planning is interpreted as educational policy formation by any country which takes into consideration influences generated by that country's social and…

  19. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  20. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Iyer, Maithili; McNeil, Michael; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Roy, Joyashree; Roy, Moumita; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

    2011-04-15

    This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analysis supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.

  1. Climate Change and its Impact on the Energy Sector in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    It is anticipated that the Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus will be disproportionally and adversely affected by future climate change. Impacts of these changes include rising summer temperatures and decreasing annual precipitation thereby causing strains on the energy sector in the region. Increases in the frequency of heat waves and tropical nights will lead to rising demands for air-conditioning of private and public housing on the one hand and to growing water scarcity, which will have to be satisfied by additional seawater desalination, on the other, to name just two of the repercussions of climate change on energy demand. Coping with these impacts will require additional electricity generation and will lead to enhanced energy demands. In the case of Cyprus, this will add to an already strained sector of the economy. The current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of hydrocarbon products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to app. 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. Possible remedies, which will be relevant for other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, as well include energy saving measures in the building sector and the use of renewable energy sources. With regard to sustainable building technologies, new and innovative building materials will have to be introduced. This includes advanced thermochromic materials based on nanotechnology techniques combined with phase change microcapsules, photochromic coatings able to present very high or low solar reflectance, chameleon coatings presenting very low emissivity and time varying

  2. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  3. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  4. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  5. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Martinenghi, E; Di Sieno, L; Contini, D; Sanzaro, M; Pifferi, A; Dalla Mora, A

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm(2) together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  6. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9–11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC—the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk

  7. An Investigation on Formaldehyde Emission Characteristics of Wood Building Materials in Chinese Standard Tests: Product Emission Levels, Measurement Uncertainties, and Data Correlations between Various Tests.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Cao, Yang; Wang, Dandan; Hou, Guojun; Shen, Zaihua; Zhang, Shuangbao

    2015-01-01

    As a large producer and consumer of wood building materials, China suffers product formaldehyde emissions (PFE) but lacks systematic investigations and basic data on Chinese standard emission tests (CST), so this paper presented a first effort on this issue. The PFE of fiberboards, particleboards, blockboards, floorings, and parquets manufactured in Beijing region were characterized by the perforator extraction method (PE), 9-11 L and 40 L desiccator methods (D9, D40), and environmental chamber method (EC) of the Chinese national standard GB 18580; based on statistics of PFE data, measurement uncertainties in CST were evaluated by the Monte Carlo method; moreover, PFE data correlations between tests were established. Results showed: (1) Different tests may give slightly different evaluations on product quality. In PE and D9 tests, blockboards and parquets reached E1 grade for PFE, which can be directly used in indoor environment; but in D40 and EC tests, floorings and parquets achieved E1. (2) In multiple tests, PFE data characterized by PE, D9, and D40 complied with Gaussian distributions, while those characterized by EC followed log-normal distributions. Uncertainties in CST were overall low, with uncertainties for 20 material-method combinations all below 7.5%, and the average uncertainty for each method under 3.5%, thus being acceptable in engineering application. A more complicated material structure and a larger test scale caused higher uncertainties. (3) Conventional linear models applied to correlating PFE values between PE, D9, and EC, with R2 all over 0.840, while novel logarithmic (exponential) models can work better for correlations involving D40, with R2 all beyond 0.901. This research preliminarily demonstrated the effectiveness of CST, where results for D40 presented greater similarities to EC-the currently most reliable test for PFE, thus highlighting the potential of Chinese D40 as a more practical approach in production control and risk assessment.

  8. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  9. Developing an Integrated Information System for the Food Sector. Agricultural Economic Report No. 575.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Alden

    This document proposes an information system for the food sector that integrates measures of prices, quantities, and values. It suggests that such an integrated information system provides more information about many developments in the food sector than a system that separately measures prices, quantities, or values. Concepts and approaches…

  10. Building No. 5, Main Building; Building NO. 9, Guard House ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 5, Main Building; Building NO. 9, Guard House (left). Viewed from across corner Lakeside Avenue and Main Street - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  11. 2. PRINTING AND ADVERTISING BUILDING, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MERCHANDISE BUILDING, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PRINTING AND ADVERTISING BUILDING, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MERCHANDISE BUILDING, AND GARDEN, VIEW TO SOUTHWEST - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Bounded by Lexington & Grenshaw Streets, Kedzie Avenue & Independence Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Energy Management Guide for Building Management. Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolidated Edison Co., Brooklyn, NY.

    This guide is intended for use by commercial building management and operating staffs to encourage energy conservation. The measures suggested are meant to allow building operation at optimum efficiency while minimizing energy waste. Though mainly applicable to multistory buildings, the suggested energy conservation measures are also adaptable to…

  13. Energy efficiency design strategies for buildings with grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yimprayoon, Chanikarn

    The building sector in the United States represents more than 40% of the nation's energy consumption. Energy efficiency design strategies and renewable energy are keys to reduce building energy demand. Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on buildings have been the fastest growing market in the PV industry. This growth poses challenges for buildings qualified to serve in this market sector. Electricity produced from solar energy is intermittent. Matching building electricity demand with PV output can increase PV system efficiency. Through experimental methods and case studies, computer simulations were used to investigate the priorities of energy efficiency design strategies that decreased electricity demand while producing load profiles matching with unique output profiles from PV. Three building types (residential, commercial, and industrial) of varying sizes and use patterns located in 16 climate zones were modeled according to ASHRAE 90.1 requirements. Buildings were analyzed individually and as a group. Complying with ASHRAE energy standards can reduce annual electricity consumption at least 13%. With energy efficiency design strategies, the reduction could reach up to 65%, making it possible for PV systems to meet reduced demands in residential and industrial buildings. The peak electricity demand reduction could be up to 71% with integration of strategies and PV. Reducing lighting power density was the best single strategy with high overall performances. Combined strategies such as zero energy building are also recommended. Electricity consumption reductions are the sum of the reductions from strategies and PV output. However, peak electricity reductions were less than their sum because they reduced peak at different times. The potential of grid stress reduction is significant. Investment incentives from government and utilities are necessary. The PV system sizes on net metering interconnection should not be limited by legislation existing in

  14. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  15. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  16. Building Minds by Block Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montopoli, Linda

    Noting that the process of playing with blocks supports the groundwork for learning in every area of a child's growth, this paper discusses specific uses of building blocks in the early childhood curriculum to develop a child's physical, social, emotional, artistic, language, scientific and mathematics growth. The paper outlines the contributions…

  17. Industry Research and Recommendations for Small Buildings and Small Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, Rois; Hendron, Bob; Pless, Shanti; Huppert, Mark; Cochrane, Ric

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have been left behind in the energy efficiency marketplace because financial and technical resources have flowed to larger commercial buildings. DOE's Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the uptake of energy efficiency technologies and techniques in existing and new commercial buildings (DOE 2013). BTO recognizes the SBSP sector'spotential for significant energy savings and the need for investments in resources that are tailored to this sector's unique needs. The industry research and recommendations described in this report identify potential approaches and strategic priorities that BTO could explore over the next 3-5 years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for thisimportant sector. DOE is uniquely positioned to provide national leadership, objective information, and innovative tools, technologies, and services to support cost-effective energy savings in the fragmented and complex SBSP sector. Properly deployed, the DOE effort could enhance and complement current energy efficiency approaches. Small portfolios are loosely and qualitatively defined asportfolios of buildings that include only a small number of small buildings. This distinction is important because the report targets portfolio owners and managers who generally do not have staff and other resources to track energy use and pursue energy efficiency solutions.

  18. Confidence building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    Many conferences are being held on confidence building in many countries. Usually they are organized and attended by political scientists and science policy specialists. A remarkable exception, in which the main brainstorming was done by “grass roots” geophysicists, nuclear physicists, engineers and ecologists, was a meeting in July at St. John's College in Santa Fe, N. Mex.The aim of the conference Technology-Based Confidence Building: Energy and Environment was to survey programs of international cooperation in pertinent areas of mutual concern to all nations and to identify new initiatives that could contribute to enhanced international stability, with emphasis on cooperation between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.

  19. Intelligent buildings.

    PubMed

    Williams, W E

    1987-01-01

    The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence.

  20. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  1. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Youngjib

    The emerging energy crisis in the building sector and the legislative measures on improving energy efficiency are steering the construction industry towards adopting new energy efficient design concepts and construction methods that decrease the overall energy loads. However, the problems of energy efficiency are not only limited to the design and construction of new buildings. Today, a significant amount of input energy in existing buildings is still being wasted during the operational phase. One primary source of the energy waste is attributed to unnecessary heat flows through building envelopes during hot and cold seasons. This inefficiency increases the operational frequency of heating and cooling systems to keep the desired thermal comfort of building occupants, and ultimately results in excessive energy use. Improving thermal performance of building envelopes can reduce the energy consumption required for space conditioning and in turn provide building occupants with an optimal thermal comfort at a lower energy cost. In this sense, energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis for existing building envelopes are key enablers for improving energy efficiency. Since proper retrofit decisions of existing buildings directly translate into energy cost saving in the future, building practitioners are increasingly interested in methods for reliable identification of potential performance problems so that they can take timely corrective actions. However, sensing what and where energy problems are emerging or are likely to emerge and then analyzing how the problems influence the energy consumption are not trivial tasks. The overarching goal of this dissertation focuses on understanding the gaps in knowledge in methods for building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis, and filling these gaps by devising a new method for multi-modal visual sensing and analytics using thermography and Building Information Modeling (BIM). First, to address the challenges in scaling and

  2. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored BEopt software, which ensures a consistent analysis platform and accurate simulations. Many BEopt algorithms have been adopted by private-sector HERS software tools that have helped improve the energy efficiency of tens-of-thousands of ENERGY STAR-certified homes.

  3. Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.

    2000-07-24

    This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).

  4. Epidemiology of sick building syndrome and its associated risk factors in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, P. L.; Goh, K. T.; Phoon, M. H.; Foo, S. C.; Yap, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence of sick building syndrome in a tropical city, and its relation to indoor air quality and other factors. METHODS: 2856 office workers in 56 randomly selected public and private sector buildings were surveyed. The study consisted of a self administered questionnaire assessing symptoms and perception of the physical and psychosocial environment, inspection of the building plans and premises, and measurement of temperature, relative humidity, respirable particles, chemicals, bioaerosols, and other variables. RESULTS: Symptoms typical of the sick building syndrome were reported in 19.6% of the respondents. Multivariate modelling substantiated contributions associated with low thermal comfort, high work related stress, too much noise, a history of allergy or other medical conditions, poor lighting, young employees, and female sex. Measurements of indoor air quality or ventilation were not found to be reliable predictors of the symptoms. CONCLUSION: The survey confirmed the presence of sick building syndrome and its risk factors in the tropics. A biopsychosocial approach to the problem involving symptomatic treatment, environmental control, good ergonomic design, and stress management is recommended.   PMID:9624270

  5. Certification procedure of building thermographers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppinen, Timo T.; Paloniitty, Sauli; Krankka, Juha

    2005-03-01

    Thermography has been used in Finland in building survey from the late 70s. The service has been provided by consultants, whose background is varied. When technology and devices have improved and the prices have increased, more and more doers have come into the market. At the same time, building developers and contractors have begun to use thermography for quality control in new building. Thermography has also been used in renovation planning. The problem is, that there are no procedures for building thermography, no guidelines to order the thermography services, no instructions how to scan, how to report and most important -- how to interpret the results. That fact has caused a lot of problems and also damaged the reputation and reliability of the method. In this year 2004 the various organizations in building trade launched a pilot project to certificate building thermographers. The procedure is divided into two parts: Part 1 is Level I (the basis of thermography) and Part II (divided into two periods) thermography applications of buildings, including also information on building physics, heat and mass transfer and structures. Both parts will take a week, two weeks in total with the examinations. The procedure follows moisture measurement procedure -- certification of building moisture measurements started a couple of years ago. In the paper the procedure, problems and the future plans are introduced. The following big issue is to develop and improve the interpretation procedure for reporting the results of thermography.

  6. Net zero building energy conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Rohit

    This research deals with energy studies performed as part of a net-zero energy study for buildings. Measured data of actual energy utilization by a building for a continuous period of 33 months was collected and studied. The peak design day on which the building consumes maximum energy was found. The averages of the energy consumption for the peak month were determined. The DOE EnergyPlus software was used to simulate the energy requirements for the building and also obtain peak energy requirements for the peak month. Alternative energy sources such as ground source heat pump, solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and day-lighting modifications were applied to redesign the energy consumption for the building towards meeting net-zero energy requirements. The present energy use by the building, DOE Energy software simulations for the building as well as the net-zero model for the building were studied. The extents of the contributions of the individual energy harvesting measures were studied. For meeting Net Zero Energy requirement, it was found that the total energy load for the building can be distributed between alternative energy methods as 5.4% to daylighting modifications, 58% to geothermal and 36.6% to solar photovoltaic panels for electricity supply and thermal energy. Thus the directions to proceed towards achieving complete net-zero energy status were identified.

  7. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  8. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  9. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  10. Here's How to Prevent Closed Schools from Becoming Empty Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Ways of preventing school buildings from standing empty include finding alternative uses within the school system, leasing the buildings, and selling the buildings. All uses should be measured by their impact on the community around the school. (Author/IRT)

  11. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  12. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  13. The role of the US Department of Energy in indoor air quality and building ventilation policy development

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor, G.W.; Talbott, J.M.; Moses, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    Building ventilation consumes about 5.8 exajoules of energy each year in the US The annual cost of this energy, used for commercial building fans (1.6 exajoules) and the heating and cooling of outside air (4.2 exajoules), is about $US 33 billion per year. Energy conservation measures that reduce heating and cooling season ventilation rates 15 to 35% in commercial and residential buildings can result in a national savings of about 0.6 to 1.5 exajoules ($US 3-8 billion) per year assuming no reduction of commercial building fan energy use. The most significant adverse environmental impact of reduced ventilation and infiltration is the potential degradation of the buildings indoor air quality. Potential benefits to the US from the implementation of sound indoor air quality and building ventilation reduction policies include reduced building-sector energy consumption; reduced indoor, outdoor, and global air pollution; reduced product costs; reduced worker absenteeism; reduced health care costs; reduced litigation; increased worker well-being and productivity; and increased product quality and competitiveness.

  14. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  15. Constructions of Professional Identity in a Dynamic Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The expansion and specialisation of "non-academic" higher education roles, in response to increased regulation, monitoring and measurement of the sector, can be attributed to a rise in neoliberal manageralism and globalisation. Such changes have challenged the professional status of the academy, potentially…

  16. Dynamically Evolving Sectors for Convective Weather Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for altering existing sector boundaries in response to blocking convective weather is presented. This method seeks to improve the reduced capacity of sectors directly affected by weather by moving boundaries in a direction that offers the greatest capacity improvement. The boundary deformations are shared by neighboring sectors within the region in a manner that preserves their shapes and sizes as much as possible. This reduces the controller workload involved with learning new sector designs. The algorithm that produces the altered sectors is based on a force-deflection mesh model that needs only nominal traffic patterns and the shape of the blocking weather for input. It does not require weather-affected traffic patterns that would have to be predicted by simulation. When compared to an existing optimal sector design method, the sectors produced by the new algorithm are more similar to the original sector shapes, resulting in sectors that may be more suitable for operational use because the change is not as drastic. Also, preliminary results show that this method produces sectors that can equitably distribute the workload of rerouted weather-affected traffic throughout the region where inclement weather is present. This is demonstrated by sector aircraft count distributions of simulated traffic in weather-affected regions.

  17. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  18. Public Sector Employment Inequality in the United States and the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Laird, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.

  19. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant [1]. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves [2]. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe [3]. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution corresponds to the particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows to analyse the main properties of the dark sector analytically and avoid unnecessary model assumptions. It opens a possibility to trace how the additional attraction of the space-like dark matter, dominating in the galaxy scale, transforms into the elastic repulsion of the time-like dark matter, dominating in the scale of the Universe. 1. B. E. Meierovich. "Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology". Phys. Rev. D 84, 064037 (2011). 2. B. E. Meierovich. "Galaxy rotation curves driven by massive vector fields: Key to the theory of the dark sector". Phys. Rev. D 87, 103510, (2013). 3. B. E. Meierovich. "Towards the theory of the evolution of the Universe". Phys. Rev. D 85, 123544 (2012).

  20. [Characteristics of occupational accidents in the building industry and public works in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, I; Fall, M C; Sarr, E H; Ouatara, B; Sow, M L

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to appreciate the magnitude of work accidents in a building construction sector, to specify their type and characteristics. A retrospective study was undergone in a big building construction industry in Senegal. Data were collected from records of accidents reported to the Social Security Administration between 1994--1996. We looked for characteristics of accidents as well as workers involved in accident. 244 accidents were collected in a three years period, i e 81.5/year, 132 work injuries involved temporaryworkers. 55.73% occurred in chantiers, and 1/3 in working room. Moving and handle objects generated most accidents (36,47%). Wounds and contusions were the most frequent lesion (51,62.%). Arms and feets were concerned in 51.63%, and ocular lesions were noticed in 13.94%. These accidents generate an overall number of 3055 days lost. Work injuries in the building construction sector in Senegal are identical to those described in othercountries. Prevention measures requires improvement of working conditions, education of workers and availability of personal protective equipment's.